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Sample records for chiral soliton model

  1. Solitons in nonlocal chiral quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Broniowski, W; Ripka, G; Broniowski, Wojciech; Golli, Bojan; Ripka, Georges

    2002-01-01

    Properties of hedgehog solitons in a chiral quark model with nonlocal regulators are described. We discuss the formation of the hedgehog soliton, the quantization of the baryon number, the energetic stability, the gauging and construction of Noether currents with help of path-ordered P-exponents, and the evaluation of observables. The issue of nonlocality is thoroughly discussed, with a focus on contributions to observables related to the Noether currents. It is shown that with typical model parameters the solitons are not far from the weak nonlocality limit. The methods developed are applicable to solitons in models with separable nonlocal four-fermion interactions.

  2. Nucleon-antinucleon annihilation in chiral soliton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate annihilation process of nucleons in the chiral soliton model by the path integral method. A soliton-antisoliton pair is shown to decay into mesons at range of about 1fm, defined by the S bar S potential. Contribution of the annihilation channel to the elastic scattering is discussed

  3. Nucleon-antinucleon annihilation in chiral soliton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate annihilation process of nucleons in chiral soliton model by path integral method. Soliton-antisoliton pair is shown to decay into pions at range of order of about 1 fm, defined by SS-bar potential. Contribution of annihilation channel into elastic scattering is discussed. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  4. The baryon number two system in the Chiral Soliton Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sarti, Valentina Mantovani; Vento, Vicente; Park, Byung-Yoon

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between two B = 1 states in a Chiral Soliton Model where baryons are described as non-topological solitons. By using the hedgehog solution for the B = 1 states we construct three possible B = 2 configurations to analyze the role of the relative orientation of the hedgehog quills in the dynamics. The strong dependence of the intersoliton interaction on these relative orientations reveals that studies of dense hadronic matter using this model should take into account their implications.

  5. Chiral soliton model vs. pentaquark structure for (1540)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Ramachandran

    2005-09-01

    The exotic baryon + (1540 MeV) is visualized as an expected (iso) rotational excitation in the chiral soliton model. It is also argued as a pentaquark baryon state in a constituent quark model with strong diquark correlations. I contrast these two points of view; observe the similarities and differences between the two pictures. Collective excitation, the characteristic of chiral soliton model, points toward small mixing of representations in the wake of (3) breaking. In contrast, constituent quark models prefer near `ideal' mixing, similar to - mixing.

  6. Confined Chiral Solitons in the Spectral Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Arriola, E; Golli, B; Arriola, Enrique Ruiz; Broniowski, Wojciech; Golli, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    Chiral solitons with baryon number one are investigated in the spectral quark model. In this model the quark propagator is a superposition of complex mass propagators with a suitable spectral function. As a result, the constituent quark mass is identified with saddle points of the Dirac eigenvalues. Due to this feature the valence quarks never become unbound nor dive into the negative spectrum, hence providing stable solitons as absolute minima of the action. This a manifestation of the built-in analytic confinement in the spectral quark model. Self-consistent mean field hedgehog solutions are found and some of their properties determined. Our analysis constitutes an example of a treatment of a relativistic complex mass system.

  7. Solitons in a chiral quark model with non-local interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Golli, B; Ripka, G; Golli, Bojan; Broniowski, Wojciech; Ripka, Georges

    1998-01-01

    Hedgehog solitons are found in a chiral quark model with non-local interactions. The solitons are stable without the chiral-circle constraint for the meson fields, as was assumed in previous Nambu-Jona--Lasinio model with local interactions.

  8. The baryon mass calculation in the chiral soliton model at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the mean-field approximation, we have studied the soliton which is embedded in a thermal medium within the chiral soliton model. The energy of the soliton or the baryon mass in the thermal medium has been carefully evaluated, in which we emphasize that the thermal effective potential in the soliton energy should be properly treated in order to derive a finite and well-defined baryon mass out of the thermal background. The result of the baryon mass at finite temperatures and densities in chiral soliton model are clearly presented. (author)

  9. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, D

    2004-01-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ``chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ``soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  10. Instability of the hedgehog shape for the octet baryon in the chiral quark soliton model

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, S; Akiyama, Satoru; Futami, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the stability of the hedgehog shape of the chiral soliton is studied for the octet baryon with the SU(3) chiral quark soliton model. The strangeness degrees of freedom are treated by a simplified bound-state approach, which omits the locality of the kaon wave function. The mean field approximation for the flavor rotation is applied to the model. The classical soliton changes shape according to the strangeness. The baryon appears as a rotational band of the combined system of the deformed soliton and the kaon.

  11. Selected problems of baryons spectroscopy: chiral soliton versus quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B

    2008-01-01

    Inconsistency between rigid rotator and bound state models at arbitrary number of colors, rigid rotator -- soft rotator dilemma and some other problems of baryon spectroscopy are discussed in the framework of the chiral soliton approach (CSA). Consequences of the comparison of CSA results with simple quark models are considered and the $1/N_c$ expansion for the effective strange antiquark mass is presented, as it follows from the CSA. Strong dependence of the effective strange antiquark mass on the SU(3) multiplet is required to fit the CSA predictions. The difference of `good' and `bad' diquark masses, which is about 100 Mev, is in reasonable agreement with other estimates. Multibaryons (hypernuclei) with strangeness are described and some states of interest are predicted within CSA as well.

  12. Color chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Novozhilov, V Yu; Novozhilov, Victor; Novozhilov, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    We discuss specific features of color chiral solitons (asymptotics, possibility of confainment, quantization) at example of isolated SU(2) color skyrmions, i.e. skyrmions in a background field which is the vacuum field forming the gluon condensate.

  13. Chiral Quark Soliton Model and Nucleon Spin Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wakamatsu, M

    2009-01-01

    The chiral quark soliton model (CQSM) is one of the most successful models of baryons at quark level, which maximally incorporates the most important feature of low energy QCD, i.e. the chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breakdown. Basically, it is a relativistic mean-field theory with full account of infinitely many Dirac-sea quarks in a rotational-symmetry-breaking mean field of hedgehog shape. The numerical technique established so far enables us to make a nonperturbative evaluation of Casimir effects (i.e. effects of vacuum-polarized Dirac sea) on a variety of baryon observables. This incompatible feature of the model manifests most clearly in its predictions for parton distribution functions of the nucleon. In this talk, after briefly reviewing several basic features of the CQSM, we plan to demonstrate in various ways that this unique model of baryons provides us with an ideal tool for disentangling nonperturbative aspect of the internal partonic structure of the nucleon, especially the underlying spin ...

  14. On the Chiral Quark Soliton Model with Pauli-Villars Regularization

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, T.; Wakamatsu, M.; Watabe, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Pauli-Villars regularization scheme is often used for evaluating parton distributions within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model with inclusion of the vacuum polarization effects. Its simplest version with a single subtraction term should however be taken with some caution, since it does not fully get rid of divergences contained in scalar and psuedoscalar quark densities appearing in the soliton equation of motion. To remedy this shortcoming, we propose here its natural exten...

  15. Non-local regularization of chiral quark models in the soliton sector

    CERN Document Server

    Ripka, G; Ripka, Georges; Golli, Bojan

    1999-01-01

    A chiral quark model is described which is regularized in terms of Lorentz invariant non-local interactions. The model is regularized to all loop orders and it ensures the proper quantization of the baryon number. It sustains bound hedgehog solitons which, after suitable centre of mass corrections, can adequately describe the nucleon.

  16. Quantum solitons of the nonlinear sigma-model with broken chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kostyuk, A P; Chepilko, N M; Okazaki, T

    1995-01-01

    It is proved that the quantum-mechanical consideration of global breathing of a hedgehog-like field configuration leads to the dynamically stable soliton solutions in the nonlinear sigma-model without the Skyrme term. Such solutions exist only when chiral symmetry of the model is broken.

  17. The B=2 system in the chiral quark-soliton model with broken scale invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Sarti, Valentina Mantovani; Vento, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between two B=1 states in the Chiral-Dilaton Model with scale invariance where baryons are described as non-topological solitons arising from the interaction of chiral mesons and quarks. By using the hedgehog solution for the B=1 states we construct, via a product ansatz, three possible B=2 configurations to analyse the role of the relative orientation of the hedgehog quills in the dynamics. We investigate the behaviour of these solutions in the range of long and intermediate distances between the two solitons. Since the product ansatz breaks down as the two solitons get close, we explore the short range distances regime by building up a six quarks bag and by evaluating the interaction energy as a function of the inter-soliton separation. We calculate the interaction energy as a function of the inter-soliton distance for the B=2 system and we show that for small separations the six quarks bag, assuming a hedgehog structure, provides a stable bound state that at large separations conne...

  18. The projected chiral soliton model with vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the solitonic sector of the massive Yang-Mills Lagrangian including σ-, π-, ω-, ρ-, A-mesons as well as valence quarks and apply it to the calculation of some baryonic properties. We perform the canonical quantization which requires the explicit elimination of the time-like components of the vector fields. A mean-field Fock state with hedgehog symmetry is defined as a product of a Slater determinant for the quarks in a 1s-state and coherent states for the mesons. We project this mean-field Fock state onto good spin and isospin by means of Peierls-Yoccoz operators and obtain, after fitting the nucleon mass, a NΔ splitting which is about 80% of the experimental value. A good description of electromagnetic and axial static properties as well as form factors of the nucleon is achieved. Furthermore, the spin content of the nucleon is analyzed in terms of the flavor singlet axial vector coupling constant giving g0A similar 0.44 independently of the input parameters. Finally, the proton-neutron hadronic mass spitting is estimated in the model giving Mn-Mp=2.38±0.55 MeV, the errors reflecting the uncertainty in the up and down quark masses. (orig.)

  19. Energy-Momentum Tensor Form Factors of the Nucleon in Nuclear Matter in the Chiral Soliton Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Schweitzer, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In the present talk, we report a recent investigation on the nucleon form factors of the energy-momentum tensor in nuclear matter, based on the in-medium modified chiral soliton model. The results in free space are in agreement with those from other approaches. We have discussed the changes of the energy-momentum tensor form factors in nuclear matter and the modification of the soliton structure due to the surrounding nuclear environment.

  20. Quantum corrections to the masses of the octet and decuplet baryons in the SU(3) chiral quark soliton model

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, S; Akiyama, Satoru; Futami, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Mesonic fluctuations around the chiral solitons are investigated in the SU(3) chiral quark soliton model. Since the soliton takes the non-hedgehog shape for the hyperons and the hedgehog one for the non-hedgehog baryons in our approach, the fluctuations also change according to the baryonic state. The quantum corrections to the masses (the Casimir energies) are estimated for the octet and decuplet baryons. The lack of the confinement in this model demands the cutoff on the energy of the fluctuations. Under the assumption that the value of the cutoff energy is $2\\times$(the lightest constituent quark mass), these calculation reproduces the masses of the baryons within 15 % error.

  1. On Exotic Systems of Baryons in Chiral Soliton Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The role of zero mode quantum corrections to the energy of baryonic systems with exotic quantum numbers (strangeness) is discussed. A simple expression for the contribution depending on strange inertia is obtained in the $SU(3)-$collective coordinate quantization approach, and it is shown that this correction stabilizes the systems the stronger the greater their baryon number is. Furthemore, systems are considered which could be interpreted in the quark model language as containing additional $q\\bar q-$pairs. It is argued that a strange skyrmion crystal should have additional binding in comparison with the $SU(2)-$quantized neutron crystal.

  2. Sensitivity to properties of the phi-meson in the nucleon structure in the chiral soliton model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Zhang, L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The influence of the {phi}-meson on the nucleon properties in the chiral soliton model is discussed. Properties of the {phi}-meson and its photo- and electroproduction are of fundamental interest to CEBAF and its possible future extension. The quark model assigns {phi} an s{bar s} structure, thus forbidding the radiative decay {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}. Experimentally it is also found to be suppressed, yielding a branching fraction of 1.3{times}10{sup {minus}3}. However, {phi}{yields}{rho}{pi} and {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup 0} are not suppressed at all. Thus, it is possible to incorporate the widths of these decays into the framework of the chiral soliton model, by making use of a specific model for the compliance with OZI rule. Such a model is for example, the {omega}-{phi} mixing model. Consequence of this in the context of a chiral soliton model, which builds on the {pi}{rho}{omega}a{sub 1}(f{sub 1}) meson effective Lagrangian, is the context of this report.

