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Sample records for chiral unitary approach

  1. The $\\Xi^* \\bar{K}$ and $\\Omega \\eta$ interaction within a chiral unitary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Siqi; Chen, Xurong; Jia, Duojie

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the interaction of the coupled channels $\\Omega \\eta$ and $\\Xi^* \\bar{K}$ within the chiral unitary approach. The systems under consideration have total isospins $0$, strangeness $S = -3$, and spin $3/2$. We studied the $s$ wave interaction which implies that the possible resonances generated in the system can have spin-parity $J^P = 3/2^-$. The unitary amplitudes in coupled channels develop poles that can be associated with some known baryonic resonances. We find there is a dynamically generated $3/2^-$ $\\Omega$ state with mass around $1800$ MeV, which is in agreement with the predictions of the five-quark model.

  2. Scalar Lambda N and Lambda Lambda interaction in a chiral unitary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, K; Vacas, M J V

    2006-01-01

    We study the central part of Lambda N and Lambda Lambda potential by considering the correlated and uncorrelated two-meson exchange besides the omega exchange contribution. The correlated two-meson is evaluated in a chiral unitary approach. We find that a short range repulsion is generated by the correlated two-meson potential which also produces an attraction in the intermediate distance region. The uncorrelated two-meson exchange produces a sizeable attraction in all cases which is counterbalanced by omega exchange contribution.

  3. Construction of KbarN potential and structure of Lambda(1405) based on chiral unitary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Miyahara, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    Based on chiral unitary approach, we construct the realistic KbarN local potential, which is useful for the quantitative calculation of Kbar-nuclei. Since the resonance pole structure of the KbarN system seems important for the Kbar-nuclei and the spacial structure of Lambda(1405), we establish the construction procedure of the local potential paying attention to the scattering amplitude in the complex energy plane. Furthermore, for the quantitative study of the Kbar-nuclei, we consider the constraint from the recent experimental data measured by SIDDHARTA, which significantly reduces the uncertainty of the KbarN amplitude. With this new local potential, we estimate the spacial structure of Lambda(1405) and obtain the result indicating the meson-baryon molecular state of Lambda(1405).

  4. Two $\\Lambda(1405)$ states in a chiral unitary approach with a fully-calculated loop function

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Fang-Yong; Pang, Jing-Long

    2016-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved in the framework of unitary coupled-channel approximation by using the pseudoscalar meson-baryon octet interaction. The loop function of the intermediate meson and baryon is deduced accurately in a fully dimensional regularization scheme, where the off-shell correction is supplemented. Two $\\Lambda(1405)$ states are generated dynamically in the strangeness $S=-1$ and isospin $I=0$ sector, and their masses, decay widths and couplings to the meson and the baryon are similar to those values obtained in the on-shell factorization. However, the scattering amplitudes at these two poles become weaker than the cases in the on-shell factorization.

  5. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Oset; D Cabrera; H C Chiang; C Garcia Recio; S Hirenzaki; S S Kamalov; J Nieves; Y Okumura; A Ramos; H Toki; M J Vicente Vacas

    2001-08-01

    In this talk we briefly describe some basic elements of chiral perturbation theory, , and how the implementation of unitarity and other novel elements lead to a better expansion of the -matrix for meson–meson and meson–baryon interactions. Applications are then done to the interaction in nuclear matter in the scalar and vector channels, antikaons in nuclei and - atoms, and how the meson properties are changed in a nuclear medium.

  6. A gauge invariant chiral unitary framework for kaon photo- and electroproduction on the proton

    CERN Document Server

    Borasoy, B; Meißner, Ulf-G; Nißler, R

    2007-01-01

    We present a gauge invariant approach to photoproduction of mesons on nucleons within a chiral unitary framework. The interaction kernel for meson-baryon scattering is derived from the chiral effective Lagrangian and iterated in a Bethe-Salpeter equation. Within the leading order approximation to the interaction kernel, data on kaon photoproduction from SAPHIR, CLAS and CBELSA/TAPS are analyzed in the threshold region. The importance of gauge invariance and the precision of various approximations in the interaction kernel utilized in earlier works are discussed.

  7. Constraints on the chiral unitary $\\bar KN$ amplitude from $\\pi\\Sigma K^+$ photoproduction data

    CERN Document Server

    Mai, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    A chiral unitary approach for antikaon-nucleon scattering in on-shell factorization is studied. We find multiple sets of parameters for which the model describes all existing hadronic data similarly well. We confirm the two-pole structure of the $\\Lambda (1405)$. The narrow $\\Lambda(1405)$ pole appears at comparable positions in the complex energy plane, whereas the location of the broad pole suffers from a large uncertainty. In the second step, we use a simple model for photoproduction of $K^+\\pi\\Sigma$ off the proton and confront it with the experimental data from the CLAS collaboration. It is found that only a few of the hadronic solutions allow for a consistent description of the CLAS data within the assumed reaction mechanism.

  8. Constraints on the chiral unitary $\\bar KN$ amplitude from ${\\pi}{\\Sigma}K^+$ photoproduction data

    CERN Document Server

    Mai, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    A chiral unitary approach for antikaon-nucleon scattering in on-shell factorization is studied. We find multiple sets of parameters for which the model describes all existing hadronic data similarly well. We confirm the two-pole structure of the ${\\Lambda}(1405)$. The narrow ${\\Lambda}(1405)$ pole appears at comparable positions in the complex energy plane, whereas the location of the broad pole suffers from a large uncertainty. In the second step, we use a simple model for photoproduction of $K^+{\\pi}{\\Sigma}$ off the proton and confront it with the experimental data from the CLAS collaboration. It is found that only a few of the hadronic solutions allow for a consistent description of the CLAS data within the assumed reaction mechanism.

  9. Eta-photoproduction in a gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework

    CERN Document Server

    Ruic, Dino; Meissner, Ulf-G

    2011-01-01

    We analyse photoproduction of eta mesons off the proton in a gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework. The interaction kernel for meson-baryon scattering is derived from the leading order chiral effective Lagrangian and iterated in a Bethe-Salpeter equation. The recent precise threshold data from the Crystal Ball at MAMI can be described rather well and the complex pole corresponding to the S11(1535) is extracted. An extension of the kernel is also discussed.

  10. Two-pion exchange electromagnetic current in chiral effective field theory using the method of unitary transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Koelling, S; Krebs, H; Meißner, U -G

    2009-01-01

    We derive the leading two-pion exchange contributions to the two-nucleon electromagnetic current operator in the framework of chiral effective field theory using the method of unitary transformation. Explicit results for the current and charge densities are given in momentum and coordinate space.

  11. Geometrical approach to central molecular chirality: a chirality selection rule

    OpenAIRE

    Capozziello, S.; Lattanzi, A

    2004-01-01

    Chirality is of primary importance in many areas of chemistry and has been extensively investigated since its discovery. We introduce here the description of central chirality for tetrahedral molecules using a geometrical approach based on complex numbers. According to this representation, for a molecule having n chiral centres, it is possible to define an index of chirality. Consequently a chirality selection rule has been derived which allows the characterization of a molecule as achiral, e...

  12. Unitary approach to the quantum forced harmonic oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an alternative approach to studying the evolution of a quantum harmonic oscillator subject to an arbitrary time dependent force. With the purpose of finding the evolution operator, certain unitary transformations are applied successively to Schr\\"odinger's equation reducing it to its simplest form. Therefore, instead of solving the original Schr\\"odinger's partial differential equation in time and space the problem is replaced by a system of ordinary differential eq...

  13. An Informal Overview of the Unitary Group Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnad, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kruse, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baker, R. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-06-13

    The Unitary Groups Approach (UGA) is an elegant and conceptually unified approach to quantum structure calculations. It has been widely used in molecular structure calculations, and holds the promise of a single computational approach to structure calculations in a variety of different fields. We explore the possibility of extending the UGA to computations in atomic and nuclear structure as a simpler alternative to traditional Racah algebra-based approaches. We provide a simple introduction to the basic UGA and consider some of the issues in using the UGA with spin-dependent, multi-body Hamiltonians requiring multi-shell bases adapted to additional symmetries. While the UGA is perfectly capable of dealing with such problems, it is seen that the complexity rises dramatically, and the UGA is not at this time, a simpler alternative to Racah algebra-based approaches.

  14. Effect of Born and unitary impurity scattering on the Kramer-Pesch shrinkage of a vortex core in a chiral p-wave superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Kurosawa, Noriyuki; Arahata, Emiko; Kato, Yusuke; Tanuma, Yasunari; Tanaka, Yukio; Golubov, Alexander A.

    2013-11-01

    We theoretically investigate a non-magnetic impurity effect on the temperature dependence of the vortex core shrinkage (Kramer-Pesch effect) in a chiral p-wave superconductor. The Born limit and the unitary limit scattering are compared within the framework of the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity. We find that the robustness of the Kramer-Pesch effect against the impurity scattering in the Born limit is lost in the unitary limit.

  15. Effect of Born and unitary impurity scattering on the Kramer-Pesch shrinkage of a vortex core in a chiral p-wave superconductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Kurosawa, Noriyuki; Arahata, Emiko; Kato, Yusuke; Tanuma, Yasunari; Tanaka, Yukio; Golubov, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate a non-magnetic impurity effect on the temperature dependence of the vortex core shrinkage (Kramer–Pesch effect) in a chiral p-wave superconductor. The Born limit and the unitary limit scattering are compared within the framework of the quasiclassical theory of supercondu

  16. Effect of Born and unitary impurity scattering on the Kramer–Pesch shrinkage of a vortex core in a chiral p-wave superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: n-hayashi@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [NanoSquare Research Center (N2RC), Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Kurosawa, Noriyuki [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Arahata, Emiko [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kato, Yusuke [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Tanuma, Yasunari [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Yukio [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Golubov, Alexander A. [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enshede (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We theoretically study an impurity scattering effect on the vortex core structure in a chiral p-wave superconductor. •A low-temperature vortex core shrinkage (or Kramer–Pesch effect) is investigated. •The robustness of the Kramer–Pesch effect against an impurity scattering in the Born limit is lost in the unitary limit. -- Abstract: We theoretically investigate a non-magnetic impurity effect on the temperature dependence of the vortex core shrinkage (Kramer–Pesch effect) in a chiral p-wave superconductor. The Born limit and the unitary limit scattering are compared within the framework of the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity. We find that the robustness of the Kramer–Pesch effect against the impurity scattering in the Born limit is lost in the unitary limit.

  17. Matrix Elements of One- and Two-Body Operators in the Unitary Group Approach (II) - Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Lian-Rong; PAN Feng

    2001-01-01

    Simple analytical expressions for one- and two-body matrix elements in the unitary group approach to the configuration interaction problems of many-electron systems are obtained based on the previous results for general Un irreps.

  18. Forcing a unitary transformation by an external field comparing two approaches based on optimal control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    A quantum gate is realized by specific unitary transformations operating on states representing qubits. Considering a quantum system employed as an element in a quantum computing scheme, the task is therefore to enforce the pre-specified unitary transformation. This task is carried out by an external time dependent field. Optimal control theory has been suggested as a method to compute the external field which alters the evolution of the system such that it performs the desire unitary transformation. This study compares two recent implementations of optimal control theory to find the field that induces a quantum gate. The first approach is based on the equation of motion of the unitary transformation. The second approach generalizes the state to state formulation of optimal control theory. This work highlight the formal relation between the two approaches.

  19. New approaches in sensitive chiral CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Guijarro-Diez, Miguel; Marina, María Luisa; Crego, Antonio L

    2014-01-01

    CE has shown to have a big potential for chiral separations, with advantages such as high efficiency, high resolution, and low sample and reagents consumption. Nevertheless, when UV detection is employed, CE has some drawbacks, especially the low sensitivity obtained due to the short optical path length. Notwithstanding, sensitivity improvements can be achieved when different approaches are employed, such as sample treatment strategies (off-line or on-line), in-capillary sample preconcentration techniques, and/or alternative detection systems to UV-Vis (such as fluorescence, conductimetry, electrochemiluminiscence, MS, etc.). This article reviews the most recent methodological and instrumental advances reported from June 2011 to May 2013 for enhancing the sensitivity in chiral analysis by CE. The sensitivity achieved for the enantioseparated analytes and the applications carried out using the developed methodologies are also summarized.

  20. A phenomenological approach to the equation of state of a unitary Fermi gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V N Murthy; M Brack; R K Bhaduri

    2014-06-01

    We propose a phenomenological approach for the equation of state of a unitary Fermi gas. The universal equation of state is parametrized in terms of Fermi–Dirac integrals. This reproduces the experimental data over the accessible range of fugacity and normalized temperature, but cannot describe the superfluid phase transition found in the MIT experiment [Ku et al, Science 335, 563 (2012)]. The most sensitive data for compressibility and specific heat at phase transition can, however, be fitted by introducing into the grand partition function a pair of complex conjugate zeros lying in the complex fugacity plane slightly off the real axis.

  1. Statistical Mechanical Approach to the Equation of State of Unitary Fermi Gases

    CERN Document Server

    De Silva, Theja N

    2016-01-01

    We combine a Tan's universal relation with a basic statistical mechanical approach to derive a general equation of state for unitary Fermi gases. The universal equation of state is written as a series solution to a self consistent integral equation where the general solution is a linear combination of Fermi functions. By truncating our series solution to four terms with already known exact theoretical inputs at limiting cases, namely the first three virial coefficients and the Bertsch parameter, we find a good agreement with experimental measurements in the entire temperature region in the normal state. Our analytical equation of state agrees with experimental data up to the fugacity $z = 18$, which is a vast improvement over the other analytical equations of state available where the agreements is \\emph{only} up to $z \\approx 7$.

  2. Nuclear forces from chiral Lagrangians using the method of unitary transformation II: The two-nucleon system

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, E; Meißner, Ulf G

    2000-01-01

    We employ the chiral nucleon-nucleon potential derived in [Nucl. Phys. A 637 (1998) 107] to study bound and scattering states in the two-nucleon system. At next-to-leading order, this potential is the sum of renormalized one-pion and two-pion exchange and contact interactions. At next-to-next-to-leading order, we have additional chiral two-pion exchange with low-energy constants determined from pion-nucleon scattering. Alternatively, we consider the DELTA(1232) as an explicit degree of freedom in the effective field theory. The nine parameters related to the contact interactions can be determined by a fit to the np S- and P-waves and the mixing parameter epsilon sub 1 for laboratory energies below 100 MeV. The predicted phase shifts and mixing parameters for higher energies and higher angular momenta are mostly well described for energies below 300 MeV. The S-waves are described as precisely as in modern phenomenological potentials. We find a good description of the deuteron properties.

  3. Random matrix model approach to chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Verbaarschot, J J M

    1996-01-01

    We review the application of random matrix theory (RMT) to chiral symmetry in QCD. Starting from the general philosophy of RMT we introduce a chiral random matrix model with the global symmetries of QCD. Exact results are obtained for universal properties of the Dirac spectrum: i) finite volume corrections to valence quark mass dependence of the chiral condensate, and ii) microscopic fluctuations of Dirac spectra. Comparisons with lattice QCD simulations are made. Most notably, the variance of the number of levels in an interval containing $n$ levels on average is suppressed by a factor $(\\log n)/\\pi^2 n$. An extension of the random matrix model model to nonzero temperatures and chemical potential provides us with a schematic model of the chiral phase transition. In particular, this elucidates the nature of the quenched approximation at nonzero chemical potential.

  4. Unitary background gauges and hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, A Yu

    1995-01-01

    A variety of unitary gauges for perturbation theory in a background field is considered in order to find those most suitable for a Hamiltonian treatment of the system. We select two convenient gauges and derive the propagators D_{\\mu\

  5. Chiral lagrangian approach to exchange vector currents in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Park, T S; Rho, M; Park, Tae Sun; Min, Dong Pil; Rho, Mannque

    1995-01-01

    Exchange vector currents are calculated up to one-loop order (corresponding to next-to-next-to-leading order) in chiral perturbation theory. As an illustration of the power of the approach, we apply the formalism to the classic nuclear process n+p\\rightarrow d +\\gamma at thermal energy. The exchange current correction comes out to be (4.5 \\pm 0.3) \\% in amplitude giving a predicted cross section \\sigma= (334\\pm 3)\\ {\\mbox mb} in excellent agreement with the experimental value (334.2\\pm 0.5)\\ {\\mbox mb}. Together with the axial charge transitions computed previously, this result provides a strong support for the power of chiral Lagrangians in nuclear physics. As a by-product of our results, we suggest an open problem in the application of chiral Lagrangian approach to nuclear processes that has to do with giving a physical meaning to the short-range correlations that play an important role in nuclei.

  6. Unitary appreciative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W R

    2001-06-01

    Unitary appreciative inquiry is described as an orientation, process, and approach for illuminating the wholeness, uniqueness, and essence that are the pattern of human life. It was designed to bring the concepts, assumptions, and perspectives of the science of unitary human beings into reality as a mode of inquiry. Unitary appreciative inquiry provides a way of giving fullest attention to important facets of human life that often are not fully accounted for in current methods that have a heavier emphasis on diagnostic representations. The participatory, synoptic, and transformative qualities of the unitary appreciative process are explicated. The critical dimensions of nursing knowledge development expressed in dialectics of the general and the particular, action and theory, stories and numbers, sense and soul, aesthetics and empirics, and interpretation and emancipation are considered in the context of the unitary appreciative stance. Issues of legitimacy of knowledge and credibility of research are posed and examined in the context of four quality standards that are deemed important to evaluate the worthiness of unitary appreciative inquiry for the advancement of nursing science and practice.

  7. Chiral perturbation theory approach to hadronic weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael, E. de (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique 2)

    1989-07-01

    We are concerned with applications to the non-leptonic weak interactions in the sector of light quark flavors: u, d and s. Both strangeness changing {Delta}S=1 and {Delta}S=2 non-leptonic transitions can be described as weak perturbations to the strong effective chiral Lagrangian; the chiral structure of the weak effective Lagrangian being dictated by the transformation properties of the weak non-leptonic Hamiltonian of the Standard Model under global SU(3){sub Left}xSU(3){sub Right} rotations of the quark-fields. These lectures are organized as follows. Section 2 gives a review of the basic properties of chiral symmetry. Section 3 explains the effective chiral realization of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian of the Standard Model to lowest order in derivatives and masses. Section 4 deals with non-leptonic weak transitions in the presence of electromagnetism. Some recent applications to radiative kaon decays are reviewed and the effect of the so called electromagnetic penguin like diagrams is also discussed. Section 5 explains the basic ideas of the QCD-hadronic duality approach to the evaluation of coupling constants of the non-leptonic chiral weak Lagrangian. (orig./HSI).

  8. Gauge-fixing approach to lattice chiral gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, W; Shamir, Y; Bock, Wolfgang; Golterman, Maarten F.L.; Shamir, Yigal

    1998-01-01

    We review the status of our recent work on the gauge-fixing approach to lattice chiral gauge theories. New numerical results in the reduced version of a model with a U(1) gauge symmetry are presented which strongly indicate that the factorization of the correlation functions of the left-handed neutral and right-handed charged fermion fields, which we established before in perturbation theory, holds also nonperturbatively.

  9. Ground State Energy of Unitary Fermion Gas with the Thomson Problem Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The dimensionless universal coefficient § defines the ratio of the unitary fermions energy density to that for the ideal non-interacting ones in the non-relativistic limit with T = 0. The classical Thomson problem is taken as a nonperturbative quantum many-body arm to address the ground state energy including the Iow energy nonlinear quantum fluctuation/correlation effects. With the relativistic Dirac continuum field theory formalism, the concise expression for the energy density functional of the strongly interacting limit fermions at both finite temperature and density is obtained. Analytically, the universal factor is calculated to be § = 4/9. The energy gap is △ = 5/18 k2f/(2m).

  10. Antikaon induced Ξ production from a chiral model at NLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijoo A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the meson-baryon interaction in the strangeness S = −1 sector using a chiral unitary approach, paying particular attention to the K̄N → KΞ reaction, especially important for constraining the next-to-leading order chiral terms, and considering also the effect of high spin hyperonic resonances. We also present results for the production of Ξ hyperons in nuclei

  11. Numerical study of chiral plasma instability within the classical statistical field theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Buividovich, P V

    2015-01-01

    We report on a numerical study of the real-time dynamics of chirally imbalanced lattice Dirac fermions coupled to dynamical electromagnetic field. To this end we use the classical statistical field theory approach, in which the quantum evolution of fermions is simulated exactly, and electromagnetic fields are treated as classical. Motivated by recent experiments on chirally imbalanced Dirac semimetals, we use the Wilson-Dirac lattice Hamiltonian for fermions in order to model the emergent nature of chiral symmetry at low energies. In general, we observe that the backreaction of fermions on the electromagnetic field prevents the system from acquiring large chirality imbalance. In the case of chirality pumping in parallel electric and magnetic fields, electric field is screened by the produced on-shell fermions and the accumulation of chirality is hence stopped. In the case of evolution with initially present chirality imbalance, axial charge tends to decay at the expense of nonzero helicity of electromagnetic ...

  12. Modular approach to novel chiral aryl-ferrocenyl phosphines by Suzuki cross-coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Feldthusen; Søtofte, Inger; Sorensen, H.O.;

    2002-01-01

    Two novel planar chiral and atropisomeric P,N and P,O aryl-ferrocenyl ligand systems have been developed. The strategy is short and involves a new synthetic approach to aryl-ferrocenyl compounds via a Suzuki cross-coupling procedure. The modular design can easily give access to variety of chiral ...

  13. Loop-driven graphical unitary group approach to the electron correlation problem, including configuration interaction energy gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, B.R.

    1979-09-01

    The Graphical Unitary Group Approach (GUGA) was cast into an extraordinarily powerful form by restructuring the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. This restructuring allows the adoption of the loop-driven formulation which illuminates vast numbers of previously unappreciated relationships between otherwise distinct Hamiltonian matrix elements. The theoretical/methodological contributions made here include the development of the loop-driven formula generation algorithm, a solution of the upper walk problem used to develop a loop breakdown algorithm, the restriction of configuration space employed to the multireference interacting space, and the restructuring of the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. Several other developments are presented and discussed. Among these developments are the use of new segment coefficients, improvements in the loop-driven algorithm, implicit generation of loops wholly within the external space adapted within the framework of the loop-driven methodology, and comparisons of the diagonalization tape method to the direct method. It is also shown how it is possible to implement the GUGA method without the time-consuming full (m/sup 5/) four-index transformation. A particularly promising new direction presented here involves the use of the GUGA methodology to obtain one-electron and two-electron density matrices. Once these are known, analytical gradients (first derivatives) of the CI potential energy are easily obtained. Several test calculations are examined in detail to illustrate the unique features of the method. Also included is a calculation on the asymmetric 2/sup 1/A' state of SO/sub 2/ with 23,613 configurations to demonstrate methods for the diagonalization of very large matrices on a minicomputer. 6 figures, 6 tables.

  14. Light baryon magnetic moments and N -> Delta gamma transition in a Lorentz covariant chiral quark approach

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, A; Holstein, Barry R; Lyubovitskij, V E; Nicmorus, D; Pumsa-ard, K; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Holstein, Barry R.; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Nicmorus, Diana; Pumsa-ard, Kem

    2006-01-01

    We calculate magnetic moments of light baryons and N -> Delta gamma transition characteristics using a manifestly Lorentz covariant chiral quark approach for the study of baryons as bound states of constituent quarks dressed by a cloud of pseudoscalar mesons.

  15. Geometry of mixed states and degeneracy structure of geometric phases for multi-level quantum systems. A unitary group approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolessi, E; Morandi, G; Mukunda, N

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the geometric aspects of unitary evolution of general states for a multilevel quantum system by exploiting the structure of coadjoint orbits in the unitary group Lie algebra. Using the same method in the case of SU(3) we study the effect of degeneracies on geometric phases for three-level systems. This is shown to lead to a highly nontrivial generalization of the result for two-level systems in which degeneracy results in a "monopole" structure in parameter space. The rich structures that arise are related to the geometry of adjoint orbits in SU(3). The limiting case of a two-level degeneracy in a three-level system is shown to lead to the known monopole structure.

  16. Recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Kaskulov, M; Roca, L; Sarkar, S; Strottman, D D; Vacas, M J V; Magas, V K; Ramos, A; Hernández, E

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I present recent developments in the field of hadronic physics and hadrons in the nuclear medium. I review the unitary chiral approach to meson baryon interaction and address the topics of the two dynamically generated $\\Lambda(1405)$ resonances, with experiments testing it, the $\\Lambda(1520)$ and $\\Delta(1700)$ resonances, plus the $\\Lambda(1520)$, $\\Sigma(1385)$ and $\\omega$ in the nuclear medium.

  17. Non-chiral fusion rules, structure constants of $D_{m}$ minimal models

    CERN Document Server

    Rida, A

    1999-01-01

    We present a technique to construct, for $D_{m}$ unitary minimal models, the non-chiral fusion rules which determines the operator content of the operator product algebra. Using these rules we solve the bootstrap equations and therefore determine the structure constants of these models. Through this approach we emphasize the role played by some discrete symmetries in the classification of minimal models.

  18. Approaching the chiral point in two-flavour lattice simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lottini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of the pion decay constant and the pion mass in two-flavour lattice QCD, with the physical and chiral points as ultimate goal. Measurements come from the ensembles generated by the CLS initiative using the O(a)-improved Wilson formulation, with lattice spacing down to about 0.05 fermi and pion masses as low as 190 MeV. The applicability of SU(2) chiral perturbation theory is investigated, and various functional forms, and their range of validity, are compared. The physical scale is set through the kaon decay constant, whose measurement is enabled by inserting a third, heavier valence strange quark.

  19. A chiral covariant approach to $\\rho\\rho$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Gülmez, D; Oller, J A

    2016-01-01

    We analyze vector meson - vector meson scattering in a unitarized chiral theory based on a chiral covariant framework. We show that a pole assigned to the the scalar meson $f_0(1370)$ can be dynamically generated from the $\\rho\\rho$ interaction, while this is not the case for the tensor meson $f_2(1270)$ as found in earlier works. We show that the generation of the tensor state is untenable due to an artefact of the extreme non-relativistic kinematics used before. We further consider the effects arising from the coupling of channels with different orbital angular momenta. We suggest to use the formalism outlined here to obtain more reliable results for the dynamical generation of resonances in the vector-vector interaction.

  20. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  1. Master formula approach to broken chiral U(3)xU(3) symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroyuki Kamano

    2010-04-01

    The master formula approach to chiral symmetry breaking proposed by Yamagishi and Zahed is extended to the U_R(3)xU_L(3) group, in which effects of the U_A(1) anomaly and the flavor symmetry breaking m_u \

  2. Ground-state energies and charge radii of $^{4}$He, $^{16}$O, $^{40}$Ca, and $^{56}$Ni in the unitary-model-operator approach

    CERN Document Server

    Miyagi, Takayuki; Okamoto, Ryoji; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2015-01-01

    We study the nuclear ground-state properties by using the unitary-model-operator approach (UMOA). Recently, the particle-basis formalism has been introduced in the UMOA and enables us to employ the charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction. We evaluate the ground-state energies and charge radii of $^{4}$He, $^{16}$O, $^{40}$Ca, and $^{56}$Ni with the charge-dependent Bonn potential. The ground-state energy is dominated by the contributions from the one- and two-body cluster terms, while, for the radius, the one-particle-one-hole excitations are more important than the two-particle-two-hole excitations. The calculated results reproduce the trend of experimental data of the saturation property for finite nuclei.

  3. Approach to Chandrasekhar-Kendall-Woltjer State in a Chiral Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Xiao-liang; Wang, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We study the time evolution of the magnetic field in a plasma with a chiral magnetic current. The Vector Spherical Harmonic functions (VSH) are used to expand all fields. We define a measure for the Chandrasekhar-Kendall-Woltjer (CKW) state, which has a simple form in VSH expansion. We propose the conditions for a general class of initial momentum spectra that will evolve into the CKW state. For this class of initial conditions, to approach the CKW state, (i) a non-vanishing chiral magnetic conductivity is necessary, and (ii) the time integration of the product of the electric resistivity and chiral magnetic conductivity must grow faster than the time integration of the resistivity. We give a few examples to test these conditions numerically which work very well.

  4. Quantum unitary dynamics in cosmological spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade da Beira Interior, R. Marquês D’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    We address the question of unitary implementation of the dynamics for scalar fields in cosmological scenarios. Together with invariance under spatial isometries, the requirement of a unitary evolution singles out a rescaling of the scalar field and a unitary equivalence class of Fock representations for the associated canonical commutation relations. Moreover, this criterion provides as well a privileged quantization for the unscaled field, even though the associated dynamics is not unitarily implementable in that case. We discuss the relation between the initial data that determine the Fock representations in the rescaled and unscaled descriptions, and clarify that the S-matrix is well defined in both cases. In our discussion, we also comment on a recently proposed generalized notion of unitary implementation of the dynamics, making clear the difference with the standard unitarity criterion and showing that the two approaches are not equivalent.

  5. Elastic properties of chiral, anti-chiral, and hierarchical honeycombs:A simple energy-based approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood Mousanezhad; Babak Haghpanah; Ranajay Ghosh; Abdel Magid Hamouda; Hamid Nayeb-Hashemi; Ashkan Vaziri

    2016-01-01

    The effects of two geometric refinement strategies widespread in natural structures, chirality and self-similar hierarchy, on the in-plane elastic response of two-dimensional honeycombs were studied systematically. Simple closed-form expressions were derived for the elastic moduli of several chiral, anti-chiral, and hierarchical honeycombs with hexagon and square based networks. Finite element analysis was employed to validate the analytical estimates of the elastic moduli. The results were also compared with the numerical and experimental data available in the literature. We found that introducing a hier-archical refinement increases the Young’s modulus of hexagon based honeycombs while decreases their shear modulus. For square based honeycombs, hierarchy increases the shear modulus while decreasing their Young’s modulus. Introducing chirality was shown to always decrease the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the structure. However, chirality remains the only route to auxeticity. In particular, we found that anti-tetra-chiral structures were capable of simultaneously exhibiting anisotropy, auxeticity, and remarkably low shear modulus as the magnitude of the chirality of the unit cell increases.

  6. The supersymmetry method for chiral random matrix theory with arbitrary rotation-invariant weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Vural; Kieburg, Mario; Guhr, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In the past few years, the supersymmetry method has been generalized to real symmetric, Hermitian, and Hermitian self-dual random matrices drawn from ensembles invariant under the orthogonal, unitary, and unitary symplectic groups, respectively. We extend this supersymmetry approach to chiral random matrix theory invariant under the three chiral unitary groups in a unifying way. Thereby we generalize a projection formula providing a direct link and, hence, a ‘short cut’ between the probability density in ordinary space and that in superspace. We emphasize that this point was one of the main problems and shortcomings of the supersymmetry method, since only implicit dualities between ordinary space and superspace were known before. To provide examples, we apply this approach to the calculation of the supersymmetric analogue of a Lorentzian (Cauchy) ensemble and an ensemble with a quartic potential. Moreover, we consider the partially quenched partition function of the three chiral Gaussian ensembles corresponding to four-dimensional continuum quantum chromodynamics. We identify a natural splitting of the chiral Lagrangian in its lowest order into a part for the physical mesons and a part associated with source terms generating the observables, e.g. the level density of the Dirac operator.

  7. Unusual dileptions at RHIC a field theoretic approach based on a non-equilibrium chiral phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, F. [Los Alamos National Labs., NM (United States)

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on unusual dileptons at Brookhaven RHIC. A field theory approach is used based on a non-equilibrium chiral phase transformation utilizing the schroedinger and Heisenberg picture.

  8. PODOLSKY'S ELECTRODYNAMICS UNDER A CHIRAL APPROACH ELECTRODINÁMICA DE PODOLSKY BAJO UN ENFOQUE QUIRAL

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that a new approach leads to Maxwell's and Podolsky's electrodynamics, provided we start from chiral constitutive relations instead of the usual Coulomb's law.En este trabajo se muestra que un nuevo esquema conduce a la electrodinámica de Maxwell y a la electrodinámica de Podolsky, partiendo con relaciones constitutivas quirales en lugar de la usual ley de Coulomb.

  9. PODOLSKY'S ELECTRODYNAMICS UNDER A CHIRAL APPROACH ELECTRODINÁMICA DE PODOLSKY BAJO UN ENFOQUE QUIRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that a new approach leads to Maxwell's and Podolsky's electrodynamics, provided we start from chiral constitutive relations instead of the usual Coulomb's law.En este trabajo se muestra que un nuevo esquema conduce a la electrodinámica de Maxwell y a la electrodinámica de Podolsky, partiendo con relaciones constitutivas quirales en lugar de la usual ley de Coulomb.

  10. Application of the graphical unitary group approach to the energy second derivative for CI wave functions via the coupled perturbed CI equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    Analytic derivatives of the potential energy for Self-Consistent-Field (SCF) wave functions have been developed in recent years and found to be useful tools. The first derivative for configuration interaction (CI) wave functions is also available. This work details the extension of analytic methods to energy second derivatives for CI wave functions. The principal extension required for second derivatives is evaluation of the first order change in the CI wave function with respect to a nuclear perturbation. The shape driven graphical unitary group approach (SDGUGA) direct CI program was adapted to evaluate this term via the coupled-perturbed CI equations. Several iterative schemes are compared for use in solving these equations. The pilot program makes no use of molecular symmetry but the timing results show that utilization of molecular symmetry is desirable. The principles for defining and solving a set of symmetry adapted equations are discussed. Evaluation of the second derivative also requires the solution of the second order coupled-perturbed Hartree-Fock equations to obtain the correction to the molecular orbitals due to the nuclear perturbation. This process takes a consistently higher percentage of the computation time than for the first order equations alone and a strategy for its reduction is discussed.

  11. Entanglement quantification by local unitaries

    CERN Document Server

    Monras, A; Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Davies, G B; Illuminati, F

    2011-01-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitaries play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as "shield entanglement". They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert- Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary. To the action of each different local unitary there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitaries with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these shield entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary f...

  12. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu S. Bag

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale approaches to chiraltechnology such as asymmetric synthesis and catalysis, chiral separation and detection, and enantiomericanalysis. Chiral sensors have also been included. The state-of-the-art chiral research at DMSRDE,Kanpur isalso presented.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.626-635, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1685

  13. Black holes, quantum information, and unitary evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    The unitary crisis for black holes indicates an apparent need to modify local quantum field theory. This paper explores the idea that quantum mechanics and in particular unitarity are fundamental principles, but at the price of familiar locality. Thus, one should seek to parameterize unitary evolution, extending the field theory description of black holes, such that their quantum information is transferred to the external state. This discussion is set in a broader framework of unitary evolution acting on Hilbert spaces comprising subsystems. Here, various constraints can be placed on the dynamics, based on quantum information-theoretic and other general physical considerations, and one can seek to describe dynamics with "minimal" departure from field theory. While usual spacetime locality may not be a precise concept in quantum gravity, approximate locality seems an important ingredient in physics. In such a Hilbert space approach an apparently "coarser" form of localization can be described in terms of tenso...

  14. Self-dual chiral boson: augmented superfield approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, D.; Bhanja, T. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Centre of Advanced Studies, Varanasi, U.P. (India); Malik, R.P. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Centre of Advanced Studies, Varanasi, U.P. (India); Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, DST Centre for Interdisciplinary Mathematical Sciences, Varanasi, U.P. (India)

    2014-09-15

    We exploit the standard tools and techniques of the augmented version of the Bonora-Tonin superfield formalism to derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations for the BRST-invariant Lagrangian density of a self-dual bosonic system. In the derivation of the full set of the above symmetry transformations, we invoke the (dual-)horizontality conditions, and (anti-)BRST- and (anti-)co-BRST-invariant restrictions on the superfields that are defined on the (2, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. The latter is parameterized by the bosonic variable x{sup μ} (μ = 0, 1) and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and anti θ (with θ{sup 2} = anti θ{sup 2} = 0 and θ anti θ + anti θθ = 0). The dynamics of this system is such that, instead of the full (2, 2)-dimensional superspace coordinates (x{sup μ}, θ, anti θ), we require only the specific (1, 2)-dimensional super-subspace variables (t, θ, anti θ) for its description. This is a novel observation in the context of the superfield approach to the BRST formalism. The application of the dual-horizontality condition, in the derivation of a set of proper (anti-)co-BRST symmetries, is also one of the newingredients of our present endeavor where we have exploited the augmented version of the superfield approach to the BRST formalism. (orig.)

  15. The ρ(ω/B*(B system and bound states in the unitary local Hidden Gauge approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Soler P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study systems composed of a ρ/ω and B* meson pair. We find three bound states in isospin, spin-parity channels (1/2, 0+, (1/2, 1+ and (1/2, 2+. The state with J = 2 can be a good candidate for the B*2(5747. We also study the ρB system, and a bound state with mass 5728 MeV and width around 20 MeV is obtained, which can be identified with the B1(5721 resonance. In the case of I = 3/2, one obtains repulsion and thus, no exotic (molecular mesons in this sector are generated in the approach.

  16. Generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach to inhomogeneous phases in nonlocal chiral quark models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlomagno, J.P. [IFLP, CONICET – Dpto. de Física, FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gómez Dumm, D., E-mail: dumm@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [IFLP, CONICET – Dpto. de Física, FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Scoccola, N.N. [CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Physics Department, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Favaloro, Solís 453, 1078 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the presence of inhomogeneous phases in the QCD phase diagram within the framework of nonlocal chiral quark models. We concentrate in particular in the positions of the tricritical (TCP) and Lifshitz (LP) points, which are studied in a general context using a generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach. We find that for all the phenomenologically acceptable model parametrizations considered the TCP is located at a higher temperature and a lower chemical potential in comparison with the LP. Consequently, these models seem to favor a scenario in which the onset of the first order transition between homogeneous phases is not covered by an inhomogeneous, energetically favored phase.

  17. On the pole content of coupled channels chiral approaches used for the K bar N system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Mai, M.; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Smejkal, J.

    2016-10-01

    Several theoretical groups describe the antikaon-nucleon interaction at low energies within approaches based on the chiral SU(3) dynamics and including next-to-leading order contributions. We present a comparative analysis of the pertinent models and discuss in detail their pole contents. It is demonstrated that the approaches lead to very different predictions for the K- p amplitude extrapolated to subthreshold energies as well as for the K- n amplitude. The origin of the poles generated by the models is traced to the so-called zero coupling limit, in which the inter-channel couplings are switched off. This provides new insights into the pole contents of the various approaches. In particular, different concepts of forming the Λ (1405) resonance are revealed and constraints related to the appearance of such poles in a given approach are discussed.

  18. On unitary reconstruction of linear optical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tillmann, Max; Walther, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Linear optical elements are pivotal instruments in the manipulation of classical and quantum states of light. The vast progress in integrated quantum photonic technology enables the implementation of large numbers of such elements on chip while providing interferometric stability. As a trade-off these structures face the intrinsic challenge of characterizing their optical transformation as individual optical elements are not directly accessible. Thus the unitary transformation needs to be reconstructed from a dataset generated with having access to the input and output ports of the device only. Here we present a novel approach to unitary reconstruction that significantly improves upon existing approaches. We compare its performance to several approaches via numerical simulations for networks up to 14 modes. We show that an adapted version of our approach allows to recover all mode-dependent losses and to obtain highest reconstruction fidelities under such conditions.

