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Sample records for chironomid head capsules

  1. Stable isotopic analysis of fossil chironomids as an approach to environmental reconstruction: state of development and future challenges

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    Oliver Heiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Remains of chironomid larvae, especially their strongly sclerotized head capsules, can be found abundantly and well preserved in most lake sediment records. These remains mainly consist of chitin and proteins and, since their chemical composition does not seem to be strongly affected by decompositional processes, they can be used to develop palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on their stable isotopic composition. Here we review available stable isotope studies based on fossil chironomids and indicate future research necessary to further develop this still relatively new research approach. Efforts to produce stable isotope records based on fossil chironomids have mainly examined the elements H, N, C, and O. They have focussed on (1 developing the methodology for preparing samples for isotopic analysis, (2 laboratory studies cultivating chironomid larvae under controlled conditions to determine the factors affecting their stable isotopic composition, (3 ecosystem-scale studies relating stable isotopic measurements of fossil chironomid assemblages to environmental conditions, and (4 developing first down-core records describing past changes in the stable isotopic composition of chironomid assemblages. These studies have shown that chemical sample pretreatment may affect the isotopic composition for some elements. Laboratory runs suggest that the diet of the larvae influences their stable isotopic composition for H, N, C and O, whereas stable isotopes in the ambient water also strongly influence their oxygen and to a lesser extent hydrogen isotopic composition. These experiments also indicate only minor offsets between the nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of chironomid soft tissue and the fossilizing head capsules, whereas for hydrogen and oxygen this offset remains to be explored. Though few datasets have been published, the available ecosystem studies and developed down-core sediment records indicate that stable isotopes in

  2. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  3. Chironomid oxygen isotope record of mid- to late Holocene climate evolution from southern Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arppe, Laura; Kurki, Eija; Wooller, Matthew; Luoto, Tomi; Zajączkowski, Marek; Ojala, Antti

    2017-04-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of head capsule chitin of chironomid larvae picked from a sediment core covering the past 5500 years from lake Svartvatnet in southern Spitsbergen was used to reconstruct the isotopic composition of oxygen in lake water (δ18Olw) and local precipitation. Consistent with the gradual cooling of climate over the Neoglacial period, the δ18Olw record displays a gentle decreasing trend over the study period. The Svartvatnet δ18Olwrecord shows a maximum at ca. 1900-1800 cal BP, consistent with the timing of the Roman Warm Period, and three negative excursions increasing in intensity towards the present-day at 3400-3200, 1250-1100 and 350-50 cal BP, which are tentatively linked to multidecadal periods of low solar activity amplified by oceanic and atmospheric feedbacks. The time period of the Little Ice Age shows a two-step decrease in δ18Olwvalues, with a remarkable, 8-9‰ drop at 350-50 cal BP construed to predominantly represent significantly decreased winter temperatures during a period of increased seasonal differences and extended sea ice cover inducing changes in moisture source regions. Similarity of the trends between the δ18Olwrecord and a July-T reconstruction based on chironomid assemblages (Luoto et al., in review) from the same core suggests that air temperature exerts a significant control over the δ18Olwvalues, but the record is most likely influenced by changes in sea ice extent and possibly the seasonal distribution of precipitation. Reference: Luoto TP, Ojala A, Brooks S et al. Synchronized proxy-based temperature reconstructions reveal mid-to late Holocene climate oscillations in High Arctic Svalbard. Journal of Quaternary Science, submitted.

  4. Relation of chironomids with Aeromonas species

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    Sivan eLaviad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae, also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, pupa, and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6% and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a six-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship.

  5. Desiccation resistance of Chironomid larvae

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    Jan Frouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to desiccation in larvae of eight species of aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial chironomids (Pseudodiamesa branickii, Macropelopia sp., Prodiamesa olivacea, Micropsectra sp., Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dorsalis, Metriocnemus martini and Camptocladius stercorarius was studied. The larvae were desiccated in exicator at constant conditions (15 °C, 80% RH and changes in moisture and body water content was recorded. The LD-50 for loss of body water was calculated. The lowest resistance to loss of body water was found in larvae from subfamilies Tanypodinae and Diamesinae Macropelopia sp. and P. branickii. They survived loss of 49.7 and 56.6% of original water content (presented values are LD-50. On the other hand the highest resistance to water loss was found in C. dorsalis. M. martini and C. stercorarius. The larvae of these species may survive loss of 67.4, 76.6 and 84.2% of original water content. Nevertheless the survival time under experimental conditions depends more closely on larval size than on lethal level of water loss. The smaller larvae desiccated faster and perished sooner than large ones despite they tolerate higher loss of body water.

  6. [Treatment of Steroid-induced Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head by Porous Tantalum Rod and Gugutou Huaisiyu Capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xu-yi; Gao, Fei-fei; Gao, Shu-tu; Liu, You-wen; Chen, Xian-tao; Liu, Li-yun

    2016-01-01

    To observe the curative effect of porous tantalum rod and Gugutou Huaisiyu Capsule (GHC) for steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head (SONFH). A total 60 hips of 50 SONFH patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group according to grouping time, 25 in each group (30 hips). Patients in the control group were implanted with porous tantalum rod, while those in the treatment group additionally took GHC (5 pills each time, three time per day for 2 successive months; and then twice per day for 4 successive months). Then all patients were followed-up to observe Harris hip score. The curative effect and the femoral head survival time were assessed. A total of 49 patients (59 hips) were followed-up. The Harris hip score of the two groups at the final follow-up was significantly improved after treatment, with statistical difference when compared with before treatment (P tantalum rod combined GHC got better effect in treating SONFH. It could significantly improve the function of affected hips and prolong the survival time of femoral head.

  7. Features of the Transportation Capsules with the Ground by Means of the Inflatable Shell in the Suction Head of the SPACECRAFT "PhobosGrunt"

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    J. A. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting trends of space research is a delivery of the soil samples of the investigated object to the Earth. In delivering the soil samples the most important stage is a stage to pick-and-place it in the transportation (returned capsule.The aim of this work is to develop a reloading device of the suction head to provide picking up the soil of Mars’ satellite “Phobos”. This device is designed for use as a part of the spacecraft "Phobos-Grunt".The presented device belongs to a manipulating type of devices and consists of a manipulator and a handling device. The manipulator provides picking up the Phobos surface soil samples and their placing into a capsule, which is in the block of the handling device. Upon the capsule has been filled it is reloaded from the soil intake area to the area of capsule transfer, which is provided by means of a compactly piled gas-filled shell.In operation there is a number of restrictions. The tolerable capsule opening size to take-in the soil samples can be up to 10 mm with 1003 cm free soil capsule volume. When picking up the soil the magnitude of the axial force of the manipulator is restricted.The paper considers the operating principle of the reloading device and describes the handling device design and method to calculate its characteristics. It also presents the designing results of the handling device and its basic characteristics. The issues of the suction head reliability are also discussed.There is the Russian Federation patent for the invention №2413660 of the developed device.

  8. Paleoecología: el uso de los quironómidos fósiles (Diptera: Chironomidae en reconstrucciones paleoambientales durante el Cuaternario en la Patagonia Paleoecology: the use of fossil chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in Patagonia

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    Julieta Massaferro

    2009-06-01

    the biological indicators from lake sediments more useful in environmental reconstructions. Chironomids have recently acquired great importance due to the promising results obtained regarding climatic reconstructions mainly in Europe and North America. In South America, the use of fossil chironomids in Quaternary studies is still limited and the reason for that is the little regional taxonomic knowledge. Most of these studies were developed in glacial lakes in Patagonia both in Argentina and Chile. The larvae of chironomids are an invaluable paleolimnological tool due to the sensitiveness of these insects to natural and non-natural environmental changes. In addition to that, this group of insects is widely distributed with a high abundance and diversity. Their head capsules can preserve in sediments holding characters which allow their generic and sometimes specific identification. The study of chironomid assemblages can be used with different goals, for instance, to study eutrofication due to their quick response to changes in organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals. However, one of the most significant potentials of this group is its sensitivity to temperature variations, which is why the most important implementation of their study in sediments is centered in climatic reconstructions. This article is a review of the studies developed in Argentinean and Chilean Patagonia, using fossil chironomids for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  9. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae.

  10. An Introduction to the Identification of Chironomid Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, William T., Jr.

    This publication is an introductory guide to the identification of Chironomid (Midge) larvae. The larvae of these small flies are an important link in the food chain between algae and microinvertebrates. As a family, the larvae exhibit a wide range of tolerance to environmental factors such as amounts and types of pollutants. Much of this…

  11. Chironomid distribution along a pollution gradient in Ethiopian rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water pollution resulting from the rapidly intensifying use of freshwater resources in Ethiopia is increasing the need for continuous follow-up and monitoring of the country's aquatic ecosystems, in order to maintain their biological diversity and water quality. Chironomids (non-biting dipteran midges) are often used for ...

  12. Habitat selection by chironomid larvae: fast growth requires fast food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.M.; Wagner, C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2006-01-01

    1. Sediments have been considered as a habitat, a cover from predators and a source of food, but also as a source of potential toxic compounds. Therefore, the choice of a suitable substrate is essential for the development of chironomids. 2. For the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen 1804) the growth

  13. Habitat selection by chironomid larvae: fast growth requires fast food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E.M.; Wagner, C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2006-01-01

    1. Sediments have been considered as a habitat, a cover from predators and a source of food, but also as a source of potential toxic compounds. Therefore, the choice of a suitable substrate is essential for the development of chironomids. 2. For the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen 1804) the growth

  14. Capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Anders Peter; Burcharth, Jakob; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard

    2013-01-01

    with ultrasound, MRI, and subsequently a capsule endoscopy. Six months later, the patient presented, and an abdominal CT-scan showed mechanical small bowel obstruction with suspicion of metallic foreign body and perforation. Laparotomy showed perforation, stenosis, and foreign body, approximately 5 cm from...... of capsule retention, especially in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease, due to the propensity of Crohn's disease to form stenosis of the bowel. In cases where a stenosis is suspected, it is warranted to perform a patency capsule swallow before subjecting the patient to a capsule endoscopy....

  15. Persistence of chironomids in metal polluted Andean high altitude streams: does melanin play a role?

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    Loayza-Muro, R.A.; Marticorena-Ruiz, J.K.; Palomino, E.J.; Merritt, C.; de Baat, M.L.; van Gemert, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    In high altitude Andean streams an intense solar radiation and coinciding metal pollution allow the persistence of only a few specialized taxa, including chironomids. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the mechanisms underlying the persistence of chironomids under these multiple

  16. Even more Chironomid species for classifying lake nutrient status

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    Les Ruse

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD classifies ecological status of a waterbody by the determination of its natural reference state to provide a measure of perturbation by human impacts based on taxonomic composition and abundance of aquatic species. Ruse (2010; 2011 has provided methods of assessing anthropogenic perturbations to lake ecological status, in terms of nutrient enrichment and acidification, by analysing collections of floating pupal exuviae discarded by emerging adult Chironomidae. The previous nutrient assessment method was derived from chironomid and environmental data collected during 178 lake surveys of all WFD types found in Britain. Canonical Correspondence Analysis provided species optima in relation to phosphate and nitrogen concentrations. Species found in less than three surveys were excluded from analysis in case of spurious association with environmental values. Since Ruse (2010 an additional 72 lakes have been surveyed adding 31 more species for use in nutrient status assessment. These additional scoring species are reported here. The practical application of the Chironomid Pupal Exuvial Technique (CPET to classify WFD lake nutrient status is demonstrated using CPET survey data from lakes in Poland.

  17. opened capsule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by the opened capsule method is bioequivalent to a proprietary formulation approved by regulatory agencies. In the future, paediatric fixed-drug combination (FDC) antiretroviral formulations will greatly accelerate the roll-out of antiretrovirals to children in rural resource-limited settings. However, no paediatric antiretroviral ...

  18. Changes of sub-fossil chironomid assemblages associated with volcanic sediment deposition in an Andean lake (38°S, Chile Cambios en las asociaciones sub-fósiles de quironómidos, producto de la depositación de sedimentos volcánicos en un lago andino (38°S, Chile

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    ALBERTO ARANEDA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid assemblages and sedimentological parameters (grain size, organic content, mineralogy of a short sediment core from Lake Galletué (38°41' S, 71°17' W were analysed. The sedimentary record includes one volcanic ash (tephra layer, which has a completely different composition than the host sediment in terms of organic content, grain size, and mineralogy. According to the geochronology (210Pb and 137Cs, this ash layer corresponds to the eruption of Llaima Volcano in 1956-1957. The tephra deposition had an impact on chironomid assemblages producing, among other changes, an increase in Parakiefferiella and a decrease in Ablabesmyia, although no noticeable change was detected in the diversity index. When compared with other studies, our results also show an impact in terms of the presence of chironomid head capsules within the tephra. The presence of these head capsules could result from the effects of percolation, since the coarse grain size of the tephra particles provides large interstitial spaces. The recovery in the abundances of some taxa after the tephra input, suggests the lake is probably restoring the conditions prevailing before the tephra fallSe analizan las asociaciones de restos sub-fósiles de quironómidos y los parámetros sedimentológicos de un núcleo sedimentario del lago Galletué (38°41' S, 71°17' O. Es evidente en este núcleo la presencia de un estrato de sedimentos volcánicos (tefra de una composición distinta en el contenido deµmateria orgánica, en el tamaño de partícula y en la mineralogía, respecto de los sedimentos del lago. De acuerdo a la geocronología isotópica (210Pb y 137Cs, los sedimentos de esta tefra podrían corresponder a la erupción del volcán Llaima de 1956-1957. Por otra parte la depositación de esta tefra también provocó un cambio en las asociaciones de quironómidos, siendo evidente el aumento de Parakiefferiella y la disminución de Ablabesmyia dentro del estrato de tefra. Si

  19. The relation between chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae assemblages and environmental variables: The Kolubara River case study

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    Popović Nataša Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid larvae respond rapidly to environmental changes in aquatic ecosystems, with different species possessing different degrees of tolerance. Consequently, this group is considered an effective and reliable indicator of the ecological status. In this study, the relation between larval chironomid assemblages and environmental variables was examined at two sites on the Kolubara River. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test did not confirm significant seasonal differences between samples. Correspondence analysis indicated that the study sites are distinguished by their community composition. Based on forward selection analyses, 5 out of the 28 analyzed water parameters and 3 out of the 22 sediment parameters displayed the highest levels of correlation with chironomid assemblages. Forward selection analysis revealed that inorganic pollutants in the sediment (mercury, nickel and cadmium exerted the greatest influence on the community. Results of canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the sediment characteristics have a more significant impact on chironomid communities than the analyzed water parameters. Our study confirmed that chironomids and sediment analyzes should be obligatorily included in the monitoring of ecological status, since chironomids are often a dominant component of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in freshwater ecosystems, with many species inhabiting the sediment with a proclivity for intake of toxic and persistent pollutants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176018 i br. 173025 i European Communities 7th Framework Program Funding - Grant No. 603629-ENV-2013-6.2.1-Globaqua

  20. Chironomid midges as allergens: evidence from two species from West Bengal, Kolkata, India

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    Soumi Nandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Arthropods of different taxonomic identity including chironomid midges are known to induce allergic response in humans. The present study was done to access two common chironomid species Chironomus circumdatus and Polypedilum nubifer for their sensitizing potential as an allergen in atopic patients and controls. Methods: Following preparation of allergenic extracts of the two chironomid species separately, 198 atopic patients attending an allergy clinic and 50 age matched controls were tested along with a routine panel of allergens to assess sensitization. Results: The skin prick test (SPT results revealed that 189 of the 198 patients (95.4% demonstrated sensitization to both the chironomid species. Higher levels of total IgE was observed in atopic subjects than in the control group. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that the chironomid midges Chironomus circumdatus and Polypedilum nubifer can elicit sensitization in humans. A potential risk for allergic reactions by susceptible individuals exists due to these chironomid species, owing to their abundance and chances of contact with human beings. Further studies may be initiated to characterize the nature of the allergens and to assess their clinical relevance.

  1. Ephemera danica (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) As a Resource for Two Commensals: Ciliated Protozoans (Sessilida) and Chironomids (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybkowska, Maria; Szczerkowska-Majchrzak, Eliza; Dukowska, Małgorzata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Przybylski, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and coexistence of two unrelated commensals, the chironomid Epoicocladius ephemerae (Kieffer 1924) and ciliate Carchesium polypinum L. 1758, on one host species, Ephemera danica Muller 1764, sampled in two small lowland rivers in 2009, 2010 and 2011, were investigated. We analyzed 288 mayfly specimens from the Bzura River and 101 from the Mroga River. The number of commensals on a single mayfly specimen varied between 0 and 18 chironomids, and from 0 to 46 colonies of ciliates. Prevalences were >48% for chironomids and ∼30% for ciliates, whereas mean intensities were low (4.01±6.04 commensals on one host). The spatial distribution of each commensal species was investigated on different parts of the host body. Neither chironomids nor ciliates infected the whole mayfly body. The co-occurrence of these two commensals was not random and showed a negative association. Chironomids were most frequent on two or three parts of the body (two parts of the abdomen, with gills and without gills, and legs), whereas ciliates were found on two parts (the whole abdomen). Coexistence of the two commensal species led to partitioning of resources that was host body size dependent: small mayflies (optimal size 11.63 mm) were primarily settled by ciliated protozoans while larger specimens (optimal size 28.77 mm) were settled by chironomids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Seasonal variation in Chironomid emergence from coastal pools

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    Alexander T. Egan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the phenology of emergences can be useful in determining seasonal chironomid life cycle patterns, which are often influenced by ice cover and temperature in cold climates. Lake Superior is the largest lake in North America and with a mean surface temperature of 3.9 °C influences regional climate. Coastal pools at Isle Royale, a wilderness archipelago in the northern part of the lake, occur in dense patches on low-gradient volcanic bedrock between the lakeshore and forest, creating variable microhabitats for Chironomidae. Four sites were sampled monthly from April to October, 2010. Surface-floating pupal exuviae were collected from a series of pools in two zones: a lower zone near the lake influenced by wave splash, and an upper zone near the forest and influenced by upland runoff. We used Jaccard’s and Whittaker’s diversity indexes to test community similarity across months. Temperature loggers in pools collected hourly readings for most of the study. Assemblage emergences were stable in upper pools, with significant similarity across late spring and summer months. Assemblages were seasonally variable in lower pools, with significant dissimilarity across spring, summer, and fall months. Few species in either zone were unique to spring or fall months. However, many summer species in the splash zone had a narrow emergence period occurring during calm weather following distinct increases in mean water temperature. Regardless of input of cold lake water to the lower zone, pools from both zones generally had corresponding temperature trends.

  3. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

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    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  4. Patterns of chironomid body-size distribution in an effluent-impacted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body size is an important determinant of assemblage structure in rivers and streams impacted by elevated concentrations of pollutants such as salts and metals. In the present study, because of the larger surface-area-tovolume ratio of small-bodied chironomid species compared with large-bodied species, it was ...

  5. Induction of mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae exposed to contaminated sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Veroli, A.; Goretti, E.; León Paumen, M.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the cause-effect relationship between toxicant exposure and chironomid mouthpart deformities, by linking induction of mouthpart deformities to contaminated field sediments, metal mixtures and a mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compound metabolite (acridone).

  6. Assessing lake eutrophication using chironomids: understanding the nature of community response in different lake types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdon, P. G.; Ruiz, Z.; Brodersen, K. P.

    2006-01-01

    1. Total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) chironomid inference models ( Brodersen & Lindegaard, 1999 ; Brooks, Bennion & Birks, 2001 ) were used in an attempt to reconstruct changes in nutrients from three very different lake types. Both training sets were expanded, particularly at the l...

  7. The sleeping chironomid: an insect survived 18 months of exposure to outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Sychev, Vladimir; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu; Malyutina, Ludmila; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    Anhydrobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to desiccation. There are only few groups of higher invertebrates capable to survival complete water loss. An African chironomid Polypedilum vanderpalnki is the only anhydrobiotic insect. Larvae of this sleeping chironomid living in temporary pools in semi-arid areas on the African continent become completely desiccated upon drought, but can revive after water becomes available upon the next rain. Dry larvae can revive after several decades of anhydrobiosis and show cross-resistance to different environmental stresses, including temperature fluctuation, high doses of ionizing radiation and organic solvents. This enormous resistance of the sleeping chironomid to extreme environments points to the high probability of their survival and transfer across outer space and makes this species promising model organism for astrobiological studies. In period from 2005 to 2010 the sleeping chironomid was utilized as a model organism in experiments on resistance of resting stages of invertebrates to space environment both inside of ISS ("Aquarium" research program) and on the outer side of ISS ("Biorisk-2" and "EXPOSE-R" experiments) . In the present report we mainly focus on results of "Biorisk-2" experiment where there containers with anhydrobiotic larvae were continuously exposed to outer space environment. Container 1 (FC1) remained exposed to outer space for 405 days (from June 6, 2007 to July 15, 2008), Container 2 (FC2) for 566 days (from June 6, 2007 to December 23, 2008), and Container 3 (FC3) is expected to be returning to the Earth later this year. First analysis of the larvae from the first two containers FC1 and FC2 showed that the sleeping chironomid have succesfully survived the continous space exposure comparable with duration of interpanetary spaceflight and recovered both biomolecules and cells complexes upon rehydration

  8. Second-generation colon capsule endoscopy compared with colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Spada, C.; Muñoz-Navas, M. (Miguel); C. Hassan; Neuhaus, H.; Deviere, J; Fockens, P.; Coron, E; G Gay; Toth, E.; Riccioni, M.E.; Carretero, C.; Charton, J.P.; Van Gossum, A; Wientjes, C.A. (Caroline A.); Sacher-Huvelin, S. (Sylvie)

    2011-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) represents a noninvasive technology that allows visualization of the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. A second-generation colon capsule endoscopy system (PillCam Colon 2) (CCE-2) was developed to increase sensitivity for colorectal polyp detection compared with the first-generation system. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, accuracy, and safety of CCE-2 in a head-to-head comparison with colono...

  9. Late-Glacial summer temperatures in the Northwest European lowlands: a new chironomid record from Hijkermeer, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiri, O.; Cremer, H.; Engels, S.; Hoek, W.Z.; Peeters, W.; Lotter, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Lateglacial environments at Hijkermeer, northwest Netherlands, were reconstructed by means of chironomid, diatom and pollen analyses. Diatom assemblages indicate that Hijkermeer was a shallow, oligo- to mesotrophic lake during this period. Pollen assemblages reflect the typical northwest European

  10. Use of chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) as bioindicators of contaminant stress: Biochemical, chromosomal and developmental measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Cervi, L.; Sinasac, D.; Pardalis, G. [Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada); Day, K. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). National Water Research Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Sublethal environmental stresses produce effects ranging from subtle biochemical changes that protect an organism from damage, through developmental effects that interfere with growth and compromise fitness. Benthic chironomids live in intimate contact with the sediments to which most persistent chemicals are bound. Their short life cycle and unique developmental and genetic structure make them excellent candidates as biological indicators of stress. The authors evaluated the short and long-term responses of Chironomus riparius larvae to contaminants. To determine short-term stress responses, third and fourth instar Chironomus larvae were exposed to up to 1.5 {micro}L/g creosote or up to 100 {micro}g/g Cd for 12 h. Creosote-exposed larvae exhibited proteins of a molecular weight consistent with production of heat shock proteins of the HSP 70 family. Exposure to Cd induced significant enlargement of Balbiani Rings of the 4th chromosome in chironomid salivary glands, indicative of increased transcription of RNA precursors to salivary mucoproteins. Chironomus larvae individually reared from second instar larvae at [Cd] up to 40 {micro}g/g sediment exhibited increased incidence of mentum deformities, and delayed development that resulted in larger size at pupation. Thus deformities are biologically relevant indicators of stress. Overall, the results confirm the potential of chironomids as relevant bioindicators of contaminant stress.

  11. Effects of rotifers, copepods and chironomid larvae on microbial communities in peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczan, Tomasz; Niedźwiecki, Michał; Tarkowska-Kukuryk, Monika

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between the microbial loop and the classical grazing food chain are essential to ecosystem ecology. The goal of the present study was to examine the impact of chironomid larvae, rotifers and copepods on the major components of the microbial food web (algae, bacteria, heterotrophic flagellates, testate amoebae and ciliates) in peatlands. Two enclosure experiments were carried out in a Sphagnum peatland. In the experiments we manipulated rotifers, copepods and macroinvertebrates, i.e. chironomid larvae (Psectrocladius sordidellus gr). During the experiments variation was observed in the abundance of potential predators. The beginning of the first experiment was distinguished by dominance of rotifers, but five days later copepods were dominant. In the second experiment copepods dominated. The results of this study are the first to suggest a substantial impact of chironomid larvae, rotifers and copepods on microorganism communities in peatland ecosystems. The impact is reflected by both a decrease in the abundance and biomass of testate amoebae and ciliates and a transformation of the size structure of bacteria. Heterotrophic flagellates (HNF) were not controlled by metazoans, but rather by testate amoebae and ciliates, as HNF were more abundant in the control treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of Chironomid larvae of the Seybouse wadi, North-Eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjla Chaib

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the Seybouse wadi (North-Eastern Algeria between 2008 and 2011 was conducted in 26 sampling sites located on the main river and its tributaries using chironomids. From 3264 collected larvae, forty-five chironomid species were identified, and were correlated to 13 environmental variables to predict determinant factors affecting their distribution. Indicator value (IndVal analysis was first performed to determine indicator chironomid species according to several factors (sites, seasons, source distance, granulometry, conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, water velocity, pollution and the abundance of filamentous algae. Co-inertia analysis (CoIA supported the IndVal results, emphasising an upstream/downstream gradient in the first axis, while a granulometry gradient was emphasised by the second axis. A pollution gradient was also highlighted in the plane of the first two axes, separating tolerant Chironomus sp. 1, Cricotopus bicinctus and Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris from intolerant species as Phaenopsectra flavipes, Rheotanytarsus sp.1 and Cladotanytarsus sp. 1.

  13. Assessing the effects of climate and volcanism on diatom and chironomid assemblages in an Andean lake near Quito, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Michelutti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Andes are undergoing climate changes that rival those occurring anywhere else on the planet, and are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Paleolimnological investigations of remote mountain lakes can provide details of past environmental change, especially where monitoring data are absent. Here, we reconstruct fossil diatom and chironomid communities spanning the last several hundred years from an Andean lake located in an ecological reserve near Quito, Ecuador. Both diatoms and chironomids recorded assemblage shifts reflective of changing climate conditions. The diatoms are likely responding primarily to temperature-related limnological changes, recording an increase in the number of planktonic taxa in the most recent sediments. This change is consistent with warmer conditions that result in enhanced periods of thermal stratification, allowing planktonic species to proliferate. The chironomids appear to respond mainly to a change in precipitation regime, recording a greater number of terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa that have been transported to the lake. A thick tephra deposit at the base of the sediment core affected both diatom and chironomid assemblages. The diatoms registered a change in species composition highlighting the ability of certain taxa to rapidly colonize new environments. In contrast, the chironomids showed a marked drop in abundance immediately following the tephra, but no change in species composition. In both cases the ecological response was short-lived, illustrating the resiliency of the lake to return to baseline conditions following volcanic inputs.

  14. Some new records of chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitušík Peter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Six chironomid species: Paraboreochlus minutissimus (Strobl, 1894, Trissopelopia longimanus (Staeger 1839, Boreoheptagyia monticola (Serra-Tosio, 1964, Cricotopus (s.str. similis Goetghebuer 1921, Heleniella serratosioi Ringe, 1976, Krenosmittia camptophleps (Edwards, 1929, were recorded in Czech Republic for the first time. The pupal exuviae were collected in July 2009 from Otava River in the vicinity of Rejštejn village in the central part of the Bohemian Forest. The notes on known distribution and ecology of the species are presented.

  15. Capsule contraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut COŞKUN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule contraction syndrome occurs after fibrous metaplasia of lens proteins that leads to capsular bag contraction. Excessive front capsular wrinkling is seen in capsule contraction syndrome and there is an imbalance between powers supplying capsular integrity. This situation leads to zonular weakness. Capsule contraction syndrome is associated with pseudoexfoliation, older age, uveitis, pars planitis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. In order to decrease the risk of capsule contraction syndrome, front capsulerhexis area should be open as 5.5-6 mm diameter and a curysoft intraocular lens should be used. In order to prevent lens epithelial proliferation and metaplasia, lens epithelial cells at inferior surface of front capsule should be aspirated carefully. If postoperative capsular contraction detected, front capsulotomy should be performed by Nd-YAG laser at postoperative 2 to 3 weeks. In patients that Nd-YAG laser is unsuccessful, capsular tension should be decreased by surgical microincisions. In present study, we evaluated etiology, prevention and management of capsule contraction syndrome in the light of actual literature knowledge.

  16. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  17. Chironomid larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VM. Sodré

    Full Text Available A study of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae occurring in phytotelmata of Bromeliaceae was carried out in a fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest in an area of the city of Magé, Pau Grande, one of the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro City, during a period of 13 months between September 2006 and September 2007. Eight samplings were performed at intervals of 1 ½ months and the content of the phytotelmata of the bromeliad species Neoregelia concentrica (Vellozo L.B. Smith, 1934 and Aechmea nudicaulis (Linnaeus Grisebach, 1864, were examined. A taxonomical inventory and evaluation of the numerical abundance of Chironomidae larvae were performed in 50 specimens of the bromeliads, being 13 individuals of N. concentrica and 37 of A. nudicaulis. Three taxa of Chironomidae belonging to three distinct subfamilies were recorded: Polypedilum sp., Orthocladiinae genus A and Monopelopia sp. A total of 293 individuals of Chironomidae, were recorded, being 9 Polypedilum sp., 233 Orthocladiinae genus A, and 51 Monopelopia sp., the latter representing the first record of Monopelopia in phytotelmata in Rio de Janeiro State. Considering all samples, a mean density of 3.32 ± 2.62 chironomid larvae per phytotelmata was recorded. There was a positive relationship between the chironomid abundance and both precipitation and the volume of water in the phytotelmata. Apparently there is no preference by the chironomids regarding the colonistion of the bromeliad species.

  18. Late-glacial chironomid-based temperature reconstructions for Lago Piccolo di Avigliana in the southwestern Alps (Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larocque, I.; Finsinger, W.

    2008-01-01

    Chironomid headcapsules were used to reconstruct late glacial and early-Holocene summer temperatures at Lago Piccolo di Avigliana (LPA). Two training sets (northern Sweden, North America) were used to infer temperatures. The reconstructed patterns of temperature change agreed well with the GRIP and

  19. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  20. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  1. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, A J; Vasquez, A A; Hudson, P; Fujimoto, M; Ram, J L

    2016-02-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or 'species group' level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  2. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Andrew Joseph; Vasquez, Adrian Amelio; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  3. Detecting the influence of secondary environmental gradients on chironomid-inferred paleotemperature reconstructions in northern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A. S.; Gajewski, K.; Porinchu, D. F.; Vermaire, J. C.; Wolfe, B. B.

    2015-09-01

    We examine the influence of multiple environmental factors on quantitative reconstructions of past climate that are based on conventional transfer function approaches using subfossil midge remains preserved in lake sediments. Chironomid assemblages from the uppermost sediments of 366 lakes spanning northern North America were compared to environmental parameters using direct gradient analysis. While temperature expectedly explained the largest amount of variation in the chironomid assemblages, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) accounted for significant amounts of the remaining variance. By constraining chironomid assemblages to mean-July air temperature (JulyT), we found a cluster of 70 lakes that were orthogonal to the primary temperature gradient in ordination. These lakes tended to be cold with higher DOC and TKN concentrations, yet had chironomid assemblages that were similar to the assemblages found in less productive, warmer lakes. In order to examine how secondary gradients affected paleotemperature reconstructions, three chironomid-based transfer function models were generated: a full dataset model (all 366 lakes), a reduced temperature-constrained model (296 lakes), and a reduced secondary-constrained model (70 lakes). Application of these models to four previously published Holocene paleotemperature reconstructions were used to distinguish the influence of temperature versus secondary-gradient effects. While unproductive Arctic lake paleotemperature reconstructions were found to be robust, reconstructions for two lakes in the boreal-tundra ecotone suggest secondary gradients influenced parts of their records. We recommend that passive core trajectory analysis upon our expansive surface-sediment calibration set provides a means to assess the veracity of paleotemperature reconstructions and potential influence of secondary gradients.

  4. A chironomid-based mean July temperature inference model from the south-east margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlou; Chang, Jie; Cao, Yanmin; Tang, Hongqu; Langdon, Pete; Shulmeister, James; Wang, Rong; Yang, Xiangdong; Shen, Ji

    2017-03-01

    A chironomid-based calibration training set comprised of 100 lakes from south-western China was established. Multivariate ordination analyses were used to investigate the relationship between the distribution and abundance of chironomid species and 18 environmental variables from these lakes. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCAs) and partial CCAs showed that mean July temperature is one of the independent and significant variables explaining the second-largest amount of variance after potassium ions (K+) in 100 south-western Chinese lakes. Quantitative transfer functions were created using the chironomid assemblages for this calibration data set. The second component of the weighted-average partial least squares (WA-PLS) model produced a coefficient of determination (r2bootstrap) of 0.63, maximum bias (bootstrap) of 5.16 and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.31 °C. We applied the transfer functions to a 150-year chironomid record from Tiancai Lake (26°38'3.8 N, 99°43' E; 3898 m a.s.l.), Yunnan, China, to obtain mean July temperature inferences. We validated these results by applying several reconstruction diagnostics and comparing them to a 50-year instrumental record from the nearest weather station (26°51'29.22'' N, 100°14'2.34'' E; 2390 m a.s.l.). The transfer function performs well in this comparison. We argue that this 100-lake large training set is suitable for reconstruction work despite the low explanatory power of mean July temperature because it contains a complete range of modern temperature and environmental data for the chironomid taxa observed and is therefore robust.

  5. Hydromermis osami n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) from chironomids eclosing from northern Minnesota waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2007-10-01

    Hydromermis osami n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the hemocoel of 2 species of Rheotanytarsus chironomid imagos eclosing from Lake Ozawindib and Gulsvig Landing in northern Minnesota during August 2002 and June and July 2006. The species is distinguished from the other 26 described members of the genus by the terminal mouth; oval, opaque, thick walled amphids, wider than long; acute posterior end; single spicule not bifurcated proximally; well-developed uterine and vulval limbs of the S-shaped vagina; absence of bursal sleeve; absence of nutrient vesicles in the trophosome; and an esophagus length over 40% of body length. Members of the new species emerge from the hosts as adults. The other described Hydromermis species, number of specimens, location, and known hosts are tabulated.

  6. The influence of environmental factors and dredging on chironomid larval diversity in urban drainage systems in polders strongly influenced by seepage from large rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Jacobsen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    different chironomid associations were distinguished by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis. Variation within and among chironomid associations were significantly related to substrate (sludge layer and substrate type: sand vs clay), %% cover of lemnids, submerged vegetation, filamentous algae, and water...... transparency. Chironomid taxon richness and H' were similar in urban and rural waters, probably because of their similar hydrologic, morphologic, and water-quality conditions and their similar dredging and weed-control regimes. Rareness was slightly higher in urban than in rural waters. In urban water systems...

  7. Management of adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupay KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive criteria for diagnosis make evaluating treatment modalities difficult. Many treatment methods have been reported, most with some success, but few have been proved to alter the natural course of this disease. Most afflicted patients will achieve acceptable shoulder function without surgery. Those who remain debilitated after 8–12 months are reasonable candidates for invasive treatments. Here, the various treatment methods and the data to support their use are reviewed. Keywords: frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, periarthritis, painful shoulder 

  8. Sweat collection capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  9. Chironomid communities as indicators of local and global changes in an oligotrophic high mountain lake (Enol Lake, Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Tarrats

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The benthos of the high mountain Enol Lake (Picos de Europa National Park, Spain was analyzed in order to understand the spatiotemporal factors and patterns controlling its current Chironomidae community. In total, more than 14,000 chironomid larvae were identified, belonging to 27 taxa. The results have pointed out the presence of 3 main chironomid assemblages in the lake: i littoral community, which is mainly controlled by temperature and oxygen seasonal changes, ii Chara-dominant community, which is mainly controlled by the presence and abundance of Characeae in the lake, and iii profundal community, which is affected by low oxygen levels caused by sediment and organic matter discharge to the lake due to human pressures in the lake basin. We provide valuable insights for the managers to understand the current ecological status of Enol Lake and to evaluate which measures should be implemented to preserve or improve it. Moreover, our results constitute an essential step forward to improve the interpretation of the past changes of the lake by means of the subfossil chironomid community. 

  10. SOME OBSERVATIONS OF BUCCAL DEFORMITIES IN CHIRONOMID LARVAE (DIPTERA: CHIRONOMIDAE FROM THE CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RISS WOLFGANG

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouthpart deformities of chironomid larvae are considered as indicators ofenvironmental stress caused by water pollution such as heavy metals, pesticides, butas well by organic contamination. In the present study larvae from the side channelsof the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta were investigated. The chironomid communityof the channels are dominated by species of the genera Goeldichironomus andChironomus. All together 21 taxa were determined. The average proportion of mouthpartdeformities in all chironomid larvae was 21 percent. Incidents of mechanical abrasionreached up to 59 percent. The highest frequency of abnormalities occurred inGoeldichironomus carus in which more than 90 percent of all specimens were affected.These numbers found here are fairly above average frequencies observed even atpolluted sites. Under natural conditions deformity frequencies are expected not toexceed 8 percent. On the one hand, distinct concentrations of heavy metals originatingfrom Río Magdalena can be detected in the sediments of the channels. On the other,these concentrations do not reach the levels which are described as triggers of highdeformation rates like those found here. The most plausible explanation of thesecontradictory findings assumes a non-detected synergism of several environmentalstressors. Possibly, the physical structure of the deposited sediments and a pronouncednocturnal oxygen depletion owing to organic pollution contribute an important part tothe crucial processes on a small spatial scale. However, as far as no further investigativeefforts will be done the reason for this phenomenon of high deformity frequencies willremain conspicuous but speculative to a large extent.

  11. A note on sampling chironomids for RNA-based studies of natural populations that retains critical morphological vouchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt N Krosch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid uptake of transcriptomic approaches in freshwater ecology has seen a wealth of data produced concerning the ways in which organisms interact with their environment on a molecular level. Typically, such studies focus either at the community level and so don’t require species identifications, or on laboratory strains of known species identity or natural populations of large, easily identifiable taxa. For chironomids, impediments still exist for applying these technologies to natural populations because they are small-bodied and often require time-consuming secondary sorting of stream material and morphological voucher preparation to confirm species diagnosis. These procedures limit the ability to maintain RNA quantity and quality in such organisms because RNA degrades rapidly and gene expression can be altered rapidly in organisms; thereby limiting the inclusion of such taxa in transcriptomic studies. Here, we demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome and outline an optimised protocol for collecting, sorting and preserving chironomid larvae that enables retention of both morphological vouchers and RNA for subsequent transcriptomics purposes. By ensuring that sorting and voucher preparation are completed within <4 hours after collection and that samples are kept cold at all times, we successfully retained both RNA and morphological vouchers from all specimens. Although not prescriptive in specific methodology, we anticipate that this paper will assist in promoting transcriptomic investigations of the sublethal impact on chironomid gene expression of changes to aquatic environments.

  12. [Key to chironomid pupal exuviae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of tropical high Andean streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Narcís; González-Trujillo, Juan David; Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo

    2014-12-01

    The Chironomidae is a cosmopolitan family of Nematoceran flies with more than 20,000 species described. However the diversity of genera and species of the family in the Andean region beyond the 2,000 m.a.s.l are scarcely known. We conducted faunal surveys and biomonitoring research in different streams of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from May 2005 to October 2011. Based on specimens collections, a taxonomic key was developed to identify pupae and pupal exuviae of 46 genera of midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) collected from streams at high altitude areas on the Andean tropical mountains. We included illustrations and brief taxonomic descriptions for all genera, of which several ones have not yet been formally described; in this latter case we used the nomenclature of Roback & Coffman (1983). For two genera, Cricotopus and Genus 1, keys to the most com- mon morphospecies were provided. Results showed that in this area the chironomid assemblages are dominated by the members of the subfamily Orthocladiinae (22 genera) followed by the Chironominae (13). Six genera of Tanypodinae were identified, while only three and two genera were present from subfamilies Podonominae and Diamesinae. This key may be very useful for both studies about drift in streams, and for biomonitoring purposes.

  13. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  14. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  15. Capsule shells adulterated with tadalafil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, Bastiaan J; Tan, Jing; Vredenbregt, Marjo J; Ge, Xiaowei; Low, Min-Yong; de Kaste, Dries

    2012-01-10

    Following a health complaint a food supplement was brought in for analysis on the suspicion of being adulterated with a synthetic drug substance. When the capsule content did not show evidence of adulteration, the capsule shell was investigated. Using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS the capsule shell was found to contain 2.85 mg of the erectile dysfunction drug tadalafil. Using microscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy the presence of tadalafil was shown throughout the gelatine matrix as particles and dissolved into the matrix. The adulteration is probably carried out by adding tadalafil powder to a gelatine jelly in the manufacturing of the capsules shells. Because this technique may also be used for other drug substances, capsules shells should be considered a vehicle for hiding drug substances in general. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Type of Substratum Affects Chironomid Larvae Assemblage Composition? A Study in a River Catchment in Northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauad, M; Siri, A; Donato, M

    2017-02-01

    Chironomid larvae assemblages were investigated at seven sampling stations in relation to stream habitat type in the Challhuaco-Ñireco river system located in the Nahuel Huapi National Park, in the North-Western part of Rio Negro Province, Argentina. A total of 2229 individuals were sampled and 43 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (29) being the best represented subfamily, followed by Diamesinae (5), Tanypodinae (3), Podonominae (3) and Chironominae (3). Stictocladius spF, Cricotopus (Paratrichocladius) sp6, Cricotopus sp2, Cricotopus sp3 and Parapsectrocladius sp2 were the most abundant taxa. Sites near the source of the river system were dominated by Podonomus sp., Limnophyes sp., Parapsectrocladius sp. and Stictocladius spF, whereas sites close to the river mouth were dominated by Diamesinae sp5 and Cricotopus sp. Rank/abundance plots show that all the analysed sites displayed dominance of some species. Stictocladius spF, Cricotopus sp2, Cricotopus sp3, Cricotopus (Paratrichocladius) sp6, Parapsectrocladius sp. and Limnophyes sp. resulted as dominant species, or being part of a group of dominant species, at least in one sample. Eleven taxa were associated with habitats related with riffle areas and stable substrates with filamentous algae. Species-environment relationships were examined using ordination analysis. Elevation was the most significant environmental variable that explained 22% of the total variability of the chironomid assemblages, showing stronger relationships among sites within an altitudinal gradient than among habitat type. Abundance of chironomids increased from headwaters to the outflow in Nahuel Huapi Lake responding to an altitude gradient as well as some environmental factors such as coarse matter and nutrient concentrations.