  3. Vector solitons in nonlinear isotropic chiral metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsitsas, N L [School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, Athens 15773 (Greece); Lakhtakia, A [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States); Frantzeskakis, D J, E-mail: dfrantz@phys.uoa.gr [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece)

    2011-10-28

    Starting from the Maxwell equations, we used the reductive perturbation method to derive a system of two coupled nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equations for the two Beltrami components of the electromagnetic field propagating along a fixed direction in an isotropic nonlinear chiral metamaterial. With single-resonance Lorentz models for the permittivity and permeability and a Condon model for the chirality parameter, in certain spectral regimes, one of the two Beltrami components exhibits a negative-real refractive index when nonlinearity is ignored and the chirality parameter is sufficiently large. We found that, inside such a spectral regime, there may exist a subregime wherein the system of the NLS equations can be approximated by the Manakov system. Bright-bright, dark-dark, and dark-bright vector solitons can be formed in that spectral subregime. (paper)

  4. Chiral solitons in a coupled double Peierls chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sangmo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Yeom, Han Woong

    2015-10-01

    Chiral edge states are the hallmark of two- and three-dimensional topological materials, but their one-dimensional (1D) analog has not yet been found. We report that the 1D topological edge states, solitons, of the charge density wave system of indium atomic wires self-assembled on a silicon surface have chirality. The system is described by a coupled double Peierls-dimerized atomic chain, where the interchain coupling induces dynamical sublattice symmetry breaking. This changes its topological symmetry from Z₂× Z₂to Z₄ and endows solitons with a chiral degree of freedom. Chiral solitons can produce quantized charge transport across the chain that is topologically protected and controllable by the soliton's chirality. Individual right- and left-chiral solitons in indium wires are directly identified by scanning tunneling microscopy. PMID:26450206

  5. $\\Delta$(1232) electroproduction amplitudes in chiral soliton models of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Amoreira, L; Fiolhais, M; Amoreira, Luis; Alberto, Pedro; Fiolhais, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    The multipole amplitudes for the N - Delta electromagnetic transition are computed in the framework of the linear sigma model and the chiral chromodielectric model for small and moderate photon virtualities. The models include quark and meson degrees of freedom and the nucleon and the delta are clusters of three valence hedgehog quarks surrounded by meson clouds described by coherent states. Angular momentum and isospin projections are performed to endow model states representing the nucleon and the delta with proper quantum numbers. Recoil corrections involved in the process $\\gamma_{\\rm v} N \\to \\Delta$ are taken into account by performing linear momentum projection of the initial and final baryon states. The ratios $E2/M1$ and $C2/M1$ are in good agreement with the data in the two models, but the magnetic amplitude is better reproduced in the Linear Sigma Model. The ratios show little dependence with the model parameters. Both in the Linear Sigma Model and in the Chromodielectric Model the charged pions ar...

  6. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Weigel

    2003-11-01

    In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark flavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully regularizes the effective action but also leads the scaling laws for structure functions. For the nucleon structure functions the present approach serves to determine the regularization prescription for structure functions whose leading moments are not given by matrix elements of local operators. Some numerical results are presented for the spin structure functions.

  7. Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudyn, Urszula A; Jung, Paweł S; Karpierz, Mirosław A; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response. PMID:26975651

  8. Chiral Soliton Lattice and Charged Pion Condensation in Strong Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The Chiral Soliton Lattice (CSL) is a state with a periodic array of topological solitons that spontaneously breaks parity and translational symmetries. Such a state is known to appear in chiral magnets. We show that CSL also appears as a ground state of quantum chromodynamics at nonzero chemical potential in a magnetic field. By analyzing the fluctuations of the CSL, we furthermore demonstrate that in strong but achievable magnetic fields, charged pions undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Our results, based on a systematic low-energy effective theory, are model-independent and fully analytic.

  9. Baryon resonances without quarks: A chiral soliton perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karliner, M.

    1987-03-01

    In many processes involving low momentum transfer it is fruitful to regard the nucleon as a soliton or ''monopole-like'' configuration of the pion field. In particular, within this framework it is possible to obtain detailed predictions for pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes and for properties of baryon resonances. One can also derive model-independent linear relations between scattering amplitudes, such as ..pi..N and anti KN. A short survey of some recent results is given, including comparison with experimental data.

  10. Soliton-soliton and wave-soliton collisions in Skyrme-like [sigma]-models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, A. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Piette, B. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Zakrzewski, W.J. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1993-12-01

    A skyrme-like inversion of the (2+1)-dimensional classical [sigma]-model is considered. Some aspects of soliton-soliton collisions are studied using both the numerical and phenomenological approaches. In particular, the problem of 90 scattering of solitons in the head-on collisions is analyzed. Properties of the two-soliton configurations for v[proportional to]v[sub cr] are discussed in terms of a specific solution, which may be called a 'disoliton'. This solution corresponds to a saddle point in the space of field configurations and is unstable with respect to the decay into two well separated solitons. Different classes of field configurations, which may be called 'one-dimensional' wave packets, are also studied as well as the interaction of these wave packets with a soliton. (orig.)

  11. Inelastic soliton-soliton interaction in coninin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field equations with nonlinearity proportional to |PSI|sup(-α)PSI, α>0 (model 1 of Simonov-Tjon) are solved in one spatial dimension with initial conditions corresponding to two colliding solitons. One or several breathers are generated during the collision process and the solitons remain stable after collision. An extensive study is done of the collision process and the breather generation for different values of the interaction parameter α, velocities and relative phase in the initial state. In addition the collision of two breathers is considered. Some comparative study of one dimensional model of the Werle type is also done

  12. Vector transition form factors of the $N K^*\\to\\Theta^+ $ and $N \\bar{K}^*\\to \\Sigma_{\\bar{10}}^{*-}$ in the SU(3) chiral quark-soliton model

    CERN Document Server

    Ledwig, Tim; Goeke, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the vector transition form factors of the nucleon and vector meson $K^*$ to the pentaquark baryon $\\Theta^+$ within the framework of the SU(3) chiral quark-soliton model. We take into account the rotational $1/N_c$ and linear $m_{\\rm s}$ corrections, assuming isospin symmetry and employing the symmetry-conserving quantization. It turns out that the leading-order contributions to the form factors are almost cancelled by the rotational corrections. Because of this, the flavor SU(3) symmetry-breaking terms yield sizeable effects on the transition form factors. In particular, the main contribution to the electric transition form factor comes from the wave-function corrections, which is a consequence of the generalized Ademollo-Gatto theorem derived in the present work. We estimate with the help of the vector meson dominance the $K^*$ vector and tensor coupling constants for the $\\Theta^+$: $g_{K^{*}N\\Theta}=0.74 - 0.87$ and $f_{K^{*}N\\Theta}=0.53 - 1.16$. We argue that the outcome of the present wo...

  13. Baryons with Two Heavy Quarks as Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Bander, Myron; Subbaraman, Anand

    1994-01-01

    Using the chiral soliton model and heavy quark symmetry we study baryons containing two heavy quarks. If there exists a stable (under strong interactions) meson consisting of two heavy quarks and two light ones, then we find that there always exists a state of this meson bound to a chiral soliton and to a chiral anti-soliton, corresponding to a two heavy quark baryon and a baryon containing two heavy anti-quarks and five light quarks, or a ``heptaquark".

  14. Generalized simplicial chiral models

    CERN Document Server

    Alimohammadi, M

    2000-01-01

    Using the auxiliary field representation of the simplicial chiral models on a (d-1)-dimensional simplex, we generalize the simplicial chiral models by replacing the term Tr$(AA^{\\d})$ in the Lagrangian of these models, by an arbitrary class function of $AA^{\\d}; V(AA^{\\d})$. This is the same method that has been used in defining the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM_2) from ordinary YM_2. We call these models, the " generalized simplicial chiral models ". With the help of the results of one-link integral over a U(N) matrix, we compute the large-N saddle-point equations for eigenvalue density function $\\ro (z)$ in the weak ($\\b >\\b_c$) and strong ($\\b <\\b_c$) regions. In d=2, where the model somehow relates to gYM_2 theory, we solve the saddle-point equations and find $\\ro (z)$ in two region, and calculate the explicit value of critical point $\\b_c$ for $V(B)=TrB^n (B=AA^{\\d})$. For $V(B)=Tr B^2,Tr B^3$ and Tr$B^4$, we study the critical behaviour of the model at d=2, and by calculating t...

  15. Stationary dissipative solitons of Model G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Matthew; LaViolette, Paul A.

    2013-07-01

    Model G, the earliest reaction-diffusion system proposed to support the existence of solitons is shown to do so under distant steady-state boundary conditions. Subatomic particle physics phenomenology, including multi-particle bonding, movement in concentration gradients, and a particle structure matching Kelly's charge distribution model of the nucleon, are observed. Lastly, it is shown how a three-variable reversible Brusselator, a close relative of Model G, can also support solitons.

  16. Noncommutative Solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solitonic objects play a central role in gauge and string theory (as, e.g., monopoles, black holes, D-branes, etc.). Certain string backgrounds produce a noncommutative deformation of the low-energy effective field theory, which allows for new types of solitonic solutions. I present the construction, moduli spaces and dynamics of Moyal-deformed solitons, exemplified in the 2+1 dimensional Yang-Mills-Higgs theory and its Bogomolny system, which is gauge-fixed to an integrable chiral sigma model (the Ward model). Noncommutative solitons for various 1+1 dimensional integrable systems (such as sine-Gordon) easily follow by dimensional and algebraic reduction. Supersymmetric extensions exist as well and are related to twistor string theory

  17. Solitons in the one-dimensional forest fire model

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Per; Chen, Kan; Paczuski, Maya

    2000-01-01

    Fires in the one-dimensional Bak-Chen-Tang forest fire model propagate as solitons, resembling shocks in Burgers turbulence. The branching of solitons, creating new fires, is balanced by the pair-wise annihilation of oppositely moving solitons. Two distinct, diverging length scales appear in the limit where the growth rate of trees, $p$, vanishes. The width of the solitons, $w$, diverges as a power law, $1/p$, while the average distance between solitons diverges much faster as $ d \\sim \\exp({...

  18. Soliton models for thick branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w^2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schrödinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ ^4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ ^6 branes.

  19. Soliton models for thick branes

    CERN Document Server

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in $4+1$ dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon ($SG$), $\\varphi^{4}$ and $\\varphi^{6}$ scalar fields, which have broken $Z_{2}$ symmetry in some cases, and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacuua. These vacuua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighbourhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the $w^2$ term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schrodinger-like equation, where $w$ is the 5-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the $\\phi^4$ brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model param...

  20. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  1. Model with solitons in (2+1) dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.M.; Rashid, M.S.; Piette, B.; Zakrzewski, W.J. (Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1992-01-01

    We consider various models in (2+1) dimensions which possess soliton-like solutions. We discuss the additional terms that must be added to the conventional S{sup 2} model in order that its solutions are stable and so can be treated as solitons. The role of various terms is analysed and some properties of the solitonic solutions are discussed. (orig.).

  2. Chiral Quark Model of Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X J; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Yan, Mu-Lin

    1999-01-01

    We study SU(3)$_L\\timesSU(3)_R$ chiral quark model of mesons up to next leading order of $1/N_c$ expansion. Composite vector and axial-vector mesons resonances are introduced via non-linear realization of chiral SU(3) and vector meson dominant. Effects of one-loop graphs of pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons is calculated systematically and the significant results are obtained. Correction of effective gluon interaction is studied too. The light quark masses are introduced via new mechanism which agree with phenomenology and the requirement of chiral symmetry. Up to powers four of derivatives, chiral effective lagrangian of mesons is derived and evaluated to next leading order of $1/N_c$. Low energy limit of the model is examined. Ten low energy coupling constants $L_i(i=1,2,...,10)$ in ChPT are obtained and agree with ChPT well.

  3. Chiral Thirring–Wess model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Anisur, E-mail: anisur.rahman@saha.ac.in

    2015-10-15

    The vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model was replaced by the chiral type and a new model was presented which was termed as chiral Thirring–Wess model in Rahaman (2015). The model was studied there with a Faddeevian class of regularization. Few ambiguity parameters were allowed there with the apprehension that unitarity might be threatened like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. In the present work it has been shown that no counter term containing the regularization ambiguity is needed for this model to be physically sensible. So the chiral Thirring–Wess model is studied here without the presence of any ambiguity parameter and it has been found that the model not only remains exactly solvable but also does not lose the unitarity like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this new model have been determined in the present scenario. The theoretical spectrum is found to contain a massive boson with ambiguity free mass and a massless boson.

  4. Nucleon electric polarizability in soliton models and the role of the seagull terms

    OpenAIRE

    Scoccola, Norberto N.; Cohen, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    The full Hamiltonian of the soliton models contains no electric seagull terms. Here it is shown that if one restricts the fields to the collective subspace then electric seagull terms are induced in the effective Hamiltonian. These effective seagull contributions are consistent with gauge invariance. They also reproduce the leading nonanalytic behavior of a large $N_c$ chiral perturbation theory calculation of the electric polarizability.