  19. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of α-Substituted Vinyl Sulfones: An Efficient Approach to Chiral Sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liyang; Wei, Biao; Yin, Xuguang; Xue, Peng; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2017-03-03

    Rh/(S)-(+)-DTBM-Segphos complex catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of α-substituted vinyl sulfones has been achieved, furnishing the desired products in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (>90% yield, up to 99% ee). This method provided an efficient approach to α-substituted chiral sulfones under mild conditions and has potential applications in organic synthesis.

  20. Entanglement Continuous Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, S; Orus, R

    2016-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called "entanglement-CUT" or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators, and we present proof-of-principle results for the spin-1/2 1d quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermo...

  1. Entanglement continuous unitary transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serkan; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Orús, Román

    2017-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called “entanglement-CUT” or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators. We also present proof-of-principle results for the spin-(1/2) 1d quantum Ising model and the 3-state quantum Potts model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermodynamic limit.

  2. Consistency tests of Ampcalculator and chiral amplitudes in SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory: A tutorial-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Das, Diganta; Sentitemsu Imsong, I.

    2012-10-01

    Ampcalculator (AMPC) is a Mathematica © based program that was made publicly available some time ago by Unterdorfer and Ecker. It enables the user to compute several processes at one loop (upto O( p 4) in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. They include computing matrix elements and form factors for strong and non-leptonic weak processes with at most six external states. It was used to compute some novel processes and was tested against well-known results by the original authors. Here we present the results of several thorough checks of the package. Exhaustive checks performed by the original authors are not publicly available, and hence the present effort. Some new results are obtained from the software especially in the kaon odd-intrinsic parity non-leptonic decay sector involving the coupling G 27. Another illustrative set of amplitudes at tree level we provide is in the context of τ-decays with several mesons including quark mass effects, of use to the BELLE experiment. All eight meson-meson scattering amplitudes have been checked. The Kaon-Compton amplitude has been checked and a minor error in the published results has been pointed out. This exercise is a tutorial-based one, wherein several input and output notebooks are also being made available as ancillary files on the arXiv. Some of the additional notebooks we provide contain explicit expressions that we have used for comparison with established results. The purpose is to encourage users to apply the software to suit their specific needs. An automatic amplitude generator of this type can provide error-free outputs that could be used as inputs for further simplification, and in varied scenarios such as applications of chiral perturbation theory at finite temperature, density and volume. This can also be used by students as a learning aid in low-energy hadron dynamics.

  3. Consistency tests of Ampcalculator and chiral amplitudes in SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory: A tutorial-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Sentitemsu Imsong, I. [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Bangalore (India); Das, Diganta [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences Taramani, Chennai (India)

    2012-10-15

    Ampcalculator (AMPC) is a Mathematica {sup copyright} based program that was made publicly available some time ago by Unterdorfer and Ecker. It enables the user to compute several processes at one loop (upto O(p {sup 4})) in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. They include computing matrix elements and form factors for strong and non-leptonic weak processes with at most six external states. It was used to compute some novel processes and was tested against well-known results by the original authors. Here we present the results of several thorough checks of the package. Exhaustive checks performed by the original authors are not publicly available, and hence the present effort. Some new results are obtained from the software especially in the kaon odd-intrinsic parity non-leptonic decay sector involving the coupling G{sub 27}. Another illustrative set of amplitudes at tree level we provide is in the context of {tau}-decays with several mesons including quark mass effects, of use to the BELLE experiment. All eight meson-meson scattering amplitudes have been checked. The Kaon-Compton amplitude has been checked and a minor error in the published results has been pointed out. This exercise is a tutorial-based one, wherein several input and output notebooks are also being made available as ancillary files on the arXiv. Some of the additional notebooks we provide contain explicit expressions that we have used for comparison with established results. The purpose is to encourage users to apply the software to suit their specific needs. An automatic amplitude generator of this type can provide error-free outputs that could be used as inputs for further simplification, and in varied scenarios such as applications of chiral perturbation theory at finite temperature, density and volume. This can also be used by students as a learning aid in low-energy hadron dynamics. (orig.)

  4. Unitary Transformation in Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    In the well-known treatment of quantum teleportation, the receiver should convert the state of his EPR particle into the replica of the unknown quantum state by one of four possible unitary transformations. However, the importance of these unitary transformations must be emphasized. We will show in this paper that the receiver cannot transform the state of his particle into an exact replica of the unknown state which the sender wants to transfer if he has not a proper implementation of these unitary transformations. In the procedure of converting state, the inevitable coupling between EPR particle and environment which is needed by the implementation of unitary transformations will reduce the accuracy of the replica.

  5. All maximally entangling unitary operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.

  6. Quantum Mutual Information Along Unitary Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyse the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system state, with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimisation problem for the smallest system of two qubits, and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems, such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward, however the minimisation of correlations displays non-trivial structures. We characterise a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides, and find a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular "Young tableau" form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with re...

  7. Multiple chiral doublet candidate nucleus $^{105}$Rh in a relativistic mean-field approach

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Meng, J; 10.1103/PhysRevC.83.037301

    2011-01-01

    Following the reports of two pairs of chiral doublet bands observed in $^{105}$Rh, the adiabatic and configuration-fixed constrained triaxial relativistic mean-field (RMF) calculations are performed to investigate their triaxial deformations with the corresponding configuration and the possible multiple chiral doublet (M$\\chi$D) phenomenon. The existence of M$\\chi$D phenomenon in $^{105}$Rh is highly expected.

  8. A resolution approach of racemic phenylalanine with aqueous two-phase systems of chiral tropine ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Yao, Shun; Qian, Guofei; Yao, Tian; Song, Hang

    2015-10-30

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on tropine type chiral ionic liquids and inorganic salt solution were designed and prepared for the enantiomeric separation of racemic phenylalanine. The phase behavior of IL-based ATPS was comprehensive investigated, and phase equilibrium data were correlated by Merchuk equation. Various factors were also systematically investigated for their influence on separation efficiency. Under the appropriate conditions (0.13g/g [C8Tropine]pro, 35mg/g Cu(Ac)2, 20mg/g d,l-phenylalanine, 0.51g/g H2O and 0.30g/g K2HPO4), the enantiomeric excess value of phenylalanine in solid phase (mainly containing l-enantiomer) was 65%. Finally, the interaction mechanism was studied via 1D and 2D NMR. The results indicate that d-enantiomer of phenylalanine interacts more strongly with chiral ILs and Cu(2+) based on the chiral ion-pairs space coordination mechanism, which makes it tend to remain in the top IL-rich phase. By contrast, l-enantiomer is transferred into the solid phase. Above chiral ionic liquids aqueous two-phase systems have demonstrated obvious resolution to racemic phenylalanine and could be promising alterative resolution approach for racemic amino acids in aqueous circumstance.

  9. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  10. Despair: a unitary appreciative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W Richard

    2004-01-01

    A unitary appreciative case study method was used to explicate unitary understandings of despair embedded in the unique personal life contexts of the participants. Fourteen women engaged in dialogical, appreciative interviews that led to the creation of profiles of the life pattern or course associated with despair for each woman. Three exemplar cases are detailed including the profiles that incorporate story, metaphor, music, and imagery. The voices of the women provide morphogenic knowledge of the contexts, nature, consequences, and contributions of despair as well as practical guidance for healthcare providers.

  11. Potential Energy Surfaces Using Algebraic Methods Based on Unitary Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lemus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the recent advances to estimate the potential energy surfaces through algebraic methods based on the unitary groups used to describe the molecular vibrational degrees of freedom. The basic idea is to introduce the unitary group approach in the context of the traditional approach, where the Hamiltonian is expanded in terms of coordinates and momenta. In the presentation of this paper, several representative molecular systems that permit to illustrate both the different algebraic approaches as well as the usual problems encountered in the vibrational description in terms of internal coordinates are presented. Methods based on coherent states are also discussed.

  12. Using chiral molecules as an approach to address low-druggability recognition sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Xavier; Günther, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    The content of chiral carbon atoms or structural complexity, which is known to correlate well with relevant physicochemical properties of small molecules, represents a promising descriptor that could fill the gap in existing drug discovery between ligand library filtering rules and the corresponding properties of the target's recognition site. Herein, we present an in silico study on the yet unclear underlying correlations between molecular complexity and other more sophisticated physicochemical and biological properties. By analyzing thousands of protein-ligand complexes from DrugBank, we show that increasing molecular complexity of drugs is an approach to addressing particularly low-druggability and polar recognition sites. We also show that biologically relevant protein classes characteristically bind molecules with a certain degree of structural complexity. Three distinct behaviors toward drug recognition are described. The reported results set the basis for a better understanding of protein-drug recognition, and open the possibility of including target information in the filtering of large ligand libraries for screening.

  13. Bloch-Messiah reduction of Gaussian unitaries by Takagi factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2016-12-01

    The Bloch-Messiah (BM) reduction allows the decomposition of an arbitrarily complicated Gaussian unitary into a very simple scheme in which linear optical components are separated from nonlinear ones. The nonlinear part is due to the squeezing possibly present in the Gaussian unitary. The reduction is usually obtained by exploiting the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the matrices appearing in the Bogoliubov transformation of the given Gaussian unitary. This paper discusses a different approach, where the BM reduction is obtained in a straightforward way. It is based on the Takagi factorization of the (complex and symmetric) squeeze matrix and has the advantage of avoiding several matrix operations of the previous approach (polar decomposition, eigendecomposition, SVD, and Takagi factorization). The theory is illustrated with an application example in which the previous and present approaches are compared.

  14. Field-enlarging transformations and chiral theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sladkowski, J

    1995-01-01

    A field-enlarging transformation in the chiral electrodynamics is performed. This introduces an additional gauge symmetry to the model that is unitary and anomaly-free and allows for comparison of different models discussed in the literature. The problem of superfluous degrees of freedom and their influence on quantization is discussed. Several "mysteries" are explained from this point of view.

  15. Teleportation of M-Qubit Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亦庄; 顾永建; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We discuss teleportation of unitary operations on a two-qubit in detail, then generalize the bidirectional state teleportation scheme from one-qubit to M-qubit unitary operations. The resources required for the optimal implementation of teleportation of an M-qubit unitary operation using a bidirectional state teleportation scheme are given.

  16. Common screening approaches for efficient analytical method development in LC and SFC on columns packed with immobilized polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Pilar; Zhang, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their remarkable enantioselectivity, versatility, and stability, immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been successfully integrated into the tool box of many research and industry groups for the separation of enantiomers or stereoisomers by liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography. Due to the structurally diverse range of compounds available, efficient method development for chiral separations utilizing such CSPs is a challenging subject. In this chapter, we will discuss simplified screening protocols and straightforward approaches to achieve chiral separations in HPLC and SFC using the column series CHIRALPAK™ IA, IB, IC, and ID in reasonable time frame and with limited experimental work and a high success rate.

  17. Chiral atomically thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  18. Chiral symmetry breaking, color superconductivity and equation of state at high density a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, H; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Parikh, Jitendra C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss in this note simultaneous existence of chiral symmetry breakingand color superconductivity at finite temperature and density in aNambu-Jona-Lasinio type model. The methodology involves an explicitconstruction of a variational ground state and minimisation of thethermodynamic potential. There appears to be a phase at finite densities withboth quark antiquark as well as diquark condensates for the "ground" state.Chiral symmetry breaking phase appear to catalyse the threshold for the diquarkcondensates to appear. We also compute the equation of state in this model.

  19. Molecular Quantum Computing by an Optimal Control Algorithm for Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    Quantum computation is based on implementing selected unitary transformations which represent algorithms. A generalized optimal control theory is used to find the driving field that generates a prespecified unitary transformation. The approach is illustrated in the implementation of one and two qubits gates in model molecular systems.

  20. Unitary equivalence of quantum walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Sandeep K., E-mail: sandeep.goyal@ucalgary.ca [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa); Diósi, Lajos [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator.

  1. An enantioselective synthesis of optically pure azaferrocenyl anions - First general and practical approach to chiral azaferrocenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitzberg, Jimmi Gerner; Søtofte, Inger; Johannsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Herein we report a very simple route that allows the construction of a variety of optically pure azaferrocenyl compounds. The key feature is the preparation of optically pure 2-azaferrocenyl anions, which can serve as precursors for the construction of novel chiral azaferrocenyl complexes....

  2. Non-unitary fusion categories and their doubles via endomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, David E

    2015-01-01

    We realise non-unitary fusion categories using subfactor-like methods, and compute their quantum doubles and modular data. For concreteness we focus on generalising the Haagerup-Izumi family of Q-systems. For example, we construct endomorphism realisations of the (non-unitary) Yang-Lee model, and non-unitary analogues of one of the even subsystems of the Haagerup subfactor and of the Grossman-Snyder system. We supplement Izumi's equations for identifying the half-braidings, which were incomplete even in his Q-system setting. We conjecture a remarkably simple form for the modular S and T matrices of the doubles of these fusion categories. We would expect all of these doubles to be realised as the category of modules of a rational VOA and conformal net of factors. We expect our approach will also suffice to realise the non-semisimple tensor categories arising in logarithmic conformal field theories.

  3. Recent Developments in Chiral Unitary Dynamics of Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Gamermann, D; Vacas, M J Vicente; Strottman, D; Khemchandani, K P; Torres, A Martinez; Oller, J A; Roca, L

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I summarize recent findings made on the description of axial vector mesons as dynamically generated states from the interaction of peseudoscalar mesons and vector mesons, dedicating some attention to the two $K_1(1270)$ states. Then I review the generation of open and hidden charm scalar and axial states. Finally, I present recent results showing that the low lying $1/2^+$ baryon resonances for S=-1 can be obtained as bound states or resonances of two mesons and one baryon in coupled channels dynamics.

  4. Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity--unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.

  5. Topics in three flavor chiral dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Robin

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we investigate several processes in low-energy hadron physics by combining chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), the effective field theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies, with a unitarization method based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Such so-called chiral unitary approaches are capable of describing processes in the three flavor sector of the strong interaction which involve substantial effects from final-state interactions and the excitation of (subthreshold) resonances, a domain where the perturbative framework of ChPT is not applicable. In part I of this work we study {eta} and {eta}' decays which constitute a perfect tool to examine symmetries and symmetry breaking patterns of QCD being incorporated in a model-independent fashion in ChPT. In particular, these decays allow to investigate the breaking of isospin symmetry due to the light quark mass difference m{sub d}-m{sub u} as well as effects of anomalies stemming from the quantum nature of QCD. For these reasons the decays of {eta} and {eta}' have also attracted considerable experimental interest. They are currently under investigation at several facilities including KLOE rate at DA{phi}NE, Crystal Ball at MAMI, WASA-at-COSY, VES at IHEP, and CLEO at CESR. In part II we investigate low-energy meson-baryon scattering in the strangeness S=-1 sector which is dominated by the {lambda}(1405) resonance immediately below the anti KN threshold. The anti KN interaction below threshold is of relevance for the quest of possible deeply bound anti K-nuclear clusters and has recently received an additional tight constraint: the K{sup -}p scattering length as determined from kaonic hydrogen by the KEK and the DEAR collaborations. Apart from successfully describing a large amount of experimental data and furnishing predictions for yet unmeasured quantities, our calculations allow to interrelate different experimental observables providing important consistency tests of experiments. E

  6. On the pole content of coupled channels chiral approaches used for the $\\bar{K}N$ system

    CERN Document Server

    Cieplý, A; Meißner, Ulf-G; Smejkal, J

    2016-01-01

    Several theoretical groups describe the antikaon-nucleon interaction at low energies within approaches based on the chiral SU(3) dynamics and including next-to-leading order contributions. We present a comparative analysis of the pertinent models and discuss in detail their pole contents. It is demonstrated that the approaches lead to very different predictions for the $K^{-}p$ amplitude extrapolated to subthreshold energies as well as for the $K^{-}n$ amplitude. The origin of the poles generated by the models is traced to the so-called zero coupling limit, in which the inter-channel couplings are switched off. This provides new insights into the pole contents of the various approaches. In particular, different concepts of forming the $\\Lambda(1405)$ resonance are revealed and constraints related to the appearance of such poles in a given approach are discussed.

  7. Truncations of random unitary matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Sommers, Hans-Juergen

    1999-01-01

    We analyze properties of non-hermitian matrices of size M constructed as square submatrices of unitary (orthogonal) random matrices of size N>M, distributed according to the Haar measure. In this way we define ensembles of random matrices and study the statistical properties of the spectrum located inside the unit circle. In the limit of large matrices, this ensemble is characterized by the ratio M/N. For the truncated CUE we derive analytically the joint density of eigenvalues from which easily all correlation functions are obtained. For N-M fixed and N--> infinity the universal resonance-width distribution with N-M open channels is recovered.

  8. Chiral dynamics of baryon resonances and hadrons in a nuclear medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Oset; D Cabrera; V K Magas; L Roca; S Sarkar; M J Vicente Vacas; A Ramos

    2006-04-01

    In these lectures I make an introduction to chiral unitary theory applied to the meson-baryon interaction and show how several well-known resonances are dynamically generated, and others are predicted. Two very recent experiments are analyzed, one of them showing the existence of two (1405) states and the other one providing support for the (1520) resonance as a quasi-bound state of $\\sum (1385) $. The use of chiral Lagrangians to account for the hadronic interaction at the elementary level introduces a new approach to deal with the modification of meson and baryon properties in a nuclear medium. Examples of it for $\\bar{K}$, and modification in the nuclear medium are presented.

  9. Singular Value Decomposition for Unitary Symmetric Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUHongxing; WANGDianjun; DAIQionghai; LIYanda

    2003-01-01

    A special architecture called unitary sym-metric matrix which embodies orthogonal, Givens, House-holder, permutation, and row (or column) symmetric ma-trices as its special cases, is proposed, and a precise corre-spondence of singular values and singular vectors between the unitary symmetric matrix and its mother matrix is de-rived. As an illustration of potential, it is shown that, for a class of unitary symmetric matrices, the singular value decomposition (SVD) using the mother matrix rather than the unitary symmetric matrix per se can save dramatically the CPU time and memory without loss of any numerical precision.

  10. Direct dialling of Haar random unitary matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas J.; Chakhmakhchyan, Levon; O’Brien, Jeremy L.; Laing, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    Random unitary matrices find a number of applications in quantum information science, and are central to the recently defined boson sampling algorithm for photons in linear optics. We describe an operationally simple method to directly implement Haar random unitary matrices in optical circuits, with no requirement for prior or explicit matrix calculations. Our physically motivated and compact representation directly maps independent probability density functions for parameters in Haar random unitary matrices, to optical circuit components. We go on to extend the results to the case of random unitaries for qubits.

  11. Unitary Root Music and Unitary Music with Real-Valued Rank Revealing Triangular Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2010-1213 UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) Nizar...DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 Journal Article Postprint 08 September 2006 – 31 August 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND...UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-05-D-1912-0007 5c

  12. Monte-Carlo approach to particle-field interactions and the kinetics of the chiral phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Carsten; van Hees, Hendrik; Meistrenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of the chiral phase transition is studied within a linear quark-meson-$\\sigma$ model, using a Monte-Carlo approach to semiclassical particle-field dynamics. The meson fields are described on the mean-field level and quarks and antiquarks as ensembles of test particles. Collisions between quarks and antiquarks as well as the $q\\overline{q}$ annihilation to $\\sigma$ mesons and the decay of $\\sigma$ mesons is treated, using the corresponding transition-matrix elements from the underlying quantum field theory, obeying strictly the rule of detailed balance and energy-momentum conservation. The approach allows to study fluctuations without making ad hoc assumptions concerning the statistical nature of the random process as necessary in Langevin-Fokker-Planck frameworks.

  13. A Chiral-Bag Approach to Static Interaction between Two Baryons ---A Numerical Study with Use of the Finite Element Method---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, S.; Tamagaki, R.; Tatsumi, T.; Yoro, S.

    1990-12-01

    Static interaction between two spherical chiral bags is studied in a numerical way. In order to get the solutions of the confined quark states and the outside chiral-field which should satisfy the boundary conditions at both bag surfaces in the chiral bag model, the finite element method is utilized as numerical procedure. We extract the static interaction by calculating the energy change as the two bags approach from large separation to contact distance. Results obtained for three typical configurations indicate that such an approach is workable: We can see that the asymptotic behavior gives the OPEP-tail, and some nonperturbative effects are noticeable in the intermediate region. Although the deviation of the interaction energy from the OPEP value is not so remarkable beyond the pion Compton wavelength due to the cancellation between the energy change of the quark system and that of the chiral field, there arises a significant deviation of the quark wave function and the chiral field from those of the hedgehog solution in the single-baryon case. The procedure in numerical calculations adopted in this paper is explained in detail.

  14. Large $N_{c}$, chiral approach to $M_{\\eta}'$ at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Escribano, R; Tytgat, M H G

    2000-01-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the eta and eta' meson masses withinthe framework of U(3)_L x U(3)_R chiral perturbation theory, up tonext-to-leading order in a simultaneous expansion in momenta, quark masses andnumber of colours. We find that both masses decrease at low temperatures, butonly very slightly. We analyze higher order corrections and argue that largeN_c suggests a discontinuous drop of M_eta' at the critical temperature ofdeconfinement T_c, consistent with a first order transition to a phase withapproximate U(1)_A symmetry.

  15. Bottom-up synthesis of chiral covalent organic frameworks and their bound capillaries for chiral separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hai-Long; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-07-12

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a novel class of porous materials, and offer great potential for various applications. However, the applications of COFs in chiral separation and chiral catalysis are largely underexplored due to the very limited chiral COFs available and their challenging synthesis. Here we show a bottom-up strategy to construct chiral COFs and an in situ growth approach to fabricate chiral COF-bound capillary columns for chiral gas chromatography. We incorporate the chiral centres into one of the organic ligands for the synthesis of the chiral COFs. We subsequently in situ prepare the COF-bound capillary columns. The prepared chiral COFs and their bound capillary columns give high resolution for the separation of enantiomers with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. The proposed strategy provides a promising platform for the synthesis of chiral COFs and their chiral separation application.

  16. Bottom-up synthesis of chiral covalent organic frameworks and their bound capillaries for chiral separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hai-Long; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a novel class of porous materials, and offer great potential for various applications. However, the applications of COFs in chiral separation and chiral catalysis are largely underexplored due to the very limited chiral COFs available and their challenging synthesis. Here we show a bottom-up strategy to construct chiral COFs and an in situ growth approach to fabricate chiral COF-bound capillary columns for chiral gas chromatography. We incorporate the chiral centres into one of the organic ligands for the synthesis of the chiral COFs. We subsequently in situ prepare the COF-bound capillary columns. The prepared chiral COFs and their bound capillary columns give high resolution for the separation of enantiomers with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. The proposed strategy provides a promising platform for the synthesis of chiral COFs and their chiral separation application.

  17. Chiral supergravity and anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W; Macias, Alfredo; Mielke, Eckehard W.

    1999-01-01

    Similarily as in the Ashtekar approach, the translational Chern-Simons term is, as a generating function, instrumental for a chiral reformulation of simple (N=1) supergravity. After applying the algebraic Cartan relation between spin and torsion, the resulting canonical transformation induces not only decomposition of the gravitational fields into selfdual and antiselfdual modes, but also a splitting of the Rarita-Schwinger fields into their chiral parts in a natural way. In some detail, we also analyze the consequences for axial and chiral anomalies.

  18. Complex positive maps and quaternionic unitary evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Scolarici, G [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2006-08-04

    The complex projection of any n-dimensional quaternionic unitary dynamics defines a one-parameter positive semigroup dynamics. We show that the converse is also true, i.e. that any one-parameter positive semigroup dynamics of complex density matrices with maximal rank can be obtained as the complex projection of suitable quaternionic unitary dynamics.

  19. Composed ensembles of random unitary ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Pozniak, M; Kus, M; Pozniak, Marcin; Zyczkowski, Karol; Kus, Marek

    1997-01-01

    Composed ensembles of random unitary matrices are defined via products of matrices, each pertaining to a given canonical circular ensemble of Dyson. We investigate statistical properties of spectra of some composed ensembles and demonstrate their physical relevance. We discuss also the methods of generating random matrices distributed according to invariant Haar measure on the orthogonal and unitary group.

  20. Tensor Products of Random Unitary Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Tkocz, Tomasz; Kus, Marek; Zeitouni, Ofer; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Tensor products of M random unitary matrices of size N from the circular unitary ensemble are investigated. We show that the spectral statistics of the tensor product of random matrices becomes Poissonian if M=2, N become large or M become large and N=2.

  1. Unitary symmetry, combinatorics, and special functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louck, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    From 1967 to 1994, Larry Biedenham and I collaborated on 35 papers on various aspects of the general unitary group, especially its unitary irreducible representations and Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. In our studies to unveil comprehensible structures in this subject, we discovered several nice results in special functions and combinatorics. The more important of these will be presented and their present status reviewed.

  2. Implications of the Oklo Phenomenon in a Chiral Approach to Nuclear Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Edward D.

    2015-09-01

    It has been customary to use data from the Oklo natural nuclear reactor to place bounds on the change that has occurred in the electromagnetic fine structure constant α over the last 2 billion years. Alternatively, an analysis could be based on a recently proposed expression for shifts in resonance energies which relates them to changes in both α and the average m q of the u and d current quark masses, and which makes explicit the dependence on mass number A and atomic number Z. (Recent model independent results on hadronic -terms suggest sensitivity to the strange quark mass is negligible.) The most sophisticated analysis, to date, of the quark mass term invokes a calculation of the nuclear mean-field within the Walecka model of quantum hadrodynamics. We comment on this study and consider an alternative in which the link to low-energy quantum chromodynamics and its pattern of chiral symmetry-breaking is more readily discernible. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity to changes in the pion mass of a single nucleon potential determined by an in-medium chiral perturbation theory (PT) calculation which includes virtual -excitations. Subject to some reasonable assumptions about low-energy constants, we confirm that the m q -contribution to resonance shifts is enhanced by a factor of 10 or so relative to the -term and deduce that the Oklo data for Sm imply that.

  3. Two-Photon Polarization Dependent Spectroscopy in Chirality: A Novel Experimental-Theoretical Approach to Study Optically Active Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio E. Hernández

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many phenomena, including life itself and its biochemical foundations are fundamentally rooted in chirality. Combinatorial methodologies for catalyst discovery and optimization remain an invaluable tool for gaining access to enantiomerically pure compounds in the development of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and flavors. Some exotic metamaterials exhibiting negative refractive index at optical frequencies are based on chiral structures. Chiroptical activity is commonly quantified in terms of circular dichroism (CD and optical rotatory dispersion (ORD. However, the linear nature of these effects limits their application in the far and near-UV region in highly absorbing and scattering biological systems. In order to surmount this barrier, in recent years we made important advancements on a novel non linear, low-scatter, long-wavelength CD approach called two-photon absorption circular dichroism (TPACD. Herein we present a descriptive analysis of the optics principles behind the experimental measurement of TPACD, i.e., the double L-scan technique, and its significance using pulsed lasers. We also make an instructive examination and discuss the reliability of our theoretical-computational approach, which uses modern analytical response theory, within a Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT approach. In order to illustrate the potential of this novel spectroscopic tool, we first present the experimental and theoretical results obtained in C2-symmetric, axially chiral R-(+-1,1'-bi(2-naphthol, R-BINOL, a molecule studied at the beginning of our investigation in this field. Next, we reveal some preliminary results obtained for (R-3,3′-diphenyl-2,2′-bi-1-naphthol, R-VANOL, and (R-2,2′-diphenyl-3,3′-(4-biphenanthrol, R-VAPOL. This family of optically active compounds has been proven to be a suitable model for the structure-property relationship study of TPACD, because its members are highly conjugated yet photo-stable, and easily

  4. Two-photon polarization dependent spectroscopy in chirality: a novel experimental-theoretical approach to study optically active systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Florencio E; Rizzo, Antonio

    2011-04-18

    Many phenomena, including life itself and its biochemical foundations are fundamentally rooted in chirality. Combinatorial methodologies for catalyst discovery and optimization remain an invaluable tool for gaining access to enantiomerically pure compounds in the development of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and flavors. Some exotic metamaterials exhibiting negative refractive index at optical frequencies are based on chiral structures. Chiroptical activity is commonly quantified in terms of circular dichroism (CD) and optical rotatory dispersion (ORD). However, the linear nature of these effects limits their application in the far and near-UV region in highly absorbing and scattering biological systems. In order to surmount this barrier, in recent years we made important advancements on a novel non linear, low-scatter, long-wavelength CD approach called two-photon absorption circular dichroism (TPACD). Herein we present a descriptive analysis of the optics principles behind the experimental measurement of TPACD, i.e., the double L-scan technique, and its significance using pulsed lasers. We also make an instructive examination and discuss the reliability of our theoretical-computational approach, which uses modern analytical response theory, within a Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) approach. In order to illustrate the potential of this novel spectroscopic tool, we first present the experimental and theoretical results obtained in C(2)-symmetric, axially chiral R-(+)-1,1'-bi(2-naphthol), R-BINOL, a molecule studied at the beginning of our investigation in this field. Next, we reveal some preliminary results obtained for (R)-3,3'-diphenyl-2,2'-bi-1-naphthol, R-VANOL, and (R)-2,2'-diphenyl-3,3'-(4-biphenanthrol), R-VAPOL. This family of optically active compounds has been proven to be a suitable model for the structure-property relationship study of TPACD, because its members are highly conjugated yet photo-stable, and easily derivatized at the 5

  5. Kitaev honeycomb tensor networks: exact unitary circuits and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schmoll, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The Kitaev honeycomb model is a paradigm of exactly-solvable models, showing non-trivial physical properties such as topological quantum order, abelian and non-abelian anyons, and chirality. Its solution is one of the most beautiful examples of the interplay of different mathematical techniques in condensed matter physics. In this paper, we show how to derive a tensor network (TN) description of the eigenstates of this spin-1/2 model in the thermodynamic limit, and in particular for its ground state. In our setting, eigenstates are naturally encoded by an exact 3d TN structure made of fermionic unitary operators, corresponding to the unitary quantum circuit building up the many-body quantum state. In our derivation we review how the different "solution ingredients" of the Kitaev honeycomb model can be accounted for in the TN language, namely: Jordan-Wigner transformation, braidings of Majorana modes, fermionic Fourier transformation, and Bogoliubov transformation. The TN built in this way allows for a clear u...

  6. Energy Transfer Using Unitary Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny O'Kelly de Galway

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the unitary time evolution of a simple quantum Hamiltonian describing two harmonic oscillators coupled via a three-level system. The latter acts as an engine transferring energy from one oscillator to the other and is driven in a cyclic manner by time-dependent external fields. The S-matrix (scattering matrix of the cycle is obtained in analytic form. The total number of quanta contained in the system is a conserved quantity. As a consequence, the spectrum of the S-matrix is purely discrete, and the evolution of the system is quasi-periodic. The explicit knowledge of the S-matrix makes it possible to do accurate numerical evaluations of the time-dependent wave function. They confirm the quasi-periodic behavior. In particular, the energy flows back and forth between the two oscillators in a quasi-periodic manner.

  7. Chiral Odd GPDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleon spin structure, transversity and the tensor charge are of central importance to understanding the role of QCD in hadronic physics. A new approach to measuring orbital angular momenta of quarks in the proton via twist 3 GPDs is shown. The “flexible parametrization” of chiral even GPDs is reviewed and its transformation into the chiral odd sector is discussed. The resulting parametrization is applied to recent data on π0 and η electroproduction.

  8. Modeling spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and deracemization phenomena: discrete versus continuum approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Celia; Ribó, Josep M; Hochberg, David

    2015-02-01

    We derive the class of population balance equations (PBE), recently applied to model the Viedma deracemization experiment, from an underlying microreversible kinetic reaction scheme. The continuum limit establishing the relationship between the micro- and macroscopic processes and the associated particle fluxes erases the microreversible nature of the molecular interactions in the population growth rate functions and limits the scope of such PBE models to strict kinetic control. The irreversible binary agglomeration processes modeled in those PBEs contribute an additional source of kinetic control. These limitations are crucial regarding the question of the origin of biological homochirality, where the interest in any model lies precisely in its ability for absolute asymmetric synthesis and the amplification of the tiny inherent statistical chiral fluctuations about the ideal racemic composition up to observable enantiometric excess levels.

  9. Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: Microscopic Lorentz-theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Galynsky, Vladimir M.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    The electronic Lorentz theory is employed to explain the optical properties of planar split-ring metamaterials. Starting from the dynamics of individual free carriers, the electromagnetic response of an individual split-ring meta-atom is determined, and the effective permittivity tensor...... of the metamaterial is calculated for normal incidence of light. Whenever the split ring lacks in-plane mirror symmetry, the corresponding permittivity tensor has a crystallographic structure of an elliptically dichroic medium, and the metamaterial exhibits optical properties of planar chiral structures. Its...... transmission spectra are different for right-handed versus left-handed circular polarization of the incident wave, so the structure changes its transmittance when the direction of incidence is reversed. The magnitude of this change is shown to be related to the geometric parameters of the split ring...

  10. Spectral study of a chiral limit without chiral condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Random Matrix Theory (RMT) has elaborated successful predictions for Dirac spectra in field theoretical models. However, a generic assumption by RMT has been a non-vanishing chiral condensate $\\Sigma$ in the chiral limit. Here we consider the 2-flavour Schwinger model, where this assumption does not hold. We simulated this model with dynamical overlap hypercube fermions, and entered terra incognita by analysing this Dirac spectrum. The usual RMT prediction for the unfolded level spacing distribution in a unitary ensemble is precisely confirmed. The microscopic spectrum does not perform a Banks-Casher plateau. Instead the obvious expectation is a density of the lowest eigenvalue $\\lambda_{1}$ which increases $\\propto \\lambda_{1}^{1/3}$. That would correspond to a scale-invariant parameter $\\propto \\lambda V^{3/4}$, which is, however, incompatible with our data. Instead we observe to high precision a scale-invariant parameter $z \\propto \\lambda V^{5/8}$. This surprising result implies a microscopic spectral den...

  11. Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, T.

    2006-05-23

    In this thesis we investigate a large new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric string vacua defined as compactifications of the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and the SO(32) heterotic string on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with unitary gauge bundles and heterotic five-branes. The first part of the thesis discusses the implementation of this idea into the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} heterotic string. After specifying a large class of group theoretic embeddings featuring unitary bundles, we analyse the effective four-dimensional N=1 supergravity upon compactification. From the gauge invariant Kaehler potential for the moduli fields we derive a modification of the Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms arising at one-loop in string perturbation theory. From this we conjecture a one-loop deformation of the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation and introduce the idea of {lambda}-stability as the perturbatively correct stability concept generalising the notion of Mumford stability valid at tree-level. We then proceed to a definition of SO(32) heterotic vacua with unitary gauge bundles in the presence of heterotic five-branes and find agreement of the resulting spectrum with the S-dual framework of Type I/Type IIB orientifolds. A similar analysis of the effective four-dimensional supergravity is performed. Further evidence for the proposed one-loop correction to the stability condition is found by identifying the heterotic corrections as the S-dual of the perturbative part of {pi}-stability as the correct stability concept in Type IIB theory. After reviewing the construction of holomorphic stable vector bundles on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds via spectral covers, we provide semi-realistic examples for SO(32) heterotic vacua with Pati-Salam and MSSM-like gauge sectors. We finally discuss the construction of realistic vacua with flipped SU(5) GUT and MSSM gauge group within the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} framework, based on the embedding of line bundles into both E{sub 8} factors. Some of the appealing

  12. Extremal spacings of random unitary matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Smaczynski, Marek; Kus, Marek; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Extremal spacings between unimodular eigenvalues of random unitary matrices of size N pertaining to circular ensembles are investigated. Probability distributions for the minimal spacing for various ensembles are derived for N=4. We show that for large matrices the average minimal spacing s_min of a random unitary matrix behaves as N^(-1/(1+B)) for B equal to 0,1 and 2 for circular Poisson, orthogonal and unitary ensembles, respectively. For these ensembles also asymptotic probability distributions P(s_min) are obtained and the statistics of the largest spacing s_max are investigated.

  13. Chiral photochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2004-01-01

    Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S

  14. Intercept Capacity: Unknown Unitary Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Moran

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of intercepting communications signals between Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO communication systems. To correctly detect a transmitted message it is necessary to know the gain matrix that represents the channel between the transmitter and the receiver. However, even if the receiver has knowledge of the message symbol set, it may not be possible to estimate the channel matrix. Blind Source Separation (BSS techniques, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA can go some way to extracting independent signals from individual transmission antennae but these may have been preprocessed in a manner unknown to the receiver. In this paper we consider the situation where a communications interception system has prior knowledge of the message symbol set, the channel matrix between the transmission system and the interception system and is able to resolve the transmissionss from independent antennae. The question then becomes: what is the mutual information available to the interceptor when an unknown unitary transformation matrix is employed by the transmitter.

  15. Enantiodifferentiation of chiral baclofen by β-cyclodextrin using capillary electrophoresis: A molecular modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Elbashir, Abdalla A.

    2012-07-01

    Using capillary electrophoresis baclofen (BF) enantiomers were separated only in the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) as a chiral selector when added to the background electrolyte. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques were used to determine the structure of the BF-βCD inclusion complexes. From the MS data BF was found to form a 1:1 complex with α- and βCD, while the NMR data suggest location of the aromatic ring of BF into the cyclodextrin cavity. A molecular modeling study, using the semiempirical PM6 calculations was used to investigate the mechanism of enantiodifferentiation of BF with cyclodextrins. Optimization of the structures of the complexes by PM6 method indicated that separation is obtained in the presence of β-CD due to a large binding energy difference (ΔΔE) of 46.8 kJ mol-1 between S-BF-βCD and R-BF-βCD complexes. In the case of αCD complexes ΔΔE was 1.3 kJ mol-1 indicating poor resolution between the two enantiomers. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations show that the formation of more stable S-BF-βCD complex compared to R-BF-β-CD complex is primarily due to differences in intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

  16. Implications of the Oklo phenomenon in a chiral approach to nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    It has been customary to use data from the Oklo natural nuclear reactor to place bounds on the change that has occurred in the electromagnetic fine structure constant $\\alpha$ over the last 2 billion years. Alternatively, an analysis could be based on a recently proposed expression for shifts in resonance energies which relates them to changes in both $\\alpha$ and the average $m_q$ of the $u$ and $d$ current quark masses, and which makes explicit the dependence on mass number $A$ and atomic number $Z$. (Recent model independent results on hadronic $\\sigma$-terms suggest sensitivity to the strange quark mass is negligible.) The most sophisticated analysis, to date, of the quark mass term invokes a calculation of the nuclear mean-field within the Walecka model of quantum hadrodynamics. We comment on this study and consider an alternative in which the link to low-energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and its pattern of chiral symmetry-breaking is more readily discernible. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivi...

  17. Unitary Approximations in Fault Detection Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Krokavec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the fault detection filter design requirements that relax the existing conditions reported in the previous literature by adapting the unitary system principle in approximation of fault detection filter transfer function matrix for continuous-time linear MIMO systems. Conditions for the existence of a unitary construction are presented under which the fault detection filter with a unitary transfer function can be designed to provide high residual signals sensitivity with respect to faults. Otherwise, reflecting the emplacement of singular values in unitary construction principle, an associated structure of linear matrix inequalities with built-in constraints is outlined to design the fault detection filter only with a Hurwitz transfer function. All proposed design conditions are verified by the numerical illustrative examples.