  17. Chironomid-based high-resolution hydroclimatic reconstruction for the arid central Asia during the last 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Chen, J.; Huang, X.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The lack of high-resolution paleo-climatic records from arid central Asia during the last 2000 years impedes our understanding of climate variability in this westerly-dominated region and its relationships with Asian monsoon evolution on the decadal- to centennial- timescales. Here we present a 2000-year high-resolution ( 15a) hydroclimatic reconstruction for the arid central Asia based on chironomid analysis from the largest inland freshwater lake of China (Bosten Lake). Variations in the chironomid fauna and inferred water levels indicate that, on the centennial timescale, the wetness in the Bosten lake catchment was generally low before 600 AD, slightly increased from 600 to 920 AD, significantly decreased during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) from 920 to 1450 AD, and dramatically rose during the Little Ice Age (LIA) from 1450 to 1950 AD. On the decadal timescale, there existed a secondary wet event around 1000-1100 AD within the generally dry MCA, and a secondary dry event at the first half of the 19th century within the generally wet LIA. The chironomid-based hydroclimatic reconstruction is not only in good agreement with multiple proxies derived from different cores in Bosten Lake, but also consistent with other paleo-moisture records from the arid central Asia. Comparing to the typical records in monsoonal region, it is suggested that MCA/LIA in westerly-dominated region and monsoonal region were featured by opposite hydroclimatic conditions at centennial time scale. This spatial pattern may be associated with the different effects of ENSO and NAO on precipitation in regions controlled by different circulation systems. Moreover, there existed anti-phase relationships in wetness variations between these two regions on decadal time scale as well, providing an analogue for the reverse precipitation changes between the arid central Asia and the monsoonal North China during the recent global warming.

  18. Late-glacial chironomid-based temperature reconstructions for Lago Piccolo di Avigliana in the southwestern Alps (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Larocque, I.; Finsinger, W

    2008-01-01

    Chironomid headcapsules were used to reconstruct late glacial and early-Holocene summer temperatures at Lago Piccolo di Avigliana (LPA). Two training sets (northern Sweden, North America) were used to infer temperatures. The reconstructed patterns of temperature change agreed well with the GRIP and NGRIP δ18O records. Inferred temperatures were high during the Bølling (ca 19 °C), slowly decreased to ca 17.5 °C during the Allerød, reached lowest temperatures (ca 16 °C) during the Younger Dryas...

  19. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kee Jeong [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ''Buttonholing'' of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. (orig.)

  20. [Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, M; Ghanem, N

    1999-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a painful stiff shoulder due to the thickening of the capsule and synovium. The main observed changes are hyperhaemia of the synovium and a capsular fibrosis similar to that of Dupuytren's disease. Stiffness involves mainly flexion, lateral rotation and abduction. In most cases, a spontaneous healing is observed within 12 to 30 months. When the capsulitis is disabling and pain still present, a joint distension followed by rehabilitation can be indicated. When the disability is important and mainly due to stiffness, a manipulation under anesthesia with or without arthroscopic release of soft tissues can be indicated.

  1. Adhesive capsulitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Anthony

    2011-02-15

    Adhesive capsulitis is a common, yet poorly understood, condition causing pain and loss of range of motion in the shoulder. It can occur in isolation or concomitantly with other shoulder conditions (e.g., rotator cuff tendinopathy, bursitis) or diabetes mellitus. It is often self-limited, but can persist for years and may never fully resolve. The diagnosis is usually clinical, although imaging can help rule out other conditions. The differential diagnosis includes acromioclavicular arthropathy, autoimmune disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis), biceps tendinopathy, glenohumeral osteoarthritis, neoplasm, rotator cuff tendinopathy or tear (with or without impingement), and subacromial and subdeltoid bursitis. Several treatment options are commonly used, but few have high-level evidence to support them. Because the condition is often self-limited, observation and reassurance may be considered; however, this may not be acceptable to many patients because of the painful and debilitating nature of the condition. Nonsurgical treatments include analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), oral prednisone, and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Home exercise regimens and physical therapy are often prescribed. Surgical treatments include manipulation of the joint under anesthesia and capsular release.

  2. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. and Strelkovimermis ozawindibi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2002-10-01

    Two new species of Strelkovimermis are described from chironomid imagoes eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes. The 2 species are distinguished from the other 12 species in the genus by terminal mouths, rounded or nippled posterior ends, short buccal funnels, short terminal limbs of the S-shaped vagina, and presence of a bursal sleeve. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. is distinguished from S. ozawindibi n. sp. by the presence of a dorsal protractor. Procladius (Psilotanypus) bellus (Loew) is the host of S. rubtsovi. The chironomid host of S. ozawindibi has not been determined. An artificial key is provided to distinguish the 14 species of the genus.

  3. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them.

  4. Modern diatom, cladocera, chironomid, and chrysophyte cyst assemblages as quantitative indicators for the reconstruction of past environmental conditions in the Alps. I. Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotter, A.F.; Birks, H.J.B.; Hofmann, W.; Marchetto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Diatom, chrysophyte cyst, benthic cladocera, planktonic cladocera, and chironomid assemblages were studied in the surface sediments of 68 small lakes along an altitudinal gradient from 300 to 2350 m in Switzerland. In addition, 43 environmental variables relating to the physical limnology,

  5. Annual Survey of Horsehair Worm Cysts in Northern Taiwan, with Notes on a Single Seasonal Infection Peak in Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified. The cysts of the dominant species were morphologically similar to those of Chordodes formosanus. Infection with these cysts increased suddenly and peaked 2 mo after the reproductive season of the adult horsehair worms. Although adult C. formosanus emerged several times in a year, only 1 distinct infection peak was detected in September in the chironomid larvae. Compared with the subfamily Chironominae, samples from the subfamilies Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae were less parasitized. This indicates that the feeding behavior of the chironomid host likely affects horsehair worm cyst infections; however, bioconcentration in predatory chironomids was not detected.

  6. Matching 30 years of ecosystem monitoring with a high resolution microfossil record of chironomid eggs and Cladocera from Lake Mývatn, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptfleisch, Ulf; Einarsson, Arni; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2011-01-01

    1. Monitoring of the ecosystem of Lake My´vatn, Iceland, since 1975 has revealed extreme fluctuations in important food web components, such as chironomids and cladocerans, with amplitudes of several orders of magnitude and a period of 5–8 years. This study uses sediment cores from the lake...

  7. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  8. Long-term patterns of chironomid assemblages in a high elevation stream/lake network (Switzerland – Implications to global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Lods-Crozet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 2002 on running and standing waters in a high elevation cirque landscape (Macun in the Swiss National Park. The region comprises contrasting basins with different water sources, a glacier-fed basin and two precipitation-fed basins. Sampling of 26 permanent and temporary ponds (or small lakes and of interconnecting streams (10 sites was conducted from 2002 to 2010. Pond macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by chironomids with 42 taxa. The Orthocladiinae were the dominant subfamily in richness and abundance with 22 taxa. The greatest diversity was found in ponds located in the south and outlet basins. The inter-year variability for the same pond is high, but no clear temporal trend was noticed in ponds frequently monitored ponds. The Orthocladiinae subfamily was also the richest in the stream sites where 33 taxa were collected. The north and south basins were separated on the basis of chironomid assemblages. The chironomid assemblages in the stream network shows a temporal trend from 2002 but it cannot be linked to any clear change at the community structure level. The higher richness and abundance in stream sites and ponds of the south basin could be related to a greater heterogeneity in water physico-chemistry and substrata, and by the presence of Bryophyta. The understanding of the environmental factors that influence faunal assemblages is crucial for the protection of this sensitive alpine pond network where a relatively high overall regional diversity (49 taxa is detected. From the literature, temperature is recognized as the driving force on changes in chironomid assemblages in alpine systems. Our results support the use of chironomids as flagship indicators in the assessment of climatic change in alpine landscapes.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1361.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  9. Toxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles at different trophic levels--effects on diatoms, chironomids and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Verneuil, Laurent; Evariste, Lauris; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric; Gauthier, Laury

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to provide wider information on the toxicity of cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) in aquatic environments, by studying the toxicity of two types of CeO2 NPs for four species (diatoms Nitzschia palea, the sediment-dwelling invertebrate Chironomus riparius, and the amphibian larvae Xenopus laevis and Pleurodeles waltl.). The two types of CeO2 NPs have different intrinsic properties: some of them are small citrate-coated spheres (2-5 nm), and the others are larger uncoated plates (20-60 nm). Acute toxicity (mortality at 48 or 96 h, depending on the test-organism) was assessed for the four species, from 0.1 to 100 mg L(-1) of NPs. Sub-lethal effects were assessed on chironomids exposed between 0.01 and 1 mg L(-1) of NPs. Mortality, growth inhibition and genotoxic effects were evaluated on amphibian larvae from 0.1 to 10 mg L(-1). Results reveal that no acute toxicity occurs on any species after short exposures, even at the highest concentrations. Mortality (35%) is observed on Xenopus larvae after 12d of exposure at the highest concentration of one type of NPs. No significant effects were observed on chironomids during chronic exposure. Xenopus larvae growth was inhibited from 1 mg L(-1) of both NPs while growth inhibition is observed on Pleurodeles only at the highest concentration of one type of NPs. No genotoxicity was observed on Xenopus but Pleurodeles exhibited dose-dependent genotoxic effects when exposed to one type of NPs. Observed differences in toxicity are discussed focusing on the studied compartment, routes of exposure, species and NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D

    2003-01-01

    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  11. Holocene temperature variations at a high-altitude site in the Eastern Alps: a chironomid record from Schwarzsee ob Sölden, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyashuk, Elena A.; Koinig, Karin A.; Heiri, Oliver; Ilyashuk, Boris P.; Psenner, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Few well-dated, quantitative Holocene temperature reconstructions exist from high-altitude sites in the Central Eastern Alps. Here, we present a chironomid-based quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) throughout the Holocene for a remote high-mountain lake, Schwarzsee ob Sölden, situated above the treeline at 2796 m a.s.l. in the Austrian Alps. Applying a chironomid-temperature inference model developed from lakes of the Alpine region to a high-resolution chironomid record from the lake provides evidence for early Holocene (ca 10000–8600 cal yr BP) TJuly of up to 8.5 °C, i.e. >4 °C above the modern (1977–2006) mean July temperature. The reconstruction reveals the so-called ‘8.2-ka cold event’ centered at ca 8250–8000 cal yr BP with temperatures ca 3 °C below the early-Holocene thermal maximum. Rather warm (ca 6 °C) and productive conditions prevailed during ca 7900–4500 cal yr BP. The chironomid record suggests a climate transition between ca 5200 and 4500 cal yr BP to cooler TJuly. A distinct cooling trend is evident from ca 4500 until ca 2500 cal yr BP. Thereafter, the study site experienced its coldest conditions (around 4 °C or less) throughout the rest of the Holocene, with the exception of the warming trend during the late 20th century. Beside other factors, the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation seems to be the major driving force for the long-term trends in TJuly at high altitudes in the Eastern Alps. Due to the extreme location of the lake and the limited temperature range represented by the applied calibration data set, the chironomid-based temperature reconstruction fails to track phases of the late-Holocene climatic history with TJuly cooler than 4 °C. Further chironomid-based palaeoclimate model and down-core studies are required to address this problem, provide more realistic TJuly estimates from undisturbed high-altitude lakes in the Alps, and extract a reliable regional

  12. Holocene temperature variations at a high-altitude site in the Eastern Alps: a chironomid record from Schwarzsee ob Sölden, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyashuk, Elena A; Koinig, Karin A; Heiri, Oliver; Ilyashuk, Boris P; Psenner, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Few well-dated, quantitative Holocene temperature reconstructions exist from high-altitude sites in the Central Eastern Alps. Here, we present a chironomid-based quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperatures (T(July)) throughout the Holocene for a remote high-mountain lake, Schwarzsee ob Sölden, situated above the treeline at 2796 m a.s.l. in the Austrian Alps. Applying a chironomid-temperature inference model developed from lakes of the Alpine region to a high-resolution chironomid record from the lake provides evidence for early Holocene (ca 10000-8600 cal yr BP) T(July) of up to 8.5 °C, i.e. >4 °C above the modern (1977-2006) mean July temperature. The reconstruction reveals the so-called '8.2-ka cold event' centered at ca 8250-8000 cal yr BP with temperatures ca 3 °C below the early-Holocene thermal maximum. Rather warm (ca 6 °C) and productive conditions prevailed during ca 7900-4500 cal yr BP. The chironomid record suggests a climate transition between ca 5200 and 4500 cal yr BP to cooler T(July). A distinct cooling trend is evident from ca 4500 until ca 2500 cal yr BP. Thereafter, the study site experienced its coldest conditions (around 4 °C or less) throughout the rest of the Holocene, with the exception of the warming trend during the late 20th century. Beside other factors, the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation seems to be the major driving force for the long-term trends in T(July) at high altitudes in the Eastern Alps. Due to the extreme location of the lake and the limited temperature range represented by the applied calibration data set, the chironomid-based temperature reconstruction fails to track phases of the late-Holocene climatic history with T(July) cooler than 4 °C. Further chironomid-based palaeoclimate model and down-core studies are required to address this problem, provide more realistic T(July) estimates from undisturbed high-altitude lakes in the Alps, and extract a reliable regional

  13. A novel etiology for pneumolabyrinth after temporal bone fracture without otic capsule involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelleman, Thomas J; Bhalla, Vidur; Staecker, Hinrich

    2017-01-01

    Pneumolabyrinth has been considered an indicator of otic capsule involvement in temporal bone fractures. We present a novel theory for the etiology of pneumolabyrinth in a trauma patient without an otic capsule fracture: passage of intrathecal air into the labyrinth. Our patient experienced transient bilateral pneumolabyrinth after head trauma due to a motor vehicle collision. The patient was noted to have extensive pneumocephalus and a unilateral temporal bone fracture that spared the otic capsule. Initial computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated air in the cochlea and both internal auditory canals. A high-resolution CT scan 6 hours later showed resolution of this air. Pneumolabyrinth may not be a sensitive indicator of otic capsule involvement in temporal bone fractures. In addition to middle ear sources, air in the labyrinth can also plausibly originate intrathecally, especially in the setting of pneumocephalus.

  14. The Parthenogenetic Cosmopolitan Chironomid, Paratanytarsus grimmii, as a New Standard Test Species for Ecotoxicology: Culturing Methodology and Sensitivity to Aqueous Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Bryant S; Long, Sara M; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-09-01

    Chironomids from the genus Chironomus are widely used in laboratory ecotoxicology, but are prone to inbreeding depression, which can compromise test results. The standard Chironomus test species (C. riparius, C. dilutus and C. yoshimatsui) are also not cosmopolitan, making it difficult to compare results between geographic regions. In contrast, the chironomid Paratanytarsus grimmii is cosmopolitan, and not susceptible to inbreeding depression because it reproduces asexually by apomictic parthenogenesis. However, there is no standardised culturing methodology for P. grimmii, and a lack of acute toxicity data for common pollutants (metals and pesticides). In this study, we developed a reliable culturing methodology for P. grimmii. We also determined 24-h first instar LC50s for the metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and the insecticide imidacloprid. By developing this culturing methodology and generating the first acute metal and imidacloprid LC50s for P. grimmii, we provide a basis for using P. grimmii in routine ecotoxicological testing.

  15. A microcosm test of adaptation and species specific responses to polluted sediments applicable to indigenous chironomids (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Ward, Jacqueline; Pettigrove, Vincent; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2006-02-01

    Chironomids may adapt to pollution stress but data are confined to species that can be reared in the laboratory. A microcosm approach was used to test for adaptation and species differences in heavy metal tolerance. In one experiment, microcosms containing different levels of contaminants were placed in polluted and reference locations. The response of Chironomus februarius to metal contaminants suggested local adaptation: relatively more flies emerged from clean sediment at the reference site and the reverse pattern occurred at the polluted site. However, maternal effects were not specifically ruled out. In another species, Kiefferulus intertinctus, there was no evidence for adaptation. In a second experiment, microcosms with different contaminant levels were placed at two polluted and two unpolluted sites. Species responded differently to contaminants, but there was no evidence for adaptation in the species where this could be tested. Adaptation to heavy metals may be uncommon and species specific, but more sensitive species need to be tested across a range of pollution levels. Factors influencing the likelihood of adaptation are briefly discussed.

  16. Instrumented capsule development and utilization - Structural analysis and design optimization of capsule structures with impact stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Shin; Choi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Young Wan; Oh, Jae Moon; Kim, Dong Jin; Song, Sun Young [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    In this study, the structural analysis of instrumented capsule and capsule supporting structures in HANARO in-core are performed. The structural= integrity of capsule structures are evaluated by the seismic analysis, thermal stresses and buckling stability analysis. The structural integrity of the capsule structure under impact loads are assessed and the mechanical characteristics of these structures through the stress analysis of joint bolts at the lower and of capsule mainbody and the strength analysis of the wire spring are analyzed. The design optimization of capsule structures are presented with considering mechanical characteristics. 20 refs., 12 tabs., 50 figs. (author)

  17. Polycaps: Reversibly formed polymeric capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Ronald K.; Rudkevich, Dmitry M.; Rebek, Julius

    1997-01-01

    Described are assemblies consisting of polymeric capsules, “polycaps,” formed from two calix[4]arene tetraureas covalently connected at their lower rims. In these structures self-assembly leads to reversibly formed capsule sites along a chain, reminiscent of beads on a string. Their dynamic behavior is characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy through encapsulation of guest species, reversible polymerization, and the formation of sharply defined hybrid capsules. PMID:11038556

  18. NASPGHAN Capsule Endoscopy Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Joel A; Liu, Quin Y; Sahn, Benjamin; Kooros, Koorosh; Walsh, Catharine M; Kramer, Robert E; Lightdale, Jenifer R; Khlevner, Julie; McOmber, Mark; Kurowski, Jacob; Giefer, Matthew J; Pall, Harpreet; Troendle, David M; Utterson, Elizabeth C; Brill, Herbert; Zacur, George M; Lirio, Richard A; Lerner, Diana G; Reynolds, Carrie; Gibbons, Troy E; Wilsey, Michael; Liacouras, Chris A; Fishman, Douglas S

    2017-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 as a less invasive method to visualize the distal small bowel in adults. Because this technology has advanced it has been adapted for use in pediatric gastroenterology. Several studies have described its clinical use, utility, and various training methods but pediatric literature regarding CE is limited. This clinical report developed by the Endoscopic and Procedures Committee of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition outlines the current literature, and describes the recommended current role, use, training, and future areas of research for CE in pediatrics.

  19. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  20. Trace DNA from insect skins: a comparison of five extraction protocols and direct PCR on chironomid pupal exuviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Petra; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Stur, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Insect skins (exuviae) are of extracellular origin and shed during moulting. The skins do not contain cells or DNA themselves, but epithelial cells and other cell-based structures might accidentally attach as they are shed. This source of trace DNA can be sufficient for PCR amplification and sequencing of target genes and aid in species identification through DNA barcoding or association of unknown life stages. Species identification is essential for biomonitoring programs, as species vary in sensitivities to environmental factors. However, it requires a DNA isolation protocol that optimizes the output of target DNA. Here, we compare the relative effectiveness of five different DNA extraction protocols and direct PCR in isolation of DNA from chironomid pupal exuviae. Chironomidae (Diptera) is a species-rich group of aquatic macroinvertebrates widely distributed in freshwater environments and considered a valuable bioindicator of water quality. Genomic DNA was extracted from 61.2% of 570 sampled pupal exuviae. There were significant differences in the methods with regard to cost, handling time, DNA quantity, PCR success, sequence success and the ability to sequence target taxa. The NucleoSpin(®) Tissue XS Kit, DNeasy(®) Blood and Tissue kit, and QuickExtract(™) DNA Extraction Solution provided the best results in isolating DNA from single pupal exuviae. Direct PCR and DTAB/CTAB methods gave poor results. While the observed differences in DNA isolation methods on trace DNA will be relevant to research that focuses on aquatic macroinvertebrate ecology, taxonomy and systematics, they should also be of interest for studies using environmental barcoding and metabarcoding of aquatic environments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Density and temperature dependent feeding rates in an established and an alien freshwater gammarid fed on chironomid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter WALOSZEK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We compared feeding rates of the well-established, non-invasive amphipod Gammarus roeselii with those of the invasive Dikerogammarus villosus at different prey densities and different temperatures in laboratory experiments using chironomid larvae as prey. Feeding rates were very variable in both species but higher in the invader species than in the well-established non-invasive species. These results were age independent. At high temperature (18-20 °C and high prey density (≥1000 prey m-2 one large adult D. villosus consumed 6-9 prey day-1 on average while one G. roeselii consumed 4-7 prey d-1 and one smaller D. villosus of a length of 8-10 mm consumed 2-5 prey d-1 while one G. roeselii of the same length consumed 3 prey d-1. Predation rate decreased considerably from high (18-20 °C to low temperature (3±2 °C, from 9 to 4 prey predator-1 d-1 in D. villosus and from 7.5 to 2.5 prey predator-1 d-1 in G. roeselii. We conclude that both gammarids consumed a biomass in the range of 1/2 to 1/3 to their own biomass and that low predation/feeding rate at low temperature could be a reason why, in some places, indigenous gammarids can re-colonize their former habitats for a short period of time in cold winter and early spring in spite of the presence of the invasive. We further conclude that differences in weight between the species in particular in the experiments with adults can have influenced feeding rates; possibly differences in weight- specific feeding rates are small.

  2. The disintegration behaviour of capsules in fed subjects: a comparison of hypromellose (carrageenan) capsules and standard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B E; Basit, A W; Tuleu, C

    2012-03-15

    Two-piece hard shell capsules made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) containing carrageenan as a gelling agent have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gelatin capsules for oral drug delivery. We have previously compared the disintegration of hypromellose(carrageenan) (Quali-V(®)) and gelatin capsules (Qualicaps) in fasted human subjects using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. This second study used the same technique with both fasted and fed human subjects. Size 0 capsules were filled with powder plugs made from lactose and did not contain croscarmellose as in the original study. The capsules were separately radiolabelled with indium-111 and technetium-99m. Both capsules were administered simultaneously with 180ml water to eight healthy male subjects following an overnight fast. Each volunteer was positioned in front of the gamma camera and sequential 60s images were acquired in a continuous manner for 30min. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fasted state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 8±2min and for gelatin 7±3min. These results were not statistically different from the data in the original study and show that the removal of the croscarmellose had no effect on the results. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fed state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 16±5min and for the gelatin capsules was 12±4min. There was no statistical difference between the hypromellose(carrageenan) and gelatin capsules in either the fed or fasted state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: MR arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Han, Tae Il; Lee, Kwang Won; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Dae Hong; Han, Hyun Young; Song, Mun Kab [Eulji Univ. School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a clinical syndrome involving pain and decreased joint motion caused by thickening and contraction of the joint capsule. The purpose of this study is to describe the MR arthrographic findings of this syndrome. Twenty-nine sets of MR arthrographic images were included in the study. Fourteen patients had adhesive capsulitis diagnosed by physical examination and arthrography, and their MR arthrographic findings were compared with those of 15 subjects in the control group. The images were retrospectively reviewed with specific attention to the thickness of the joint capsule, volume of the axillary pouch (length, width, height(depth)), thinkness of the coracohumeral ligament, presence of extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrst filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Mean capsular thickness measured at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch was 4.1 mm in patients with adhesive capsulitis and 1.5 mm in the control group. The mean width of the axillary pouch was 2.5 mm in patients and 9.5 mm in controls. In patients, the capsule was significantly thicker and the axillary pouch significantly narrower than in controls (p<0.05). Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch (sensitivity 93%, specificity 80%) and a pouch narrower than 3.5 mm (sensitivity 93%, specificity 100%) were useful criteria for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. In patients with this condition, extra-articular contrast extravasation was noted in six patients (43%) and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa in three (21%). The MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis are capsular thickening, a low-volume axillary pouch, extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch and a pouch width of less than 3.5 mm are useful diagnostic imaging characteristics.

  4. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  5. Colon Capsule Endoscopy for the Detection of Colorectal Polyps: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palimaka, Stefan; Blackhouse, Gord; Goeree, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Ontario. Most cases of colorectal cancer are preventable through early diagnosis and the removal of precancerous polyps. Colon capsule endoscopy is a non-invasive test for detecting colorectal polyps. Objectives The objectives of this analysis were to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and the impact on the Ontario health budget of implementing colon capsule endoscopy for detecting advanced colorectal polyps among adult patients who have been referred for computed tomographic (CT) colonography. Methods We performed an original cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the additional cost of CT colonography and colon capsule endoscopy resulting from misdiagnoses. We generated diagnostic accuracy data from a clinical evidence-based analysis (reported separately), and we developed a deterministic Markov model to estimate the additional long-term costs and life-years lost due to false-negative results. We then also performed a budget impact analysis using data from Ontario administrative sources. One-year costs were estimated for CT colonography and colon capsule endoscopy (replacing all CT colonography procedures, and replacing only those CT colonography procedures in patients with an incomplete colonoscopy within the previous year). We conducted this analysis from the payer perspective. Results Using the point estimates of diagnostic accuracy from the head-to-head study between colon capsule endoscopy and CT colonography, we found the additional cost of false-positive results for colon capsule endoscopy to be $0.41 per patient, while additional false-negatives for the CT colonography arm generated an added cost of $116 per patient, with 0.0096 life-years lost per patient due to cancer. This results in an additional cost of $26,750 per life-year gained for colon capsule endoscopy compared with CT colonography. The total 1-year cost to replace all CT colonography procedures with colon capsule

  6. Capsule endoscopy: new technology, old complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Ashwin; Naidu, R M

    2011-07-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new tool in the armamentarium of the gastroenterologist to evaluate the small bowel non-invasively. It allows improved diagnostic yield with low complication rates relative to traditional modalities. But this new technology has its own set of complications, some which can lead to significant morbidity. Here, we present a case of complete small bowel obstruction following a capsule endoscopy. A 65-year-old female with a long standing history of anemia and obscure gastrointestinal bleed presented to the Emergency Department 72 hours after a wireless capsule endoscopy procedure complaining of worsening abdominal pain, distension, and frequent vomiting. An X-ray was suggestive of complete distal small bowel obstruction with the capsule at the transition point of dilated proximal and collapsed distal small bowel. The patient was resuscitated and taken up for an explorative laparotomy where a short segment stricture was noted with the capsule endoscope caught proximal to it. The segment was resected and patient made an uneventful recovery. Wireless capsule endoscopy is now becoming the preferred method to image the small bowel. Our report illustrates the importance of appropriate patient selection and evaluation of functional patency of the small bowel may be with a contrast series prior to wireless capsule endoscopy to avoid any post procedural morbidity.

  7. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....

  9. CAPSULE REPORT: HARD CHROME FUME ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    All existing information which includes the information extrapolated from the Hard Chrome Pollution Prevention Demonstration Project(s) and other sources derived from plating facilities and industry contacts, will be condensed and featured in this document. At least five chromium emission prevention/control devices have been tested covering a wide spectrum of techniques currently in use at small and large-sized chrome metal plating shops. The goal for limiting chromium emissions to levels specified in the MACT Standards are: (1) 0.030 milligrams per dry standard cubic meter of air (mg/dscm) for small facilities with existing tanks, (2) 0.015 mg/dscm for small facilities with new tanks or large facilities with existing or new tanks. It should be emphasized that chemical mist suppressants still have quality issues and work practices that need to be addressed when they are used. Some of the mist suppressants currently in use are: one-, two-, and three-stage mesh pad mist eliminators; composite mesh pad mist eliminators; packed-bed scrubbers and polyballs. This capsule report should, redominantly, emphasize pollution prevention techniques and include, but not be restricted to, the afore-mentioned devices. Information

  10. A study on gelatin capsule brittleness: moisture tranfer between the capsule shell and its content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R K; Raghavan, K S; Hussain, M A

    1998-05-01

    Variation in moisture content of the capsule shells either due to the change of storage conditions or the moisture transfer between the capsule shell and its contents may lead to undesired physical properties, such as capsule brittleness and stickiness. DMP 504, a developmental bile-acid sequestrant, is a strongly basic anion-exchange polymer which contains randomly distributed primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amine groups in their hydrochoride salt form. The alkylammonium groups which comprise this polymer form a random network containing a high level of branching and a low level of cross-linking. DMP 504 is very hygroscopic and has a tendency to gain or lose moisture with ease. The transfer of moisture from the capsule shell to DMP 504 powder contained in a hard gelatin capsule can be expected, and if a low water content of the capsule shell is achieved, the capsules become brittle and fracture easily. The sorption isotherm for DMP 504 was generated by storing the drug substance under various relative humidity conditions. After equilibrium, the moisture contents for the samples of individual isotherm points were measured by thermogravimetric analyses. This report applies the sorption-desorption moisture transfer (SDMT) model to predict the equilibrium relative humidity in a system containing DMP 504 in hard gelatin capsules and to establish target loss on drying values for DMP 504 and the capsule shell. Application of this SDMT model resulted in finding a solution to the brittleness problem. The moisture levels of capsule shells and contents for two formulations in a 12-month stability program are also reported here. Results of this study further demonstrate that the SDMT model can be used as a tool to guide the formulator to select optimal initial moisture contents for the empty capsule shell and the formulation to avoid the incidence of brittle capsule problems.

  11. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay ...

  12. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  13. A study of cervical spine kinematics and joint capsule strain in rear impacts using a human FE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Junji

    2006-11-01

    Many efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of whiplash injury. Recently, the cervical facet joint capsules have been focused on as a potential site of injury. An experimental approach has been taken to analyze the vertebral motion and to estimate joint capsule stretch that was thought to be a potential cause of pain. The purpose of this study is to analyze the kinematics of the cervical facet joint using a human FE model in order to better understand the injury mechanism. The Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) was used to visually analyze the local and global kinematics of the spine. Soft tissues in the neck were newly modeled and introduced into THUMS for estimating the loading level in rear impacts. The model was first validated against human test data in the literature by comparing vertebrae motion as well as head and neck responses. Joint capsule strain was estimated from a maximum principal strain output from the elements representing the capsule tissues. A rear-end collision was then simulated using THUMS and a prototype seat model, assuming a delta-V of 25 km/h. The trajectory of the vertebrae was analyzed in a local coordinate system defined along the joint surface. Strain growth in the joint capsules was explained, as related to contact events between the occupant and the seat. A new seat concept was proposed to help lessen the loading level to the neck soft tissues. The foam material of the seat back was softened, the initial gap behind the head was reduced and the head restraint was stiffened for firm support. The lower seat back frame was also reinforced to withstand the impact severity at the given delta-V. Another rear impact simulation was conducted using the new seat concept model to examine the effectiveness of the new concept. The joint capsule strain was found to be relatively lower with the new seat concept. The study also discusses the influence of seat parameters to the vertebral motion and the resultant strain in the joint

  14. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas F. Bianchini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa, which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l−1 were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l−1 and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l−1 and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l−1 and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l−1. Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO, TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage. Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to

  15. Biosorption of lead by Gram-ve capsulated and non-capsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... Saleh M Al-Garni. Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. Abstract. The biosorption of lead by two Gram-ve bacteria, either non-capsulated (Citrobacter freundii ) or capsulated (Klebsiella pneumoniae) was characterised.

  16. The effect of host factors and capsule composition on the cellular overgrowth on implanted alginate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A; Sandler, S; Andersson, A

    2001-12-05

    Microencapsulation of islets of Langerhans in alginate/poly-L-lysine (PLL)/alginate capsules may provide a method for transplantation in the absence of immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of overgrowth on implanted capsules with regard to the composition of the capsules and host factors such as cytokine and nitric oxide production. Empty capsules were implanted to C57BL/6 mice for 1, 3, 7, or 28 days. Glucose oxidation rates showed the metabolic activity of the cellular overgrowth on retrieved capsules. DNA content, histological score, and retrieval rates were also measured to assess the overgrowth. It was noted that the pericapsular host reaction arose by day 7 and had not increased further by day 28. Capsules of varying alginate compositions and different concentrations of PLL were implanted for 7 days to either C57BL/6 or Balb/c mice. Capsules were also implanted to mice lacking the inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Glucose oxidation rates, DNA content, and histological score were positively correlated to each other and negatively correlated to retrieval rates. The pericapsular reaction was reduced if PLL was omitted from the capsule or if a high mannuronic acid alginate was used. Balb/c mice had reduced cellular overgrowth on implanted capsules and had reduced mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in their peritoneal macrophages. The capsular overgrowth seemed more severe in animals lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase compared with wild-type controls. It is concluded that alginate composition, PLL, and recipient factors such as nitric oxide production and cytokine expression affect the cellular overgrowth on implanted alginate capsules. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 57: 374-383, 2001

  17. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  18. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1044-1047. Canyon, DV, Speare R, et al . “Spatial and kinetic factors for the transfer of head ... for children. Natural products can give parents false sense of safety If using a natural product or ...

  19. Research study on neck injury lessening with active head restraint using human body FE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Junji

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the active head restraint system in reducing neck injury risk of car occupants in low-speed rear impacts. A human body FE model "THUMS" was used to simulate head and neck kinematics of the occupant and to evaluate loading to the neck. Joint capsule strain was calculated to predict neck injury risk as well as NIC. The validity of the model was confirmed comparing its mechanical responses to those in human subjects in the literatures. Seat FE models were also prepared representing one with a fixed head restraint and the other one with an active head restraint system. The active head restraint system was designed to move the head restraint forward and upward when the lower unit was lower unit was loaded by the pelvis. Rear impact simulations were performed assuming a triangular acceleration pulse at a delta-V of 25 km/h. The model reproduced similar head and neck motions to those measured in the human volunteer test, except for active muscular responses. The calculated joint capsule strain also showed a good match with those of PMHS tests in the literature. A rear-impact simulation was conducted using the model with the fixed head restraint. The result revealed that NIC was strongly correlated with the relative acceleration between the head and the torso and that its maximum peak appeared when the head contacted the head restraint. It was also found that joint capsule strain grew in later timing synchronizing with the relative displacement. Another simulation with the active head restraint system showed that both NIC and joint capsule strain were lowered owing to the forward and upward motion of the head restraint. A close investigation of the vertebral motion indicated that the active head restraint reduced the magnitude of shear deformation in the facet joint, which contributed to the strain growth in the fixed head restraint case. Rear-impact simulations were conducted using a human body FE model, THUMS

  20. Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett films of capsules of haemoglobin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), precipitation of the pro- tein could be initiated. Since the temperature is low the aggregation process overrides the precipitation result- ing in multi-layered structures with smaller capsules growing within larger capsules. At both pH values, the.

  1. Student Mobility. Information Capsule. Volume 0608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility, rather than stability, has become the norm for students in schools across the United States. The student mobility rate is now higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country. This Information Capsule discusses the reasons for student mobility and the characteristics of highly mobile students and families. Research…

  2. Can we reduce capsule endoscopy reading times?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Jessie; Koornstra, Jan J.; Weersma, Rinse K.

    Background: Analyzing small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) images is time Consuming. Objective: To determine the effect of reducing the number Of images on reacting time and interpretation of CE procedures. Design: Two techniques aimed at reducing the number of images to he viewed were Studied. The

  3. Hydro-dissection and posterior capsule opacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows2G

    whose refracted vision was less then optimal. Conclusion: Hydrodissection is associated with a marginal reduction in post-operative posterior capsule opacity formation following ECCE-IOL surgery. It may however be associated with early post operative complications such as cornea striae, epithelial oedema and iritis due ...

  4. Capsule endoscopy of the small bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Hey-Long; Yung, Diana; Sidhu, Reena; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a first line small bowel investigative modality which provides more sensitive mucosal imaging than comparators. It is a non-invasive, non-irradiating tool well tolerated by patients. The risk of retention of the capsule can be minimised by ensuring luminal patency using the Agile patency device. Research continues into how to minimise missed pathology and variability in the identification of pathology or interpretation of images. The consensus is that bowel preparation using laxatives improves visibility and diagnostic yield. Research includes the development of image recognition software, both to eliminate sequentially identical images to improve viewing speed and to select or enhance images likely to represent pathology. However, careful reading by experienced capsule endoscopists remains the benchmark. This should be performed at a speed comfortable to the viewer, probably at a maximum of 15 frames per second. Some prior experience of endoscopy appears to be helpful for novice capsule endoscopists and formal training on a hands-on training course seems to improve pathology recognition, for novices and for those with CE experience. PMID:27826572

  5. Wireless capsule endoscopy: Perspectives beyond gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De La Torre-Rubio, Paloma; De Teresa, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology. PMID:25400450

  6. Ultrasound capsule endoscopy: sounding out the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Benjamin F; Stewart, Fraser; Lay, Holly; Cummins, Gerard; Newton, Ian P; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Steele, Robert J C; Näthke, Inke; Cochran, Sandy

    2017-05-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been of immense benefit in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders since its introduction in 2001. However, it suffers from a number of well recognized deficiencies. Amongst these is the limited capability of white light imaging, which is restricted to analysis of the mucosal surface. Current capsule endoscopes are dependent on visual manifestation of disease and limited in regards to transmural imaging and detection of deeper pathology. Ultrasound capsule endoscopy (USCE) has the potential to overcome surface only imaging and provide transmural scans of the GI tract. The integration of high frequency microultrasound (µUS) into capsule endoscopy would allow high resolution transmural images and provide a means of both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the bowel wall. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) can provide data in an objective and measurable manner, potentially reducing lengthy interpretation times by incorporation into an automated diagnostic process. The research described here is focused on the development of USCE and other complementary diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Presently investigations have entered a preclinical phase with laboratory investigations running concurrently.

  7. Hydro-dissection and posterior capsule opacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows2G

    the proliferation of human lens epithelial cells3. The incidence of PCO reduces with greater attention to meticulous ... effect to prevent the proliferation of lens epithelial cells on to the posterior capsule4,5. Hydrodissection is ... counter pressure from a lens extractor and squint hook. Majority of the intraocular lenses were from.

  8. CAPS Capsule. Volume 5, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Garry, Ed.; And Others

    Published 3 times yearly by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, CAPS Capsule acquaints the reader with recent projects, meetings, publications and materials which are of interest those in the helping professions. This issue features: (1) New Career Development Projects; (2) Supreme Court Decision Ramifications; (3)…

  9. Capsule Endoscopy: New Technology, Old Complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new tool in the armamentarium of the gastroenterologist to evaluate the small bowel non-invasively. It allows improved diagnostic yield with low complication rates relative to traditional modalities. But this new technology has its own set of complications, some which can lead to significant ...

  10. A time capsule for patients with dementia?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawrence, Robert M; Head, Julia H

    2005-01-01

    ... present arguments that lead to the proposal for 'time capsules' whereby patients with early dementia can set down their thoughts and so exercise a degree of control over subsequent events. CLINICAL APPROACH Language is eroded by the process of dementia, and the point comes when normal verbal communication is no longer possible. Health workers then...

  11. Isolation of Capsulate Bacteria from Acute Dentoalveolar Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. A. O.; Milligan, S.G.; MacFarlane, T W; Carmichael, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a capsule was determined for 198 bacterial strains (57 facultative anaerobes, 141 strict anaerobes) isobdted from pus samples aspirated from 40 acute dentoalveolar abscesses. A total of 133 (67 per cent) of the isolates (42 facultative anaerobes, 91 strict anaerobes) were found to have a capsule. Possession ofa capsule may in part explain the apparent pathogenicity of the bacterial species encountered in acute dentoalveolar abscess.Keywords - Bacterial capsule; Acute dentoalve...

  12. Biosorption of lead by Gram-ve capsulated and non-capsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrobacter freundii ) or capsulated (Klebsiella pneumoniae) was characterised. Lead biosorption was found to be influenced by the pH of the solution, initial metal concentration, and amount of the dried powdered cells and contact time. Thus, the ...

  13. Dynamics of nonspherical capsules in shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Prosenjit; Kalluri, R. Murthy

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a front-tracking method are presented on the dynamics of oblate shape capsules in linear shear flow by considering a broad range of viscosity contrast (ratio of internal-to-external fluid viscosity), shear rate (or capillary number), and aspect ratio. We focus specifically on the coupling between the shape deformation and orientation dynamics of capsules, and show how this coupling influences the transition from the tank-treading to tumbling motion. At low capillary numbers, three distinct modes of motion are identified: a swinging or oscillatory (OS) mode at a low viscosity contrast in which the inclination angle θ(t) oscillates but always remains positive; a vacillating-breathing (VB) mode at a moderate viscosity contrast in which θ(t) periodically becomes positive and negative, but a full tumbling does not occur; and a pure tumbling mode (TU) at a higher viscosity contrast. At higher capillary numbers, three types of transient motions occur, in addition to the OS and TU modes, during which the capsule switches from one mode to the other as (i) VB to OS, (ii) TU to VB to OS, and (iii) TU to VB. Phase diagrams showing various regimes of capsule dynamics are presented. For all modes of motion (OS, VB, and TU), a large-amplitude oscillation in capsule shape and a strong coupling between the shape deformation and orientation dynamics are observed. It is shown that the coupling between the shape deformation and orientation is the strongest in the VB mode, and hence at a moderate viscosity contrast, for which the amplitude of shape deformation reaches its maximum. The numerical results are compared with the theories of Keller and Skalak, and Skotheim and Secomb. Significant departures from the two theories are discussed and related to the strong coupling between the shape deformation, inclination, and transition dynamics.

  14. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of capsules of haemoglobin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... assemblies. Sizes of these capsules change near the isoelectric point and large swollen multiwalled capsules are formed. The elastic films of capsules of Hb provide a useful post preparation approach for modification of the surface roughness, porosity, and permeability of pre-assembled polypeptide microcapsules.

  15. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. 520.580... Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. (a) Specifications. Each soft gelatin capsule contains 50 milligrams of dichlorophene and 60 milligrams of toluene or multiples thereof. (b) Sponsor. (1) For single dose only, see...