  5. Non-topological soliton bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilets, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee soliton model, which effects confinement by a quantal scalar field, is discussed. The Lagrangian for the non-topological soliton model is the usual QCD Lagrangian supplemented by a non-linear scalar sigma field term. Static solutions to the field equations are considered in the mean field approximation. Small amplitude oscillations are discussed. Quantum alternatives to the mean field approximation are also considered. Methods of momentum projection and Lorentz boost are described, and the generator coordinate method is discussed. Calculations of the N-N interaction are reviewed briefly. Also discussed is one-gluon exchange, as well as the pion and dressing of the baryons. The hadron states are summarized. One loop quantum corrections are discussed briefly. Work in progress is mentioned in the areas of N-anti N annihilation, the many bag problem, and a Pauli equation for the nucleon. 31 refs. (LEW)

  6. Topological solitons in the supersymmetric Skyrme model

    CERN Document Server

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Sasaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    A supersymmetric extension of the Skyrme model was obtained recently, which consists of only the Skyrme term in the Nambu-Goldstone (pion) sector complemented by the same number of quasi-Nambu-Goldstone bosons. Scherk-Schwarz dimensional reduction yields a kinetic term in three or lower dimensions and a potential term in two dimensions, preserving supersymmetry. Euclidean solitons (instantons) are constructed in the supersymmetric Skyrme model. In four dimensions, the soliton is an instanton first found by Speight. Scherk-Schwarz dimensional reduction is then performed once to get a 3-dimensional theory in which a 3d Skyrmion-instanton is found and then once more to get a 2d theory in which a 2d vortex-instanton is obtained. Although the last one is a global vortex it has finite action in contrast to conventional theory. All of them are non-BPS states breaking all supersymmetries.

  7. Knot solitons in the AFZ model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Ji-Rong; Mo Shu-Fan; Zhu Tao

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the topological properties of knotted solitons in the (3 + 1)-dimensional Aratyn-Ferreira-Zimerman (AFZ) model. Topologically, these solitons are characterized by the Hopf invariant I, which is an integral class in the homotopy group π3(S3)= Z. By making use of the decomposition of U(1) gauge potential theory and Duan's topological current theory, it is shown that the invariant is just the total sum of all the self-linking and linking numbers of the knot family while only linking numbers are considered in other papers. Furthermore, it is pointed out that this invariant is preserved in the branch processes (splitting, merging and intersection) of these knot vortex lines.

  8. Solutions of ward's modified chiral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the adaptation of Uhlenbeck's method of solving the chiral model in 2 Euclidean dimensions to Ward's modified chiral model in (2+1) dimensions. We show that the method reduces the problem of solving the second-order partial differential equations for the chiral field to solving a sequence of first-order partial differential equations for time dependent projector valued fields

  9. A Statistical Model for Soliton Particle Interaction in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans; Truelsen, J.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical model for soliton-particle interaction is presented. A master equation is derived for the time evolution of the particle velocity distribution as induced by resonant interaction with Korteweg-de Vries solitons. The detailed energy balance during the interaction subsequently determines...... the evolution of the soliton amplitude distribution. The analysis applies equally well for weakly nonlinear plasma waves in a strongly magnetized waveguide, or for ion acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional systems....

  10. Chiral Cosmological Models: Dark Sector Fields Description

    CERN Document Server

    Chervon, S V

    2014-01-01

    The present review is devoted to a Chiral Cosmological Model as the self-gravitating nonlinear sigma model with the potential of (self)interactions employed in cosmology. The chiral cosmological model has successive applications in descriptions of the inflationary epoch of the Universe evolution; the present accelerated expansion of the Universe also can be described by the chiral fields multiplet as the dark energy in wide sense. To be more illustrative we are often addressed to the two-component chiral cosmological model. Namely, the two-component chiral cosmological model describing the phantom field with interaction to a canonical scalar field is analyzed in details. New generalized model of quintom character is proposed and exact solutions are founded out. In the review we represented the perturbation theory for chiral cosmological model with the aim to describe the structure formation using the progress achieved in the inflation theory. It was shown that cosmological perturbations from chiral fields can...

  11. Chiral magnetic effect in the PNJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji; Gatto, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    We study the two-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop (PNJL model) in the presence of a strong magnetic field and a chiral chemical potential $\\mu_5$ which mimics the effect of imbalanced chirality due to QCD instanton and/or sphaleron transitions. Firstly we focus on the properties of chiral symmetry breaking and deconfinement crossover under the strong magnetic field. Then we discuss the role of $\\mu_5$ on the phase structure. Finally the chirality charge, electric current, and their susceptibility, which are relevant to the Chiral Magnetic Effect, are computed in the model.

  12. Spatiotemporal Chaos of Soliton in a Generalized Skyrme Model with the Modified Symmetrybreaking Term

    CERN Document Server

    Tho, N V; Tho, Nguyen Vien; Hoa, Phu Chi

    2000-01-01

    The chiral symmetry-breaking term of the Skyrme model with massive pion is modified to obtain the hedgehog profile function which is in best coincidence with the kink-like profile function. For the modified Lagrangian, the minimum of the energy of the B=2 twisty skyrmion configuration is lower than the values for both the cases of the Skyrme Lagrangian with and without the non-modified symmetry-breaking term. The equations of motion for the time-dependent hedgehog of this model and for a generalizated Skyrme model including sixth-order stabilizing term are derived and integrated nummerically. The time evolution of soliton is obtained. We have observed the seft-exitation of soliton because of the fast developement of fluctuation.

  13. Role of structural factors in formation of chiral magnetic soliton lattice in Cr1/3NbS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sign and strength of magnetic interactions not only between nearest neighbors, but also for longer-range neighbors in the Cr1/3NbS2 intercalation compound have been calculated on the basis of structural data. It has been found that left-handed spin helices in Cr1/3NbS2 are formed from strength-dominant at low temperatures antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions between triangular planes of Cr3+ ions through the plane of just one of two crystallographically equivalent diagonals of side faces of embedded into each other trigonal prisms building up the crystal lattice of magnetic Cr3+ ions. These helices are oriented along the c axis and packed into two-dimensional triangular lattices in planes perpendicular to these helices directions and lay one upon each other with a displacement. The competition of the above AFM helices with weaker inter-helix AFM interactions could promote the emergence of a long-period helical spin structure. One can assume that in this case, the role of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction consists of final ordering and stabilization of chiral spin helices into a chiral magnetic soliton lattice. The possibility of emergence of solitons in M1/3NbX2 and M1/3TaX2 (M = Cr, V, Ti, Rh, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn; X = S and Se) intercalate compounds has been examined. Two important factors caused by the crystal structure (predominant chiral magnetic helices and their competition with weaker inter-helix interactions not destructing the system quasi-one-dimensional character) can be used for the crystal chemistry search of solitons.

  14. Chiral sine-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the chiral sine-Gordon model using the renormalization group method. The chiral sine-Gordon model is a model for $G$-valued fields and describes a new class of phase transitions, where $G$ is a compact Lie group. We show that the model is renormalizable by means of a perturbation expansion and we derive beta functions of the renormalization group theory. The coefficients of beta functions are represented by the Casimir invariants. The model contains both asymptotically free and ultraviolet strong coupling regions. The beta functions have a zero which is a bifurcation point that divides the parameter space into two regions; they are the weak coupling region and the strong coupling region. A large-$N$ model is also considered. This model is reduced to the conventional sine-Gordon model that describes the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition near the fixed point. In the strong-coupling limit, the model is reduced to a $U(N)$ matrix model.

  15. Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumsa-ard, K.

    2006-07-01

    In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints

  16. An Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zong-Ye; YU You-Wen; WANG Ping; DAI Lian-Rong

    2003-01-01

    The chiral SU(3) quark model is extended by including the vector meson exchanges to describe the short range interactions. The phase shifts of NN scattering are studied in this model. Compared with the results of the chiral SU(3) quark model in which only the pseudo-scalar and scalar chiralfields are considered, the phase shifts of 1 So wave are obviously improved.

  17. Soliton models in resonant and nonresonant optical fibers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Porsezian

    2001-11-01

    In this review, considering the important linear and nonlinear optical effects like group velocity dispersion, higher order dispersion, Kerr nonlinearity, self-steepening, stimulated Raman scattering, birefringence, self-induced transparency and various inhomogeneous effects in fibers, the completely integrable concept and bright, dark and self-induced transparency soliton models in nonlinear fiber optics are discussed. Considering the above important optical effects, the different completely integrable soliton models in the form of nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS), NLS-MaxwellBloch (MB) type equations reported in the literature are discussed. Finally, solitons in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) system is briefly discussed.

  18. Lambda Hypernuclei in a Chiral Hadronic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yin-Hua; GUO Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nuclear matter calculations in a chiral hadronic model have been performed. It has been found that the scalar and the vector potentials and binding energies per nucleon in the chiral hadronic model are very close to those of the microscopic relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations. The good results for finite nuclei can be obtained in the mean field approximation only if scalar mass ms and coupling constant gs have been improved with the fixed values of cs2 ≡ g2s(M/ms)2 as those given by the original parameter sets of the chiral hadronic model. Then the chiral hadronic model is extended to lambda hypernuclei. Our results predicted by the chiral hadronic model are compared with those by the nonlinear Walecka model. It has been shown that the hadronic model can also be used to describe lambda hypernuclei successfully.

  19. The theta^+ baryon in soliton models: large Nc QCD and the validity of rigid-rotor quantization

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    A light collective theta+ baryon state (with strangeness +1) was predicted via rigid-rotor collective quantization of SU(3) chiral soliton models. This paper explores the validity of this treatment. A number of rather general analyses suggest that predictions of exotic baryon properties based on this approximation do not follow from large Nc QCD. These include an analysis of the baryon's width, a comparison of the predictions with general large Nc consistency conditions of the Gervais-Sakita-...

  20. Solitons in Skyrme - Faddeev spinor model and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakov, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of unification of Skyrme and Faddeev approaches for the description of baryons and leptons respectively as topological solitons within the scope of 16-spinor model. The motivation for such a unification is based on a special 8- semispinor identity invented by the Italian geometrician F. Brioschi. This remarkable identity permits one to realize baryon or lepton states through the effect of spontaneous symmetry breaking emerging due to special structure of the Higgs potential in the model. At large distances from the particle - soliton small excitation of the vacuum satisfies Klein - Gordon equation with some mass that permits one to establish the correspondence with quantum mechanics in special stochastic representation of the wave function for extended particles - solitons. Finally, we illustrate the peculiar properties of stochastic representation by the famous T. Young's experiment with n slits in soliton realization.

  1. SOLITONS: Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrödinger equation with an external harmonic potential: I. Bright solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Tenorio, C.; Villagran Vargas, E.; Serkin, Vladimir N.; Aguero Granados, M.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Pena Moreno, R.; Morales Lara, L.

    2005-09-01

    The dynamics of nonlinear solitary waves is studied by using the model of nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NSE) with an external harmonic potential. The model allows one to analyse on the general basis a variety of nonlinear phenomena appearing both in a Bose—Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap, whose profile is described by a quadratic function of coordinates, and in nonlinear optics, physics of lasers, and biophysics. It is shown that exact solutions for a quantum-mechanical particle in a harmonic potential and solutions obtained within the framework of the adiabatic perturbation theory for bright solitons in a parabolic trap are completely identical. This fact not only proves once more that solitons behave like particles but also that they can preserve such properties in different traps for which the parabolic approximation is valid near potential energy minima. The conditions are found for formation of stable stationary states of antiphase solitons in a harmonic potential. The interaction dynamics of solitons in nonstationary potentials is studied and the possibility of the appearance of a soliton parametric resonance at which the amplitude of soliton oscillations in a trap exponentially increases with time is shown. It is shown that exact solutions of the problem found using the Miura transformation open up the possibility to control the dynamics of solitons. New effects are predicted, which are called the reversible and irreversible denaturation of solitons in a nonstationary harmonic potential.

  2. NN Interaction in Chiral Constituent Quark Models

    CERN Document Server

    Valcarce, A; González, P

    2003-01-01

    We review the actual state in the description of the NN interaction by means of chiral constituent quark models. We present a series of relevant features that are nicely explained within the quark model framework.

  3. Chiral Schwinger model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the chiral Schwinger model at finite temperature using Fujikawa's method. We solve this model exactly and show that the axial anomaly and the dynamically generated mass for the gauge field are temperature independent. (author). 20 refs

  4. SOLITONS: Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrödinger equation with an external harmonic potential: II. Dark Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Tenorio, C.; Villagran Vargas, E.; Serkin, Vladimir N.; Aguero Granados, M.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Pena Moreno, R.; Morales Lara, L.

    2005-10-01

    The dynamics of dark solitons is studied within the framework of the mathematical model of nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NSE) with an external harmonic potential. A comparative analysis of the solutions of nonstationary problems is performed for a linear harmonic oscillator and the NSE model with a harmonic potential for different signs of the self-action potential. It is shown that the main specific feature of the dynamics of dark NSE solitons in a parabolic trap is the formation of solitons with dynamically changing form factors producing the periodic variation in the modulation depth (the degree of 'blackness') of dark solitons. The oscillation period of the dark soliton does not coincide with the oscillation period of a linear quantum-mechanical oscillator, which is caused by the periodic transformation of the black soliton to the grey one and vice versa. The conditions of applicability of the method of inverse scattering problem are presented, the generalised Lax pair is found, and exact soliton solutions are given for the mathematical NSE model with an external harmonic potential.

  5. The decay of Hopf solitons in the Skyrme model

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, David

    2016-01-01

    It is understood that the Skyrme model has a topologically interesting baryonic excitation which can model nuclei. So far no stable knotted solutions, of the Skyrme model, have been found. Here we investigate the dynamics of Hopf solitons decaying to the vacuum solution in the Skyrme model. In doing this we develop a matrix-free numerical method to identify the minimum eigenvalue of the Hessian of the corresponding energy functional. We also show that as the Hopf solitons decay, they emit a cloud of isospinning radiation.