  18. Asymptotic Evolution of Random Unitary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, J; Jex, I

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the asymptotic dynamics of quantum systems resulting from large numbers of iterations of random unitary operations. Although, in general, these quantum operations cannot be diagonalized it is shown that their resulting asymptotic dynamics is described by a diagonalizable superoperator. We prove that this asymptotic dynamics takes place in a typically low dimensional attractor space which is independent of the probability distribution of the unitary operations applied. This vector space is spanned by all eigenvectors of the unitary operations involved which are associated with eigenvalues of unit modulus. Implications for possible asymptotic dynamics of iterated random unitary operations are presented and exemplified in an example involving random controlled-not operations acting on two qubits.

  19. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Robert M.; Williams, Colin P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for designing quantum circuits that perform non-unitary quantum computations on n-qubit states probabilistically, and give analytic expressions for the success probability and fidelity.

  20. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM, Unita di Salerno, and INFN, Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  1. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monras, A.; Adesso, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Davies, G. B.; Illuminati, F.

    2011-07-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as “mirror entanglement.” They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the “stellar mirror entanglement” associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.042301 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  2. Right-unitary transformation theory and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Zhong

    1996-01-01

    We develop a new transformation theory in quantum physics, where the transformation operators, defined in the infinite dimensional Hilbert space, have right-unitary inverses only. Through several theorems, we discuss the properties of state space of such operators. As one application of the right-unitary transformation (RUT), we show that using the RUT method, we can solve exactly various interactions of many-level atoms with quantized radiation fields, where the energy of atoms can be two le...

  3. Unitary fermions on the lattice I: in a harmonic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Michael G; Lee, Jong-Wan; Nicholson, Amy N

    2011-01-01

    We present a new lattice Monte Carlo approach developed for studying large numbers of strongly interacting nonrelativistic fermions, and apply it to a dilute gas of unitary fermions confined to a harmonic trap. Our lattice action is highly improved, with sources of discretization and finite volume errors systematically removed; we are able to demonstrate the expected volume scaling of energy levels of two and three untrapped fermions, and to reproduce the high precision calculations published previously for the ground state energies for N = 3 unitary fermions in a box (to within our 0.3% uncertainty), and for N = 3, . . ., 6 unitary fermions in a harmonic trap (to within our ~ 1% uncertainty). We use this action to determine the ground state energies of up to 70 unpolarized fermions trapped in a harmonic potential on a lattice as large as 64^3 x 72; our approach avoids the use of importance sampling or calculation of a fermion determinant and employs a novel statistical method for estimating observables, allo...

  4. Chiral superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John

    2016-05-01

    Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a chiral triplet p-wave superconductor, and UPt3, which has two low-temperature superconducting phases (in zero magnetic field), the lower of which is believed to be chiral triplet f-wave. Other systems that may exhibit chiral superconductivity are also discussed. Key signatures of chiral superconductivity are surface currents and chiral Majorana modes, Majorana states in vortex cores, and the possibility of half-flux quantum vortices in the case of triplet pairing. Experimental evidence for chiral superconductivity from μSR, NMR, strain, polar Kerr effect and Josephson tunneling experiments are discussed.

  5. A Multidisciplinary Approach Toward the Rapid and Preparative-Scale Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Amino Alcohols: A Concise Transketolase-/omega-Transaminase-Mediated Synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-Aminopentane-1,3-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M.E.B; Chen, B.H.; Hibbert, E.G

    2010-01-01

    Chiral amino alcohols represent an important class of value-added biochemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Chemical routes to such compounds are generally step intensive, requiring environmentally unfriendly catalysts and solvents. This work describes a multidisciplinary approach to the rap...

  6. Dileptons and Chiral Symmetry Restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Hohler, P M

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent work relating the medium effects observed in dilepton spectra in heavy-ion collisions to potential signals of chiral symmetry restoration. The key connection remains the approach to spectral function degeneracy between the vector-isovector channel with its chiral partner, the axialvector-isovector channel. Several approaches are discussed to elaborate this connection, namely QCD and Weinberg sum rules with input for chiral order parameters from lattice QCD, and chiral hadronic theory to directly evaluate the medium effects of the axialvector channel and the pertinent pion decay constant as function of temperature. A pattern emerges where the chiral mass splitting between rho and a_1 burns off and is accompanied by a strong broadening of the spectral distributions.

  7. Kitaev honeycomb tensor networks: Exact unitary circuits and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Philipp; Orús, Román

    2017-01-01

    The Kitaev honeycomb model is a paradigm of exactly solvable models, showing nontrivial physical properties such as topological quantum order, Abelian and non-Abelian anyons, and chirality. Its solution is one of the most beautiful examples of the interplay of different mathematical techniques in condensed matter physics. In this paper, we show how to derive a tensor network (TN) description of the eigenstates of this spin-1/2 model in the thermodynamic limit, and in particular for its ground state. In our setting, eigenstates are naturally encoded by an exact 3d TN structure made of fermionic unitary operators, corresponding to the unitary quantum circuit building up the many-body quantum state. In our derivation we review how the different "solution ingredients" of the Kitaev honeycomb model can be accounted for in the TN language, namely, Jordan-Wigner transformation, braidings of Majorana modes, fermionic Fourier transformation, and Bogoliubov transformation. The TN built in this way allows for a clear understanding of several properties of the model. In particular, we show how the fidelity diagram is straightforward both at zero temperature and at finite temperature in the vortex-free sector. We also show how the properties of two-point correlation functions follow easily. Finally, we also discuss the pros and cons of contracting of our 3d TN down to a 2d projected entangled pair state (PEPS) with finite bond dimension. The results in this paper can be extended to generalizations of the Kitaev model, e.g., to other lattices, spins, and dimensions.

  8. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2015-12-30

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  9. Uncertainty relations for general unitary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Shrobona; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2016-10-01

    We derive several uncertainty relations for two arbitrary unitary operators acting on physical states of a Hilbert space. We show that our bounds are tighter in various cases than the ones existing in the current literature. Using the uncertainty relation for the unitary operators, we obtain the tight state-independent lower bound for the uncertainty of two Pauli observables and anticommuting observables in higher dimensions. With regard to the minimum-uncertainty states, we derive the minimum-uncertainty state equation by the analytic method and relate this to the ground-state problem of the Harper Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the higher-dimensional limit of the uncertainty relations and minimum-uncertainty states are explored. From an operational point of view, we show that the uncertainty in the unitary operator is directly related to the visibility of quantum interference in an interferometer where one arm of the interferometer is affected by a unitary operator. This shows a principle of preparation uncertainty, i.e., for any quantum system, the amount of visibility for two general noncommuting unitary operators is nontrivially upper bounded.

  10. Nuclear axial current operators to fourth order in chiral effective field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, H; Epelbaum, E.; Meißner, U.-G

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete derivation of the nuclear axial charge and current operators as well as the pseudoscalar operators to fourth order in the chiral expansion relative to the dominant one-body contribution using the method of unitary transformation. We demonstrate that the unitary ambiguity in the resulting operators can be eliminated by the requirement of renormalizability and by matching of the pion-pole contributions to the nuclear forces. We give expressions for the renormalized singl...

  11. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  12. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Weigel

    2003-11-01

    In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark flavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully regularizes the effective action but also leads the scaling laws for structure functions. For the nucleon structure functions the present approach serves to determine the regularization prescription for structure functions whose leading moments are not given by matrix elements of local operators. Some numerical results are presented for the spin structure functions.

  13. Color Energy Of A Unitary Cayley Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiga Chandrashekar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a vertex colored graph. The minimum number χ(G of colors needed for coloring of a graph G is called the chromatic number. Recently, Adiga et al. [1] have introduced the concept of color energy of a graph Ec(G and computed the color energy of few families of graphs with χ(G colors. In this paper we derive explicit formulas for the color energies of the unitary Cayley graph Xn, the complement of the colored unitary Cayley graph (Xnc and some gcd-graphs.

  14. Developmental Dyspraxia: Is It a Unitary Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, A. Jean; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A group of 182 children (ages four through nine) with known or suspected sensory integrative dysfunction were assessed using tests and clinical observations to examine developmental dyspraxia. The study did not justify the existence of either a unitary function or different types of developmental dyspraxia. (Author/CH)

  15. Boundary Relations, Unitary Colligations, and Functional Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Recently a new notion, the so-called boundary relation, has been introduced involving an analytic object, the so-called Weyl family. Weyl families and boundary relations establish a link between the class of Nevanlinna families and unitary relations acting from one Krein in space, a basic (state) sp

  16. Dirac cohomology of unitary representations of equal rank exceptional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the unitary representations of equal rank exceptional groups of type E with a regular lambda-lowest K-type and classify those unitary representations with the nonzero Dirac cohomology.

  17. Nonequilibrium chiral perturbation theory and disoriented chiral condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Nicola, A G

    1999-01-01

    We analyse the extension of Chiral Perturbation Theory to describe a meson gas out of thermal equilibrium. For that purpose, we let the pion decay constant be a time-dependent function and work within the Schwinger-Keldysh contour technique. A useful connection with curved space-time QFT allows to consistently renormalise the model, introducing two new low-energy constants in the chiral limit. We discuss the applicability of our approach within a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collision environment. In particular, we investigate the formation of Disoriented Chiral Condensate domains in this model, via the parametric resonance mechanism.

  18. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyendu S. Bag; T.C. Shami; K.U. Bhasker Rao

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale appr...

  19. Developing a Practical Chiral Toolbox for Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XuMu

    2001-01-01

    @@ Chiral Quest's Toolbox Approach: During the last several decades, chemists have made major progress in discovering man-made catalysts to perform challenging asymmetric transformations. However, there is no universal chiral ligand or catalyst for solving problems in enantioselective transformations. The focus of Chiral Quest's research is to develop a useful chiral toolbox for strategically important asymmetric catalytic reactions by inventing a diverse set of novel chiral ligands and combining them with transition metals as effective enantioselective catalysts. The toolbox approach addresses significant problems in organic stereochemistry and has resulted in practical methods for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals

  20. Developing a Practical Chiral Toolbox for Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; XuMu

    2001-01-01

    Chiral Quest's Toolbox Approach: During the last several decades, chemists have made major progress in discovering man-made catalysts to perform challenging asymmetric transformations. However, there is no universal chiral ligand or catalyst for solving problems in enantioselective transformations. The focus of Chiral Quest's research is to develop a useful chiral toolbox for strategically important asymmetric catalytic reactions by inventing a diverse set of novel chiral ligands and combining them with transition metals as effective enantioselective catalysts. The toolbox approach addresses significant problems in organic stereochemistry and has resulted in practical methods for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals  ……

  1. Identical Wells, Symmetry Breaking, and the Near-Unitary Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, N. L.

    2017-03-01

    Energy level splitting from the unitary limit of contact interactions to the near unitary limit for a few identical atoms in an effectively one-dimensional well can be understood as an example of symmetry breaking. At the unitary limit in addition to particle permutation symmetry there is a larger symmetry corresponding to exchanging the N! possible orderings of N particles. In the near unitary limit, this larger symmetry is broken, and different shapes of traps break the symmetry to different degrees. This brief note exploits these symmetries to present a useful, geometric analogy with graph theory and build an algebraic framework for calculating energy splitting in the near unitary limit.

  2. Pseudo-random unitary operators for quantum information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Joseph; Weinstein, Yaakov S; Saraceno, Marcos; Lloyd, Seth; Cory, David G

    2003-12-19

    In close analogy to the fundamental role of random numbers in classical information theory, random operators are a basic component of quantum information theory. Unfortunately, the implementation of random unitary operators on a quantum processor is exponentially hard. Here we introduce a method for generating pseudo-random unitary operators that can reproduce those statistical properties of random unitary operators most relevant to quantum information tasks. This method requires exponentially fewer resources, and hence enables the practical application of random unitary operators in quantum communication and information processing protocols. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor, we were able to realize pseudorandom unitary operators that reproduce the expected random distribution of matrix elements.

  3. Universal Structure and Universal PDE for Unitary Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Rumanov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe random matrix ensembles with unitary invariance of measure (UE) in a unified way, using a combination of Tracy-Widom (TW) and Adler-Shiota-Van Moerbeke (ASvM) approaches to derivation of partial differential equations (PDE) for spectral gap probabilities. First, general 3-term recurrence relations for UE restricted to subsets of real line, or, in other words, for functions in the resolvent kernel, are obtained. Using them, simple universal relations between all TW dependent variables and one-dimensional Toda lattice $\\tau$-functions are found. A universal system of PDE for UE is derived from previous relations, which leads also to a {\\it single independent PDE} for spectral gap probability of various UE. Thus, orthogonal function bases and Toda lattice are seen at the core of correspondence of different approaches. Moreover, Toda-AKNS system provides a common structure of PDE for unitary ensembles. Interestingly, this structure can be seen in two very different forms: one arises...

  4. On Chiral Space Groups and Chiral Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This note explains the relationship (as well as the absence of a relationship) between chiral space groups and chiral molecules (which have absolute configurations). For a chiral molecule, which must crystallize in a chiral space group, the outcome of the absolute configuration determination must be linked to some other properties of the chiral crystal such as its optical activity for the observation to the relevant.

  5. On Chiral Space Groups and Chiral Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NgSeikWng; HUSheng-Zhi

    2003-01-01

    This note explains the relationship (as well as the absence of a relationship) between chiral space groups and chiral molecules (which have absolute configurations).For a chiral molecule,which must crystallize in a chiral space group,the outcome of the absolute configuration determination must be linked to some other properties of the chiral crystal such as its optical activity for the observation to the relevant.

  6. Recurrence for discrete time unitary evolutions

    CERN Document Server

    Grünbaum, F A; Werner, A H; Werner, R F

    2012-01-01

    We consider quantum dynamical systems specified by a unitary operator U and an initial state vector \\phi. In each step the unitary is followed by a projective measurement checking whether the system has returned to the initial state. We call the system recurrent if this eventually happens with probability one. We show that recurrence is equivalent to the absence of an absolutely continuous part from the spectral measure of U with respect to \\phi. We also show that in the recurrent case the expected first return time is an integer or infinite, for which we give a topological interpretation. A key role in our theory is played by the first arrival amplitudes, which turn out to be the (complex conjugated) Taylor coefficients of the Schur function of the spectral measure. On the one hand, this provides a direct dynamical interpretation of these coefficients; on the other hand it links our definition of first return times to a large body of mathematical literature.

  7. Generalized Unitaries and the Picard Group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Skeide

    2006-11-01

    After discussing some basic facts about generalized module maps, we use the representation theory of the algebra $\\mathscr{B}^a(E)$ of adjointable operators on a Hilbert $\\mathcal{B}$-module to show that the quotient of the group of generalized unitaries on and its normal subgroup of unitaries on is a subgroup of the group of automorphisms of the range ideal $\\mathcal{B}_E$ of in $\\mathcal{B}$. We determine the kernel of the canonical mapping into the Picard group of $\\mathcal{B}_E$ in terms of the group of quasi inner automorphisms of $\\mathcal{B}_E$. As a by-product we identify the group of bistrict automorphisms of the algebra of adjointable operators on modulo inner automorphisms as a subgroup of the (opposite of the) Picard group.

  8. Scalable Noise Estimation with Random Unitary Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Emerson, J; Zyczkowski, K; Emerson, Joseph; Alicki, Robert; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2005-01-01

    We describe a scalable stochastic method for the experimental measurement of generalized fidelities characterizing the accuracy of the implementation of a coherent quantum transformation. The method is based on the motion reversal of random unitary operators. In the simplest case our method enables direct estimation of the average gate fidelity. The more general fidelities are characterized by a universal exponential rate of fidelity loss. In all cases the measurable fidelity decrease is directly related to the strength of the noise affecting the implementation -- quantified by the trace of the superoperator describing the non--unitary dynamics. While the scalability of our stochastic protocol makes it most relevant in large Hilbert spaces (when quantum process tomography is infeasible), our method should be immediately useful for evaluating the degree of control that is achievable in any prototype quantum processing device. By varying over different experimental arrangements and error-correction strategies a...

  9. Scalable noise estimation with random unitary operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Joseph [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Alicki, Robert [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 57, PL 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Zyczkowski, Karol [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    We describe a scalable stochastic method for the experimental measurement of generalized fidelities characterizing the accuracy of the implementation of a coherent quantum transformation. The method is based on the motion reversal of random unitary operators. In the simplest case our method enables direct estimation of the average gate fidelity. The more general fidelities are characterized by a universal exponential rate of fidelity loss. In all cases the measurable fidelity decrease is directly related to the strength of the noise affecting the implementation, quantified by the trace of the superoperator describing the non-unitary dynamics. While the scalability of our stochastic protocol makes it most relevant in large Hilbert spaces (when quantum process tomography is infeasible), our method should be immediately useful for evaluating the degree of control that is achievable in any prototype quantum processing device. By varying over different experimental arrangements and error-correction strategies, additional information about the noise can be determined.

  10. Unitary and room air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    The scope of this technology evaluation on room and unitary air conditioners covers the initial investment and performance characteristics needed for estimating the operating cost of air conditioners installed in an ICES community. Cooling capacities of commercially available room air conditioners range from 4000 Btu/h to 36,000 Btu/h; unitary air conditioners cover a range from 6000 Btu/h to 135,000 Btu/h. The information presented is in a form useful to both the computer programmer in the construction of a computer simulation of the packaged air-conditioner's performance and to the design engineer, interested in selecting a suitably sized and designed packaged air conditioner.

  11. Transition from Poisson to circular unitary ensemble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinayak; Akhilesh Pandey

    2009-09-01

    Transitions to universality classes of random matrix ensembles have been useful in the study of weakly-broken symmetries in quantum chaotic systems. Transitions involving Poisson as the initial ensemble have been particularly interesting. The exact two-point correlation function was derived by one of the present authors for the Poisson to circular unitary ensemble (CUE) transition with uniform initial density. This is given in terms of a rescaled symmetry breaking parameter Λ. The same result was obtained for Poisson to Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) transition by Kunz and Shapiro, using the contour-integral method of Brezin and Hikami. We show that their method is applicable to Poisson to CUE transition with arbitrary initial density. Their method is also applicable to the more general ℓ CUE to CUE transition where CUE refers to the superposition of ℓ independent CUE spectra in arbitrary ratio.

  12. Complete Pick Positivity and Unitary Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Angshuman

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic function for a contraction is a classical complete unitary invariant devised by Sz.-Nagy and Foias. Just as a contraction is related to the Szego kernel $k_S(z,w) = (1 - z\\ow)^{-1}$ for $|z|, |w| < 1$, by means of $(1/k_S)(T,T^*) \\ge 0$, we consider an arbitrary open connected domain $\\Omega$ in $\\BC^n$, a complete Nevanilinna-Pick kernel $k$ on $\\Omega$ and a tuple $T = (T_1, ..., T_n)$ of commuting bounded operators on a complex separable Hilbert space $\\clh$ such that $(1/k)(T,T^*) \\ge 0$. For a complete Pick kernel the $1/k$ functional calculus makes sense in a beautiful way. It turns out that the model theory works very well and a characteristic function can be associated with $T$. Moreover, the characteristic function then is a complete unitary invariant for a suitable class of tuples $T$.

  13. Chiral memory via chiral amplification and selective depolymerization of porphyrin aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Floris; Lee, Cameron C; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Meijer, E W

    2010-12-01

    Chiral memory at the supramolecular level is obtained via a new approach using chiral Zn porphrins and achiral Cu porphyrins. In a "sergeant-and-soldiers" experiment, the Zn "sergeant" transfers its own chirality to Cu "soldiers" and, after chiral amplification, the "sergeant" is removed from the coaggregates by axial ligation with a Lewis base. After this extraction, the preferred helicity observed for the aggregates containing achiral Cu porphyrins reveals a chiral memory effect that is stable and can be erased and partially restored upon subsequent heating and cooling.

  14. Integral Compressor/Generator/Fan Unitary Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiman, Nelik

    2016-01-01

    INTEGRAL COMPRESSOR / GENERATOR / FAN UNITARY STRUCTURE.*) Dr. Nelik Dreiman Consultant, P.O.Box 144, Tipton, MI E-mail: An extremely compact, therefore space saving single compressor/generator/cooling fan structure of short axial length and light weight has been developed to provide generation of electrical power with simultaneous operation of the compressor when power is unavailable or function as a regular AC compressor powered by a power line. The generators and ai...

  15. Unitary representations and harmonic analysis an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sugiura, M

    1990-01-01

    The principal aim of this book is to give an introduction to harmonic analysis and the theory of unitary representations of Lie groups. The second edition has been brought up to date with a number of textual changes in each of the five chapters, a new appendix on Fatou''s theorem has been added in connection with the limits of discrete series, and the bibliography has been tripled in length.

  16. Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castriciano, Maria A; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù

    2017-03-09

    Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule's lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic.

  17. Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castriciano, Maria A.; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù

    2017-01-01

    Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule’s lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic. PMID:28275239

  18. Optimal control theory for unitary transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Palao, Jose P.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of a quantum system driven by an external field is well described by a unitary transformation generated by a time dependent Hamiltonian. The inverse problem of finding the field that generates a specific unitary transformation is the subject of study. The unitary transformation which can represent an algorithm in a quantum computation is imposed on a subset of quantum states embedded in a larger Hilbert space. Optimal control theory (OCT) is used to solve the inversion problem irrespective of the initial input state. A unified formalism, based on the Krotov method is developed leading to a new scheme. The schemes are compared for the inversion of a two-qubit Fourier transform using as registers the vibrational levels of the $X^1\\Sigma^+_g$ electronic state of Na$_2$. Raman-like transitions through the $A^1\\Sigma^+_u$ electronic state induce the transitions. Light fields are found that are able to implement the Fourier transform within a picosecond time scale. Such fields can be obtained by pulse-...

  19. Laser Writing of Multiscale Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Furlani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to metamaterials is presented that involves laser-based patterning of novel chiral polymer media, wherein chirality is realized at two distinct length scales, intrinsically at the molecular level and geometrically at a length scale on the order of the wavelength of the incident field. In this approach, femtosecond-pulsed laser-induced two-photon lithography (TPL is used to pattern a photoresist-chiral polymer mixture into planar chiral shapes. Enhanced bulk chirality can be realized by tuning the wavelength-dependent chiral response at both the molecular and geometric level to ensure an overlap of their respective spectra. The approach is demonstrated via the fabrication of a metamaterial consisting of a two-dimensional array of chiral polymer-based L-structures. The fabrication process is described and modeling is performed to demonstrate the distinction between molecular and planar geometric-based chirality and the effects of the enhanced multiscale chirality on the optical response of such media. This new approach to metamaterials holds promise for the development of tunable, polymer-based optical metamaterials with low loss.

  20. Chirally motivated K - nuclear potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.

    2011-08-01

    In-medium subthreshold Kbar N scattering amplitudes calculated within a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model are used self consistently to confront K- atom data across the periodic table. Substantially deeper K- nuclear potentials are obtained compared to the shallow potentials derived in some approaches from threshold Kbar N amplitudes, with Re VK-chiral = - (85 ± 5) MeV at nuclear matter density. When Kbar NN contributions are incorporated phenomenologically, a very deep K- nuclear potential results, Re VK-chiral + phen . = - (180 ± 5) MeV, in agreement with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits to the data. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K--nuclear quasibound states generated by VK-chiral are reported and discussed.

  1. Stegosaurus chirality

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, R.P.; Cameron, J. A.; Barnett, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explain that Stegosaurus exhibited exterior chirality and observe that the largest plate in particular of USNM 4394, USNM 4714, DMNS 2818 and NHMUK R36730 appears to have tilted to the right rather than to the left in each case. Several instances in which Stegosaurus specimens have been confused with their distinct, hypothetical mirror-image forms are highlighted. We believe our findings to be consistent with the hypothesis that Stegosaurus's plates acted primarily as display structures. A...

  2. HPLC enantioseparation of racemic bupropion, baclofen and etodolac: modification of conventional ligand exchange approach by pre-column formation of chiral ligand exchange complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manisha; Bhushan, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Separation of racemic mixture of (RS)-bupropion, (RS)-baclofen and (RS)-etodolac, commonly marketed racemic drugs, has been achieved by modifying the conventional ligand exchange approach. The Cu(II) complexes were first prepared with a few l-amino acids, namely, l-proline, l-histidine, l-phenylalanine and l-tryptophan, and to these was introduced a mixture of the enantiomer pair of (RS)-bupropion, or (RS)-baclofen or (RS)-etodolac. As a result, formation of a pair of diastereomeric complexes occurred by 'chiral ligand exchange' via the competition between the chelating l-amino acid and each of the two enantiomers from a given pair. The diastereomeric mixture formed in the pre-column process was loaded onto HPLC column. Thus, both the phases during chromatographic separation process were achiral (i.e. neither the stationary phase had any chiral structural feature of its own nor did the mobile phase have any chiral additive). Separation of diastereomers was successful using a C18 column and a binary mixture of MeCN and TEAP buffer of pH 4.0 (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV detection at 230 nm for (RS)-Bup, 220 nm for (RS)-Bac and 223 nm for (RS)-Etd. Baseline separation of the two enantiomers was obtained with a resolution of 6.63 in <15 min. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity.

  4. Enantioselective recognition at mesoporous chiral metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakit, Chularat; Côme, Yémima Bon Saint; Lapeyre, Veronique; Bopp, Philippe A.; Heim, Matthias; Yadnum, Sudarat; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Chirality is widespread in natural systems, and artificial reproduction of chiral recognition is a major scientific challenge, especially owing to various potential applications ranging from catalysis to sensing and separation science. In this context, molecular imprinting is a well-known approach for generating materials with enantioselective properties, and it has been successfully employed using polymers. However, it is particularly difficult to synthesize chiral metal matrices by this method. Here we report the fabrication of a chirally imprinted mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and chiral template molecules. The porous platinum retains a chiral character after removal of the template molecules. A matrix obtained in this way exhibits a large active surface area due to its mesoporosity, and also shows a significant discrimination between two enantiomers, when they are probed using such materials as electrodes.

  5. Chiral symmetry breaking, color superconductivity and quark matter phase diagram: a variational approach 12.38.Gc

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, H

    2001-01-01

    We discuss in this note simultaneous existence of chiral symmetry breaking and color superconductivity at finite temperature and density in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type model. The methodology involves an explicit construction of a variational ground state and minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. There exist nontrivial solutions to the gap equations at finite densities with both quark-antiquark as well as diquark condensates for the 'ground' state. However, such a phase is thermodynamically unstable with the pressure being negative in this region. We also compute the equation of state, and obtain the structure of the phase diagram in the model.

  6. Unitary appreciative inquiry: evolution and refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W Richard; Repede, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Unitary appreciative inquiry (UAI), developed over the past 20 years, provides an orientation and process for uncovering human wholeness and discovering life patterning in individuals and groups. Refinements and a description of studies using UAI are presented. Assumptions and conceptual underpinnings of the method distinguishing its contributions from other methods are reported. Data generation strategies that capture human wholeness and elucidate life patterning are proposed. Data synopsis as an alternative to analysis is clarified and explicated. Standards that suggest enhancing the legitimacy of knowledge and credibility of research are specified. Potential expansions of UAI offer possibilities for extending epistemologies, aesthetic integration, and theory development.

  7. Quantum mechanics with non-unitary symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Bistrovic, B

    2000-01-01

    This article shows how to properly extend symmetries of non-relativistic quantum mechanics to include non-unitary representations of Lorentz group for all spins. It follows from this that (almost) all existing relativistic single particle Lagrangians and equations are incorrect. This is shown in particular for Dirac's equation and Proca equations. It is shown that properly constructed relativistic extensions have no negative energies, zitterbewegung effects and have proper symmetric energy-momentum tensor and angular momentum density tensor. The downside is that states with negative norm are inevitable in all representations.

  8. Universal dynamics in a Unitary Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauss, Catherine; Xie, Xin; D'Incao, Jose; Jin, Deborah; Cornell, Eric

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a unitary Bose gas with an 85 Rb BEC, specifically to determine whether the dynamics scale universally with density. We find that the initial density affects both the (i) projection of the strongly interacting many-body wave-function onto the Feshbach dimer state when the system is rapidly ramped to a weakly interacting value of the scattering length a and (ii) the overall decay rate to deeper bound states. We will present data on both measurements across two orders of magnitude in density, and will discuss how the data illustrate the competing roles of universality and Efimov physics.

  9. Unitary Gas Constraints on Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, Evgeni E; Ohnishi, Akira; Tews, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a lower bound on the volume symmetry energy parameter $S_0$ from unitary gas considerations. We further demonstrate that values of $S_0$ above this minimum imply upper and lower bounds on the symmetry energy parameter $L$ describing its lowest-order density dependence. The bounds are found to be consistent with both recent calculations of the energies of pure neutron matter and constraints from nuclear experiments. These results are significant because many equations of state in active use for simulations of nuclear structure, heavy ion collisions, supernovae, neutron star mergers, and neutron star structure violate these constraints.

  10. On unitary representability of topological groups

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Pastor, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    We prove that the additive group $(E^\\ast,\\tau_k(E))$ of an $\\mathscr{L}_\\infty$-Banach space $E$, with the topology $\\tau_k(E)$ of uniform convergence on compact subsets of $E$, is topologically isomorphic to a subgroup of the unitary group of some Hilbert space (is \\emph{unitarily representable}). This is the same as proving that the topological group $(E^\\ast,\\tau_k(E))$ is uniformly homeomorphic to a subset of $\\ell_2^\\kappa$ for some $\\kappa$. As an immediate consequence, preduals of com...

  11. Unitary water-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-10-01

    Performance and cost functions for nine unitary water-to-air heat pumps ranging in nominal size from /sup 1///sub 2/ to 26 tons are presented in mathematical form for easy use in heat pump computer simulations. COPs at nominal water source temperature of 60/sup 0/F range from 2.5 to 3.4 during the heating cycle; during the cooling cycle EERs range from 8.33 to 9.09 with 85/sup 0/F entering water source temperatures. The COP and EER values do not include water source pumping power or any energy requirements associated with a central heat source and heat rejection equipment.

  12. Quantum remote control Teleportation of unitary operations

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F; Chefles, A; Plenio, M B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the implementation of an unknown arbitrary unitary operation U upon a distant quantum system. This teleportation of U can be viewed as a quantum remote control. We investigate the protocols which achieve this using local operations, classical communication and shared entanglement (LOCCSE). Lower bounds on the necessary entanglement and classical communication are determined using causality and the linearity of quantum mechanics. We examine in particular detail the resources required if the remote control is to be implemented as a classical black box. Under these circumstances, we prove that the required resources are, necessarily, those needed for implementation by bidirectional state teleportation.

  13. Shear Viscosity of a Unitary Fermi Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr; Drut, Joaquín E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first ab initio determination of the shear viscosity eta of the Unitary Fermi Gas, based on finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo calculations and the Kubo linear-response formalism. We determine the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s. The minimum of eta/s appears to be located above the critical temperature for the superfluid-to-normal phase transition with the most probable value being eta/s approx 0.2 hbar/kB, which almost saturates...

  14. A micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry approach using in-capillary diastereomeric derivatization for fully automatized chiral analysis of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Radu-Cristian; Bodoki, Ede; Kacsó, Timea; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Crommen, Jacques; Oprean, Radu; Fillet, Marianne

    2016-10-07

    In the context of bioanalytical method development, process automatization is nowadays a necessity in order to save time, improve method reliability and reduce costs. For the first time, a fully automatized micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry (MEKC-MS) method with in-capillary derivatization was developed for the chiral analysis of d- and l-amino acids using (-)-1-(9-fluorenyl) ethyl chloroformate (FLEC) as labeling reagent. The derivatization procedure was optimized using an experimental design approach leading to the following conditions: sample and FLEC plugs in a 2:1 ratio (15s, 30mbar: 7.5s, 30mbar) followed by 15min of mixing using a voltage of 0.1kV. The formed diastereomers were then separated using a background electrolyte (BGE) consisting of 150mM ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) (pH=9.5) and detected by mass spectrometry (MS). Complete chiral resolution was obtained for 8 amino acids, while partial separation was achieved for 6 other amino acid pairs. The method showed good reproducibility and linearity in the low micromolar concentration range. The applicability of the method to biological samples was tested by analyzing artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) samples.

  15. Endoscopic classification of representations of quasi-split unitary groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Chung Pang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author establishes the endoscopic classification of tempered representations of quasi-split unitary groups over local fields, and the endoscopic classification of the discrete automorphic spectrum of quasi-split unitary groups over global number fields. The method is analogous to the work of Arthur on orthogonal and symplectic groups, based on the theory of endoscopy and the comparison of trace formulas on unitary groups and general linear groups.

  16. Central-to-axial chirality transfer revealed by liquid crystals: a combined experimental and computational approach for the determination of absolute configuration of carboxylic acids with an α chirality centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Alberta; Ferroni, Fiammetta; Pieraccini, Silvia; Rosini, Carlo; Superchi, Stefano; Spada, Gian Piero

    2011-10-01

    The conversion into 6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepine (DAZ) N-protected amides is a viable route for the determination of the absolute configuration of chiral 2-substituted carboxylic acids. The biphenyl moiety of DAZ, besides being a probe of chirality for the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy, makes these systems suitable for configuration assignment by exploiting the chirality amplification which occurs in nematic liquid crystals. To assess the reliability of the liquid crystal method in detecting the absolute stereochemistry of chiral amides bound to a biphenyl group, we measured the helical twisting power of a series of DAZ-N-protected amides and compared these data with the results obtained from ECD measurements. We will show that the liquid crystal method, corroborated by HTP predictions, is trustworthy with our biphenyl derivatives, even when ECD spectra are ambiguous for the presence of aryl moieties displaying strong UV absorptions in the same range of the biphenyl chromophore.

  17. Right-unitary transformation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Z

    1996-01-01

    We develop a new transformation theory in quantum physics, where the transformation operators, defined in the infinite dimensional Hilbert space, have right-unitary inverses only. Through several theorems, we discuss the properties of state space of such operators. As one application of the right-unitary transformation (RUT), we show that using the RUT method, we can solve exactly various interactions of many-level atoms with quantized radiation fields, where the energy of atoms can be two levels, three levels in Lambda, V and equiv configurations, and up to higher (>3) levels. These interactions have wide applications in atomic physics, quantum optics and quantum electronics. In this paper, we focus on two typical systems: one is a two-level generalized Jaynes-Cummings model, where the cavity field varies with the external source; the other one is the interaction of three-level atom with quantized radiation fields, where the atoms have Lambda-configuration energy levels, and the radiation fields are one-mode...

  18. Chiral nuclear thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorilla, Salvatore; Weise, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the equation of state of nuclear matter for arbitrary isospin-asymmetry up to three loop order in the free energy density in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory. In our approach 1\\pi- and 2\\pi-exchange dynamics with the inclusion of the \\Delta-isobar excitation as an explicit degree of freedom, corresponding to the long- and intermediate-range correlations, are treated explicitly. Few contact terms fixed to reproduce selected known properties of nuclear matter encode the short-distance physics. Two-body as well as three-body forces are systematically included. We find a critical temperature of about 15 MeV for symmetric nuclear matter. We investigate the dependence of the liquid-gas first-order phase transition on isospin-asymmetry. In the same chiral framework we calculate the chiral condensate of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures. The contribution of the \\Delta-isobar excitation is essential for stabilizing the condensate. As a result, we find no indicati...

  19. Perfect state transfer in unitary Cayley graphs over local rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotsanan Meemark

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, using eigenvalues and eigenvectors of unitary Cayley graphs over finite local rings and elementary linear algebra, we characterize which local rings allowing PST occurring in its unitary Cayley graph. Moreover, we have some developments when $R$ is a product of local rings.

  20. Unitary Quantum Relativity. (Work in Progress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, David Ritz

    2017-01-01

    A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.

  1. Unitary Quantum Relativity - (Work in Progress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, David Ritz

    2016-12-01

    A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.

  2. Hydrodynamics of a unitary Bose gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jay; Fletcher, Richard; Lopes, Raphael; Navon, Nir; Smith, Rob; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    In general, normal-phase Bose gases are well described by modelling them as ideal gases. In particular, hydrodynamic flow is usually not observed in the expansion dynamics of normal gases, and is more readily observable in Bose-condensed gases. However, by preparing strongly-interacting clouds, we observe hydrodynamic behaviour in normal-phase Bose gases, including the `maximally' hydrodynamic unitary regime. We avoid the atom losses that often hamper experimental access of this regime by using radio-frequency injection, which switches on interactions much faster than trap or loss timescales. At low phase-space densities, we find excellent agreement with a collisional model based on the Boltzmann equation. At higher phase-space densities our results show a deviation from this model in the vicinity of an Efimov resonance, which cannot be accounted for by measured losses.

  3. Unitary air-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available unitary heat pumps ranging from nominal capacities of 1/sup 1///sub 2/ to 45 tons. The nominal COP of the heat pump models, selected as representative, vary from 2.4 to 2.9. Seasonal COPs for heat pump installations and single-family dwellings are reported to vary from 2.5 to 1.1, depending on climate. For cooling performance, the nominal EER's vary from 6.5 to 8.7. Representative part-load performance curves along with cost estimating and reliability data are provided to aid: (1) the systems design engineer to select suitably sized heat pumps based on life-cycle cost analyses, and (2) the computer programmer to develop a simulation code for heat pumps operating in an Integrated Community Energy System.

  4. Biphoton transmission through non-unitary objects

    CERN Document Server

    Reichert, Matthew; Sun, Xiaohang; Fleischer, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Losses should be accounted for in a complete description of quantum imaging systems, and yet they are often treated as undesirable and largely neglected. In conventional quantum imaging, images are built up by coincidence detection of spatially entangled photon pairs (biphotons) transmitted through an object. However, as real objects are non-unitary (absorptive), part of the transmitted state contains only a single photon, which is overlooked in traditional coincidence measurements. The single photon part has a drastically different spatial distribution than the two-photon part. It contains information both about the object, and, remarkably, the spatial entanglement properties of the incident biphotons. We image the one- and two-photon parts of the transmitted state using an electron multiplying CCD array both as a traditional camera and as a massively parallel coincidence counting apparatus, and demonstrate agreement with theoretical predictions. This work may prove useful for photon number imaging and lead ...

  5. Chiral mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plum, Eric, E-mail: erp@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I., E-mail: niz@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); The Photonics Institute and Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637378 (Singapore)

    2015-06-01

    Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.