  16. Articular capsule repair in initial artificial hip replacement via anterolateral approach to the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B L; Wang, F; Tian, M B; Yin, W L; You, X Y; Li, D; Ma, L G; Xing, L Q

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore articular capsule repair in first artificial hip replacement (AHR) via anterolateral approach and its influence on postoperative dislocation. A total of 292 patients who received AHR via anterolateral approach and had the articular capsule repaired in People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou (Henan, China) from February 2008 to February 2014 were selected and divided into total hip replacement (THR) group (group A1) and artificial femoral head replacement (AFHR) group (group A2). Five hundred and five cases in the control group treated using the same approach but receiving no articular capsule repair were divided into THR group (group B1) and AFHR group (group B2). Condition of postoperative dislocation was compared between the two groups. All cases were followed up for 6 months to 5 years (average: 3.75 years); it was noted that the difference in average age, gender, disease constitution and follow-up time in the two groups was not significant (P>0.05). Moreover, groups A1 and B1 were found with 1 case of early hip joint dislocation (0.73%) and 13 cases of hip joint dislocation (5.24%) respectively post-operatively, and the comparison between the two groups was statistically significant (P less than 0.05). One case of hip joint dislocation (0.65%) was found in group A2 and 5 cases (1.95%) in group B2 in early post operation and the difference between two groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05). Neither the repair group nor the control group developed late-onset dislocation after the operation. Thus, we can state that articular capsule repair is feasible during the first AHR via anterolateral approach, which decreases the occurrence of early hip joint dislocation after operation and proves that repairing articular capsule during AFHR via anterolateral approach is unnecessary.

  17. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  18. Capsule type of Streptococcus pneumoniae determines growth phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Hathaway

    Full Text Available The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae defines over ninety serotypes, which differ in their carriage prevalence and invasiveness for poorly understood reasons. Recently, an inverse correlation between carriage prevalence and oligosaccharide structure of a given capsule has been described. Our previous work suggested a link between serotype and growth in vitro. Here we investigate whether capsule production interferes with growth in vitro and whether this predicts carriage prevalence in vivo. Eighty-one capsule switch mutants were constructed representing nine different serotypes, five of low (4, 7F, 14, 15, 18C and four of high carriage prevalence (6B, 9V, 19F, 23F. Growth (length of lag phase, maximum optical density of wildtype strains, nontypeable mutants and capsule switch mutants was studied in nutrient-restricted Lacks medium (MLM and in rich undefined brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 5% foetal calf serum (BHI+FCS. In MLM growth phenotype depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Colonization efficiency of mouse nasopharynx also depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Capsule production interfered with growth, which correlated inversely with serotype-specific carriage prevalence. Serotypes with better growth and higher carriage prevalence produced thicker capsules (by electron microscopy, FITC-dextran exclusion assays and HPLC than serotypes with delayed growth and low carriage prevalence. However, expression of cpsA, the first capsule gene, (by quantitative RT-PCR correlated inversely with capsule thickness. Energy spent for capsule production (incorporation of H3-glucose relative to amount of capsule produced was higher for serotypes with low carriage prevalence. Experiments in BHI+FCS showed overall better bacterial growth and more capsule production than growth in MLM and differences between serotypes were no longer apparent. Production of polysaccharide capsule in S

  19. Capsule type of Streptococcus pneumoniae determines growth phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Lucy J; Brugger, Silvio D; Morand, Brigitte; Bangert, Mathieu; Rotzetter, Jeannine U; Hauser, Christoph; Graber, Werner A; Gore, Suzanna; Kadioglu, Aras; Mühlemann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae defines over ninety serotypes, which differ in their carriage prevalence and invasiveness for poorly understood reasons. Recently, an inverse correlation between carriage prevalence and oligosaccharide structure of a given capsule has been described. Our previous work suggested a link between serotype and growth in vitro. Here we investigate whether capsule production interferes with growth in vitro and whether this predicts carriage prevalence in vivo. Eighty-one capsule switch mutants were constructed representing nine different serotypes, five of low (4, 7F, 14, 15, 18C) and four of high carriage prevalence (6B, 9V, 19F, 23F). Growth (length of lag phase, maximum optical density) of wildtype strains, nontypeable mutants and capsule switch mutants was studied in nutrient-restricted Lacks medium (MLM) and in rich undefined brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 5% foetal calf serum (BHI+FCS). In MLM growth phenotype depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Colonization efficiency of mouse nasopharynx also depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Capsule production interfered with growth, which correlated inversely with serotype-specific carriage prevalence. Serotypes with better growth and higher carriage prevalence produced thicker capsules (by electron microscopy, FITC-dextran exclusion assays and HPLC) than serotypes with delayed growth and low carriage prevalence. However, expression of cpsA, the first capsule gene, (by quantitative RT-PCR) correlated inversely with capsule thickness. Energy spent for capsule production (incorporation of H3-glucose) relative to amount of capsule produced was higher for serotypes with low carriage prevalence. Experiments in BHI+FCS showed overall better bacterial growth and more capsule production than growth in MLM and differences between serotypes were no longer apparent. Production of polysaccharide capsule in S. pneumoniae

  20. An anatomic study on the attachment of the joint capsule to the tibia in the lateral side of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Hisayo; Nimura, Akimoto; Sugiura, Sara; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Koga, Hideyuki; Akita, Keiichi

    2017-11-10

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the width, area, and histological characteristics of the capsular attachment to the tibia in the lateral side of the knee. A total of 27 knees were used in this study. The joint capsule of the knee was peeled away from the tibia and the width of the capsular attachment to the tibia was measured by two independent observers using a caliper. Interclass correlation coefficients for each value were calculated to evaluate the validity of the measurement. The capsular attachment to the tibia of the seven knees was histologically analyzed using Masson's trichrome staining. At the posterior border of Gerdy's tubercle, the capsular attachment was wide; the average width was 8.6 mm (SD 3.0). Toward the posterolateral aspect of the knee, the capsular attachment gradually tapered. Finally, the capsular attachment was linear at the apex of the head of the fibula. Histological analysis at the posterior border of Gerdy's tubercle revealed developed uncalcified fibrocartilage on the capsular attachment. In contrast, at the apex of the head of the fibula, the joint capsule was adhered to the capsule of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Fibrous connective tissue was directly attached to the calcified fibrocartilage. The attachment width of the knee joint capsule at the lateral side varied according to location. We consider that this finding on the capsular attachment will facilitate an understanding of the pathology or mechanism of diseases on the lateral side of the knee joint.

  1. Use of patency capsule in patients with established Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Artur; Kopylov, Uri; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Wurm Johansson, Gabriele; Thorlacius, Henrik; Amre, Devendra; Eliakim, Rami; Seidman, Ernest G; Toth, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is invaluable in the diagnosis of small-bowel pathology. Capsule retention is a major concern in patients with Crohn's disease. The patency capsule was designed to evaluate small-bowel patency before VCE. However, the actual benefit of the patency capsule test in Crohn's disease remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of patency capsule use on the risk of video capsule retention in patients with established Crohn's disease. This was a retrospective, multicenter study of patients with established Crohn's disease who underwent VCE for clinical need. The utilization strategy for the patency capsule was classified as selective (only in patients with obstructive symptoms, history of intestinal obstruction or surgery, or per treating physician's request) or nonselective (all patients with Crohn's disease). The main outcome was video capsule retention in the entire cohort and within each utilization strategy. A total of 406 patients who were referred for VCE were included in the study. VCE was performed in 132 /406 patients (32.5 %) without a prior patency capsule test. The patency capsule test was performed in 274 /406 patients (67.5 %) and was negative in 193 patients. Overall, VCE was performed in 343 patients and was retained in the small bowel in 8 (2.3 %). In this cohort, the risk of video capsule retention in the small bowel was 1.5 % without use of a prior patency capsule and 2.1 % after a negative patency test (P = 0.9). A total of 18 patients underwent VCE after a positive patency capsule test, with a retention rate of 11.1 % (P = 0.01). Patency capsule administration strategy (selective vs. nonselective) was not associated with the risk of video capsule retention. Capsule retention is a rare event in patients with established Crohn's disease undergoing VCE. The risk of video capsule retention was not reduced by the nonselective use of the patency capsule. Furthermore, VCE

  2. Symptomatic Patency Capsule Retention in Suspected Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjørn; Nathan, Torben; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation of capsule endoscopy is the risk of capsule retention. In patients with suspected Crohn's disease, however, this complication is rare, and if a small bowel stenosis is not reliably excluded, small bowel patency can be confirmed with the Pillcam patency capsule. We present two...... patients examined for suspected Crohn's disease who experienced significant symptoms from a retained patency capsule. Both patients had Crohn's disease located in the terminal ileum. In one patient, the patency capsule caused abdominal pain and vomiting and was visualized at magnetic resonance enterography...

  3. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability.

  4. Polymeric multilayer capsules in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Liesbeth J; De Koker, Stefaan; De Geest, Bruno G; Grooten, Johan; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Antipina, Maria N

    2010-09-17

    Recent advances in medicine and biotechnology have prompted the need to develop nanoengineered delivery systems that can encapsulate a wide variety of novel therapeutics such as proteins, chemotherapeutics, and nucleic acids. Moreover, these delivery systems should be "intelligent", such that they can deliver their payload at a well-defined time, place, or after a specific stimulus. Polymeric multilayer capsules, made by layer-by-layer (LbL) coating of a sacrificial template followed by dissolution of the template, allow the design of microcapsules in aqueous conditions by using simple building blocks and assembly procedures, and provide a previously unmet control over the functionality of the microcapsules. Polymeric multilayer capsules have recently received increased interest from the life science community, and many interesting systems have appeared in the literature with biodegradable components and biospecific functionalities. In this Review we give an overview of the recent breakthroughs in their application for drug delivery.

  5. High capacity oil adsorption by graphene capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guoqing; Ma, Xinlong; Wang, Mengyao; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-08-31

    We report on a chemical vapor deposition synthesis of graphene capsules (GCs) in sizes of tens to thousands of nanometers and their oil adsorption performance. MgO particles with different particle sizes are used as templates to produce GCs with different sizes. At a larger GC size and higher pore volume, a higher oil capacity is obtained. The highest oil adsorption capacity achieved by the GCs is 156 gdiesel gGC(-1), which is much higher than that obtained by expanded graphite. The adsorption capacity proportionally increases as the viscosity of the fluid increases. Both the capsule structure and the viscosity of oil are relative to the adsorption capacity, showing that capillary adsorption with a limited entrance might have contributed to the high capacity oil adsorption by GCs.

  6. The shell dissolution of various empty hard capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwele, I; Jones, B E; Podczeck, F

    2000-07-01

    The shell dissolution properties of gelatine, gelatine/polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) capsules were studied as a function of temperature, dissolution medium, and after different storage conditions. In any dissolution medium with a pH below or equal to 5.8, HPMC capsule shells dissolved rapidly, and there was no difference in the time in which dissolution occurred in the tested temperature interval of 10 to 55 degrees C. Gelatine and gelatine/PEG capsule shells, generally, did not dissolve at temperatures below 30 degrees C. The shell dissolution time of all capsules tested was prolonged and more variable in mixed phosphate buffer pH = 6.8. The addition of enzymes (pepsin, pancreatin) to any dissolution medium was found not to enhance the differences between the different types of capsules investigated. In practical terms, the results indicated that capsule formulations should not be taken with drinks from the carbonated Cola-type. Gelatine containing capsules should preferably be administered with a warm drink, whereas HPMC capsules could be given with cold or warm drinks. The latter type of capsules should also be preferred for preparations to be taken in the fasted state. A short storage of gelatine containing capsules under hot humid tropical conditions appeared not to alter the dissolution properties of the shells, and changes in disintegration times and dissolution times of formulations filled in such capsules might be a reflection of changes of the powders incorporated rather than of the capsule shells. However, a short storage of HPMC capsules under such conditions appeared to influence the capsule shell matrix.

  7. Constraints on oxygen fugacity within metal capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Ulrich H.; Cline, Christopher J., II; Berry, Andrew; Jackson, Ian; Garapić, Gordana

    2017-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with olivine encapsulated or wrapped in five different metals (Pt, Ni, Ni_{70}Fe_{30} , Fe, and Re) to determine the oxygen fugacity in the interior of large capsules used for deformation and seismic property experiments. Temperature (1200°C ), pressure (300 MPa), and duration (24 h) were chosen to represent the most common conditions in these experiments. The oxygen fugacity was determined by analysing the Fe content of initially pure Pt particles that were mixed with the olivine powder prior to the experiments. Oxygen fugacities in the more oxidizing metal containers are substantially below their respective metal-oxide buffers, with the fO_2 of sol-gel olivine in Ni about 2.5 orders of magnitude below Ni-NiO. Analysis of olivine and metal blebs reveals three different length-, and hence diffusive time scales: (1) Fe loss to the capsule over ˜ 100 μm, (2) fO_2 gradients at the sample-capsule interface up to 2 mm into the sample, and (3) constant interior fO_2 values with an ordering corresponding to the capsule material. The inferred diffusive processes are: Fe diffusion in olivine with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-14} m^2/s , diffusion possibly of oxygen along grain boundaries with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-12} m^2/s , and diffusion possibly involving pre-existing defects with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-10} m^2/s . The latter, fast adjustment to changing fO_2 may consist of a rearrangement of pre-existing defects, representing a metastable equilibrium, analogous to decoration of pre-existing defects by hydrogen. Full adjustment to the external fO_2 requires atomic diffusion.

  8. Capsule Design for Hybrid Shock Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertel, J. A.; Dodd, E. S.; Loomis, E. N.

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid Shock-Ignition (HSI) is an alternate fusion energy concept that combines indirect drive and shock ignition schemes in order to access new regimes in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum physics. Building off of tetrahedral hohlraum experiments at the OMEGA laser facility, we have preliminary designs for spherical hohlraums that combine symmetrically arranged laser entrance holes for indirect-drive beams (to initially compress the capsule) and holes for direct-drive beams to drive a strong ignitor shock (to further compress and ignite the fuel). A LANL Eulerian hydrodynamic code is being used to find optimal laser drive, hohlraum, and capsule specifications, via criteria such as implosion symmetry, implosion time, and neutron yield. At first, drive will be modeled using a radiation source to mimic the hohlraum drive, and later, ignitor beams will be added. Initial capsule designs will be presented for experiments to develop the HSI platform on the sub-ignition scale OMEGA laser facility in FY15. Supported under the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-14-25071.

  9. Effects of food on a gastrically degraded drug: azithromycin fast-dissolving gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, William; Liu, Ping; Johnson, Barbara A; Hausberger, Angela; Quan, Ernest; Vendola, Thomas; Vatsaraj, Neha; Foulds, George; Vincent, John; Chandra, Richa

    2011-07-01

    Commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules (Zithromax®) are known to be bioequivalent to commercial azithromycin tablets (Zithromax®) when dosed in the fasted state. These capsules exhibit a reduced bioavailability when dosed in the fed state, while tablets do not. This gelatin capsule negative food effect was previously proposed to be due to slow and/or delayed capsule disintegration in the fed stomach, resulting in extended exposure of the drug to gastric acid, leading to degradation to des-cladinose-azithromycin (DCA). Azithromycin gelatin capsules were formulated with "superdisintegrants" to provide fast-dissolving capsules, and HPMC capsule shells were substituted for gelatin capsule shells, in an effort to eliminate the food effect. Healthy volunteers were dosed with these dosage forms under fasted and fed conditions; pharmacokinetics were evaluated. DCA pharmacokinetics were also evaluated for the HPMC capsule subjects. In vitro disintegration of azithromycin HPMC capsules in media containing food was evaluated and compared with commercial tablets and commercial gelatin capsules. When the two fast-dissolving capsule formulations were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 38.9% and 52.1% lower than after fasted-state dosing. When HPMC capsules were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 65.5% lower than after fasted-state dosing. For HPMC capsules, the absolute fasting-state to fed-state decrease in azithromycin AUC (on a molar basis) was similar to the increase in DCA AUC. In vitro capsule disintegration studies revealed extended disintegration times for commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules in media containing the liquid foods milk and Ensure®. Interaction of azithromycin gelatin and HPMC capsules with food results in slowed disintegration in vitro and decreased bioavailability in vivo. Concurrent measurement of serum azithromycin and the acid-degradation product DCA demonstrates that the loss of azithromycin

  10. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...

  11. Comparative bioavailability of ceftibuten in capsule and suspension forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C C; Affrime, M; Radwanski, E; Lim, J; Colucci, R; Cayen, M N

    1996-01-01

    The comparative bioavailability of ceftibuten, a new third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic given orally once daily, in capsule and suspension dosage forms, was assessed in healthy male subjects. In three separate studies, subjects received either a 400-mg dose as a suspension or one laboratory-batch, 400-mg capsule; one laboratory-batch, 400-mg capsule or two laboratory-batch, 200-mg capsules; or one production-batch, 400-mg capsule or two laboratory-batch, 200-mg capsules. Plasma samples were assayed for ceftibuten using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the data were assessed using pharmacokinetic and statistical methods. Confidence intervals for the maximum plasma concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity were within 80% to 125% of guidelines, demonstrating the bioequivalence of the two treatments within each of the three studies. One 400-mg capsule (laboratory or production batch) was bioequivalent to two 200-mg capsules used in a clinical efficacy trial; the 400-mg suspension was bioequivalent to a 400-mg capsule (laboratory batch). Thus we concluded that the capsule and the suspension dosage forms were bioequivalent.

  12. The motion of a deforming capsule through a corner

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lailai

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional deformable capsule convected through a channel/duct with a corner is studied via numerical simulations using an accelerated boundary integral method adapted to general geometries. A global spectral method is adopted to resolve the dynamics of the capsule's membrane developing elastic tensions according to the Neo-Hookean constitutive law and bending moments in an inertialess flow. The simulations show that the trajectory of the capsule closely follows the underlying streamlines and the deformation of the capsule induces an anti-clockwise rotation of its material points with respect to the travelling direction. The surface area, principle tension and elastic energy of the capsule increase around the corner. Their temporal evolutions are characterised by a clear phase delay and the loss of time-reversal symmetry of Stokes flow due to the elasticity of membrane. The capsule centroid velocity decreases approaching the corner as the mean flow does while a velocity overshoot is observed past the...

  13. Chemical mediation of egg capsule deposition by mud snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittschof, Dan; Sawardecker, Prasad; Petry, Caroline

    2002-11-01

    Mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta = Nassarius obsoletus = Nassa obsoleta) deposit eggs in protective capsules on hard substrata in soft bottom environments. We studied sites of egg capsule deposition and snail movement responses to odors to determine if chemoreception plays a role in deposition site selection. From results of field surveys, laboratory experiments, and field experiments, we conclude that mud snails use chemoreception for capsule deposition. Attractive odors originate from mud snail and whelk egg capsules and from living bivalves. Evidence for attractive odors from conspecifics is equivocal. Capsules are deposited on living odor sources and nearby hard substrates. We hypothesize that deposition of capsules on living substrates increases the likelihood that embryos will survive by decreasing the chance of smothering of embryos by sediments.

  14. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  15. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Capsules for Cellular Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huanli; Cui, Jiwei; Ju, Yi; Chen, Xi; Wong, Edgar H H; Tran, Jenny; Qiao, Greg G; Caruso, Frank

    2017-07-19

    Particle-cell interactions are governed by, among other factors, the composition and surface properties of the particles. Herein, we report the preparation of various polymer capsules with different compositions and properties via atom transfer radical polymerization mediated continuous assembly of polymers (CAPATRP), where the cellular interactions of these capsules, particularly fouling and specific targeting, are examined by flow cytometry and deconvolution microscopy. Acrylated eight-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (8-PEG) and poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide) (PHPMA) as well as methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA), poly(glutamic acid) (PGA), and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) are used as macro-cross-linkers to obtain a range of polymer capsules with different compositions (PEG, PHPMA, HA, PGA, and PMA). Capsules composed of low-fouling polymers, PEG and PHPMA, show negligible association with macrophage Raw 264.7, monocyte THP-1, and HeLa cells. HA capsules, although moderately low-fouling (polymer capsules with specific cellular interactions.

  16. Wireless communication link for capsule endoscope at 600 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, A; Balasingham, I

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of a wireless communication link for a capsule endoscopy is presented for monitoring of small intestine in humans. The realized communication link includes the transmitting capsule antenna, the outside body receiving antenna and the model of the human body. The capsule antenna is designed for operating at the frequency band of 600 MHz with an impedance bandwidth of 10 MHz and omnidirectional radiation pattern. The quality of the communication link is improved by using directive antenna outside body inside matching layer for electromagnetic wave tuning to the body. The outside body antenna has circular polarization that guaranteeing the communication link for different orientations of the capsule inside intestine. It is shown that the path loss for the capsule in 60 mm from the abdomen surface varies between 37-47 dB in relation to the antenna orientation. This link can establish high data rate wireless communications for capsule endoscopy.

  17. Campylobacter Polysaccharide Capsules: Virulence and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerry, Patricia; Poly, Frédéric; Riddle, Mark; Maue, Alexander C.; Chen, Yu-Han; Monteiro, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barré Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS). These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types. PMID:22919599

  18. Campylobacter polysaccharide capsules: virulence and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eGuerry

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barre Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS. These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types.

  19. Chromoendoscopy in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia via conventional endoscopy is characterized by low interobserver agreement and poor correlation with histopathologic findings. Chromoendoscopy significantly enhances the visibility of mucosa irregularities, like metaplasia and dysplasia mucosa. Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) offers an alternative technology for upper GI examination. We expect the difficulties of diagnosis of neoplasm in conventional endoscopy to transfer to MGCE. Thus, we aim to chart a path for the application of chromoendoscopy on MGCE via an ex-vivo animal study. Methods We propose a modified preparation protocol which adds a staining step to the existing MGCE preparation protocol. An optimal staining concentration is quantitatively determined for different stain types and pathologies. To that end 190 pig stomach tissue samples with and without lesion imitations were stained with different dye concentrations. Quantitative visual criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the staining with respect to mucosa and lesion visibility. Thusly determined optimal concentrations are tested in an ex-vivo pig stomach experiment under magnetic guidance of an endoscopic capsule with the modified protocol. Results We found that the proposed protocol modification does not impact the visibility in the stomach or steerability of the endoscopy capsule. An average optimal staining concentration for the proposed protocol was found at 0.4% for Methylene blue and Indigo carmine. The lesion visibility is improved using the previously obtained optimal dye concentration. Conclusions We conclude that chromoendoscopy may be applied in MGCE and improves mucosa and lesion visibility. Systematic evaluation provides important information on appropriate staining concentration. However, further animal and human in-vivo studies are necessary. PMID:23758801

  20. Capsule Shields the Function of Short Bacterial Adhesins

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Mark A; Dalsgaard, Dorte; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that cap...

  1. Volatility of radiopharmacy-prepared sodium iodide-131 capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, J M; Rees, T T; Baca, L E; Green, R L

    2000-03-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the extent of volatilization from 131I-NaI therapeutic capsules prepared in a centralized radiopharmacy and to quantify the amount of volatile 131I released from a dispensing vial containing a compounded 131I-NaI therapy capsule. Therapy capsules were prepared by injecting 131I oral solution into capsules containing anhydrous dibasic sodium phosphate. Volatilized activity was obtained by filtering air drawn across samples that were placed open on the bottom of a sample holder cup. Volatile 131I was captured by filtering it through 3 triethylenediamine-impregnated carbon cartridge filters, arranged in series. To quantify the amount of volatile 131I released from a dispensing vial during a simulated patient administration, a vial containing a compounded 131I therapy capsule was opened inside a collapsible plastic bag and all the air was drawn across TEDA-impregnated carbon cartridge filters. The 370-MBq (10-mCi) 131I capsules from the first part of the experiment released an average of 0.035% (SD 0.031%) of the capsule activity on the first day, 0.012% (SD 0.002%) on the second day, and 0.012% (SD < 0.001%) for days 3 through 5. The 37-MBq (1-mCi) 131I capsules released an average of 0.058% (SD 0.025%) on the first day, 0.029% (SD 0.009%) on the second day, and 0.020% (SD 0.004%) on the third day. The activity released from the vial during a simulated patient administration was 0.00093% of the 131I capsule activity. The amount of 131I, which volatilized daily from the exposed therapy capsules, was a small percentage of the capsule activity. The volatile 131I that would be released during a patient administration was much less than the activity that volatilized from the exposed therapy capsules.

  2. Automatic blood detection in capsule endoscopy video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozámský, Adam; Flusser, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Sulík, Lukáš; Bureš, Jan; Krejcar, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    We propose two automatic methods for detecting bleeding in wireless capsule endoscopy videos of the small intestine. The first one uses solely the color information, whereas the second one incorporates the assumptions about the blood spot shape and size. The original idea is namely the definition of a new color space that provides good separability of blood pixels and intestinal wall. Both methods can be applied either individually or their results can be fused together for the final decision. We evaluate their individual performance and various fusion rules on real data, manually annotated by an endoscopist.

  3. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, Debbie (LLNL); Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert (KTech); Nikroo, A. (General Atomics); Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace (Schafer); Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon (Schafer); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward

    2004-11-01

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence [1]. Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR.

  4. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Dalsgaard, D.; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can...... occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that capsule polysaccharides sterically prevent receptor-target recognition of short bacterial adhesins...

  5. Nanoengineered polymeric S-layers based capsules with targeting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda; Pastorino, Laura; Soumetz, Federico Caneva; Sbrana, Francesca; Raiteri, Roberto; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2011-11-01

    Nanostructured polymeric capsules are regarded as highly promising systems with different potential applications ranging from drug delivery, biosensing and artificial cells. To fully exploit this potential, it is required to produce bio-activated stable and biocompatible capsules. To this purpose, in present work we proposed the combination of the layer-by-layer self assembly method with bacterial S-layer technology to fabricate stable and biocompatible polymeric capsules having a well defined arrangement of functional groups allowing the covalent attachment of antibody molecules. Hollow microcapsules were obtained by the layer-by-layer self assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes onto colloidal particles, followed by removal of the cores at acidic pH. S-layers were crystallized onto the shell of the obtained capsules. Quartz crystal microbalance was used to characterize the crystallization process onto planar surfaces. S-layer containing capsules were investigated by atomic force microscopy. Immunoenzymatic tests were performed to assess the effective modification of the S-layer with antibody molecules both on planar surfaces and on hollow capsules. Fluorescent microscopy was employed to visualize the presence of the antibody molecules onto the capsule shell and immunological tests used to assess the bioactivity of the immobilized antibodies. Finally, the in vitro cytotoxicity of fabricated S-layer containing capsules was studied. The obtained results demonstrated the possibility to fabricate bio-activated S-layer containing capsules with improved features in terms of biocompatibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Mark A; Dalsgaard, Dorte; Klemm, Per

    2004-03-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that capsule polysaccharides sterically prevent receptor-target recognition of short bacterial adhesins. This negative interference has important biological consequences, such as affecting the ability of bacteria to form biofilms.

  7. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Te; Lee, Chen-Chou; Li, Chi-Lin; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X 1), hydrogenated coconut oil (X 2), and soybean oil (X 3). The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM). Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X 1 X 2, X 1 X 3, and X 2 X 3) showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X 1, X 2, and X 3). An optimal predicted formulation with Y 10 min, Y 30 min, Y 60 min, and Y 90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X 1, X 2, and X 3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f 2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile. PMID:24068886

  8. TREATMENT PROTOCOLS OF ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS - METANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Guimbala dos Santos Araujo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The adhesive capsulitis (AC is an idiopathic disorder that affects about 3-5% of the general population, the majority being aged 50 years. It is divided into three stages: acute or hiperálgica, rigidity phase or stage of freezing and thawing. This study aimed to analyze the protocols of treatments for adhesive capsulitis. Methods: We performed literature search in electronic databases, BIREME, SciELO, LILACS and PubMed. We analyzed 20 articles of which seven met the inclusion criteria of this study. Results: Of the 20 articles analyzed, it was found that only seven had controlled clinical trials, and the articles selected for the treatment of AC were: medication and physiotherapy, manipulation, hydraulic distension, serials suprascapular nerve blocks, acupuncture, exercise, physiotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy dynasplint, deep friction massage and wave diathermy. Conclusion: As noted in the studies, there is a range of treatments that have proven effective for AC, failing to come to a conclusion of what would be the most appropriate treatment. However it was noted that physiotherapy through kinesiotherapy remains the best option, and the earlier therapeutic intervention performed, the better the results.

  9. Frontiers of robotic endoscopic capsules: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuti, Gastone; Caliò, R; Camboni, D; Neri, L; Bianchi, F; Arezzo, A; Koulaouzidis, A; Schostek, S; Stoyanov, D; Oddo, C M; Magnani, B; Menciassi, A; Morino, M; Schurr, M O; Dario, P

    2016-01-01

    Digestive diseases are a major burden for society and healthcare systems, and with an aging population, the importance of their effective management will become critical. Healthcare systems worldwide already struggle to insure quality and affordability of healthcare delivery and this will be a significant challenge in the midterm future. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), introduced in 2000 by Given Imaging Ltd., is an example of disruptive technology and represents an attractive alternative to traditional diagnostic techniques. WCE overcomes conventional endoscopy enabling inspection of the digestive system without discomfort or the need for sedation. Thus, it has the advantage of encouraging patients to undergo gastrointestinal (GI) tract examinations and of facilitating mass screening programmes. With the integration of further capabilities based on microrobotics, e.g. active locomotion and embedded therapeutic modules, WCE could become the key-technology for GI diagnosis and treatment. This review presents a research update on WCE and describes the state-of-the-art of current endoscopic devices with a focus on research-oriented robotic capsule endoscopes enabled by microsystem technologies. The article also presents a visionary perspective on WCE potential for screening, diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures.

  10. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  11. Quality evaluation of simvastatin compounded capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is commercially available as tablets and compounded capsules in Brazil. Very few reports regarding these capsules' quality, and consequently their efficacy, are available. The pharmaceutical quality of 30 batches of 20 mg simvastatin capsules from the market was evaluated by weight determination, content uniformity, disintegration (Brazilian Pharmacopeia, assay and dissolution test (USP32 tablet monograph. A HPLC method was developed for assay, content uniformity and dissolution test, and specifications were also established. Out of the 30 batches evaluated, 29 showed capsule disintegration within 45 min and individual weight variation was within ±10% or ±7.5% relative to average weight, for 300 mg, respectively. Only 27 batches met dissolution test criteria with values >80% of the labeled amount in 45 min; 21 batches showed simvastatin content between 90.0-110.0% of the labeled amount and 19 batches had at least 9 out of 10 capsules with content uniformity values between 85.0-115.0% of the labeled amount with RSDNo Brasil, a sinvastatina está comercialmente disponível na forma de comprimidos e cápsulas manipuladas. Poucos relatos estão disponíveis sobre a qualidade e, consequentemente, a eficácia dessas cápsulas. A qualidade de 30 lotes de sinvastatina 20 mg cápsulas do mercado foi avaliada através da determinação de peso, uniformidade de conteúdo, desintegração (Farmacopéia Brasileira, doseamento e teste de dissolução (monografia comprimidos USP32. Método por CLAE foi desenvolvido para o doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e teste de dissolução; além disso, especificações foram estabelecidas. Dos 30 lotes avaliados, 29 apresentaram desintegração da cápsula até 45 min e a variação do peso individual foi ± 10% ou ± 7,5% em relação ao peso médio, se 300 mg, respectivamente. Apenas 27 lotes preencheram os critérios do teste de dissolução com valores > 80% da quantidade rotulada, em 45 min, 21

  12. The power of product innovation: Smokers' perceptions of capsule cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Dobbie, Fiona; Thrasher, James F; McKell, Jennifer; Purves, Richard

    2017-08-30

    Since being brought to market in 2007, cigarettes with capsules in the filter that can be burst to change the flavour have had remarkable global success, highlighting the importance of product innovation for tobacco companies. Very few studies have explored how these products are perceived by smokers however. This paper sought to address this gap by exploring smokers' awareness of cigarettes with one or two flavour-changing capsules in the filter and the appeal of these products. Twenty focus groups were conducted in Glasgow and Edinburgh in 2015 with current smokers (N=120), segmented by age (16-17, 18-24, 25-35, 36-50, >50), gender and social grade. Awareness, use and appeal of capsule cigarettes was greater among younger adults (16-35 years), who showed most interest in these products. Those who perceived capsules positively mentioned multiple benefits: the ability to burst the capsule, convenience of being able to share cigarettes among menthol and non-menthol smokers, better taste, fresher breath, reduced smell and greater discretion. It was suggested that capsule cigarettes, particularly the double capsule cigarette (which had two differently flavoured capsules in the filter), would encourage non-smokers to experiment with smoking and discourage smokers from quitting. The findings offer some reasons behind the global growth of the capsule cigarette segment. Cigarettes with flavour-changing capsules in the filter have been one of the most successful product innovations of the last decade for tobacco companies. They have received very little academic attention however. Employing focus groups with 120 smokers aged 16 and over, we found that capsule cigarettes held most appeal to, and were considered to be targeted at, younger people, with it suggested that these products would encourage initiation and discourage cessation. This study provides some understanding of how these products are viewed by smokers.

  13. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations.

  14. Bifurcated intraarticular long head of biceps tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rare, many anomalous origins of long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT have been reported in the literature. Anatomic variations commonly explained are a third humeral head, anomalous insertion, congenital absence and adherence to the rotator cuff. We report a rare case who underwent shoulder arthroscopy with impingement symptoms where in LHBT was found to be bifurcated with a part attached to superior labrum and the other part to the posterior capsule of joint. Furthermore, intraarticular portion of LHBT was adherent to the undersurface of the supraspinatus tendon. Awareness of such an anatomical aberration during the shoulder arthroscopy is of great importance as it can potentially avoid unnecessary confusion and surgery.

  15. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Capsule-based Chronomodulated Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in vivo behavior of a developed salbutamol pulsatile capsule for the ... regard, animals such as monkeys, pigs and dogs have been suggested [9]. ... dissolution behavior. Optimized pellets were filled in to insoluble capsule, plugged with hydrocolloid material to provide the desired delay in release and coated with enteric ...

  16. 1964 computer run on a laser-imploded capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidder, R.E.

    1973-03-28

    WAZER Alchemy 7b (WA-7b) is a WAZER calculation of a laser-driven micro-implosion of a spherical capsule consisting of a thin gold pusher surrounded by a thick (frozen) deuterium ablator. The properties of the target capsule and the shape of the laser pulse used to irradiate it are described.

  17. Diamagnetically stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. The focus of the present work was to develop an economical and effective real-time magnetic capsule-guiding system that can operate in the presence of naturally existing peristalsis while retaining navigational control. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA) and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50 cm diameter, 10,000-turn copper electromagnets with a 10 cm x 10 cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 A and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. A modeled magnetic field around the diamagnetically cased permanent magnet was shown to be redistributed aligning its interaction with the external electromagnets, thus stabilizing the levitating capsule. In summary, a custom-designed diamagnetically facilitated capsule navigation system can successfully steer an intraluminal magnet-carrying capsule.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to form dental amalgam. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A...

  19. Detection of Neoplastic Gastric Lesions Using Capsule Endoscopy: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Yeon Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Capsule endoscopy is relatively noninvasive method and its use extends from the small bowel to the esophagus and colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of capsule endoscopy for neoplastic gastric lesions. Methods. Capsule endoscopy (Pillcam ESO was performed within 48 hours of esophagogastroduodenoscopy for eight patients who were diagnosed with gastric cancers, the size of which were less than 4 cm and who presented written consent. Patients changed position in a specified designed sequence every 30 seconds after capsule ingestion. Position change was repeated with ingestion of an effervescent agent. The rate of detection of intragastric lesions, observation of normal gastric anatomy and patient satisfaction between capsule endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy were compared. Results. Capsule endoscopy found four out of eight gastric lesions. The gastroesophageal junction was observed in seven of the eight cases, pyloric ring in five of the eight cases, and gastric angle in four of the eight cases. The patient satisfaction assessment questionnaire rated capsule endoscopy significantly higher than upper endoscopy in all categories. Conclusions. Capsule endoscopy was less effective than esophagogastroduodenoscopy and showed limited value in this feasibility study.

  20. Organization of the interior of molecular capsules by hydrogen bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jerry L; Barbour, Leonard J; Jerga, Agoston

    2002-04-16

    The enclosure of functional entities within a protective boundary is an essential feature of biological systems. On a molecular scale, free-standing capsules with an internal volume sufficiently large to house molecular species have been synthesized and studied for more than a decade. These capsules have been prepared by either covalent synthesis or self-assembly, and the internal volumes have ranged from 200 to 1,500 A(3). Although biological systems possess a remarkable degree of order within the protective boundaries, to date only steric constraints have been used to order the guests within molecular capsules. In this article we describe the synthesis and characterization of hexameric molecular capsules held together by hydrogen bonding. These capsules possess internal order of the guests brought about by hydrogen bond donors within, but not used by, the framework of the capsule. The basic building blocks of the hexameric capsules are tetrameric macrocycles related to resorcin[4]arenes and pyrogallol[4]arenes. The former contain four 1,3-dihydroxybenzene rings bridged together by -CHR- units, whereas the latter contain four 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene rings bridged together. We now report the synthesis of related mixed macrocycles, and the main focus is on the macrocycle composed of three 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene rings and one 1,3-dihydroxybenzene ring bridged together. The mixed macrocycles self-assemble from a mixture of closely related compounds to form the hexameric capsule with internally ordered guests.

  1. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang W

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wanan Yang,1 Houde Dai,2 Yong He,1 Fengqing Qin1 1School of Computer and Information Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 2Quanzhou Institute of Equipment Manufacturing, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Quanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability. Keywords: wireless capsule endoscope, magnet ring, magnetic driving, spiral structure, torque  

  2. Experimental modulation of capsule size in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaragoza Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental modulation of capsule size is an important technique for the study of the virulence of the encapsulated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we summarize the techniques available for experimental modulation of capsule size in this yeast and describe improved methods to induce capsule size changes. The response of the yeast to the various stimuli is highly dependent on the cryptococcal strain. A high CO2 atmosphere and a low iron concentration have been used classically to increase capsule size. Unfortunately, these stimuli are not reliable for inducing capsular enlargement in all strains. Recently we have identified new and simpler conditions for inducing capsule enlargement that consistently elicited this effect. Specifically, we noted that mammalian serum or diluted Sabouraud broth in MOPS buffer pH 7.3 efficiently induced capsule growth. Media that slowed the growth rate of the yeast correlated with an increase in capsule size. Finally, we summarize the most commonly used media that induce capsule growth in C. neoformans.

  3. Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea. Li Sun, Jia Wang. Abstract. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of Resina Draconis capsules in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: In total, 324 patients with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomly allocated to three groups based on ...

  4. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Capsule-based Chronomodulated Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and determine the in vivo performance of a capsule-based pulsatile drug delivery system containing salbutamol sulphate. Methods: A controlled pulsatile release of drug after a programmed 4 h lag period was achieved from cross-linked gelatin capsule shells containing salbutamol pellets, and sealed ...

  5. Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules | Ejele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of ampicillin in ampicillin capsule preparations purchased in Owerri main market, Imo State of Nigeria, was determined using the iodometric titration method. The results showed that the ampicillin concentrations in the capsules contained between 250 and 260 mg/cap of ampicillin trihydrate. Statistical ...

  6. Second-generation colon capsule endoscopy compared with colonoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spada, Cristiano; Hassan, Cesare; Munoz-Navas, Miguel; Neuhaus, Horst; Deviere, Jacques; Fockens, Paul; Coron, Emmanuel; Gay, Gerard; Toth, Ervin; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Carretero, Cristina; Charton, Jean P.; van Gossum, Andrè; Wientjes, Carolien A.; Sacher-Huvelin, Sylvie; Delvaux, Michel; Nemeth, Artur; Petruzziello, Lucio; de Frias, Cesar Prieto; Mayershofer, Rupert; Amininejad, Leila; Aminejab, Leila; Dekker, Evelien; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Frederic, Muriel; Johansson, Gabriele Wurm; Cesaro, Paola; Costamagna, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) represents a noninvasive technology that allows visualization of the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. A second-generation colon capsule endoscopy system (PillCam Colon 2) (CCE-2) was developed to increase sensitivity for colorectal polyp detection

  7. Polyelectrolyte capsules preloaded with interconnected alginate matrix: An effective capsule system for encapsulation and release of macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthy, Anandhakumar; Sundramoorthy, Ashok K

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the design of stimuli-responsive hollow polymeric capsules is of tremendous interest for the scientific community because of the broad application of these capsules in the biomedical field. The use of weak polyelectrolytes as layer components for capsule fabrication is especially interesting as it results in hollow capsules that show unique release characteristics under physiological conditions. In this work, a methodology to prepare sub-micron sized alginate doped calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles through controlled precipitation in the presence of alginate is reported. Hollow capsules obtained by Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) are showing an interconnected alginate matrix in the interior of the capsules. Investigations showed that the presence of alginate matrix enhances the encapsulation of cationic molecules (e.g. doxorubicin hydrochloride) manifold by charge controlled attraction mechanism. Capsule permeability investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the transformation from an open state to closed state is accompanied by an intermediate state where capsules are neither open nor closed. Furthermore, time dependent study indicated that the encapsulation process is linear as a function of time. The cell viability experiments demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of hollow capsules with mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Anticancer investigations showed that DOX loaded capsules have significant anti-proliferative characteristics against HeLa cells. Such capsules have high potential for use as drug carrier for cationic drugs in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Agile patency system eliminates risk of capsule retention in patients with known intestinal strictures who undergo capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrerias, Juan M; Leighton, Jonathan A; Costamagna, Guido; Infantolino, Anthony; Eliakim, Rami; Fischer, Doron; Rubin, David T; Manten, Howard D; Scapa, Eitan; Morgan, Douglas R; Bergwerk, Ari J; Koslowsky, Binyamin; Adler, Samuel N

    2008-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) of the small bowel has become a standard diagnostic tool, but there have been concerns regarding the risk of capsule retention in certain high-risk groups. The Agile patency system, an ingestible and dissolvable capsule with an external scanner, was developed to allow physicians to perform CE with greater confidence that the capsule will be safely excreted in patients at risk for capsule retention. Our purpose was to assess the ability of the device to help physicians identify which patients with known strictures may safely undergo CE. Patients with known strictures ingested the new patency capsule and underwent periodic scanning until it was excreted. The intestinal tract was considered to be sufficiently patent if the capsule was excreted intact or if the capsule was not detected by the scanner at 30 hours after ingestion. If patency was established, then standard CE was performed. International multicenter study. A total of 106 patients with known strictures. Agile patency system. Performance and safety of Agile patency system. A total of 106 patients ingested the patency capsule. Fifty-nine (56%) excreted it intact and subsequently underwent CE. There were no cases of capsule retention. Significant findings on CE were found in 24 (41%). There were 3 severe adverse events. These results suggest that the Agile patency system is a useful tool for physicians to use before CE in patients with strictures to avoid retention. This group of patients may have a high yield of clinically significant findings at CE. This capsule may determine whether patients who have a contraindication to CE may safely undergo CE and obtain useful diagnostic information.