  6. Effective action in general chiral superfield model

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, A. Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The effective action in general chiral superfield model with arbitrary k\\"{a}hlerian potential $K(\\bar{\\Phi},\\Phi)$ and chiral (holomorphic) potential $W(\\Phi)$ is considered. The one-loop and two-loop contributions to k\\"{a}hlerian effective potential and two-loop (first non-zero) contribution to chiral effective potential are found for arbitrary form of functions $K(\\bar{\\Phi},\\Phi)$ and $W(\\Phi)$. It is found that despite the theory is non-renormalizable in general case two-loop contributi...

  7. Chiral effective model with the Polyakov loop

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    We discuss how the simultaneous crossovers of deconfinement and chiral restoration can be realized. We propose a dynamical mechanism assuming that the effective potential gives a finite value of the chiral condensate if the Polyakov loop vanishes. Using a simple model, we demonstrate that our idea works well for small quark mass, though there should be further constraints to reach the perfect locking of two phenomena.

  8. Knot Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of ring-like and knotted solitons in O(3) non-linear sigma model is analysed. The role of isotopy of knots/links in classifying such solitons is pointed out. Appearance of torus knot solitons is seen.

  9. Observation of the topological soliton state in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Eric J; Gadway, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    The Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model, which captures the most striking transport properties of the conductive organic polymer $trans$-polyacetylene, provides perhaps the most basic model system supporting topological excitations. The alternating bond pattern of polyacetylene chains is captured by the bipartite sublattice structure of the SSH model, emblematic of one-dimensional chiral symmetric topological insulators. This structure supports two distinct nontrivial topological phases, which, when interfaced with one another or with a topologically trivial phase, give rise to topologically-protected, dispersionless boundary states. Using $^{87}$Rb atoms in a momentum-space lattice, we realize fully-tunable condensed matter Hamiltonians, allowing us to probe the dynamics and equilibrium properties of the SSH model. We report on the experimental quantum simulation of this model and observation of the localized topological soliton state through quench dynamics, phase-sensitive injection, and adiabatic preparation...

  10. Soliton scattering in the O(3) model on a torus

    OpenAIRE

    Cova, R. J.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, the stability and scattering properties of the O(3) model on a two-dimensional torus are studied. Its solitons are found to be unstable but can be stabilized by the addition of a Skyrme term to the Lagrangian. Scattering at right angles with respect to the initial direction of motion is observed in all cases considered. The model has no solutions of degree one, so when a field configuration that resembles a soliton is considered, it shrinks to become infinitely th...

  11. Soliton laser: A computational two-cavity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; If, F.; Christiansen, Peter Leth;

    1987-01-01

    An improved computational two-cavity model of the soliton laser proposed and designed by Mollenauer and Stolen [Opt. Lett. 9, 13 (1984)] is obtained through refinements of (i) the laser cavity model, (ii) the pulse propagation in the fiber cavity, and (iii) the coupling between the two cavities. As...

  12. Radial Excitations in the Global Colour Soliton Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LIU Yu-Xin

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the Munczek-Nemirovsky model of the effective gluon propagator in the global colour model, we study the radially excited solitons in which one quark is excited and the other two are at the ground state. The obtained masses of the two radial excitations are comparable with the experimental data.

  13. Nuclei as superposition of topological solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rational map approximation provides an opportunity to describe light nuclei as classical solitons with baryon number B > 1 in the framework of the Skyrme model. The rational map ansatz yields a possibility of factorization of S3 baryon charge into S1 and S2 parts, the phenomenology of the model being strongly affected by the chosen factorization. Moreover, in the fundamental representation superposition of two different soliton factorizations can be used as solution ansatz. The canonical quantization procedure applied to collective degrees of freedom of the classical soliton leads to anomalous breaking of the chiral symmetry and exponential falloff of the energy density of the soliton at large distance, without explicit symmetry breaking terms included. The evolution of the shape of electric form factor as a function of two different factorization soliton mix ratio is investigated. Numerical results are presented. (author)

  14. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Pathak

    2006-04-01

    Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is about 30 MeV. I find that the mass of the state can be fitted to the experimentally observed mass by invoking a color neutral vector field and its interaction with the quarks.

  15. A Note on Ward's Chiral Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Zakrzewski, Wojtek

    1998-01-01

    A one parameter generalization of Ward's chiral model in 2+1 dimensions is given. Like the original model the present one is integrable and possesses a positive-definite and conserved energy and $y$-momentum. The details of the scattering depend on the value of the parameter of the generalisation.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF SOLITON TRANSMISSION AT 2.5 GB/S OVER 200 KM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID A. S. AL-KHATEEB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soliton characteristics and soliton transmission have been simulated using a VPI simulator. Simulation was also used to construct and study a soliton communication system. Near soliton pulses emitted by an actively mode-locked laser is then compressed in a dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF to produce solitons. The effects of non-linearity and active pre-chirping of mode-locked laser diode sources were also investigated. Assessment on a modeled system using real data shows that propagation over 250 km at 2.5 Gb/s in standard fibers with 20 ps pulse widths is possible in the 1550 nm wavelength range.

  17. Nontopological Soliton in the Polyakov Quark Meson Model

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Jinshuang

    2016-01-01

    In mean field approximation, we study a nontopological soliton of Polyakov Quark Meson Model in the presence of fermionic vacuum term with two flavors at finite temperature and density. The behavior of the effective potential evolving with temperature supports the existence of the stable soliton solution as long as $T\\leq T_{\\chi}^c$ for both crossover and first-order phase transition, and these solutions are calculated with some appropriate boundary conditions. However, it is found that only if $T\\leq T^c_d$, the energy of the soliton $M_N$ is less than the energy of three free constituent quarks $3M_q$. As $T> T^c_d$, there is a instant delocalization phase transition from hadron matter to quark matter. The phase diagram together with the location of critical end point (CEP) has been obtained in $T$ and $\\mu$ plane. We notice that two critical temperatures always satisfy $T^c_d\\leq T_{\\chi}^c$. In the end, we present and compare the result for temperature variation of thermodynamic pressure at zero chemical...

  18. The theta^+ baryon in soliton models: large Nc QCD and the validity of rigid-rotor quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, T D

    2003-01-01

    A light collective $\\theta^+$ baryon state (with strangeness +1) was predicted via rigid-rotor collective quantization of SU(3) chiral soliton models. This paper explores the validity of this treatment. It is shown that predictions of exotic baryon properties based on this approximation do not follow from large $N_c$ QCD. A number of rather general analyses lead to this conclusion. These include an analysis of the baryon's width, a comparison of the predictions with general large $N_c$ consistency conditions of the Gervais-Sakita-Dashen-Manohar type; an application of the technique to QCD in the limit where the quarks are heavy; a comparison of this method with the vibration approach of Callan and Klebanov; and the $1/N_c$ scaling of the excitation energy. The origin of the problem lies in a flaw in the original rigid-rotor collective quantization treatment which implicitly assumes that the collective motion is orthogonal to vibrational motion. This is untrue for chiral soliton models: the Wess-Zumino term in...

  19. N phi state in chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, F; Zhang, Z Y

    2006-01-01

    The structures of N phi states with spin-parity J^{p}=3/2^- and J^p=1/2^- are dynamically studied in both the chiral SU(3) quark model and the extended chiral SU(3) quark model by solving a resonating group method (RGM) equation. The model parameters are taken from our previous work, which gave a satisfactory description of the energies of the baryon ground states, the binding energy of the deuteron, the nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering phase shifts, and the hyperon-nucleon (YN) cross sections. The channel coupling of N phi and Lambda K* is considered, and the effect of the tensor force which results in the mixing of S and D waves is also investigated. The results show that the N phi state has an attractive interaction, and in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model such an attraction plus the channel coupling effect can consequently make for an N phi quasi-bound state with several MeV binding energy.

  20. Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcilazo, H

    2003-01-01

    The non-strange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the $\\sigma$ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum.

  1. The solitonic modulation and Lifshitz point in an external magnetic field within Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Gaoqing

    2016-01-01

    We study the inhomogeneous solitonic modulation of chiral condensate within the effective Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model when a constant external magnetic field is present. The self-consistent Pauli-Villars regularization scheme is adopted to manipulate the ultraviolet divergence encountered in the thermodynamic quantities. In order to determine the chiral restoration lines efficiently, a new kind of Ginzburg-Landau expansion approach is proposed here. At zero temperature, we find that both the upper and lower boundaries of the solitonic modulation oscillate with the magnetic field in the $\\mu$--$B$ phase diagram which is actually the de Hass-van Alphan (dHvA) oscillation. It is very interesting to find out how the tricritical Lifshitz point $(T_L,\\mu_L)$ evolves with the magnetic field: There are also dHvA oscillations in the $T_L$--$B$ and $\\mu_L$--$B$ curves, though the tricritical temperature $T_L$ increases monotonically with the magnetic field.

  2. Baryons as Solitons in Quantum SU(2) Skyrme Model

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a PhD thesis defended at Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy on 18 December, 1998. The following (abbreviated) statements represent the main results of the work: 1.Each of SU(2) representation j yields the different quantum Lagrangian density. As a consequence, theoretical observables depend on representation j which can be treated as a new phenomenological parameter. 2.Quantum chiral solitons exist and possess asymptotic behaviour consistent with the massive Yukawa field fall. The asymptotic shape and PCAC relation leads to the correct asymptotic equation coinciding with contribution of explicitly broken term. 3.A nucleon and \\Delta_{33}-resonance are the only stable states for irreducible representations j=3/2 and j=2. Unphysical tower of states l_{spin} =l_{isospin} is, therefore, terminated by choosing the appropriate SU(2) representations. 4.Higher spin l> 1/2 quantum states are not "spherically symmetric". The Hamiltonian density function depends on the polar angle theta. 5.Each...

  3. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  4. Skyrmion model in 2+1 dimensions with soliton bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, B.; Zakrzewski, W.J. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Univ. Durham (United Kingdom))

    1993-03-22

    We consider a class of skyrmion models in 2+1 dimensions which possess bound stable solitons. We show that these models have one-soliton solutions as well as static solutions corresponding to their bound states. We study the scattering and stability properties of these solutions, compute their energies and estimate their binding energies. (orig.).

  5. Solitonic Models Based on Quantum Groups and the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    The idea that the elementary particles might have the symmetry of knots has had a long history. In any current formulation of this idea, however, the knot must be quantized. The present review is a summary of a small set of papers that began as an attempt to correlate the properties of quantized knots with the empirical properties of the elementary particles. As the ideas behind these papers have developed over a number of years the model has evolved, and this review is intended to present the model in its current form. The original picture of an elementary fermion as a solitonic knot of field, described by the trefoil representation of SUq(2), has expanded into its current form in which a knotted field is complementary to a composite structure composed of three or more preons that in turn are described by the fundamental representation of SLq(2). These complementary descriptions may be interpreted as describing single composite particles composed of three or more preons bound by a knotted field.

  6. Chiral and chemical oscillations in a simple dimerization model

    CERN Document Server

    Stich, Michael; Hochberg, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider the APED model (activation-polymerization-epimerization-depolymerization) for describing the emergence of chiral solutions within a non-catalytic framework for chiral polymerization. The minimal APED model for dimerization can lead to the spontaneous appearance of chiral oscillations and we describe in detail the nature of these oscillations in the enantiomeric excess, and which are the consequence of oscillations of the concentrations of the associated chemical species.

  7. Vertex decoupling and quark deconfinement in soliton bag model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the Matsubara Green's function method, the temperature dependence of coupling constant gqqδ in soliton bag mode is investigated. It is found gqqδ will decrease as temperature increases in high temperature region and will approach zero at critical temperature Tc. The quark deconfinement phase transition in soliton bag model is discussed

  8. Collective coordinate approximation to the scattering of solitons in the (1+1) dimensional NLS model

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, H E; Zakrzewski, W J

    2013-01-01

    We present a collective coordinate approximation to model the dynamics of two interacting nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) solitons. We discuss the accuracy of this approximation by comparing our results to those of the full numerical simulations and find that it is remarkably accurate not only when the solitons are some distance apart but also during their interaction.

  9. Collective coordinate approximation to the scattering of solitons in the (1+1) dimensional NLS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, H. E.; Luchini, G.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2014-07-01

    We present a collective coordinate approximation to model the dynamics of two interacting nonlinear Schrödinger solitons. We discuss the accuracy of this approximation by comparing our results with those of the full numerical simulations and find that the approximation is remarkably accurate when the solitons are some distance apart, and quite reasonable also during their interaction.

  10. Collective coordinate approximation to the scattering of solitons in the (1+1) dimensional NLS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a collective coordinate approximation to model the dynamics of two interacting nonlinear Schrödinger solitons. We discuss the accuracy of this approximation by comparing our results with those of the full numerical simulations and find that the approximation is remarkably accurate when the solitons are some distance apart, and quite reasonable also during their interaction. (paper)

  11. Collective coordinate approximation to the scattering of solitons in the (1+1) dimensional NLS model

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, H.E.; Zakrzewski, W. J.; Luchini, G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a collective coordinate approximation to model the dynamics of two interacting nonlinear Schrödinger solitons. We discuss the accuracy of this approximation by comparing our results with those of the full numerical simulations and find that the approximation is remarkably accurate when the solitons are some distance apart, and quite reasonable also during their interaction.