  6. Molecular chirality at surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Organic Chemistry Institute, University Zurich, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    With the adsorption of larger molecules being increasingly tackled by surface scientists, the aspect of chirality often plays a role. This paper gives a topical review of molecular chirality at surfaces and gives a phenomenological overview of different aspects of adsorption and self-assembly of chiral and prochiral molecules and the principles of mirror-symmetry breaking at a surface. After a brief introduction into the history of molecular chirality and the important role it played for understanding the spatial structure of molecules, definitions of chirality are presented. Topics treated here are principle ways to create single chiral adsorbates, chiral ensembles, and monolayers by achiral molecules, adsorption of intrinsically chiral molecules at achiral and chiral surfaces, long-range symmetry breaking in two-dimensional (2D) crystals due to additional chiral bias, chiral restructuring of solid surfaces under the influence of chiral molecules, switching the handedness of adsorbates, and chirality at the liquid/air interface. An outlook onto further potential research directions and recommendations for further reading, including nonsurface-related sources of chiral topics completes this paper. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Chiral mobile phase in ligand-exchange chromatography of amino acids: exploring the copper(II) salt anion effect with a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Roccaldo; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Carotti, Andrea; Ianni, Federica; Rubiño, Maria Eugenia García; Natalini, Benedetto

    2012-12-21

    With the use of a chiral ligand-exchange chromatography (CLEC) system operating with the O-benzyl-(S)-serine [(S)-OBS] [1,2] as the chiral mobile phase (CMP) additive to the eluent, the effect of the copper(II) anion type on retention (k) and separation (α) factors was evaluated, by rationally changing the following experimental conditions: salt concentration and temperature. The CLEC-CMP analysis was carried out on ten amino acidic racemates and with nine different cupric salts. While the group of analytes comprised both aliphatic (leucine, isoleucine, nor-leucine, proline, valine, nor-valine, and α-methyl-valine) and aromatic (1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, phenylglycine, and tyrosine) species, representative organic (formate, methanesulfonate, and trifluoroacetate) and inorganic (bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, perchlorate, and sulfate) Cu(II) salts were selected as the metal source into the eluent. This route of investigation was pursued with the aim of identifying analogies among the employed Cu(II) salts, by observing the variation profile of the selected chromatographic parameters, upon a change of the above experimental conditions. All the data were collected and analyzed through a statistical approach (PCA and k-means clustering) that revealed the presence of two behavioral classes of cupric salts, sharing the same variation profile for k and α values. Interestingly, this clustering can be explained in terms of ESP (electrostatic surface potential) balance (ESP(bal)) values, obtained by an ab initio calculation operated on the cupric salts. The results of this appraisal could aid the rational choice of the most suitable eluent system, to succeed in the enantioseparation of difficult-to-resolve compounds, along with the eventual scale-up to a semi-preparative level.

  8. Chiral conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane-Maguire, Leon A P; Wallace, Gordon G

    2010-07-01

    This critical review describes the preparation and properties of a relatively new class of chiral macromolecules, namely chiral conducting polymers. It focuses in particular on examples based on polypyrrole, polythiophene and polyaniline. They possess remarkable properties, combining not only chirality with electrical conductivity but also the ability to undergo facile redox and pH switching. These unique properties have opened up a range of exciting new potential applications, including as chiral sensors, as novel stationary phases for chiral separations, and as chiral electrodes for electrochemical asymmetric synthesis (153 references).

  9. Bethe-Salpeter Approach for the $P_{33}$ Elastic Pion-Nucleon Scattering in Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J

    2001-01-01

    Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory (HBChPT) to leading order provides a kernel to solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the $P_{33}$ ($\\Delta(1232)$-channel) $\\pi-N$ system, in the infinite nucleon mass limit. Crossed Born terms include, when iterated within the Bethe-Salpeter equation, both {\\it all} one- and {\\it some} two-pion intermediate states, hence preserving elastic unitarity below the two-pion production threshold. This suggests searching for a solution with the help of dispersion relations and suitable subtraction constants, when all in-elasticities are explicitly neglected. The solution allows for a successful description of the experimental phase shift from threshold up to $\\sqrt{s}=1500$ MeV in terms of four subtraction constants. Next-to-leading order HBChPT calculations are also used to estimate the unknown subtraction constants which appear in the solution. Large discrepancies are encountered which can be traced to the slow convergence rate of HBChPT.

  10. Nematic twist cell: Strong chirality induced at the surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Nemitz, Ian R.; Pendery, Joel S.; Schubert, Christopher P. J.; Lemieux, Robert P.; Rosenblatt, Charles

    2013-04-01

    A nematic twist cell having a thickness gradient was filled with a mixture containing a configurationally achiral liquid crystal (LC) and chiral dopant. A chiral-based linear electrooptic effect was observed on application of an ac electric field. This "electroclinic effect" varied monotonically with d, changing sign at d =d0 where the chiral dopant exactly compensated the imposed twist. The results indicate that a significant chiral electrooptic effect always exists near the surfaces of a twist cell containing molecules that can be conformationally deracemized. Additionally, this approach can be used to measure the helical twisting power (HTP) of a chiral dopant in a liquid crystal.

  11. Two-nucleon electromagnetic current in chiral effective field theory: one-pion exchange and short-range contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Koelling, S; Krebs, H; Meißner, U -G

    2011-01-01

    We derive the leading one-loop contribution to the one-pion exchange and short-range two-nucleon electromagnetic current operator in the framework of chiral effective field theory. The derivation is carried out using the method of unitary transformation. Explicit results for the current and charge densities are given in momentum and coordinate space.

  12. Nuclear axial current operators to fourth order in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, H; Meißner, U -G

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete derivation of the nuclear axial charge and current operators as well as the pseudoscalar operators to fourth order in the chiral expansion relative to the dominant one-body contribution using the method of unitary transformation. We demonstrate that the unitary ambiguity in the resulting operators can be eliminated by the requirement of renormalizability and by matching of the pion-pole contributions to the nuclear forces. We give expressions for the renormalized single-, two- and three-nucleon contributions to the charge and current operators and pseudoscalar operators including the relevant relativistic corrections. We also verify explicitly the validity of the continuity equation.

  13. Quantum Entanglement Growth Under Random Unitary Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahum, Adam; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example after a quantum quench, is a key problem in non-equilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time--dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the `entanglement tsunami' in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar--Parisi--Zhang (KPZ) equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like $(\\text{time})^{1/3}$ and are spatially correlated over a distance $\\propto (\\text{time})^{2/3}$. We derive KPZ universal behaviour in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to: (i) a stochastic model of a growing surface; (ii) a `minimal cut' picture, reminisce...

  14. Quantum metrology with unitary parametrization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Jing, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2015-02-24

    Quantum Fisher information is a central quantity in quantum metrology. We discuss an alternative representation of quantum Fisher information for unitary parametrization processes. In this representation, all information of parametrization transformation, i.e., the entire dynamical information, is totally involved in a Hermitian operator H. Utilizing this representation, quantum Fisher information is only determined by H and the initial state. Furthermore, H can be expressed in an expanded form. The highlights of this form is that it can bring great convenience during the calculation for the Hamiltonians owning recursive commutations with their partial derivative. We apply this representation in a collective spin system and show the specific expression of H. For a simple case, a spin-half system, the quantum Fisher information is given and the optimal states to access maximum quantum Fisher information are found. Moreover, for an exponential form initial state, an analytical expression of quantum Fisher information by H operator is provided. The multiparameter quantum metrology is also considered and discussed utilizing this representation.

  15. Unitary Evolution and Cosmological Fine-Tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Sean M

    2010-01-01

    Inflationary cosmology attempts to provide a natural explanation for the flatness and homogeneity of the observable universe. In the context of reversible (unitary) evolution, this goal is difficult to satisfy, as Liouville's theorem implies that no dynamical process can evolve a large number of initial states into a small number of final states. We use the invariant measure on solutions to Einstein's equation to quantify the problems of cosmological fine-tuning. The most natural interpretation of the measure is the flatness problem does not exist; almost all Robertson-Walker cosmologies are spatially flat. The homogeneity of the early universe, however, does represent a substantial fine-tuning; the horizon problem is real. When perturbations are taken into account, inflation only occurs in a negligibly small fraction of cosmological histories, less than $10^{-6.6\\times 10^7}$. We argue that while inflation does not affect the number of initial conditions that evolve into a late universe like our own, it neve...

  16. A unitary test of the Ratios Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Goes, John; Miller, Steven J; Montague, David; Ninsuwan, Kesinee; Peckner, Ryan; Pham, Thuy

    2009-01-01

    The Ratios Conjecture of Conrey, Farmer and Zirnbauer predicts the answers to numerous questions in number theory, ranging from n-level densities and correlations to mollifiers to moments and vanishing at the central point. The conjecture gives a recipe to generate these answers, which are believed to be correct up to square-root cancelation. These predictions have been verified, for suitably restricted test functions, for the 1-level density of orthogonal and symplectic families of L-functions. In this paper we verify the conjecture's predictions for the unitary family of all Dirichlet $L$-functions with prime conductor; we show square-root agreement between prediction and number theory if the support of the Fourier transform of the test function is in (-1,1), and for support up to (-2,2) we show agreement up to a power savings in the family's cardinality. The interesting feature in this family (which has not surfaced in previous investigations) is determining what is and what is not a diagonal term in the R...

  17. Proline Based Chiral Ionic Liquids for Enantioselective Michael Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Nobuoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral ionic liquids, starting from (S-proline, have been prepared and evaluated the ability of a chiral catalyst. In Michael reaction of trans-β-nitrostyrene and cyclohexanone, all the reactions were carried out under homogeneous conditions without any solvent except for excess cyclohexanone. The chiral ionic liquid catalyst with the positive charge delocalized bulky pyrrolidinium cation shows excellent yields (up to 92%, diastereoselectivities (syn/anti = 96/4, and enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee and could be reused at least three times without any loss of its catalytic activity. Such results demonstrated a promising new approach for green and economic chiral synthesis by using the chiral ionic liquids as a chiral catalyst and a chiral medium.

  18. Virial theorem and universality in a unitary fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Kinast, J; Turlapov, A

    2005-09-16

    Unitary Fermi gases, where the scattering length is large compared to the interparticle spacing, can have universal properties, which are independent of the details of the interparticle interactions when the range of the scattering potential is negligible. We prepare an optically trapped, unitary Fermi gas of 6Li, tuned just above the center of a broad Feshbach resonance. In agreement with the universal hypothesis, we observe that this strongly interacting many-body system obeys the virial theorem for an ideal gas over a wide range of temperatures. Based on this result, we suggest a simple volume thermometry method for unitary gases. We also show that the observed breathing mode frequency, which is close to the unitary hydrodynamic value over a wide range of temperature, is consistent with a universal hydrodynamic gas with nearly isentropic dynamics.

  19. Decomposition of Unitary Matrices for Finding Quantum Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Daskin, Anmer

    2010-01-01

    Constructing appropriate unitary matrix operators for new quantum algorithms and finding the minimum cost gate sequences for the implementation of these unitary operators is of fundamental importance in the field of quantum information and quantum computation. Here, we use the group leaders optimization algorithm, which is an effective and simple global optimization algorithm, to decompose a given unitary matrix into a proper-minimum cost quantum gate sequence. Using this procedure, we present new circuit designs for the simulation of the Toffoli gate, the amplification step of the Grover search algorithm, the quantum Fourier transform, the sender part of the quantum teleportation and the Hamiltonian for the Hydrogen molecule. In addition, we give two algorithmic methods for the construction of unitary matrices with respect to the different types of the quantum control gates. Our results indicate that the procedure is effective, general, and easy to implement.

  20. Exact and Approximate Unitary 2-Designs: Constructions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dankert, C; Emerson, J; Livine, E; Dankert, Christoph; Cleve, Richard; Emerson, Joseph; Livine, Etera

    2006-01-01

    We consider an extension of the concept of spherical t-designs to the unitary group in order to develop a unified framework for analyzing the resource requirements of randomized quantum algorithms. We show that certain protocols based on twirling require a unitary 2-design. We describe an efficient construction for an exact unitary 2-design based on the Clifford group, and then develop a method for generating an epsilon-approximate unitary 2-design that requires only O(n log(1/epsilon)) gates, where n is the number of qubits and epsilon is an appropriate measure of precision. These results lead to a protocol with exponential resource savings over existing experimental methods for estimating the characteristic fidelities of physical quantum processes.

  1. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg2+-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to st...

  2. Energy-Efficient Full Diversity Collaborative Unitary Space-Time Block Code Design via Unique Factorization of Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Dong; Dumitrescu, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel concept called a \\textit{uniquely factorable constellation pair} (UFCP) is proposed for the systematic design of a noncoherent full diversity collaborative unitary space-time block code by normalizing two Alamouti codes for a wireless communication system having two transmitter antennas and a single receiver antenna. It is proved that such a unitary UFCP code assures the unique identification of both channel coefficients and transmitted signals in a noise-free case as well as full diversity for the noncoherent maximum likelihood (ML) receiver in a noise case. To further improve error performance, an optimal unitary UFCP code is designed by appropriately and uniquely factorizing a pair of energy-efficient cross quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations to maximize the coding gain subject to a transmission bit rate constraint. After a deep investigation of the fractional coding gain function, a technical approach developed in this paper to maximizing the coding gain is to caref...

  3. Free Energies and Fluctuations for the Unitary Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    We show that the Laplace transforms of traces of words in independent unitary Brownian motions converge towards an analytic function on a non trivial disc. These results allow one to study the asymptotic behavior of Wilson loops under the unitary Yang-Mills measure on the plane with a potential. The limiting objects obtained are shown to be characterized by equations analogue to Schwinger-Dyson's ones, named here after Makeenko and Migdal.

  4. The Theory of Unitary Development of Chengdu and Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangQing

    2005-01-01

    Chengdu and Chongqing are two megalopolises with the synthesized economic strength and the strongest urban competitiveness in the entire western region, which have very important positions in the development of western China. Through horizontal contrast of social economic developing level of the two cities, the two cities' economic foundation of unitary development is analyzed from complementary and integrative relationship. Then the policies and measures of economic unitary development of two cities is put forward.

  5. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  6. Baryons and Chiral Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of $\\pi N \\sigma$ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral $U(1)$ anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.

  7. Compton scattering in a unitary approach with causality constraints 11.55.Fv; 13.40.Gp; 13.60.Fz; Nucleon-photon vertex; Off-shell form factors; K-matrix formalism; Compton scattering; Dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyuk, S

    2000-01-01

    Pion-loop corrections for Compton scattering are calculated in a novel approach based on the use of dispersion relations in a formalism obeying unitarity. The basic framework is presented, including an application to Compton scattering. In the approach the effects of the non-pole contribution arising from pion dressing are expressed in terms of (half-off-shell) form factors and the nucleon self-energy. These quantities are constructed through the application of dispersion integrals to the pole contribution of loop diagrams, the same as those included in the calculation of the amplitudes through a K-matrix formalism. The prescription of minimal substitution is used to restore gauge invariance. The resulting relativistic-covariant model combines constraints from unitarity, causality, and crossing symmetry.

  8. Chiral Rotational Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Robert P; Barnett, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy: a new technique that enables the determination of the individual optical activity polarisability components $G_{XX}'$, $G_{YY}'$, $G_{ZZ}'$, $A_{X,YZ}$, $A_{Y,ZX}$ and $A_{Z,XY}$ of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample whilst yielding an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centres. The principles that underpin chiral rotational spectroscopy can also be exploited in the search for molecular chirality in space, which, if found, may add weight to hypotheses that biological homochirality and indeed life itself are of cosmic origin.

  9. Approaching over 10 000-fold sensitivity increase in chiral capillary electrophoresis: Cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Iwata, Yuko T; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Kanazawa, Hideko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    A novel and simple method that combines an online concentration technique with an enantioseparation technique for capillary electrophoresis-namely, cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweeping CD-modified MEKC)-realizes the effective enantioseparation of cationic analytes while keeping a significant increase of detection sensitivity. This technique consists of a slight modification of the basic CSEI-sweeping MEKC. The main idea is to simply add an anionic CD as a chiral selector into the micellar buffer including sodium dodecyl sulfate, but not to change any other buffers in order to preserve the online concentration mechanism. When applied to analysis of the street drug, methamphetamine, the method achieved not only a baseline enantioseparation but also limits of detection (LODs; S/N = 3) of 70-90 pg/mL (ppt) for each isomer. This translates to a more than 10 000-fold improvement compared to the LODs by the usual injection method. The present technique, which was made from a slight modification of CSEI-sweeping MEKC, would give an attractive approach that is applicable to almost any analytes for which CSEI-sweeping MEKC is applicable; all that is required is the selection of an appropriate anionic CD to be added to the micellar buffer.

  10. On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica

    2011-07-01

    In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)

  11. Open Problems in Understanding the Nuclear Chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Open problems in the interpretation of the observed pair of near degenerate $\\Delta I = 1$ bands with the same parity as the chiral doublet bands are discussed. The ambiguities for the existing fingerprints of the chirality in atomic nuclei and problems in existing theory are discussed, including the description of quantum tunneling in the mean field approximation as well as the deformation, core polarization and configuration of particle rotor model (PRM). Future developments of the theoretical approach are prospected.

  12. Chiral symmetry and lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Creutz, M

    1994-01-01

    I review the problem of formulating chiral symmetry in lattice gauge theory. I discuss recent approaches involving an infinite tower of additional heavy states to absorb Fermion doublers. For hadronic physics this provides a natural scheme for taking quark masses to zero without requiring a precise tuning of parameters. A mirror Fermion variation provides a possible way of extending the picture to chirally coupled light Fermions. Talk presented at "Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum," Como, Italy, 20-24 June 1994.

  13. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  14. Nuclear chiral dynamics and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jeremy W.; Kaiser, Norbert; Weise, Wolfram

    2013-11-01

    This presentation reviews an approach to nuclear many-body systems based on the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of low-energy QCD. In the low-energy limit, for energies and momenta small compared to a characteristic symmetry breaking scale of order 1 GeV, QCD is realized as an effective field theory of Goldstone bosons (pions) coupled to heavy fermionic sources (nucleons). Nuclear forces at long and intermediate distance scales result from a systematic hierarchy of one- and two-pion exchange processes in combination with Pauli blocking effects in the nuclear medium. Short distance dynamics, not resolved at the wavelengths corresponding to typical nuclear Fermi momenta, are introduced as contact interactions between nucleons. Apart from a set of low-energy constants associated with these contact terms, the parameters of this theory are entirely determined by pion properties and low-energy pion-nucleon scattering observables. This framework (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) can provide a realistic description of both isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter, with emphasis on the isospin-dependence determined by the underlying chiral NN interaction. The importance of three-body forces is emphasized, and the role of explicit Δ(1232)-isobar degrees of freedom is investigated in detail. Nuclear chiral thermodynamics is developed and a calculation of the nuclear phase diagram is performed. This includes a successful description of the first-order phase transition from a nuclear Fermi liquid to an interacting Fermi gas and the coexistence of these phases below a critical temperature Tc. Density functional methods for finite nuclei based on this approach are also discussed. Effective interactions, their density dependence and connections to Landau Fermi liquid theory are outlined. Finally, the density and temperature dependences of the chiral (quark) condensate are investigated.

  15. Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Plum, E.; Fedotov, V. A.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2009-01-01

    Three- and two-dimensional chirality arising from the mutual orientation of non-chiral planar metamaterial structures and the incident electromagnetic wave (extrinsic chirality) lead to pronounced optical activity, circular dichroism and asymmetric transmission indistinguishable from those seen in media consisting of three- and two-dimensionally chiral molecules (intrinsic chirality).

  16. Orientifold ABJM Matrix Model: Chiral Projections and Worldsheet Instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Moriyama, Sanefumi

    2016-01-01

    We study the partition function of the orientifold ABJM theory, which is a superconformal Chern-Simons theory associated with the orthosymplectic supergroup. We find that the partition function associated with any orthosymplectic supergroup can be realized as that of a Fermi gas system whose density matrix is identical to that associated with the corresponding unitary supergroup with a projection to the even or odd chirality. Furthermore we propose an identity and use it to identify all of the Gopakumar-Vafa invariants for the worldsheet instanton effects systematically.

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Ingo

    2015-10-12

    The neutron-matter equation of state connects several physical systems over a wide density range, from cold atomic gases in the unitary limit at low densities, to neutron-rich nuclei at intermediate densities, up to neutron stars which reach supranuclear densities in their core. An accurate description of the neutron-matter equation of state is therefore crucial to describe these systems. To calculate the neutron-matter equation of state reliably, precise many-body methods in combination with a systematic theory for nuclear forces are needed. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) is such a theory. It provides a systematic framework for the description of low-energy hadronic interactions and enables calculations with controlled theoretical uncertainties. Chiral EFT makes use of a momentum-space expansion of nuclear forces based on the symmetries of Quantum Chromodynamics, which is the fundamental theory of strong interactions. In chiral EFT, the description of nuclear forces can be systematically improved by going to higher orders in the chiral expansion. On the other hand, continuum Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are among the most precise many-body methods available to study strongly interacting systems at finite densities. They treat the Schroedinger equation as a diffusion equation in imaginary time and project out the ground-state wave function of the system starting from a trial wave function by propagating the system in imaginary time. To perform this propagation, continuum QMC methods require as input local interactions. However, chiral EFT, which is naturally formulated in momentum space, contains several sources of nonlocality. In this Thesis, we show how to construct local chiral two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions and discuss results of first QMC calculations for pure neutron systems. We have performed systematic auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations for neutron matter using local chiral NN interactions. By

  18. Gelation induced supramolecular chirality: chirality transfer, amplification and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Pengfei; Cao, Hai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2014-08-14

    Supramolecular chirality defines chirality at the supramolecular level, and is generated from the spatial arrangement of component molecules assembling through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions, π-π stacking, hydrophobic interactions and so on. During the formation of low molecular weight gels (LMWGs), one kind of fascinating soft material, one frequently encounters the phenomenon of chirality as well as chiral nanostructures, either from chiral gelators or even achiral gelators. A view of gelation-induced supramolecular chirality will be very helpful to understand the self-assembly process of the gelator molecules as well as the chiral structures, the regulation of the chirality in the gels and the development of the "smart" chiral materials such as chiroptical devices, catalysts and chiral sensors. It necessitates fundamental understanding of chirality transfer and amplification in these supramolecular systems. In this review, recent progress in gelation-induced supramolecular chirality is discussed.

  19. Chiral Unitary Dynamics of Hadrons and Hadrons in a Nuclear Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Gamermann, D; Vacas, M J Vicente; Strottman, D; Khemchandani, K P; Torres, A Martinez; Oller, J A; Roca, L; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    In this talk I summarize recent findings around the description of axial vector mesons as dynamically generated states from the interaction of pseudoscalar mesons and vector mesons, dedicating some attention to the two $K_1(1270)$ states. Then I review the generation of open and hidden charm scalar and axial states, and how some recent experiment supports the existence of the new hidden charm scalar state predicted. I present recent results showing that the low lying $1/2^+$ baryon resonances for S=-1 can be obtained as bound states or resonances of two mesons and one baryon in coupled channels. Then show the differences with the S=0 case, where the $N^*(1710)$ appears also dynamically generated from the two pion one nucleon system, but the $N^*(1440)$ does not appear, indicating a more complex structure of the Roper resonance. Finally I shall show how the state X(2175), recently discovered at BABAR and BES, appears naturally as a resonance of the $\\phi K \\bar{K}$ system.

  20. Polarized pK{sup -} scattering in Unitary Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, Antonio O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km. 6, Apdo. Postal 73 ' ' Cordemex' ' , Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    We study pK{sup -} scattering in the energy range from threshold through the {lambda} (1520) peak in UBChPT, taking into account O(q) vertices from meson-baryon contact interactions and s- and u-channel ground-state baryon exchange, s- and u-channel decuplet- and nonet-baryon exchange and t -channel vector-meson exchange, as well as O(q {sup 2}) flavor-breaking vertices. Detailed fits to data are presented, including a substantial body of differential cross-section data with meson momentum q{sub lab} >300 MeV not considered in previous treatments. (orig.)

  1. Chiral condensate, susceptibilities, critical coupling and indices in QED$_{4}$

    CERN Document Server

    Azcoiti, V; Galante, A; Grillo, A F; Laliena, V; Piedrafita, C E

    1995-01-01

    We measure chiral susceptibilities in the Coulomb phase of noncompact QED_4 in 8^4, 10^4 and 12^4 lattices. The MFA approach allows simulations in the chiral limit which are therefore free from arbitrary mass extrapolations. Using the critical couplings extracted from these calculations, we study the critical behaviour of the chiral condensate, which we find in disagreement with the predictions of logarithmically improved scalar Mean Field theory.

  2. Reducible chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of 3D reducible metamaterials whose constituent permittivity can be modelled by a factorized profile. The separated cartesian coordinates dependence, easily achieved in all-optical reconfigurable materials, allows to physically regard a reducible metamaterial as a superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, the electromagnetic response of reducible metamaterials can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media whose interplay provides large freedom to control the electromagnetic chirality. Our approach introduces an unprecedented decomposition strategy in metamaterial science which allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex 3D bianisotropic response by using 1D metamaterials as basic building blocks.

  3. Application of cyclodextrins in chiral capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Pavel; Navrátilová, Klára; Rezanka, Michal; Král, Vladimír; Sýkora, David

    2014-10-01

    CE represents a very powerful separation tool in the area of chiral separations. CD-mediated chiral CE is a continuously flourishing technique within the frame of the electromigration methods. In this review, a brief overview of the synthetic procedures leading to modified CDs is provided first. Next, selected aspects related to the utilization of CDs in chiral CE are discussed specifically in the view of recently published data. Advantages of CDs and basic principles of chiral CE are remained. The topic of the determination of binding constants is touched. Particular attention is paid to the effort aiming at better understanding of the molecular level of the enantiorecognition between CDs and the analyte in the solution. Powerful approaches extensively utilized in this field are NMR, molecular modeling, and computer simulations. Then, a summary of applications of CDs in the CE enantioseparations is given, covering years 2008-2013. Finally, the general trend of modified CDs use in separation science is statistically evaluated.

  4. Efficient unitary designs with nearly time-independent Hamiltonian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakata, Yoshifumi; Koashi, Masato; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We provide new constructions of unitary $t$-designs for general $t$ on one qudit and $N$ qubits, and propose a design Hamiltonian, a random Hamiltonian of which dynamics always forms a unitary design after a threshold time, as a basic framework to investigate randomising time evolution in quantum many-body systems. The new constructions are based on recently proposed schemes of repeating random unitaires diagonal in mutually unbiased bases. We first show that, if a pair of the bases satisfies a certain condition, the process on one qudit approximately forms a unitary $t$-design after $O(t)$ repetitions. We then construct quantum circuits on $N$ qubits that achieve unitary $t$-designs for $t = o(N^{1/2})$ using $O(t N^2)$ gates, improving the previous result using $O(t^{10}N^2)$ gates in terms of $t$. Based on these results, we present a design Hamiltonian with periodically changing two-local spin-glass-type interactions, leading to fast and relatively natural realisations of unitary designs in complex many-bo...

  5. Chiral rotational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.

  6. Chiral Superfluidity for QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma formed at LHC and RHIC can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The "normal" component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the "superfluid" part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use the bosonization procedure with a finite cut-off and obtain a dynamical axion-like field out of the chiral fermionic modes. Then we use relativistic hydrodynamics for macroscopic description of the effective theory obtained after the bosonization. Finally, solving the hydrodynamic equations in gradient expansion, we find that in the presence of external electromagnetic fields or rotation the motion of the "superfluid" component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, chiral vortical, chiral electric and dipole wave effects. Latter two effects are specific for a two-component fluid, which provides us with crucial experimental tests of the model.

  7. Emerging chirality in nanoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Hongyu

    2013-04-07

    Chirality in nanoscience may offer new opportunities for applications beyond the traditional fields of chirality, such as the asymmetric catalysts in the molecular world and the chiral propellers in the macroscopic world. In the last two decades, there has been an amazing array of chiral nanostructures reported in the literature. This review aims to explore and categorize the common mechanisms underlying these systems. We start by analyzing the origin of chirality in simple systems such as the helical spring and hair vortex. Then, the chiral nanostructures in the literature were categorized according to their material composition and underlying mechanism. Special attention is paid to highlight systems with original discoveries, exceptional structural characteristics, or unique mechanisms.

  8. Reducible chiral four-body interactions in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, N.; Milkus, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department T39, Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The method of unitary transformations generates five classes of leading-order reducible chiral four-nucleon interactions which involve pion exchanges and a spin-spin contact term. Their first-order contributions to the energy per particle of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are evaluated in detail. For most of the closed four-loop diagrams the occurring integrals over four Fermi spheres can be reduced to easily manageable one- or two-parameter integrals. One finds substantial compensations among the different contributions arising from 2-ring and 1-ring diagrams. Altogether, the net attraction generated by the chiral four-nucleon interaction does not exceed values of -1.3 MeV for densities ρ < 2ρ{sub 0}. (orig.)

  9. Reducible chiral four-body interactions in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, N

    2015-01-01

    The method of unitary transformations generates five classes of leading-order reducible chiral four-nucleon interactions which involve pion-exchanges and a spin-spin contact-term. Their first-order contributions to the energy per particle of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are evaluated in detail. For most of the closed four-loop diagrams the occurring integrals over four Fermi-spheres can be reduced to easily manageable one- or two-parameter integrals. One observes substantial cancelations among the different contributions arising from 2-ring and 1-ring diagrams. Altogether, the net attraction generated by the chiral four-nucleon interaction does not exceed values of $-1.3$\\,MeV for densities $\\rho<2\\rho_0$.

  10. Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuojia; Cheng, Feng; Winsor, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin

    2016-10-14

    Optical chiral metamaterials have recently attracted considerable attention because they offer new and exciting opportunities for fundamental research and practical applications. Through pragmatic designs, the chiroptical response of chiral metamaterials can be several orders of magnitude higher than that of natural chiral materials. Meanwhile, the local chiral fields can be enhanced by plasmonic resonances to drive a wide range of physical and chemical processes in both linear and nonlinear regimes. In this review, we will discuss the fundamental principles of chiral metamaterials, various optical chiral metamaterials realized by different nanofabrication approaches, and the applications and future prospects of this emerging field.

  11. Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuojia; Cheng, Feng; Winsor, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin

    2016-10-01

    Optical chiral metamaterials have recently attracted considerable attention because they offer new and exciting opportunities for fundamental research and practical applications. Through pragmatic designs, the chiroptical response of chiral metamaterials can be several orders of magnitude higher than that of natural chiral materials. Meanwhile, the local chiral fields can be enhanced by plasmonic resonances to drive a wide range of physical and chemical processes in both linear and nonlinear regimes. In this review, we will discuss the fundamental principles of chiral metamaterials, various optical chiral metamaterials realized by different nanofabrication approaches, and the applications and future prospects of this emerging field.

  12. Chiral Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Srimoyee

    2016-01-01

    We study shock waves in relativistic chiral matter. We argue that the conventional Rankine- Hugoinot relations are modified due to the presence of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the entropy discontinuity in a weak shock wave is linearly proportional to the pressure discontinuity when the effect of chiral transport becomes sufficiently large. We also show that rarefaction shock waves, which do not exist in usual nonchiral fluids, can appear in chiral matter. These features are exemplified by shock propagation in dense neutrino matter in the hydrodynamic regime.

  13. Anomalous chiral superfluidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lublinsky, Michael, E-mail: lublinsky@phys.uconn.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zahed, Ismail [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2010-02-08

    We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavor anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is briefly noted.

  14. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...

  15. Defect of a Kronecker product of unitary matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Tadej, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    The defect d(U) of an NxN unitary matrix U with no zero entries is the dimension (called the generalized defect D(U)) of the real space of directions, moving into which from U we do not disturb the moduli |U_ij| as well as the Gram matrix U'*U in the first order, diminished by 2N-1. Calculation of d(U) involves calculating the dimension of the space in R^(N^2) spanned by a certain set of vectors associated with U. We split this space into a direct sum, assuming that U is a Kronecker product of unitary matrices, thus making it easier to perform calculations numerically. Basing on this, we give a lower bound on D(U) (equivalently d(U)), supposing it is achieved for most unitaries with a fixed Kronecker product structure. Also supermultiplicativity of D(U) with respect to Kronecker subproducts of U is shown.

  16. Compressor-fan unitary structure for air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiman, N.

    2015-08-01

    An extremely compact, therefore space saving unitary structure of short axial length is produced by radial integration of a revolving piston rotary compressor and an impeller of a centrifugal fan. The unitary structure employs single motor to run as the compressor so the airflow fan and eliminates duality of motors, related power supply and control elements. Novel revolving piston rotary compressor which provides possibility for such integration comprises the following: a suction gas delivery system which provides cooling of the motor and supplies refrigerant into the suction chamber under higher pressure (supercharged); a modified discharge system and lubricating oil supply system. Axial passages formed in the stationary crankshaft are used to supply discharge gas to a condenser, to return vaporized cooling agent from the evaporator to the suction cavity of the compressor, to pass a lubricant and to accommodate wiring supplying power to the unitary structure driver -external rotor electric motor.

  17. Time reversal and exchange symmetries of unitary gate capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Harrow, A W; Harrow, Aram W.; Shor, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Unitary gates are an interesting resource for quantum communication in part because they are always invertible and are intrinsically bidirectional. This paper explores these two symmetries: time-reversal and exchange of Alice and Bob. We will present examples of unitary gates that exhibit dramatic separations between forward and backward capacities (even when the back communication is assisted by free entanglement) and between entanglement-assisted and unassisted capacities, among many others. Along the way, we will give a general time-reversal rule for relating the capacities of a unitary gate and its inverse that will explain why previous attempts at finding asymmetric capacities failed. Finally, we will see how the ability to erase quantum information and destroy entanglement can be a valuable resource for quantum communication.

  18. Classification of delocalization power of global unitary operations in terms of LOCC one-piece relocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Soeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study how two pieces of localized quantum information can be delocalized across a composite Hilbert space when a global unitary operation is applied. We classify the delocalization power of global unitary operations on quantum information by investigating the possibility of relocalizing one piece of the quantum information without using any global quantum resource. We show that one-piece relocalization is possible if and only if the global unitary operation is local unitary equivalent of a controlled-unitary operation. The delocalization power turns out to reveal different aspect of the non-local properties of global unitary operations characterized by their entangling power.

  19. Manipulating the Lorentz force via the chirality of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maoyan; Li, Hailong; Dong, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Du, Ming; Wang, Rui; Xu, Tong; Wu, Jian

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate that a single plane wave pulls a chiral nanoparticle toward the light source. The nanoparticle exhibits optical gain in a particular wavelength region. The equivalence of the generalized and alternative expressions of the Lorentz force density relating to bound charges for chiral media is numerically validated. By considering the two-dimensional electromagnetic problem of incident plane waves normally impinged on active chiral cylinders, it is shown that the gradient force is mainly contributed by the bound electric and magnetic current densities of the cross-polarized waves. We also investigate how the medium parameters and impedance mismatch can be used to manipulate the pulling or pushing Lorentz forces between two chiral cylinders. This finding may provide a recipe to understand the light interaction with multiple chiral nanoparticles of arbitrary shapes (in general) with the aid of the numerical approach. It could be a promising avenue in controlling the optical micromanipulation for chiral nanoparticles with mirroring asymmetry.

  20. Detecting chirality in molecules by linearly polarized laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yachmenev, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    A new scheme for enantiomer differentiation of chiral molecules using a pair of linearly polarized intense ultrashort laser pulses with skewed mutual polarization is presented. The technique relies on the fact that the off-diagonal anisotropic contributions to the electric polarizability tensor for two enantiomers have different signs. Exploiting this property, we are able to excite a coherent unidirectional rotation of two enantiomers with a {\\pi} phase difference in the molecular electric dipole moment. The approach is robust and suitable for relatively high temperatures of molecular samples, making it applicable for selective chiral analysis of mixtures, and to chiral molecules with low barriers between enantiomers. As an illustration, we present nanosecond laser-driven dynamics of a tetratomic non-rigid chiral molecule with short-lived chirality. The ultrafast time scale of the proposed technique is well suited to study parity violation in molecular systems in short-lived chiral states.

  1. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing circuit and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P. (Inventor); Gingrich, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A quantum circuit performing quantum computation in a quantum computer. A chosen transformation of an initial n-qubit state is probabilistically obtained. The circuit comprises a unitary quantum operator obtained from a non-unitary quantum operator, operating on an n-qubit state and an ancilla state. When operation on the ancilla state provides a success condition, computation is stopped. When operation on the ancilla state provides a failure condition, computation is performed again on the ancilla state and the n-qubit state obtained in the previous computation, until a success condition is obtained.

  2. A construction of fully diverse unitary space-time codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Fully diverse unitary space-time codes are useful in multiantenna communications, especially in multiantenna differential modulation. Recently, two constructions of parametric fully diverse unitary space-time codes for three antennas system have been introduced. We propose a new construction method based on the constructions. In the present paper, fully diverse codes for systems of odd prime number antennas are obtained from this construction. Space-time codes from present construction are found to have better error performance than many best known ones.

  3. Pattern, participation, praxis, and power in unitary appreciative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article is an explication and clarification of unitary appreciative inquiry based on several recent projects. Four central dimensions of the inquiry process are presented: pattern, participation, praxis, and power. Examples of inquiry projects demonstrate and illuminate the possibilities of unitary appreciative inquiry. The relationship of these central dimensions to experiential, presentational, propositional, and practical knowledge outcomes is articulated. A matrix framework integrating pattern, participation, praxis, and power demonstrates the potential for generating knowledge relevant to the lives of participants and creating an inquiry process worthy of human aspiration.

  4. Tables of the principal unitary representations of Fedorov groups

    CERN Document Server

    Faddeyev, D K

    1961-01-01

    Tables of the Principal Unitary Representations of Fedorov Groups contains tables of all the principal representations of Fedorov groups from which all irreducible unitary representations can be obtained with the help of some standard operations. The work originated at a seminar on mathematical crystallography held in 1952-1953 at the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics of the Leningrad State University. The book is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the relation between the theory of representations and the generalized Fedorov groups in Shubnikov's sense. It shows that all un

  5. A construction of fully diverse unitary space-time codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Fei; TONG HongXi

    2009-01-01

    Fully diverse unitary space-time codes are useful in multiantenna communications,especially in multiantenna differential modulation.Recently,two constructions of parametric fully diverse unitary space-time codes for three antennas system have been introduced.We propose a new construction method based on the constructions.In the present paper,fully diverse codes for systems of odd prime number antennas are obtained from this construction.Space-time codes from present construction are found to have better error performance than many best known ones.

  6. Applications of chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarski, R D

    1995-01-01

    I discuss several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature, including: where the rho goes, disoriented chiral condensates, and the phase diagram for QCD with 2+1 flavors. (Based upon talks presented at the "Workshop on Finite Temperature QCD", Wuhan, P.R.C., April, 1994.)

  7. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  8. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-02-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  9. Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Monolithic Capillary Columns: Preparation and Chiral Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Frady G; Antwi, Nana Yaa; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2016-02-01

    In this review, the recently reported approaches for the preparation of cyclodextrin-functionalized capillary monolithic columns are highlighted, with few applications in chiral separations using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Chirality 28:97-109, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chiral condensates and QCD vacuum in two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, H R

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the chiral symmetries of flavored quantum chromodynamics in two dimensions and show the existence of chiral condensates within the path-integral approach. The massless and massive cases are discussed as well, for arbitrary finite and infinite number of colors. Our results put forward the question of topological issues when matter is in the fundamental representation of the gauge group.