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  10. Rupture of anterior lens capsule from blunt ocular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banitt, Michael R; Malta, João B; Mian, Shahzad I; Soong, H Kaz

    2009-05-01

    We report 3 cases of blunt trauma causing rupture of the anterior lens capsule with cataract formation. The injuries were caused by a paintball gun, a ball-bearing air pistol, and an aluminum rivet. In all 3 cases, the anterior capsule tears were central and the posterior capsules and zonules intact; uneventful cataract extraction with implantation of an intraocular lens was performed. The postoperative visual acuities was 20/40 in 1 case and 20/20 in the other 2 cases. We propose that the anterior lens capsule may have been torn by direct contusion from rapid focal indentation of the cornea onto the lens (coup injury) or by a fluid-mechanical, anteriorly directed rebound of the vitreous, bursting open the anterior capsule (contrecoup injury).

  11. Three-dimensional simulations of Nova capsule implosion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Landen, O.L. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Capsule implosion experiments carried out on the Nova laser are simulated with the three-dimensional HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code. Simulations of ordered near single mode perturbations indicate that structures which evolve into round spikes can penetrate farthest into the hot spot. Bubble-shaped perturbations can burn through the capsule shell fastest, however, causing even more damage. Simulations of a capsule with multimode perturbations shows spike amplitudes evolving in good agreement with a saturation model during the deceleration phase. The presence of sizable low mode asymmetry, caused either by drive asymmetry or perturbations in the capsule shell, can dramatically affect the manner in which spikes approach the center of the hot spot. Three-dimensional coupling between the low mode shell perturbations intrinsic to Nova capsules and the drive asymmetry brings the simulated yields into closer agreement with the experimental values.

  12. Conventional MRI Finding in a Case of Adhesive Shoulder Capsulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hak Hoon [Yeosu Hanyeoexpo Hospital, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Back, Chang Hee [Yeosu Baek Hospital, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the conventional magnetic resonance image findings in patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis. The preoperative MR images of 76 patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis that was also treated by arthroscopic capsule release. In contrast to the MR images of 25 control patients without adhesive shoulder capsulitis, the thickness and area of hyposignal intensity around the coracohumeral ligament (CHL), subcoracoidal fat, capsular thickness of the rotator interval, capsular thickness, and height of the axillary recess were measured. The existence of fluid in the axillary recess was also verified. Patients with adhesive capsulitis showed a significant increase in the thickness (average 10.57 mm vs. 5.88 mm, T=8.289, p<0.001), area (average 3.49 point vs. 0.96 point Z=7.775, p< 0.001) of hyposignal intensity around CHL, and a thickened joint capsule in the rotator interval (average 5.93 mm vs. 2.15 mm, Z=6.472, p< 0.001). The thickness of the hyposignal intensity around the CHL is about 10 mm or more and has a specificity of 96%, a sensitivity of about 55% in the area of hyposignal intensity from around the CHL, Seventy-five percent or more of cases, showed a 100%, 95%, complete obliteration of the subcoracoidal fat that was 96%, and a 50% thickness of the capsule. A rotator interval of 6mm or more had a 96%, 50% for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. The capsular thickness and maximal height of axillary recess and the presence of fluid in the axillary recess was not significant in patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis. Thickening of the hyposignal intensity around the CHL, subcoracoidal fat obliteration, and capsular thickening at the rotator interval, are characteristic MRI findings in adhesive shoulder capsulitis

  13. Primate lens capsule elasticity assessed using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noël M.; Arrieta, Esdras; Feuer, William J.; Moy, Vincent T.; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to measure the elasticity of the human and non-human primate lens capsule at the microscopic scale using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Elasticity measurements were performed using AFM on the excised anterior lens capsule from 9 cynomolgus monkey (5.9–8.0 years), 8 hamadryas baboon (2.8–10.1 years), and 18 human lenses (33–79 years). Anterior capsule specimens were obtained by performing a 5mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and collecting the resulting disk of capsular tissue. To remove the lens epithelial cells the specimen was soaked in 0.1% trypsin and 0.02% EDTA for five minutes, washed, and placed on a Petri dish and immersed in DMEM. Elasticity measurements of the capsule were performed with a laboratory-built AFM system custom designed for force measurements of ophthalmic tissues. The capsular specimens were probed with an AFM cantilever tip to produce force-indentation curves for each specimen. Young’s modulus was calculated from the force-indentation curves using the model of Sneddon for a conical indenter. Young’s modulus of elasticity was 20.1–131kPa for the human lens capsule, 9.19–117kPa for the cynomolgus lens capsule, and 13.1–62.4kPa for the baboon lens capsule. Young’s modulus increased significantly with age in humans (p=0.03). The age range of the monkey and baboon samples was not sufficient to justify an analysis of age dependence. The capsule elasticity of young humans (<45 years) was not statistically different from that of the monkey and baboon. In humans, there is an increase in lens capsule stiffness at the microscale that could be responsible for an increase in lens capsule bulk stiffness. PMID:21420953

  14. No stabilizing effect of the elbow joint capsule. A kinematic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1999-01-01

    We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule.......We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule....

  15. Technical Challenges and Study on Guided Reentry Flight for Capsule Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Shuichi; Kondoh, Yoshinori; Imada, Takane; Sato, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Previously-realized Japanese capsule spacecraft, OREX (Orbital Re-entry EXperiment), USERS capsule, and HAYABUSA reentry capsule, were all ballistic reentry capsules, which flew without any guidance during reentry and had large splashdown areas. To establish practical recovery systems from the International Space Station (ISS), JAXA has been studying reentry capsules using guided reentry flight, which enable capsules to narrow their splashdown area within 5 km and reduce aerodynamic accelerat...

  16. Electromagnetic Control System for Capsule Navigation: Novel Concept for Magnetic Capsule Maneuvering and Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Gioia; Mura, Marco; Ciuti, Gastone; Rizzo, Rocco; Menciassi, Arianna

    The gastrointestinal tract is home of some of the most deadly human diseases. The main problems are related to the difficulty of accessing it for diagnosis or intervention and concomitant patient discomfort. The flexible endoscopy technique has established itself in medical practice due to its high diagnostic accuracy and reliability; however, several technical limitations still remain and the procedure is poorly tolerated by patients. The use of magnetic fields to control and steer endoscopic capsules is increasing in minimally invasive procedures. In fact, magnetic coupling is one of the few physical phenomena capable of transmitting motion beyond a physical barrier, allowing for the compact design of the device itself. In this framework, the authors present the preliminary design and assessment of a magnetic coupling for magnetic endoscopic capsules considering an electromagnetic approach. In particular, a novel toroidal electromagnet is proposed as the control and driving system. The system concept, design, and preliminary results are reported.

  17. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  18. Effects of powder flow properties on capsule filling weight uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Juan G; Muzzio, Fernando J

    2013-09-01

    Filling capsules with the right amount of powder ingredients is an important quality parameter. The purpose of this study was to develop effective laboratory methods for characterizing flow properties of pharmaceutical powder blends and correlating such properties to weight variability in filled capsules. The methods used for powder flow characterization were bulk and tapped density, gravitational displacement rheometer (GDR) flow index, Freeman Technology V.4 (FT4) powder rheometer compressibility, FT4 basic flow energy (BFE), and cohesion parameters [cohesion, (C) and flow factor (ffc)] measured in a shear cell also using the FT4. Capsules were filled using an MG2-G140 continuous nozzle dosator capsule-filling machine. Powder flow properties were the most predominant factors affecting the weight and weight variability in the filled capsules. Results showed that the weight variability decreased with increasing bulk and tapped density, ffc and BFE, while the weight variability increased with increasing compressibility, cohesion and GDR flow index. Powder flow properties of the final blends were significantly correlated to the final capsule weight and weight variability of the filled capsules.

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  20. Processes to Open the Container and the Sample Catcher of the Hayabusa Returned Capsule in the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility of JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Ishibashi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okada, T.; Yano, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa, which returned from near-Earth-asteroid Itokawa, successfully returned its reentry capsule to the Earth, the Woomera Prohibited Area in Australia in Jun 13th, 2010, as detailed in another paper [1]. The capsule introduced into the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility in the Sagamihara campus of JAXA in the early morning of June 18th. Hereafter, we describe a series of processes for the returned capsule and the container to recover gas and materials in there. A transportation box of the recovered capsule was cleaned up on its outer surface beforehand and introduced into the class 10,000 clean room of the facility. Then, the capsule was extracted from the box and its plastic bag was opened and checked and photographed the outer surface of the capsule. The capsule was composed of the container, a backside ablator, a side ablator, an electronic box and a supporting frame. The container consists of an outer lid, an inner lid, a frame for latches, a container and a sample catcher, which is composed of room A and B and a rotational cylinder. After the first check, the capsule was packed in a plastic bag with N2 again, and transferred to the Chofu campus in JAXA, where the X-ray CT instrument is situated. The first X-ray CT analysis was performed on the whole returned capsule for confirming the conditions of latches and O-ring seal of the container. The analysis showed that the latches of the container should have worked normally, and that the double Orings of the container seemed to be sealed its sample catcher with no problem. After the first X-ray CT, the capsule was sent back to Sagamihara and introduced in the clean room to exclude the electronic box and the side ablator from the container by hand tools. Then the container with the backside ablator was set firmly to special jigs to fix the lid of container tightly to the container and set to a milling machine. The backside ablator was drilled by the machine to expose heads of bolts

  1. A UWB wireless capsule endoscopy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thotahewa, Kasun M S; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) presents many advantages over traditional wired endoscopic methods. The performance of WCE devices can be improved using high-frequency communication systems such as Impulse Radio-Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) to enable a high data rate transmission with low-power consumption. This paper presents the hardware implementation and experimental evaluation of a WCE device that uses IR-UWB signals in the frequency range of 3.5 GHz to 4.5 GHz to transmit image data from inside the body to a receiver placed outside the body. Key components of the IR-UWB transmitter, such as the narrow pulse generator and up-conversion based RF section are described in detail. This design employs a narrowband receiver in the WCE device to receive a control signal externally in order to control and improve the data transmission from the device in the body. The design and performance of a wideband implantable antenna that operates in the aforementioned frequency range is also described. The operation of the WCE device is demonstrated through a proof-of-concept experiment using meat.

  2. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  3. Modeling gated neutron images of THD capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Douglas Carl [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grim, Gary P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilke, Mark D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, George L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Loomis, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilde, Carl H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fatherley, Valerie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clark, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merrill, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Tai - Sen F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Danly, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batha, Steven H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patel, M [LLNL; Sepke, S [LLNL; Hatarik, R [LLNL; Fittinghoff, D [LLNL; Bower, D [LLNL; Marinak, M [LLNL; Munro, D [LLNL; Moran, M [LLNL; Hilko, R [NSTEC; Frank, M [LLNL; Buckles, R [NSTEC

    2010-01-01

    Time gating a neutron detector 28m from a NIF implosion can produce images at different energies. The brighter image near 14 MeV reflects the size and symmetry of the capsule 'hot spot'. Scattered neutrons, {approx}9.5-13 MeV, reflect the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only {approx}1-7% of the neutrons. The gated detector records both the scattered neutron image, and, to a good approximation, an attenuated copy of the primary image left by scintillator decay. By modeling the imaging system the energy band for the scattered neutron image (10-12 MeV) can be chosen, trading off the decayed primary image and the decrease of scattered image brightness with energy. Modeling light decay from EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A leads to a preference from BCF99-55 for the first NIF detector, but DPAC 30 and Liquid A would be preferred if incorporated into a system. Measurement of the delayed light from the NIF scintillator using implosions at the Omega laser shows BCF99-55 to be a good choice for down-scattered imaging at 28m.

  4. Positron radiography of ignition-relevant ICF capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. J.; Chen, Hui; Field, J. E.; Landen, O. L.; Strozzi, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Laser-generated positrons are evaluated as a probe source to radiograph in-flight ignition-relevant inertial confinement fusion capsules. Current ultraintense laser facilities are capable of producing 2 × 1012 relativistic positrons in a narrow energy bandwidth and short time duration. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the unique characteristics of such positrons allow for the reconstruction of both capsule shell radius and areal density between 0.002 and 2 g/cm2. The energy-downshifted positron spectrum and angular scattering of the source particles are sufficient to constrain the conditions of the capsule between preshot and stagnation. We evaluate the effects of magnetic fields near the capsule surface using analytic estimates where it is shown that this diagnostic can tolerate line integrated field strengths of 100 T mm.

  5. Requirement for capsule in colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magee, A D; Yother, J

    2001-01-01

    .... Using isolates containing defined mutations in the S. pneumoniae capsule locus, we found that expression of the capsular polysaccharide is essential for colonization by the type 2 strain D39 and the type 3 strains A66 and WU2...

  6. Diamagnetically-stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA), and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50-cm in diameter, 10,000-turns copper electromagnets with a 10-cm by 10-cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 Amperes and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of Bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied.

  7. Versatile Loading of Diverse Cargo into Functional Polymer Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Maina, James W; Ejima, Hirotaka; Hu, Ming; Guo, Junling; Choy, Mei Y; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Lybaert, Lien; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; De Geest, Bruno G; Caruso, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Polymer microcapsules are of particular interest for applications including self-healing coatings, catalysis, bioreactions, sensing, and drug delivery. The primary way that polymer capsules can exhibit functionality relevant to these diverse fields is through the incorporation of functional cargo in the capsule cavity or wall. Diverse functional and therapeutic cargo can be loaded into polymer capsules with ease using polymer-stabilized calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. A variety of examples are demonstrated, including 15 types of cargo, yielding a toolbox with effectively 500+ variations. This process uses no harsh reagents and can take less than 30 min to prepare, load, coat, and form the hollow capsules. For these reasons, it is expected that the technique will play a crucial role across scientific studies in numerous fields.

  8. Constraining fundamental plasma physics processes using doped capsule implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, W. J.; James, S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Benage, J.; Wysocki, F. J.; Gunderson, M.; Frenje, J.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V. Y.; Yaakobi, B.

    2008-05-01

    A standard technique in inertial confinement fusion research is the use of low levels of spectroscopic dopants as a passive diagnostic of fuel conditions. Using higher dopant levels it becomes possible to modify the plasma conditions. Doped capsule experiments may thus provide a way to control and study fundamental plasma physics processes in the inertial fusion regime. As a precursor to eventual experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we have performed a series of capsule implosions using the Omega laser. These are intended to guide the modelling of high-Z dopants and explore the feasibility of using such capsule implosions for quantitative physics experiments. We have fielded thin glass shells filled with D-He3 fuel and varying levels of Ar, Kr and Xe dopants. X-ray emission spectroscopy is combined with simultaneous measurements of primary neutron and proton yields and energy spectra in an attempt to fully constrain capsule behaviour.

  9. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caboni, Mariaelena; Pédron, Thierry; Rossi, Omar; Goulding, David; Pickard, Derek; Citiulo, Francesco; MacLennan, Calman A; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R; Saul, Allan; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    ... S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg...

  10. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Capsules for the Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bradley; Li, Xiaoning; Landis, Ryan F; Kim, Sung Tae; Gupta, Akash; Wang, Li-Sheng; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Tang, Rui; Boerth, Jeffrey A; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-08-25

    Bacterial biofilms are widely associated with persistent infections. High resistance to conventional antibiotics and prevalent virulence makes eliminating these bacterial communities challenging therapeutic targets. We describe here the fabrication of a nanoparticle-stabilized capsule with a multicomponent core for the treatment of biofilms. The peppermint oil and cinnamaldehyde combination that comprises the core of the capsules act as potent antimicrobial agents. An in situ reaction at the oil/water interface between the nanoparticles and cinnamaldehyde structurally augments the capsules to efficiently deliver the essential oil payloads, effectively eradicating biofilms of clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria strains. In contrast to their antimicrobial action, the capsules selectively promoted fibroblast proliferation in a mixed bacteria/mammalian cell system making them promising for wound healing applications.

  11. Application and improvement of capsule system for penstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matstuda, S.; Fujishiro, Y.; Yamagucki, T.; Okubo, M.; Miyabe, N.; Sakagami, H.; Ikeda, M.; Kurose, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. has succeeded in applying an all-position, narrow-gap MIG automatic welding method using a Capsule System for both penstocks of the Electric Power Development Company's Okukiyotsu and the Kansai Electric Power Company's Okuyoshino Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Stations. The application and development of the capsule system and MIG welding method have been officially commended this year by the Japan Society of Steel Construction (JSSC). The KHI-development capsule system has been improved by the study of various data rendered by the aforesaid two projects. Based on past experience, KHI is now involved in the construction of another penstock, this one for the Tokoku Electric Power Company's No. 2 Numazawa Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Station. The design and improvements of the capsule system, and its application to Numazawa Penstock are discussed.

  12. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial

  13. Repairing the Capsule to the Transferred Coracoid Preserves External Rotation in the Modified Latarjet Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Hooke, Alexander W; Sperling, John W; Steinmann, Scott P; Zhao, Kristin D; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Itoi, Eiji; An, Kai-Nan

    2016-09-07

    It is not clear whether the anterior capsule should be repaired to the coracoid process or to the native glenoid during the modified Latarjet procedure. We investigated joint stability and range of motion of the shoulder after the modified Latarjet procedure with both of these methods of capsular repair. Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were used. After a Bankart lesion and 6-mm glenoid defect were created, the coracoid process was transferred to the glenoid and fixed with screws. The anterior capsule was repaired either to the coracoid process (coracoid group) or to the native glenoid (glenoid group). The ranges of internal and external axial rotation were measured with the arm at 0° and 60° of glenohumeral abduction. The range of motion was measured with a constant torque of 200 N-mm. Joint stability was measured using a custom stability testing device. The stability ratio in the anterior-posterior direction was measured with the arm at maximal external rotation and neutral rotation. The range of external rotation was greater at both 0° and 60° of abduction in the coracoid group compared with the glenoid group (p Latarjet procedure appears to be beneficial to avoid the limited range of motion in external rotation, but the direct contact of the humeral head and the transferred coracoid might confer a risk of osteoarthritis. Long-term consequences in the clinical setting need to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  14. Determining the Optimum Font Size for Braille on Capsule Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Braille fonts allow us to easily make braille labels on capsule paper. For legibility, fonts should be printed at optimum sizes. To find the optimum sizes for Japanese braille fonts, we conducted an experiment in which a Japanese braille font was printed at various sizes on capsule paper and read and rated by young braille users. The results show that braille printed at 17 and 18 point sizes were read faster and evaluated higher than those printed at smaller or bigger sizes.

  15. Delayed Buckling and Guided Folding of Inhomogeneous Capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Sujit; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Paulose, Jayson; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Nelson, David R.; Weitz, David A

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal capsules can sustain an external osmotic pressure; however, for a sufficiently large pressure, they will ultimately buckle. This process can be strongly influenced by structural inhomogeneities in the capsule shells. We explore how the time delay before the onset of buckling decreases as the shells are made more inhomogeneous; this behavior can be quantitatively understood by coupling shell theory with Darcy’s law. In addition, we show that the shell inhomogeneity can dramatically c...

  16. Chemical Inhibition of Bacterial Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Suppresses Capsule Production

    OpenAIRE

    Standish, Alistair J.; Salim, Angela A; Hua Zhang; Capon, Robert J.; Renato Morona

    2012-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to dat...

  17. Deformation of an elastic capsule in a rectangular microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the deformation of an elastic capsule in a rectangular microfluidic channel and compare it with that of a droplet. In contrast to the bullet or parachute shape in a square or cylindrical channel where the capsule extends along the flow direction, in a rectangular channel the capsule extends mainly along the less-confined lateral direction of the channel cross-section (i.e. the channel width), obtaining a pebble-like shape. The different shape evolution in these two types of solid channels results from the different tension development on the capsule membrane required for interfacial stability. Furthermore, in asymmetric channel flows, capsules show a different deformation compared to droplets with constant surface tension (which extend mainly along the flow direction) and to vesicles which extend along the more-confined channel height. Therefore, our study highlights the different stability dynamics associated with these three types of interfaces. Our findings suggest that the erythrocyte deformation in asymmetric vessels (which is similar to that of capsules) results from the erythrocyte's inner spectrin skeleton rather than from its outer lipid bilayer.

  18. Preparation and characterization of NaCS-CMC/PDMDAAC capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo; Yao, Shan-jing; Guan, Yi-xin; Lin, Dong-qiang

    2005-11-10

    A novel capsule system composed of sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and poly[dimethyl(diallyl)ammonium chloride] (PDMDAAC) was prepared for improving the properties of NaCS/PDMDAAC capsules. The process parameters, such as CMC concentration (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L), NaCS concentration (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 g/L), PDMDAAC concentration (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 g/L), reaction time and temperature were investigated to understand their effects on the diameter, membrane thickness and mechanical strength of capsules. The optimum operation conditions for preparing NaCS-CMC/PDMDAAC capsules were determined as 6-8 g/L CMC, 35-40 g/L NaCS, 60 g/L PDMDAAC and polymerization for 30-40 min. Diffusion of substances with low molecular weight into capsules was investigated, and diffusion coefficients were calculated according to the developed model. The yeast of Candida krusei was chosen as representative cell to evaluate the effects of different cell loading on capsule mechanical strength. Meanwhile the encapsulated osmophilic C. krusei cells were cultured in 250 mL shaking flasks for 72 h to determine the cell leaking properties in short and long term.

  19. Colloidal capsules: nano- and microcapsules with colloidal particle shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhorst, Tobias; Rezwan, Kurosch; Maas, Michael

    2017-04-18

    Utilizing colloidal particles for the assembly of the shell of nano- and microcapsules holds great promise for the tailor-made design of new functional materials. Increasing research efforts are devoted to the synthesis of such colloidal capsules, by which the integration of modular building blocks with distinct physical, chemical, or morphological characteristics in a capsule's shell can result in novel properties, not present in previous encapsulation structures. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the synthesis strategies and the progress made so far of bringing nano- and microcapsules with shells of densely packed colloidal particles closer to application in fields such as chemical engineering, materials science, or pharmaceutical and life science. The synthesis routes are categorized into the four major themes for colloidal capsule formation, i.e. the Pickering-emulsion based formation of colloidal capsules, the colloidal particle deposition on (sacrificial) templates, the amphiphilicity driven self-assembly of nanoparticle vesicles from polymer-grafted colloids, and the closely related field of nanoparticle membrane-loading of liposomes and polymersomes. The varying fields of colloidal capsule research are then further categorized and discussed for micro- and nano-scaled structures. Finally, a special section is dedicated to colloidal capsules for biological applications, as a diverse range of reports from this field aim at pharmaceutical agent encapsulation, targeted drug-delivery, and theranostics.

  20. Pickering Emulsion-Based Marbles for Cellular Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradable cellular capsule, being prepared from simple vaporization of liquid marbles, is an ideal vehicle for the potential application of drug encapsulation and release. This paper reports the fabrication of cellular capsules via facile vaporization of Pickering emulsion marbles in an ambient atmosphere. Stable Pickering emulsion (water in oil was prepared while utilizing dichloromethane (containing poly(l-lactic acid and partially hydrophobic silica particles as oil phase and stabilizing agents respectively. Then, the Pickering emulsion marbles were formed by dropping emulsion into a petri dish containing silica particles with a syringe followed by rolling. The cellular capsules were finally obtained after the complete vaporization of both oil and water phases. The technique of scanning electron microscope (SEM was employed to research the microstructure and surface morphology of the prepared capsules and the results showed the cellular structure as expected. An in vitro drug release test was implemented which showed a sustained release property of the prepared cellular capsules. In addition, the use of biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid and the biocompatible silica particles also made the fabricated cellular capsules of great potential in the application of sustained drug release.

  1. Video capsule endoscopy: Perspectives of a revolutionary technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Simon; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Van Gossum, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) was launched in 2000 and has revolutionized direct endoscopic imaging of the gut. VCE is now a first-line procedure for exploring the small bowel in cases of obscure digestive bleeding and is also indicated in some patients with Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and polyposis syndrome. A video capsule has also been designed for visualizing the esophagus in order to detect Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal varices. Different capsules are now available and differ with regard to dimensions, image acquisition rate, battery life, field of view, and possible optical enhancements. More recently, the use of VCE has been extended to exploring the colon. Within the last 5 years, tremendous developments have been made toward increasing the capabilities of the colon capsule. Although colon capsule cannot be proposed as a first-line colorectal cancer screening procedure, colon capsule may be used in patients with incomplete colonoscopy or in patients who are unwilling to undergo colonoscopy. In the near future, new technological developments will improve the diagnostic yield of VCE and broaden its therapeutic capabilities. PMID:25516644

  2. Transmission of a bacterial consortium in Eisenia fetida egg capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Seana K; Powell, Ryan J; Stahl, David A

    2010-08-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida harbours Verminephrobacter eiseniae within their excretory nephridia. This symbiont is transferred from the parent into the egg capsules where the cells are acquired by the developing earthworm in a series of recruitment steps. Previous studies defined V. eiseniae as the most abundant cell type in the egg capsules, leaving approximately 30% of the bacteria unidentified and of unknown origin. The study presented here used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis together with cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to define the composition of the bacterial consortium in E. fetida egg capsules from early to late development. Newly formed capsules of E. fetida contained three bacterial types, a novel Microbacteriaceae member, a Flexibacteriaceae member and the previously described V. eiseniae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific and general rRNA probes demonstrated that the bacteria are abundant during early development, colonize the embryo and appear in the adult nephridia. As the capsules mature, Herbaspirillum spp. become abundant although they were not detected within the adult worm. These divergent taxa could serve distinct functions in both the adult earthworm and in the egg capsule to influence the competitive ability of earthworms within the soil community. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility.

  4. Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.

  5. Capsule colonoscopy increases uptake of colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groth Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening colonoscopy effectiveness is hampered by limited adherence by the general population. The present prospective study was performed to evaluate whether adding capsule colonoscopy to the endoscopic screening options increases uptake. Methods Invitation letters were sent to 2150 persons above the age of 55 insured with a German medical insurance company in the area of Rinteln, Lower Saxony with a baseline spontaneous annual screening colonoscopy uptake of 1 %. Both capsule or conventional colonoscopy were offered. Interested persons were given information about the two screening options by four local gastroenterologists and examinations were then performed according to screenees’ final choice. Results 154 persons sought further information, and 34 and 90 underwent conventional and capsule colonoscopy, respectively. Colonoscopy uptake was thus increased by the invitation process by 60 % (1.6 % vs. 1 %; p = 0.075, while the option of capsule endoscopy led to a fourfold increase of screening uptake (4.2 % vs. 1 %, p  Conclusions The present study suggests that offering the option of capsule colonoscopy increases uptake of endoscopic colorectal cancer screening. However, capsule endoscopy sensitivity for adenoma detection needs to be improved.

  6. Evaluation of HeadLight: An E-Construction Inspection Technology : research project capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Project delivery and inspection are challenging, resource-intensive jobs. The quality/accuracy of collected field data is crucial. The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) still relies on a primarily paper-based process for f...

  7. Electrotherapy modalities for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally; Kramer, Sharon; Johnston, Renea V; McBain, Brodwen; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-10-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (also termed frozen shoulder) is a common condition characterised by spontaneous onset of pain, progressive restriction of movement of the shoulder and disability that restricts activities of daily living, work and leisure. Electrotherapy modalities, which aim to reduce pain and improve function via an increase in energy (electrical, sound, light, thermal) into the body, are often delivered as components of a physical therapy intervention. This review is one in a series of reviews which form an update of the Cochrane review 'Physiotherapy interventions for shoulder pain'. To synthesise the available evidence regarding the benefits and harms of electrotherapy modalities, delivered alone or in combination with other interventions, for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus and the ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) clinical trials registries up to May 2014, unrestricted by language, and reviewed the reference lists of review articles and retrieved trials to identify any other potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials using a quasi-randomised method of allocation that included adults with adhesive capsulitis and compared any electrotherapy modality to placebo, no treatment, a different electrotherapy modality, or any other intervention. The two main questions of the review focused on whether electrotherapy modalities are effective compared to placebo or no treatment, or if they are an effective adjunct to manual therapy or exercise (or both). The main outcomes of interest were participant-reported pain relief of 30% or greater, overall pain, function, global assessment of treatment success, active shoulder abduction, quality of life, and the number of participants experiencing any adverse event. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion

  8. Design of a Wireless Medical Capsule for Measuring the Contact Pressure Between a Capsule and the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengbo; Kreikemeier-Bower, Craig; Xie, Wanchuan; Kothari, Vishal; Terry, Benjamin S

    2017-05-01

    A wireless medical capsule for measuring the contact pressure between a mobile capsule and the small intestine lumen was developed. Two pressure sensors were used to measure and differentiate the contact pressure and the small intestine intraluminal pressure. After in vitro tests of the capsule, it was surgically placed and tested in the proximal small intestine of a pig model. The capsule successfully gathered and transmitted the pressure data to a receiver outside the body. The measured pressure signals in the animal test were analyzed in the time and frequency domains, and a mathematic model was presented to describe the different factors influencing the contact pressure. A novel signal processing method was applied to isolate the contraction information from the contact pressure. The result shows that the measured contact pressure was 1.08 ± 0.08 kPa, and the small intestine contraction pressure's amplitude and rate were 0.29 ± 0.046 kPa and 12 min-1. Moreover, the amplitudes and rates of pressure from respiration and heartbeat were also estimated. The successful preliminary evaluation of this capsule implies that it could be used in further systematic investigation of small intestine contact pressure on a mobile capsule-shaped bolus.

  9. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head is typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. ... hard time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to ...

  11. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002980.htm Head and face reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  14. Newborn head molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn cranial deformation; Molding of the newborn's head; Neonatal care - head molding ... The bones of a newborn baby's skull are soft and flexible, with gaps between the plates of bone. The spaces between the bony plates of ...

  15. Anatomic variations in femoral head circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhor, Morteza; Horowitz, Kevin; Gharehdaghi, Jaber; Beck, Martin; Ganz, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to clearly define the blood supply to the femoral head to help further reduce the incidence of iatrogenic avascular necrosis (AVN). Thirty-five hips of twenty-eight fresh cadavers were injected with colored silicone. Anterior and posterior dissection was performed to assess the vessels contributing to femoral head vascularity. The medial femoral circumflex artery (MFCA) was found to be the main blood supply to the hip in twenty-nine specimens; the inferior gluteal artery (IGA) was found to be the main blood supply in six. The MFCA consistently provided at least one smaller-calibre inferomedial retinacular artery. The foveal artery provided no significant vascular contribution in any specimen. The quantity and calibre of superior retinacular vessels demonstrated their dominance in head vascularity, although inferior retinacular arteries were consistently present. To reduce the risk of iatrogenic AVN, branches of both the IGA and MFCA traversing the interval between the quadratus femoris and piriformis muscles must be protected during surgery. Since all intracapsular vessels penetrated the capsule near its distal attachment, distal capsulotomy carries a significantly higher risk of AVN than proximal capsulotomy, particularly posterolaterally and inferomedially.

  16. Lens capsule structure assessed with atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueiras, Vivian M.; Moy, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To image the ultrastructure of the anterior lens capsule at the nanoscale level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Methods Experiments were performed on anterior lens capsules maintained in their in situ location surrounding the lens from six human cadavers (donor age range: 44–88 years), four cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis age range: 4.83–8.92 years), and seven pigs (<6 months). Hydration of all samples was maintained using Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM). Whole lenses were removed from the eye and placed anterior side up in agarose gel before gel hardening where only the posterior half of the lens was contained within the gel. After the gel hardened, the Petri dish was filled with DMEM until the point where the intact lens was fully submerged. AFM was used to image the anterior lens surface in contact mode. An integrated analysis program was used to calculate the interfibrillar spacing, fiber diameter, and surface roughness of the samples. Results The AFM images depict a highly ordered fibrous structure at the surface of the lens capsule in all three species. The interfibrillar spacing for the porcine, cynomolgus monkey, and human lens capsules was 0.68±0.25, 1.80±0.39, and 1.08±0.25 μm, respectively. In the primate, interfibrillar spacing significantly decreased linearly as a function of age. The fiber diameters ranged from 50 to 950 nm. Comparison of the root mean square (RMS) and average deviation demonstrate that the surface of the porcine lens capsule is the smoothest, and that the human and cynomolgus monkey capsules are significantly rougher. Conclusions AFM was successful in providing high-resolution images of the nanostructure of the lens capsule samples. Species-dependent differences were observed in the overall structure and surface roughness. PMID:25814829

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of ... content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT ... Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography ( ...

  19. Capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yaron NivDepartment of Gastroenterology, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tikva, IsraelAbstract: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but frequently involves the small and large bowel. Typical presenting symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Patients with this disorder may also have extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis, uveitis, and skin lesions. The PillCam™SB capsule is an ingestible disposable video camera that transmits high quality images of the small intestinal mucosa. This enables the small intestine to be readily accessible to physicians investigating for the presence of small bowel disorders, such as Crohn’s disease. Four meta-analyses have demonstrated that capsule endoscopy identifies Crohn’s disease when other methods are not helpful. It should be noted that it is the best noninvasive procedure for assessing mucosal status, but is not superior to ileocolonoscopy, which remains the gold standard for assessment of ileocolonic disease. Mucosal healing along the small bowel can only be demonstrated by an endoscopic procedure such as capsule endoscopy. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a trend towards a decreased need for hospitalization and a decreased requirement for corticosteroid treatment in patients with Crohn’s disease. Recently, we have developed and validated the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (also known as the Niv score for Crohn’s disease of the small bowel. The next step is to expand our score to the colon, and to determine the role and benefit of a capsule endoscopy activity score in patients suffering from Crohn’s ileocolitis and/or colitis. This scoring system will also serve to improve our understanding of the impact of capsule endoscopy, and therefore treatment, on the immediate outcome of this disorder. As the best procedure available for assessing

  20. Controlled release from stimuli-sensitive microgel capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We introduce a mesoscale computational model for responsive gels, i.e. chemically cross-linked polymer networks immersed in Newtonian fluids, and use it to probe the release of nanoparticles from hollow microgel capsules that swell and deswell in response to external stimuli. Our model explicitly describes the transport of nanoparticles in swelling/deswelling polymer networks with complex geometries and associated fluid flows. Our simulations reveal that responsive microcapsules can be effectively utilized for steady and pulsatile release of encapsulated solutes. Steady, diffusive release of nanoparticle takes place from swollen gel capsules, whereas capsule deswelling cause burst-like discharge of solutes driven by a flow from the shrinking capsule interior. We demonstrate that this hydrodynamic release can be regulated by introducing rigid microscopic rods inside the capsule. Our calculations indicate that the rods stretch the deswelling membrane and promote the formation of large pores in the shell, which allow massive flow-driven release of nanoparticles. Thus, our findings unveil a new approach for regulating the release from stimulus responsive micro-carriers that will be especially useful for designing new drug delivery systems.

  1. A novel release mechanism from responsive microgel capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    We use a mesoscale computational model for responsive gels to study the release of nanoparticles from hollow microcapsules. Our model explicitly describes the transport of nanoparticles in swelling/deswelling polymer networks with complex geometries and associated fluid flows. Our simulations show that capsule swelling results in a steady release of encapsulated nanoparticle, which is set by the ability of particles to diffuse through the capsule network. For deswelling capsules, we show that a fluid flow induced by capsule shrinking leads to rapid nanoparticle release. This release, however, is limited due to decreasing mesh size of the deswelling shell. We show that by introducing solid microrods inside deswelling capsules, we can control the rapid release. Our calculations reveal that the rods stretch the deswelling membrane and promote the formation of large pores in the shell, which allow massive flow-driven release of nanoparticles. Thus, our findings reveal a new approach for regulating the release from stimulus responsive micro-carriers that may be useful for designing new drug delivery systems. Financial support from the Donors of the PetroleumResearchFund, administered by theACS, is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Novel capsules for potential theranostics of obscure gastrointestinal bleedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Bayram; Şakalak, Hüseyin; Çavuşoğlu, Halit; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman

    2016-09-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is identified as persistent or repeated bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract which could not be defined by conventional gastrointestinal endoscopy and radiological examinations. These GI bleedings are assessed through invasive diagnostic and treatment methods including enteroscopy, angiography and endoscopy. In addition, video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a non-invasive method used to determine the location of the bleeding, however, this does not provide any treatment. Despite of these successful but invasive methods, an effective non-invasive treatment is desperately needed. Herein, we prepare non-invasive theranostic capsules to cure obscure GI bleeding. An effective theranostic capsule containing endothelin as the targeting agent, thrombin-fibrinogen or fibrin as the treating agent, and fluorescein dye as the diagnostic tool is suggested. These theranostic capsules can be administered orally in a simple and non-invasive manner without a risk of complication. By using these novel capsules, one can diagnose obscure GI bleeding with having a possibility of curing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The double capsules in macro-textured breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giot, Jean-Philippe; Paek, Laurence S; Nizard, Nathanael; El-Diwany, Mostafa; Gaboury, Louis A; Nelea, Monica; Bou-Merhi, Joseph S; Harris, Patrick G; Danino, Michel A

    2015-10-01

    Breast implants are amongst the most widely used types of permanent implants in modern medicine and have both aesthetic and reconstructive applications with excellent biocompatibility. The double capsule is a complication associated with textured prostheses that leads to implant displacement; however, its etiology has yet to be elucidated. In this study, 10 double capsules were sampled from breast expander implants for in-depth analysis; histologically, the inner capsular layer demonstrated highly organized collagen in sheets with delamination of fibers. At the prosthesis interface (PI) where the implant shell contacts the inner capsular layer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a thin layer which mirrored the three-dimensional characteristics of the implant texture; the external surface of the inner capsular layer facing the intercapsular space (ICS) was flat. SEM examination of the inner capsule layer revealed both a large bacterial presence as well as biofilm deposition at the PI; a significantly lower quantity of bacteria and biofilm were found at the ICS interface. These findings suggest that the double capsule phenomenon's etiopathogenesis is of mechanical origin. Delamination of the periprosthetic capsule leads to the creation of the ICS; the maintained separation of the 2 layers subsequently alters the biostability of the macro-textured breast implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, Uri; Seidman, Ernest G

    2014-02-07

    Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) has revolutionized our ability to visualize the small bowel mucosa. This modality is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure small bowel Crohn's disease (CD), and can also be used for monitoring of disease activity in patients with established small-bowel CD, detection of complications such as obscure bleeding and neoplasms, evaluation of response to anti-inflammatory treatment and postoperative recurrence following small bowel resection. VCE could also be an important tool in the management of patients with unclassified inflammatory bowel disease, potentially resulting in reclassification of these patients as having CD. Reports on postoperative monitoring and evaluation of patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis who have developed pouchitis have recenty been published. Monitoring of colonic inflammatory activity in patients with ulcerative colitis using the recently developed colonic capsule has also been reported. Capsule endoscopy is associated with an excellent safety profile. Although retention risk is increased in patients with small bowel CD, this risk can be significanty decreased by a routine utilization of a dissolvable patency capsule preceding the ingestion of the diagnostic capsule. This paper contains an overview of the current and future clinical applications of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Indications of capsule endoscopy in Crohn´s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Suárez-Callol, Patricia; Medina-Chuliá, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy currently plays a relevant role for Crohn´s disease. This manuscript will discuss the current indications and practical uses of capsule endoscopy in this disease. It is a non-invasive technique that represents a significant advance in the endoscopic diagnosis of small bowel conditions. These circumstances, together with its diagnostic yield and excellent tolerability, make it considerably acceptable by both patients and physicians. This paper discusses the current evidence on the specific circumstances where capsule endoscopy may be indicated for three specific scenarios: Suspected Crohn´s disease, indeterminate colitis, and established Crohn´s disease, where it plays an extensive role. Furthermore, the impact and implications of capsule endoscopy results for follow-up are reviewed. These recommendations must be interpreted and applied in the setting of the integral, individual management of these patients. Understanding its appropriate use in daily clinical practice and an analysis of results may define endoscopic scoring systems to assess activity and mucosal healing in this condition. The present role of capsule endoscopy for Crohn´s disease is subject to ongoing review, and appropriate usage uncovers novel applications likely to result in relevant changes for the future management of these patients.

  6. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  8. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobing Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  9. Swallowable wireless capsule endoscopy: progress and technical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guobing; Wang, Litong

    2012-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE) is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  10. [Jinsangsanjie capsule for treating vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sulin; Li, Yuncheng; Wang, Yanjun; Kong, Weijia

    2012-08-01

    To investigate therapeutic effects of Jinsangsanjie capsule on vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules. Seventy-five patients with vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules were treated by taking Jinsangsanjie capsule orally. After the therapeutic course, they were all followed up for 1 month. The effective rate of vocal nodule group was 93.8%, the effective rate of vocal fold polyp group was 89.7%, the effective rate of vocal nodule with acute congestion group was 100%, the effective rate of vocal fold polyp with acute congestion group was 100%, and the effective rate of hypertrophy of vocal cords with chronic congestion group was 66.7%. Jinsangsanjie capsule has definite efficacy for treatment of vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules and deserved to be recommended.

  11. Wzy-dependent bacterial capsules as potential drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Daniel J; Standish, Alistair; Kobe, Bostjan; Morona, Renato

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial capsule is a recognized virulence factor in pathogenic bacteria. It likely works as an antiphagocytic barrier by minimizing complement deposition on the bacterial surface. With the continual rise of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics, there is an increasing need for novel drugs. In the Wzy-dependent pathway, the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is regulated by a phosphoregulatory system, whose main components consist of bacterial-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) and their cognate phosphatases. The ability to regulate capsule biosynthesis has been shown to be vital for pathogenicity, because different stages of infection require a shift in capsule thickness, making the phosphoregulatory proteins suitable as drug targets. Here, we review the role of regulatory proteins focusing on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli and discuss their suitability as targets in structure-based drug design.

  12. Sensitive Detection of Deliquescent Bacterial Capsules through Nanomechanical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden K

    2015-10-20

    Encapsulated bacteria usually exhibit strong resistance to a wide range of sterilization methods, and are often virulent. Early detection of encapsulation can be crucial in microbial pathology. This work demonstrates a fast and sensitive method for the detection of encapsulated bacterial cells. Nanoindentation force measurements were used to confirm the presence of deliquescent bacterial capsules surrounding bacterial cells. Force/distance approach curves contained characteristic linear-nonlinear-linear domains, indicating cocompression of the capsular layer and cell, indentation of the capsule, and compression of the cell alone. This is a sensitive method for the detection and verification of the encapsulation status of bacterial cells. Given that this method was successful in detecting the nanomechanical properties of two different layers of cell material, i.e. distinguishing between the capsule and the remainder of the cell, further development may potentially lead to the ability to analyze even thinner cellular layers, e.g. lipid bilayers.