  12. Nucleon Properties from Approximating Chiral Quark Sigma Model

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Shady, M

    2009-01-01

    We apply the approximating chiral quark model. This chiral quark model is based on an effective Lagrangian which the interactions between quarks via sigma and pions mesons. The field equations have been solved in the mean field approximation for the hedgehog baryon state. Good results are obtained for nucleon properties in comparison with original model.

  13. Strange Hadronic Matter in a Chiral Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Liang; SONG Hong-Qiu; WANG Ping; SU Ru-Keng

    2000-01-01

    The strange hadronic matter with nucleon, Λ-hyperon and E-hyperon is studied by using a chiral symmetry model in a mean-field approximation. The saturation properties and stabilities of the strange hadronic matter are discussed. The result indicates a quite large strangeness fraction (fs) region where the strange hadronic matter is stable against particle emission. In the large fs region, the component dominates, resulting in a deep minimum in the curve of the binding energy per baryon EB versus the strangeness fraction fs with (EB, fs) -~ (-26.0MeV, 1.23).

  14. Dihyperons in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Phatak

    2003-11-01

    The mass of the dibaryon having spin, parity =0+, isospin = 0 and strangeness -2 is computed using chiral color dielectric model. The bare wave function is constructed as a product of two color-singlet three-quark clusters and then it is properly antisymmetrized by considering appropriate exchange operators for spin, flavor and color. Color magnetic energy due to gluon exchange, meson self energy and energy correction due to center of mass motion are computed. The calculation shows that the mass of the particle is 80 to 160 MeV less than twice mass.

  15. Moduli stabilisation for chiral global models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mayrhofer, Christoph [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Valandro, Roberto [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-10-15

    We combine moduli stabilisation and (chiral) model building in a fully consistent global set-up in Type IIB/F-theory. We consider compactifications on Calabi-Yau orientifolds which admit an explicit description in terms of toric geometry. We build globally consistent compactifications with tadpole and Freed-Witten anomaly cancellation by choosing appropriate brane set-ups and world-volume fluxes which also give rise to SU(5)- or MSSM-like chiral models. We fix all the Kaehler moduli within the Kaehler cone and the regime of validity of the 4D effective field theory. This is achieved in a way compatible with the local presence of chirality. The hidden sector generating the non-perturbative effects is placed on a del Pezzo divisor that does not have any chiral intersections with any other brane. In general, the vanishing D-term condition implies the shrinking of the rigid divisor supporting the visible sector. However, we avoid this problem by generating r

  16. Generating a soliton splash through variational modelling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, Anna; Bokhove, Onno

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling of water waves in tanks with wave generators is demonstrated by investigating variational methods asymptotically and numerically. A reduced potential flow water wave model is derived using variational techniques, which is based on the assumptions of waves with small amplitude and large wavelength. This model consists of a set of modified Benney-Luke equations describing the deviation from the still water surface η (x , y , t) and the bottom potential Φ (x , y , t) , and includes a time-dependent gravitional potential mimicking a removable ``sluice gate''. The asymptotic model is solved numerically using the automated system Firedrake. In particular, a (dis)continuous Galerkin finite element method is used, together with symplectic integrators for the time discretisation. As a validation, the numerical results are compared to a soliton splash experiment in a long water channel with a contraction at its end, resulting after a sluice gate is removed at a finite time.

  17. Lagrangian Formulation of the General Modified Chiral Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Zakrzewski, Wojtek

    1998-01-01

    We present a Lagrangian formulation for the general modified chiral model. We use it to discuss the Hamiltonian formalism for this model and to derive the commutation relations for the chiral field. We look at some explicit examples and show that the Hamiltonian, containing a contribution involving a Wess-Zumino term, is conserved, as required.

  18. Collective coordinate approximation to the scattering of solitons in modified NLS and sine-Gordon models

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Wojtek; Baron, Helen

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the validity of collective coordinate approaximations to the scattering of solitons in several classes of models in (1+1) dimensional field theory models. We look at models which are deformations of the sine-Gordon (SG) or the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) model as they posses solitons which are topological (SG) or non-topological (NLS). Our deformations preserve their topology (SG), but changes their integrability properties, either completely or partially (models become `quas...

  19. Collective coordinate approximation to the scattering of solitons in modified NLS and sine-Gordon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, H. E.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the validity of collective coordinate approximations to the scattering of two solitons in several classes of (1+1) dimensional field theory models. We consider models which are deformations of the sine-Gordon (SG) or the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model which posses soliton solutions (which are topological (SG) or non-topological (NLS)). Our deformations preserve their topology (SG), but change their integrability properties, either completely or partially (models become `quasi-integrable').

  20. Sigma-model soliton intersections from exceptional calibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Portugues, R

    2002-01-01

    A first-order `BPS' equation is obtained for 1/8 supersymmetric intersections of soliton-membranes (lumps) of supersymmetric (4+1)-dimensional massless sigma models, and a special non-singular solution is found that preserves 1/4 supersymmetry. For 4-dimensional hyper-K\\"ahler target spaces ($HK_4$) the BPS equation is shown to be the low-energy limit of the equation for a Cayley-calibrated 4-surface in $\\bE^4\\times HK_4$. Similar first-order equations are found for stationary intersections of Q-lump-membranes of the massive sigma model, but now generic solutions preserve either 1/8 supersymmetry or no supersymmetry, depending on the time orientation.

  1. D-brane Solitons in Supersymmetric Sigma-Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gauntlett, J P; Tong, D; Townsend, P K; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Portugues, Rubén; Tong, David; Townsend, Paul K.

    2001-01-01

    Massive D=4 N=2 supersymmetric sigma models typically admit domain wall (Q-kink) solutions and string (Q-lump) solutions, both preserving 1/2 supersymmetry. We exhibit a new static 1/4 supersymmetric `kink-lump' solution in which a string ends on a wall, and show that it has an effective realization as a BIon of the D=4 super DBI-action. It is also shown to have a time-dependent Q-kink-lump generalization which reduces to the Q-lump in a limit corresponding to infinite BI magnetic field. All these 1/4 supersymmetric sigma-model solitons are shown to be realized in M-theory as calibrated, or `Q-calibrated', M5-branes in an M-monopole background.

  2. Circular dichroism of graphene oxide: the chiral structure model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing CAO; Hua-Jie YIN; Rui SONG

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the circular dichroism signal of dilute graphene oxide (GO), then systematically investigated the chirality of GO and established a probable chiral unit model, This study may open up a new field for understanding the structure of GO and lay the foundation for fabrication of GO-based materials.

  3. Solitonic description of interface profiles in competition models

    CERN Document Server

    Azevedo, T; Menezes, J

    2014-01-01

    We consider the spatial patterns provided by mean field numerical simulations for two competing species. As all individuals have the same rate of mobility, reproduction and competition, interfaces of empty spaces separating domains of single species are formed by a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking. We construct a Lagrangian formalism for studying the static profile of such interfaces by means of a scalar field theory framework. We identify the number density of empty spaces created by the competition interactions with a function of the energy density in scalar field systems. We then present a potential with $Z_2$ symmetry, which leads to differential equations whose solitonic solutions describe interface profile. Finally, we compare the theoretical results with data from one-dimensional numerical simulation of the Lotka-Volterra equations and show that our model fits well the properties of interfaces.

  4. Bag constant and deconfinement phase transition in the nontopological soliton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective potential in finite temperature and density nontopological soliton bag model is investigated. Based on this, the authors calculate the bag constant which depends on temperature and chemical potential. The property of deconfinement phase transition is analysed

  5. Kerr-Newman Electron as Spinning Soliton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Measurable parameters of the electron indicate that its background should be described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) solution. The spin/mass ratio of the electron is extreme large, and the black hole horizons disappear, opening a topological defect of space-time - the Kerr singular ring of Compton size, which may be interpreted as a closed fundamental string of low energy string theory. The singular and two-sheeted structure of the corresponding Kerr space has to be regularised, and we consider the old problem of regularising the source of the KN solution. As a development of the earlier Keres-Israel-Hamity-López model, we describe the model of smooth and regular source forming a gravitating and relativistically rotating soliton based on the chiral field model and the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. The model reveals some new remarkable properties: (1) the soliton forms a relativistically rotating bubble of Compton radius, which is filled by the oscillating Higgs field in a pseudo-vacuum state; (2) the boundary of the bubble forms a domain wall which interpolates between the internal flat background and the external exact Kerr-Newman (KN) solution; (3) the phase transition is provided by a system of chiral fields; (4) the vector potential of the external the KN solution forms a closed Wilson loop which is quantised, giving rise to a quantised spin of the soliton; (5) the soliton is bordered by a closed string, which is a part of the general complex stringy structure.

  6. On SU(3 Effective Models and Chiral Phase Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser Tawfik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL model and Polyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM has been utilized in studying QCD phase-diagram. From quasi-particle model (QPM a gluonic sector is integrated into LSM. The hadron resonance gas (HRG model is used in calculating the thermal and dense dependence of quark-antiquark condensate. We review these four models with respect to their descriptions for the chiral phase transition. We analyze the chiral order parameter, normalized net-strange condensate, and chiral phase-diagram and compare the results with recent lattice calculations. We find that PLSM chiral boundary is located in upper band of the lattice QCD calculations and agree well with the freeze-out results deduced from various high-energy experiments and thermal models. Also, we find that the chiral temperature calculated from HRG is larger than that from PLSM. This is also larger than the freeze-out temperatures calculated in lattice QCD and deduced from experiments and thermal models. The corresponding temperature and chemical potential are very similar to that of PLSM. Although the results from PNJL and QLSM keep the same behavior, their chiral temperature is higher than that of PLSM and HRG. This might be interpreted due the very heavy quark masses implemented in both models.

  7. ONDAS SOLITÓNICAS EN INTERFACES ABIÓTICAS-BIÓTICAS BASADAS EN FORMULACIÓN DE DRUDE PARA MEDIOS QUIRALES SOLITONIC WAVES IN BIOTIC-ABIOTIC INTERFACES BASED IN DRUDE FORMULATION FOR CHIRAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cancino L

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un modelo teórico y la simulación computacional correspondiente, que permite analizar los efectos de la propagación de ondas solitónicas en medios biológicos esencialmente quirales. La quiralidad se modela, en este caso, bajo la formulación de Drude, mostrándose los rangos de validez del modelo propuesto. Este modelo considera los efectos no lineales y dispersivos del medio, debido a una dependencia espectral de la señal de entrada y la aproximación de campo cuasi-monocromático, para escribir la ecuación no lineal de Schrödinger y resolverla numéricamente mediante el método espectral de Fourier. Los resultados de nuestras simulaciones muestran el efecto de la variación del factor quiral sobre la impedancia del medio y sobre los coeficientes de transmisión y reflexión. Finalmente se discute, brevemente, la generalización del modelo de Drude para el caso de metamateriales.In this paper a theory model with the corresponding simulations, which permit to analyze the solitonic wave propagation in biological media, is presented. The chirality is modeled as Drude's formulation, showing the validity rank of the model. The model considers nonlinear and dispersive effects due to the spectral dependency of the input signal and the cuasy-monocromatic approach, so as to write the Schrödinger non-linear equation and solving it numerically by means of the spectral Fourier method. The numerical results show the effect of chiral factor variation on the media impedance, transmission and reflection coefficients. Finally, the generalization of the Drude's formulation for the metamaterial case, is briefly discussed.

  8. Meson phenomenology and phase transitions in nonlocal chiral quark models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, J. P.; Gomez Dumm, D.; Pagura, V.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2015-07-01

    We study the features of nonlocal chiral quark models that include wave function renormalization. Model parameters are determined from meson phenomenology, considering different nonlocal form factor shapes. In this context we analyze the characteristics of the deconfinement and chiral restoration transitions at finite temperature and chemical potential, introducing the couplings of fermions to the Polyakov loop for different Polyakov potentials. The results for various thermodynamical quantities are compared with data obtained from lattice QCD calculations.

  9. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies.

  10. Self-bound quark matter in the NJL model revisited: from schematic droplets to solitonic lasagne

    CERN Document Server

    Buballa, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The existence and the properties of self-bound quark matter in the NJL model at zero temperature are investigated in mean-field approximation, focusing on inhomogeneous structures with one-dimensional spatial modulations. It is found that the most stable homogeneous solutions which have previously been interpreted as schematic quark droplets are unstable against formation of a one-dimensional soliton-antisoliton lattice. The solitons repel each other, so that the minimal energy per quark is realized in the single-soliton limit. The properties of the solitons and their interactions are discussed in detail, and the effect of vector interactions is estimated. The results may be relevant for the dynamics of expanding quark matter.

  11. The nucleon-nucleon potential in the chromodielectric soliton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, W.; Wilets, L.; Pepin, S.; Stancu, F.