  11. Quality evaluation of terpinen-4-ol-type Australian tea tree oils and commercial products: an integrated approach using conventional and chiral GC/MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-03-18

    GC/MS, chiral GC/MS, and chemometric techniques were used to evaluate a large set (n=104) of tea tree oils (TTO) and commercial products purported to contain TTO. Twenty terpenoids were determined in each sample and compared with the standards specified by ISO-4730-2004. Several of the oil samples that were ISO compliant when distilled did not meet the ISO standards in this study primarily due to the presence of excessive p-cymene and/or depletion of terpinenes. Forty-nine percent of the commercial products did not meet the ISO specifications. Four terpenes, viz., α-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, present in TTOs with the (+)-isomer predominant were measured by chiral GC/MS. The results clearly indicated that 28 commercial products contained excessive (+)-isomer or contained the (+)-isomer in concentrations below the norm. Of the 28 outliers, 7 met the ISO standards. There was a substantial subset of commercial products that met ISO standards but displayed unusual enantiomeric+/-ratios. A class predictive model based on the oils that met ISO standards was constructed. The outliers identified by the class predictive model coincided with the samples that displayed an abnormal chiral ratio. Thus, chiral and chemometric analyses could be used to confirm the identification of abnormal commercial products including those that met all of the ISO standards.

  12. Quality evaluation of Terpinen-4-ol type Australian Tea Tree oils and commercial products: An integrated approach using conventional and chiral GC/MS combined with chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional GC/MS, chiral GC/MS and chemometric techniques were used to evaluate a large set of tea tree oils (TTO) and commercial products purported to contain tea tree oils. Fifty-seven known provenance pure Australian tea tree oils and forty-seven commercial TTO products were investigated. Twent...

  13. Secure Quantum Key Distribution Network with Bell States and Local Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Yan; ZHOU Hong-Yu; WANG Yan; DENG Fu-Guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ We propose a theoretical scheme for secure quantum key distribution network following the ideas in quantum dense coding. In this scheme, the server of the network provides the service for preparing and measuring the Bell states,and the users encode the states with local unitary operations. For preventing the server from eavesdropping, we design a decoy when the particle is transmitted between the users. The scheme has high capacity as one particle carries two bits of information and its efficiency for qubits approaches 100%. Moreover, it is unnecessary for the users to store the quantum states, which makes this scheme more convenient in applications than others.

  14. CONSTRUCTION OF AUTHENTICATION CODES WITH ARBITRATION FROM UNITARY GEOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiRuihu; OuoLuobin

    1999-01-01

    A family of authentication codes with arbitration is constructed from unitary geome-try,the parameters and the probabilities of deceptions of the codes are also computed. In a spe-cial case a perfect authentication code with arbitration is ohtalned.

  15. Unitary operator bases and q-deformed algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galleti, D.; Lunardi, J.T.; Pimentel, B.M. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, C.L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1995-11-01

    Starting from the Schwinger unitary operator bases formalism constructed out of a finite dimensional state space, the well-know q-deformed communication relation is shown to emergence in a natural way, when the deformation parameter is a root of unity. (author). 14 refs.

  16. Unitary operator bases and Q-deformed algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetti, D.; Pimentel, B.M. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, C.L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fisica Nuclear e Teorica e Fenomenologia de Particulas Elementares; Lunardi, J.T. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica e Estatistica

    1998-03-01

    Starting from the Schwinger unitary operator bases formalism constructed out of a finite dimensional state space, the well-know q-deformed commutation relation is shown to emerge in a natural way, when the deformation parameter is a root of unity. (author)

  17. The Wilson loop in the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2016-01-01

    Using the supersymmetric formalism we compute exactly at finite $N$ the expectation of the Wilson loop in the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble and derive an exact formula for the spectral density at finite $N$. We obtain the same result by a second method relying on enumerative combinatorics and show that it leads to a novel proof of the Harer-Zagier series formula.

  18. Experimental Realization of Perfect Discrimination for Two Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Jun; HONG Zhi

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate perfect discrimination between two unitary operations by using the sequential scheme proposed by Duan et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 100503] Also, we show how to understand the scheme and to calculate the parameters for two-dimensional operations in the picture of the Bloch sphere.

  19. An algebraic study of unitary one dimensional quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P

    2005-01-01

    We provide algebraic characterizations of unitary one dimensional quantum cellular automata. We do so both by algebraizing existing decision procedures, and by adding constraints into the model which do not change the quantum cellular automata's computational power. The configurations we consider have finite but unbounded size.

  20. Universal Loss Dynamics in a Unitary Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eismann, Ulrich; Khaykovich, Lev; Laurent, Sébastien; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Rem, Benno S.; Grier, Andrew T.; Delehaye, Marion; Chevy, Frédéric; Salomon, Christophe; Ha, Li-Chung; Chin, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The low-temperature unitary Bose gas is a fundamental paradigm in few-body and many-body physics, attracting wide theoretical and experimental interest. Here, we present experiments performed with unitary 133Cs and 7Li atoms in two different setups, which enable quantitative comparison of the three-body recombination rate in the low-temperature domain. We develop a theoretical model that describes the dynamic competition between two-body evaporation and three-body recombination in a harmonically trapped unitary atomic gas above the condensation temperature. We identify a universal "magic" trap depth where, within some parameter range, evaporative cooling is balanced by recombination heating and the gas temperature stays constant. Our model is developed for the usual three-dimensional evaporation regime as well as the two-dimensional evaporation case, and it fully supports our experimental findings. Combined 133Cs and 7Li experimental data allow investigations of loss dynamics over 2 orders of magnitude in temperature and 4 orders of magnitude in three-body loss rate. We confirm the 1 /T2 temperature universality law. In particular, we measure, for the first time, the Efimov inelasticity parameter η*=0.098 (7 ) for the 47.8-G d -wave Feshbach resonance in 133Cs. Our result supports the universal loss dynamics of trapped unitary Bose gases up to a single parameter η*.

  1. Two-Element Generation of Unitary Groups Over Finite Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    like to praise my Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ , for allowing me this opportunity to work on a Ph.D in mathematics, and for His sustaining grace...Ishibashi’s original result. The paper’s main theorem will show that all unitary groups over finite fields of odd characteristic are generated by only two

  2. Linear programming bounds for unitary space time codes

    CERN Document Server

    Creignou, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The linear programming method is applied to the space $\\U_n(\\C)$ of unitary matrices in order to obtain bounds for codes relative to the diversity sum and the diversity product. Theoretical and numerical results improving previously known bounds are derived.

  3. Molecular model for chirality phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2016-10-21

    Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.

  4. Applications of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  5. Chirality-Controlled Synthesis and Applications of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilu; Wu, Fanqi; Gui, Hui; Zheng, Ming; Zhou, Chongwu

    2017-01-24

    Preparation of chirality-defined single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is the top challenge in the nanotube field. In recent years, great progress has been made toward preparing single-chirality SWCNTs through both direct controlled synthesis and postsynthesis separation approaches. Accordingly, the uses of single-chirality-dominated SWCNTs for various applications have emerged as a new front in nanotube research. In this Review, we review recent progress made in the chirality-controlled synthesis of SWCNTs, including metal-catalyst-free SWCNT cloning by vapor-phase epitaxy elongation of purified single-chirality nanotube seeds, chirality-specific growth of SWCNTs on bimetallic solid alloy catalysts, chirality-controlled synthesis of SWCNTs using bottom-up synthetic strategy from carbonaceous molecular end-cap precursors, etc. Recent major progresses in postsynthesis separation of single-chirality SWCNT species, as well as methods for chirality characterization of SWCNTs, are also highlighted. Moreover, we discuss some examples where single-chirality SWCNTs have shown clear advantages over SWCNTs with broad chirality distributions. We hope this review could inspire more research on the chirality-controlled preparation of SWCNTs and equally important inspire the use of single-chirality SWCNT samples for more fundamental studies and practical applications.

  6. The unitary theory of the electrical powers

    CERN Document Server

    Mihai, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    General physics approach is applied to analysis of power components in electrical systems under sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal conditions. Physical essence of active, reactive and distorting powers are determinate. It is shown that the all three powers are the different aspects of the same physical phenomenon: mechanical action per time of Coulomb forces or inertial forces.

  7. Improvement of the chirality near avoided resonance crossing in optical microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGQingHai[1,2; GUZhiYuan[1; ZHANGNan[1; WANGKaiYang[1; YINingBo[1; XIAOShuMin[1

    2015-01-01

    Chirality is one of the important phenomena at the vicinity of exceptional point (EP). The conventional understanding is that the chirality is determined by asymmetrical scattering efficiency (η), which reaches to zero only when the resonance ap- proaches EP. Here we study the possibility to enhance the chirality in open systems with a more robust mechanism. By com- bining chirality with avoided resonance crossing, we show that the chirality and 7 can be dramatically modified. Taking a spi- ral shaped annular cavity as an example, we show that the chirality of optical resonances can be significantly improved when two sets of chiral states approach each other, The imbalance between counterclockwise (CCW) components and clockwise (CW) components has been enhanced by more than an order of magnitude. Our research provides a new route to tailor and control the chirality in open systems.

  8. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  9. Qualitative Analysis of the Helical Electronic Energy of Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes: An Approach to Effectively Assign Their Absolute Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: 1/E = μ (H − K Δα2 , where μ = 1 for the right-handed microhelix and μ = −1 for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E with the atom polarizability difference (Δα on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration

  10. Catalysis of Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking by Chiral Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Braguta, V V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parameterized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus the chiral chemical potential plays a role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.

  11. Strategy Approach for Direct Enantioseparation of Hyoscyamine Sulfate and Zopiclone on a Chiral αl-Acid Glycoprotein Column and Determination of Their Eutomers: Thermodynamic Study of Complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaazaa, Hala E; Salama, Nahla N; Abd El Halim, Lobna M; Salem, Maissa Y; Abd El Fattah, Laila E

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and simple isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic methods with UV detection were developed and validated for the direct resolution of racemic mixtures of hyoscyamine sulfate and zopiclone. The method involved the use of αl -acid glycoprotein (AGP) as chiral stationary phase. The stereochemical separation factor (ά) and the stereochemical resolution factor (Rs ) obtained were 1.29 and 1.60 for hyoscyamine sulfate and 1.47 and 2.45 for zopiclone, respectively. The method was used for determination of chiral switching (eutomer) isomers: S-hyoscyamine sulfate and eszopiclone. Several mobile phase parameters were investigated for controlling enantioselective retention and resolution on the chiral AGP column. The influence of mobile phase, concentration and type of uncharged organic modifier, ionic strength, and column temperature on enantioselectivity were studied. Calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 1-10 µg mL(-1) and 0.5-5 µg mL(-1) for S-hyoscyamine sulfate and eszopiclone, respectively. The method is specific and sensitive, with lower limits of detection and quantifications of 0.156, 0.515 and 0.106, 0.349 for S-hyoscyamine sulfate and eszopiclone, respectively. The method was used to identify quantitatively the enantiomers profile of the racemic mixtures of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations. Thermodynamic studies were performed to calculate the enthalpic ΔH and entropic ΔS terms. The results showed that enantiomer separation of the studied drugs were an enthalpic process.

  12. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Yu, Jun; Li, Huiying; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2016-09-01

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg2+-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to study the adsorption of substrate on the catalyst, and showed that the substrate adsorbs on the surface active sites mainly by amino group (-NH2) absorbed on Al2O3, and carbonyl (C=O) and alkoxy (RO-) group oxygen absorbed on the boundary of Cu and Al2O3. This catalytic hydrogenation undergoes the formation of a hemiacetal intermediate and the cleavage of the C–O bond (rate-determining step) by reacting with dissociated H to obtain amino aldehyde and methanol ad-species. The former is further hydrogenated to amino alcohols, and the latter desorbs from the catalyst surface.

  13. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  14. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Van Den Broek, Martijn; Van Den Broeck, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  15. Chiral brownian heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-04-04

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  16. Color chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Novozhilov, V Yu; Novozhilov, Victor; Novozhilov, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    We discuss specific features of color chiral solitons (asymptotics, possibility of confainment, quantization) at example of isolated SU(2) color skyrmions, i.e. skyrmions in a background field which is the vacuum field forming the gluon condensate.

  17. Electrodynamics of chiral matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zebin; Cao, Gaoqing; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2017-02-01

    Many-body systems with chiral fermions can exhibit novel transport phenomena that violate parity and time-reversal symmetries, such as the chiral magnetic effect, the anomalous Hall effect, and the anomalous generation of charge. Based on the Maxwell-Chern-Simons electrodynamics, we examine some electromagnetic and optical properties of such systems including the electrostatics, the magnetostatics, the propagation of electromagnetic waves, the novel optical effects, etc.

  18. Chiral Anomaly in Contorted Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W

    1999-01-01

    The Dirac equation in Riemann-Cartan spacetimes with torsion is reconsidered. As is well-known, only the axial covector torsion $A$, a one-form, couples to massive Dirac fields. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that besides the familiar Riemannian term only the Pontrjagin type four-form $dA\\wedge dA$ does arise additionally in the chiral anomaly, but not the Nieh-Yan term $d ^* A$, as has been claimed recently. Implications for cosmic strings in Einstein-Cartan theory as well as for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed.

  19. On an average over the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzadri, F

    2009-01-01

    We study the asymptotic limit for large matrix dimension N of the partition function of the unitary ensemble with weight exp(-z^2/2x^2 + t/x - x^2/2). We compute the leading order term of the partition function and of the coefficients of its Taylor expansion. Our results are valid in the range N^(-1/2) < z < N^(1/4). Such partition function contains all the information on a new statistics of the eigenvalues of matrices in the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) that was introduced by Berry and Shukla (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., Vol. 41 (2008), 385202, arXiv:0807.3474). It can also be interpreted as the moment generating function of a singular linear statistics.

  20. All unitary cubic curvature gravities in D dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Guellue, Ibrahim; Tekin, Bayram, E-mail: sisman@metu.edu.tr, E-mail: e075555@metu.edu.tr, E-mail: btekin@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-10-07

    We construct all the unitary cubic curvature gravity theories built on the contractions of the Riemann tensor in D-dimensional (anti)-de Sitter spacetimes. Our construction is based on finding the equivalent quadratic action for the general cubic curvature theory and imposing ghost and tachyon freedom, which greatly simplifies the highly complicated problem of finding the propagator of cubic curvature theories in constant curvature backgrounds. To carry out the procedure we have also classified all the unitary quadratic models. We use our general results to study the recently found cubic curvature theories using different techniques and the string generated cubic curvature gravity model. We also study the scattering in critical gravity and give its cubic curvature extensions.

  1. Universal unitary gate for single-photon spinorbit ququart states

    CERN Document Server

    Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    The recently demonstrated possibility of entangling opposite values of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a photon with its spin enables the realization of nontrivial one-photon spinorbit ququart states, i.e., four-dimensional photon states for quantum information purposes. Hitherto, however, an optical device able to perform arbitrary unitary transformations on such spinorbit photon states has not been proposed yet. In this work we show how to realize such a ``universal unitary gate'' device, based only on existing optical technology, and describe its operation. Besides the quantum information field, the proposed device may find applications wherever an efficient and convenient manipulation of the combined OAM and spin of light is required.

  2. Efimov-driven phase transitions of the unitary Bose gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatecki, Swann; Krauth, Werner

    2014-03-20

    Initially predicted in nuclear physics, Efimov trimers are bound configurations of three quantum particles that fall apart when any one of them is removed. They open a window into a rich quantum world that has become the focus of intense experimental and theoretical research, as the region of 'unitary' interactions, where Efimov trimers form, is now accessible in cold-atom experiments. Here we use a path-integral Monte Carlo algorithm backed up by theoretical arguments to show that unitary bosons undergo a first-order phase transition from a normal gas to a superfluid Efimov liquid, bound by the same effects as Efimov trimers. A triple point separates these two phases and another superfluid phase, the conventional Bose-Einstein condensate, whose coexistence line with the Efimov liquid ends in a critical point. We discuss the prospects of observing the proposed phase transitions in cold-atom systems.

  3. Large Representation Recurrences in Large N Random Unitary Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Karczmarek, Joanna L

    2011-01-01

    In a random unitary matrix model at large N, we study the properties of the expectation value of the character of the unitary matrix in the rank k symmetric tensor representation. We address the problem of whether the standard semiclassical technique for solving the model in the large N limit can be applied when the representation is very large, with k of order N. We find that the eigenvalues do indeed localize on an extremum of the effective potential; however, for finite but sufficiently large k/N, it is not possible to replace the discrete eigenvalue density with a continuous one. Nonetheless, the expectation value of the character has a well-defined large N limit, and when the discreteness of the eigenvalues is properly accounted for, it shows an intriguing approximate periodicity as a function of k/N.

  4. Unitary Noise and the Mermin-GHZ Game

    CERN Document Server

    Fialík, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science which studies how much communication is necessary to solve various distributed computational problems. Quantum information processing can be used to reduce the amount of communication required to carry out some distributed problems. We speak of pseudo-telepathy when it is able to completely eliminate the need for communication. Since it is generally very hard to perfectly implement a quantum winning strategy for a pseudo-telepathy game, quantum players are almost certain to make errors even though they use a winning strategy. After introducing a model for pseudo-telepathy games, we investigate the impact of erroneously performed unitary transformations on the quantum winning strategy for the Mermin-GHZ game. The question of how strong the unitary noise can be so that quantum players would still be better than classical ones is also dealt with.

  5. Unitary Noise and the Mermin-GHZ Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivan Fialík

    2011-01-01

    Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science which studies how much communication is necessary to solve various distributed computational problems. Quantum information processing can be used to reduce the amount of communication required to carry out some distributed problems. We speak of pseudo-telepathy when it is able to completely eliminate the need for communication. Since it is generally very hard to perfectly implement a quantum winning strategy for a pseudo-telepathy game, quantum players are almost certain to make errors even though they use a winning strategy. After introducing a model for pseudo-telepathy games, we investigate the impact of erroneously performed unitary transformations on the quantum winning strategy for the Mermin-GHZ game. The question of how strong the unitary noise can be so that quantum players would still be better than classical ones is also dealt with.

  6. Unitary Noise and the Mermin-GHZ Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fialík

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science which studies how much communication is necessary to solve various distributed computational problems. Quantum information processing can be used to reduce the amount of communication required to carry out some distributed problems. We speak of pseudo-telepathy when it is able to completely eliminate the need for communication. Since it is generally very hard to perfectly implement a quantum winning strategy for a pseudo-telepathy game, quantum players are almost certain to make errors even though they use a winning strategy. After introducing a model for pseudo-telepathy games, we investigate the impact of erroneously performed unitary transformations on the quantum winning strategy for the Mermin-GHZ game. The question of how strong the unitary noise can be so that quantum players would still be better than classical ones is also dealt with.

  7. Random unitary evolution model of quantum Darwinism with pure decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanesković, Nenad

    2015-10-01

    We study the behavior of Quantum Darwinism [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009)] within the iterative, random unitary operations qubit-model of pure decoherence [J. Novotný, G. Alber, I. Jex, New J. Phys. 13, 053052 (2011)]. We conclude that Quantum Darwinism, which describes the quantum mechanical evolution of an open system S from the point of view of its environment E, is not a generic phenomenon, but depends on the specific form of input states and on the type of S- E-interactions. Furthermore, we show that within the random unitary model the concept of Quantum Darwinism enables one to explicitly construct and specify artificial input states of environment E that allow to store information about an open system S of interest with maximal efficiency.

  8. Derandomizing Quantum Circuits with Measurement-Based Unitary Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Peter S.; Markham, Damian

    2016-05-01

    Entangled multipartite states are resources for universal quantum computation, but they can also give rise to ensembles of unitary transformations, a topic usually studied in the context of random quantum circuits. Using several graph state techniques, we show that these resources can "derandomize" circuit results by sampling the same kinds of ensembles quantum mechanically, analogously to a quantum random number generator. Furthermore, we find simple examples that give rise to new ensembles whose statistical moments exactly match those of the uniformly random distribution over all unitaries up to order t , while foregoing adaptive feedforward entirely. Such ensembles—known as t designs—often cannot be distinguished from the "truly" random ensemble, and so they find use in many applications that require this implied notion of pseudorandomness.

  9. The Shear Viscosity in an Anisotropic Unitary Fermi Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P

    2016-01-01

    We consider a system consisting of a strongly interacting, ultracold unitary Fermi gas under harmonic confinement. Our analysis suggests the possibility of experimentally studying, in this system, an anisotropic shear viscosity tensor driven by the anisotropy in the trapping potential. In particular, we suggest that this experimental setup could mimic some features of anisotropic geometries that have recently been studied for strongly coupled field theories which have a gravitational dual. Results using the AdS/CFT correspondence in these theories show that in systems with a background linear potential, certain viscosity components can be made much smaller than the entropy density, parametrically violating the KSS bound. This intuition, along with results from a Boltzmann analysis that we perform, suggests that a violation of the KSS bound can perhaps occur in the unitary Fermi gas system when it is subjected to a suitable anisotropic trapping potential. We give a concrete proposal for an experimental setup w...

  10. Finite Density QCD in the Chiral Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, R; Di Carlo, G; Galante, A; Grillo, A F

    1998-01-01

    We present the first results of an exact simulation of full QCD at finite density in the chiral limit. We have used a MFA (Microcanonical Fermionic Average) inspired approach for the reconstruction of the Grand Canonical Partition Function of the theory; using the fugacity expansion of the fermionic determinant we are able to move continuously in the ($\\beta -\\mu$) plane with $m=0$.

  11. Chirality sensing with stereodynamic biphenolate zinc complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Keith W; de Los Santos, Zeus A; Weiss, Mary J; Wolf, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Two bidentate ligands consisting of a fluxional polyarylacetylene framework with terminal phenol groups were synthesized. Reaction with diethylzinc gives stereodynamic complexes that undergo distinct asymmetric transformation of the first kind upon binding of chiral amines and amino alcohols. The substrate-to-ligand chirality imprinting at the zinc coordination sphere results in characteristic circular dichroism signals that can be used for direct enantiomeric excess (ee) analysis. This chemosensing approach bears potential for high-throughput ee screening with small sample amounts and reduced solvent waste compared to traditional high-performance liquid chromatography methods.

  12. Probing Chiral Interactions in Light Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogga, A; Barrett, B R; Meissner, U; Witala, H; Epelbaum, E; Kamada, H; Navratil, P; Glockle, W; Vary, J P

    2004-01-08

    Chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions are studied in a few-nucleon systems. We investigate the cut-off dependence and convergence with respect to the chiral expansion. It is pointed out that the spectra of light nuclei are sensitive to the three-nucleon force structure. As an example, we present calculations of the 1{sup +} and 3{sup +} states of {sup 6}Li using the no-core shell model approach. The results show contributions of the next-to-next-to-leading order terms to the spectra, which are not correlated to the three-nucleon binding energy prediction.

  13. Unitary transformation method for solving generalized Jaynes-Cummings models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudha Singh

    2006-03-01

    Two fully quantized generalized Jaynes-Cummings models for the interaction of a two-level atom with radiation field are treated, one involving intensity dependent coupling and the other involving multiphoton interaction between the field and the atom. The unitary transformation method presented here not only solves the time dependent problem but also allows a determination of the eigensolutions of the interacting Hamiltonian at the same time.

  14. Two Combinations of Unitary Operators and Frame Representations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祚; 朱红鲜; 张慧; 杜鸿科

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the norm closure of all linear combinations of two unitary operators is equal to the norm closure of all invertible operators in B(H). We apply the results to frame representations and give some simple and alternative proofs of the propositions in “P. G. Casazza, Every frame is a sum of three (but not two) orthonormal bases-and other frame representations, J. Fourier Anal. Appl., 4(6)(1998), 727-732.”

  15. ROTATION CONSTELLATION FOR DIFFERENTIAL UNITARY SPACE-TIME MODULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun; Cao Haiyan; Wei Gang

    2006-01-01

    A new constellation which is the multiplication of the rotation matrix and the diagonal matrix according to the number of transmitters is proposed to increase the diversity product, the key property to the performance of the differential unitary space-time modulation. Analyses and the simulation results show that the proposed constellation performs better and 2dB or more coding gain can be achieved over the traditional cyclic constellation.

  16. Unitary Application of the Quantum Error Correction Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游波; 许可; 吴小华

    2012-01-01

    For applying the perfect code to transmit quantum information over a noise channel, the standard protocol contains four steps: the encoding, the noise channel, the error-correction operation, and the decoding. In present work, we show that this protocol can be simplified. The error-correction operation is not necessary if the decoding is realized by the so-called complete unitary transformation. We also offer a quantum circuit, which can correct the arbitrary single-qubit errors.

  17. Unitary representations of the fundamental group of orbifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS; AMIT HOGADI

    2016-10-01

    Let $X$ be a smooth complex projective variety of dimension $n$ and $\\mathcal{L}$ an ample line bundle on it. There is a well known bijective correspondence between the isomorphism classes of polystable vector bundles $E$ on $X$ with $c_{1}(E) = 0 = c_{2}(E) \\cdot c_{1} \\mathcal (L)^{n−2}$ and the equivalence classes of unitary representations of $\\pi_{1}(X)$. We show that this bijective correspondence extends to smooth orbifolds.

  18. Unitary-matrix models as exactly solvable string theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vipul; Shevitz, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Exact differential equations are presently found for the scaling functions of models of unitary matrices which are solved in a double-scaling limit, using orthogonal polynomials on a circle. For the case of the simplest, k = 1 model, the Painleve II equation with constant 0 is obtained; possible nonperturbative phase transitions exist for these models. Equations are presented for k = 2 and 3, and discussed with a view to asymptotic behavior.

  19. Entanglement entropy of non-unitary integrable quantum field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bianchini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the simplest massive 1+1 dimensional integrable quantum field theory which can be described as a perturbation of a non-unitary minimal conformal field theory: the Lee–Yang model. We are particularly interested in the features of the bi-partite entanglement entropy for this model and on building blocks thereof, namely twist field form factors. Non-unitarity selects out a new type of twist field as the operator whose two-point function (appropriately normalized yields the entanglement entropy. We compute this two-point function both from a form factor expansion and by means of perturbed conformal field theory. We find good agreement with CFT predictions put forward in a recent work involving the present authors. In particular, our results are consistent with a scaling of the entanglement entropy given by ceff3log⁡ℓ where ceff is the effective central charge of the theory (a positive number related to the central charge and ℓ is the size of the region. Furthermore the form factor expansion of twist fields allows us to explore the large region limit of the entanglement entropy and find the next-to-leading order correction to saturation. We find that this correction is very different from its counterpart in unitary models. Whereas in the latter case, it had a form depending only on few parameters of the model (the particle spectrum, it appears to be much more model-dependent for non-unitary models.

  20. Decode-and-Forward Based Differential Modulation for Cooperative Communication System with Unitary and Non-Unitary Constellations

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatnagar, Manav R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a maximum likelihood (ML) decoder of the differential data in a decode-and-forward (DF) based cooperative communication system utilizing uncoded transmissions. This decoder is applicable to complex-valued unitary and non-unitary constellations suitable for differential modulation. The ML decoder helps in improving the diversity of the DF based differential cooperative system using an erroneous relaying node. We also derive a piecewise linear (PL) decoder of the differential data transmitted in the DF based cooperative system. The proposed PL decoder significantly reduces the decoding complexity as compared to the proposed ML decoder without any significant degradation in the receiver performance. Existing ML and PL decoders of the differentially modulated uncoded data in the DF based cooperative communication system are only applicable to binary modulated signals like binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and binary frequency shift keying (BFSK), whereas, the proposed decoders are applicab...

  1. Chiral Random Matrix Theory and Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Damgaard, P H

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD has traditionally been inferred indirectly through low-energy theorems and comparison with experiments. Thanks to the understanding of an unexpected connection between chiral Random Matrix Theory and chiral Perturbation Theory, the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD can now be shown unequivocally from first principles and lattice simulations. In these lectures I give an introduction to the subject, starting with an elementary discussion of spontaneous breaking of global symmetries.

  2. Chiral Random Matrix Theory and Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damgaard, Poul H, E-mail: phdamg@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-04-01

    Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD has traditionally been inferred indirectly through low-energy theorems and comparison with experiments. Thanks to the understanding of an unexpected connection between chiral Random Matrix Theory and chiral Perturbation Theory, the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD can now be shown unequivocally from first principles and lattice simulations. In these lectures I give an introduction to the subject, starting with an elementary discussion of spontaneous breaking of global symmetries.

  3. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-23

    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials.

  4. Non-Abelian 1-Form Gauge Theory With Dirac Fields: Supersymmetric Unitary Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanja, T; Malik, R P

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of augmented version of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, we derive the supersymmetric (SUSY) unitary operator (and its hermitian conjugate) in the context of four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) interacting non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory with Dirac fields. The ordinary 4D non-Abelian theory, defined on the flat 4D Minkowski spacetime manifold, is generalized onto a (4, 2)-dimensional supermanifold which is parameterized by the spacetime bosonic coordinates x^\\mu (with \\mu = 0, 1, 2, 3) and a pair of Grassmannian variables (\\theta, \\bar\\theta) which satisfy the standard relationships: \\theta^2 = {\\bar\\theta}^2 = 0, \\theta\\,\\bar\\theta + \\bar\\theta\\,\\theta = 0. Various consequences of the application of the above SUSY unitary operator (and its hermitian conjugate) are discussed. In particular, we obtain the results of the application of the horizontality condition (HC) and gauge invariant restriction (GIR) in the language of the above SUSY operators. One of the no...

  5. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  6. Quarkyonic Chiral Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Kojo, Toru; McLerran, Larry; Pisarski, Robert D

    2009-01-01

    We consider the formation of chiral density waves in Quarkyonic matter, which is a phase where cold, dense quarks experience confining forces. We model confinement following Gribov and Zwanziger, taking the gluon propagator, in Coulomb gauge and momentum space, as 1/(p^2)^2. We assume that the number of colors, N, is large, and that the quark chemical potential, mu, is much larger than renormalization mass scale, Lambda_QCD. To leading order in 1/N and Lambda_QCD, a gauge theory with Nf flavors of massless quarks in 3+1 dimensions naturally reduces to a gauge theory in 1+1 dimensions, with an enlarged flavor symmetry of SU(2Nf). Through an anomalous chiral rotation, in two dimensions a Fermi sea of massless quarks maps directly onto the corresponding theory in vacuum. A chiral condensate forms locally, and varies with the spatial position, z, as . Following Schon and Thies, we term this two dimensional pion condensate a (Quarkyonic) chiral spiral. Massive quarks also exhibit chiral spirals, with the magnitude...

  7. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  8. Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the implicatio

  9. Chiral fermions on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Jahn, O; Jahn, Oliver; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss topological obstructions to putting chiral fermions on an even dimensional lattice. The setting includes Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, but is more general. We prove a theorem which relates the total chirality to the difference of generalised winding numbers of chiral projection operators. For an odd number of Weyl fermions this implies that particles and anti-particles live in topologically different spaces.

  10. [Chirality and drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, B; Reist, M; Carrupt, P A

    2000-07-01

    The two enantiomers of a chiral drug may have vastly different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. As a result, the research and development of chiral drugs raises specific problems some of which are discussed here. Thus, various pharmacokinetic interactions may involve two enantiomers, as seen for example when one enantiomer inhibits the metabolism of the other and modifies its effects. A different situation occurs when a third compound stereoselectively inhibits the metabolism of one of the two enantiomers. Another problem examined here results from the lack of configurational stability of some chiral drugs, a little known phenomenon whose consequences can be of pharmacological or pharmaceutical significance depending on the rate of the reaction of racemization or epimerisation. In-depth investigations are needed before choosing between a eutomer or a racemate.

  11. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.

  12. Chiral Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    At the most fundamental level, the interaction between light and matter is manifested by the emission and absorption of single photons by single quantum emitters. Controlling light--matter interaction is the basis for diverse applications ranging from light technology to quantum--information processing. Many of these applications are nowadays based on photonic nanostructures strongly benefitting from their scalability and integrability. The confinement of light in such nanostructures imposes an inherent link between the local polarization and propagation direction of light. This leads to {\\em chiral light--matter interaction}, i.e., the emission and absorption of photons depend on the propagation direction and local polarization of light as well as the polarization of the emitter transition. The burgeoning research field of {\\em chiral quantum optics} offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications both for single emitters and ensembles thereof. For instance, a chiral light--matter interface enables...

  13. Chiral hydroxy phosphonates: synthesis, configuration and biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2006-03-31

    Published data on the synthesis, absolute configurations and biological properties of chiral hydroxy phosphonates are generalised and described systematically. Examples of asymmetric synthesis of hydroxy phosphonates by the phospho-aldol reaction, reduction of keto phosphonates, chemo-enzymatic approach, and so on are discussed. Methods for determination of the optical purity and absolute configuration of hydroxy phosphonates using modification by chiral reagents, NMR, circular dichroism, GLC and HPLC on columns with chiral sorbents are considered. The significance of hydroxy phosphonates as promising compounds for the development of new drugs and bioregulators is demonstrated.

  14. Chiral dynamics in the gamma p --> p pi0 reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Blin, A N Hiller; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the neutral pion photoproduction on the proton near threshold in covariant chiral perturbation theory with the explicit inclusion of Delta degrees of freedom. This channel is specially sensitive to chiral dynamics and the advent of very precise data from the Mainz microtron has shown the limits of the convergence of the chiral series for both the heavy baryon and the covariant approaches. We show that the inclusion of the Delta resonance substantially improves the convergence leading to a good agreement with data for a wider range of energies.

  15. Chiral hydroxy phosphonates: synthesis, configuration and biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I.

    2006-03-01

    Published data on the synthesis, absolute configurations and biological properties of chiral hydroxy phosphonates are generalised and described systematically. Examples of asymmetric synthesis of hydroxy phosphonates by the phospho-aldol reaction, reduction of keto phosphonates, chemo-enzymatic approach, and so on are discussed. Methods for determination of the optical purity and absolute configuration of hydroxy phosphonates using modification by chiral reagents, NMR, circular dichroism, GLC and HPLC on columns with chiral sorbents are considered. The significance of hydroxy phosphonates as promising compounds for the development of new drugs and bioregulators is demonstrated.

  16. Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, Jian, E-mail: dajian521@sina.com [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Mo, Qi, E-mail: moqiyueyang@163.com [School of Software, Yunnan University, Cuihu Bai Road, Kunming City, Yunnan Province 650091 (China); Cheng, Yaokun [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Liu, Taixiang [Taishan Vocational College of Nursing, Shandong Province 271000 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

  17. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Berryman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino propagation in space–time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature.

  18. Abstract structure of unitary oracles for quantum algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Zeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that a pair of complementary dagger-Frobenius algebras, equipped with a self-conjugate comonoid homomorphism onto one of the algebras, produce a nontrivial unitary morphism on the product of the algebras. This gives an abstract understanding of the structure of an oracle in a quantum computation, and we apply this understanding to develop a new algorithm for the deterministic identification of group homomorphisms into abelian groups. We also discuss an application to the categorical theory of signal-flow networks.

  19. Computing a logarithm of a unitary matrix with general spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, Terry A

    2012-01-01

    In theory, a unitary matrix U has a skew-hermitian logarithm H. In a computing environment one expects only to know U^*U \\approx I and might wish to compute H with e^H \\approx U and H^*= -H. This is relatively easy to accomplish using the Schur decomposition. Reasonable error bounds are derived. In cases where the norm of U^*U-I is somewhat large we discuss the utility of pre-processing with Newton's method of approximating the polar decomposition. In the case of U being J-skew-symmetric, one can insist that H be J-skew-symmetric and skew-Hermitian.

  20. Simulating Entangling Unitary Operator Using Non-maximally Entangled States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Xian; WANG Cheng-Zhi; NIE Liu-Ying; LI Jiang-Fan

    2009-01-01

    We use non-maximally entangled states (NMESs) to simulate an entangling unitary operator (EUO) w/th a certain probability. Given entanglement resources, the probability of the success we achieve is a decreasing function of the parameters of the EUO. Given an EUO, for certain entanglement resources the result is optimal, i.e., the probability obtains a maximal value, and for optimal result higher parameters of the EUO match more amount of entanglement resources. The probability of the success we achieve is higher than the known results under some condition.

  1. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeffreyberryman2012@u.northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gouvêa, André de; Hernández, Daniel [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Oliveira, Roberto L.N. [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP 13083-970, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Neutrino propagation in space-time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature.

  2. The science of unitary human beings and interpretive human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F

    1993-01-01

    Natural science and human science are identified as the bases of most nursing theories and research programs. Natural science has been disclaimed by Martha Rogers as the philosophy of science that undergirds her work. The question remains, is the science of unitary human beings an interpretive human science? The author explores the works of Rogers through a dialectic with two human scientists' works. Wilhelm Dilthey's works represent the founding or traditional view, and Jurgen Habermas' works represent a contemporary, reconstructionist view. The ways Rogerian thought contributes to human studies but is distinct from traditional and reconstructionist human sciences are illuminated.

  3. Luria: a unitary view of human brain and mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Luciano

    2005-12-01

    Special questions the eminent Russian psychologist and neuropsychologist Aleksandr R. Luria (1902-1977) dealt with in his research regarded the relationship between animal and human brain, child and adult mind, normal and pathological, theory and rehabilitation, clinical and experimental investigation. These issues were integrated in a unitary theory of cerebral and psychological processes, under the influence of both different perspectives active in the first half of the Nineteenth century (psychoanalysis and historical-cultural school, first of all) and the growing contribution of neuropsychological research on brain-injured patients.

  4. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  5. Thermoelectric-induced unitary Cooper pair splitting efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies and Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518005 (China); Luo, Hong-Gang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies and Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-23

    Thermoelectric effect is exploited to optimize the Cooper pair splitting efficiency in a Y-shaped junction, which consists of two normal leads coupled to an s-wave superconductor via double noninteracting quantum dots. Here, utilizing temperature difference rather than bias voltage between the two normal leads, and tuning the two dot levels such that the transmittance of elastic cotunneling process is particle-hole symmetric, we find current flowing through the normal leads are totally contributed from the splitting of Cooper pairs emitted from the superconductor. Such a unitary splitting efficiency is significantly better than the efficiencies obtained in experiments so far.