  13. Evaluation of hard gelatin capsules and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Gonçalves Weigert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and evaluate formulations containing ampicillin in capsules of gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC. Two formulations (A and B were developed. The final product quality was evaluated by testing for quality control and the results were in agreement with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The formulations with HPMC capsules showed lower percentages of drug dissolved (99.67%, HPMC-A and 87.70%, HPMC-B than the gelatin (100.18%, GEL-A and 101.16% GEL-B. Because of the delay of the ampicillin release observed in the dissolution profiles, it becomes necessary to evaluate the drugs that can be conditioned in the HPMC capsules.

  14. Capsule Performance Optimization in the National Ignition Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Haan, S W; Edwards, J

    2009-10-13

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  15. Wireless steering mechanism with magnetic actuation for an endoscopic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menciassi, A; Valdastri, P; Quaglia, C; Buselli, E; Dario, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates the design, development and testing of a miniature mechanism to be integrated in endoscopic capsules for precise steering capabilities (Magnetic Internal Mechanism, MIM). The mechanism consists of an electromagnetic motor connected to a couple of small permanent magnets and immersed in a static magnetic field produced by an external permanent magnet or a by an electromagnetic coil. The overall steering capsule, integrating the magnetic steering mechanism and the vision system is 15.6 mm in diameter, 48 mm in length, 14.4 g in weight and can be oriented with an accuracy of 0.01 degrees . As regards system scalability, the capsule size could be reduced down to 11 mm in diameter by optimizing some mechanical components. On the other hand, the magnets size cannot be reduced because the magnetic link between internal and external magnets at typical operation distances (about 15 mm) would be weak.

  16. Glucose oxidase release from calcium alginate gel capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino; Macías; Cantero

    2000-08-01

    Diffusion of glucose oxidase within calcium alginate gel capsules has been assayed and the experimental data fitted to a simple semi-empirical power equation, which is used to analyse the solute release from polymeric devices. It was found that an increase in the concentration of sodium alginate and calcium chloride gives rise to a reduction in the enzyme leakage. This was verified when glucose oxidase (GOD) diffusion percentages were compared in capsules with thicknesses of the same order of magnitude but obtained under different experimental conditions. So, the use of sodium alginate and calcium chloride solutions of concentrations 0.5% w/v and 2.6% w/v, respectively, lead to a diffusion percentage of 25 +/- 2. This percentage was reduced to 8 +/- 3 when sodium alginate and calcium chloride concentrations were fixed at 1% w/v and 4% w/v, respectively, even though the thicknesses of the capsules were of the same order of magnitude.

  17. Therapeutic Application of Phage Capsule Depolymerases against K1, K5, and K30 Capsulated E. coli in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Capsule depolymerase enzymes offer a promising class of new antibiotics. In vivo studies are encouraging but it is unclear how well this type of phage product will generalize in therapeutics, or whether different depolymerases against the same capsule function similarly. Here, in vivo efficacy was tested using cloned bacteriophage depolymerases against Escherichia coli strains with three different capsule types: K1, K5, and K30. When treating infections with the cognate capsule type in a mouse thigh model, the previously studied K1E depolymerase rescued poorly, whereas K1F, K1H, K5, and K30 depolymerases rescued well. K30 gp41 was identified as the catalytically active protein. In contrast to the in vivo studies, K1E enzyme actively degraded K1 capsule polysaccharide in vitro and sensitized K1 bacteria to serum killing. The only in vitro correlate of poor K1E performance in vivo was that the purified enzyme did not form the expected trimer. K1E appeared as an 18-mer which might limit its in vivo distribution. Overall, depolymerases were easily identified, cloned from phage genomes, and as purified proteins they proved generally effective.

  18. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelena Caboni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment.

  19. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Mariaelena; Pédron, Thierry; Rossi, Omar; Goulding, David; Pickard, Derek; Citiulo, Francesco; MacLennan, Calman A; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R; Saul, Allan; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-03-01

    Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment.

  20. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  1. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Alistair J; Salim, Angela A; Zhang, Hua; Capon, Robert J; Morona, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  2. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J Standish

    Full Text Available Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  3. Characterization of the Kingella kingae polysaccharide capsule and exopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly F Starr

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that Kingella kingae produces a polysaccharide capsule. In an effort to determine the composition and structure of this polysaccharide capsule, in the current study we purified capsular material from the surface of K. kingae strain 269-492 variant KK01 using acidic conditions to release the capsule and a series of steps to remove DNA, RNA, and protein. Analysis of the resulting material by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc, 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo, and galactose (Gal. Further analysis by NMR demonstrated two distinct polysaccharides, one consisting of GalNAc and Kdo with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and the other containing galactose alone with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. Disruption of the ctrA gene required for surface localization of the K. kingae polysaccharide capsule resulted in elimination of GalNAc and Kdo but had no effect on the presence of Gal in bacterial surface extracts. In contrast, deletion of the pamABCDE locus involved in production of a reported galactan exopolysaccharide eliminated Gal but had no effect on the presence of GalNAc and Kdo in surface extracts. Disruption of ctrA and deletion of pamABCDE resulted in a loss of all carbohydrates in surface extracts. These results establish that K. kingae strain KK01 produces a polysaccharide capsule with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and a separate exopolysaccharide with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. The polysaccharide capsule and the exopolysaccharide require distinct genetic loci for surface localization.

  4. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  5. Biomechanical sex differences of crewmembers during a simulated space capsule landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Honglei; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Yanhua; Liu, Bingkun; Jin, Xin; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the differences in the biodynamic responses of male and female crewmembers during a simulated Soyuz spacecraft (short-duration flights) impact landing. There were 16 volunteers (8 men and 8 women) recruited to sit in a pseudo-supine position and be exposed to several impact acceleration pulses. The acceleration peaks ranged from 7.7 to 11.8 g with a duration of around 50 ms. Acceleration responses from the drop platform and seat, and at the volunteers' head, shoulder, chest, and ilium were measured. Results indicated that there were significant gender-based differences in the peak acceleration measured from volunteers' shoulders and iliums. The peak decelerations measured at the head and ilium were relatively higher than those measured at other levels on the seat. It was recommended that more attention be focused on the sex differences of biodynamic responses of crews in the study of new protective designs for space capsule and personal life support equipment.

  6. Colon capsule endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, C; Hassan, C; Galmiche, J P; Neuhaus, H; Dumonceau, J M; Adler, S; Epstein, O; Gay, G; Pennazio, M; Rex, D K; Benamouzig, R; de Franchis, R; Delvaux, M; Devière, J; Eliakim, R; Fraser, C; Hagenmuller, F; Herrerias, J M; Keuchel, M; Macrae, F; Munoz-Navas, M; Ponchon, T; Quintero, E; Riccioni, M E; Rondonotti, E; Marmo, R; Sung, J J; Tajiri, H; Toth, E; Triantafyllou, K; Van Gossum, A; Costamagna, G

    2012-05-01

    PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an innovative noninvasive, and painless ingestible capsule technique that allows exploration of the colon without the need for sedation and gas insufflation. Although it is already available in European and other countries, the clinical indications for CCE as well as the reporting and work-up of detected findings have not yet been standardized. The aim of this evidence-based and consensus-based guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to furnish healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for potential implementation of this technique in a clinical setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Small-bowel neoplasms in patients undergoing video capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rondonotti, E; Pennazio, M; Toth, E

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Small-bowel tumors account for 1% - 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Recent studies with video capsule endoscopy (VCE) suggest that the frequency of these tumors may be substantially higher than previously reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency...... findings. 55 patients underwent VCE as the third procedure after negative bidirectional endoscopy. The lesions were single in 89.5% of cases, and multiple in 10.5%. Retention of the capsule occurred in 9.8% of patients with small-bowel tumors. After VCE, 54/124 patients underwent 57 other examinations...

  8. Implemented a wireless communication system for VGA capsule endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yeon-Kwan; Lee, Jyung Hyun; Park, Hee-Joon; Cho, Jin-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several medical devices that use wireless communication are under development. In this paper, the small size frequency shift keying (FSK) transmitter and a monofilar antenna for the capsule endoscope, enabling the medical device to transmit VGA-size images of the intestine. To verify the functionality of the proposed wireless communication system, computer simulations and animal experiments were performed with the implemented capsule endoscope that includes the proposed wireless communication system. Several fundamental experiments are carried out using the implemented transmitter and antenna, and animal in-vivo experiments were performed to verify VGA image transmission.

  9. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  10. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  11. Wzi is an outer membrane lectin that underpins group 1 capsule assembly in Escherichia coli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushell, Simon R; Mainprize, Iain L; Wear, Martin A; Lou, Hubing; Whitfield, Chris; Naismith, James H

    2013-01-01

    .... The mechanism by which the capsule assembles around the bacterial cell is unknown. Wzi, an integral outer-membrane protein from Escherichia coli, has been implicated in the formation of group 1 capsules. The 2.6 Å...

  12. Model of the humanoid body for self collision detection based on elliptical capsules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a self collision detection scheme for humanoid robots using elliptical and circular capsules as bounding volumes. A capsule is defined as an elliptical or circular cylinder capped with ellipsoids or spheres respectively...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tonsilitis caused by Streptococcus hemolyticus, bacterial enteritis caused by Escherichia coli, urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, and wound infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. 1 1 These... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b...

  14. Research Update: Performance Pay for Teachers. Information Capsule. Volume 0911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing recognition that the traditional teacher salary schedule does not reward the most effective teachers, most U.S. school districts don't offer teacher incentives for improving student performance and the vast majority of teachers actually oppose such a plan. This Information Capsule reviewed recent studies conducted on…

  15. Quality of antiretroviral drugs, stavudine and indinavir capsules ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of antiretroviral drugs, stavudine and indinavir capsules available in the Tanzanian market. ... Results: All samples of Indinavir and Stavudine investigated conformed to the packaging and labeling specifications. However, all Indinavir samples were found to contain excess amount of active ingredient (112.6% ...

  16. Trismus as manifestation of bilateral internal capsule genu infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.J.H.; Vroomen, Patrick C. A. J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; De Keyser, Jacques

    Acute trismus can have different causes. We describe the presentation, course and radiological findings of a 34-year-old man who developed acute trismus and MRI findings consistent with the combination of an old and fresh infarction in the genu of the internal capsule. We believe it is important to

  17. Wireless capsule endoscopy as a tool in diagnosing autoimmune enteropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Kampmann, Eva-Marie; Lillevang, Søren T; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2015-01-01

    the diagnosis. The extensive diagnostic work up excluded other more common causes of protracted diarrhoea. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) displayed universal small intestinal mucosal damage with shortened villi that led to the suspicion of AE in both patients. The diagnosis was confirmed with microscopy...

  18. Wireless capsule endoscopy at Lagos State University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capsule Endoscopy (CE) is a novel tool that has been demonstrated to be superior to radiologic technique in the evaluation small bowel disorders particularly obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. This service although in use in Western countries is not available in our setting. It has recently been introduced in our hospital and ...

  19. Development of value added tea bags and capsules of Artemisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propagation to budding/harvesting took 4 months and fresh leaves were processed to dark green dried leaves which was developed to value added products of tea bags and powdered capsules following the Noble Icon NAFDAC approved procedures and equipment; and Now Food University in USA procedures and ...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... animal has finished eating the dosed food, the remainder of the food may be given. Dogs and cats may be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  1. Dielectrophoretic characterization and isolation of jellyfish stinging capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sinwook; Capelin, Daniel; Piriatinskiy, Gadi; Lotan, Tamar; Yossifon, Gilad

    2017-08-01

    Jellyfish stinging capsules known as nematocysts are explosive, natural-injection systems with high potential as a natural drug-delivery system. These organelles consist of a capsule containing a highly folded thin needle-like tubule and a matrix highly concentrated with charged constituents that enable the tubule to fire and penetrate a target. For the purpose of using these nematocysts as drug delivery system it is first required to purify subpopulations from heterogeneous population of capsules and to investigate each subpopulation's distinct function and characteristics. Here, the nematocysts' dielectric properties were experimentally investigated using dielectrophoretic and electrorotational spectra with best fits derived from theoretical models. The dielectric characterization adds to our understanding of the nematocysts' structure and function and is necessary for the dielectrophoretic isolation and manipulation of populations. As expected, the effect of monovalent and divalent exchange cations resulted in higher inner conductivity for the NaCl treated capsules; this result stands in agreement with their relative higher osmotic pressure. In addition, an efficient dielectrophoretic isolation of different nematocyst subpopulations was demonstrated, paving the way to an understanding of nematocysts' functional diversity and the development of an efficient drug delivery platform. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Motion of an elastic capsule in a constricted microchannel

    CERN Document Server

    Touchard, Antoine; Zhu, Lailai; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We study the motion of an elastic capsule through a microchannel characterized by a localized constriction. We consider a capsule with a stress-free spherical shape and impose its steady state configuration in an infinitely long straight channel as the initial condition for our calculations. We report how the capsule deformation, velocity, retention time, and maximum stress of the membrane are affected by the capillary number, Ca, and the constriction shape. We estimate the deformation by measuring the variation of the three-dimensional surface area and a series of alternative quantities easier to extract from experiments. These are the Taylor parameter, the perimeter and the area of the capsule in the spanwise plane. We find that the perimeter is the quantity that reproduces the behavior of the three-dimensional surface area the best. We observe that, in general, area-deformation correlated quantities grow linearly with Ca, while velocity-correlated quantities saturate for large Ca but display a steeper incr...

  3. Additional effective dose by patients undergoing NAI-131 capsules therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Spasic Jokic, V.; Cuknic, O.; Ilic, Z.; Vranjes Djuric, S. [VINCA - Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2006-07-01

    Capsules or solutions containing Na{sup 131}I are indicated for the therapy of some thyroid carcinomas such as functioning metastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; and for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (diffuse toxic goiter and single or multiple toxic nodular goiter). The recommended dosage ranges of Na{sup 131}I capsules or solution for the therapy of the average patient (70 kg) are: (3.7-5.55) GBq for ablation of normal thyroid tissue; (3.7-7.4) GBq for subsequent treatments; a (148-370) MBq for hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this paper is to calculate effective dose as a result of iodine-131 capsules remaining in stomach before absorption starts. This result can determine the disadvantage of capsule versus solution containing sodium iodine-131 (Na{sup 131}I) in radionuclide therapy application from radiation protection point of view. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to model transport of gamma and beta particles emitted by radionuclide {sup 131}I treated as a point source at the bottom of stomach. Absorbed energy per unit transformation in stomach and surrounding organs has been calculated. (authors)

  4. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    structure, responsive to microwave electromagnetic radiation, is attached to a first wall portion of the capsule wall structure which comprises a lossy dielectric material. At least a predetermined segment of the first wall portion is heated by received microwave electromagnetic radiation to trigger...

  5. Small bowel involvement documented by capsule endoscopy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... Interne, Centre Hospitalier, 20 Avenue Réné Laennec, 68100 Mulhouse, France. &Corresponding author: Birane Beye, Service de Gastroentérologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, 92100 Boulogne, France. Key words: Churg-Strauss Syndrome, small intestine involvement, video capsule endoscopy. Received: ...

  6. Biosorption of mercury by capsulated and slime layerforming Gram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of mercury by two locally isolated Gram-ve bacilli: Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumonia (capsulated) and slime layer forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was characterized. Mercury adsorption was found to be influenced by the pH value of the biosorption solution, initial metal concentration, amount of the ...

  7. Regional gastrointestinal contractility parameters using the wireless motility capsule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, A D; Wegeberg, A-M L; Brock, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent a stand...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520.2100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin...

  9. 21 CFR 520.446 - Clindamycin capsules and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... susceptible strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus or S. intermedius), deep wounds... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clindamycin capsules and tablets. 520.446 Section 520.446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  10. High stress actuation by dielectric elastomer with oil capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Though capable of generating a large strain, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) generate only a moderate actuation stress not more than 200kPa, which seriously limits its use as artificial muscles for robotic arm. Enhancement of dielectric strength (greater than 500MV/m) by dielectric oil immersion could possibly enable it a larger force generation. Previously, the immersion was done in an oil bath, which limits portability together with DEAs. In this study, we developed portable capsules to enclose oil over the DEA substrate (VHB 4905). The capsules is made of a thinner soft acrylic membrane and they seals dielectric liquid oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt). The DEA substrate is a graphiteclad VHB membrane, which is pre-stretched with pure-shear boundary condition for axial actuation. When activated under isotonic condition, the oil-capsule DEA can sustain a very high dielectric field up to 903 MV/m and does not fail; whereas, the dry DEA breaks down at a lower electric field at 570 MV/m. Furthermore, the oil-capsule DEA can produces higher isometric stress change up to 1.05MPa, which is 70% more than the maximum produced by the dry DEA. This study confirmed that oil capping helps DEA achieve very high dielectric strength and generate more stress change for work.

  11. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.

    2014-01-01

    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions.

  12. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Supersonic Wake of a Reentry Capsule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijer, F.F.J.; Walpot, L.M.G.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    The wake behind an Apollo shaped capsule is investigated in the framework of the ’afterbody heating’ topic in the RTO WG043 working group. Measurements are performed by means of schlieren, shadowgraphy and stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) and are used for CFD validation purposes. The model

  14. Fuel capsule HRB-21 postirradiation examination data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, C A; Bell, G L; Emerson, L C [and others

    1995-04-01

    HRB-21 was carried out in HFIR to demonstrate the performance capability of reference Nuclear Energy Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel, which consisted of uranium oxycarbide fissile and ThO{sub 2} fertile TRISO particles bonded into compacts. Long before the capsule was removed from the reactor, it was obvious that the fuel was suffering early failure. After 5 of the planned 6 HFIR cycles, the peak fuel test temperature could not be controlled and the irradiation was terminated. The PIE information will be useful to fuel designers for product improvement. Irradiation-induced failure of the protective PyC layers may have led to the failure of outer PyC coatings. Coating failure fraction was determined by several means to be <1% for both fertile and fissile particles at the ends of the capsule, increasing to 6% for fissile particles and 2.5% for fertile particles at the center of the capsule. More study of SiC microstructure vs fission product release is needed. The work on capsule HRB-21 has identified a set of lessons learned that would benefit future programs.

  15. Noncontact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noel M.; Manns, Fabrice; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To design a non-contact optical system to measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes. Methods: The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused onto the tissue using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a motorized translation stage. Light reflected from the sample is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a silicon photodiode connected to a power meter. Peaks in the power signal are detected when the focal point of the aspheric lens coincides with the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is proportional to the distance between successive peaks. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 13 human, 10 monkey, and 34 New Zealand white rabbit lenses. The cadaver eyes were prepared for optical measurements by bonding a PMMA ring on the sclera. The posterior pole was sectioned, excess vitreous was removed, and the eye was placed on a Teflon slide. The cornea and iris were then sectioned. After the experiments, the lenses were excised, placed in 10% buffered formalin, and prepared for histology. Results: Central anterior lens capsule thickness was 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 11.2+/-6.6μm (monkey), and 10.3+/-3.6μm (rabbit) optically and 14.9+/-1.6μm (human), 17.7+/-4.9μm (monkey), and 12.6+/-2.3μm (rabbit) histologically. The values for the central posterior capsule were 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 6.6+/-2.5μm (monkey), and 7.9+/-2.3μm (rabbit) optically and 4.6+/-1.4μm (human), 4.5+/-1.2μm (monkey), and 5.7+/-1.7μm (rabbit) histologically. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a non-contact optical system can successfully measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes.

  16. Biogenesis of the Fraction 1 Capsule and Analysis of the Ultrastructure of Yersinia pestis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Runco, Lisa M.; Myrczek, Selina; Bliska, James B.; Thanassi, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a Yersinia pestis Δcaf1A mutant demonstrated that the Caf1A usher is required for the assembly and secretion of the fraction 1 capsule. The capsule assembled into thin fibrils and denser aggregates on the bacterial surface. Pilus-like fibers were also detected on the surface of Y. pestis. The capsule occasionally coated these fibers, suggesting how the capsule may cloak surface features to prevent host recognition.

  17. Chitosan-alginate capsules as oral delivery system for insulin: studies in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, C.A.; R. M. LUCINDA-SILVA; P. CLASEN; S. MAFFEZZOLLI; Bürger, C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess chitosan:alginate capsules as gastric resistant systems for oral administration of insulin. Chitosan:alginate capsules of insulin were tested in simulated gastric and intestinal media and in vivo. The capsules released only about 20% of the insulin after 60 minutes of incubation in simulated gastric medium. On the other hand, almost all the encapsulated insulin was released after being incubated for 90 min in simulated intestinal medium. When capsules conta...

  18. Effect of Morinda officinalis capsule on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Lü, Shan-Shan; Tang, Gui-Ying; Hou, Min; Tang, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Chen, Wei-Hai; Chen, Gang; Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Ji-Fen; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2014-03-01

    To explore the therapeutic effects of Morinda officinalis capsules (MOP) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Six-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were induced for postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) by bilateral ovariectomy and divided into seven groups as follows: sham-operated group, ovariectomized (OVX) control group, OVX treated with xianlinggubao (XLGB) (270 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹), OVX treated with alendronate sodium (ALN) (3 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹), and OVX treated with Morinda officinalis capsule (MOP) of graded doses (90, 270 and 810 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) groups. Oral treatments were administered daily on the 4(th) week after ovariectomy and lasted for 12 weeks. The bone mineral density was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and osteocalcin (OC) levels in the serum and plasma were determined by standard colorimetric and enzyme immunoassays methods. Bone biomechanical properties and morphological parameters were analyzed by three-point bending test and histomorphometry respectively. Morinda officinalis capsules at all doses were able to significantly prevent the OVX-induced loss of bone mass due to diminishing serum AKP and TRAP levels while elevating OC level in the plasma. Morinda officinalis capsules also enhanced the bone strength and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture. Morinda officinalis capsules possess potent anti-osteoporotic activity in OVX rats which could be an effective treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Solution Based Deposition of Polyimide Ablators for NIF Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R

    2002-07-11

    Between June 1997 and March 2002 Luxel Corporation was contracted to explore the possibility of preparing NIF scale capsules with polyimide ablators using solution-based techniques. This work offered a potential alternative to a vapor deposition approach talking place at LLNL. The motivation for pursuing the solution-based approach was primarily two-fold. First, it was expected that much higher strength capsules (relative to vapor deposition) could be prepared since the solution precursors were known to produce high strength films. Second, in applying the ablator as a fluid it was expected that surface tension effects would lead to very smooth surfaces. These potential advantages were offset by expected difficulties, primary among them that the capsules would need to be levitated in some fashion (for example acoustically) during coating and processing, and that application of the coating uniformly to thicknesses of 150 pm on levitated capsules would be difficult. Because of the expected problems with the coupling of levitation and coating, most of the initial effort was to develop coating and processing techniques on stalk-mounted capsules. The program had some success. Using atomizer spray techniques in which application of {approx}5 {micro}m fluid coatings were alternated with heating to remove solvent resulted in up to 70 {micro}m thick coatings that were reasonably smooth at short wavelengths, and showed only about a 1 {micro}m thickness variation over long wavelengths. More controlled deposition with an inkjet devise was also developed. However difficult technical problems remained, and these problems coupled with the relative success of the vapor deposition approach led to the termination of the solution-based work in 2002. What follows is a compilation of the progress reports submitted by Luxel for this work which spanned a number of separate contracts. The reports are arranged chronologically, the last report in the collection has a modest summary of what

  20. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  1. Simulation-Aided Design of Tubular Polymeric Capsules for Self-Healing Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Feiteira, J.; Araújo, M.; Chatrabhuti, S.; Raquez, JM; van Tittelboom, K; Gruyaert, Elke; de Belie, N; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric capsules can have an advantage over glass capsules used up to now as proof-of-concept carriers in self-healing concrete. They allow easier processing and afford the possibility to fine tune their mechanical properties. Out of the multiple requirements for capsules used in this context, the

  2. Completion rate of small bowel capsule endoscopy is higher after erythromycin compared to domperidone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Jessie; Weersma, Rinse K.; Hoedemakers, Reinier; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In up to 30 percent of small bowel capsule endoscopy procedures, the capsule does not reach the cecum within recording time. A prolonged gastric transit time has been recognized as a risk factor for incomplete capsule endoscopy. The aim of this study was to analyze if a single dose of

  3. The Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule Is Required for Full Virulence in Pneumococcal Endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa E Sanders; Norcross, Erin W.; Robertson, Zachary M.; Moore, Quincy C.; Fratkin, Jonathan; Marquart, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of capsule in pneumococcal endophthalmitis was tested in vivo using a clinical ocular strain and an isogenic capsule-deficient mutant. Results showed that the presence of capsule was required for full clinical severity and for full bacterial survival in the vitreous.

  4. 75 FR 52768 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Dichlorophene and Toluene Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...; Dichlorophene and Toluene Capsules AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... use of dichlorophene and toluene deworming capsules for cats and dogs. In a final rule published... withdraw approval of NADA 101-497 for TINY TIGER (dichlorophene/toluene) Worming Capsules, NADA 101-498 for...

  5. Elastic Changes of Capsule in a Rat Knee Contracture Model Assessed by Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Y.; Chimoto, E.; Ando, A.; Saijo, Y.; Itoi, E.

    Sound speed of a capsule in a rat knee contracture model was measured by scanning acoustic microscopy. There was no statistical significant difference in the anterior capsule compared with the control group. However, the sound speed of the posterior capsule was significantly greater compared with the control group after prolonged immobilization.

  6. Liquid-liquid interface motion of a capsule motor powered by the interlayer Marangoni effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Pumera, Martin

    2012-09-06

    A novel thin capsule motor has been described in this report. It utilizes the Marangoni effect for the solid capsule to run at a water-oil interlayer, which has not been reported previously. Intrinsic and environment factors influencing the motion were investigated. It is also possible for the velocity, direction, and start/stop of the motion of the capsule to be manipulated.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  8. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  9. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid) can cause a head tilt. This is ... amblyopia) are other treatment alternatives. Physical therapy helps congenital torticollis from tight neck muscles. Updated ... Terms & Conditions Most Common ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of ...

  11. Head Start in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Clara M. D.; Epps, Frances M. J.

    Records and observations from a summer Head Start program, conducted in Los Angeles by Delta Sigma Theta, are delineated in this book. It relates firsthand experiences of the participating personnel as they developed and implemented a Head Start program for some 300 children. The book is divided into three sections. Section I,…

  12. Development of a Low Temperature Irradiation Capsule for Research Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Lee, Cheol Yong; Yang, Sung Woo; Shin, Yoon Taek; Park, Seng Jae; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    A new capsule design was prepared and tested at HANARO for a neutron irradiation of core materials of research reactors as a part of the research reactor development project. Irradiation testing of the materials including graphite, beryllium, and zircaloy-4 that are supposed to be used as core materials in research reactors was required for irradiation at up to 8 reactor operation cycles at low temperature (<100 .deg. C). Therefore, three instrumented capsules were designed and fabricated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the core materials (Graphite, Be, Zircaloy-4) of research reactors. The capsules were first designed and fabricated to irradiate materials at low temperature (<100 .deg. C) for a long cycle of 8 irradiation cycles at HANARO. Therefore, the safety of the new designed capsule should be fully checked before irradiation testing. Out-pile performance and endurance testing before HANARO irradiation testing was performed using a capsule under a 110% condition of a reactor coolant flow amount. The structural integrity of the capsule was analyzed in terms of a vibration-induced fatigue cracking of a rod tip of the capsule that is suspected to be the most vulnerable part of a capsule. Another two capsules were irradiated at HANARO for 4 cycles, and one capsule was transferred to a hot cell to examine the integrity of the rod tip of the capsule. After confirming the soundness of the 4 cycle-irradiated capsule, the remaining capsule was irradiated at up to 8 cycles at HANARO. Based on the structural integrity analysis of the capsule, an improved capsule design will be suggested for a longer irradiation test at HANARO.

  13. A non-rigid map fusion-based direct SLAM method for endoscopic capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Mehmet; Almalioglu, Yasin; Araujo, Helder; Konukoglu, Ender; Sitti, Metin

    2017-01-01

    Since the development of capsule endoscopy technology, medical device companies and research groups have made significant progress to turn passive capsule endoscopes into robotic active capsule endoscopes. However, the use of robotic capsules in endoscopy still has some challenges. One such challenge is the precise localization of the actively controlled robot in real-time. In this paper, we propose a non-rigid map fusion based direct simultaneous localization and mapping method for endoscopic capsule robots. The proposed method achieves high accuracy for extensive evaluations of pose estimation and map reconstruction performed on a non-rigid, realistic surgical EsophagoGastroDuodenoscopy Simulator and outperforms state-of-the art methods.

  14. Baseline head in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Tammisto, E.; Lehtimaeki, T. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2008-11-15

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel, Posiva Oy investigates the prevailing hydrological conditions on Olkiluoto island. The hydrological investigations have included several kinds of hydrological tests such as measurements of hydraulic conductivity by flow logging and a double-packer tool as well as interference tests by pumping, in order to study the hydraulic connections between the drillholes. In addition, long-term monitoring of groundwater level and groundwater head as well as measurements of flow conditions in open drillholes, groundwater salinity (in situ EC), precipitation (including snow), sea-water level, surface flow (runoff) etc. have been part of the investigation programme aiming at the characterization of the bedrock. The data have been used in the compilation of deterministic hydro-zones and hydraulic properties for numerical flow modelling to study the flow pattern on Olkiluoto island. In addition, the compiled bedrock models have been used in the planning of the repository layout and in the analyses of the transport of radionuclides and the functionality of engineered barriers. This report focuses on the measurements of groundwater head by means of multi-packers and in connection with flow loggings. The determination of the undisturbed groundwater head (baseline head) in terms of the in situ fresh water head is the main goal of this report. The density of groundwater is strongly dependent on salinity and due to the saline groundwater deep in the bedrock in Olkiluoto the term fresh water head is used instead of hydraulic head. Taking the density of groundwater into account, the gradient of the residual pressure, which actually causes groundwater flow can be calculated. The measured and calculated heads are converted into corresponding in situ fresh water heads, which correspond to the water level (metres above sea level) in the hose that runs from the packed-off section to the ground surface. This means that

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  17. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  18. Structural analysis and design optimization of double shell system for fuel irradiation capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. S.; Choi, Y. J.; Choi, M. H.; Rhu, C. H.; Go, J. H.; Hong, S. J.; Lee, H. C. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    During irradiation tests, the fuel capsule expect that the high temperature will be occur. Thus, to estimate the structural integrity of fuel capsule during irradiation tests, it is needed to perform structural analysis and to obtain the information of mechanical characteristics for the system. In this study, the structure analysis of the circular capsule is performed using the finite element analysis program, ANSYS and analysis calculation. To obtain the mechanical characteristics of the circular capsule structure such as stresses, critical buckling loads and natural frequencies et al. the static nd model analysis are conducted. The effects of various wall thicknesses of capsule outer tube and support tube for circular capsule are obtained. Also, the effects of boundary conditions and principal materials of the fuel capsule on the structural behavior are investigated. The FE results are compared with the analysis results in case of possible. 13 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  19. Polyp Detection and Segmentation from Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Surya Prasath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is used widely nowadays for visualizing the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Capsule endoscopy exams are prescribed usually as an additional monitoring mechanism and can help in identifying polyps, bleeding, etc. To analyze the large scale video data produced by VCE exams, automatic image processing, computer vision, and learning algorithms are required. Recently, automatic polyp detection algorithms have been proposed with various degrees of success. Though polyp detection in colonoscopy and other traditional endoscopy procedure based images is becoming a mature field, due to its unique imaging characteristics, detecting polyps automatically in VCE is a hard problem. We review different polyp detection approaches for VCE imagery and provide systematic analysis with challenges faced by standard image processing and computer vision methods.

  20. Capsule physics comparison of different ablators for NIF implosion designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Kritcher, Andrea; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Haan, Steven; Ralph, Joseph; Weber, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the Naitonal Ignition Facility (NIF) have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) plastic, high density carbon (HDC), and beryllium. How do these different ablator choices compare in current and future implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This talk compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and proposed future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Compounding of slow-release niacinamide capsules: feasibility and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojkovic, Branko; Milić, Jela; Calija, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of extemporaneous compounding of slow-release oral dosage form of niacinamide and to evaluate its release kinetics. The model formulation (preparation) was developed in the form of powder-filled hard gelatin capsules. Two slow-release preparations with different ratios of hypromellose have been prepared and evaluated in comparison with an immediate-release preparation. The dissolution tests were performed as per United States Pharmacopoeia requirements: Type I Apparatus, over 7 hours. Both slow-release preparations, containing 40% and 60% v/v hypromellose, respectively, have showed slow release kinetics. The dissolution profiles were significantly different, with similarity factor f2niacinamide capsules can be successfully compounded using hypromellose as a sole release rate modifier, and that the release mechanism is comparable to hydrophilic polymer matrix-based systems.

  2. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fork, Frans-Thomas [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Aabakken, Lars [Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-12-15

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography. (orig.)

  3. Acetylene bubble-powered autonomous capsules: towards in situ fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Wang, Hong; Pumera, Martin

    2014-12-28

    A fuel-free autonomous self-propelled motor is illustrated. The motor is powered by the chemistry of calcium carbide and utilising water as a co-reactant, through a polymer encapsulation strategy. Expulsion of acetylene bubbles powers the capsule motor. This is an important step, going beyond the toxic hydrogen peroxide fuel used normally, to find alternative propellants for self-propelled machines.

  4. Deep Reinforcement Learning using Capsules in Advanced Game Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Per-Arne

    2018-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a research area that has blossomed tremendously in recent years and has shown remarkable potential for artificial intelligence based opponents in computer games. This success is primarily due to vast capabilities of Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNet), enabling algorithms to extract useful information from noisy environments. Capsule Network (CapsNet) is a recent introduction to the Deep Learning algorithm group and has only barely begun to be explored. The ...

  5. Arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the results of arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder associated as for improved range of motion after a minimum follow up of six years. METHODS: from August 2002 to December 2004, ten patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment underwent arthroscopic surgery. One interscalene catheter was placed for postoperative analgesia before the procedure. All were in Phase II, with a minimum follow up of two years. The mean age was 52.9 years (39-66, predominantly female (90%, six on the left shoulder. The time between onset of symptoms and surgical treatment ranged from six to 20 months. Four adhesive capsulitis were found to be primary (40% and six secondary (60%. RESULTS: the preoperative mean of active anterior elevation was 92°, of external rotation was 10.5° of the L5 level internal rotation; the postoperative ones were 149°, 40° and T12 level, respectively. Therefore, the average gain was 57° for the anterior elevation, 29.5° for external rotation in six spinous processes. There was a significant difference in movements' gains between the pre and post-operative periods (p<0.001. By the Constant Score (range of motion, there was an increase of 13.8 (average pre to 32 points (average post. CONCLUSION: the arthroscopic treatment proved effective in refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment, improving the range of joint movements of patients evaluated after a minimum follow up of six years.

  6. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariaelena Caboni; Thierry Pédron; Omar Rossi; David Goulding; Derek Pickard; Francesco Citiulo; MacLennan, Calman A.; Gordon Dougan; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Allan Saul; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Christiane Gerke

    2015-01-01

    Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule,...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ...

  9. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain. If the head injury is very severe, mechanical ventilation may be used. Doctors control blood pressure and minimize the amount of brain swelling by adjusting the amount of intravenous fluids given and sometimes by giving intravenous drugs that ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? A person who is very large may not fit into ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It ... within the brain shortly after a patient exhibits symptoms of a stroke. a stroke, especially with a ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... scans in children should always be done with low-dose technique. top of page What are the ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... this tunnel. Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... a few seconds, and even faster in small children. Such speed is beneficial for all patients but ...

  20. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top of page This page ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... sometimes compared to looking into a loaf of bread by cutting the loaf into thin slices. When ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ...

  4. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  5. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  6. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be: Stored Viewed on a monitor Printed on film Three-dimensional models of the head area can ... when you have certain other signs or symptoms Hearing loss (in some people) Symptoms of damage to ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your ... provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x- ...

  8. Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk of head and neck cancer. Environmental or occupational inhalants. Inhaling asbestos, wood dust, paint ... from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Review dictionary articles to help understand medical phrases and terms ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... is also performed to: evaluate the extent of bone and soft tissue damage in patients with facial ...

  11. Bioequivalence study of two fluconazole capsule formulations in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R; Fidelis, S; Vanunci, M L P; Oliveira, C H; Mendes, G D; Abib, E; Moreno, R A

    2004-01-01

    To compare the bioavailability of a fluconazole 150 mg capsule formulation from Laboratório Teuto Brasileiro Ltd., Brazil (test formulation), and Zoltec 150 mg capsule from Laboratórios Pfizer Ltd., Brazil (reference formulation), in 24 volunteers of both sexes. The study was conducted open with randomized 2-period crossover design and a 2-week washout period. Plasma samples were obtained over a 168-hour interval. Fluconazole concentrations were analyzed by combined reversed-phase liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with positive ion electrospray ionization using selected ion monitoring method. From the fluconazole plasma concentration vs. time curves the following pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained: AUC(last), AUC(0-inf) and C(max). Geometric mean of fluconazole/Zoltec 150 mg individual percent ratio was 102.6% for AUC(last), 102.2% for AUC(0-inf) and 109.4% for C(max). The 90% confidence intervals were 97.3-108.2%, 97.0-107.8%, and 103.1-116.0%, respectively. Since the 90% CI for both Cmax, AUC(last) and AUC(0-inf) were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration, it was concluded that fluconazole 150 mg capsule was bioequivalent to Zoltec 150 mg, according to both the rate and extent of absorption.

  12. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Media gather at the KSC Visitor Complex for the kickoff of the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which will open to the public on Saturday, June 17. At the podium is Mike Quattrone, executive vice president and general manager, Discovery Channel. Standing to the left of the podium is Rick Abramson, president and chief operating officer of Delaware North Parks Services of Spaceport, Inc., and far left, Jim Jennings, deputy director of Kennedy Space Center. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961 on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking to the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, three miles deep. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule is now restored and preserved, and part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  13. Dumbbell formation for elastic capsules in nonlinear extensional Stokes flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2017-06-01

    Cross-slot and four-roll-mill microdevices are commonly used for particle manipulation and characterization owing to the stagnation-point flow at the device center. Because of the solid boundaries, these devices may generate extensional Stokes flows where the velocity is a nonlinear function of position associated with a decreased pressure at the particle edges and an increased pressure at the particle middle. Our computational investigation shows that in this class of Stokes flows, an elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane develops two distinct steady-state conformations at strong flows, i.e., an elongated weak dumbbell shape with rounded edges at low flow nonlinearity and a laterally extended dumbbell shape at high flow nonlinearity. These effects are more pronounced for the less strain-hardening capsules which develop a flat extended middle where the two sides of the membrane approach each other. The strong stability properties of the strain-hardening capsules (owing to the development of strong membrane tensions) contrast significantly with the behavior of droplets in these nonlinear flows which are unable to achieve highly deformed steady-state dumbbell shapes owing to their constant surface tension.

  14. Lateral migration of a capsule in a parabolic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, S; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2016-07-26

    Red blood cells migrate to the center of the blood vessel in a process called axial migration, while other blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, are disproportionately found near the blood vessel wall. However, much is still unknown concerning the lateral migration of cells in the blood; the specific effect of hydrodynamic factors such as a wall or a shear gradient is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the lateral migration of a capsule using the boundary integral method, in order to compute exactly an infinite computational domain for an unbounded parabolic flow and a semi-infinite computational domain for a near-wall parabolic flow in the limit of Stokes flow. We show that the capsule lift velocity in an unbounded parabolic flow is linear with respect to the shear gradient, while the lift velocity in a near-wall parabolic flow is dependent on the distance to the wall. Then, using these relations, we give an estimation of the relative effect of the shear gradient as a function of channel width and distance between the capsule and the wall. This estimation can be used to determine cases in which the effect of the shear gradient or wall can be neglected; for example, the formation of the cell-free layer in blood vessels is determined to be unaffected by the magnitude of the shear gradient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis F Buck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control; Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols; Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively; Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy. The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p Conclusion The difference for the combined treatment group was attributed to patients' receiving the best PT combined with structured "home therapy" that contributed an additional 90 hours of end-range stretching. This adjunct should be included in the standard of care for adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158

  16. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms. PMID:27388558

  17. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-07-08

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms.

  18. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for NIC Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Salmonson, J.; Milovich, J.; Callahan, D.

    2012-10-01

    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations, despite the fact that the shorter pulses for HDC capsules result in higher M-band radiation compared to that for plastic capsules. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has relatively high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation. HDC ablators have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is more than an order-of-magnitude smoother than Be or plastic ablators. Refreeze of the ablator near the fuel region can be avoided by appropriate dopant placement. Here we present two HDC ignition designs doped with W and Si. For the design with maximum W concentration of 1.0 at% (and respectively with maximum Si concentration of 2.0 at%): peak velocity = 0.395 (0.397) mm/ns, mass weighted fuel entropy = 0.463 (0.469) kJ/mg/eV, peak core hydrodynamic stagnation pressure = 690 (780) Gbar, and yield = 17.3 (20.2) MJ. 2-D simulations show that yield is close to 80% YoC even with 2.5x of nominal surface roughness on all surfaces. The clean fuel fraction is about 75% at peak velocity. Doping HDC with the required concentration of W and Si is in progress. A first undoped HDC Symcap is scheduled to be fielded later this year.

  19. Characterization of bacterial polysaccharide capsules and detection in the presence of deliquescent water by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-Nan; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Sheng-Bo; Qiao, Li-Ping; Chen, Xiu-Lan; He, Hai-Lun; Zhao, Xian; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-05-01

    We detected polysaccharide capsules from Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87 with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The molecular organization of the capsules at the single-polysaccharide-chain level was reported. Furthermore, we found that with ScanAsyst mode the polysaccharide capsules could be detected even in the presence of deliquescent water covering the capsule.

  20. Quantitative analysis of orthopedic metal artefact reduction in 64-slice computed tomography scans in large head metal-on-metal total hip replacement, a phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Warringa, Niek; Edens, Mireille A.; Mueller, Dirk; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.; Maas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of the effect of O-MAR on decreasing metal artefacts caused by large head metal on metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) in a dedicated phantom setup of the hip. Background: Pathological reactions of the hip capsule on Computed tomography (CT) can be difficult to diagnose

  1. A comparison of the puncturing properties of gelatin and hypromellose capsules for use in dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, J C; Jones, B E; Morrissey, A; Jones, B E

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates capsule puncture in dry powder inhalers. Gelatin and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) capsules (stored at 11 and 33% relative humidities) were punctured using a pin from a Foradil inhaler, with insertion force measurement via an Instron tester. In HPMC capsules, the force after capsule puncture reduced by half and then increased to a second maximum as the pin shaft entered the hole. In gelatin capsules, the postpuncture force reduced to zero, indicating shell flaps losing contact with the pin. At lower moisture contents, both capsules were less flexible. This provides a tool to measure the shell properties of inhalation capsules.