    The short and medium range parts of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are being studied in the framework of the chromodielectric soliton model. The model consists of current quarks, gluons in the abelian approximation, and a scalar sigma field which simulates the nonabelian interactions of the gluons and governs the medium through the dielectric function kappa(sigma). Absolute color confinement is effected by the vanishing of the dielectric in vacuum; this also removes the troublesome van der Waals problem. The authors distinguish between spatial confinement, which arises from the self energy of the quarks in medium (excluding MFA contributions), and color confinement which is effected through OGE in the MFA (including the corresponding self energy contributions). The static (adiabatic) energies are computed as a function of deformation (generalized bag separation) in a constrained MFA. Six quark molecular-type wave functions in all important space-spin-isospin-color configurations are included. The gluon propagator is solved in the deformed dielectric medium. The resultant Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized. Dynamics are handled in the generator coordinate method, which leads to the Hill-Wheeler integral equation. In the present case, this yields a set of coupled equations corresponding to the various configurations. Although this can be approximated by a set of differential equations, they propose to solve the integral equations with some regularization scheme.

  12. On SU(3) effective models and chiral phase-transition

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model as an effective theory of quark dynamics to chiral symmetry has been utilized in studying the QCD phase-diagram. Also, Poyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM), in which information about the confining glue sector of the theory was included through Polyakov-loop potential. Furthermore, from quasi-particle model (QPM), the gluonic sector of QPM is integrated to LSM in order to reproduce recent lattice calculations. We review PLSM, QLSM, PNJL and HRG with respect to their descriptions for the chiral phase-transition. We analyse chiral order-parameter M(T), normalized net-strange condensate Delta_{q,s}(T) and chiral phase-diagram and compare the results with lattice QCD. We conclude that PLSM works perfectly in reproducing M(T) and Delta_{q,s}(T). HRG model reproduces Delta_{q,s}(T), while PNJL and QLSM seem to fail. These differences are present in QCD chiral phase-diagram. PLSM chiral boundary is located in upper band of lattice QCD calculations and agree we...

  13. Quantum Solitons with Cylindrical Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chepilko, N.; Kobushkin, A.; Syamtomov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Soliton solutions with cylindrical symmetry are investigated within the nonlinear $\\sigma $-model disregarding the Skyrme-stabilization term. The solitons are stabilized by quantization of collective breathing mode and collapse in the $\\hbar \\to 0$ limit. It is shown that for such stabilization mechanism the model, apart from solitons with integer topological number $B$, admits the solitons with half-odd $B$. The solitons with integer $B$ have standard spin-isospin classification, while $B={\\...

  14. Scattering of Topological Solitons on Barriers and Holes of Deformed Sine-Gordon Models

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Alawi, Jassem H.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2008-01-01

    We study scattering properties of topological solitons in two classes of models, which are generalizations of the Sine-Gordon model and which have recently been proposed by Bazeia et al. These two classes of models depend on an integer parameter n which, when n=2(for the first class) and n=1 (for the second class), reduce to the Sine-Gordon model. We take the soliton solutions of these models (generalizations of the 'kink' solution of the Sine-Gordon model) and consider their scattering on po...

  15. The effect of the chiral chemical potential on the chiral phase transition in the NJL model with different regularization schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Lang; Huang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    We study the chiral phase transition in the presence of the chiral chemical potential $\\mu_5$ using the two-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In particular, we analyze the reason why one can obtain two opposite behaviors of the chiral critical temperature as a function of $\\mu_5$ in the framework of different regularization schemes. We compare the modifications of the chiral condensate and the critical temperature due to $\\mu_5$ in different regularization schemes, analytically and numerically. Finally, we find that, for the conventional hard-cutoff regularization scheme, the increasing dependence of the critical temperature on the chiral chemical potential is an artifact, which is caused by the fact that it does not include complete contribution from the thermal fluctuations. When the thermal contribution is fully taken into account, the chiral critical temperature should decrease with $\\mu_5$.

  16. Integrability of a master chiral quantum field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with solution of a master chiral field model in two-dimensional space-time using the quantum method of inverse problem. A dominant role in the approach is played by the idea of relativistic model production on the basis of magnetic model in the scaling limit at S→ infinity. L-M pair of a master chiral field model is discussed. Formulae for regularized quantum Hamiltonian and Bethe-Ansatz above pseudovacuum are derived. The description of excitations and Dirac filling for the ground state is given. Continuous limit from magnetic model above physical vacuum is considered

  17. Three-dimensional collinearly propagating solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is modified in order to describe three-dimensional solitons propagating collinearly with a constant velocity. One- and two-soliton solutions are obtained and analysed. When the frequencies of the respective solitons approach, then the effect of the repulsion of the solitons is observed. These solitons are proposed to model photons. (paper)

  18. Soliton-potential interaction in the Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Model

    CERN Document Server

    Saadatmand, Danial

    2011-01-01

    Interaction of solitons with external potentials in nonlinear Klein-Gordon field theory is investigated using an improved model. Presented model is constructed with a better approximation for adding the potential to the lagrangian through the metric of background space-time. The results of the model are compared with the another model and the differences are discussed.

  19. Soliton trap in strained graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wavefunction of a massless fermion consists of two chiralities, left handed and right handed, which are eigenstates of the chiral operator. The theory of weak interactions of elementary particle physics is not symmetric about the two chiralities, and such a symmetry-breaking theory is referred to as a chiral gauge theory. The chiral gauge theory can be applied to the massless Dirac particles of graphene. In this paper, we show within the framework of the chiral gauge theory for graphene that a topological soliton exists near the boundary of a graphene nanoribbon in the presence of a strain. This soliton is a zero-energy state connecting two chiralities and is an elementary excitation transporting a pseudo-spin. The soliton should be observable by means of a scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  20. Finite-band solitons in the Kronig-Penney model with the cubic-quintic nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhasin, Ilya M; Gisin, Boris V; Driben, Rodislav; Malomed, Boris A

    2005-01-01

    We present a model combining a periodic array of rectangular potential wells [the Kronig-Penney (KP) potential] and the cubic-quintic (CQ) nonlinearity. A plethora of soliton states is found in the system: fundamental single-humped solitons, symmetric and antisymmetric double-humped ones, three-peak solitons with and without the phase shift pi between the peaks, etc. If the potential profile is shallow, the solitons belong to the semi-infinite gap beneath the band structure of the linear KP model, while finite gaps between the Bloch bands remain empty. However, in contrast with the situation known in the model combining a periodic potential and the self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity, the solitons fill only a finite zone near the top of the semi-infinite gap, which is a consequence of the saturable character of the CQ nonlinearity. If the potential structure is much deeper, then fundamental and double (both symmetric and antisymmetric) solitons with a flat-top shape are found in the finite gaps. Computation of stability eigenvalues for small perturbations and direct simulations show that all the solitons are stable. In the shallow KP potential, the soliton characteristics, in the form of the integral power Q (or width w) versus the propagation constant k, reveal strong bistability, with two and, sometimes, four different solutions found for a given k (the bistability disappears with the increase of the depth of the potential). Disobeying the Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion, the solution branches with both dQ/dk > 0 and dQ/dk < 0 are stable. The curve Q(k) corresponding to each particular type of the solution (with a given number of local peaks and definite symmetry) ends at a finite maximum value of Q (breathers are found past the end points). The increase of the integral power gives rise to additional peaks in the soliton's shape, each corresponding to a subpulse trapped in a local channel of the KP structure (a beam-splitting property). It is plausible that these

  1. Quark matter inside neutron stars in an effective chiral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective chiral model which describes properties of a single baryon predicts that the quark matter relevant to neutron stars, close to the deconfinement density, is in a chirally broken phase. We find the SU(2) model that pion-condensed up and down quark matter is preferred energetically at neutron star densities. It exhibits spin ordering and can posses a permanent magnetization. The equation of state of quark matter with chiral condensate is very well approximated by bag model equation of the state with suitably chosen parameters. We study quark cores inside neutron stars in this model using realistic nucleon equations of state. The biggest quark core corresponds to the second order phase transition to quark matter. Magnetic moment of the pion-condensed quark core is calculated. (author). 19 refs, 10 refs, 1 tab

  2. Ω(ε)States in a Chiral Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The structures of Ω(ε) states with spin-parity Jp = 5/2-, 3/2-, and 1/2- are dynamically studied in both the chiral SU(3) quark model and the extended chiral SU(3) quark model by solving a resonating group method (RGM) equation. The model parameters are taken from our previous work, which gave a satisfactory description of the energies of the baryon ground states, the binding energy of the deuteron, the nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering phase shifts, and the hyperon-nucleon (YN) cross sections. The calculated results show that theΩ(ε) state has an attractive interaction, and in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model such attraction can make for aΩ(ε) quasi-bound state with spin-parity Jp = 3/2- or 5/2- and tie binding energy of about several MeV.

  3. Self-trapped optical beams: Spatial solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrey A Sukhorukov; Yuri S Kivshar

    2001-11-01

    We present a brief overview of the basic concepts of the theory ofspatial optical solitons, including the soliton stability in non-Kerr media, the instability-induced soliton dynamics, and collision of solitary waves in nonintegrable nonlinear models.

  4. Relation Between Chiral Susceptibility and Solutions of Gap Equation in Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y; Liu, Y; Yuan, W; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-xin; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Yue

    2006-01-01

    We study the solutions of the gap equation, the thermodynamic potential and the chiral susceptibility in and beyond the chiral limit at finite chemical potential in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. We give an explicit relation between the chiral susceptibility and the thermodynamic potential in the NJL model. We find that the chiral susceptibility is a quantity being able to represent the furcation of the solutions of the gap equation and the concavo-convexity of the thermodynamic potential in NJL model. It indicates that the chiral susceptibility can identify the stable state and the possibility of the chiral phase transition in NJL model.

  5. Spontaneous Magnetization of the Integrable Chiral Potts Model

    CERN Document Server

    Au-Yang, Helen

    2010-01-01

    We show how $Z$-invariance in the chiral Potts model provides a strategy to calculate the pair correlation in the general integrable chiral Potts model using only the superintegrable eigenvectors. When the distance between the two spins in the correlation function becomes infinite it becomes the square of the order parameter. In this way, we show that the spontaneous magnetization can be expressed in terms of the inner products of the eigenvectors of the $N$ asymptotically degenerate maximum eigenvalues. Using our previous results on these eigenvectors, we are able to obtain the order parameter as a sum almost identical to the one given by Baxter. This gives the known spontaneous magnetization of the chiral Potts model by an entirely different approach.

  6. Dissipative vibrational model for chiral recognition in olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirandaz, Arash; Taher Ghahramani, Farhad; Shafiee, Afshin

    2015-09-01

    We examine the olfactory discrimination of left- and right-handed enantiomers of chiral odorants based on the odorant-mediated electron transport from a donor to an acceptor of the olfactory receptors embodied in a biological environment. The chiral odorant is effectively described by an asymmetric double-well potential whose minima are associated to the left- and right-handed enantiomers. The introduced asymmetry is considered an overall measure of chiral interactions. The biological environment is conveniently modeled as a bath of harmonic oscillators. The resulting spin-boson model is adapted by a polaron transformation to derive the corresponding Born-Markov master equation with which we obtain the elastic and inelastic electron tunneling rates. We show that the inelastic tunneling through left- and right-handed enantiomers occurs with different rates. The discrimination mechanism depends on the ratio of tunneling frequency to localization frequency.

  7. Chiral transition, eigenmode localisation and Anderson-like models

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Matteo; Pittler, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    We discuss chiral symmetry restoration and eigenmode localisation in finite-temperature QCD by looking at the lattice Dirac operator as a random Hamiltonian. We argue that the features of QCD relevant to both phenomena are the presence of order in the Polyakov line configuration, and the correlations that this induces between spatial links across time slices. This ties the fate of chiral symmetry and of localisation of the lowest Dirac eigenmodes to the confining properties of the theory. We then show numerical results obtained in a QCD-inspired Anderson-like toy model, derived by radically simplifying the QCD dynamics while keeping the important features mentioned above. The toy model reproduces all the important qualitative aspects of chiral symmetry breaking and localisation in QCD, thus supporting the central role played by the confinement/deconfinement transition in triggering both phenomena.

  8. Bubble and kink solitons in the φ6-model of nonlinear field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the φ6-model in the parameter domain A>1, with A being the relevant parameter of the model. For this case we have found localized soliton-like solutions: kinks and bubbles. The investigation of waves propagating through a stable vacuum shows that the sound velocity provides a rigid constraint for these oscillations to be stable or not. (orig.)

  9. Self-Dual Chern-Simons Solitons and Generalized Heisenberg Ferromagnet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, P; Oh, Phillial

    1996-01-01

    We consider the (2+1)-dimensional gauged Heisenberg ferromagnet model coupled with the Chern-Simons gauge fields. Self-dual Chern-Simons solitons, the static zero energy solution saturating Bogomol'nyi bounds, are shown to exist when the generalized spin variable is valued in the Hermitian symmetric spaces G/H. By gauging the maximal torus subgroup of H, we obtain self-dual solitons which satisfy vortex-type nonlinear equations thereby extending the two dimensional instantons in a nontrivial way. An explicit example for the CP(N) case is given.