  6. Deformations of polyhedra and polygons by the unitary group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livine, Etera R.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce the set of framed (convex) polyhedra with N faces as the symplectic quotient {{C}}^{2N}//SU(2). A framed polyhedron is then parametrized by N spinors living in {{C}}2 satisfying suitable closure constraints and defines a usual convex polyhedron plus extra U(1) phases attached to each face. We show that there is a natural action of the unitary group U(N) on this phase space, which changes the shape of faces and allows to map any (framed) polyhedron onto any other with the same total (boundary) area. This identifies the space of framed polyhedra to the Grassmannian space U(N)/ (SU(2)×U(N-2)). We show how to write averages of geometrical observables (polynomials in the faces' area and the angles between them) over the ensemble of polyhedra (distributed uniformly with respect to the Haar measure on U(N)) as polynomial integrals over the unitary group and we provide a few methods to compute these integrals systematically. We also use the Itzykson-Zuber formula from matrix models as the generating function for these averages and correlations. In the quantum case, a canonical quantization of the framed polyhedron phase space leads to the Hilbert space of SU(2) intertwiners (or, in other words, SU(2)-invariant states in tensor products of irreducible representations). The total boundary area as well as the individual face areas are quantized as half-integers (spins), and the Hilbert spaces for fixed total area form irreducible representations of U(N). We define semi-classical coherent intertwiner states peaked on classical framed polyhedra and transforming consistently under U(N) transformations. And we show how the U(N) character formula for unitary transformations is to be considered as an extension of the Itzykson-Zuber to the quantum level and generates the traces of all polynomial observables over the Hilbert space of intertwiners. We finally apply the same formalism to two dimensions and show that classical (convex) polygons can be described in a

  7. Unitary evolution for a quantum Kantowski-Sachs cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sridip

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that like Bianchi I, V and IX models, a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model also allows a unitary evolution on quantization. It has also been shown that this unitarity is not at the expense of the anisotropy. Non-unitarity, if there is any, cannot escape notice in this as the evolution is studied against a properly oriented time parameter fixed by the evolution of the fluid. Furthermore, we have constructed a wave-packet by superposing different energy eigenstates, thereby establishing unitarity in a non-trivial way, which is a stronger result than an energy eigenstate trivially giving time independent probability density. For $\\alpha\

  8. Stereoselective method development and validation for determination of concentrations of amphetamine-type stimulants and metabolites in human urine using a simultaneous extraction-chiral derivatization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Raihana, W A; Gan, S H; Tan, S C

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are a group of chiral amine drugs which are commonly abused for their sympathomimetic and stimulant properties. ATS are extensively metabolised by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. As metabolism of ATS has been shown to be highly stereospecific, stereoselective analytical methods are essential for the quantitative determination of ATS concentrations for both in vivo and in vitro studies of ATS metabolism. This paper describes a new stereoselective method for the simultaneous determination of amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA), 3,4-hydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-hydroxyamphetamine (HHA) in human urine samples validated according to the United States Food and Drug Administration guidelines. In this method, analytes are simultaneously extracted and derivatized with R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride (R-MTPCl) as the chiral derivatization reagent. Following this, the analytes were subjected to a second derivatization with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) which targets the hydroxyl groups present in HMMA, HMA, HHMA and HHA. The derivatized analytes were separated and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was evaluated according to the established guidelines for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery and stability using a five-day protocol. Intra-day precision ranged from 0.89 to 11.23% RSD whereas inter-day precision was between 1.03 and 12.95% RSD. Accuracy values for the analytes ranged from -5.29% to 13.75%. Limits of quantitation were 10 μg/L for AM, MA, MDMA, HMA and HMMA and 2μg/L for MDA, HMA and HHA. Recoveries and stability values were also within accepted values. The method was applied to authentic ATS-positive samples.

  9. Nuclear chiral dynamics and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, J W; Weise, W

    2013-01-01

    This presentation reviews an approach to nuclear many-body systems based on the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of low-energy QCD. In the low-energy limit, for energies and momenta small compared to a characteristic symmetry breaking scale of order 1 GeV, QCD is realized as an effective field theory of Goldstone bosons (pions) coupled to heavy fermionic sources (nucleons). Nuclear forces at long and intermediate distance scales result from a systematic hierarchy of one- and two-pion exchange processes in combination with Pauli blocking effects in the nuclear medium. Short distance dynamics, not resolved at the wavelengths corresponding to typical nuclear Fermi momenta, are introduced as contact interactions between nucleons. Apart from a set of low-energy constants associated with these contact terms, the parameters of this theory are entirely determined by pion properties and low-energy pion-nucleon scattering observables. This framework (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) can provide a realistic des...

  10. The universal sound velocity formula for the strongly interacting unitary Fermi gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ke; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the scale invariance, the thermodynamic laws of strongly interacting limit unitary Fermi gas can be similar to those of non-interacting ideal gas. For example, the virial theorem between pressure and energy density of the ideal gas P = 2E/ZV is still satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas. This paper analyses the sound velocity of unitary Fermi gases with the quasi-linear approximation. For comparison, the sound velocities for the ideal Boltzmann, Bose and Fermi gas are also given. Quite interestingly, the sound velocity formula for the ideal non-interacting gas is found to be satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas in different temperature regions.

  11. Branching laws for small unitary representations of GL(n,C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan; Schwarz, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The unitary principal series representations of $G=GL(n,\\mathbb{C})$ induced from a character of the maximal parabolic subgroup $P=(GL(1,\\mathbb{C})\\times GL(n-1,\\mathbb{C}))\\ltimes\\mathbb{C}^{n-1}$ attain the minimal Gelfand--Kirillov dimension among all infinite-dimensional unitary representati......The unitary principal series representations of $G=GL(n,\\mathbb{C})$ induced from a character of the maximal parabolic subgroup $P=(GL(1,\\mathbb{C})\\times GL(n-1,\\mathbb{C}))\\ltimes\\mathbb{C}^{n-1}$ attain the minimal Gelfand--Kirillov dimension among all infinite-dimensional unitary...

  12. Interweaving Chiral Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Kojo, Toru; Fukushima, Kenji; McLerran, Larry; Pisarski, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    We elaborate how to construct the interweaving chiral spirals in (2+1) dimensions, that is defined as a superposition of differently oriented chiral spirals. We divide the two-dimensional Fermi sea into distinct wedges characterized by the opening angle 2 Theta and the depth Q \\simeq pF, where pF is the Fermi momentum. Each wedge earns an energy gain by forming a single chiral spiral. The optimal values for Theta and Q are chosen by the balance between this energy gain and the energy costs from the deformed Fermi surface (dominant at large Theta) and patch-patch interactions (dominant at small Theta). We estimate these energy gains and costs by means of the expansions in terms of 1/Nc, Lambda_QCD/Q, and Theta using a non-local four-Fermi interaction model: At small 1/Nc the mass gap (chiral condensate) is large enough and the interaction among quarks and the condensate is local in momentum space thanks to the form factor in our non-local model. The fact that patch-patch interactions lie only near the patch bo...

  13. Simplicial chiral models

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, P; Rossi, Paolo; Tan, Chung I

    1995-01-01

    Principal chiral models on a d-1 dimensional simplex are introduced and studied analytically in the large N limit. The d = 0 , 2, 4 and \\infty models are explicitly solved. Relationship with standard lattice models and with few-matrix systems in the double scaling limit are discussed.

  14. Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral metamaterials: microscopic explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Zhukovsky, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    Lorentz electron theory is a powerful approach for description of macroscopic parameters of a medium based on microscopic characteristics of the individual electron. For a planar array of chiral metallic split rings, we determine the averaged electron’s characteristics in a sprit ring and apply...... them to derive the permittivity tensor of the homogenized medium. The effective material parameters obtained describe anisotropic dichroic material, where electromagnetic waves are governed by enantiomeric and directional asymmetry – the signature property of planar chiral metamaterials....

  15. Nature of chiral spin liquids on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietek, Alexander; Sterdyniak, Antoine; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the stability and the nature of the chiral spin liquids which were recently uncovered in extended Heisenberg models on the kagome lattice. Using a Gutzwiller projected wave function approach, i.e., a parton construction, we obtain large overlaps with ground states of these extended Heisenberg models. We further suggest that the appearance of the chiral spin liquid in the time-reversal invariant case is linked to a classical transition line between two magnetically ordered phases.

  16. Chiral magnetic effect without chirality source in asymmetric Weyl semimetals

    CERN Document Server

    Kharzeev, Dmitri; Meyer, Rene

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new type of the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) that should occur in Weyl semimetals with an asymmetry in the dispersion relations of the left- and right-handed chiral Weyl fermions. In such materials, time-dependent pumping of electrons from a non-chiral external source generates a non-vanishing chiral chemical potential. This is due to the different capacities of the left- and right-handed (LH and RH) chiral Weyl cones arising from the difference in the density of states in the LH and RH cones. The chiral chemical potential then generates, via the chiral anomaly, a current along the direction of an applied magnetic field even in the absence of an external electric field. The source of chirality imbalance in this new setup is thus due to the band structure of the system and the presence of (non-chiral) electron source, and not due to the parallel electric and magnetic fields. We illustrate the effect by an argument based on the effective field theory, and by the chiral kinetic theory calculation f...

  17. Isospin-violating nucleon-nucleon forces using the method of unitary transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgeny Epelbaum; Ulf-G. Meissner

    2005-02-01

    Recently, we have derived the leading and subleading isospin-breaking three-nucleon forces using the method of unitary transformation. In the present work we extend this analysis and consider the corresponding two-nucleon forces using the same approach. Certain contributions to the isospin-violating one- and two-pion exchange potential have already been discussed by various groups within the effective field theory framework. Our findings agree with the previously obtained results. In addition, we present the expressions for the subleading charge-symmetry-breaking two-pion exchange potential which were not considered before. These corrections turn out to be numerically important. Together with the three-nucleon force results presented in our previous work, the results of the present study specify completely isospin-violating nuclear force up to the order {Lambda}{sup 5}.

  18. Assembling optically active and nonactive metamaterials with chiral units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials constructed with chiral units can be either optically active or nonactive depending on the spatial configuration of the building blocks. For a class of chiral units, their effective induced electric and magnetic dipoles, which originate from the induced surface electric current upon illumination of incident light, can be collinear at the resonant frequency. This feature provides significant advantage in designing metamaterials. In this paper we concentrate on several examples. In one scenario, chiral units with opposite chiralities are used to construct the optically nonactive metamaterial structure. It turns out that with linearly polarized incident light, the pure electric or magnetic resonance (and accordingly negative permittivity or negative permeability can be selectively realized by tuning the polarization of incident light for 90°. Alternatively, units with the same chirality can be assembled as a chiral metamaterial by taking the advantage of the collinear induced electric and magnetic dipoles. It follows that for the circularly polarized incident light, negative refractive index can be realized. These examples demonstrate the unique approach to achieve certain optical properties by assembling chiral building blocks, which could be enlightening in designing metamaterials.

  19. On the construction of unitary quantum group differential calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatov, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    We develop a construction of the unitary type anti-involution for the quantized differential calculus over {{GL}}q(n) in the case | q| =1. To this end, we consider a joint associative algebra of quantized functions, differential forms and Lie derivatives over {{GL}}q(n)/{{SL}}q(n), which is bicovariant with respect to {{GL}}q(n)/{{SL}}q(n) coactions. We define a specific non-central spectral extension of this algebra by the spectral variables of three matrices of the algebra generators. In the spectrally expended algebra, we construct a three-parametric family of its inner automorphisms. These automorphisms are used for the construction of the unitary anti-involution for the (spectrally extended) calculus over {{GL}}q(n). This work has been funded by the Russian Academic Excellence Project ‘5-100’. The results of section 5 (propositions 5.2, 5.3 and theorem 5.5) have been obtained under support of the RSF grant No.16-11-10160.

  20. Boson-Faddeev in the Unitary Limit and Efimov States

    CERN Document Server

    K"\\ohler, H S

    2010-01-01

    A numerical study of the Faddeev equation for bosons is made with two-body interactions at or close to the Unitary limit. Separable interactions are obtained from phase-shifts defined by scattering length and effective range. In EFT-language this would correspond to NLO. Both ground and Efimov state energies are calculated. For effective ranges $r_0 > 0$ and rank-1 potentials the total energy $E_T$ is found to converge with momentum cut-off $\\Lambda$ for $\\Lambda > \\sim 10/r_0$ . In the Unitary limit ($1/a=r_0= 0$) the energy does however diverge. It is shown (analytically) that in this case $E_T=E_u\\Lambda^2$. Calculations give $E_u=-0.108$ for the ground state and $E_u=-1.\\times10^{-4}$ for the single Efimov state found. The cut-off divergence is remedied by modifying the off-shell t-matrix by replacing the rank-1 by a rank-2 phase-shift equivalent potential. This is somewhat similar to the counterterm method suggested by Bedaque et al. This investigation is exploratory and does not refer to any specific ph...

  1. Shortcut to adiabaticity for an anisotropic unitary Fermi gas

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Shujin; Yu, Qianli; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    Coherent control of complex quantum systems is a fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and engineering. Recently developed notion of shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) has spawned intriguing prospects. So far, the most experimental investigations of STA are implemented in the ideal thermal gas or the weakly interacting ultracold Bose gases. Here we report the first demonstration of a many-body STA in a 3D anisotropically trapped unitary Fermi gas. A new dynamical scaling law is demonstrated on such a strongly interacting quantum gas. By simply engineering the frequency aspect ratio of a harmonic trap, the dynamics of the gas can be manipulated and the many-body state can be transferred adiabatically from one stationary state to another one in short time scale without the excitation. The universal scaling both for non-interacting and unitary Fermi gas is also verified. This could be very important for future many-body quantum engineering and the exploration of the fundamental law of the thermod...

  2. Determining Chiral Configuration of Diamines via Contact Angle Measurements on Enantioselective Alanine-Appended Benzene-Tricarboxamide Gelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Ho; Kim, Ka Young; Ahn, Ahreum; Choi, Myong Yong; Jaworski, Justyn; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2016-06-08

    Spectroscopic techniques exist that may discern between enantiomers and assess chiral purity. A nonspectroscopic approach that may be directly observed could provide numerous benefits. Using chiral alanine-appended benzene-tricarboxamide gelators, we reveal a methanol gel system that is capable of providing visual discrimination between enantiomers of various diamines. Specifically, gelation is induced by supramolecular nanofiber assembly resulting from interaction between a chiral gelator and a diamine of opposing chirality (i.e., a heterochiral system). Upon further implementing the chiral gelator in electrospun fibers as solid state films, we revealed enantioselective surface wetting properties that allowed for determining chirality through contact angle measurements. While these two approaches of observable gelation and surface wetting offer nonspectroscopic approaches, we also find that the supramolecular nanofiber assembly was able to enhance the induced circular dichroism signal resulting from addition of chiral diamines, allowing precise quantification of their enantiomeric purity.

  3. Chiral separation and twin-beam photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, David S.; Andrews, David L.

    2016-03-01

    It is well-known that, in a homogeneous fluid medium, most optical means that afford discrimination between molecules of opposite handedness are intrinsically weak effects. The reason is simple: the wide variety of origins for differential response commonly feature real or virtual electronic transitions that break a parity condition. Despite being electric dipole allowed, they manifest the chirality of the material in which they occur by breaking a selection rule that would otherwise preclude the simultaneous involvement of magnetic dipole or electric quadrupole forms of coupling. Although the latter are typically weaker than electric dipole effects by several orders of magnitude, it is the involvement of these weak forms of interaction that are responsible for chiral sensitivity. There have been a number of attempts to cleverly exploit novel optical configurations to enhance the relative magnitude - and hence potentially the efficiency - of chiral discrimination. The prospect of success in any such venture is enticing, because of the huge impact that such an advance might be expected to have in the health, food and medical sectors. Some of these proposals have utilized mirror reflection, and others surface plasmon coupling, or optical binding methods. Several recent works in the literature have drawn attention to a further possibility: the deployment of optical beam interference as a means to achieve chiral separations of sizeable extent. In this paper the underlying theory is fully developed to identify the true scope and limitations of such an approach.

  4. Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Huijuan [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu Lian [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)], E-mail: huliancaohj@yahoo.com

    2008-04-21

    We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots.

  5. Chiral scale and conformal invariance in 2D quantum field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Diego M; Strominger, Andrew

    2011-10-14

    It is well known that a local, unitary Poincaré-invariant 2D quantum field theory with a global scaling symmetry and a discrete non-negative spectrum of scaling dimensions necessarily has both a left and a right local conformal symmetry. In this Letter, we consider a chiral situation beginning with only a left global scaling symmetry and do not assume Lorentz invariance. We find that a left conformal symmetry is still implied, while right translations are enhanced either to a right conformal symmetry or a left U(1) Kac-Moody symmetry.

  6. Design and Enantioselective Construction of Axially Chiral Naphthyl-Indole Skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Hao; Wang, Cong-Shuai; Li, Can; Mei, Guang-Jian; Li, Yuxue; Shi, Feng

    2017-01-02

    The first enantioselective construction of a new class of axially chiral naphthyl-indole skeletons has been established by organocatalytic asymmetric coupling reactions of 2-naphthols with 2-indolylmethanols (up to 99 % yield, 97:3 e.r.). This approach not only affords a new type of axially chiral heterobiaryl backbone, but also provides a new catalytic enantioselective strategy for constructing axially chiral biaryl scaffolds by making use of the C3-electrophilicity of 2-indolylmethanols.

  7. 47 CFR 65.101 - Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiation of unitary rate of return...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Procedures § 65.101 Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings. (a) Whenever...

  8. Closely connected unitary realizations of the solutions to the basic interpolation problem for generalized Schur functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanjala, G; Kaashoek, MA; Seatzu, S; VanDerMee, C

    2005-01-01

    A generalized Schur function which is holomorphic at z = 0 can be written as the characteristic function of a closely connected unitary colligation with a Pontryagin state space. We describe the closely connected unitary colligation of a solution s(z) of the basic interpolation problem for generaliz

  9. The Schur algorithm for generalized Schur functions III : J-unitary matrix polynomials on the circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, Daniel; Azizov, Tomas; Dijksma, Aad; Langer, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    The main result is that for J = ((1)(0) (0)(-1)) every J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomial on the unit circle is an essentially unique product of elementary J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomials which are either of degree 1 or 2k. This is shown by means of the generalized Schur transformation introduced

  10. Chiral Dynamics of Baryons in a Lorentz Covariant Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, A; Lyubovitskij, V E; Pumsa-ard, K; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Th.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant chiral quark model for the study of baryons as bound states of constituent quarks dressed by a cloud of pseudoscalar mesons. The approach is based on a non-linear chirally symmetric Lagrangian, which involves effective degrees of freedom - constituent quarks and the chiral (pseudoscalar meson) fields. In a first step, this Lagrangian can be used to perform a dressing of the constituent quarks by a cloud of light pseudoscalar mesons and other heavy states using the calculational technique of infrared dimensional regularization of loop diagrams. We calculate the dressed transition operators with a proper chiral expansion which are relevant for the interaction of quarks with external fields in the presence of a virtual meson cloud. In a second step, these dressed operators are used to calculate baryon matrix elements. Applications are worked out for the masses of the baryon octet, the meson-nucleon sigma terms, the magnetic moments of the baryon octet, the nucleon charge...

  11. Optical Force and Torque on Dipolar Dual Chiral Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimzadegan, Aso; Alaee, Rasoul; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, electromagnetic dual particles preserve the helicity of light upon interaction. On the other hand, chiral particles respond differently to light of opposite helicity. These two properties on their own constitute a source of fascination. Their combined action, however, is less explored. Here, we study on analytical grounds the force and torque as well as the optical cross sections of dual chiral particles in dipolar approximation exerted by a wave of well-defined helicity, i.e. a circularly polarized plane wave. We put emphasis on particles that possess a maximally electromagnetic chiral and hence dual response. Besides the analytical insights, we also investigate the exerted optical force and torque on a real particle at the example of a metallic helix that is designed to approach the maximal electromagnetic chirality condition. Various applications in the context of optical sorting but also nanorobotics can be perceived considering the particles studied in this contribution.

  12. Soldering Chiralities; 2, Non-Abelian Case

    CERN Document Server

    Wotzasek, C

    1996-01-01

    We study the non-abelian extension of the soldering process of two chiral WZW models of opposite chiralities, resulting in a (non-chiral) WZW model living in a 2D space-time with non trivial Riemanian curvature.

  13. Recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in a nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Vacas, M J V; Kaskulov, M; Roca, L; Magas, V K; Ramos, A; Toki, H

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I present recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in a medium addressing the following points: interaction of the octet of pseudoscalar mesons with the octet of baryons of the nucleon, showing recent experimental evidence on the existence of two $\\Lambda(1405)$ states, the interaction of the octet of pseudoscalar mesons with the decuplet of baryons of the $\\Delta$, with particular emphasis on the $\\Lambda(1520)$ resonance, dynamically generated by this interaction. Then I review the interaction of kaons in a nuclear medium and briefly discuss the situation around the claims of deeply bound states in nuclei. The large renormalization of the $\\Lambda(1520)$ in the nuclear medium is shown as another example of successful application of the chiral unitary techniques.

  14. Spiral Galaxies as Chiral Objects?

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Capozziello, Salvatore; Lattanzi, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Spiral galaxies show axial symmetry and an intrinsic 2D-chirality. Environmental effects can influence the chirality of originally isolated stellar systems and a progressive loss of chirality can be recognised in the Hubble sequence. We point out a preferential modality for genetic galaxies as in microscopic systems like aminoacids, sugars or neutrinos. This feature could be the remnant of a primordial symmetry breaking characterizing systems at all scales.

  15. The unitary conformal field theory behind 2D Asymptotic Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Nink, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Being interested in the compatibility of Asymptotic Safety with Hilbert space positivity (unitarity), we consider a local truncation of the functional RG flow which describes quantum gravity in $d>2$ dimensions and construct its limit of exactly two dimensions. We find that in this limit the flow displays a nontrivial fixed point whose effective average action is a non-local functional of the metric. Its pure gravity sector is shown to correspond to a unitary conformal field theory with positive central charge $c=25$. Representing the fixed point CFT by a Liouville theory in the conformal gauge, we investigate its general properties and their implications for the Asymptotic Safety program. In particular, we discuss its field parametrization dependence and argue that there might exist more than one universality class of metric gravity theories in two dimensions. Furthermore, studying the gravitational dressing in 2D asymptotically safe gravity coupled to conformal matter we uncover a mechanism which leads to a...

  16. C T for non-unitary CFTs in higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Hugh; Stergiou, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The coefficient C T of the conformal energy-momentum tensor two-point function is determined for the non-unitary scalar CFTs with four- and six-derivative kinetic terms. The results match those expected from large- N calculations for the CFTs arising from the O( N) non-linear sigma and Gross-Neveu models in specific even dimensions. C T is also calculated for the CFT arising from ( n - 1)-form gauge fields with derivatives in 2 n + 2 dimensions. Results for ( n - 1)-form theory extended to general dimensions as a non-gauge-invariant CFT are also obtained; the resulting C T differs from that for the gauge-invariant theory. The construction of conformal primaries by subtracting descendants of lower-dimension primaries is also discussed. For free theories this also leads to an alternative construction of the energy-momentum tensor, which can be quite involved for higher-derivative theories.

  17. Qubit Transport Model for Unitary Black Hole Evaporation without Firewalls

    CERN Document Server

    Osuga, Kento

    2016-01-01

    We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon and fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.

  18. Momentum Distribution in the Unitary Bose Gas from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparin, Tommaso; Krauth, Werner

    2016-11-01

    We consider a realistic bosonic N -particle model with unitary interactions relevant for Efimov physics. Using quantum Monte Carlo methods, we find that the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is decreased with respect to the ideal Bose gas. We also determine the full momentum distribution of the gas, including its universal asymptotic behavior, and compare this crucial observable to recent experimental data. Similar to the experiments with different atomic species, differentiated solely by a three-body length scale, our model only depends on a single parameter. We establish a weak influence of this parameter on physical observables. In current experiments, the thermodynamic instability of our model from the atomic gas towards an Efimov liquid could be masked by the dynamical instability due to three-body losses.

  19. Husserlian phenomenology and nursing in a unitary-transformative paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss Husserlian phenomenology as philosophy and methodology, and its relevance for nursing research. The main content in Husserl's phenomenological world view is described and compared to the unitary-transformative paradigm as mentioned by Newman et al....... The phenomenological methodology according to Spiegelberg is described, and exemplified through the author's ongoing study. Different critiques of phenomenology and phenomenological reports are mentioned, and the phenomenological description is illustrated as the metaphor «using a handful of colors». The metaphor...... is used to give phenomenological researchers and readers an expanding reality picturing, including memories and hopes and not only a reality of the five senses. It is concluded that phenomenology as a world view and methodology can contribute to nursing research and strengthen the identity of nursing...

  20. Unitary equilibrations: probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo

    CERN Document Server

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos

    2009-01-01

    Closed quantum systems evolve unitarily and therefore cannot converge in a strong sense to an equilibrium state starting out from a generic pure state. Nevertheless for large system size one observes temporal typicality. Namely, for the overwhelming majority of the time instants, the statistics of observables is practically indistinguishable from an effective equilibrium one. In this paper we consider the Loschmidt echo (LE) to study this sort of unitary equilibration after a quench. We draw several conclusions on general grounds and on the basis of an exactly-solvable example of a quasi-free system. In particular we focus on the whole probability distribution of observing a given value of the LE after waiting a long time. Depending on the interplay between the initial state and the quench Hamiltonian, we find different regimes reflecting different equilibration dynamics. When the perturbation is small and the system is away from criticality the probability distribution is Gaussian. However close to criticali...

  1. Quantized superfluid vortex rings in the unitary Fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil; Kelley, Michelle M; Roche, Kenneth J; Wlazłowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-17

    In a recent article, Yefsah et al. [Nature (London) 499, 426 (2013)] report the observation of an unusual excitation in an elongated harmonically trapped unitary Fermi gas. After phase imprinting a domain wall, they observe oscillations almost an order of magnitude slower than predicted by any theory of domain walls which they interpret as a "heavy soliton" of inertial mass some 200 times larger than the free fermion mass or 50 times larger than expected for a domain wall. We present compelling evidence that this "soliton" is instead a quantized vortex ring, by showing that the main aspects of the experiment can be naturally explained within the framework of time-dependent superfluid density functional theories.

  2. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  3. Chirality-dependent vapor-phase epitaxial growth and termination of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilu; Liu, Jia; Tu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Jialu; Zheng, Ming; Zhou, Chongwu

    2013-09-11

    Structurally uniform and chirality-pure single-wall carbon nanotubes are highly desired for both fundamental study and many of their technological applications, such as electronics, optoelectronics, and biomedical imaging. Considerable efforts have been invested in the synthesis of nanotubes with defined chiralities by tuning the growth recipes but the approach has only limited success. Recently, we have shown that chirality-pure short nanotubes can be used as seeds for vapor-phase epitaxial cloning growth, opening up a new route toward chirality-controlled carbon nanotube synthesis. Nevertheless, the yield of vapor-phase epitaxial growth is rather limited at the present stage, due in large part to the lack of mechanistic understanding of the process. Here we report chirality-dependent growth kinetics and termination mechanism for the vapor-phase epitaxial growth of seven single-chirality nanotubes of (9, 1), (6, 5), (8, 3), (7, 6), (10, 2), (6, 6), and (7, 7), covering near zigzag, medium chiral angle, and near armchair semiconductors, as well as armchair metallic nanotubes. Our results reveal that the growth rates of nanotubes increase with their chiral angles while the active lifetimes of the growth hold opposite trend. Consequently, the chirality distribution of a nanotube ensemble is jointly determined by both growth rates and lifetimes. These results correlate nanotube structures and properties with their growth behaviors and deepen our understanding of chirality-controlled growth of nanotubes.

  4. Free-standing chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Eunice Sok Ping; Deng, Jie; Wu, Siji; Khoo, Eng Huat; Liu, Yan Jun

    2014-11-01

    Chiral plasmonic nanostructures offer the ability to achieve strong optical circular dichroism (CD) activity over a broad spectral range, which has been challenging for chiral molecules. Chiral plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively studied based on top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques. Particularly, in the top-down electron-beam lithography, 3D plasmonic nanostructure fabrication involves layer-by-layer patterning and complex alignment, which is time-consuming and causes many defects in the structures. Here, we present a free-standing 3D chiral plamonic nanostructures using the electron-beam lithography technique with much simplified fabrication processes. The 3D chiral plasmonic nanostructures consist of a free-standing ultrathin silicon nitride membrane with well-aligned L-shape metal nanostructures on one side and disk-shape ones on the other side. The free-standing membrane provides an ultra-smooth metal/dielectric interface and uniformly defines the gap between the upper and lower layers in an array of chiral nanostructures. Such free-standing chiral plasmonic nanostructures exhibit strong CD at optical frequencies, which can be engineered by simply changing the disk size on one side of the membrane. Experimental results are in good agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such free-standing chiral plasmonics holds great potential for chirality analysis of biomolecules, drugs, and chemicals.

  5. Generalized simplicial chiral models

    CERN Document Server

    Alimohammadi, M

    2000-01-01

    Using the auxiliary field representation of the simplicial chiral models on a (d-1)-dimensional simplex, we generalize the simplicial chiral models by replacing the term Tr$(AA^{\\d})$ in the Lagrangian of these models, by an arbitrary class function of $AA^{\\d}; V(AA^{\\d})$. This is the same method that has been used in defining the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM_2) from ordinary YM_2. We call these models, the " generalized simplicial chiral models ". With the help of the results of one-link integral over a U(N) matrix, we compute the large-N saddle-point equations for eigenvalue density function $\\ro (z)$ in the weak ($\\b >\\b_c$) and strong ($\\b <\\b_c$) regions. In d=2, where the model somehow relates to gYM_2 theory, we solve the saddle-point equations and find $\\ro (z)$ in two region, and calculate the explicit value of critical point $\\b_c$ for $V(B)=TrB^n (B=AA^{\\d})$. For $V(B)=Tr B^2,Tr B^3$ and Tr$B^4$, we study the critical behaviour of the model at d=2, and by calculating t...

  6. Staggering of the B(M1) value as a fingerprint of specific chiral bands structure

    CERN Document Server

    Grodner, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear chirality has been intensively studdied for the last several years in the context of experimental as well as theoretical approach. Characteristic gamma selection rules have been predicted for the strong chiral symmetry breaking limit that has been observed in Cs isotopes. The presented analysis shows that the gamma selection rules cannot be attributed only to chiral symmetry breaking. The selection rules relate to structural composition of the chiral rotational bands, i.e. to odd particle configuration and the deformation of the core.

  7. Factorization of J-unitary matrix polynomials on the line and a Schur algorithm for generalized Nevanlinna functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, D.; Dijksma, A.; Langer, H.

    2004-01-01

    We prove that a 2 × 2 matrix polynomial which is J-unitary on the real line can be written as a product of normalized elementary J-unitary factors and a J-unitary constant. In the second part we give an algorithm for this factorization using an analog of the Schur transformation.

  8. Chiral nanophotonics chiral optical properties of plasmonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schäferling, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the physics behind the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures focusing on chiral aspects. It explains in detail how the geometry determines chiral near-fields and how to tailor their shape and strength. Electromagnetic fields with strong optical chirality interact strongly with chiral molecules and, therefore, can be used for enhancing the sensitivity of chiroptical spectroscopy techniques. Besides a short review of the latest results in the field of plasmonically enhanced enantiomer discrimination, this book introduces the concept of chiral plasmonic near-field sources for enhanced chiroptical spectroscopy. The discussion of the fundamental properties of these light sources provides the theoretical basis for further optimizations and is of interest for researchers at the intersection of nano-optics, plasmonics and stereochemistry. .

  9. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry of Chiral Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Liora; Preiss, Laura C; Landfester, Katharina; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2015-09-01

    Chiral polymeric nanoparticles are of prime importance, mainly due to their enantioselective potential, for many applications such as catalysis and chiral separation in chromatography. In this article we report on the preparation of chiral polymeric nanoparticles by miniemulsion polymerization. In addition, we describe the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to measure the chiral interactions and the energetics of the adsorption of enantiomers from aqueous solutions onto chiral polymeric nanoparticles. The characterization of chirality in nano-systems is a very challenging task; here, we demonstrate that ITC can be used to accurately determine the thermodynamic parameters associated with the chiral interactions of nanoparticles. The use of ITC to measure the energetics of chiral interactions and recognition at the surfaces of chiral nanoparticles can be applied to other nanoscale chiral systems and can provide further insight into the chiral discrimination processes of nanomaterials.

  10. Chiral Dynamics 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry

    2007-10-01

    pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4

  11. Enzymes useful for chiral compound synthesis: structural biology, directed evolution, and protein engineering for industrial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-07-01

    Biocatalysts (enzymes) have many advantages as catalysts for the production of useful compounds as compared to chemical catalysts. The stereoselectivity of the enzymes is one advantage, and thus the stereoselective production of chiral compounds using enzymes is a promising approach. Importantly, industrial application of the enzymes for chiral compound production requires the discovery of a novel useful enzyme or enzyme function; furthermore, improving the enzyme properties through protein engineering and directed evolution approaches is significant. In this review, the significance of several enzymes showing stereoselectivity (quinuclidinone reductase, aminoalcohol dehydrogenase, old yellow enzyme, and threonine aldolase) in chiral compound production is described, and the improvement of these enzymes using protein engineering and directed evolution approaches for further usability is discussed. Currently, enzymes are widely used as catalysts for the production of chiral compounds; however, for further use of enzymes in chiral compound production, improvement of enzymes should be more essential, as well as discovery of novel enzymes and enzyme functions.

  12. Bi-directional modulation of AMPA receptor unitary conductance by synaptic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Paul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of how synapses alter their efficiency of communication is central to the understanding of learning and memory. The most extensively studied forms of synaptic plasticity are long-term potentiation (LTP and its counterpart long-term depression (LTD of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, it has been shown that LTP often involves a rapid increase in the unitary conductance of AMPA receptor channels. However, LTP can also occur in the absence of any alteration in AMPA receptor unitary conductance. In the present study we have used whole-cell dendritic recording, failures analysis and non-stationary fluctuation analysis to investigate the mechanism of depotentiation of LTP. Results We find that when LTP involves an increase in unitary conductance, subsequent depotentiation invariably involves the return of unitary conductance to pre-LTP values. In contrast, when LTP does not involve a change in unitary conductance then depotentiation also occurs in the absence of any change in unitary conductance, indicating a reduction in the number of activated receptors as the most likely mechanism. Conclusions These data show that unitary conductance can be bi-directionally modified by synaptic activity. Furthermore, there are at least two distinct mechanisms to restore synaptic strength from a potentiated state, which depend upon the mechanism of the previous potentiation.

  13. Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mohta, V

    2005-01-01

    Effective field theory techniques are used to describe the spectrum and interactions of hadrons. The mathematics of classical field theory and perturbative quantum field theory are reviewed. The physics of effective field theory and, in particular, of chiral perturbation theory and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory are also reviewed. The geometry underlying heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is described in detail. Results by Coleman et. al. in the physics literature are stated precisely and proven. A chiral perturbation theory is developed for a multiplet containing the recently- observed exotic baryons. A small coupling expansion is identified that allows the calculation of self-energy corrections to the exotic baryon masses. Opportunities in lattice calculations are discussed. Chiral perturbation theory is used to study the possibility of two multiplets of exotic baryons mixed by quark masses. A new symmetry constraint on reduced partial widths is identified. Predictions in the literature based ...

  14. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, D

    2004-01-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ``chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ``soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  15. Participatory dreaming: a conceptual exploration from a unitary appreciative inquiry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repede, Elizabeth J

    2009-10-01

    Dreaming is a universal phenomenon in human experience and one that carries multiple meanings in the narrative discourse across disciplines. Dreams can be collective, communal, and emancipatory, as well as individual. While individual dreaming has been extensively studied in the literature, the participatory nature of dreaming as a unitary phenomenon is limited. The concept of participatory dreaming within a unitary appreciative framework for healing is explored from perspectives in anthropology, psychology, and nursing. A participatory model of dreaming is proposed from a synthesis of the literature for use in future research using unitary appreciative inquiry.

  16. Participatory dreaming: a unitary appreciative inquiry into healing with women abused as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repede, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Unitary appreciative inquiry was used to explore healing in the lives of 11 women abused as children using a model of participatory dreaming. Aesthetics, imagery, and journaling were used in a participatory design aimed at the appreciation of healing in the lives of the participants as it related to the abuse. Using Cowling's theory of unitary healing, research and practice were combined within a unitary-transformative framework. Participatory dreaming was useful in illuminating the life patterning in the lives of the women and promoted the development of new knowledge and skills that led to change and transformation, both individually and collectively.

  17. Unitary theories in the work of Mira Fernandes (beyond general relativity and differential geometry)

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, José P S

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the work of Mira Fernandes on unitary theories is presented. First it is briefly mentioned the Portuguese scientific context of the 1920s. A short analysis of the extension of Riemann geometries to new generalized geometries with new affine connections, such as those of Weyl and Cartan, is given. Based on these new geometries, the unitary theories of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, proposed by Weyl, Eddington, Einstein, and others are then explained. Finally, the book and one paper on connections and two papers on unitary theories, all written by Mira Fernandes, are analyzed and put in context.

  18. [Reactualization of the concept of unitary psychosis introduced by Joseph Guislain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Renynghe de Voxvrie, G

    1993-01-01

    This paper reminds the concept of a unitary nosological and pathogenic process that may be traced back to Joseph Guislain (1797-1860). The "phrénalgie initiale" was regarded as the initial stage of psychic illness by Guislain (Leçons orales, Ghent, 1852). That vision inspired the work of Wilhelm Griesinger (1817-1869) who further elaborated the concept of "Einheitspsychose" (Psychose unique--Unitary psychosis). That concept partially inspired Emil Kräpelin (1856-1926). Current classification systems like ICD-10 and DSM-III-R attempt to synthesize different views and the concept of unitary psychosis is actualized in the contemporary transnosography.

  19. Observing Disoriented Chiral Condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Bjorken, James D; Taylor, C C

    1993-01-01

    We speculate that, in very high energy hadronic collisions, large fireballs may be produced with interiors which have anomalous chiral order parameters. Such a process would result in radiation of pions with distinctive momentum and isospin distributions, and may provide an explanation of Centauro and related phenomena in cosmic-ray events. The phenomenology of such events is reviewed, with emphasis on the possibility of observing such phenomena at Fermilab experiment T-864 (MiniMax), or at a Full Acceptance Detector (FAD) at the SSC.

  20. Chiral Nuclear Dynamics II

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque

    2008-01-01

    This is the sequel to the first volume to treat in one effective field theory framework the physics of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions. This is vital for understanding the high temperature phenomena taking place in relativistic heavy ion collisions and in the early Universe, as well as the high-density matter predicted to be present in compact stars. The underlying thesis is that what governs hadronic properties in a heat bath and/or a dense medium is hidden local symmetry which emerges from chiral dynamics of light quark systems and from the duality between QCD in 4D and

  1. Spontaneous Chiral Symmetry Breaking as Condensation of Dynamical Chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) is equivalent to sufficient abundance of Dirac near-zeromodes. However, dynamical mechanism leading to breakdown of chiral symmetry should be naturally reflected in chiral properties of the modes. Here we offer such connection, presenting evidence that SChSB in QCD proceeds via the appearance of modes exhibiting dynamical tendency for local chiral polarization. These modes form a band of finite width Lambda_ch (chiral polarization scale) around the surface of otherwise anti--polarized Dirac sea, and condense. Lambda_ch characterizes the dynamics of the breaking phenomenon and can be converted to a quark mass scale, thus offering conceptual means to determine which quarks of nature are governed by broken chiral dynamics. It is proposed that, within the context of SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental Dirac quarks, mode condensation is equivalent to chiral polarization, making Lambda_ch an "order parameter" of SChSB. Several uses of these features, ...

  2. Repulsive Casimir Force in Chiral Metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, R.; Zhou, J.; Koschny, Th.; Economou, E.N.; Soukoulis, C.M.

    2009-09-04

    We demonstrate theoretically that one can obtain repulsive Casimir forces and stable nanolevitations by using chiral metamaterials. By extending the Lifshitz theory to treat chiral metamaterials, we find that a repulsive force and a minimum of the interaction energy possibly exist for strong chirality, under realistic frequency dependencies and correct limiting values (for zero and infinite frequencies) of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral coefficients.

  3. Repulsive Casimir Force in Chiral Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, R.; J. Zhou; Koschny, Th.; Economou, E. N.; C M Soukoulis

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that one can obtain repulsive Casimir forces and stable nanolevitations by using chiral metamaterials. By extending the Lifshitz theory to treat chiral metamaterials, we find that a repulsive force and a minimum of the interaction energy exist for strong chirality, under realistic frequency dependencies and correct limiting values (for zero and infinite frequencies) of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral coefficients.