  2. Clinical Experience with the PillCam Patency Capsule prior to Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Real-World Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Römmele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In patients with known or suspected risk factors for gastrointestinal stenosis, the PillCam patency capsule (PC is given before a video capsule endoscopy (VCE in order to minimize the risk of capsule retention (CR. CR is considered unlikely upon excretion of the PC within 30 hours, excretion in an undamaged state after 30 hours, or radiological projection to the colon. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of 38 patients with risk factors for CR, who received a PC from 02/2013 to 04/2015 at Klinikum Augsburg. Results. Sixteen of our 38 patients observed a natural excretion after a mean time of 34 hours past ingestion. However, only 8 patients observed excretion within 30 hours, as recommended by the company. In 20 patients passage of the PC into the colon was shown via RFID-scan or radiological imaging (after 33 and 45 hours, resp.. Only 2 patients showed a pathologic PC result. In consequence, 32 patients received the VCE; no CR was observed. Conclusion. Our data indicates that a VCE could safely be performed even if the PC excretion time is longer than 30 hours and the excreted PC was not screened for damage.

  3. Low-Temperature and Long-Term Irradiation Testing of HANARO Instrumented Capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Lee, Cheol Yong; Yang, Sung Woo; Shin, Yoontaek; Park, Sengjae; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, the low-temperature and long-term irradiation capsule technology developed for the irradiation testing of research reactor materials at HANARO are described. A new capsule and capsule system for long-term irradiation at low temperature was designed, fabricated, and irradiated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the core materials (Graphite, Be, Zircaloy-4) of a research reactor for the National Project of 'Research Reactor Development'. Two capsules were first designed and fabricated to irradiate materials at low temperature (36-56 .deg .C) for a long cycle of 8 irradiation cycles at HANARO. The safety of the new irradiation capsule and capsule system was thoroughly evaluated through the out-pile and in-pile testing. The new capsule was successfully irradiated for up to 8 cycles at HANARO. HANARO instrumented irradiation capsules have been actively used for the irradiation of nuclear fuels and materials. Capsule technology was basically developed for irradiation testing under a commercial reactor operation environment. Most irradiation testing using capsules has been performed at specimen temperatures of 250-500 .deg. C within 4 reactor operation cycles (about 100 days) at HANARO. Recently, as a part of the research reactor development's project, irradiation testing of materials used as reflector materials in a research reactor such as graphite, beryllium, and zircaloy-4 was required up to 8 reactor operation cycles at low temperature (<100 .deg. C) of specimens.

  4. Testing the relative importance of ion diffusive transport and turbulent mixing with separated-reactant capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Nelson; Zylstra, Alex

    2017-10-01

    Two recent capsule implosion shots at OMEGA, employing separated reactants (tritium gas surrounded by a layer of deuterated CD plastic) [A. B. Zylstra et al., in preparation], afford a simple test for distinguishing the importance of ion diffusive transport vs. turbulent mixing in the implosions. One capsule had a CD layer that was twice as thick as the other capsule: 0.3 μm vs 0.15 μm. Simulations using a turbulent-mix model together with an ion-diffusion model indicate that the thick-CD capsule would be expected to give higher DT yield than the thin-CD capsule, owing to the larger quantity of D available to mix with T. By contrast, simulations using the ion-diffusion model alone indicate that the thin-CD capsule would give the higher DT yield, owing to the fact that (a) it was driven somewhat harder than the thick-CD capsule and (b) only an extremely thin layer on the inside of the CD contributes significantly to the DT yield for either capsule, so the thickness difference is irrelevant. Measurements showed that in fact the thin-CD capsule gave higher DT yield, supporting the importance of ion diffusive transport in such capsule implosions. Research supported by US DOE under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  5. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cohen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. RESULTS: The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  8. Pediatric head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  9. Chitosan-alginate capsules as oral delivery system for insulin: studies in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. RODRIGUES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess chitosan:alginate capsules as gastric resistant systems for oral administration of insulin. Chitosan:alginate capsules of insulin were tested in simulated gastric and intestinal media and in vivo. The capsules released only about 20% of the insulin after 60 minutes of incubation in simulated gastric medium. On the other hand, almost all the encapsulated insulin was released after being incubated for 90 min in simulated intestinal medium. When capsules containing 20 IU and 40 IU insulin were given to rats by gavage, signifi cantly reduced plasma glucose levels were observed (33.7 % and 51.7%, respectively two hours after the treatment, which returned to normal after six hours. These results indicate that chitosan:alginate capsules are potential carriers for oral protein delivery. Keywords: chitosan:alginate capsules; insulin; oral administration.

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Spiral Structure of a Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanan Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fitting a wireless capsule endoscope (WCE with a navigation feature can maximize its functional benefits. The rotation of a spiral-type capsule can be converted to translational motion. The study investigated how the spiral structure and rotational speed affected the capsule's translation speed. A hand-held instrument, including two permanent magnets, a stepper motor, a controller and a power supplier, were designed to generate rotational magnetic fields. The surfaces of custom-built permanent magnet rings magnetized radially were mounted in spiral lines with different lead angles and diameters, acting as mock-up capsules. The experimental results demonstrate that the rotational speed of the magnetic field and the spiral have significant effects on the translational speed of a capsule. The spiral line with a larger lead angle and the rotating magnetic field with a higher speed can change the capsule's rotation into a translational motion more efficiently in the intestine.

  11. Structure of capsule around acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum from uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards of two species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobrechova, Ekaterina M; Nikishin, Vladimir P; Lisitsyna, Olga I

    2012-01-01

    Micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsule forming around acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum in uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards Lacerta agilis and Lacerta viridis-have been studied. Experimental infestation of the lizards by acanthocephalans obtained from naturally infested sea fishes showed that only small amount of parasites occurred in the intestine of the host was able to migrate into body cavity and to be encapsulated. Micromorphology of capsules of different ages from different species of lizards and micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsules at the age of 1.5 and 10 days appeared to be similar. In the capsule's structure cells of inflammatory rank were prevailing: mononuclear and multinuclear macrophages, eosinophils, and basophils. Fibroblasts were not numerous and were located only in the outer part of a capsule; exocellular collagen fibers were absent. Inflammatory character of capsule confirms the idea that lizards are unsuitable paratenic hosts for corynosomes.

  12. Is there a role for colon capsule endoscopy beyond colorectal cancer screening? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Beintaris, Iosif; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-09-28

    Colon capsule endoscopy is recommended in Europe alternatively to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in average risk individuals. The procedure has also been proposed to complete colon examination in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is contraindicated or refused by the patient. As tissue samples cannot be obtained with the current capsule device, colon capsule endoscopy has no place in diagnosing ulcerative colitis or in dysplasia surveillance. Nevertheless, data are accumulating regarding its feasibility to examine ulcerative colitis disease extent and to monitor disease activity and mucosal healing, even though reported results on the capsule's performance in this field vary greatly. In this review we present the currently available evidence for the use of colon capsule endoscopy to complement colonoscopy failure to reach the cecum and its use to evaluate ulcerative colitis disease activity and extent. Moreover, we provide an outlook on issues requiring further investigation before the capsule becomes a mainstream alternative to colonoscopy in such cases.

  13. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  14. Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shannon; Melin, Alyson; Reilly, Debra

    2017-10-01

    Management of head and neck burns involves acute and intermediate phases. Acutely, the goals are establish a secure airway and treat life-threatening injuries. Then, optimize nutrition, assess extent of the burn, perform local wound care, and provide eye protection. Management depends on the degree of the head and neck burn. Postinjury splinting and rehabilitation are vital to healing. After the acute inflammation has resolved and the scars have matured, reconstruction begins with the goals of restoring both function and aesthetics. Reconstruction ranges from simple scar release, to skin grafting, and possibly free flap reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  16. Validated computed cleansing score for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amir; Gizbar, Moshe; Bourke, Michael J; Ahlenstiel, Golo

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic yield of video capsule endoscopy may be hampered by intestinal content or air bubbles. A major limitation in video capsule-related study is the lack of a validated objective score for bowel preparation quality. We aimed to design and validate a computed small bowel preparation score for research and clinical use. Two experienced physicians reached a consensus regarding bowel preparation quality based on known criteria used in previous studies and their confidence of an accurate medical interpretation of the procedure. A computed algorithm based on the pixels in the color bar was created and validated. Concordance between the gastroenterologists' agreement (gold standard) and the computed analysis was assessed. Of 85 videos studied, 44 (52%), 13 (15%) and 28 (33%) had adequate, borderline and inadequate bowel preparation, respectively, according to the gastroenterologists' agreement. Computer analysis restricted to adequate and inadequate cases yielded accurate classification of bowel preparation in 65/72 cases (90% agreement, sensitivity 95%, specificity 82%, total accuracy 90%, Kappa 0.79). When adding the borderline definition, the computer analysis correctly classified 71/85 of the cases, yielding an overall agreement of 84% (Kappa 0.72). Minute-by-minute analysis of 10 cases also yielded an agreement of 91.4%. The present study introduces a user-friendly computer analysis-based small bowel preparation score, which demonstrated excellent concordance with the physician's assessment. This score holds promise as a standardization tool in research and clinical practice of video capsule endoscopy. Further validation is warranted. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. Medical capsule robots: A renaissance for diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapara, Sanyat S; Patravale, Vandana B

    2017-09-10

    The advancements in electronics and the progress in nanotechnology have resulted in path breaking development that will transform the way diagnosis and treatment are carried out currently. This development is Medical Capsule Robots, which has emerged from the science fiction idea of robots travelling inside the body to diagnose and cure disorders. The first marketed capsule robot was a capsule endoscope developed to capture images of the gastrointestinal tract. Today, varieties of capsule endoscopes are available in the market. They are slightly larger than regular oral capsules, made up of a biocompatible case and have electronic circuitry and mechanisms to capture and transmit images. In addition, robots with diagnostic features such as in vivo body temperature detection and pH monitoring have also been launched in the market. However, a multi-functional unit that will diagnose and cure diseases inside the body has not yet been realized. A remote controlled capsule that will undertake drug delivery and surgical treatment has not been successfully launched in the market. High cost, inadequate power supply, lack of control over drug release, limited space for drug storage on the capsule, inadequate safety and no mechanisms for active locomotion and anchoring have prevented their entry in the market. The capsule robots can revolutionize the current way of diagnosis and treatment. This paper discusses in detail the applications of medical capsule robots in diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment. In diagnostics, detailed analysis has been presented on wireless capsule endoscopes, issues associated with the marketed versions and their corresponding solutions in literature. Moreover, an assessment has been made of the existing state of remote controlled capsules for targeted drug delivery and surgical treatment and their future impact is predicted. Besides the need for multi-functional capsule robots and the areas for further research have also been

  18. Wzi Is an Outer Membrane Lectin that Underpins Group 1 Capsule Assembly in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Bushell, Simon R.; Mainprize, Iain L.; Wear, Martin A.; Lou, Hubing; Whitfield, Chris; Naismith, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria encase themselves in a polysaccharide capsule that provides a barrier to the physical and immunological challenges of the host. The mechanism by which the capsule assembles around the bacterial cell is unknown. Wzi, an integral outer-membrane protein from Escherichia coli, has been implicated in the formation of group 1 capsules. The 2.6 angstrom resolution structure of Wzi reveals an 18-stranded beta-barrel fold with a novel arrangement of long extracellular loops th...

  19. Gamma camera based method for 131I capsule counting: an alternate method to Uptake probe method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Biju K; Uday, Awasare S; Singh, Baghel N

    2017-11-10

    The main objective of this study was to check the validity of using gamma camera as an alternate method to thyroid uptake probe, for counting 25uCi (0.925 MBq) and 50uCi (1.85 MBq) 131I capsules before administration to thyroid patients. Methods: - 10 sets each of 25uCi (0.925 MBq) and 50uCi (1.85 MBq) 131I capsules received from Board Of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Department Of Atomic Energy, India (BRIT, DAE) have been counted individually using thyroid uptake probe for 10 seconds following institutional protocol and also by keeping individual capsule of a set with 8cm gap between each of them .These capsules were also scanned by Scintillation gamma camera for 100 seconds. Capsules having counts within the range of mean ±2 Standard Deviation (SD) were accepted for patient administration. After analysing both the data, correlation coefficient between these two methods has been evaluated. Results: Scanned images were analysed by drawing Identical ROI around each set of 25uCi (0.925 MBq) and 50uCi (1.85 MBq) 131I capsules. Capsules with counts within 2 Standard Deviation from mean were accepted for patient administration. Good correlation coefficient (r >0.95) was observed between these two counts set. Conclusion: Gamma camera based 131I -capsule counting method is an easy and time saving method compared to probe based capsule counting method as we can scan a set of capsules in a single acquisition. It can provide uniformity information for a batch of 131I -capsules and avoid the time consuming method of individual capsule counting with the thyroid uptake probe. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  20. Development of asymmetric membrane capsules of metformin hydrochloride for oral osmotic controlled drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh Teja Banala; Bharath Srinivasan; Deveswaran Rajamanickam; Basavaraj Basappa Veerbadraiah; Madhavan Varadharajan

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric membrane capsules are one of the novel osmotic delivery devices which offer the delivery of a wide range of drugs in a controlled manner. In the present work, we developed a semi-automatic process by fabricating a hydraulic assisted mechanical robotic arm for the manufacturing of asymmetric membrane capsules and the process was validated in comparison with the manual procedure of manufacturing. The capsule walls were made by dip coating phase inversion process using cellulose aceta...

  1. Dynamic capsule restructuring by the main pneumococcal autolysin LytA in response to the epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Kietzman, Colin C.; Gao, Geli; Mann, Beth; Myers, Lance; Tuomanen, Elaine I.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens produce complex carbohydrate capsules to protect against bactericidal immune molecules. Paradoxically, the pneumococcal capsule sensitizes the bacterium to antimicrobial peptides found on epithelial surfaces. Here we show that upon interaction with antimicrobial peptides, encapsulated pneumococci survive by removing capsule from the cell surface within minutes in a process dependent on the suicidal amidase autolysin LytA. In contrast to classical bacterial autolysis, durin...

  2. Evidence for a Role of the Polysaccharide Capsule Transport Proteins in Pertussis Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Hoo; Jian Hang Lam; Ludovic Huot; Aakanksha Pant; Rui Li; David Hot; Sylvie Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharide (PS) capsules are important virulence determinants for many bacterial pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, produces a surface associated microcapsule but its role in pertussis pathogenesis remained unknown. Here we showed that the B. pertussis capsule locus is expressed in vivo in murine lungs and that absence of the membrane-associated protein KpsT, involved in the transport of the PS polymers across the envelope, but not the surface-exposed PS capsule...

  3. CAPSULES AS A PREVENTION OF FIBRE CLUSTERS IN CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEF STRYK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Homogenous concrete mixture without aggregate pockets and fibre clusters is a presumption for appropriate properties of concrete element or structure. There are technological measures how to achieve homogenously looking mixture from aggregate point of view, but fibres are still predisposed for clusters forming. The paper evaluates originally designed and protected within European patent treatment of fibre, based on capsules containing individual rolled fibre which can be admixed into a concrete mixture and set up homogenously in its whole volume within the mixing process.

  4. Capsule collection for women's plus-size clothing brand

    OpenAIRE

    Vähäkangas, Oona

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to design a capsule collection for women’s plus-size clothing brand called annascholz Ltd. The thesis was based on a design studio internship period that was carried out by the author at the company during summer 2016 and knowledge gained during that time. The thesis consisted of two parts: the first part was the research part and the second the practice-based design part. In the research part more information was gained of the target group by reading studie...

  5. Fine structures of the capsules of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli K1.

    OpenAIRE

    Amako, K; Meno, Y; Takade, A

    1988-01-01

    The fine structures of the capsules of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were determined by the rapid-freezing technique. The capsular layer was seen as a densely packed accumulation of fine fibers. The thickness of the capsule was approximately 160 nm in K. pneumoniae and less than 10 nm in E. coli K1. Two layers were observed in the Klebsiella capsule in which the arrangements of the fibers were different. The inner layer of the capsule was formed by a palisade of thick and dense b...

  6. PhD Dissertation Proposal - Introduction to Dark Mix Concept: Gamma Measurements of Capsule Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meaney, Kevin Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-06

    Presentation slides: Intro to Inertial Confinement Fusion; Types of Mixture in ICF capsules; Previous mixture experiments; Dark Mix Concept; Measuring Dark Mix with Gamma Cherenkov Detector; Dissertation Outline.

  7. Fabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Hanif; Badshah, Munair; Mäkilä, Ermei

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. The prepared capsule shells were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The BC...... capsule shells were studied for drug release using an USP type-I dissolution apparatus. Irrespective of the drying method and the thickness of the BC sheet, the capsule shells displayed an immediate drug release profile. Moreover, the addition of release-retardant cellulosic polymers sustained the drug...

  8. Learning to Diagnose Cirrhosis with Liver Capsule Guided Ultrasound Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a computer-aided cirrhosis diagnosis system to diagnose cirrhosis based on ultrasound images. We first propose a method to extract a liver capsule on an ultrasound image, then, based on the extracted liver capsule, we fine-tune a deep convolutional neural network (CNN model to extract features from the image patches cropped around the liver capsules. Finally, a trained support vector machine (SVM classifier is applied to classify the sample into normal or abnormal cases. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the liver capsules and accurately classify the ultrasound images.

  9. [Exploring the clinical characters of Shugan Jieyu capsule through text mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zheng-Ping; Xia, Jiang-Ming; Xie, Wei; He, Jin-Cai

    2017-09-01

    The study was main to explore the clinical characters of Shugan Jieyu capsule through text mining. The data sets of Shugan Jieyu capsule were downloaded from CMCC database by the method of literature retrieved from May 2009 to Jan 2016. Rules of Chinese medical patterns, diseases, symptoms and combination treatment were mined out by data slicing algorithm, and they were demonstrated in frequency tables and two dimension based network. Then totally 190 literature were recruited. The outcomess suggested that SC was most frequently correlated with liver Qi stagnation. Primary depression, depression due to brain disease, concomitant depression followed by physical diseases, concomitant depression followed by schizophrenia and functional dyspepsia were main diseases treated by Shugan Jieyu capsule. Symptoms like low mood, psychic anxiety, somatic anxiety and dysfunction of automatic nerve were mainy relieved bv Shugan Jieyu capsule.For combination treatment. Shugan Jieyu capsule was most commonly used with paroxetine, sertraline and fluoxetine. The research suggested that syndrome types and mining results of Shugan Jieyu capsule were almost the same as its instructions. Syndrome of malnutrition of heart spirit was the potential Chinese medical pattern of Shugan Jieyu capsule. Primary comorbid anxiety and depression, concomitant comorbid anxiety and depression followed by physical diseases, and postpartum depression were potential diseases treated by Shugan Jieyu capsule.For combination treatment, Shugan Jieyu capsule was most commonly used with paroxetine, sertraline and fluoxetine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Inductive-Based Wireless Power Recharging System for an Innovative Endoscopic Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tortora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopic devices are adopted for painless diagnosis of cancer and other diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract as an alternative to traditional endoscopy. Although much work has been done to improve capsule performance in terms of active navigation, a major drawback is the limited available energy on board the capsule, usually provided by a battery. Another key shortcoming of active capsules is their limitation in terms of active functionalities and related costs. An inductive-based wireless recharging system for the development of an innovative capsule for colonoscopy is proposed in this paper; the aim is to provide fast off-line battery recovery for improving capsule lifecycle and thus reducing the cost of a single endoscopic procedure. The wireless recharging system has been properly designed to fit the dimensions of a capsule for colonoscopy but it can be applied to any biomedical devices to increase the number of times it can be used after proper sterilization. The current system is able to provide about 1 W power and is able to recharge the battery capsule in 20 min which is a reasonable time considering capsule operation time (10–15 min.

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  12. Lubricating the swordfish head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, John J.; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T.; Szabo, Ben G.

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using

  13. Waco Head Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Para

    The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 led to the formation of three separate Head Start Programs in Waco, Texas. The first year, 1,500 children were involved. Of these, 40 percent were Negro, 30 percent Latin American, and 30 percent white. All teachers received a week of preparatory study at the University of Texas. The program involved four areas…

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  15. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the brain. During the examination, an ultrasound machine sends sound ... The fontanel provides an opening for the sound waves to get through and reach the brain. Why It's Done Doctors order head ultrasounds when ...

  16. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  18. Head nurses as middle managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P F

    1983-11-01

    The relationship between head nurses and their staff nurses influences staff turnover rates and job satisfaction. In this article the author describes the measures taken by the management of Greater Southeast Community Hospital in response to an increasing turnover rate among staff RNs. In recognition of the head nurse role vis-d-vis attrition rates and job satisfaction, head nurses were upgraded to department head status and rigorous head nurse performance standards were developed. These standards required clinical expertise, managerial competence, and accountability. It is the author's contention that clinical practice and staff morale are directly related to a clearly defined head nurse role.

  19. Head injuries, heading, and the use of headgear in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedfeldt, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Soccer has more than 265 million players around the world and is the only contact sport with purposeful use of the head for controlling and advancing the ball. Head contact in soccer has the potential to cause acute traumatic brain injury including concussion or, potentially, a pattern of chronic brain injury. Although early retrospective research on the effects of soccer heading seemed to suggest that purposeful heading may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment, prospective controlled studies do not support this and, in fact, suggest that purposeful heading may not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Headgear has not been shown to be effective in reducing ball impact but may be helpful in reducing the force of non-ball-related impacts to the head. There are concerns that universal use of headgear may cause more aggressive heading and head challenges, leading to increased risk of injury.

  20. Radial Head Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-articular displacement and angulation acceptable for non-operative management has yet to be conclusively defined. Similarly the treatment of type III and IV fractures remain controversial. Traditional radial head excision is associated with valgus instability and should be considered only for patients with low functional demands. Comparative studies have shown improved results from internal fixation over excision. Internal fixation should only be attempted when anatomic reduction and initiation of early motion can be achieved. Authors have reported that results from fixation are poorer and complication rates are higher if more than three fragments are present. Radial head arthroplasty aims to reconstruct the native head and is indicated when internal fixation is not feasible and in the presence of complex elbow injuries. Overstuffing of the radiocapitellar joint is a frequent technical fault and has significant adverse effects on elbow biomechanics. Modular design improves the surgeon’s ability to reconstruct the native joint. Two randomised controlled trials have shown improved clinical outcomes and lower complication rate following arthroplasty when compared to internal fixation. Conclusion: We have presented details regarding the treatment of various types of radial head fractures - further evidence, however, is still required to provide clarity over the role of these different management strategies. PMID:29290880

  1. Reduction of capsule endoscopy reading times by unsupervised image mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovidis, D K; Tsevas, S; Polydorou, A

    2010-09-01

    The screening of the small intestine has become painless and easy with wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) that is a revolutionary, relatively non-invasive imaging technique performed by a wireless swallowable endoscopic capsule transmitting thousands of video frames per examination. The average time required for the visual inspection of a full 8-h WCE video ranges from 45 to 120min, depending on the experience of the examiner. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to WCE reading time reduction by unsupervised mining of video frames. The proposed methodology is based on a data reduction algorithm which is applied according to a novel scheme for the extraction of representative video frames from a full length WCE video. It can be used either as a video summarization or as a video bookmarking tool, providing the comparative advantage of being general, unbounded by the finiteness of a training set. The number of frames extracted is controlled by a parameter that can be tuned automatically. Comprehensive experiments on real WCE videos indicate that a significant reduction in the reading times is feasible. In the case of the WCE videos used this reduction reached 85% without any loss of abnormalities.

  2. Quantitative transmission Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jonas; Sparén, Anders; Svensson, Olof; Folestad, Staffan; Claybourn, Mike

    2007-11-01

    Quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical formulations using the new approach of transmission Raman spectroscopy has been investigated. For comparison, measurements were also made in conventional backscatter mode. The experimental setup consisted of a Raman probe-based spectrometer with 785 nm excitation for measurements in backscatter mode. In transmission mode the same system was used to detect the Raman scattered light, while an external diode laser of the same type was used as excitation source. Quantitative partial least squares models were developed for both measurement modes. The results for tablets show that the prediction error for an independent test set was lower for the transmission measurements with a relative root mean square error of about 2.2% as compared with 2.9% for the backscatter mode. Furthermore, the models were simpler in the transmission case, for which only a single partial least squares (PLS) component was required to explain the variation. The main reason for the improvement using the transmission mode is a more representative sampling of the tablets compared with the backscatter mode. Capsules containing mixtures of pharmaceutical powders were also assessed by transmission only. The quantitative results for the capsules' contents were good, with a prediction error of 3.6% w/w for an independent test set. The advantage of transmission Raman over backscatter Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical formulations, and the prospects for reliable, lean calibrations for pharmaceutical analysis is discussed.

  3. Light-Responsive Polymer Micro- and Nano-Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marturano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant amount of academic and industrial research efforts are devoted to the encapsulation of active substances within micro- or nanocarriers. The ultimate goal of core–shell systems is the protection of the encapsulated substance from the environment, and its controlled and targeted release. This can be accomplished by employing “stimuli-responsive” materials as constituents of the capsule shell. Among a wide range of factors that induce the release of the core material, we focus herein on the light stimulus. In polymers, this feature can be achieved introducing a photo-sensitive segment, whose activation leads to either rupture or modification of the diffusive properties of the capsule shell, allowing the delivery of the encapsulated material. Micro- and nano-encapsulation techniques are constantly spreading towards wider application fields, and many different active molecules have been encapsulated, such as additives for food-packaging, pesticides, dyes, pharmaceutics, fragrances and flavors or cosmetics. Herein, a review on the latest and most challenging polymer-based micro- and nano-sized hollow carriers exhibiting a light-responsive release behavior is presented. A special focus is put on systems activated by wavelengths less harmful for living organisms (mainly in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared range, as well as on different preparation techniques, namely liposomes, self-assembly, layer-by-layer, and interfacial polymerization.

  4. Theoretical study of symmetry of flux onto a capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hao; Wu, Changshu; Zou, Shiyang, E-mail: duan-hao@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Pei, Wenbing [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-09-15

    An analytic model to describe the flux asymmetry onto a capsule based on the viewfactor approximation is developed and verified with numerical simulations. By using a nested spheres technique to represent the various sources of flux asymmetry, the model can treat spherically and cylindrically symmetric hohlraums, e.g., cylinder, elliptic, and rugby. This approach includes the more realistic case of frequency-dependent flux asymmetry compared with the more standard frequency-integrated or single-frequency approaches [D. W. Phillion and S. M. Pollaine, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2963 (1994)]. Correspondingly, the approach can be used to assess x-ray preheat asymmetry generated from localized laser absorption in the high-Z hohlraum wall. For spherical hohlraums with 4, 6, or 8 laser entrance holes (LEHs), an optimal configuration of LEHs, laser spot placement, and angle-of-incidence of the single-ringed laser beams is defined. An analogy between minimizing the flux asymmetry onto a capsule and the Thomson problem of point charge placement on a sphere for minimized energy is shown.

  5. Handling Qualities of a Capsule Spacecraft During Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.

    2010-01-01

    A piloted simulation was conducted to study handling qualities for capsule spacecraft entering the Earth s atmosphere. Eight evaluation pilots, including six pilot astronauts, provided Cooper-Harper ratings, workload ratings, and qualitative comments. The simulation began after descending through the atmospheric entry interface point and continued until the drogue parachutes deployed. There were two categories of piloting tasks, both of which required bank angle control. In one task category, the pilot followed a closed-loop bank angle command computed by the backup guidance system to manage g-loads during entry. In the other task category, the pilot used intuitive rules to determine the desired bank angle independently, based on an open-loop schedule of vertical speed, Mach, and total energy specified at several range-to-target gates along the entry trajectory. Pilots were able to accurately track the bank angle guidance commands and steered the capsule toward the recovery site with essentially the same range error as the benchmark autopilot trajectory albeit with substantially higher propellant usage, and the handling qualities for this task were satisfactory. Another key result was that the complex piloting task of atmospheric entry could be performed satisfactorily, even in the presence of large dispersions, by controlling bank angle to follow a simple open-loop schedule.

  6. Positron Radiography of Ignition-Relevant ICF Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui; Field, John; Landen, Nino; Strozzi, David

    2017-10-01

    X-ray and neutron radiography are currently used to infer residual ICF shell and fuel asymmetries and areal density non-uniformities near and at peak compression that can impede ignition. Charged particles offer an alternative probe source that, in principle, are capable of radiographing the shell shape and areal density at arbitrary times, even in the presence of large x-ray self-emission. Laser-generated positrons are evaluated as a source to radiograph ICF capsules where current ultraintense laser facilities are capable of producing 2 ×1012 relativistic positrons in a narrow energy bandwidth and short duration. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that both the areal density and shell radius can be reconstructed for ignition-relevant capsules conditions between 0.002-2 g/cm2, and that this technique might be better suited to direct-drive. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LDRD Program under project tracking code 17-ERD-010.

  7. Assessment of colorectal length using the electromagnetic capsule tracking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Esben Bolvig; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Haase, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed with the sy......AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed...... the cecum / ascending colon being 26% (P = 0.002) shorter on MRI, there were no other differences in total or segmental colorectal lengths between methods (all P > 0.05). Length of the colorectum measured with 3D-Transit on two consecutive days was 102 cm (73-119 cm) and 103 cm (75-123 cm), P = 0.67. CV...

  8. Gamma-based Measurement of ``Dark Mix'' in ICF Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Kevin; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Yh; Zylstra, Ab; Geppert-Kleinrath, H.; Hoffman, Nm; Yi, As

    2017-10-01

    Mix of capsule ablator material into the fusion fuel is a source of yield degradation in inertial confinement fusion. Jetting or chunk mix, such as the elusive ``meteors'' that have been observed at NIF, can be difficult to diagnose because the chunks may not get hot enough to excite dopant x-rays, nor atomized enough for separated-reactants to fuse. Using the gamma reaction history (GRH-6m) diagnostic, (n,n') gammas from strategically placed carbon layer within a beryllium capsule gives a measure of the time-resolved areal density of this carbon during the burn and hence an indication of the compression and spatial distribution of this layer. As the carbon moves further from the fuel, the areal density nominally decreases as 1/r2 for unablated material. However, mix of this carbon into the cold dense fuel layer or hot spot will have a significant effect on the carbon gamma signal. Different types of mix (e.g., jetting, Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, diffusive, ...) as well as features that can seed this mix (eg., tents, fill,...) will be discussed along with their expected effect on the carbon signal. The design for upcoming OMEGA shots, which will demonstrate this technique, and the potential for use on the NIF will be presented.

  9. Adhesive shoulder capsulitis: does the timing of manipulation influence outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Olivia; Mullett, Hannan; Colville, James

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of timing of manipulation under anaesthesia for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder on the long-term outcome. One hundred and eighty consecutive patients with a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis according to Codman's criteria were selected from a shoulder surgery database; 145 were available for follow-up after a mean period of 62 months (range: 12 to 125). All patients underwent manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) with intra-articular steroid injection. A statistically significant improvement in range of movement, function (Oxford Shoulder Score) (OSS) and Visual Analogue pain intensity Score (VAS) was obtained following manipulation. Ninety percent of the 145 patients who successfully completed the study were satisfied with the procedure. Eighty-nine percent indicated that they would choose the same procedure again, if the same problem arose in the opposite shoulder. Eighty-three percent of the patients had manipulation performed less than 9 months from onset of symptoms (early MUA). The remainder had manipulation performed after 9-40 months (late MUA). Patients who had early intervention had a significantly better Oxford Shoulder Score at final follow up; mobility and pain (VAS) were also letter than in the late group, but not significantly.

  10. Pyrolysis of poppy capsule pulp for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopa, Derya Yeşim; Yılmaz, Nazan; Alagöz, Oğuzhan; Dilek, Meltem; Helvacı, Ahmet; Durupınar, Ümit

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of biofuel production via the pyrolysis of poppy capsule pulp, the main waste product of Afyon Alkoloid Factory, was investigated. The poppy capsule pulp was shown to have a high volatile matter content (ca. 76%). Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in the temperature range 400-550°C (heating rate 18°C min(-1) and holding time 20 min) under a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical components of the bio-oil were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the production efficiency and the calorific value of the bio-oil were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield and its calorific value at 500°C were 23.6% and 31.6 MJ kg(-1), respectively. The latter value is close to that of many petroleum fractions. This high-energy bio-oil is therefore a clean fuel precursor and can be upgraded into higher quality fuels. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Hydrocolloid liquid-core capsules for the removal of heavy-metal cations from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussinovitch, A., E-mail: amos.nussi@mail.huji.ac.il; Dagan, O.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Novel liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate core were produced. • Capsules demonstrated highest efficiency adsorption of ∼300 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g alginate. • Regeneration was carried out by suspending capsules in 1 M HNO{sub 3} for 24 h. • Adsorption capacities of the capsules followed the order: Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}. - Abstract: Liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate fluidic core surrounded by a gellan membrane were produced in a single step to investigate their ability to adsorb heavy metal cations. The liquid-core gellan–alginate capsules, produced by dropping alginate solution with magnesium cations into gellan solution, were extremely efficient at adsorbing lead cations (267 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g dry alginate) at 25 °C and pH 5.5. However, these capsules were very weak and brittle, and an external strengthening capsule was added by using magnesium cations. The membrane was then thinned with the surfactant lecithin, producing capsules with better adsorption attributes (316 mg Pb{sup +2}/g dry alginate vs. 267 mg Pb{sup +2}/g dry alginate without lecithin), most likely due to the thinner membrane and enhanced mass transfer. The capsules’ ability to adsorb other heavy-metal cations – copper (Cu{sup 2+}), cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) and nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) – was tested. Adsorption efficiencies were 219, 197 and 65 mg/g, respectively, and were correlated with the cation’s affinity to alginate. Capsules with the sorbed heavy metals were regenerated by placing in a 1 M nitric acid suspension for 24 h. Capsules could undergo three regeneration cycles before becoming damaged.

  12. Analysis of lomustine drug content in FDA-approved and compounded lomustine capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuKanich, Butch; Warner, Matt; Hahn, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the lomustine content (potency) in compounded and FDA-approved lomustine capsules. DESIGN Evaluation study. SAMPLE 2 formulations of lomustine capsules (low dose [7 to 11 mg] and high dose [40 to 48 mg]; 5 capsules/dose/source) from 3 compounders and from 1 manufacturer of FDA-approved capsules. PROCEDURES Lomustine content was measured by use of a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. An a priori acceptable range of 90% to 110% of the stated lomustine content was selected on the basis of US Pharmacopeia guidelines. RESULTS The measured amount of lomustine in all compounded capsules was less than the stated content (range, 59% to 95%) and was frequently outside the acceptable range (failure rate, 2/5 to 5/5). Coefficients of variation for lomustine content ranged from 4.1% to 16.7% for compounded low-dose capsules and from 1.1% to 10.8% for compounded high-dose capsules. The measured amount of lomustine in all FDA-approved capsules was slightly above the stated content (range, 104% to 110%) and consistently within the acceptable range. Coefficients of variation for lomustine content were 0.5% for low-dose and 2.3% for high-dose FDA-approved capsules. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compounded lomustine frequently did not contain the stated content of active drug and had a wider range of lomustine content variability than did the FDA-approved product. The sample size was small, and larger studies are needed to confirm these findings; however, we recommend that compounded veterinary formulations of lomustine not be used when appropriate doses can be achieved with FDA-approved capsules or combinations of FDA-approved capsules.

  13. Capsule endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralnek, I M; Ching, J Y L; Maza, I; Wu, J C Y; Rainer, T H; Israelit, S; Klein, A; Chan, F K L; Ephrath, H; Eliakim, R; Peled, R; Sung, J J Y

    2013-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy may play a role in the evaluation of patients presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the emergency department. We evaluated adults with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage presenting to the emergency departments of two academic centers. Patients ingested a wireless video capsule, which was followed immediately by a nasogastric tube aspiration and later by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). We compared capsule endoscopy with nasogastric tube aspiration for determination of the presence of blood, and with EGD for discrimination of the source of bleeding, identification of peptic/inflammatory lesions, safety, and patient satisfaction. The study enrolled 49 patients (32 men, 17 women; mean age 58.3 ± 19 years), but three patients did not complete the capsule endoscopy and five were intolerant of the nasogastric tube. Blood was detected in the upper gastrointestinal tract significantly more often by capsule endoscopy (15 /18 [83.3 %]) than by nasogastric tube aspiration (6 /18 [33.3 %]; P = 0.035). There was no significant difference in the identification of peptic/inflammatory lesions between capsule endoscopy (27 /40 [67.5 %]) and EGD (35 /40 [87.5 %]; P = 0.10, OR 0.39 95 %CI 0.11 - 1.15). Capsule endoscopy reached the duodenum in 45 /46 patients (98 %). One patient (2.2 %) had self-limited shortness of breath and one (2.2 %) had coughing on capsule ingestion. In an emergency department setting, capsule endoscopy appears feasible and safe in people presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Capsule endoscopy identifies gross blood in the upper gastrointestinal tract, including the duodenum, significantly more often than nasogastric tube aspiration and identifies inflammatory lesions, as well as EGD. Capsule endoscopy may facilitate patient triage and earlier endoscopy, but should not be considered a substitute for EGD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Magnesium ion acts as a signal for capsule induction in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Singh Rathore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, is a common opportunistic neural infection in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptococcus meningitis is associated with fungal burden with larger capsule size in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. To understand the role of CSF constituents in capsule enlargement, we have evaluated the effect of artificial CSF on capsule induction in comparison with various other capsule inducing media. Two different strains of C.neoformans, an environmental and a clinical isolates were used in the present study. While comparing the various capsule inducing media for the two different strains of C.neoformans, it was observed that the capsule growth was significantly increased when grown in artificial CSF at pH 5.5, temperature 34°C for ATCC C.neoformans and 37°C for Clinical C.neoformans and with an incubation period of 72 h. In addition, artificial CSF supports biofilm formation in C.neoformans. While investigating the individual components of artificial CSF, we found that Mg2+ ions influence the capsule growth in both environmental and clinical strains of C.neoformans. To confirm our results we studied the expression of four major CAP genes namely, CAP10, CAP59, CAP60 and CAP64 in various capsule inducing media and in different concentrations of Mg 2+ and Ca2+. Our results on gene expression suggest that, Mg2+ does have an effect on CAP gene expression, which are important for capsule biosynthesis and virulence. Our findings on the role of Mg2+ ion as a signal for capsule induction will promote a way to elucidate the control mechanisms for capsule biosynthesis in C.neoformans.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  19. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of alginate-PLL capsules with varying compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogmoed, CG; Busscher, HJ; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Microencapsulation of cells is a promising approach to prevention of rejection in the absence of immunosuppression. Clinical application, however, is hampered by insufficient insight into the factors that influence the biocompatibility of the capsules. Capsules prepared of alginates with a high

  2. Potential of sago starch/carrageenan mixture as gelatin alternative for hard capsule material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana Dewi; Pranoto, Yudi; Anggraheni, Frida Dwi; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso

    2017-03-01

    In order to replace gelatin in capsule shell production, blends of sago starch and carrageenan were developed. Films and capsules were prepared with 10% (w/v) of sago starch, 25% (w/w starch) of glycerol and various carrageenan concentration (1, 2, 3% w/w starch) in two different kappa/iota-carrageenan ratio (1:3 and 3:1). The resulted films and capsules were characterized by mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeability. In addition, moisture absorption and solubility of capsule in acid solution were investigated. The results reveal that addition of carrageenan makes the films stronger and less permeable. Higher kappa-carrageenan content improved tensile strength and barrier properties of the films, whereas higher iota-carrageenan content produced films with higher elongation, moisture absorption and capsule solubility in acid solution. Capsule with 2% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa-/iota-ratio 3:1 had the lowest moisture absorption, whereas capsule with 3% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa/iota ratio 1:3 had the highest solubility. It is illustrated that sago starch/carrageenan blends can be used as hard capsule material.

  3. Non-small-bowel abnormalities identified during small bowel capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemakers, Reinier; Westerhof, Jessie; Weersma, Rinse K.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence of non-small-bowel abnormalities in patients referred for small bowel capsule endoscopy, this single center study was performed. METHODS: Small bowel capsule endoscopy is an accepted technique to investigate obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. This is defined as

  4. Influence of dextran molecular weight on capture in and release from decylamine carboxymethylcellulose capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, E; Speaker, T J

    1998-01-01

    A series of dextran molecular weight markers were encapsulated in decylamine carboxymethylcellulose microcapsules to serve as probes of capsule retentivity. The capsules were prepared by allowing microdrops of aqueous sodium carboxymethylcellulose to fall into aqueous decylamine acetate solution. Salt exchange reaction at the droplet pseudointerface resulted in self-assembling films which essentially instantaneously enclosed the droplets. Concentrations of anionic polymer were varied in the range from 1-3%. Chromophore-bearing dextrans were incorporated into these capsules by blending the dextrans with the carboxymethylcellulose prior to the encapsulation step. Four dextrans of differing (light scattering) molecular weights were used: 2 x 10(6), 6 x 10(5), 7 x 10(4), and 1.9 x 10(4) amu. The mass balance of dextran retained in the capsules, released on washing the capsules or which escaped encapsulation was determined spectrophotometrically. To measure total dextran in a population of washed capsules, the capsules were lysed in a 0.3 M solution of sodium chloride. To monitor dextran release, washed capsules were suspended in water and dextran concentration in the supernatant was measured. Encapsulation efficiency exceeded 80% for high molecular weight dextran but was lower with the smaller dextrans.

  5. Biocompatibility and surface structure of chemically modified immunoisolating alginate-PLL capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, CM; Gerlach, C; Freier, T; Schmitz, KP; Pilz, M; Werner, C; Jonas, L; Schareck, W; Hopt, UT; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Grafting of encapsulated living cells has the potential to cure a wide variety of diseases. Large-scale application of the technique, however, is hampered by insufficient biocompatibility of the capsules. A major factor in the biocompatibility of capsules is inadequate covering of the inflammatory

  6. Summary of the irradiation history of the TRIST-ER1 capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Eatherly, W.S.; Heatherly, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The TRIST-ERI capsule was assembled and irradiated in a large Removable Beryllium (RB{star}) position of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) during this reporting period. Irradiation began on March 8, 1996, was completed on June 20, 1996, during operating cycles 344, 345, and 346. This report describes the thermal operation of the capsule.