  10. Strangeness s = -3 dibaryons in a chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Lian-Rong, D; Chun-Ran, L; Lei, T; Lian-Rong, Dai; Dan, Zhang; Chun-Ran, Li; Lei, Tong

    2006-01-01

    The structures of $N\\Omega_{(2,1/2)}$ and $\\Delta\\Omega_{(3,3/2)}$ with strangeness $s=-3$ are dynamically studied in both the chiral SU(3) quark model and the extended chiral SU(3) quark model by solving a resonating group method (RGM) equation. The first model parameters are taken from our previous work, which gave a satisfactory description of the energies of the baryon ground states, the binding energy of the deuteron, the nucleon-nucleon(NN) scattering phase shifts, and the hyperon-nucleon (YN) cross sections. The effect from the vector meson fields is very similar to that from the one-gluon exchange interaction, both in the chiral SU(3) quark model and the extended chiral SU(3) quark model, the $N\\Omega_{(2,1/2)}$ and $\\Delta\\Omega_{(3,3/2)}$ systems are wealy bound states. The second model parameters are also taken from our previous work by fitting the KN scattering process. when the mixing of scalar mesons are considered, the $N\\Omega_{(2,1/2)}$ and $\\Delta\\Omega_{(3,3/2)}$ systems change into unbound...

  11. Soliton Fay identities: I. Dark soliton case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a set of bilinear identities for the determinants of the matrices that have been used to construct dark soliton solutions for various models. To give examples of the application of the obtained identities, we present soliton solutions for the equations describing multidimensional quadrilateral lattices, Darboux equations, and multidimensional multicomponent systems of the nonlinear Schrödinger type. (paper)

  12. Soliton fay identities: II. Bright soliton case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a set of bilinear matrix identities that generalize the ones that have been used to construct the bright soliton solutions for various models. As an example of an application of these identities, we present a simple derivation of the N-bright soliton solutions for the Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy. (paper)

  13. Quadratic solitons as nonlocal solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, D.; Bang, Ole; Królikowski, W.

    2003-01-01

    We show that quadratic solitons are equivalent to solitons of a nonlocal Kerr medium. This provides new physical insight into the properties of quadratic solitons, often believed to be equivalent to solitons of an effective saturable Kerr medium. The nonlocal analogy also allows for novel analytical solutions and the prediction of novel bound states of quadratic solitons.

  14. Gapless chiral spin liquid in a kagome Heisenberg model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Samuel; Messio, Laura; Bernu, Bernard; Lhuillier, Claire

    2015-08-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on the Heisenberg S =1 /2 quantum spin liquid candidate material kapellasite, we classify all possible chiral (time-reversal symmetry breaking) spin liquids with fermionic spinons on the kagome lattice. We obtain the phase diagram for the physically relevant extended Heisenberg model, comparing the energies of a wide range of microscopic variational wave functions. We propose that, at low temperature, kapellasite exhibits a gapless chiral spin liquid phase with spinon Fermi surfaces. This two-dimensional state inherits many properties of the nearby one-dimensional phase of decoupled antiferromagnetic spin chains, but also shows some remarkable differences. We discuss the spin structure factors and other physical properties.

  15. The effective action approach applied to nuclear chiral sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear chiral sigma model of nuclear matter is considered by means of the Cornwall-Jackiw-tomboulis (CTJ) effective action. The method provides a very general framework for investigating many important problems: chiral symmetry in nuclear medium, energy density of nuclear ground state, nuclear Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations, etc. It is shown that the SD equations for sigma-omega mixing are actually not present in this formalism. For numerical computation purposes the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation for ground state energy density is also presented. (author). 26 refs

  16. Orbital Angular Momentum in the Chiral Quark Model

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaotong

    1998-01-01

    We developed a new and unified scheme for describing both quark spin and orbital angular momenta in symmetry-breaking chiral quark model. The loss of quark spin in the chiral splitting processes is compensated by the gain of the orbital angular momentum carried by quarks and antiquarks. The sum of both spin and orbital angular momenta carried by quarks and antiquarks is 1/2. The analytic and numerical results for the spin and orbital angular momenta carried by quarks and antiquarks in the nuc...

  17. The Many Faces of the Chiral Potts Model

    CERN Document Server

    Au-Yang, H; Au-Yang, Helen; Perk, Jacques H.H.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk, we give a brief overview of several aspects of the theory of the chiral Potts model, including higher-genus solutions of the star-triangle and tetrahedron equations, cyclic representations of affine quantum groups, basic hypergeometric functions at root of unity, and possible applications.

  18. Dimensional regularization and perturbative solution of the chiral Schwinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anomalous chiral Schwinger model is regulated by the method of dimensional regularization and is solved by diagrammatic perturbative expansion. It is shown that there is a regulation ambiguity in the solution. The result disagrees with Das's assertion and agrees with that of Jackiw, Rajaraman, and others

  19. MULTI-LAMBDA MATTER IN A CHIRAL HADRONIC MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华; 杨树; 胡翔; 刘玉鑫

    2001-01-01

    Multi-lambda matter is investigated in the framework of a chiral hadronic model It is shown that multi-lambda matter consisting of {N, A} is a metastable state as the strangeness per baryon and the density of hadronic matter are varied. The effective lambda mass decreases as the baryon density increases, and remains larger than that of the nucleon.

  20. A class of integrable expanding model for the coupled AKNS-Kaup-Newell soliton hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hong-Xiang; Xu Xi-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    An isospectral problem is established by means of a sub-algebra of loop Lie algebra (A)1, from which the coupled AKNS-Kaup-Newell soliton hierarchy is derived. Subsequently, the integrable expanding model, i.e. integrable coupling,is constructed through enlarging the corresponding loop algebra into the loop Lie algebra (A)2.

  1. Chiral matrix model of the semi-QGP in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarski, Robert D.; Skokov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-01

    Previously, a matrix model of the region near the transition temperature, in the "semi"quark gluon plasma, was developed for the theory of S U (3 ) gluons without quarks. In this paper we develop a chiral matrix model applicable to QCD by including dynamical quarks with 2 +1 flavors. This requires adding a nonet of scalar fields, with both parities, and coupling these to quarks through a Yukawa coupling, y . Treating the scalar fields in mean field approximation, the effective Lagrangian is computed by integrating out quarks to one loop order. As is standard, the potential for the scalar fields is chosen to be symmetric under the flavor symmetry of S U (3 )L×S U (3 )R×Z (3 )A, except for a term linear in the current quark mass, mqk. In addition, at a nonzero temperature T it is necessary to add a new term, ˜mqkT2. The parameters of the gluon part of the matrix model are identical to those for the pure glue theory without quarks. The parameters in the chiral matrix model are fixed by the values, at zero temperature, of the pion decay constant and the masses of the pions, kaons, η , and η'. The temperature for the chiral crossover at Tχ=155 MeV is determined by adjusting the Yukawa coupling y . We find reasonable agreement with the results of numerical simulations on the lattice for the pressure and related quantities. In the chiral limit, besides the divergence in the chiral susceptibility there is also a milder divergence in the susceptibility between the Polyakov loop and the chiral order parameter, with critical exponent β -1 . We compute derivatives with respect to a quark chemical potential to determine the susceptibilities for baryon number, the χ2 n. Especially sensitive tests are provided by χ4-χ2 and by χ6, which changes in sign about Tχ. The behavior of the susceptibilities in the chiral matrix model strongly suggests that as the temperature increases from Tχ, that the transition to deconfinement is significantly quicker than indicated by the

  2. An Anderson-like model of the QCD chiral transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Matteo; Kovács, Tamás G.; Pittler, Ferenc

    2016-06-01

    We study the problems of chiral symmetry breaking and eigenmode localisation in finite-temperature QCD by looking at the lattice Dirac operator as a random Hamiltonian. We recast the staggered Dirac operator into an unconventional three-dimensional Anderson Hamiltonian ("Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian") carrying internal degrees of freedom, with disorder provided by the fluctuations of the gauge links. In this framework, we identify the features relevant to chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes in the ordering of the local Polyakov lines, and in the related correlation between spatial links across time slices, thus tying the two phenomena to the deconfinement transition. We then build a toy model based on QCD and on the Dirac-Anderson approach, replacing the Polyakov lines with spin variables and simplifying the dynamics of the spatial gauge links, but preserving the above-mentioned relevant dynamical features. Our toy model successfully reproduces the main features of the QCD spectrum and of the Dirac eigenmodes concerning chiral symmetry breaking and localisation, both in the ordered (deconfined) and disordered (confined) phases. Moreover, it allows us to study separately the roles played in the two phenomena by the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms of the Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian. Our results support our expectation that chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low modes are closely related, and that both are triggered by the deconfinement transition.

  3. Conceptual Foundations of Soliton Versus Particle Dualities Toward a Topological Model for Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouneiher, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The idea that fermions could be solitons was actually confirmed in theoretical models in 1975 in the case when the space-time is two-dimensional and with the sine-Gordon model. More precisely S. Coleman showed that two different classical models end up describing the same fermions particle, when the quantum theory is constructed. But in one model the fermion is a quantum excitation of the field and in the other model the particle is a soliton. Hence both points of view can be reconciliated.The principal aim in this paper is to exhibit a solutions of topological type for the fermions in the wave zone, where the equations of motion are non-linear field equations, i.e. using a model generalizing sine- Gordon model to four dimensions, and describe the solutions for linear and circular polarized waves. In other words, the paper treat fermions as topological excitations of a bosonic field.

  4. Scattering of Topological Solitons on Barriers and Holes of Deformed Sine-Gordon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Alawi, Jassem H

    2008-01-01

    We study scattering properties of topological solitons in two classes of models, which are generalizations of the Sine-Gordon model and which have recently been proposed by Bazeia et al. These two classes of models depend on an integer parameter n which, when n=2(for the first class) and n=1 (for the second class), reduce to the Sine-Gordon model. We take the soliton solutions of these models (generalizations of the 'kink' solution of the Sine-Gordon model) and consider their scattering on potential holes and barriers. We present our results for n=1,...6. We find that, like in the Sine Gordon models, the scattering on the barrier is very elastic while the scattering on the hole is inelastic and can at times, lead to a reflection. We discuss the dependence of our results on n and find that the critical velocity for the transmission through the hole is lowest for n=3.

  5. Dynamics of the soliton bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT bag was one of the earliest and most successful models of QCD, imposing confinement and including perturbative gluon interactions. An evolution of the MIT bag came with the introduction of the chiral and cloudy bags, which treat pions as elementary particles. As a model of QCD, the soliton model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is particularly attractive. It is based on a covariant field theory and is sufficiently general so that, for certain limiting cases of the adjustable parameters, it can describe either the MIT or SLAC (string) bags. The confinement mechanism appears as a dynamic field. This allows non-static processes, such as bag oscillations and bag collisions, to be calculated utilizing the well-developed techniques of nuclear many-body theory. The utilization of the model for calculating dynamical processes is discussed. 14 references

  6. Dimension 2 condensates and Polyakov Chiral Quark Models

    OpenAIRE

    Megias, E.; Arriola, E. Ruiz; Salcedo, L. L.

    2006-01-01

    We address a possible relation between the expectation value of the Polyakov loop in pure gluodynamics and full QCD based on Polyakov Chiral Quark Models where constituent quarks and the Polyakov loop are coupled in a minimal way. To this end we use a center symmetry breaking Gaussian model for the Polyakov loop distribution which accurately reproduces gluodynamics data above the phase transition in terms of dimension 2 gluon condensate. The role played by the quantum and local nature of the ...

  7. BFFT formalism applied to the minimal chiral Schwinger model

    CERN Document Server

    Natividade, C P; Belvedere, L V

    2000-01-01

    The minimal chiral Schwinger model is discussed from the Batalin-Fradkin-Fradkina-Tyutin point of view. The conversion of second-class constraints to first-class ones results in an extended gauge-invariant theory which is equivalent for $a=2$ to the vector Schwinger model at the Lagrangian level. Here, we present arguments which show that such equivalence does no exist at the operatorial level.

  8. Hadron Properties in a Chiral Quark-Sigma Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rashdan, M; El-Kholy, S; Abu-Shady, M

    2011-01-01

    Within a chiral quark sigma model in which quarks interact via the exchange of sigma and pi-mesons, hadron properties are investigated. This model of the nucleon and delta is based on the idea that strong QCD forces on very short distances (a small length scales 0.2- 1 fm) result in hidden chiral SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry and that there is a separation of roles between these forces which are responsible for binding quarks in hadrons and the forces which produce absolute confinement. We have solved the field equations in the mean field approximation for the hedgehog baryon state with different sets of model parameters. A new parametrization which well describe the nucleon properties has been introduced and compared with experimental data.