  4. Repulsive Casimir Force in Chiral Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Zhou, J.; Koschny, Th.; Economou, E. N.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2009-09-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that one can obtain repulsive Casimir forces and stable nanolevitations by using chiral metamaterials. By extending the Lifshitz theory to treat chiral metamaterials, we find that a repulsive force and a minimum of the interaction energy possibly exist for strong chirality, under realistic frequency dependencies and correct limiting values (for zero and infinite frequencies) of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral coefficients.

  5. Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatish; Thomas, K George; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2016-10-18

    The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided.

  6. Conditional Mutual Information of Bipartite Unitaries and Scrambling

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Dawei; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    One way to diagnose chaos in bipartite unitary channels is via the negativity of the tripartite information of the corresponding Choi state, which for certain choices of the subsystems reduces to the negative conditional mutual information (CMI). We study this quantity from a quantum information-theoretic perspective to clarify its role in diagnosing scrambling. When the CMI is zero, we find that the channel has a special normal form consisting of local channels between individual inputs and outputs. However, we find that arbitrarily low CMI does not imply arbitrary proximity to a channel of this form, although it does imply a type of approximate recoverability of one of the inputs. When the CMI is maximal, we find that the residual channel from an individual input to an individual output is completely depolarizing when the other inputs are maximally mixed. However, we again find that this result is not robust. We also extend some of these results to the multipartite case and to the case of Haar-random pure i...

  7. On the infinite fern of Galois representations of unitary type

    CERN Document Server

    Chenevier, Gaetan

    2009-01-01

    Let E be a CM number field, F its maximal totally real subfield, c the generator of Gal(E/F), p an odd prime totally split in E, and S a finite set of places of E containing the places above p. Let r : G_{E,S} --> GL_3(F_p^bar) be a modular, absolutely irreducible, Galois representation of type U(3), i.e. such that r^* = r^c, and let X(r) be the rigid analytic generic fiber of its universal G_{E,S}-deformation of type U(3). We show that each irreducible component of the Zariski-closure of the modular points in X(r) has dimension at least 6[F:Q]. We study an analogue of the infinite fern of Gouvea-Mazur in this context and deal with the Hilbert modular case as well. As important steps, we prove that any first order deformation of a generic enough crystalline representation of Gal(Q_p^bar/Q_p) (of any dimension) is a linear combination of trianguline deformations, and that unitary eigenvarieties (of any rank) are etale over the weight space at the non-critical classical points. As another application, we obtain...

  8. Unitary fermions and Lüscher's formula on a crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Manuel; Zinner, Nikolaj T.

    2016-11-01

    We consider the low-energy particle-particle scattering properties in a periodic simple cubic crystal. In particular, we investigate the relation between the two-body scattering length and the energy shift experienced by the lowest-lying unbound state when this is placed in a periodic finite box. We introduce a continuum model for s-wave contact interactions that respects the symmetry of the Brillouin zone in its regularisation and renormalisation procedures, and corresponds to the naïve continuum limit of the Hubbard model. The energy shifts are found to be identical to those obtained in the usual spherically symmetric renormalisation scheme upon resolving an important subtlety regarding the cutoff procedure. We then particularize to the Hubbard model, and find that for large finite lattices the results are identical to those obtained in the continuum limit. The results reported here are valid in the weak, intermediate and unitary limits. These may be used to significantly ease the extraction of scattering information, and therefore effective interactions in condensed matter systems in realistic periodic potentials. This can achieved via exact diagonalisation or Monte Carlo methods, without the need to solve challenging, genuine multichannel collisional problems with very restricted symmetry simplifications.

  9. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  10. Holographic Fluctuations from Unitary de Sitter Invariant Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Tom; Torres, T J; Wainwright, Carroll L

    2013-01-01

    We continue the study of inflationary fluctuations in Holographic Space Time models of inflation. We argue that the holographic theory of inflation provides a physical context for what is often called dS/CFT. The holographic theory is a quantum theory which, in the limit of a large number of e-foldings, gives rise to a field theory on $S^3$, which is the representation space for a unitary representation of SO(1,4). This is not a conventional CFT, and we do not know the detailed non-perturbative axioms for correlation functions. However, the two- and three-point functions are completely determined by symmetry, and coincide up to a few constants (really functions of the background FRW geometry) with those calculated in a single field slow-roll inflation model. The only significant deviation from slow roll is in the tensor fluctuations. We predict zero tensor tilt and roughly equal weight for all three conformally invariant tensor 3-point functions (unless parity is imposed as a symmetry). We discuss the relatio...

  11. Renormalization of the unitary evolution equation for coined quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan; Portugal, Renato

    2017-03-01

    We consider discrete-time evolution equations in which the stochastic operator of a classical random walk is replaced by a unitary operator. Such a problem has gained much attention as a framework for coined quantum walks that are essential for attaining the Grover limit for quantum search algorithms in physically realizable, low-dimensional geometries. In particular, we analyze the exact real-space renormalization group (RG) procedure recently introduced to study the scaling of quantum walks on fractal networks. While this procedure, when implemented numerically, was able to provide some deep insights into the relation between classical and quantum walks, its analytic basis has remained obscure. Our discussion here is laying the groundwork for a rigorous implementation of the RG for this important class of transport and algorithmic problems, although some instances remain unresolved. Specifically, we find that the RG fixed-point analysis of the classical walk, which typically focuses on the dominant Jacobian eigenvalue {λ1} , with walk dimension dw\\text{RW}={{log}2}{λ1} , needs to be extended to include the subdominant eigenvalue {λ2} , such that the dimension of the quantum walk obtains dw\\text{QW}={{log}2}\\sqrt{{λ1}{λ2}} . With that extension, we obtain analytically previously conjectured results for dw\\text{QW} of Grover walks on all but one of the fractal networks that have been considered.

  12. Unitary Networks from the Exact Renormalization of Wave Functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Fliss, Jackson R; Parrikar, Onkar

    2016-01-01

    The exact renormalization group (ERG) for $O(N)$ vector models (at large $N$) on flat Euclidean space can be interpreted as the bulk dynamics corresponding to a holographically dual higher spin gauge theory on $AdS_{d+1}$. This was established in the sense that at large $N$ the generating functional of correlation functions of single trace operators is reproduced by the on-shell action of the bulk higher spin theory, which is most simply presented in a first-order (phase space) formalism. In this paper, we extend the ERG formalism to the wave functionals of arbitrary states of the $O(N)$ vector model at the free fixed point. We find that the ERG flow of the ground state and a specific class of excited states is implemented by the action of unitary operators which can be chosen to be local. Consequently, the ERG equations provide a continuum notion of a tensor network. We compare this tensor network with the entanglement renormalization networks, MERA, and its continuum version, cMERA, which have appeared rece...

  13. Spectral Characteristics of the Unitary Critical Almost-Mathieu Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, Jake; Ong, Darren C.; Zhang, Zhenghe

    2016-10-01

    We discuss spectral characteristics of a one-dimensional quantum walk whose coins are distributed quasi-periodically. The unitary update rule of this quantum walk shares many spectral characteristics with the critical Almost-Mathieu Operator; however, it possesses a feature not present in the Almost-Mathieu Operator, namely singularity of the associated cocycles (this feature is, however, present in the so-called Extended Harper's Model). We show that this operator has empty absolutely continuous spectrum and that the Lyapunov exponent vanishes on the spectrum; hence, this model exhibits Cantor spectrum of zero Lebesgue measure for all irrational frequencies and arbitrary phase, which in physics is known as Hofstadter's butterfly. In fact, we will show something stronger, namely, that all spectral parameters in the spectrum are of critical type, in the language of Avila's global theory of analytic quasiperiodic cocycles. We further prove that it has empty point spectrum for each irrational frequency and away from a frequency-dependent set of phases having Lebesgue measure zero. The key ingredients in our proofs are an adaptation of Avila's Global Theory to the present setting, self-duality via the Fourier transform, and a Johnson-type theorem for singular dynamically defined CMV matrices which characterizes their spectra as the set of spectral parameters at which the associated cocycles fail to admit a dominated splitting.

  14. Deformations of Polyhedra and Polygons by the Unitary Group

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the set of framed convex polyhedra with N faces as the symplectic quotient C^2N//SU(2). A framed polyhedron is then parametrized by N spinors living in C^2 satisfying suitable closure constraints and defines a usual convex polyhedron plus a phase for each face. We show that there is an action of the unitary group U(N) on this phase space, which changes the shape of faces and allows to map any polyhedron onto any other with the same total area. This realizes the isomorphism of the space of framed polyhedra with the Grassmannian space U(N)/SU(2)*U(N-2). We show how to write averages and correlations of geometrical observables over the ensemble of polyhedra as polynomial integrals over U(N) and we use the Itzykson-Zuber formula from matrix models as the generating function for them. In the quantum case, a canonical quantization of the framed polyhedron phase space leads to the Hilbert space of SU(2) intertwiners. The individual face areas are quantized as half-integers (spins) and the Hilbert spaces...

  15. Neutron matter at low density and the unitary limit

    CERN Document Server

    Baldo, M

    2007-01-01

    Neutron matter at low density is studied within the hole-line expansion. Calculations are performed in the range of Fermi momentum $k_F$ between 0.4 and 0.8 fm$^{-1}$. It is found that the Equation of State is determined by the $^1S_0$ channel only, the three-body forces contribution is quite small, the effect of the single particle potential is negligible and the three hole-line contribution is below 5% of the total energy and indeed vanishing small at the lowest densities. Despite the unitary limit is actually never reached, the total energy stays very close to one half of the free gas value throughout the considered density range. A rank one separable representation of the bare NN interaction, which reproduces the physical scattering length and effective range, gives results almost indistinguishable from the full Brueckner G-matrix calculations with a realistic force. The extension of the calculations below $k_F = 0.4$ fm$^{-1}$ does not indicate any pathological behavior of the neutron Equation of State.

  16. Implementability of two-qubit unitary operations over the butterfly network and the ladder network with free classical communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akibue, Seiseki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We investigate distributed implementation of two-qubit unitary operations over two primitive networks, the butterfly network and the ladder network, as a first step to apply network coding for quantum computation. By classifying two-qubit unitary operations in terms of the Kraus-Cirac number, the number of non-zero parameters describing the global part of two-qubit unitary operations, we analyze which class of two-qubit unitary operations is implementable over these networks with free classical communication. For the butterfly network, we show that two classes of two-qubit unitary operations, which contain all Clifford, controlled-unitary and matchgate operations, are implementable over the network. For the ladder network, we show that two-qubit unitary operations are implementable over the network if and only if their Kraus-Cirac number do not exceed the number of the bridges of the ladder.

  17. Chiral quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  18. Chiral imbalance in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chiral imbalance (ChI is given by a difference between the numbers of RH and LH quarks which may occur in the fireball after heavy ion collision. To characterize it adiabatically a quark chiral (axial chemical potential must be introduced taking into account emergence of a ChI in such a phase. In this report the phenomenology of formation of Local spatial Parity Breaking (LPB in the hot and dense baryon matter is discussed and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. The appearance of new states in the spectra of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector particles in such a matter is elucidated. In particular, from the effective vector meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is demonstrated that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton invariant mass can serve as a characteristic indication of the LPB in PHENIX, STAR and ALICE experiments.

  19. Chirally extended quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, R C; Tan, C I; Richard C Brower; Yue Shen; Chung-I Tan

    1994-01-01

    We propose an extended Quantum Chromodynamics (XQCD) Lagrangian in which the fermions are coupled to elementary scalar %\\sigma and \\pi fields through a Yukawa coupling which preserves chiral invariance. Our principle motivation is to find a new lattice formulation for QCD which avoids the source of critical slowing down usually encountered as the bare quark mass is tuned to the chiral limit. The phase diagram and the weak coupling limit for XQCD are studied. They suggest a conjecture that the continuum limit of XQCD is the same as the continuum limit of conventional lattice formulation of QCD. As examples of such universality, we present the large N solutions of two prototype models for XQCD, in which the mass of the spurious pion and sigma resonance go to infinity with the cut-off. Even if the universality conjecture turns out to be false, we believe that XQCD will still be useful as a low energy effective action for QCD phenomenology on the lattice. Numerical simulations are recommended to further investiga...

  20. A viscoelastic Unitary Crack-Opening strain tensor for crack width assessment in fractured concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciumè, Giuseppe; Benboudjema, Farid

    2016-09-01

    A post-processing technique which allows computing crack width in concrete is proposed for a viscoelastic damage model. Concrete creep is modeled by means of a Kelvin-Voight cell while the damage model is that of Mazars in its local form. Due to the local damage approach, the constitutive model is regularized with respect to finite element mesh to avoid mesh dependency in the computed solution (regularization is based on fracture energy). The presented method is an extension to viscoelasticity of the approach proposed by Matallah et al. (Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 34(15):1615-1633, 2010) for a purely elastic damage model. The viscoelastic Unitary Crack-Opening (UCO) strain tensor is computed accounting for evolution with time of surplus of stress related to damage; this stress is obtained from decomposition of the effective stress tensor. From UCO the normal crack width is then derived accounting for finite element characteristic length in the direction orthogonal to crack. This extension is quite natural and allows for accounting of creep impact on opening/closing of cracks in time dependent problems. A graphical interpretation of the viscoelastic UCO using Mohr's circles is proposed and application cases together with a theoretical validation are presented to show physical consistency of computed viscoelastic UCO.

  1. Chiral optical response of planar and symmetric nanotrimers enabled by heteromaterial selection

    CERN Document Server

    Banzer, Peter; Mick, Uwe; De Leon, Israel; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Chirality is an intriguing property of certain molecules, materials or artificial nanostructures, which allows them to interact with the spin angular momentum of the impinging light field. Due to their chiral geometry, they can distinguish between left- and right-hand circular polarization states or convert them into each other. Here, we introduce a novel approach towards optical chirality, which is observed in individual two-dimensional and geometrically mirror-symmetric nanostructures. In this scheme, the chiral optical response is induced by the chosen heterogeneous material composition of a particle assembly and the corresponding resonance behavior of the constituents it is built from, which breaks the symmetry of the system. As a proof of principle, we investigate such a structure composed of individual silicon and gold nanoparticles both experimentally as well as numerically. Our proposed concept constitutes a novel approach for designing two-dimensional chiral media tailored at the nanoscale.

  2. Chiral optical response of planar and symmetric nanotrimers enabled by heteromaterial selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzer, Peter; Woźniak, Paweł; Mick, Uwe; de Leon, Israel; Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-10-01

    Chirality is an intriguing property of certain molecules, materials or artificial nanostructures, which allows them to interact with the spin angular momentum of the impinging light field. Due to their chiral geometry, they can distinguish between left- and right-hand circular polarization states or convert them into each other. Here we introduce an approach towards optical chirality, which is observed in individual two-dimensional and geometrically mirror-symmetric nanostructures. In this scheme, the chiral optical response is induced by the chosen heterogeneous material composition of a particle assembly and the corresponding resonance behaviour of the constituents it is built from, which breaks the symmetry of the system. As a proof of principle, we investigate such a structure composed of individual silicon and gold nanoparticles both experimentally, as well as numerically. Our proposed concept constitutes an approach for designing two-dimensional chiral media tailored at the nanoscale, allowing for high tunability of their optical response.

  3. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  4. Error correcting codes for binary unitary channels on multipartite quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, M D; Kribs, D W; Zyczkowski, K; Choi, Man-Duen; Holbrook, John A.; Kribs, David W.; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2006-01-01

    We conduct an analysis of ideal error correcting codes for randomized unitary channels determined by two unitary error operators -- what we call ``binary unitary channels'' -- on multipartite quantum systems. In a wide variety of cases we give a complete description of the code structure for such channels. Specifically, we find a practical geometric technique to determine the existence of codes of arbitrary dimension, and then derive an explicit construction of codes of a given dimension when they exist. For instance, given any binary unitary noise model on an n-qubit system, we design codes that support n-2 qubits. We accomplish this by verifying a conjecture for higher rank numerical ranges of normal operators in many cases.

  5. General Formalism for Setting Up Unitary Transform Operators from Classical Transforms via IWOP Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; HU Shan

    2006-01-01

    We present a general formalism for setting up unitary transform operators from classical transforms via the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators, their normally ordered form can be obtained too.

  6. Elementary proofs of two theorems involving arguments of eigenvalues of a product of two unitary matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Hoi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We give elementary proofs of two theorems concerning bounds on the maximum argument of the eigenvalues of a product of two unitary matrices--one by Childs et al. [J. Mod. Phys. 47, 155 (2000] and the other one by Chau [Quant. Inf. Comp. 11, 721 (2011]. Our proofs have the advantages that the necessary and sufficient conditions for equalities are apparent and that they can be readily generalized to the case of infinite-dimensional unitary operators.

  7. Can a non-unitary effect be prominent In neutrino oscillation measurements?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Lei; WANG Wen-Yu; XIONG zhao-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Subject to neutrino experiments, the mixing matrix of ordinary neutrinos can still have small vi-olation from unitarity. We introduce a quasi-unitary matrix to interpret this violation and propose a natural scheme to parameterize it. A quasi-unitary factor △QF is defined to be measured in neutrino oscillation exper-iments and the numerical results show that the improvement in experimental precision may help us figure out the secret of neutrino mixing.

  8. Coupling chiral bosons to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, N R F; Braga, N R F; Wotzasek, C

    1995-01-01

    chiral boson actions of Floreanini and Jackiw (FJ), and of McClain,Wu and Yu (MWY) have been recently shown to be different representations of the same chiral boson theory. MWY displays manifest covariance and also a (gauge) symmetry that is hidden in the FJ side, which, on the other hand, displays the physical spectrum in a simple manner. We make use of the covariance of the MWY representation for the chiral boson to couple it to background gravity showing explicitly the equivalence with the previous results for the FJ representation

  9. Chiral gravity in higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Ootsuka, T; Ura, K; Ootsuka, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Erico; Ura, Kousuke

    2003-01-01

    We construct a chiral theory of gravity in 7 and 8 dimensions, which are equivalent to Einstein-Cartan theory using less variables. In these dimensions, we can construct such higher dimensional chiral gravity because of the existence of gravitational instanton. The octonionic-valued variables in the theory represent the deviation from the gravitational instanton, and from their non-associativity, prevents the theory to be SO(n) gauge invariant. Still the chiral gravity holds G_2 (7-D), and Spin(7) (8-D) gauge symmetry.

  10. Chiral Fermions on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    In the last century the non-perturbative regularization of chiral fermions was a long-standing problem. We review how this problem was finally overcome by the formulation of a modified but exact form of chiral symmetry on the lattice. This also provides a sound definition of the topological charge of lattice gauge configurations. We illustrate a variety of applications to QCD in the p-, the epsilon- and the delta-regime, where simulation results can now be related to Random Matrix Theory and Chiral Perturbation Theory. The latter contains Low Energy Constants as free parameters, and we comment on their evaluation from first principles of QCD.

  11. Field induced spin chirality and chirality switching in magnetic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartakovskaya, Elena V., E-mail: elena_tartakovskaya@yahoo.com [Institute of Magnetism NAS of Ukraine, Vernadsky blvd 36b, 03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Institute of High Technologies, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 03022 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-05-01

    The physical origin of the field-induced spin chirality experimentally observed in rare earth multilayers is determined. It is shown that the effect is possible due to the interplay between solid-state exchange interactions (the Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida and the Dsyaloshinsky–Moriya interactions), the external magnetic field and a special confinement of magnetic constituents. The presented model describes a certain temperature dependence of the chirality factor in agreement with experimental data and opens a new way to design nanostructured objects with predicted handedness. - Highlights: • Field-induced spin chirality in magnetic multilayers is explained. • The roles of the RKKY, the DM and the Zeeman interactions are clarified. • Theoretical analysis of the chirality factor is in agreement with experimental data.

  12. Chiral Relaxation Time at the Chiral Crossover of Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggieri, M; Chernodub, M

    2016-01-01

    We study microscopic processes responsible for chirality flips in the thermal bath of Quantum Chromodynamics at finite temperature and zero baryon chemical potential. We focus on the temperature range where the crossover from chirally broken phase to quark-gluon plasma takes place, namely $T \\simeq (150, 200)$ MeV. The processes we consider are quark-quark scatterings mediated by collective excitations with the quantum number of pions and $\\sigma$-meson, hence we refer to these processes simply as \\sugg{to} one-pion (one-$\\sigma$) exchange\\sugg{s}. We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to compute equilibrium properties of the thermal bath, as well as the relevant scattering kernel to be used in the collision integral to estimate the chiral relaxation time $\\tau$. We find $\\tau\\simeq 0.1 \\div 1$ fm/c around the chiral crossover.

  13. Consistent chiral kinetic theory in Weyl materials: chiral magnetic plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbar, E V; Shovkovy, I A; Sukhachov, P O

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the correct definition of the electric current in the chiral kinetic theory for Weyl materials should include the Chern--Simons contribution that makes the theory consistent with the local conservation of the electric charge in electromagnetic and strain-induced pseudoelectromagnetic fields. By making use of such a kinetic theory, we study the plasma frequencies of collective modes in Weyl materials in constant magnetic and pseudomagnetic fields taking into account the effects of dynamical electromagnetism. We show that the collective modes are chiral plasmons. While the plasma frequency of the longitudinal collective mode coincides with the Langmuir one, this mode is unusual because it is characterized not only by oscillations of the electric current density, but also oscillations of the chiral current density. The latter are triggered by a dynamical version of the chiral electric separation effect. We also find that the plasma frequencies of the transverse modes split up in a magnetic field. T...

  14. Chirality in photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnyshkov, Dmitry; Malpuech, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    The optical modes of photonic structures are the so-called TE and TM modes that bring intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and chirality to these systems. This, combined with the unique flexibility of design of the photonic potential, and the possibility to mix photon states with excitonic resonances, sensitive to magnetic field and interactions, allows us to achieve many phenomena, often analogous to other solid-state systems. In this contribution, we review in a qualitative and comprehensive way several of these realizations, namely the optical spin Hall effect, the creation of spin currents protected by a non-trivial geometry, the Berry curvature for photons, and the photonic/polaritonic topological insulator.

  15. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  16. Domains of Disoriented Chiral Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Amado, R D; Lu, Yang

    1996-01-01

    The probability distribution of neutral pion fraction from independent domains of disoriented chiral condensate is characterized. The signal for the condensate is clear for a small number of domains but is greatly reduced for more than three.

  17. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Ananthanarayan

    2003-11-01

    A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  18. Chiral Dynamics With Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Splittorff, K

    2012-01-01

    Close to the continuum the lattice spacing affects the smallest eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator in a very specific manner determined by the way in which the discretization breaks chiral symmetry. These effects can be computed analytically by means of Wilson chiral perturbation theory and Wilson random matrix theory. A number of insights on chiral Dynamics with Wilson fermions can be obtained from the computation of the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator. For example, the unusual volume scaling of the smallest eigenvalues observed in lattice simulations has a natural explanation. The dynamics of the eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator also allow us to determine the additional low energy constants of Wilson chiral perturbation theory and to understand why the Sharpe-Singleton scenario is only realized in unquenched simulations.

  19. Chiral Quark Model of Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X J; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Yan, Mu-Lin

    1999-01-01

    We study SU(3)$_L\\timesSU(3)_R$ chiral quark model of mesons up to next leading order of $1/N_c$ expansion. Composite vector and axial-vector mesons resonances are introduced via non-linear realization of chiral SU(3) and vector meson dominant. Effects of one-loop graphs of pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons is calculated systematically and the significant results are obtained. Correction of effective gluon interaction is studied too. The light quark masses are introduced via new mechanism which agree with phenomenology and the requirement of chiral symmetry. Up to powers four of derivatives, chiral effective lagrangian of mesons is derived and evaluated to next leading order of $1/N_c$. Low energy limit of the model is examined. Ten low energy coupling constants $L_i(i=1,2,...,10)$ in ChPT are obtained and agree with ChPT well.

  20. Diffusion of active chiral particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Francisco J.

    2016-12-01

    The diffusion of chiral active Brownian particles in three-dimensional space is studied analytically, by consideration of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of finding a particle at position x and moving along the direction v ̂ at time t , and numerically, by the use of Langevin dynamics simulations. The analysis is focused on the marginal probability density of finding a particle at a given location and at a given time (independently of its direction of motion), which is found from an infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence relations for the coefficients that appear in the multipole expansion of the probability distribution, which contains the whole kinematic information. This approach allows the explicit calculation of the time dependence of the mean-squared displacement and the time dependence of the kurtosis of the marginal probability distribution, quantities from which the effective diffusion coefficient and the "shape" of the positions distribution are examined. Oscillations between two characteristic values were found in the time evolution of the kurtosis, namely, between the value that corresponds to a Gaussian and the one that corresponds to a distribution of spherical shell shape. In the case of an ensemble of particles, each one rotating around a uniformly distributed random axis, evidence is found of the so-called effect "anomalous, yet Brownian, diffusion," for which particles follow a non-Gaussian distribution for the positions yet the mean-squared displacement is a linear function of time.

  1. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  2. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  3. Baryon spectrum and chiral dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1995-01-01

    New results on baryon structure and spectrum developed in collaboration with Dan Riska [1-4] are reported. The main idea is that beyond the chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks.

  4. Enantioselective cellular uptake of chiral semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, I. V.; Kuznetsova, V. A.; Litvinov, I. K.; Orlova, A. O.; Maslov, V. G.; Fedorov, A. V.; Dubavik, A.; Purcell-Milton, F.; Gun'ko, Yu K.; Baranov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the chirality of semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) capped with L- and D-cysteine, on the efficiency of their uptake by living Ehrlich Ascite carcinoma cells is studied by spectral- and time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy. We report an evident enantioselective process where cellular uptake of the L-Cys QDs is almost twice as effective as that of the D-Cys QDs. This finding paves the way for the creation of novel approaches to control the biological properties and behavior of nanomaterials in living cells.

  5. Chiral symmetry breaking in continuum QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor continuum QCD in the quenched limit. The theory is set up at perturbative momenta, where asymptotic freedom leads to precise results. The evolution of QCD towards the hadronic phase is achieved by means of dynamical hadronization in the nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach. We use a vertex expansion scheme based on gauge-invariant operators and discuss its convergence properties and the remaining systematic errors. In particular, we present results for the quark propagator, the full tensor structure and momentum dependence of the quark-gluon vertex, and the four-Fermi scatterings.

  6. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of chiral pincer ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felluga, Fulvia; Baratta, Walter; Fanfoni, Lidia; Pitacco, Giuliana; Rigo, Pierluigi; Benedetti, Fabio

    2009-05-01

    Chiral, nonracemic pincer ligands based on the 6-phenyl-2-aminomethylpyridine and 2-aminomethylbenzo[h]quinoline scaffolds were obtained by a chemoenzymatic approach starting from 2-pyridyl and 2-benzoquinolyl ethanone. In the enantiodifferentiating step, secondary alcohols of opposite absolute configuration were obtained by a baker's yeast reduction of the ketones and by lipase-mediated dynamic kinetic resolution of the racemic alcohols. Their transformation into homochiral 1-methyl-1-heteroarylethanamines occurred without loss of optical purity, giving access to pincer ligands used in enantioselective catalysis.

  7. Pseudo-unitary dynamics of free relativistic quantum mechanical twofold systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, J. G.

    2012-05-01

    A finite-dimensional pseudo-unitary framework is set up for describing the dynamics of free elementary particles in a purely relativistic quantum mechanical way. States of any individual particles or antiparticles are defined as suitably normalized vectors belonging to the two-complex-dimensional spaces that occur in local orthogonal decompositions of isomorphic copies of Cartan's space. The corresponding dynamical variables thus show up as bounded pseudo-Hermitian operator restrictions that possess real discrete spectra. Any measurement processes have to be performed locally in orthocronous proper Lorentz frames, but typical observational correlations are expressed in terms of symbolic configurations which come from the covariant action on spaces of state vectors of the Poincaré subgroup of an adequate realization of SU(2,2). The overall approach turns out to supply a supposedly natural description of the dynamics of free twofold systems in flat spacetime. One of the main outlooks devised here brings forward the possibility of carrying out methodically the construction of a background to a new relativistic theory of quantum information.

  8. Unitary Transformations in the Quantum Model for Conceptual Conjunctions and Its Application to Data Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloz, Tomas; Desjardins, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Quantum models of concept combinations have been successful in representing various experimental situations that cannot be accommodated by traditional models based on classical probability or fuzzy set theory. In many cases, the focus has been on producing a representation that fits experimental results to validate quantum models. However, these representations are not always consistent with the cognitive modeling principles. Moreover, some important issues related to the representation of concepts such as the dimensionality of the realization space, the uniqueness of solutions, and the compatibility of measurements, have been overlooked. In this paper, we provide a dimensional analysis of the realization space for the two-sector Fock space model for conjunction of concepts focusing on the first and second sectors separately. We then introduce various representation of concepts that arise from the use of unitary operators in the realization space. In these concrete representations, a pair of concepts and their combination are modeled by a single conceptual state, and by a collection of exemplar-dependent operators. Therefore, they are consistent with cognitive modeling principles. This framework not only provides a uniform approach to model an entire data set, but, because all measurement operators are expressed in the same basis, allows us to address the question of compatibility of measurements. In particular, we present evidence that it may be possible to predict non-commutative effects from partial measurements of conceptual combinations. PMID:26617556

  9. New method for dynamical fermions and chiral-symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Azcoiti, V; Grillo, A F; Laliena, V; Luo, X Q

    1994-01-01

    The reasons for the feasibility of the Microcanonical Fermionic Average ($MFA$) approach to lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions are discussed. We then present a new exact algorithm, which is free from systematic errors and convergent even in the chiral limit.

  10. A note on optical activity and extrinsic chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    It has been assumed that optical activity can be measured by illuminating alternatively a material with left- and right- handed circular polarized light and analyzing the differential response. This simple and intuitive approach is in general incorrect, and has led to misleading idea that extrinsic chirality involves optical activity.

  11. Dispersion relations in application to chiral two-nucleon dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparyan A.M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel scheme based on the chiral Lagrangian is applied to the nucleon-nucleon interaction close to threshold. Subthreshold partial-wave amplitudes are calculated in chiral perturbation theory and analytically extrapolated above threshold. The constraints imposed by analyticity and unitarity are used to stabilize the extrapolation. A reasonable description of the empirical phase shifts up to laboratory energies Tlab ≃ 300 MeV is obtained in terms of the parameters relevant at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. The convergence properties of the method and the comparison with the conventional potential approach are discussed.

  12. Utilization of Alternate Chirality Enantiomers in Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous study of chirality led to interesting findings for some anaerobic extremophiles: the ability to metabolize substrates with alternate chirality enantiomers of amino acids and sugars. We have subsequently found that not just separate microbial species or strains but entire microbial communities have this ability. The functional division within a microbial community on proteo- and sugarlytic links was also reflected in a microbial diet with L-sugars and D-amino acids. Several questions are addressed in this paper. Why and when was this feature developed in a microbial world? Was it a secondary de novo adaptation in a bacterial world? Or is this a piece of genetic information that has been left in modern genomes as an atavism? Is it limited exclusively to prokaryotes, or does this ability also occur in eukaryotes? In this article, we have used a broader approach to study this phenomenon using anaerobic extremophilic strains from our laboratory collection. A series of experiments were performed on physiologically different groups of extremophilic anaerobes (pure and enrichment cultures). The following characteristics were studied: 1) the ability to grow on alternate chirality enantiomers -- L-sugars and D- amino acids; 2) Growth-inhibitory effect of alternate chirality enantiomers; 3) Stickland reaction with alternate chirality amino acids. The results of this research are presented in this paper.

  13. Chromatographic Studies of Protein-Based Chiral Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Cong; Zheng, Xiwei; Azaria, Shiden; Beeram, Sandya; Li, Zhao; Hage, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of separation methods for the analysis and resolution of chiral drugs and solutes has been an area of ongoing interest in pharmaceutical research. The use of proteins as chiral binding agents in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been an approach that has received particular attention in such work. This report provides an overview of proteins that have been used as binding agents to create chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and in the use of chromatographic methods to study these materials and protein-based chiral separations. The supports and methods that have been employed to prepare protein-based CSPs will also be discussed and compared. Specific types of CSPs that are considered include those that employ serum transport proteins (e.g., human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein), enzymes (e.g., penicillin G acylase, cellobiohydrolases, and α-chymotrypsin) or other types of proteins (e.g., ovomucoid, antibodies, and avidin or streptavidin). The properties and applications for each type of protein and CSP will also be discussed in terms of their use in chromatography and chiral separations.

  14. Recasting Communication Theory and Research: A Cybernetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary A.

    The author's main concern is to provide a research format which will supply a unitary conception of communication. The wide range of complex topics and variety of concepts embraced by communication theory and the rather disparate set of phenomena encompassed by communication research create this need for a unitary study approach capable of linking…

  15. Chirality in Bare and Passivated Gold Nanoclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Garzon, I L; Rodrigues-Hernandez, J I; Sigal, I; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Chiral structures have been found as the lowest-energy isomers of bare (Au$_{28}$ and Au$_{55}) and thiol-passivated (Au$_{28}(SCH$_{3})$_{16}$ and Au$_{38}$(SCH$_{3}$)$_{24}) gold nanoclusters. The degree of chirality existing in the chiral clusters was calculated using the Hausdorff chirality measure. We found that the index of chirality is higher in the passivated clusters and decreases with the cluster size. These results are consistent with the observed chiroptical activity recently reported for glutahione-passivated gold nanoclusters, and provide theoretical support for the existence of chirality in these novel compounds.

  16. Spontaneous magnetization of the integrable chiral Potts model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au-Yang, Helen; Perk, Jacques H H, E-mail: helenperk@yahoo.com, E-mail: perk@okstate.edu [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, 145 Physical Sciences, Stillwater, OK 74078-3072 (United States)

    2011-11-04

    We show how Z-invariance in the chiral Potts model provides a strategy to calculate the pair correlation in the general integrable chiral Potts model using only the superintegrable eigenvectors. When the distance between the two spins in the correlation function becomes infinite it becomes the square of the order parameter. In this way, we show that the spontaneous magnetization can be expressed in terms of the inner products of the eigenvectors of the N asymptotically degenerate maximum eigenvalues. Using our previous results on these eigenvectors, we are able to obtain the order parameter as a sum almost identical to the one given by Baxter. This gives the known spontaneous magnetization of the chiral Potts model by an entirely different approach. (paper)

  17. One loop divergences and anomalies from chiral superfields in supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We apply the heat kernel method (using Avramidi's non-recursive technique) to the study of the effective action of chiral matter in a complex representation of an arbitrary gauge sector coupled to background U(1) supergravity. This generalizes previous methods, which restricted to 1) real representations of the gauge sector in traditional Poincar\\'e supergravity or 2) vanishing supergravity background. In this new scheme, we identify a classical ambiguity in these theories which mixes the supergravity U(1) with the gauge U(1). At the quantum level, this ambiguity is maintained since the effective action changes only by a local counterterm as one shifts a U(1) factor between the supergravity and gauge sectors. An immediate application of our formalism is the calculation of the one-loop gauge, Kahler, and reparametrization anomalies of chiral matter coupled to minimal supergravity from purely chiral loops. Our approach gives an anomaly whose covariant part is both manifestly supersymmetric and non-perturbative ...

  18. Power Counting Regime of Chiral Effective Field Theory and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J M M; Leinweber, D B

    2010-01-01

    Chiral effective field theory complements numerical simulations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) on a space-time lattice. It provides a model-independent formalism for connecting lattice simulation results at finite volume and a variety of quark masses to the physical world. The asymptotic nature of the chiral expansion places the focus on the first few terms of the expansion. Thus, knowledge of the power-counting regime (PCR) of chiral effective field theory, where higher-order terms of the expansion may be regarded as negligible, is as important as knowledge of the expansion itself. Through the consideration of a variety of renormalization schemes and associated parameters, techniques to identify the PCR where results are independent of the renormalization scheme are established. The nucleon mass is considered as a benchmark for illustrating this general approach. Because the PCR is small, the numerical simulation results are also examined to search for the possible presence of an intrinsic scale which may b...

  19. Projective symmetry group classification of chiral spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Samuel; Lhuillier, Claire; Messio, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We present a general review of the projective symmetry group classification of fermionic quantum spin liquids for lattice models of spin S =1 /2 . We then introduce a systematic generalization of the approach for symmetric Z2 quantum spin liquids to the one of chiral phases (i.e., singlet states that break time reversal and lattice reflection, but conserve their product). We apply this framework to classify and discuss possible chiral spin liquids on triangular and kagome lattices. We give a detailed prescription on how to construct quadratic spinon Hamiltonians and microscopic wave functions for each representation class on these lattices. Among the chiral Z2 states, we study the subset of U(1) phases variationally in the antiferromagnetic J1-J2-Jd Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice. We discuss static spin structure factors and symmetry constraints on the bulk spectra of these phases.

  20. Spontaneous Magnetization of the Integrable Chiral Potts Model

    CERN Document Server

    Au-Yang, Helen

    2010-01-01

    We show how $Z$-invariance in the chiral Potts model provides a strategy to calculate the pair correlation in the general integrable chiral Potts model using only the superintegrable eigenvectors. When the distance between the two spins in the correlation function becomes infinite it becomes the square of the order parameter. In this way, we show that the spontaneous magnetization can be expressed in terms of the inner products of the eigenvectors of the $N$ asymptotically degenerate maximum eigenvalues. Using our previous results on these eigenvectors, we are able to obtain the order parameter as a sum almost identical to the one given by Baxter. This gives the known spontaneous magnetization of the chiral Potts model by an entirely different approach.

  1. Using the Chiral Organophosphorus Derivatizing Agents for Determination of the Enantiomeric Composition of Chiral Carboxylic Acids by 31PNMR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao CHE; Zhong Ning ZHANG; Gui Lan HUANG; Xin Xing WANG; Zhao Hai QIN

    2004-01-01

    The use of chiral organophosphorus derivatizing agents prepared in situ from chiral tartrate or chiral diamine for the 31PNMR determination of the enantiomeric composition of chiral carboxylic acids is described. The method is accurate, reliable and convenient.

  2. Photo- and pion electroproduction in chiral effective field theory; Photo- und Elektropionproduktion in chiraler effektiver Feldtheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilt, Marius

    2011-12-13

    This thesis is concerned with pion photoproduction (PPP) and pion electroproduction (PEP) in the framework of manifestly Lorentz-invariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. For that purpose two different approaches are used. Firstly, a one-loop-order calculation up to chiral order O(q{sup 4}) including pions and nucleons as degrees of freedom, is performed to describe the energy dependence of the reactions over a large range. To improve the dependence on the virtuality of the photon in PEP, in a second approach vector mesons are included as explicit degrees of freedom. The latter calculation includes one-loop contributions up to chiral order O(q{sup 3}). Only three of the four physical processes of PPP and PEP can be accessed experimentally. These reactions are measured at several different facilities, e.g. Mainz, Bonn, or Saskatoon. The data obtained there are used to explore the limits of chiral perturbation theory. This thesis is the first complete manifestly Lorentz-invariant calculation up to order O(q{sup 4}) for PPP and PEP, and the first calculation ever for these processes including vector mesons explicitly. Beside the calculation of physical observables, a partial wave decomposition is performed and the most important multipoles are analyzed. They may be extracted from the calculated amplitudes and allow one to examine the nucleon and {delta} resonances. The number of diagrams one has to calculate is very large. In order to handle these expressions, several routines were developed for the computer algebra system Mathematica. For the multipole decomposition, two different programs are used. On the one hand, a modified version of the so-called {chi}MAID has been employed. On the other hand, similar routines were developed for Mathematica. In the end, the different calculations are compared with respect to their applicability to PPP and PEP.