  7. Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression is necessary for colonization of large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre-Bonte, S.; Licht, Tine Rask; Forestier, C.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (K antigen) during colonization of the mouse large intestine was assessed with mild-type K. pneumoniae LM21 and its isogenic capsule-defective mutant. When bacterial strains were fed alone to mice, the capsulated bacteria persisted...

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of a novel pulsed and controlled osmotic pump capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenji; Zhang, Lina; Qu, Xukai; Zhu, Zhihong; Pan, Yusheng; Guan, Jin; Pan, Weisan

    2015-02-01

    For better treatment of circadian cardiovascular events, a novel Propranolol hydrochloride (PNH) delayed-release osmotic pump capsule was developed. The capsule body was designed of asymmetric membrane and the capsule cap was made impermeable. The physical characteristics of capsule body walls and membrane permeability were compared among different coating solutions. The formulation with the glycerin and diethyl phthalate (DEP) ratio of 5:4 appeared to be the best. The lag time and subsequent drug release were investigated through assembling the capsule body with capsule caps of different length. WSR N-10 was chosen as the suspending for its moderate expanding capacity. The influence of factors (WSR N-10 content, NaCl content and capsule cap length) on the responses (lag time and drug release rate) was evaluated using central composite design-response surface methodology. A second-order polynomial equation was fitted to the data and actual response values were in good accordance with the predicted ones. The optimized formulation displayed complete drug delivery, zero-order release rate with 4-h lag time. The results of in vivo pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs clearly suggested the controlled and sustained release of PNH from the system and that the relative bioavailability of this preparation was about 1.023 comparing the marketed preparation. These results indicate that by the adjustment of capsule cap length, PNH could be developed as a novel pulsatile and controlled drug delivery system.

  9. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  10. Improved Water Barrier Properties of Calcium Alginate Capsules Modified by Silicone Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Zukas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium alginate films generally offer poor diffusion resistance to water. In this study, we present a technique for encapsulating aqueous drops in a modified calcium alginate membrane made from an emulsion of silicone oil and aqueous alginate solution and explore its effect on the loss of water from the capsule cores. The capsule membrane storage modulus increases as the initial concentration of oil in the emulsion is increased. The water barrier properties of the fabricated capsules were determined by observing the mass loss of capsules in a controlled environment. It was found that capsules made with emulsions containing 50 wt% silicone oil were robust while taking at least twice the time to dry completely as compared to capsules made from only an aqueous alginate solution. The size of the oil droplets in the emulsion also has an effect on the water barrier properties of the fabricated capsules. This study demonstrates a facile method of producing aqueous core alginate capsules with a modified membrane that improves the diffusion resistance to water and can have a wide range of applications.

  11. Where are we heading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, L.A. [Mobil Corporation, (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry`s participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  12. Radial Head Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-arti...

  13. Genome-Wide Discovery of Genes Required for Capsule Production by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kelvin G K; Phan, Minh-Duy; Forde, Brian M; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ulett, Glen C; Sweet, Matthew J; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2017-10-24

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections and possesses an array of virulence factors for colonization, survival, and persistence. One such factor is the polysaccharide K capsule. Among the different K capsule types, the K1 serotype is strongly associated with UPEC infection. In this study, we completely sequenced the K1 UPEC urosepsis strain PA45B and employed a novel combination of a lytic K1 capsule-specific phage, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to identify the complement of genes required for capsule production. Our analysis identified known genes involved in capsule biosynthesis, as well as two additional regulatory genes (mprA and lrhA) that we characterized at the molecular level. Mutation of mprA resulted in protection against K1 phage-mediated killing, a phenotype restored by complementation. We also identified a significantly increased unidirectional Tn5 insertion frequency upstream of the lrhA gene and showed that strong expression of LrhA induced by a constitutive Pcl promoter led to loss of capsule production. Further analysis revealed loss of MprA or overexpression of LrhA affected the transcription of capsule biosynthesis genes in PA45B and increased sensitivity to killing in whole blood. Similar phenotypes were also observed in UPEC strains UTI89 (K1) and CFT073 (K2), demonstrating that the effects were neither strain nor capsule type specific. Overall, this study defined the genome of a UPEC urosepsis isolate and identified and characterized two new regulatory factors that affect UPEC capsule production.IMPORTANCE Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans and are primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Many UPEC strains express a polysaccharide K capsule that provides protection against host innate immune factors and contributes to survival and

  14. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  15. Using gamma-ray emission to measure areal density of inertial confinement fusion capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, N M; Wilson, D C; Herrmann, H W; Young, C S

    2010-10-01

    Fusion neutrons streaming from a burning inertial confinement fusion capsule generate gamma rays via inelastic nuclear scattering in the ablator of the capsule. The intensity of gamma-ray emission is proportional to the product of the ablator areal density (ρR) and the yield of fusion neutrons, so by detecting the gamma rays we can infer the ablator areal density, provided we also have a measurement of the capsule's total neutron yield. In plastic-shell capsules, for example, (12)C nuclei emit gamma rays at 4.44 MeV after excitation by 14.1 MeV neutrons from D+T fusion. These gamma rays can be measured by a new gamma-ray detector under development. Analysis of predicted signals is in progress, with results to date indicating that the method promises to be useful for diagnosing imploded capsules.

  16. Use of atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for correlative studies of bacterial capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukalov, Oleg; Korenevsky, Anton; Beveridge, Terry J; Dutcher, John R

    2008-09-01

    Bacteria can possess an outermost assembly of polysaccharide molecules, a capsule, which is attached to their cell wall. We have used two complementary, high-resolution microscopy techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to study bacterial capsules of four different gram-negative bacterial strains: Escherichia coli K30, Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1, Shewanella oneidensis MR-4, and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. TEM analysis of bacterial cells using different preparative techniques (whole-cell mounts, conventional embeddings, and freeze-substitution) revealed capsules for some but not all of the strains. In contrast, the use of AFM allowed the unambiguous identification of the presence of capsules on all strains used in the present study, including those that were shown by TEM to be not encapsulated. In addition, the use of AFM phase imaging allowed the visualization of the bacterial cell within the capsule, with a depth sensitivity that decreased with increasing tapping frequency.

  17. Safety Analysis Report for Primary Capsule of Ir-192 Radiation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Choi, W. S.; Seo, K. S.; Son, K. J.; Park, W. J

    2008-12-15

    All of the source capsules to transport a special form radioactive material should be designed and fabricated in accordance with the design criteria prescribed in IAEA standards and domestic regulations. The objective of this project is to prove the safety of a primary capsule for Ir-192 radiation source which produced in the HANARO. The safety tests of primary capsules were carried out for the impact, percussion and heat conditions. And leakage tests were carried out before and after the each tests. The capsule showed slight scratches and their deformations were not found after each tests. It also met the allowable limits of leakage rate after each test. Therefore, it has been verified that the capsule was designed and fabricated to meet all requirements for the special form radioactive materials.

  18. The posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its anatomic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-Velasco, J Ramón; Rodríguez, J Francisco; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Peces, M Dolores; Mérida, J Antonio; Sánchez, Indalecio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the arrangement of the posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its pertinent relationships. The temporomandibular region was dissected bilaterally in 20 adult cadavers. Natural stained latex was injected into 16 cadavers through the external carotid artery to facilitate the dissection of the arterial vessels. The posterior segment of the joint capsule is made up of the so-called "bilaminar zone" of the articular disc. The upper internal portion of the posterior segment of the capsule was reinforced by the discomalleolar ligament. The retroarticular space was filled with loose connective tissue and the anterior branches of the anterior tympanic artery were distributed throughout the posterior segment of the joint capsule. The posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule corresponds to the bilaminar zone of the articular disc. The structures of the retroarticular space are extracapsular.

  19. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  20. Three-dimensional image reconstruction in capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Karargyris, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    To date, limited research has been carried out in developing methods and materials that offer three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the digestive tract. In the field of capsule endoscopy (CE), hardware approaches have been developed that provide real time both 3-D information and texture using an infrared projector and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera. The major drawbacks of this system are its size, power consumption and packaging issues. A software approach to approximate a 3-D representation of digestive tract surface utilising current CE technology has been proposed. The algorithm utilizes the Shape from Shading technique and seem to provide promising results for polypoid structures and angioectasias. Further clinical evaluation is currently under way. PMID:22919239

  1. Organ cultures and kidney-capsule grafting of tooth germs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsu, Keishi; Fujiwara, Naoki; Harada, Hidemitsu

    2012-01-01

    The study of organogenesis allows investigation of a variety of basic biological processes in the context of the intact organ. The ability to analyze teeth ex vivo during development has emerged as a powerful tool to understand how teeth are constructed and the signaling pathways that regulate these developmental processes. Here, we describe in detail our protocols for organ culture and kidney-capsule grafting of mouse tooth germs. These techniques allow us to reproduce the developmental process of tooth germs and estimate the effect of specific genes ex vivo, as well as are a tool for studies on the mechanisms of normal and abnormal tooth morphogenesis. They may also be applied to studies on other aspects of developmental biology and regenerative medicine.

  2. Complex motions of vesicles and capsules in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovska, Petia; Young, Yuan-Nan; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2009-11-01

    Membrane-bound particles exhibit rich dynamics when placed in flow. For example, in simple shear flow, vesicles made of lipid bilayers tank-tread or tumble. Capsules and red blood cells also show oscillations in the tank-treading inclination angle, called swinging. This motion originates from membrane shear--elasticity and non--spherical unstressed shape. We develop an analytical theory that quantitatively describes the swinging dynamics. Our analysis takes into account that the membrane is deformable, incompressible, and resists bending and shearing. Analytical results for the shape evolution are derived by considering a nearly-spherical particle shape. The phase diagram is constructed and compared to previous models which assume fixed ellipsoidal shape. Dynamics in quadratic and time-dependent flows is also discussed. Floquet analysis is conducted to investigate the vesicle dynamics and conditions for chaotic shape and flow dynamics are established.

  3. Effects of empty bins on image upscaling in capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the effect of empty bins on image upscaling in capsule endoscopy. The presented study was conducted based on results of existing contrast enhancement and interpolation methods. A low contrast enhancement method based on pixels consecutiveness and modified bilinear weighting scheme has been developed to distinguish between necessary empty bins and unnecessary empty bins in the effort to minimize the number of empty bins in the input image, before further processing. Linear interpolation methods have been used for upscaling input images with stretched histograms. Upscaling error differences and similarity indices between pairs of interpolation methods have been quantified using the mean squared error and feature similarity index techniques. Simulation results demonstrated more promising effects using the developed method than other contrast enhancement methods mentioned.

  4. Small Bowel Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Detected by Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Igawa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC to the small bowel that presented as a pedunculated epithelial polyp. A 60-year-old man with liver cirrhosis type B was treated for HCC (stage IVb at our hospital. He had been admitted for melena and anemia. Capsule endoscopy was performed in this patient with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It showed a polypoid lesion with bleeding in the ileum. Double-balloon endoscopy was performed. The lesion was determined to be a pedunculated polyp in the ileum. Histological examination of biopsy specimens showed tumor cells resembling HCC. We performed endoscopic mucosal resection for the lesion by double-balloon endoscopy to prevent bleeding from the tumor. The patient had no melena or anemia and his condition improved after endoscopic mucosal resection. However, he died of liver failure 2 months later.

  5. Advantages of Catalysis in Self-Assembled Molecular Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catti, Lorenzo; Zhang, Qi; Tiefenbacher, Konrad

    2016-06-27

    Control over the local chemical environment of a molecule can be achieved by encapsulation in supramolecular host systems. In supramolecular catalysis, this control is used to gain advantages over classical homogeneous catalysis in bulk solution. Two of the main advantages concern influencing reactions in terms of substrate and product selectivity. Due to size and/or shape recognition, substrate selective conversion can be realized. Additionally, noncovalent interactions with the host environment facilitate alternative reaction pathways and can yield unusual products. This Concept article discusses and highlights literature examples utilizing self-assembled molecular capsules to achieve catalytic transformations displaying a high degree of substrate and/or product selectivity. Furthermore, the advantage of supramolecular hosts in multicatalyst tandem reactions is covered. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Unveiling Protein Kinase A Targets in Cryptococcus neoformans Capsule Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Andrew Alspaugh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinase A (PKA signal transduction pathway has been associated with pathogenesis in many fungal species. Geddes and colleagues [mBio 7(1:e01862-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.01862-15] used quantitative proteomics approaches to define proteins with altered abundance during protein kinase A (PKA activation and repression in the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. They observed an association between microbial PKA signaling and ubiquitin-proteasome regulation of protein homeostasis. Additionally, they correlated these processes with expression of polysaccharide capsule on the fungal cell surface, the main virulence-associated phenotype in this organism. Not only are their findings important for microbial pathogenesis, but they also support similar associations between human PKA signaling and ubiquitinated protein accumulation in neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Influence of different excipients on the properties of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole is an effective non-opioid analgesic drug used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Due to induced potentially life-threatening blood disorders, metamizole was withdrawn from market in many parts of the world, however, it is one of the most popular analgesics in Poland that is available as an over the counter drug. Patients tend to prefer capsules over tablets, as they are easier to swallow and taste better. The powder-filled capsules also have greater bioavailability and require less excipients, as compared to tablets. Polymic excipients are mainly used in capsule filling, and have influence upon the physico-chemical properties of the hard gelatin capsules and the powder formulation. The aim of the study was to determine whether various combinations of polymers impact the disintegration time and pharmaceutical availability of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium. The results of our work demonstrated that the 80% of all active substance was released in all tested formulations within 15 minutes. Herein, the capsule containing lactose monohydrate had the longest release (4% after 2 min., while capsules containing mannitol had the fastest release (81.2% after 2 min.. Moreover, the addition of HPMC to capsules with lactose brought about a slight increase in the metamizole release rate, while the addition of PVP 30 to capsules with microcrystalline cellulose slightly accelerated release. This data suggests that the use of different polymers in capsules formulation brings about changes in the physical properties of powders and modifies the release profile of metamizole. In our study, the most preferred formulation was one containing microcrystalline cellulose (good powder properties and fairly fast release.

  8. Liquid-core nanocellulose-shell capsules with tunable oxygen permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svagan, A J; Bender Koch, C; Hedenqvist, M S; Nilsson, F; Glasser, G; Baluschev, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-01-20

    Encapsulation of oxygen sensitive components is important in several areas, including those in the food and pharmaceutical sectors, in order to improve shelf-life (oxidation resistance). Neat nanocellulose films demonstrate outstanding oxygen barrier properties, and thus nanocellulose-based capsules are interesting from the perspective of enhanced protection from oxygen. Herein, two types of nanocellulose-based capsules with liquid hexadecane cores were successfully prepared; a primary nanocellulose polyurea-urethane capsule (diameter: 1.66 μm) and a bigger aggregate capsule (diameter: 8.3 μm) containing several primary capsules in a nanocellulose matrix. To quantify oxygen permeation through the capsule walls, an oxygen-sensitive spin probe was dissolved within the liquid hexadecane core, allowing non-invasive measurements (spin-probe oximetry, electron spin resonance, ESR) of the oxygen concentration within the core. It was observed that the oxygen uptake rate was significantly reduced for both capsule types compared to a neat hexadecane solution containing the spin-probe, i.e. the slope of the non-steady state part of the ESR-curve was approximately one-third and one-ninth for the primary nanocellulose capsule and aggregated capsule, respectively, compared to that for the hexadecane sample. The transport of oxygen was modeled mathematically and by fitting to the experimental data, the oxygen diffusion coefficients of the capsule wall was determined. These values were, however, lower than expected and one plausible reason for this was that the ESR-technique underestimate the true oxygen uptake rate in the present systems at non-steady conditions, when the overall diffusion of oxygen was very slow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seoyon; Park, Dae Hwan; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jong Won; Han, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jeon, Jae Yong; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Kim, Won

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder in breast cancer patients between 13 and 18 months after surgery. This study included 271 women who underwent surgery for breast cancer with a postoperative period of 13-18 months. Current adhesive capsulitis was defined as restriction of external rotation and one or more additional directional restrictions with history of shoulder pain. Cumulative adhesive capsulitis was defined as current adhesive capsulitis or a previous history of adhesive capsulitis after breast cancer surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine associations between current or cumulative adhesive capsulitis and potential risk factors. Among the 271 study patients, 28 (10.3%) and 21 (7.7%) had cumulative or current adhesive capsulitis, respectively. The incidences of cumulative and current adhesive capsulitis were higher in those aged 50-59 years (odds ratio [OR], 9.912; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.790-54.880; and OR, 12.395; 95% CI, 1.187-129.444, respectively) and those who underwent mastectomy (OR, 6.805; 95% CI, 1.800-25.733; and OR, 9.645; 95% CI, 2.075-44.829, respectively) or mastectomy with reconstruction (OR, 13.122; 95% CI, 2.488-69.218; and OR, 20.075; 95% CI, 2.873-140.261, respectively). Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a common problem after breast cancer treatment. An age of 50-59 years and mastectomy are major risk factors for adhesive capsulitis, and breast reconstruction additionally increases the risk. Patients with these risk factors require greater attention for early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  10. The effects of convergence ratio on the implosion behavior of DT layered inertial confinement fusion capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Brian M.; Yi, S. A.; Olson, R. E.; Khan, S. F.; Kyrala, G. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bradley, P. A.; Peterson, R. R.; Kline, J. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Shah, R. C.

    2017-07-01

    The wetted foam capsule design for inertial confinement fusion capsules, which includes a foam layer wetted with deuterium-tritium liquid, enables layered capsule implosions with a wide range of hot-spot convergence ratios (CR) on the National Ignition Facility. We present a full-scale wetted foam capsule design that demonstrates high gain in one-dimensional simulations. In these simulations, increasing the convergence ratio leads to an improved capsule yield due to higher hot-spot temperatures and increased fuel areal density. High-resolution two-dimensional simulations of this design are presented with detailed and well resolved models for the capsule fill tube, support tent, surface roughness, and predicted asymmetries in the x-ray drive. Our modeling of these asymmetries is validated by comparisons with available experimental data. In 2D simulations of the full-scale wetted foam capsule design, jetting caused by the fill tube is prevented by the expansion of the tungsten-doped shell layer due to preheat. While the impacts of surface roughness and predicted asymmetries in the x-ray drive are enhanced by convergence effects, likely underpredicted in 2D at high CR, simulations predict that the capsule is robust to these features. Nevertheless, the design is highly susceptible to the effects of the capsule support tent, which negates all of the one-dimensional benefits of increasing the convergence ratio. Indeed, when the support tent is included in simulations, the yield decreases as the convergence ratio is increased for CR > 20. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the full-scale wetted foam design has the potential to outperform ice layer capsules given currently achievable levels of asymmetries when fielded at low convergence ratios (CR < 20).

  11. Application of Bio-digestion for Capsule Gelatin-- From the Pharmaceutical Wastes to the Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Huang, S.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to bio-digest the capsule gelatin from the waste of pharmaceutical processes such as cutting and stamping for capsule shells producing. We screened soil bacterial flora for capsule gelatin biolysis, and found the most competent one named Yuntech-7. A 15% (w/w) of capsule gelatin could fully digested by Yuntech-7 for 3 days growth with an N-limited medium in a 37°C incubator. In order to recycle and reuse the gelatin waste, the different percentages of capsule gelatin were co-composted with the vegetable residues to produce manure in an anaerobic fermentation by an extra Yuntech-7 inoculation. After 14 days incubation, we collected the filtrate to examine the contents of N, P, and K. The data shows that the P and K keep the same value by roughly between the blank and the control sets, but the total N values were approximately a 5-fold increase in 20% and a 10-fold increase in 40% of capsule gelatin integrated. We suggested that the capsule gelatin was majorly decomposed by Yuntech-7, because the total N value was no observable change in the capsule gelatin and vegetable residues co-compost with a Yuntech-7-free condition. We also performed some field tests using the capsule gelatin generated liquid manure, and the preliminary test shows the plants got great benefits on culture size and in environmental resistance. In conclusion, the process in bio-digestion of waste capsule gelatin by soil bacteria, Yuntech-7, was produced a valuable manure not only aliment the plants but also complement the soil bacterial populations.

  12. Stability of dronabinol capsules when stored frozen, refrigerated, or at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wempe, Michael F; Oldland, Alan; Stolpman, Nancy; Kiser, Tyree H

    2016-07-15

    Results of a study to determine the 90-day stability of dronabinol capsules stored under various temperature conditions are reported. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection was used to assess the stability of dronabinol capsules (synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [Δ9-THC] mixed with high-grade sesame oil and other inactive ingredients and encapsulated as soft gelatin capsules) that were frozen, refrigerated, or kept at room temperature for three months. The dronabinol capsules remained in the original foil-sealed blister packs until preparation for HPLC-UV assessment. The primary endpoint was the percentage of the initial Δ9-THC concentration remaining at multiple designated time points. The secondary aim was to perform forced-degradation studies under acidic conditions to demonstrate that the HPLC-UV method used was stability indicating. The appearance of the dronabinol capsules remained unaltered during frozen, cold, or room-temperature storage. Regardless of storage condition, the percentage of the initial Δ9-THC content remaining was greater than 97% for all evaluated samples at all time points over the three-month study. These experimental data indicate that the product packaging and the sesame oil used to formulate dronabinol capsules efficiently protect Δ9-THC from oxidative degradation to cannabinol; this suggests that pharmacies can store dronabinol capsules in nonrefrigerated automated dispensing systems, with a capsule expiration date of 90 days after removal from the refrigerator. Dronabinol capsules may be stored at room temperature in their original packaging for up to three months without compromising capsule appearance and with minimal reduction in Δ9-THC concentration. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  14. Clinical evaluation of arthroscopic treatment of shoulder adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of arthroscopic releases performed in patients with adhesive capsulitis refractory to conservative treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, conducted between 1996 and 2012, which included 56 shoulders (52 patients that underwent surgery; 38 were female, and 28 had the dominant side affected. The mean age was 51 (29-73 years. The mean follow-up was 65 (12-168 months and the mean preoperative time was 8.9 (2-24 months. According to Zukermann's classification, 23 cases were considered primary and 33 secondary. With the patient in the lateral decubitus position, circumferential release of the joint capsule was performed: joint debridement; rotator interval opening; coracohumeral ligament release; anterior, posterior, inferior, and finally antero-inferior capsulotomy. A subscapularis tenotomy was performed when necessary. All patients underwent intense physical therapy in the immediate postoperative period. In 33 shoulders, an interscalene catheter was implanted for anesthetic infusion. Functional results were evaluated by the UCLA criteria. RESULTS: Improved range of motion was observed: mean increase of 45° of elevation, 41° of external rotation and eight vertebral levels of medial rotation. According to the UCLA score excellent results were obtained in 25 (45% patients; good, in 24 (45%; fair, in two (3%; and poor, in two (7%. Patients who had undergone inferior capsulotomy achieved better results. Only 8.8% of patients who used the anesthetic infusion catheter underwent postoperative manipulation. Seven patients had complications. CONCLUSION: There was improvement in pain and range of motion. Inferior capsulotomy leads to better results. The use of the interscalene infusion catheter reduces the number of re-approaches.

  15. Clinical evaluation of arthroscopic treatment of shoulder adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Santos, Pedro Doneux; Silva, Luciana Andrade; Sella, Guilherme do Val; Carrenho, Leonardo; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the results of arthroscopic releases performed in patients with adhesive capsulitis refractory to conservative treatment. This was a retrospective study, conducted between 1996 and 2012, which included 56 shoulders (52 patients) that underwent surgery; 38 were female, and 28 had the dominant side affected. The mean age was 51 (29-73) years. The mean follow-up was 65 (12-168) months and the mean preoperative time was 8.9 (2-24) months. According to Zukermann's classification, 23 cases were considered primary and 33 secondary. With the patient in the lateral decubitus position, circumferential release of the joint capsule was performed: joint debridement; rotator interval opening; coracohumeral ligament release; anterior, posterior, inferior, and finally antero-inferior capsulotomy. A subscapularis tenotomy was performed when necessary. All patients underwent intense physical therapy in the immediate postoperative period. In 33 shoulders, an interscalene catheter was implanted for anesthetic infusion. Functional results were evaluated by the UCLA criteria. Improved range of motion was observed: mean increase of 45° of elevation, 41° of external rotation and eight vertebral levels of medial rotation. According to the UCLA score excellent results were obtained in 25 (45%) patients; good, in 24 (45%); fair, in two (3%); and poor, in two (7%). Patients who had undergone inferior capsulotomy achieved better results. Only 8.8% of patients who used the anesthetic infusion catheter underwent postoperative manipulation. Seven patients had complications. There was improvement in pain and range of motion. Inferior capsulotomy leads to better results. The use of the interscalene infusion catheter reduces the number of re-approaches.

  16. The O-Antigen Capsule of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Facilitates Serum Resistance and Surface Expression of FliC

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Joanna M.; Gunn, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Group IV polysaccharide capsules are common in enteric bacteria and have more recently been described in nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Such capsules are known as O-antigen (O-Ag) capsules, due to their high degree of similarity to the O-Ag of the lipopolysaccharide (LPSO-Ag). Capsular polysaccharides are known virulence factors of many bacterial pathogens, facilitating evasion of immune recognition and systemic dissemination within the host. Previous studies on the O-Ag capsule of salmonel...

  17. Abort System Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction for Capsule-Type Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    小澤, 啓伺; 北村, 圭一; 花井, 勝祥; 三好, 理也; 森, 浩一; 中村, 佳朗

    The space transportation system using capsule/rocket configurations such as Apollo and Soyuz are simple compared with Space Shuttle, and have several merits from the viewpoint of reliability. The capsule/rocket system will take over the Space Shuttle, after it retires in 2010. As the Space Shuttle accidents had been caused by several factors, e.g., aerodynamic interaction of shock waves ahead of its wing, advanced abort systems such as LAS (Launch Abort System) are required for the capsule/rocket system. In the present study, as a baseline configuration, a combination of a cone and a cylinder is employed as a CEV (Crew Exploration Vehicle), which consists of a capsule (LAV: Launch Abort Vehicle) and a rocket (SM: Service Module). By changing the relative position of the two components as well as the profile area of the rocket, their effects on the capsule/rocket aerodynamic interaction and characteristics (drag and pitching moment) are experimentally and numerically investigated at a supersonic speed (M∞ = 3.0). It is found from the results that the clearance have little effects on the flow field for the case of the baseline configuration. The capsule always showed a positive drag (CD = 0.34), which means that thrust is required to overcome the drag. Otherwise the capsule will recontact the rocket. However in the case where the rocket contact area is 2.2 times as large as the capsule profile, more favorable effects were obtained. Especially in the case of a certain clearance (h/D = 0.40), the drag coefficient of the capsule is CD = -0.35, which means that the capsule suffers a thrust force from the aerodynamic interaction. Under this condition, if capsule has a pitch angle with 5 degrees instantaneously, then pitching moment coefficient becomes CMp = -0.41 therefore capsule stabilize. However, in the case of a very small clearance (h/D ∝ 0.00), the flow becomes unsteady involving pulsating shock wave, leading to a potentially risky separation of the capsule.

  18. Non-contact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness during simulated accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noel; Manns, Fabrice; Acosta, Ana-Carolina; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To non-invasively measure the thickness of the anterior and posterior lens capsule, and to determine if it significantly changes during accommodation. Methods: Anterior and posterior capsule thickness was measured on post-mortem lenses using a non-contact optical system using a focus-detection technique. The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused on the tissue surface using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a translation stage with a motorized actuator. Light reflected from the sample surface is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a photoreceiver connected to a computer-controlled data acquisition system. Optical intensity peaks are detected when the aspheric lens is focused on the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is equal to the distance traveled between two peaks multiplied by the capsule refractive index. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 18 cynomolgus (age average: 6+/-1 years, range: 4-7 years) eyes, 1 rhesus (age: 2 years) eye, and 12 human (age average: 65+/-16, range: 47-92) eyes during simulated accommodation. The mounted sample was placed under the focusing objective of the optical system so that the light was incident on the center pole. Measurements were taken of the anterior lens capsule in the unstretched and the stretched 5mm states. The lens was flipped, and the same procedure was performed for the posterior lens capsule. Results: The precision of the optical system was determined to be +/-0.5um. The resolution is 4um and the sensitivity is 52dB. The human anterior lens capsule thickness was 6.0+/-1.2um unstretched and 4.9+/-0.9um stretched (p=0.008). The human posterior lens capsule was 5.7+/-1.2um unstretched and 5.7+/-1.4um stretched (p=0.974). The monkey anterior lens capsule thickness was 5.9+/-1.9um unstretched and 4.8+/-1.0um stretched (p=0.002). The monkey posterior lens capsule was 5

  19. The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule surrogate of the Bacillus anthracis capsule induces nitric oxide production via the platelet activating factor receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Ri; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Ok-Kyu; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jungchan; Rhie, Gi-Eun

    2015-12-01

    The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, confers protection of the bacillus from phagocytosis and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. PGA capsules released from B. anthracis are associated with lethal toxin in the blood of experimentally infected animals and enhance the cytotoxic effect of lethal toxin on macrophages. In addition, PGA capsule itself activates macrophages and dendritic cells to produce proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-1β, indicating multiple roles of PGA capsule in anthrax pathogenesis. Here we report that PGA capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a surrogate of B. anthracis capsule, induces production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. NO production was induced by PGA in a dose-dependent manner and was markedly reduced by inhibitors of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), suggesting iNOS-dependent production of NO. Induction of NO production by PGA was not observed in macrophages from TLR2-deficient mice and was also substantially inhibited in RAW264.7 cells by pretreatment of TLR2 blocking antibody. Subsequently, the downstream signaling events such as ERK, JNK and p38 of MAPK pathways as well as NF-κB activation were required for PGA-induced NO production. In addition, the induced NO production was significantly suppressed by treatment with antagonists of platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) or PAFR siRNA, and mediated through PAFR/Jak2/STAT-1 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that PGA capsule induces NO production in macrophages by triggering both TLR2 and PAFR signaling pathways which lead to activation of NF-kB and STAT-1, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  1. "E" Heating Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris; Copeland, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    Two separate areas heated inductively for adhesive bonding in single operation. "E" heating head developed to satisfy need for fast-acting and reliable induction heating device. Used in attaching "high-hat" stiffeners to aircraft panels. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun. Width and length configured to provide variously sized heat zones, depending on bonding requirements. Lightweight, portable and provides rapid, reliable heating of dual areas in any environment. Well suited for flight-line and depot maintenance, and battlefield repair. Also useful in automotive assembly lines to strengthen automobile panels.

  2. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  3. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  4. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  5. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  6. The capsule plays an important role in Escherichia coli K1 interactions with Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk-Yul; Matin, Abdul; Kim, Kwang Sik; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2007-03-01

    Escherichia coli K1 is shown to bind to, associate with, invade and survive inside Acanthamoeba, but the precise mechanisms associated with these events are unclear. We have previously shown that outer membrane protein A and lipopolysaccharide are critical bacterial determinants involved in E. coli K1 interactions with Acanthamoeba. Using an isogenic K1 capsule-deletion mutant (lacking the neuDB genes cluster that is necessary for the production of cytoplasmic precursors to the exopolysaccharide capsule), we observed that the capsule modulates and enhances E. coli K1 association and survival inside Acanthamoeba. The capsule-deletion mutant exhibited significantly reduced association compared with the wild type strain, E44. Similarly, the K1 capsule-deletion mutant exhibited limited ability for invasion/uptake by and survival inside Acanthamoeba. Next, we determined whether E. coli K1 survive inside Acanthamoeba during the encystment process and that viable bacteria can be isolated from the mature cysts. Using encystment assays, our findings revealed that E. coli K1, but not its capsule-deletion mutant, exhibit survival inside Acanthamoeba cysts. We believe this is the first demonstration that the K1 capsule plays an important role in E. coli K1 interactions with Acanthamoeba.

  7. Hydrolytic Activity of Esterase-Antibody Complexes Retained Within Gel Capsules After Complex Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Youji; Miyatsuka, Rino

    2017-07-01

    Delipidation in biological samples is important for some diagnostic tests and protein analyses. Lipids in the samples can be hydrolyzed by native esterases (ESs) within gel capsules after ES, and ES-antibody complexes are specifically trapped, extracted, and separated. Acrylamide and agarose gel capsules containing complexes of ES antibody were produced after the complexes were extracted using protein A-immobilized membranes, separated by non-denaturing electrophoresis, and stained by colloidal silver using glucose as a reductant. ES activity of ES-antibody complexes within the gel capsule was significantly higher than that in the complexes with the control antibodies upon isolation, separation, and detection of the complex. In addition, lipids bound to human serum albumin decreased after human plasma was treated with gel capsules containing ES-antibody complexes. We demonstrate that the gel capsule containing ES-antibody complexes can be successfully isolated using techniques described in this study. Furthermore, delipidation of human plasma is obtained by incubation with the gel capsule. These results indicate that surplus materials such as lipids in biological samples can be removed or reduced by gel capsule containing enzymes.

  8. Encapsulation of porcine pancreatic islets within an immunoprotective capsule comprising methacrylated glycol chitosan and alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillberg, Anna Louise; Oudshoorn, Matthew; Lam, Janice B B; Kathirgamanathan, Kalyani

    2015-04-01

    Encapsulation of cells in biocompatible polymer matrices represents a powerful tool for cell-based therapies and therapeutic delivery systems. This technology has successfully been used to deliver pancreatic islets to humans for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes. However, the clinical impact of this technology may be improved by reducing the inflammatory response brought on after implantation of capsules in vivo. Within this study a biocompatible polymeric delivery system combining alginate and photo-crosslinked methacrylated glycol chitosan (MGC) was developed. This approach involved encapsulating cells in calcium-alginate beads, coating with MGC and photo-polymerizing using UVA in the presence of photo-initiator (VA-086), resulting in the formation of capsules ∼600 µm in size. Crosslinking of the MGC outer wall allowed control over capsule swelling and improved the capsules overall properties. Capsule characterization demonstrated the stabilizing influence of polymerization and fluorescence imaging showed that the distribution of glycol chitosan is dependent on molecular weight. Good islet viability and insulin release was demonstrated in vitro over the course of a month, and in vivo transplantation of the capsules demonstrated good biocompatibility, particularly when compared with standard alginate/poly-l-ornithine/alginate capsules. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multi-methodological investigation of the variability of the microstructure of HPMC hard capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulhammer, E; Kovalcik, A; Wahl, V; Markl, D; Stelzer, F; Lawrence, S; Khinast, J G; Paudel, A

    2016-09-25

    The objective of this study was to analyze differences in the subtle microstructure of three different grades of HMPC hard capsule shells using mechanical, spectroscopic, microscopic and tomographic approaches. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrational spectroscopic, X-Ray scattering techniques as well as environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used. Two HPMC capsules manufactured via chemical gelling, one capsule shell manufactured via thermal gelling and one thermally gelled transparent capsule were included. Characteristic micro-structural alterations (associated manufacturing processes) such as mechanical and physical properties relevant to capsule performance and processability were thoroughly elucidated with the integration of data obtained from multi-methodological investigations. The physico-chemical and physico-mechanical data obtained from a gamut of techniques implied that thermally gelled HPMC hard capsule shells could offer an advantage in terms of machinability during capsule filling, owing to their superior micro- and macroscopic structure as well as specifically the mechanical stability under dry or humid conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic organisation of the capsule transport gene region from Haemophilus paragallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. De Smidt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The region involved in export of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface of Haemophilus paragallinarum was cloned and the genetic organisation determined. Degenerate primers designed from sequence alignment of the capsule transport genes of Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used to amplify a 2.6 kb fragment containing a segment of the H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus. This fragment was used as a digoxigenin labelled probe to isolate the complete H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus from genomic DNA. The sequence of the cloned DNA was determined and analysis revealed the presence of four genes, each showing high homology with known capsule transport genes. The four genes were designated hctA, B, C and D (for H. paragallinarum capsule transport genes and the predicted products of these genes likely encode an ATP-dependent export system responsible for transport of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface, possibly a member of a super family designated ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters.

  11. Diffusion characteristics and controlled release of bacterial fertilizers from modified calcium alginate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Jane-Yii; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2008-04-01

    An indigenous Cellulosimicrobium cellulans GS6 isolate able to solubilize insoluble phosphate complexes in soil is a potential bacterial fertilizer. Enclosure of the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) in biodegradable capsules may protect the PSB cells inoculated into soil and, in the meantime, enable the control of cell release that confers long-term fertilizing effects. In this study, calcium alginate (CA) was used as the core matrix to encapsulate cells of C. cellulans GS6. The cell-liberating properties of the CA-based capsules were modified by blending with a variety of supplemental materials (SM), including chitin, cellulose, olive oil, and gelatin. The experimental results showed that the maximum cell-release percentage (MCR%) of the capsules decreased in the order of CA-cellulose>CA-olive oil>CA-chitin>CA-gelatin>CA. Furthermore, a mass transport model was developed to accurately describe the kinetics of cell release results for each capsule. The diffusion coefficient (D(e)) of each capsule was also determined from the model simulation. We found that the estimated D(e) values are positively correlated to the release rate with rare exceptions. Lastly, as our results underscored the crucial roles that the type of capsules plays in the rate and amount of cell release, controlled release of the bacterial fertilizer (C. cellulans GS6 cells) may be achieved via the design of capsule materials.

  12. Small-Bowel Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Suspected Crohn's Disease—Diagnostic Value and Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Almeida, Nuno; Lopes, Sandra; Duque, Gabriela; Freire, Paulo; Lérias, Clotilde; Gouveia, Hermano; Sofia, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background. The aim of this work was to assess the value of capsule enteroscopy in the diagnosis of patients with suspected Crohn's Disease (CD). Methods. This was a retrospective study in a single tertiary care centre involving patients undergoing capsule enteroscopy for suspected CD. Patients taking nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs during the thirty preceding days or with a follow-up period of less than six months were excluded. Results. Seventy eight patients were included. The endoscopic findings included mucosal breaks in 50%, ulcerated stenosis in 5%, and villous atrophy in 4%. The diagnosis of CD was established in 31 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the endoscopic findings were 93%, 80%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. Capsule retention occurred in four patients (5%). The presence of ulcerated stenosis was significantly more frequent in patients with positive inflammatory markers. The diagnostic yield of capsule enteroscopy in patients with negative ileoscopy was 56%, with a diagnostic acuity of 93%. Conclusions. Small bowel capsule endoscopy is a safe and valid technique for assessing patients with suspected CD. Capsule retention is more frequent in patients with positive inflammatory markers. Patients with negative ileoscopy and suspected CD should be submitted to capsule enteroscopy. PMID:20811612

  13. Storage instructions for inhalation capsules: consequences of incorrect storage and adherence in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renswouw, Dein C van; Laarhoven, Anna C M van; Haren, Matthijs J van; Bouvy, Marcel L; Weda, Marjolein

    2010-12-01

    The objective was to study the influence of storage conditions on the quality of inhalation capsules and to investigate patients' knowledge and adherence to storage instructions. Inhalation capsules marketed in the Netherlands were stored at normal (20°C/60% relative humidity) and dry (20°C/25% relative humidity) conditions during 34 days and checked for brittleness. After 1 day of storage at normal conditions, no brittleness was perceived. Longer periods and dry conditions increased the risk of brittleness. Only tiotropium capsules resisted all test situations. Subsequently, patients using inhalation capsules were sent a questionnaire in order to investigate their knowledge and actual behavior regarding storage of the capsules. Adherence to the required storage instructions was achieved by only 31.8% of all patients. Inferior storage locations turned out to be the main problem, 58.7% of the patients applied an incorrect place. Knowledge of the required storage instructions was lacking in 83.6% of all patients. It is concluded that the majority of patients store their inhalation capsules incorrectly and have insufficient knowledge of the appropriate storage conditions. Incorrectly stored capsules may become brittle and cause splintering during inhalation. The feeling of splinters in the mouth/throat may reduce the patient's confidence in the product's quality and affect compliance.

  14. Effects of compound amino acids capsule on the immunological function of naval servicemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-zhong ZHONG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of the compound amino acids capsule on the immunological function of the naval servicemen during military activity. Methods  The subjects included 100 officers and soldiers, whose Modified Fatigue Rating Scale (MFIS scores were >21 points. The participants were randomly divided into two groups, namely, the amino acids capsule group and placebo group (n=50. Under the condition of military operations, either amino acids capsule (8 kinds of essential amino acids and 11 kinds of vitamins were contained or placebo capsule was given for 14 days continuously. The humoral immune indices, i.e., IgG, IgA, IgM, and complements C3 and C4, were measured with immunoturbidimetry. The percentage of peripheral blood CD subsets was measured using flow cytometry on the first day and 14th day. Results  The levels of IgG, IgM, and complement C3 in the capsule group were significantly higher on the 14th day than on the first day (P+CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD3-CD19+ B lymphocytes in the capsule group on the 14th day were higher than those on the first day, whereas the CD3-CD56+ NK lymphocytes decreased significantly (PConclusion  Compound amino acids capsule can improve the humoral and cellular immunological function of naval servicemen.

  15. Constructional morphology within the head of hammerhead sharks (sphyrnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Kyle R; Motta, Philip J; Martin, Andrew P; Hueter, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    The study of functional trade-offs is important if a structure, such as the cranium, serves multiple biological roles, and is, therefore, shaped by multiple selective pressures. The sphyrnid cephalofoil presents an excellent model for investigating potential trade-offs among sensory, neural, and feeding structures. In this study, hammerhead shark species were chosen to represent differences in head form through phylogeny. A combination of surface-based geometric morphometrics, computed tomography (CT) volumetric analysis, and phylogenetic analyses were utilized to investigate potential trade-offs within the head. Hammerhead sharks display a diversity of cranial morphologies where the position of the eyes and nares vary among species, with only minor changes in shape, position, and volume of the feeding apparatus through phylogeny. The basal winghead shark, Eusphyra blochii, has small anteriorly positioned eyes. Through phylogeny, the relative size and position of the eyes change, such that derived species have larger, more medially positioned eyes. The lateral position of the external nares is highly variable, showing no phylogenetic trend. Mouth size and position are conserved, remaining relatively unchanged. Volumetric CT analyses reveal no trade-offs between the feeding apparatus and the remaining cranial structures. The few trade-offs were isolated to the nasal capsule volume's inverse correlation with braincase, chondrocranial, and total cephalofoil volume. Eye volume also decreased as cephalofoil width increased. These data indicate that despite considerable changes in head shape, much of the head is morphologically conserved through sphyrnid phylogeny, particularly the jaw cartilages and their associated feeding muscles, with shape change and morphological trade-offs being primarily confined to the lateral wings of the cephalofoil and their associated sensory structures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The evolution of head structures in lower Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Schneeberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The head of adult dipterans is mainly characterized by modifications and more or less far-reaching reductions of the mouthparts (e.g., mandibles and maxillae, linked with the specialization on liquid food and the reduced necessity to process substrates mechanically. In contrast, the compound eyes and the antennae, sense organs used for orientation and for finding a suitable mating partner and oviposition site, are well developed. Some evolutionary novelties are specific adaptations to feeding on liquefied substrates, such as labellae with furrows or pseudotracheae on their surface, and the strongly developed pre– and postcerebral pumping apparatuses. In some dipteran groups specialized on blood, the mandibles are still present as piercing stylets. They are completely reduced in the vast majority of families. Within the group far-reaching modifications of the antennae take place, with a strongly reduced number of segments and a specific configuration in Brachycera. The feeding habits and mouthparts of dipteran larvae are much more diverse than in the adults. The larval head is prognathous and fully exposed in the dipteran groundplan and most groups of lower Diptera. In Tipuloidea and Brachycera it is partly or largely retracted, and the sclerotized elements of the external head capsule are partly or fully reduced. The larval head of Cyclorrhapha is largely reduced. A complex and unique feature of this group is the cephaloskeleton. The movability of the larvae is limited due to the lack of thoracic legs. This can be partly compensated by the mouthparts, which are involved in locomotion in different groups. The mouth hooks associated with the cyclorrhaphan cephaloskeleton provide anchorage in the substrate.

  17. Pyruvate Oxidase as a Critical Link between Metabolism and Capsule Biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Echlin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pneumococcus is one of the most prodigious producers of hydrogen peroxide amongst bacterial pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide production by the pneumococcus has been implicated in antibiotic synergism, competition between other bacterial colonizers of the nasopharynx, and damage to epithelial cells. However, the role during invasive disease has been less clear with mutants defective in hydrogen peroxide production demonstrating both attenuation and heightened invasive disease capacity depending upon strain and serotype background. This work resolves these conflicting observations by demonstrating that the main hydrogen peroxide producing enzyme of the pneumococcus, SpxB, is required for capsule formation in a strain dependent manner. Capsule production by strains harboring capsules with acetylated sugars was dependent upon the presence of spxB while capsule production in serotypes lacking such linkages were not. The spxB mutant had significantly lower steady-state cellular levels of acetyl-CoA, suggesting that loss of capsule arises from dysregulation of this intermediary metabolite. This conclusion is corroborated by deletion of pdhC, which also resulted in lower steady-state acetyl-CoA levels and phenocopied the capsule expression profile of the spxB mutant. Capsule and acetyl-CoA levels were restored in the spxB and lctO (lactate oxidase double mutant, supporting the connection between central metabolism and capsule formation. Taken together, these data show that the defect in pathogenesis in the spxB mutant is due to a metabolic imbalance that attenuates capsule formation and not to reduced hydrogen peroxide formation.

  18. A nanomechanical study of the effects of colistin on the Klebsiella pneumoniae AJ218 capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularski, Anna; Wilksch, Jonathan; Hanssen, Eric; Li, Jian; Tomita, Takehiro; Pidot, Sacha James; Stinear, Tim; Separovic, Frances; Strugnell, Dick

    2017-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy measurements of capsule thickness revealed that that the wild-type Klebsiella pneumoniae AJ218 capsular polysaccharides were rearranged by exposure to colistin. The increase in capsule thickness measured near minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) is consistent with the idea that colistin displaces the divalent cations that cross-bridge adjacent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules through the capsule network. Cryo-electron microscopy demonstrated that the measured capsule thickness at near MIC/MBC of 1.2 μM was inflated by the disrupted outer membrane, through which the capsule is excreted and LPS is bound. Since wild-type and capsule-deficient strains of K. pneumoniae AJ218 have equivalent MICs and MBCs, the presence of the capsule appeared to confer no protection against colistin in AJ218. A spontaneously arising colistin mutant showed a tenfold increase in resistance to colistin; genetic analysis identified a single amino acid substitution (Q95P) in the PmrB sensor kinase in this colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae AJ218. Modification of the lipid A component of the LPS could result in a reduction of the net-negative charge of the outer membrane, which could hinder binding of colistin to the outer membrane and displacement of the divalent cations that bridge adjacent LPS molecules throughout the capsular polysaccharide network. Retention of the cross-linking divalent cations may explain why measurements of capsule thickness did not change significantly in the colistin-resistant strain after colistin exposure. These results contrast with those for other K. pneumoniae strains that suggest that the capsule confers colistin resistance.

  19. Do Bacteria and Biofilm Play a Role in Double-Capsule Formation around Macrotextured Implants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, M Alain; Nizard, Nathanaël; Paek, Laurence S; Govshievich, Alexander; Giot, Jean-Phillipe

    2017-11-01

    The double capsule is a complication mostly described in aggressive macrotextured implants. Mechanical shear stress applied onto an immature periprosthetic capsule has been linked to their formation. The authors aim to demonstrate the role of bacterial phenotype and biofilm in the development of the double capsule. Seven double capsules formed at the interface of macrotextured breast expander implants were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Two samples for each surface of the inner capsule layer (the prosthesis interface and the intercapsular space) were analyzed for bacteria cell size, bacterial density, and biofilm deposition. Although all routine bacterial cultures were negative, the prosthesis interface had both higher bacteria load and biofilm deposition compared with the intercapsular space (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.004 and p = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, bacteria cell sizes were significantly smaller at the prosthesis interface in six of seven samples. Comparison of bacteria density and biofilm dispersion showed an increase of biofilm extracellular matrix deposition over 2000 cells/mm (linear regression, p = 0.0025). These results indicate a common trend among bacteria species. Bacterial expression between the different surfaces of the double capsule displays significant differences; bacteria at the prosthesis interface are mostly in a biofilm state, whereas they demonstrate a planktonic phenotype at the intercapsular space. When a sufficient amount of bacteria are present at a specific location, quorum sensing may trigger a biofilm phenotypic switch in planktonic bacteria cells. Biofilm formation may alter capsule formation through immune response, thereby weakening capsule strength and facilitating extracellular matrix delamination and double-capsule formation. Therapeutic, V.

  20. Recent Progress in the Development of Capsule Targets for the Nation Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R; Anthamatten, M; Armstrong, J P; Letts, S A; McEachern, R L; McQuillan, B W; Takagi, M

    2002-11-26

    The capsule targets for ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility must meet very exacting requirements. Primary among them is an extremely high degree of symmetry at all length scales for the 2-mm-diameter 150-{micro}m-walled capsule. At LLNL work is in progress to produce both polyimide and sputtered beryllium targets that meet these specifications. Both of these targets require a thin-walled spherical-shell plastic mandrel upon which the beryllium or polyimide ablator is deposited. In this paper we report on recent progress in developing NIF capsules that meet the demanding design requirements.

  1. Squeezing bio-capsules into a constriction: deformation till break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Anne; Kaoui, Badr; Kurzawa, Gaetan; Haszon, Boglárka; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2017-10-25

    We study experimentally the deformation and break-up of liquid-filled capsules trapped at an axisymmetric step constriction, and subjected to increasing pressure drops. We considered biological (trout fish eggs) and bioartificial (made of ovalbumin and alginate) ones, with the objective to characterize the transition to break-up. We find that both capsule populations behave as a brittle material. They do not exhibit any plastic deformation prior to break-up. Moreover critical pressure drop exhibits a stochastic behavior as known for the fracture of disordered media. The break-up probability follows a three-parameter Weibull distribution, from which one can deduce the capsule rupture characteristics.

  2. Intestinal absorption of coenzyme Q(10) administered in a meal or as capsules to healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Christine; Bysted, Anette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1997-01-01

    A randomized cross-over study by supplementation with single doses of coenzyme Q(10) (30 mg/person), administered either as a meal consisting of cooked pork heart or as 30 mg coenzyme Q(10) capsules was performed to investigate the bioavailability of dietary coenzyme Q(10) in humans. The increase...... in serum coenzyme Q(10) concentration was used as an index of the absorption, and reached a maximum six hours after the ingestion of either meal or capsules. Following intake of coenzyme Q(10) capsules, the serum coenzyme Q(10) concentrations increased significantly (p...

  3. Statistical Simulation of Reentry Capsule Aerodynamics in Hypersonic Near-Continuum Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    processes on the flow is given in Fig. 1 where the translational temperature fields about the Soyuz capsule at an altitude of 85 km are shown for...Stati sti cal si mul ati on of reentry capsul e aero dynami cs i n hyp ersoni c near-conti nuum flows Mikhail S. Ivanov Computational Aerodynamics...effects are implemented in SMILE. Aerodynamics of promising reentry capsule in the near-continuum regime is considered as an example. RTO-EN-AVT-194

  4. Lack of interference between small bowel capsule endoscopy and implantable cardiac defibrillators: an 'in vivo' electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneghini, Dario; Lipari, Alessandro; Missale, Guido; Minelli, Luigi; Cengia, Gianpaolo; Bontempi, Luca; Curnis, Antonio; Cestari, Renzo

    2016-04-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a widely performed procedure for small bowel investigation. Once swallowed by the patient, the capsule transmits images to an external recorder over a digital radiofrequency communication channel. Potential electromagnetic interferences with implantable cardiac devices have been postulated. Clinical studies on the safety of capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac defibrillators are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess potential mutual electromagnetic interferences between capsule and defibrillators. This study used the Given M2A video capsule system. Ten different types of defibrillators were tested in a clinical setting. Before capsule ingestion, defibrillator electrical therapies were switched off. During capsule endoscopy patients were monitored with cardiac telemetry. At the end of capsule endoscopy the following defibrillator's parameters were analysed: change in device settings; inappropriate shocks; inappropriate anti-tachycardia therapy; inappropriate sensing or pacing; noise detection; device reset; programming changes; permanent electrical damages. Any technical problem related to capsule image transmission was recorded. Neither defibrillator malfunction nor interference in sensing or pacing was recorded; conversely, no capsule malfunction potentially caused by defibrillators was registered. Our results suggest that capsule endoscopy can be safely performed in patients with cardiac defibrillators.

  5. Esophageal capsule endoscopy is not the optimal technique to determine the need for primary prophylaxis in patients with cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krok, Karen L.; Wagennar, Rebecca Rankin; Kantsevoy, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Capsule endoscopy has been suggested as a potential alternative to endoscopy for detection of esophagogastric varices and severe portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). The aim of the study was to determine whether PillCam esophageal capsule endoscopy could replace endoscopy for screening purposes. Material and methods Sixty-two patients with cirrhosis with no previous variceal bleeding had PillCam capsule endoscopy and video endoscopy performed on the same day. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of capsule endoscopy were compared to endoscopy for the presence and severity of esophageal and gastric varices, PHG and the need for primary prophylaxis. Patients’ preference was assessed by a questionnaire. Results Four (6%) patients were unable to swallow the capsule. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of capsule endoscopy for detecting any esophageal varices (92%, 50%, 92%, 50%), large varices (55%, 91%, 75%, 80%), variceal red signs (58%, 87%, 69%, 80%), PHG (95%, 50%, 95%, 50%), and the need for primary prophylaxis (91%, 57%, 78%, 80%) were not optimal, with only moderate agreement (κ) between capsule and upper GI endoscopy. Had only a capsule endoscopy been performed, 12 (21.4%) patients would have received inappropriate treatment. Capsule endoscopy also failed to detect (0/13) gastric varices. The majority of patients ranked capsule endoscopy as more convenient (69%) and their preferred (61%) method. Conclusions Despite the preference expressed by patients for capsule endoscopy, we believe that upper GI endoscopy should remain the preferred screening method for primary prophylaxis. PMID:27186182

  6. The development of a sensitive methodology to characterise hard shell capsule puncture by dry powder inhaler pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Barbara M; Birchall, James C; Jones, Brian E; Díez, Fernando; Coulman, Sion A

    2013-11-18

    In order for hard-shell capsules to function effectively as drug reservoirs in dry powder inhalers, the capsule must be punctured with sharpened pins to release the powdered medicament upon inspiration. Capsule performance in this setting is poorly understood. This study aims to develop a methodology to characterise hard shell capsule penetration by needles from commercial dry powder inhalers, to determine whether changes to capsule materials impact on their performance. Two pin types from two commercial dry powder inhalers were mounted in a material-testing machine, equipped with a 500 N load cell. A stainless steel bush was used to secure a capsule directly below the steel pin. Hypromellose (n=10) and gelatin capsules (n=10) were conditioned in 'normal' or low humidity conditions and were subsequently punctured with both types of pin. Each puncture event was recorded on a load-displacement curve. The force required for puncture was 2.82±0.26 N for hypromellose capsules and 4.54±0.26 N for gelatin capsules, stored in normal humidity. Different capsule materials possessed distinguishable signature profiles but repeated force-displacement profiles were highly reproducible i.e. intra-individual variability was minimal. A rapid, robust yet sensitive methodology has therefore been developed that is able to characterise hard shell capsule materials based on the puncture performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HEADS UP : Sensorimotor control of the head-neck system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Head-neck stabilization is inherently challenging even when stationary, requiring constant vigilance to counter the downward pull of gravity. It involves a highly complex biomechanical system comprised of a large mass (the head) balanced on top of seven vertebrae (the neck), that are in turn

  8. Esomeprazole tablet vs omeprazole capsule in treating erosive esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lu, Ching-Liang; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong; Lai, Yung-Ling

    2005-05-28

    Esomeprazole, an oral S-form of omeprazole, has been a greater acid inhibitor over omeprazole in treating acid-related diseases. Only less published data is available to confirm its efficacy for Asian people. Therefore, a perspective, double-blind, randomized comparison of esomeprazole tablets 40 mg (Nexium) vs omeprazole capsules 20 mg (Losec) in treating Chinese subjects with erosive/ulcerative reflux esophagitis (EE) was conducted. A total of 48 EE patients were enrolled and randomized into two treatment groups under 8-wk therapy: 25 receiving esomeprazole, while another 23 receiving omeprazole treatment. Finally, 44 completed the whole 8-wk therapy. The difference in healing EE between two groups was 22.7% (72.7% vs 50.0%), not reaching significant value (P = 0.204). The median of the first time needed in relieving heartburn sensation was 1 d for both groups and the remission rates for heartburn on the 1st d after treatment were 77.3% and 65%, respectively (NS). The scores of various reflux relieving symptoms evaluated either by patients or by investigators were not different. Regarding drug safety, 28% of esomeprazole group and 26.1% of omeprazole group reported at least one episode of adverse effects, while constipation and skin dryness were the common side effects in both groups (NS). Esomeprazole 40 mg is an effective and safe drug at least comparable to omeprazole in treating Chinese EE patients.

  9. RELATIVE BIOAVAILABILITY OF OMEPRAZOLE CAPSULES AFTER ORAL DOSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAYED ABOLFAZL MOSTAFAVI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, effectively suppresses the gastric acid secretion in the parietal cells of stomach. Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of generic products of omeprazole were compared with innovator product, Losec. Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study which was conducted according to a randomized, open-label single dose Latin square cross over design. The preparations were compared using area under the plasma concentration – time curve (AUC, peak plasma concentration (Cmax, and time to reach peak plasma concentration (tmax. The two generic capsules proved to be bioequivalent with brand-name omeprazole with regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf and tmax. Moreover the parametric confidence intervals (90% for the ratio of the Cmax, AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ values lie between 0.8-1.2. The test formulations were found bioequivalent to the reference formulation by the one-way ANOVA test procedure. On the basis of these results, the 3 formulations were considered to be bioequivalent. Two subjects demonstrated increase in AUCs and high Cmax after administration of either product which may attribute to the ethnic disposition of omeprazole in these subjects.

  10. Cysteine Protease (Capparin from Capsules of Caper (Capparis spinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Demir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are enzymes that perform very important functions in organisms and are used for a variety of objectives in vitro. In recent years, proteases have been used for clinical, pharmaceutical (alimentary digestion, anti-inflammatory, etc. and industrial applications (cheese production, meat tenderizing, leather tanning. In this research, a protease has been purified from capsules of caper (Capparis spinosa and characterized. Caper plants have been used for food and medicine since ancient times. The plant grows abundantly in certain regions of Turkey. Ammonium sulphate fractionation and a CM Sephadex column were used for purification of the enzyme. The purification enzyme has an optimum pH=5.0 and its optimum temperature was 60 °C. The vmax and Km values determined by Lineweaver-Burk graphics were 1.38 μg/(L·min and 0.88 μg/L, respectively. The purification degree and the molecular mass of the enzyme (46 kDa were determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. It was investigated whether the purified and characterized protease could cause milk to congeal or digest chicken and cow meat. The results show that protease can be used for industrial production.

  11. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: pain intensity and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, V; Giannicola, G; Passaretti, D; Venditto, T; Gumina, S

    2017-12-01

    Papers regarding adhesive capsulitis (AC) of the shoulder focused on etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment; until now, information on shoulder pain characteristics is still scarce. Our aim was to analyze pain intensity and distribution in patients with AC. The study group was composed of 278 (133M-145F) consecutive patients with AC. After diagnosis, shoulder pain distribution was assessed through an upper limb pain map and pain intensity through a visual analog scale. Patients were distinguished on the basis of gender, age, time elapsed from onset of symptoms, and severity of functional limitation. Data were submitted to statistical analysis. Intensity of shoulder pain caused by AC was higher in females (p pain arose from more than 3 months suffered a lower intensity of shoulder pain. Furthermore, pain intensity was higher in the most severe form of AC (active forward flexion Pain was localized predominantly on the anterior aspect of the shoulder (dermatomes C5-C6) and rarely extended beyond the distal third of the arm. No differences were found in pain distribution between male and female, between patients with pain from less or more than 3 months and between different levels of AC severity (p > 0.05). Shoulder pain due to AC may be influenced by gender and severity of functional limitation. AC pain distribution principally involves anterior aspect of the shoulder with downward extension of the arm until its distal third. Level IV.

  12. Evalution of Mulligan's technique for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doner, Gokhan; Guven, Zeynep; Atalay, Ayçe; Celiker, Reyhan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate Mulligan's technique for relieving pain and improving functional capacity of the shoulder in patients with adhesive capsulitis in the stiffness phase. Randomized controlled study. A total of 40 subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: (i) group 1 (n = 20) were treated with hot pack, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and passive stretching exercises; (ii) group 2 (n = 20) were treated with hot pack, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and Mulligan's technique. Mulligan's technique combines the sustained application of a manual "gliding" force to a joint, with the aim of repositioning bone positional faults while enabling concurrent physiological (osteo-kinematic) motion of the joint. All cases were evaluated using visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, Shoulder Disability Questionnaire, and patient and therapist satisfaction at baseline, after completion of treatment sessions and at the end of 3 months of follow-up. Marked improvement was noted in both groups after completion of treatment sessions and at the third month of follow-up compared with baseline. The improvements in outcome measures, namely pain, range of motion, shoulder scores, and patient and physiotherapist satisfaction, were significantly greater in subjects in group 2, who were treated with Mulligan's technique. Mulligan's technique and passive stretching exercises are both effective in reducing pain, and restoring range of motion and function. However, compared with stretching exercises, Mulligan's technique led to better improvements in terms of pain, range of motion, shoulder scores, and patient and physiotherapist satisfaction.

  13. Silicon-Class Ablators for NIC Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Darwin; Salmonson, Jay; Haan, Steve

    2012-10-01

    We present design studies using silicon-class ablators (i.e., Si, SiC, SiB6, and SiB14) for NIC ignition capsules. These types of ablators have several advantages in that they: (a) require no internal dopant layers and are robust to M-band radiation; (b) have smooth outer surfaces; (c) have stable fuel-ablator interface; and (d) have good 1-D performance. The major disadvantage for some of the ablators in this class is the relatively smaller ablation stabilization. Consequently, the ablator is more susceptible to breakup caused by RT instabilities. However, smoother outer surfaces on this class of ablators can reduce the effect of RT instabilities. 2-D simulations of SiC ablators show ignition failure despite smooth surfaces and good 1-D performance. But SiB6 and SiB14 ablators exhibit promising behaviors. SiB6 (SiB14) ablators have high 1-D ignition margin and high peak core hydrodynamic pressure 880 (900) Gbar. The ablation scale length for SiB6 is longer than that for SiC and for SiB14 is comparable to that of plastic. Therefore, we expect acceptable performance for SiB6 and less RT growth for SiB14. 2-D simulations are now in progress.

  14. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  15. Acid-Labile Polyvinylamine Micro- and Nanogel Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lianjun; Berkland, Cory

    2008-01-01

    Hollow nanoparticles represent an emerging area of development for the encapsulation of active ingredients. Expanding the capabilities of these nanomaterials will require continued efforts to infill properties such as size control, biodegradability, and environmental responsiveness. Acid-labile poly(N-vinylformamide) (PNVF) nanocapsules were synthesized by free radical polymerization of N-vinylformamide on the surface of silica nanoparticles. Polymerization in the presence of a novel crosslinker that contains an acid-labile ketal facilitated stable etching of silica nanoparticle templates using sodium hydroxide and recovery of degradable PNVF nanocapsules. The formamido side group of PNVF was then hydrolyzed by extended exposure to sodium hydroxide to produce polyvinylamine (PVAm) micro- and nanocapsules. Both capsule types demonstrated an increasing dissolution rate as pH decreased. In addition, PVAm nanocapsules exhibited swelling in proportion to the relative charge density of the PVAm network (a function of the degree of formamide hydrolysis and pH), presumably due to the repulsion of positively charged amino groups within the elastic shell network. The synthetic approaches reported provide methods to endow nanocapsules with key attributes such as size control, pH sensitive degradation, swelling in response to pH, and amine functionality. PMID:18797513

  16. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods.

  17. Esomeprazole tablet vs omeprazole capsule in treating erosive esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lu, Ching-Liang; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong; Lai, Yung-Ling

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Esomeprazole, an oral S-form of omeprazole, has been a greater acid inhibitor over omeprazole in treating acid-related diseases. Only less published data is available to confirm its efficacy for Asian people. Therefore, a perspective, double-blind, randomized comparison of esomeprazole tablets 40 mg (Nexium®) vs omeprazole capsules 20 mg (Losec®) in treating Chinese subjects with erosive/ulcerative reflux esophagitis (EE) was conducted. METHODS: A total of 48 EE patients were enrolled and randomized into two treatment groups under 8-wk therapy: 25 receiving esomeprazole, while another 23 receiving omeprazole treatment. Finally, 44 completed the whole 8-wk therapy. RESULTS: The difference in healing EE between two groups was 22.7% (72.7% vs 50.0%), not reaching significant value (P = 0.204). The median of the first time needed in relieving heartburn sensation was 1 d for both groups and the remission rates for heartburn on the 1st d after treatment were 77.3% and 65%, respectively (NS). The scores of various reflux relieving symptoms evaluated either by patients or by investigators were not different. Regarding drug safety, 28% of esomeprazole group and 26.1% of omeprazole group reported at least one episode of adverse effects, while constipation and skin dryness were the common side effects in both groups (NS). CONCLUSION: Esomeprazole 40 mg is an effective and safe drug at least comparable to omeprazole in treating Chinese EE patients. PMID:15918199

  18. Noncontact Optical Measurement of Lens Capsule Thickness in Human, Monkey, and Rabbit Postmortem Eyes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziebarth, Noel M; Manns, Fabrice; Uhlhorn, Stephen R; Venkatraman, Anna S; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    ...; and the 5 University of Paris Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Paris, France. METHODS . Central capsule thickness was measured with a custom-built, noncontact optical system, using a focus detection technique...

  19. SUPERIOR CAPSULE RECONSTRUCTION FOR MASSIVE ROTATOR CUFF TEARS - KEY CONSIDERATIONS FOR REHABILITATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, Jonas; DelVecchio, Brooke M; Hussain, Zaamin B; Fritz, Erik M; Godin, Jonathan A; Millett, Peter J

    2017-06-01

    Superior capsule reconstruction is a recently-developed surgical technique for the treatment of massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears. So far, biomechanical cadaveric studies and clinical outcomes results have been promising concerning integrity, stability, and ROM after superior capsule reconstruction. As this technique has only been recently developed, an evidence-based rehabilitation protocol has not been previously designed. Thus, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide an overview of superior capsule reconstruction and to propose a rehabilitation program based on the available scientific evidence. The existing evidence is supplemented by the experience of the senior author who has performed more than forty superior capsule reconstruction procedures to date. This proposed rehabilitation protocol consists of four distinct phases, focusing on maximal protection, range of motion and muscular endurance, muscular strength and return to activity. 5.

  20. Comparison of microbiological assay and HPLC-UV for determination of fluconazole in capsules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Queiroz, Kelly Marques; Silva, Maria-Luiza Martins; Prado, Nathália Duque; Lima, Paulo Marcelo Andrade; Diniz, Rosiane Dias Lopes; César, Isabela Costa; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio; Santos, Daniel Assis

    2009-01-01

    The development of a specific agar diffusion bioassay for the quantitative determination of fluconazole formulated in capsules was carried out using a strain of Candida albicans ATCC 18804 as the test organism...

  1. A novel capsule-based self-recovery system with a chloride ion trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Jiaoning; Zhu, Guangming; Han, Ningxu; Schlangen, Erik; Dong, Biqin; Wang, Xianfeng; Xing, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Steel is prone to corrosion induced by chloride ions, which is a serious threat to reinforced concrete structures, especially in marine environments. In this work, we report a novel capsule-based self-recovery system that utilizes chloride ions as a trigger. These capsules, which are functionalized via a smart response to chloride ions, are fabricated using a silver alginate hydrogel that disintegrates upon contact with chloride ions, and thereby releases the activated core materials. The experimental results show that the smart capsules respond to a very low concentration of chloride ions (0.1 wt%). Therefore, we believe that this novel capsule-based self-recovery system will exhibit a promising prospect for self-healing or corrosion inhibition applications.

  2. Dynamic formation of hybrid peptidic capsules by chiral self-sorting and self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejewska, Hanna; Wierzbicki, Michał; Cmoch, Piotr; Rissanen, Kari; Szumna, Agnieszka

    2014-12-08

    Owing to their versatility and biocompatibility, peptide-based self-assembled structures constitute valuable targets for complex functional designs. It is now shown that artificial capsules based on β-barrel binding motifs can be obtained by means of dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) and self-assembly. Short peptides (up to tetrapeptides) are reversibly attached to resorcinarene scaffolds. Peptidic capsules are thus selectively formed in either a heterochiral or a homochiral way by simultaneous and spontaneous processes, involving chiral sorting, tautomerization, diastereoselective induction of inherent chirality, and chiral self-assembly. Self-assembly is shown to direct the regioselectivity of reversible chemical reactions. It is also responsible for shifting the tautomeric equilibrium for one of the homochiral capsules. Two different tautomers (keto-enamine hemisphere and enol-imine hemisphere) are observed in this capsule, allowing the structure to adapt for self-assembly. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. An O Antigen Capsule Modulates Bacterial Pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei: e1004749

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariaelena Caboni; Thierry Pédron; Omar Rossi; David Goulding; Derek Pickard; Francesco Citiulo; Calman A MacLennan; Gordon Dougan; Nicholas R Thomson; Allan Saul; Philippe J Sansonetti; Christiane Gerke

    2015-01-01

    ... S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg...

  4. Control of drug release from capsules using high frequency energy transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, R; Bensmann, H; Müller, R S

    2008-11-19

    In the present investigations new drug delivery systems have been developed, which are controlled by a computer and a high frequency energy transmission system. The capsules consist of a drug reservoir, a high frequency receiver, a gas generating section and a piston to pump a drug solution or drug suspension out of the reservoir. Mechanical energy is generated inside the capsule through electrolysis, if a 27 MHz high frequency field is in resonance with the receiver inside the capsule. Two different miniaturised oscillatory circuits were constructed, which act as the receivers in the capsules. Tramadol was used in release experiments as a model drug. Delayed and pulsed release profiles were obtained. A computer-controlled system was constructed, in which the programmed release profiles are compared with the actual release of the drug.

  5. Reproducibility of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy in the Investigation of Chronic Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Christodoulou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Capsule endoscopy (CE is a valuable tool in the diagnostic evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but limited information is available on the reproducibility of CE findings.

  6. Preoperative detection of posterior capsule tear with ultrasound biomicroscopy in traumatic cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; Hurmeric, Volkan; Ceylan, Osman Melih

    2013-02-01

    We report ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) evaluation of a paintball-related traumatic cataract with a posterior capsule tear. Slitlamp examination revealed anterior and posterior subcapsular cataracts with a suspicious tiny posterior capsule tear within the larger area of posterior bulging. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (35 MHz) confirmed the presence of a sub-1.0 mm posterior capsule tear, which was clearly observed intraoperatively and postoperatively. This is the first report illustrating the high performance of 35 MHz UBM in detecting a sub-1.0 mm posterior capsule tear. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Video capsule endoscopy and CT enterography in diagnosing adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy; Volkov, Dmitri

    2013-10-07

    Primary adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a rare but important cause of gastric outlet obstruction that may be misdiagnosed as idiopathic gastroparesis. Clinically, patients present with early satiety, abdominal fullness, nausea, epigastric discomfort and eructation. Permanent gastric retention of a video capsule endoscope is diagnostic in differentiating between the two diseases, in the absence of an organic gastric outlet obstruction. This case presents the longest video capsule retention in the medical literature to date. It is also the first case report of adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis diagnosed with video capsule endoscopy or a computed tomography scan. Finally, an unusual "plugging" of the gastric outlet with free floating capsule has an augmented effect on disease physiology and on patient's symptoms.

  8. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviarasan, T; Siva, Sankar R; Yogamoorthi, A

    2012-11-01

    Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsule. The following compounds i.e. Kabiramid C, Aplysianin E, Aplysianin A, Thisaplysianin E and Tyrian purple have been documented in egg capsule of various gastropod and most of the antimicrobial secondary metabolites have not been isolated from the egg capsule because of the odious, and complex chemical structure. Stability of the compounds is unknown.

  9. A study on the development of instrumented capsule for the material irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Maeng, W. Y.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Jung, S. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, T. R.; Park, J. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Jun, Y. K.; Yang, S. H.

    1997-08-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO`s characteristics. (author). 86 refs., 45 tabs., 146 figs.

  10. Enhanced Stimuli-Responsive Electrorheological Property of Poly(ionic liquid)s-Capsulated Polyaniline Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen Zheng; Yuezhen Dong; Yang Liu; Xiaopeng Zhao; Jianbo Yin

    2017-01-01

    We used inherently conducting polyaniline as a core to develop a type of poly(ionic liquid)s-capsulated polyaniline composite particles in order to both overcome the surface charged character of pure poly...

  11. Design of the Capsule (13M-01K) for Irradiation of Fuel Cladding Materials in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Yang, Seong Woo; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear-grade zirconium alloys contain more than 95% Zr, and therefore most of their properties are similar to those of pure zirconium. ZIRLO material, used in fuel rod cladding, structural and flow mixing grids, instrumentation tubes, and guide thimbles, increases margin-to-fuel-rod-corrosion limits and enhances fuel assembly structural stability. The demonstrated corrosion resistance and enhanced structural stability of ZIRLO cladding enable longer cycle lengths at higher temperatures without reducing operating margins. An instrumented capsule (13M-01K) was designed and fabricated for evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of Zirlo material, which is commonly used for cladding of nuclear fuel. This capsule is now being irradiated for 2 cycles at CT test hole of HANARO, which was started at Jan 27 and will be ended at Mar 31, 2014. The structure of the capsule was based on the previous capsule (11M-22K capsule) which was successfully irradiated at the same hole of HANARO. In the capsule, 182 specimens such as tensile specimens of plate type and ring type specimens were placed. Most of them are made of Zirlo, but a few are HANA material that is developed in KAERI. The irradiation test was requested by 4 universities including Dong-Kook and Han-Yang etc. The capsule is composed of 5 layers, each of which had Al holder containing several specimens and an independent electric heater, thermocouples etc. During the irradiation test, temperatures of the specimens and fast neutron fluence were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. The capsule is irradiated for 2 cycles (28 days) at the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 350-390 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 9.6Χ10{sup 20} (n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0 Mev). In this capsule, the two kinds of irradiation tests are performed at quite different temperatures. At upper 3 layers of the capsule, specimens for irradiation at high

  12. The role of capsule endoscopy after negative CT enterography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyun Mi; Park, Chan Hyuk; Lee, Jin Ha; Kim, Bo Kyung; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Hong, Sung Pil [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Joon Seok [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) after negative computed tomographic (CT) enterography. We retrospectively included 30 patients with OGIB who received capsule endoscopy after negative CT enterography. The median age of the patients was 60 years, and 60% of patients were male. The median follow-up duration was 8 months. Overt bleeding was 60%, and occult bleeding was 40%. Based on capsule endoscopy results, a definitive diagnosis was made for 17 patients (57%): ulcer in nine patients (30%), active bleeding with no identifiable cause in five (17%), angiodysplasia in two (7%) and Dieulafoy's lesion in one (3%). Two patients with jejunal ulcers were diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Seven patients (41%) with positive capsule endoscopy received double balloon enteroscopy and two patients (12%) received steroid treatment for Crohn's disease. Patients with overt bleeding, a previous history of bleeding, or who received large amounts of blood transfusions were more likely to show positive capsule endoscopy. Capsule endoscopy showed high diagnostic yields in patients with OGIB after negative CT enterography and may help to provide further therapeutic plans for patients with OGIB and negative CT enterography. circle CT enterography has been widely used in evaluating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). circle Capsule endoscopy showed high diagnostic yield for OGIB after negative CT enterography. circle Negative CT enterography does not exclude important causes of small bowel bleeding. circle Most lesions missed at CT-enterography are flat and can be detected by capsule endoscopy. (orig.)

  13. Regional mechanical properties and stress analysis of the human anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrigi, R M; David, G; Dziezyc, J; Humphrey, J D

    2007-06-01

    The lens capsule of the eye functions, in part, as a deformable support through which the ciliary body applies tractions that can alter lens curvature and corresponding refractive power during the process of accommodation. Although it has long been recognized that characterization of the mechanical properties of the lens capsule is fundamental to understanding this physiologic process as well as clinical interventions, prior data have been limited by one-dimensional testing of excised specimens despite the existence of multiaxial loading in vivo. In this paper, we employ a novel experimental approach to study in situ the regional, multiaxial mechanical behavior of both normal and diabetic human anterior lens capsules. Furthermore, we use these data to calculate material parameters in a nonlinear stress-strain relation via a custom sub-domain inverse finite element method (FEM). These parameters are then used to predict capsular stresses in response to imposed loads using a forward FEM model. Our results for both normal and diabetic human eyes show that the anterior lens capsule exhibits a nonlinear pseudoelastic behavior over finite strains that is typical of soft tissues, and that strains are principal relative to meridional and circumferential directions. Experimental data and parameter estimation suggest further that the capsule is regionally anisotropic, with the circumferential direction becoming increasingly stiffer than the meridional direction towards the equator. Although both normal and diabetic lens capsules exhibited these general characteristic behaviors, diabetic capsules were significantly stiffer at each distension. Finally, the forward FEM model predicted a nearly uniform, equibiaxial stress field during normalcy that will be perturbed by cataract surgery. Such mechanical perturbations may be an underlying modulator of the sustained errant epithelial cell behavior that is observed well after cataract surgery and may ultimately contribute to

  14. Lateral migration of an elastic capsule by optical force in a uniform flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheong Bong; Huang, Wei-Xi; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2012-12-01

    The lateral migration of an elastic capsule under an optical force in a uniform flow was studied to show the separation characteristics according to the elastic properties in the cross-type optical separator. The initially spherical capsule was moved through the fluid flow using a laser beam with a Gaussian distribution focused along the direction normal to the flow device surface. To simulate such a system, a penalty immersed boundary method was adopted to enable fluid-membrane coupling, and a dynamic ray tracing method was applied to the optical force calculation. The effects of the elastic properties of the capsule membrane (the surface Young's modulus and the bending modulus) on the lateral migration were studied. By increasing the surface Young's modulus, the capsule deformed less and the migration distance increased; however, buckling occurred in the capsule with a high surface Young's modulus. Buckling could be suppressed by increasing the bending rigidity. The effects of the flow velocity and the laser beam power were also examined. In the simulation, the S number, i.e., the ratio of the optical force to the viscous force, was adjusted by decreasing the flow velocity or increasing the laser beam power. The migration distance increased as the S number increased, and a constant lateral migration distance was obtained for a rigid particle for a given S number. An elastic capsule under conditions intermediate between a fixed flow velocity and a fixed laser beam power, however, did not yield a constant lateral migration distance due to the extent of the deformation in the different situations. To predict the lateral migration distance of an elastic capsule, a nondimensional parameter, S_{e}, was defined to include the effects of the optical force, the elastic force, and the fluid viscous force. A unified tendency of the lateral migration distance with S_{e} was obtained for capsules with intermediate elasticity, by varying either the flow velocity or the laser

  15. How Does A Porous Shell Collapse? Delayed Buckling And Guided Folding Of Inhomogeneous Capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Sujit S.; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Paulose, Jayson; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Nelson, David R.; Weitz, David A

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal capsules can sustain an external osmotic pressure; however, for a sufficiently large pressure, they will ultimately buckle. This process can be strongly influenced by structural inhomogeneities in the capsule shells. We explore how the time delay before the onset of buckling decreases as the shells are made more inhomogeneous; this behavior can be quantitatively understood by coupling shell theory with Darcy's law. In addition, we show that the shell inhomogeneity can dramatically c...

  16. Consequences of Reduction of Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsule Expression on Interactions of This Bacterium with Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Favre-Bonte, Sabine; Joly, Bernard; Forestier, Christiane

    1999-01-01

    Most Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates are fully encapsulated and adhere in vitro to intestinal cell lines with an aggregative pattern. In this study, the influence of the capsule on interactions with epithelial cells was investigated by creating an isogenic mutant defective in the synthesis of the capsule. Determination of the uronic acid content of bacterial extracts confirmed that the mutant did not produce capsular polysaccharides whereas, with the wild-type strain, the level of enc...

  17. Pneumococcal Capsule Synthesis Locus cps as Evolutionary Hotspot with Potential to Generate Novel Serotypes by Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Rafal J; Croucher, Nicholas J; De Maio, Nicola; Chewapreecha, Claire; Salter, Susannah J; Turner, Paul; Aanensen, David M; Bentley, Stephen D; Didelot, Xavier; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-10-01

    Diversity of the polysaccharide capsule in Streptococcus pneumoniae-main surface antigen and the target of the currently used pneumococcal vaccines-constitutes a major obstacle in eliminating pneumococcal disease. Such diversity is genetically encoded by almost 100 variants of the capsule biosynthesis locus, cps. However, the evolutionary dynamics of the capsule remains not fully understood. Here, using genetic data from 4,519 bacterial isolates, we found cps to be an evolutionary hotspot with elevated substitution and recombination rates. These rates were a consequence of relaxed purifying selection and positive, diversifying selection acting at this locus, supporting the hypothesis that the capsule has an increased potential to generate novel diversity compared with the rest of the genome. Diversifying selection was particularly evident in the region of wzd/wze genes, which are known to regulate capsule expression and hence the bacterium's ability to cause disease. Using a novel, capsule-centered approach, we analyzed the evolutionary history of 12 major serogroups. Such analysis revealed their complex diversification scenarios, which were principally driven by recombination with other serogroups and other streptococci. Patterns of recombinational exchanges between serogroups could not be explained by serotype frequency alone, thus pointing to nonrandom associations between co-colonizing serotypes. Finally, we discovered a previously unobserved mosaic serotype 39X, which was confirmed to carry a viable and structurally novel capsule. Adding to previous discoveries of other mosaic capsules in densely sampled collections, these results emphasize the strong adaptive potential of the bacterium by its ability to generate novel antigenic diversity by recombination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. An optimized methodology to analyze biopolymer capsules by environmental scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conforto, Egle, E-mail: egle.conforto@univ-lr.fr [LaSIE UMR 7356 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Joguet, Nicolas [Equipe Approches Moléculaires Environnement-Santé, LIENSs, UMR 7266 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Buisson, Pierre [INNOV' IA, 4 rue Samuel Champlain, Z.I. Chef de Baie, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Vendeville, Jean-Eudes; Chaigneau, Carine [IDCAPS, filiale R and D INNOV' IA, 4 rue Samuel Champlain, Z.I. Chef de Baie, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Maugard, Thierry [Equipe Approches Moléculaires Environnement-Santé, LIENSs, UMR 7266 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an optimized methodology to study the surface characteristics and internal structure of biopolymer capsules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in environmental mode. The main advantage of this methodology is that no preparation is required and, significantly, no metallic coverage is deposited on the surface of the specimen, thus preserving the original capsule shape and its surface morphology. This avoids introducing preparation artefacts which could modify the capsule surface and mask information concerning important feature like porosities or roughness. Using this method gelatin and mainly fatty coatings, difficult to be analyzed by standard SEM technique, unambiguously show fine details of their surface morphology without damage. Furthermore, chemical contrast is preserved in backscattered electron images of unprepared samples, allowing visualizing the internal organization of the capsule, the quality of the envelope, etc.… This study provides pointers on how to obtain optimal conditions for the analysis of biological or sensitive material, as this is not always studied using appropriate techniques. A reliable evaluation of the parameters used in capsule elaboration for research and industrial applications, as well as that of capsule functionality is provided by this methodology, which is essential for the technological progress in this domain. - Highlights: • We optimized a methodology using ESEM to analyze biopolymer capsules. • This methodology allows analyzing original surface samples without any preparation. • No preparation artefact are introduced which would mask important surface details. • Morphological details and chemical contrast from the original surface are preserved. • Capsule shape, volume, surface roughness and coating quality were reliably evaluated.

  19. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Monodispersed Spherical Capsules with a Mesoporous Shell

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2010-05-11

    Monodispersed HMSs with tunable particle size and shell thickness were successfully synthesized using relatively concentrated polystyrene latex templates and a silica precursor in a weakly basic ethanol/water mixture. The particle size of the capsules can vary from 100 nm to micrometers. These highly engineered monodispersed capsules synthesized by a facile and scalable process may find applications in drug delivery, catalysis, separationm or as biological and chemical microreactors. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Urea-functionalized crystalline capsules for recognition and separation of tetrahedral oxoanions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division

    2012-12-21

    We reviewed the persistent ability of tripodal TREN-based tris-urea receptors (TREN = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) to self-assemble with a variety of oxoanions into dimeric capsules upon crystallization. The capsule crystallization allows for charge-, shape-, and size-selective encapsulation of tetrahedral XO4n-anions (n = 2,3), and provides an effective way to separate these anions from competitive aqueous environments.