  3. Dynamically induced robust phonon transport and chiral cooling in an optomechanical system

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seunghwi; Taylor, Jacob M; Bahl, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    The transport of sound and heat, in the form of phonons, has a fundamental material limit: disorder-induced scattering. In electronic and optical settings, introduction of chiral transport - in which carrier propagation exhibits broken parity symmetry - provides robustness against such disorder by preventing elastic backscattering. Here we experimentally demonstrate a path for achieving robust phonon transport even in the presence of material disorder, by dynamically inducing chirality through traveling-wave optomechanical coupling. Using this approach, we demonstrate dramatic optically-induced chiral transport for clockwise and counterclockwise phonons in a symmetric resonator. This induced chirality also enhances isolation from the thermal bath and leads to gain-free reduction of the intrinsic damping of the phonons. Surprisingly, this passive mechanism is also accompanied by a chiral reduction in heat load leading to a novel optical cooling of the mechanics. This technique has the potential to improve upon...

  4. An ancilla-based quantum simulation framework for non-unitary matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Ammar; Kais, Sabre

    2017-01-01

    The success probability in an ancilla-based circuit generally decreases exponentially in the number of qubits consisted in the ancilla. Although the probability can be amplified through the amplitude amplification process, the input dependence of the amplitude amplification makes difficult to sequentially combine two or more ancilla-based circuits. A new version of the amplitude amplification known as the oblivious amplitude amplification runs independently of the input to the system register. This allows us to sequentially combine two or more ancilla-based circuits. However, this type of the amplification only works when the considered system is unitary or non-unitary but somehow close to a unitary. In this paper, we present a general framework to simulate non-unitary processes on ancilla-based quantum circuits in which the success probability is maximized by using the oblivious amplitude amplification. In particular, we show how to extend a non-unitary matrix to an almost unitary matrix. We then employ the extended matrix by using an ancilla-based circuit design along with the oblivious amplitude amplification. Measuring the distance of the produced matrix to the closest unitary matrix, a lower bound for the fidelity of the final state obtained from the oblivious amplitude amplification process is presented. Numerical simulations for random matrices of different sizes show that independent of the system size, the final amplified probabilities are generally around 0.75 and the fidelity of the final state is mostly high and around 0.95. Furthermore, we discuss the complexity analysis and show that combining two such ancilla-based circuits, a matrix product can be implemented. This may lead us to efficiently implement matrix functions represented as infinite matrix products on quantum computers.

  5. Analysis of Reduction in Area in MIMO Receivers Using SQRD Method and Unitary Transformation with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE and Minimum Mean Square Error Estimation (MMSE Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Gauni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of Wireless Communication, there is always a demand for reliability, improved range and speed. Many wireless networks such as OFDM, CDMA2000, WCDMA etc., provide a solution to this problem when incorporated with Multiple input- multiple output (MIMO technology. Due to the complexity in signal processing, MIMO is highly expensive in terms of area consumption. In this paper, a method of MIMO receiver design is proposed to reduce the area consumed by the processing elements involved in complex signal processing. In this paper, a solution for area reduction in the Multiple input multiple output(MIMO Maximum Likelihood Receiver(MLE using Sorted QR Decomposition and Unitary transformation method is analyzed. It provides unified approach and also reduces ISI and provides better performance at low cost. The receiver pre-processor architecture based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE is compared while using Iterative SQRD and Unitary transformation method for vectoring. Unitary transformations are transformations of the matrices which maintain the Hermitian nature of the matrix, and the multiplication and addition relationship between the operators. This helps to reduce the computational complexity significantly. The dynamic range of all variables is tightly bound and the algorithm is well suited for fixed point arithmetic.

  6. Triaxial projected shell model study of chiral rotation in odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, G.H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Sheikh, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Palit, R., E-mail: palit@tifr.res.in [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 400 005 (India)

    2012-01-20

    Chiral rotation observed in {sup 128}Cs is studied using the newly developed microscopic triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. The observed energy levels and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the nearly degenerate chiral dipole bands in this isotope are well reproduced by the present model. This demonstrates the broad applicability of the TPSM approach, based on a schematic interaction and angular-momentum projection technique, to explain a variety of low- and high-spin phenomena in triaxial rotating nuclei.

  7. Consistent Chiral Kinetic Theory in Weyl Materials: Chiral Magnetic Plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.

    2017-03-01

    We argue that the correct definition of the electric current in the chiral kinetic theory for Weyl materials should include the Chern-Simons contribution that makes the theory consistent with the local conservation of the electric charge in electromagnetic and strain-induced pseudoelectromagnetic fields. By making use of such a kinetic theory, we study the plasma frequencies of collective modes in Weyl materials in constant magnetic and pseudomagnetic fields, taking into account the effects of dynamical electromagnetism. We show that the collective modes are chiral plasmons. While the plasma frequency of the longitudinal collective mode coincides with the Langmuir one, this mode is unusual because it is characterized not only by oscillations of the electric current density, but also by oscillations of the chiral current density. The latter are triggered by a dynamical version of the chiral electric separation effect. We also find that the plasma frequencies of the transverse modes split up in a magnetic field. This finding suggests an efficient means of extracting the chiral shift parameter from the measurement of the plasma frequencies in Weyl materials.

  8. Vacuum structure in a chiral R+R{sup n} modification of pure supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Sergio [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN – Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Kehagias, Alex [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Department of Theoretical Physics, 24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211, Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Porrati, Massimo [CCPP, Department of Physics, NYU, 4 Washington Pl., New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2013-11-25

    We discuss an R+R{sup n} class of modified N=1, D=4 supergravity models where the deformation is a monomial R{sup n}|{sub F} in the chiral scalar curvature multiplet R of the “old minimal” auxiliary field formulation. The scalaron and goldstino multiplets are dual to each other in this theory. Since one of them is not dynamical, this theory, as recently shown, cannot be used as the supersymmetric completion of R+R{sup n} gravity. This is confirmed by investigating the scalar potential and its critical points in the dual standard supergravity formulation with a single chiral multiplet with specific Kähler potential and superpotential. We study the vacuum structure of this dual theory and we find that there is always a supersymmetric Minkowski critical point which however is pathological for n⩾3 as it corresponds to a corner (n=3) and a cusp (n>3) point of the potential. For n>3 an anti-de Sitter regular supersymmetric vacuum emerges. As a result, this class of models are not appropriate to describe inflation. We also find the mass spectrum and we provide a general formula for the masses of the scalars of a chiral multiplet around the anti-de Sitter critical point and their relation to osp(1,4) unitary representations.

  9. On the chirality of the SM and the fermion content of GUTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Fonseca

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Standard Model (SM is a chiral theory, where right- and left-handed fermion fields transform differently under the gauge group. Extra fermions, if they do exist, need to be heavy otherwise they would have already been observed. With no complex mechanisms at work, such as confining interactions or extra-dimensions, this can only be achieved if every extra right-handed fermion comes paired with a left-handed one transforming in the same way under the Standard Model gauge group, otherwise the new states would only get a mass after electroweak symmetry breaking, which would necessarily be small (∼100 GeV. Such a simple requirement severely constrains the fermion content of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs. It is known for example that three copies of the representations 5¯+10 of SU(5 or three copies of the 16 of SO(10 can reproduce the Standard Model's chirality, but how unique are these arrangements? In a systematic way, this paper looks at the possibility of having non-standard mixtures of fermion GUT representations yielding the correct Standard Model chirality. Family unification is possible with large special unitary groups — for example, the 171 representation of SU(19 may decompose as 3(16+120+3(1 under SO(10.

  10. Electromagnetic Scattering by a Chiral Grating in a Homogeneous Chiral Environment and its Finite Element Method with Perfectly Matched Absorbing Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyue Zhang; Fuming Ma

    2006-01-01

    The scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves propagating in a homogeneous chiral environment by a chiral grating is studied. The problem is simplified to a two-dimensional scattering problem, and the existence and the uniqueness of solutions are discussed by a variational approach. The diffraction problem is solved by a finite element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers. Our computational experiments indicate that the method is efficient.

  11. Can a Non-Chiral Object Be Made of Two Identical Chiral Moieties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMarechal, Jean Francois

    2008-01-01

    Several pedagogical objects can be used to discuss chirality. Here, we use the cut of an apple to show that the association of identical chiral moieties can form a non-chiral object. Octahedral chirality is used to find situations equivalent to the cut of the apple. (Contains 5 figures.)

  12. An Inherent Chiral Calix[4]arene Bearing Chiral Groups without Forming Sub-ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Xian LIU; Yan Song ZHENG; Wan Ling MO

    2006-01-01

    The NMR spectra revealed that the calixarene frame of 1, 3-disubstituted calix[4]arenes bearing optically active groups is asymmetric, even without the formation of a sub-ring. This inherent chirality arises from the interaction of the two chiral groups, which hinder the substituents' free rotation. Thus, these chiral calix[4]arenes display good chiral recognition ability.

  13. Secure two-party quantum evaluation of unitaries against specious adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Salvail, Louis

    2010-01-01

    We describe how any two-party quantum computation, specified by a unitary which simultaneously acts on the registers of both parties, can be privately implemented against a quantum version of classical semi-honest adversaries that we call specious. Our construction requires two ideal functionalities to garantee privacy: a private SWAP between registers held by the two parties and a classical private AND-box equivalent to oblivious transfer. If the unitary to be evaluated is in the Clifford group then only one call to SWAP is required for privacy. On the other hand, any unitary not in the Clifford requires one call to an AND-box per R-gate in the circuit. Since SWAP is itself in the Clifford group, this functionality is universal for the private evaluation of any unitary in that group. SWAP can be built from a classical bit commitment scheme or an AND-box but an AND-box cannot be constructed from SWAP. It follows that unitaries in the Clifford group are to some extent the easy ones. We also show that SWAP cann...

  14. Matrix elements and duality for type 2 unitary representations of the Lie superalgebra gl(m|n)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werry, Jason L.; Gould, Mark D.; Isaac, Phillip S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    The characteristic identity formalism discussed in our recent articles is further utilized to derive matrix elements of type 2 unitary irreducible gl(m|n) modules. In particular, we give matrix element formulae for all gl(m|n) generators, including the non-elementary generators, together with their phases on finite dimensional type 2 unitary irreducible representations which include the contravariant tensor representations and an additional class of essentially typical representations. Remarkably, we find that the type 2 unitary matrix element equations coincide with the type 1 unitary matrix element equations for non-vanishing matrix elements up to a phase.

  15. Chaos of chiral condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-01-01

    Assigning a chaos index for vacua of generic quantum field theories is a challenging problem. We find chaotic behavior of chiral condensates of a quantum gauge theory at strong coupling limit, by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We evaluate the time evolution of homogeneous quark condensates and in an N=2 supersymmetric QCD with the SU(N_c) gauge group at large N_c and at large 't Hooft coupling lambda. At an equivalent classical gravity picture, a Lyapunov exponent is readily defined. We show that the condensates exhibit chaotic behavior for energy density E > (6x10^2) (N_c/lambda^2) (m_q)^4 where m_q is the quark mass. The energy region of the chaotic vacua of the N=2 supersymmetric QCD increases for smaller N_c or larger lambda. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated as a function of the theory (N_c,lambda,E), showing that the N=2 supersymmetric QCD is more chaotic for smaller N_c.

  16. Chiral Thirring–Wess model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Anisur, E-mail: anisur.rahman@saha.ac.in

    2015-10-15

    The vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model was replaced by the chiral type and a new model was presented which was termed as chiral Thirring–Wess model in Rahaman (2015). The model was studied there with a Faddeevian class of regularization. Few ambiguity parameters were allowed there with the apprehension that unitarity might be threatened like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. In the present work it has been shown that no counter term containing the regularization ambiguity is needed for this model to be physically sensible. So the chiral Thirring–Wess model is studied here without the presence of any ambiguity parameter and it has been found that the model not only remains exactly solvable but also does not lose the unitarity like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this new model have been determined in the present scenario. The theoretical spectrum is found to contain a massive boson with ambiguity free mass and a massless boson.

  17. Chiral Logs in Quenched QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, S J; Horváth, I; Lee, F X; Liu, K F; Mathur, N; Zhang, J B

    2003-01-01

    The quenched chiral logs are examined on a $16^3 \\times 28$ lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant $f_{\\pi}$ is used to set the lattice spacing, $a = 0.200(3)$ fm. With pion mass as low as $\\sim 180 {\\rm MeV}$, we see the quenched chiral logs clearly in $m_{\\pi}^2/m$ and $f_P$, the pseudoscalar decay constant. We analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT) to apply. With the constrained curve fitting, we are able to extract the quenched chiral log parameter $\\delta$ together with the chiral cutoff $\\Lambda_{\\chi}$ and other parameters. Only for $m_{\\pi} \\leq 300 {\\rm MeV}$ do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant $\\delta$ which we determine to be 0.23(2). By comparing to the $12^3 \\times 28$ lattice, we estimate the finite volume effect to be about 1.8% for the smallest pion mass. We also study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon and the $\\rho$ masses...

  18. Orientation-dependent handedness and chiral design

    OpenAIRE

    Efrati, Efi; Irvine, William T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in ...

  19. Chiral Decomposition For Non-Abelian Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, N R F; Braga, Nelson R. F.; Wotzasek, Clovis

    1996-01-01

    We study the non-abelian extension for the splitting of a scalar field into chiral components. Using this procedure we find a non ambiguous way of coupling a non abelian chiral scalar field to gravity. We start with a (non-chiral) WZW model covariantly coupled to a background metric and, after the splitting, arrive at two chiral Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) models coupled to gravity.

  20. Chiral gap effect in curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Flachi, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a new type of QCD phenomenon induced in curved space. In the QCD vacuum a mass gap of Dirac fermions is attributed to the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. If the curvature is positive large, the chiral condensate melts but a chiral invariant mass gap can still remain, which we name the chiral gap effect in curved space. This leads to decoupling of quark deconfinement which implies a view of black holes surrounded by a first-order QCD phase transition.

  1. Chirality: a relational geometric-physical property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Hans

    2013-11-01

    The definition of the term chirality by Lord Kelvin in 1893 and 1904 is analyzed by taking crystallography at that time into account. This shows clearly that chirality is a relational geometric-physical property, i.e., two relations between isometric objects are possible: homochiral or heterochiral. In scientific articles the relational term chirality is often mistaken for the two valued measure for the individual (absolute) sense of chirality, an arbitrary attributive term.

  2. Bifurcated, modular syntheses of chiral annulet triazacyclononanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argouarch, Gilles; Stones, Graham; Gibson, Colin L; Kennedy, Alan R; Sherrington, David C

    2003-12-21

    Three chiral 2,6-disubstituted tri-N-methyl azamacrocycles have been prepared by modular methods. These macrocycles were accessed from three chiral 1,4,7-triazaheptanes intermediates that were prepared by two independent routes. The first of these routes involved the benzylamine opening of chiral tosyl aziridines followed by debenzylation but was problematic on solubility grounds. A second, more effective, route was developed which avoided debenzylation by using ammonia in the nucleophilic opening of chiral tosyl aziridines.

  3. On the Biological Advantage of Chirality

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The presence of chirality in the main molecules of life may well be not just a structural artifact, but of pure biological advantage. The possibility of the existence of a phenomenon of a special mode of interaction, labeled as "chiral interaction" (CI), for which structural chirality is a necessary condition, is the main reason for such an advantage. In order to demonstrate such a possibility, macroscopic chiral devices are introduced and presented as analogies for such an interaction. For t...

  4. Field induced spin chirality and chirality switching in magnetic multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskaya, Elena V.

    2015-05-01

    The physical origin of the field-induced spin chirality experimentally observed in rare earth multilayers is determined. It is shown that the effect is possible due to the interplay between solid-state exchange interactions (the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida and the Dsyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions), the external magnetic field and a special confinement of magnetic constituents. The presented model describes a certain temperature dependence of the chirality factor in agreement with experimental data and opens a new way to design nanostructured objects with predicted handedness.

  5. Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumsa-ard, K.

    2006-07-01

    In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints

  6. Neutrino Oscillation Induced by Chiral Phase Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Cheng-Fu; SUN Gao-Feng; ZHUANG Peng-Fei

    2009-01-01

    Electric charge neutrality provides a relationship between chiral dynamics and neutrino propagation in compact stars.Due to the sudden drop of the electron density at the first-order chiral phase transition,the oscillation for low energy neutrinos is significant and can be regarded as a signature of chiral symmetry restoration in the core of compact stars.

  7. Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory to one loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, G.; Pallante, E.

    1998-01-01

    The divergences of the generating functional of quenched Chiral Perturbation theory (qCHPT) to one loop are computed in closed form. We show how the quenched chiral logarithms can be reabsorbed in the renormalization of the B0 parameter of the leading order Lagrangian. Finally, we do the chiral powe

  8. Shear Viscosity of Turbulent Chiral Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Avdhesh; Das, Amita; Kaw, P K

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the difference between the chemical potentials of left-handed and right-handed particles in a parity violating (chiral) plasma can lead to an instability. We show that the chiral instability may drive turbulent transport. Further we estimate the anomalous viscosity of chiral plasma arising from the enhanced collisionality due to turbulence.

  9. Exact Chiral Symmetry on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, H

    2001-01-01

    Developments during the last eight years have refuted the folklore that chiral symmetries cannot be preserved on the lattice. The mechanism that permits chiral symmetry to coexist with the lattice is quite general and may work in Nature as well. The reconciliation between chiral symmetry and the lattice is likely to revolutionize the field of numerical QCD.

  10. DOA estimation for monostatic MIMO radar based on unitary root-MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xianpeng; Li, Xin; Song, Hongru

    2013-11-01

    Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is an important issue for monostatic MIMO radar. A DOA estimation method for monostatic MIMO radar based on unitary root-MUSIC is presented in this article. In the presented method, a reduced-dimension matrix is first utilised to transform the high dimension of received signal data into low dimension one. Then, a low-dimension real-value covariance matrix is obtained by forward-backward (FB) averaging and unitary transformation. The DOA of targets can be achieved by unitary root-MUSIC. Due to the FB averaging of received signal data and the eigendecomposition of the real-valued matrix covariance, the proposed method owns better angle estimation performance and lower computational complexity. The simulation results of the proposed method are presented and the performances are investigated and discussed.

  11. Accurate and robust unitary transformation of a high-dimensional quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, B E; Riofrío, C A; Deutsch, I H; Jessen, P S

    2014-01-01

    Quantum control in large dimensional Hilbert spaces is essential for realizing the power of quantum information processing. For closed quantum systems the relevant input/output maps are unitary transformations, and the fundamental challenge becomes how to implement these with high fidelity in the presence of experimental imperfections and decoherence. For two-level systems (qubits) most aspects of unitary control are well understood, but for systems with Hilbert space dimension d>2 (qudits), many questions remain regarding the optimal design of control Hamiltonians and the feasibility of robust implementation. Here we show that arbitrary, randomly chosen unitary transformations can be efficiently designed and implemented in a large dimensional Hilbert space (d=16) associated with the electronic ground state of atomic 133Cs, achieving fidelities above 0.98 as measured by randomized benchmarking. Generalizing the concepts of inhomogeneous control and dynamical decoupling to d>2 systems, we further demonstrate t...

  12. A note on local unitary equivalence of isotropic-like states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Gui; Hua, Bo-Bo; Li, Ming; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Yang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    We consider the local unitary equivalence of a class of quantum states in a bipartite case and a multipartite case. The necessary and sufficient condition is presented. As special cases, the local unitary equivalent classes of isotropic state and Werner state are provided. Then we study the local unitary similar equivalence of this class of quantum states and analyze the necessary and sufficient condition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11401032, 61473325, 11501153, 11105226, 11275131, and 11401106), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 15CX08011A and 24720122013), the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province, China (Grant Nos. 20151005 and 20151010), and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

  13. Chiral cardiovascular drugs: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Vasant V; Somberg, John C

    2005-01-01

    Stereochemistry in drug molecules is rapidly becoming an important aspect in drug research, design, and development. Recently, individual stereoisomers of drug molecules with asymmetric centers such as fexofenadine, cetirizine, verapamil, fluoxetine, levalbutarol, and amphetamine, for example, have been separated and developed as individual drugs. These stereoisomers have different therapeutic activity, and each isomer has contributed differently with respect to its formulation's pharmacologic activity, side effects, and toxicity. The present overview discusses chirality among a select group of cardiovascular drugs, their stereochemical synthesis/preparation, isolation techniques using chiral chromatography, methods for confirmation of their enantiomeric purity, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics. Chirality has been visualized as an important factor in cardiovascular research. It is also becoming evident in other areas of therapeutics.

  14. Chirality and gravitational parity violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented.

  15. Synthetic Applications of Chiral Furanboronate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN KinFai; WONG Henry N,C.

    2001-01-01

    @@ We recently uncovered that consecutive reactions of chiral furfural-boronate 1 with a lithium alkoxide and a nucleophile led to the formation of alcohols 2 with good diastereoselection in favor of S-configuration at the newly generated chiral carbon. In addition, it was also found that 2a and 2b were chromatographically separable on a silica gel column. This reaction is believed to involve a tetrahedral borate intermediate, as can be substantiated by 11BNMR spectroscopic studies. Chiral furanmethanolboronates 2a(or 2b) underwent a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling to form enantiomerically pure furans 3, which can be further converted to the synthetically useful hydroxypyranones 4.1,2,3 In addition, Mukaiyama reaction of 1 also led to chromatographically separable diastereomeric aldol-products. The scope and limitation of these conversions will be discussed.

  16. Synthetic Applications of Chiral Furanboronate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN; KinFai

    2001-01-01

    We recently uncovered that consecutive reactions of chiral furfural-boronate 1 with a lithium alkoxide and a nucleophile led to the formation of alcohols 2 with good diastereoselection in favor of S-configuration at the newly generated chiral carbon. In addition, it was also found that 2a and 2b were chromatographically separable on a silica gel column. This reaction is believed to involve a tetrahedral borate intermediate, as can be substantiated by 11BNMR spectroscopic studies. Chiral furanmethanolboronates 2a(or 2b) underwent a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling to form enantiomerically pure furans 3, which can be further converted to the synthetically useful hydroxypyranones 4.1,2,3 In addition, Mukaiyama reaction of 1 also led to chromatographically separable diastereomeric aldol-products. The scope and limitation of these conversions will be discussed.  ……

  17. Chiral separation of agricultural fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; García, Maria Ángeles; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-23

    Fungicides are very important and diverse environmental and agricultural concern species. Their determination in commercial formulations or environmental matrices, requires highly efficient, selective and sensitive methods. A significant number of these chemicals are chiral with the activity residing usually in one of the enantiomers. The different toxicological and degradation behavior observed in many cases for fungicide enantiomers, results in the need to investigate them separately. For this purpose, separation techniques such as GC, HPLC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and CE have widely been employed although, at present, HPLC still dominates chromatographic chiral analysis of fungicides. This review covers the literature concerning the enantiomeric separation of fungicides usually employed in agriculture grouping the chiral separation methodologies developed for their analysis in environmental, biological, and food samples.

  18. Leading order covariant chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bing-Wei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the strong need for a covariant chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we develop a new covariant scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with a covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the covariant scheme induces all the six invariant spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force, which are also helpful to achieve cutoff independence for certain partial waves. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the scattering phase shifts with low angular momenta than the leading order Weinberg approach. Particularly, the description of the $^1S_0$, $^3P_0$, and $^1P_1$ partial waves is similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. Our study shows that the relativistic fr...

  19. Unitary representations of the Poincaré group and relativistic wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnuki, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    This book is devoted to an extensive and systematic study on unitary representations of the Poincaré group. The Poincaré group plays an important role in understanding the relativistic picture of particles in quantum mechanics. Complete knowledge of every free particle states and their behaviour can be obtained once all the unitary irreducible representations of the Poincaré group are found. It is a surprising fact that a simple framework such as the Poincaré group, when unified with quantum theory, fixes our possible picture of particles severely and without exception. In this connection, the

  20. Elementary Proof for Asymptotics of Large Haar-Distributed Unitary Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrodonato, Christian; Tumulka, Roderich

    2007-01-01

    We provide an elementary proof for a theorem due to Petz and R\\'effy which states that for a random $n\\times n$ unitary matrix with distribution given by the Haar measure on the unitary group U(n), the upper left (or any other) $k\\times k$ submatrix converges in distribution, after multiplying by a normalization factor $\\sqrt{n}$ and as $n\\to\\infty$, to a matrix of independent complex Gaussian random variables with mean 0 and variance 1.

  1. Unitary evolution for anisotropic quantum cosmologies: models with variable spatial curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sachin; Banerjee, Narayan

    2016-11-01

    Contrary to the general belief, there has recently been quite a few examples of unitary evolution of quantum cosmological models. The present work gives more examples, namely Bianchi type VI and type II. These examples are important as they involve varying spatial curvature unlike the most talked about homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models like Bianchi I, V and IX. We exhibit either an explicit example of the unitary solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, or at least show that a self-adjoint extension is possible.

  2. Unitary evolution for anisotropic quantum cosmologies: models with variable spatial curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to the general belief, there has recently been quite a few examples of unitary evolution of quantum cosmological models. The present work gives more examples, namely Bianchi type VI and type II. These examples are important as they involve varying spatial curvature unlike the most talked about homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models like Bianchi I, V and IX. We exhibit either explicit example of the unitary solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, or at least show that a self-adjoint extension is possible.

  3. Reduced Dynamics from the Unitary Group to Some Flag Manifolds : Interacting Matrix Riccati Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we treat the time evolution of unitary elements in the N level system and consider the reduced dynamics from the unitary group U(N) to flag manifolds of the second type (in our terminology). Then we derive a set of differential equations of matrix Riccati types interacting with one another and present an important problem on a nonlinear superposition formula that the Riccati equation satisfies. Our result is a natural generalization of the paper {\\bf Chaturvedi et al} (arXiv : 0706.0964 [quant-ph]).

  4. Classical 1D maps, quantum graphs and ensembles of unitary matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakonski, Prot [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: pakonski@if.uj.edu.pl; Zyczkowski, Karol; Kus, Marek [Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej PAN, Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mails: karol@cft.edu.pl; marek@cft.edu.pl

    2001-10-26

    We study a certain class of classical one-dimensional piecewise linear maps. For these systems we introduce an infinite family of Markov partitions in equal cells. The symbolic dynamics generated by these systems is described by bi-stochastic (doubly stochastic) matrices. We analyse the structure of graphs generated from the corresponding symbolic dynamics. We demonstrate that the spectra of quantized graphs corresponding to the regular classical systems have locally Poissonian statistics, while quantized graphs derived from classically chaotic systems display statistical properties characteristic of the circular unitary ensemble, even though the corresponding unitary matrices are sparse. (author)

  5. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel, part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1993-01-01

    A summary of optical techniques for the Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels are discussed. Six optical techniques were studied: Schlieren, light sheet and laser vapor screen, angle of attack, model deformation, infrared imagery, and digital image processing. The study includes surveys and reviews of wind tunnel optical techniques, some conceptual designs, and recommendations for use of optical methods in the Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels. Particular emphasis was placed on searching for systems developed for wind tunnel use and on commercial systems which could be readily adapted for wind tunnels. This final report is to summarize the major results and recommendations.

  6. Free-standing terahertz chiral meta-foils exhibiting strong optical activity and negative refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Ng, Binghao; Turaga, Shuvan P.; Breese, Mark B. H.; Maier, Stefan A.; Hong, Minghui; Bettiol, Andrew A.; Moser, Herbert O.

    2013-09-01

    A chiral meta-foil consisting of a self-supported square array of interconnected conjugated rosettes is demonstrated at terahertz frequencies. It exhibits strong optical activity and circular dichroism. Negative refractive index with a figure-of-merit as high as 4.2 is achieved, attributed to its free-standing nature. Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulation. Free-standing chiral meta-foils provide a unique approach to create a completely all-metal chiral metamaterial, which can be flexibly integrated into optical setups while eliminating dielectric insertion losses.

  7. Modern Chiral Forces Applied to the Nucleon-Deuteron Radiative Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibiński, Roman; Golak, Jacek; Topolnicki, Kacper; Witała, Henryk; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Kamada, Hiroyuki; Krebs, Hermann; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Nogga, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction with semi-local regularization up to the fifth order of chiral expansion is applied to the nucleon-deuteron radiative capture process. Our theoretical approach is based on the formalism of Faddeev equations and the Siegert theorem is exploited to construct the electromagnetic current operator. The very weak dependence of the differential cross section on values of the regularization parameter is observed. This suggests that the improved chiral two-body interaction is a promising starting point to study electromagnetic processes at low energies.

  8. O(N) universality and the chiral phase transition in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2010-01-01

    We discuss universal scaling properties of (2+1)-flavor QCD in the vicinity of the chiral phase transition at vanishing as well as non-vanishing light quark chemical potential (mu_l). We provide evidence for O(N) scaling of the chiral order parameter in (2+1)-flavor QCD and show that the scaling analysis of its derivative with respect to the light quark chemical potential provides a unique approach to the determination of the curvature of the chiral phase transition line in the vicinity of mu_l/T=0.

  9. Novel Chiral Auxiliaries of BIAZOLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Arh-Hwang

    2001-01-01

    Asymmetric catalysis is one of the most challenging and formidable endeavor in organic synthesis. The development of chiral auxiliaries is a key in the asymmetric catalysis. Azulenoids, a parent structure of bicyclo[5.3.0]decapentaene with 10 πelectrons, are useful as dye materials, medical treatment of inflammation and hypertension, and the development of liquid crystals. In continuing to investigate synthetic application of azulenoids, we have studied to develop novel chiral auxiliaries of BIAZOLs. The BIAZOLs were synthesized from dicyclopentadiene and characterized using spectroscopies.  ……

  10. Novel Chiral Auxiliaries of BIAZOLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Arh-Hwang; YUAN Shou-Bin; CHIU Shu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    @@ Asymmetric catalysis is one of the most challenging and formidable endeavor in organic synthesis. The development of chiral auxiliaries is a key in the asymmetric catalysis. Azulenoids, a parent structure of bicyclo[5.3.0]decapentaene with 10 πelectrons, are useful as dye materials, medical treatment of inflammation and hypertension, and the development of liquid crystals. In continuing to investigate synthetic application of azulenoids, we have studied to develop novel chiral auxiliaries of BIAZOLs. The BIAZOLs were synthesized from dicyclopentadiene and characterized using spectroscopies.

  11. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b......A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines...

  12. Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan; Stephanov, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    Using a covariant formalism, we construct a chiral kinetic theory Lorentz invariant to order $\\mathcal O(\\hbar)$ which includes collisions. We find a new contribution to the particle number current due to the side jumps required by the conservation of angular momentum during collisions. We also find a conserved symmetric stress-energy tensor as well as the $H$-function obeying Boltzmann's $H$-theorem. We demonstrate their use by finding a general equilibrium solution and the values of the anomalous transport coefficients characterizing chiral vortical effect.

  13. Strange chiral nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmert, T R; Meißner, Ulf G; Hemmert, Thomas R.; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the strange electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory to third order in the chiral expansion. All counterterms can be fixed from data. In particular, the two unknown singlet couplings can be deduced from the parity-violating electron scattering experiments performed by the SAMPLE and the HAPPEX collaborations. Within the given uncertainties, our analysis leads to a small and positive electric strangeness radius, $ = (0.05 \\pm 0.16) fm^2$. We also deduce the consequences for the upcoming MAMI A4 experiment.

  14. On Parametrization of the Linear GL(4,C and Unitary SU(4 Groups in Terms of Dirac Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Tokarevskaya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Parametrization of 4 × 4-matrices G of the complex linear group GL(4,C in terms of four complex 4-vector parameters (k,m,n,l is investigated. Additional restrictions separating some subgroups of GL(4,C are given explicitly. In the given parametrization, the problem of inverting any 4 × 4 matrix G is solved. Expression for determinant of any matrix G is found: det G = F(k,m,n,l. Unitarity conditions G+ = G-1 have been formulated in the form of non-linear cubic algebraic equations including complex conjugation. Several simplest solutions of these unitarity equations have been found: three 2-parametric subgroups G1, G2, G3 - each of subgroups consists of two commuting Abelian unitary groups; 4-parametric unitary subgroup consisting of a product of a 3-parametric group isomorphic SU(2 and 1-parametric Abelian group. The Dirac basis of generators Λk, being of Gell-Mann type, substantially differs from the basis λi used in the literature on SU(4 group, formulas relating them are found - they permit to separate SU(3 subgroup in SU(4. Special way to list 15 Dirac generators of GL(4,C can be used {Λk} = {αiÅβjÅ(αiVβj = KÅL ÅM }, which permit to factorize SU(4 transformations according to S = eiaα eibβeikKeilLeimM, where two first factors commute with each other and are isomorphic to SU(2 group, the three last ones are 3-parametric groups, each of them consisting of three Abelian commuting unitary subgroups. Besides, the structure of fifteen Dirac matrices Λk permits to separate twenty 3-parametric subgroups in SU(4 isomorphic to SU(2; those subgroups might be used as bigger elementary blocks in constructing of a general transformation SU(4. It is shown how one can specify the present approach for the pseudounitary group SU(2,2 and SU(3,1.

  15. On Parametrization of the Linear GL(4,C) and Unitary SU(4) Groups in Terms of Dirac Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red'Kov, Victor M.; Bogush, Andrei A.; Tokarevskaya, Natalia G.

    2008-02-01

    Parametrization of 4 × 4-matrices G of the complex linear group GL(4,C) in terms of four complex 4-vector parameters (k,m,n,l) is investigated. Additional restrictions separating some subgroups of GL(4,C) are given explicitly. In the given parametrization, the problem of inverting any 4 × 4 matrix G is solved. Expression for determinant of any matrix G is found: det G = F(k,m,n,l). Unitarity conditions G+ = G-1 have been formulated in the form of non-linear cubic algebraic equations including complex conjugation. Several simplest solutions of these unitarity equations have been found: three 2-parametric subgroups G1, G2, G3 - each of subgroups consists of two commuting Abelian unitary groups; 4-parametric unitary subgroup consis! ting of a product of a 3-parametric group isomorphic SU(2) and 1-parametric Abelian group. The Dirac basis of generators Λk, being of Gell-Mann type, substantially differs from the basis λi used in the literature on SU(4) group, formulas relating them are found - they permit to separate SU(3) subgroup in SU(4). Special way to list 15 Dirac generators of GL(4,C) can be used {Λk} = {μiÅνjÅ(μiVνj = KÅL ÅM )}, which permit to factorize SU(4) transformations according to S = eiaμ eibνeikKeilLeimM, where two first factors commute with each other and are isomorphic to SU(2) group, the three last ones are 3-parametric groups, each of them consisting of three Abelian commuting unitary subgroups. Besides, the structure of fifteen Dirac matrices Λk permits to separate twenty 3-parametric subgroups in SU(4) isomorphic to SU(2); those subgroups might be used as bigger elementary blocks in constructing of a general transformation SU(4). It is shown how one can specify the present approach for the pseudounitary group SU(2,2) and SU(3,1).

  16. Properties of hyperons in chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Camalich, J Martin; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    The development of chiral perturbation theory in hyperon phenomenology has been troubled due to power-counting subtleties and to a possible slow convergence. Furthermore, the presence of baryon-resonances, e.g. the lowest-lying decuplet, complicates the approach, and the inclusion of their effects may become necessary. Recently, we have shown that a fairly good convergence is possible using a renormalization prescription of the loop-divergencies which recovers the power counting, is covariant and consistent with analyticity. Moreover, we have systematically incorporated the decuplet resonances taking care of both power-counting and $consistency$ problems. A model-independent understanding of diferent properties including the magnetic moments of the baryon-octet, the electromagnetic structure of the decuplet resonances and the hyperon vector coupling $f_1(0)$, has been successfully achieved within this approach. We will briefly review these developments and stress the important role they play for an accurate d...

  17. Dynamic chirality, chirality transfer and aggregation behaviour of dithienylethene switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jaap J. D.; van Rijn, Patrick; Tiemersma-Wegeman, Theodora D.; Lucas, Linda N.; Browne, Wesley R.; Kellogg, Richard M.; Uchida, Kingo; Van Esch, Jan H.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of a series of chiral and achiral low molecular weight organogelators (LMWGs) based on bis-amide substituted dithienylethene photochromic switches is reported. The LMWGs gelate a range of solvents depending on the specific functionalisation of the hydrogen bonding

  18. K stability and stability of chiral ring

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Tristan C; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2016-01-01

    We define a notion of stability for chiral ring of four dimensional N=1 theory by introducing test chiral rings and generalized a maximization. We conjecture that a chiral ring is the chiral ring of a superconformal field theory if and only if it is stable. We then study N=1 field theory derived from D3 branes probing a three-fold singularity X, and show that the K stability which implies the existence of Ricci-flat conic metric on X is equivalent to the stability of chiral ring of the corresponding field theory.

  19. Chiral interactions of light induced by low-dimensional dynamics in complex potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sunkyu; Piao, Xianji; Min, Bumki; Park, Namkyoo

    2014-01-01

    Chirality is a universal feature in nature, as observed in fermion interactions and DNA helicity. Much attention has been given to the chiral interactions of light, not only regarding its physical interpretation but also focusing on intriguing phenomena in excitation, absorption, generation, and refraction. Although recent progress in metamaterials and 3-dimensional writing technology has spurred artificial enhancements of optical chirality, most approaches are founded on the same principle of the mixing of electric and magnetic responses. However, due to the orthogonal form of electric and magnetic fields, intricate designs are commonly required for mixing. Here, we propose an alternative route to optical chirality, exploiting the nonmagnetic mixing of amplifying and decaying electric modes based on non-Hermitian theory. We show that a 1-dimensional helical eigenmode can exist singularly in a complex anisotropic material, in sharp contrast to the 2-dimensional eigenspaces employed in previous approaches. We ...

  20. Improving the sensitivity in chiral capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Elena; Marina, María Luisa; Crego, Antonio L

    2016-01-01

    CE is known for being one of the most powerful analytical techniques when performing enantioseparations due to its numerous advantages such as excellent separation efficiency and extremely low solvents and reagents consumption, all of them derived from the capillary small dimensions. Moreover, it is worth highlighting that unlike in chromatographic techniques, in CE the chiral selector is generally within the separation medium instead of being attached to the separation column which makes the method optimization a more versatile task. Despite its numerous advantages, when using UV-Vis detection, CE lacks of sensitivity detection due to its short optical path length derived from the narrow separation capillary. This issue can be overcome by means of different approaches, either by sample treatment procedures or by in-capillary preconcentration techniques or even by employing detection systems more sensitive than UV-Vis, such as LIF or MS. The present review assembles the latest contributions regarding improvements of sensitivity in chiral CE published from June 2013 until May 2015, which follows the works included in a previous review reported by Sánchez-Hernández et al. [Electrophoresis 2014, 35, 12-27].