  9. Opportunities for collective model and chirality studies at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First predictions for a specific case of the particle-hole-core coupling model which takes advantage of symmetries of a triaxial rotor with γ = 90° are reviewed. Results of the model calculations point towards existence of stable chiral geometry in specific configurations involving high-j orbitals. Next, experimental information on doublet bands built on unique parity, πh11/2νh11/2 intruder states in odd-odd 134Pr is discussed; in particular observed disagreements between electromagnetic transitions within the doublet structures which is pointed out as inconsistent with the simplest models. Finally, the unique experimental infrastructure developed at the Tri-University Meson Facility (TRIUMF) Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics is presented including a range of isotopes in the mass 130 region that are accessible as beams and which can possibly yield significant new information in investigations of nuclear chirality. (author)

  10. Chiral symmetry breaking in lattice QED model with fermion brane

    CERN Document Server

    Shintani, E

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel approach of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at near zero temperature in 4 dimensional QED model with 3+1 dimensional fermion brane using Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation. We consider an anisotropic QED coupling in non-compact QED action with the manifest gauge invariant interaction and fermi-velocity which is less than speed of light. This model allows for the scaling study at low temperature and strong coupling region with reduced computational cost. We compute the chiral condensate and its susceptibility with different coupling constant, velocity parameter and flavor number, and therefore obtain a compatible behavior with gap equation in broken phase. We also discuss about the comparison of Graphene model.

  11. Quasi-integrability in the modified defocusing non-linear Schr\\"odinger model and dark solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, H

    2015-01-01

    The concept of quasi-integrability has been examined in the context of deformations of the defocusing non-linear Schr\\"odinger model (NLS). Our results show that the quasi-integrability concept, recently discussed in the context of deformations of the sine-Gordon, Bullough-Dodd and focusing NLS models, holds for the modified defocusing NLS model with dark soliton solutions and it exhibits the new feature of an infinite sequence of alternating conserved and asymptotically conserved charges. For the special case of two dark soliton solutions, where the field components are eigenstates of a space-reflection symmetry, the first four and the sequence of even order charges are exactly conserved in the scattering process of the solitons. Such results are obtained through analytical and numerical methods, and employ adaptations of algebraic techniques used in integrable field theories. We perform extensive numerical simulations and consider the scattering of dark solitons for the cubic-quintic NLS model with potentia...

  12. Parity-violating $\\pi NN$ coupling constant from the flavor-conserving effective weak chiral Lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    Hyun, Chang Ho; Lee, Hee-Jung

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the parity-violating pion-nucleon-nucleon coupling constant $h^1_{\\pi NN}$, based on the chiral quark-soliton model. We employ an effective weak Hamiltonian that takes into account the next-to-leading order corrections from QCD to the weak interactions at the quark level. Using the gradient expansion, we derive the leading-order effective weak chiral Lagrangian with the low-energy constants determined. The effective weak chiral Lagrangian is incorporated in the chiral quark-soliton model to calculate the parity-violating $\\pi NN$ constant $h^1_{\\pi NN}$. We obtain a value of about $10^{-7}$ at the leading order. The corrections from the next-to-leading order reduce the leading order result by about 20~\\%.

  13. One loop quantum fluctuations to the energy of the non-topological soliton in Friedberg-Lee model

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Song

    2016-01-01

    I have used a practical method to calculate the one-loop quantum correction to the energy of the non-topological soliton in Friedberg-Lee model. The quantum effects which come from the quarks of the Dirac sea scattering with the soliton bag are calculated by a summation of the discrete and continuum energy spectrum of the Dirac equation in the background field of soliton. The phase shift of the continuum spectrum is numerically calculated in an efficient way and all the divergences are removed by the same renormalization procedure.

  14. Quadratic solitons as nonlocal solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, D.; Bang, Ole;

    2003-01-01

    We show that quadratic solitons are equivalent to solitons of a nonlocal Kerr medium. This provides new physical insight into the properties of quadratic solitons, often believed to be equivalent to solitons of an effective saturable Kerr medium. The nonlocal analogy also allows for analytical...

  15. ND^(*) and NB^(*) interactions in a chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Dan; Zhang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    ND and ND^* interactions become a hot topic after the observation of new charmed hadrons \\Sigma_c(2800) and \\Lambda_c(2940)^+. In this letter, we have preliminary investigated S-wave ND and ND^* interactions with possible quantum numbers in the chiral SU(3) quark model and the extended chiral SU(3) quark model by solving the resonating group method equation. The numerical results show that the interactions between N and D or N and D^* are both attractive, which are mainly from \\sigma exchanges between light quarks. Further bound-state studies indicate the attractions are strong enough to form ND or ND^* molecules, except for (ND)_{J=3/2} and (ND^*)_{J=3/2} in the chiral SU(3) quark model. In consequence ND system with J=1/2 and ND^* system with J=3/2 in the extended SU(3) quark model could correspond to the observed \\Sigma_c(2800) and \\Lambda_c(2940)^+, respectively. Naturally, the same method can be applied to research NB and NB^* interactions, and similar conclusions obtained, i.e. NB and NB^* attractive fo...

  16. Microscopically constrained mean-field models from chiral nuclear thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrapaj, Ermal; Roggero, Alessandro; Holt, Jeremy W.

    2016-06-01

    We explore the use of mean-field models to approximate microscopic nuclear equations of state derived from chiral effective field theory across the densities and temperatures relevant for simulating astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae and binary neutron star mergers. We consider both relativistic mean-field theory with scalar and vector meson exchange as well as energy density functionals based on Skyrme phenomenology and compare to thermodynamic equations of state derived from chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in many-body perturbation theory. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are used to determine the density regimes in which perturbation theory with chiral nuclear forces is valid. Within the theoretical uncertainties associated with the many-body methods, we find that select mean-field models describe well microscopic nuclear thermodynamics. As an additional consistency requirement, we study as well the single-particle properties of nucleons in a hot/dense environment, which affect e.g., charged-current weak reactions in neutron-rich matter. The identified mean-field models can be used across a larger range of densities and temperatures in astrophysical simulations than more computationally expensive microscopic models.

  17. An Anderson-like model of the QCD chiral transition

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Matteo; Pittler, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    We study the problems of chiral symmetry breaking and eigenmode localisation in finite-temperature QCD by looking at the lattice Dirac operator as a random Hamiltonian. We recast the staggered Dirac operator into an unconventional three-dimensional Anderson Hamiltonian ("Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian") carrying internal degrees of freedom, with disorder provided by the fluctuations of the gauge links. In this framework, we identify the features relevant to chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes in the ordering of the local Polyakov lines, and in the related correlation between spatial links across time slices, thus tying the two phenomena to the deconfinement transition. We then build a toy model based on QCD and on the Dirac-Anderson approach, replacing the Polyakov lines with spin variables and simplifying the dynamics of the spatial gauge links, but preserving the above-mentioned relevant dynamical features. Our toy model successfully reproduces the main features of the...

  18. Continuum model for chiral induced spin selectivity in helical molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Ernesto [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); González-Arraga, Luis A. [IMDEA Nanoscience, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Finkelstein-Shapiro, Daniel; Mujica, Vladimiro [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Berche, Bertrand [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-05-21

    A minimal model is exactly solved for electron spin transport on a helix. Electron transport is assumed to be supported by well oriented p{sub z} type orbitals on base molecules forming a staircase of definite chirality. In a tight binding interpretation, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) opens up an effective π{sub z} − π{sub z} coupling via interbase p{sub x,y} − p{sub z} hopping, introducing spin coupled transport. The resulting continuum model spectrum shows two Kramers doublet transport channels with a gap proportional to the SOC. Each doubly degenerate channel satisfies time reversal symmetry; nevertheless, a bias chooses a transport direction and thus selects for spin orientation. The model predicts (i) which spin orientation is selected depending on chirality and bias, (ii) changes in spin preference as a function of input Fermi level and (iii) back-scattering suppression protected by the SO gap. We compute the spin current with a definite helicity and find it to be proportional to the torsion of the chiral structure and the non-adiabatic Aharonov-Anandan phase. To describe room temperature transport, we assume that the total transmission is the result of a product of coherent steps.

  19. Chiral-Symmetric Technicolor with Standard Model Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman; Kuksa, Vladimir; Vereshkov, Grigory

    2013-01-01

    Most of the traditional Technicolor-based models are known to be in a strong tension with the electroweak precision data. We show that this serious issue is naturally cured in strongly coupled sectors with chiral-symmetric vector-like gauge interactions in the framework of gauged linear sigma model. We discuss possible phenomenological implications of such non-standard chiral-symmetric Technicolor scenario in its simplest formulation preserving the standard Higgs mechanism and (possibly) elementary Higgs boson of the Standard Model (SM). For this purpose, we assume the existence of an extra technifermion sector confined under extra SU(3)_TC at the energy scales reachable at the LHC, Lambda_TC ~ 0.1-1 TeV, and interacting with the SM gauge bosons in a chiral-symmetric (vector-like) way. In the framework of this scenario, the SM Higgs vev acquires natural interpretation in terms of the condensate of technifermions in confinement. We study the influence of the lowest lying composite physical states, namely, tech...

  20. Mean-field model of interaction between bright vortex solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the explicit numerical solution of the axially symmetric Gross-Pitaevskii equation we study the dynamics of interaction among vortex solitons in a rotating matter-wave bright soliton train in a radially trapped and axially free Bose-Einstein condensate to understand certain features of the experiment by Strecker et al (2002 Nature 417 150). In a soliton train, solitons of opposite phase (phase δ = π) repel and stay apart without changing shape; solitons with π = 0 attract, interact and coalesce, but eventually come out; solitons with a general δ usually repel but interact inelastically by exchanging matter. We study this and suggest future experiments with vortex solitons

  1. Can sigma models describe finite temperature chiral transitions?

    CERN Document Server

    Kocic, Aleksandar; Aleksandar KOCIC; John KOGUT

    1995-01-01

    Large-N expansions and computer simulations indicate that the universality class of the finite temperature chiral symmetry restoration transition in the 3D Gross-Neveu model is mean field theory. This is a counterexample to the standard 'sigma model' scenario which predicts the 2D Ising model universality class. We trace the breakdown of the standard scenario (dimensional reduction and universality) to the absence of canonical scalar fields in the model. We point out that our results could be generic for theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, such as Quantum Chromodynamics.

  2. Numerical simulation of a solitonic gas in some integrable and non-integrable models

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys

    2014-01-01

    The collective behaviour of soliton ensembles (i.e. the solitonic gas) is studied using the methods of the direct numerical simulation. Traditionally this problem was addressed in the context of integrable models such as the celebrated KdV equation. We extend this analysis to non-integrable KdV--BBM type models. Some high resolution numerical results are presented in both integrable and nonintegrable cases. Moreover, the free surface elevation probability distribution is shown to be quasi-stationary. Finally, we employ the asymptotic methods along with the Monte--Carlo simulations in order to study quantitatively the dependence of some important statistical characteristics (such as the kurtosis and skewness) on the Stokes--Ursell number (which measures the relative importance of nonlinear effects compared to the dispersion) and also on the magnitude of the BBM term.

  3. An energy conserving finite-difference model of Maxwell's equations for soliton propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Bachiri, H; Vázquez, L

    1997-01-01

    We present an energy conserving leap-frog finite-difference scheme for the nonlinear Maxwell's equations investigated by Hile and Kath [C.V.Hile and W.L.Kath, J.Opt.Soc.Am.B13, 1135 (96)]. The model describes one-dimensional scalar optical soliton propagation in polarization preserving nonlinear dispersive media. The existence of a discrete analog of the underlying continuous energy conservation law plays a central role in the global accuracy of the scheme and a proof of its generalized nonlinear stability using energy methods is given. Numerical simulations of initial fundamental, second and third-order hyperbolic secant soliton pulses of fixed spatial full width at half peak intensity containing as few as 4 and 8 optical carrier wavelengths, confirm the stability, accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm. The effect of a retarded nonlinear response time of the media modeling Raman scattering is under current investigation in this context.

  4. Models of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, H., E-mail: herve.leblond@univ-angers.fr [LUNAM University, Université d’Angers, Laboratoire de Photonique d’Angers, EA 4464, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Mihalache, D. [LUNAM University, Université d’Angers, Laboratoire de Photonique d’Angers, EA 4464, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independentei, 050094 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-02-15

    In the past years there was a huge interest in experimental and theoretical studies in the area of few-optical-cycle pulses and in the broader fast growing field of the so-called extreme nonlinear optics. This review concentrates on theoretical studies performed in the past decade concerning the description of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). Here we systematically use the powerful reductive expansion method (alias multiscale analysis) in order to derive simple integrable and nonintegrable evolution models describing both nonlinear wave propagation and interaction of ultrashort (femtosecond) pulses. To this aim we perform the multiple scale analysis on the Maxwell–Bloch equations and the corresponding Schrödinger–von Neumann equation for the density matrix of two-level atoms. We analyze in detail both long-wave and short-wave propagation models. The propagation of ultrashort few-optical-cycle solitons in quadratic and cubic nonlinear media are adequately described by generic integrable and nonintegrable nonlinear evolution equations such as the Korteweg–de Vries equation, the modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the complex modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the sine–Gordon equation, the cubic generalized Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation, and the two-dimensional sine–Gordon equation. Moreover, we consider the propagation of few-cycle optical solitons in both (1+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional physical settings. A generalized modified Korteweg–de Vries equation is introduced in order to describe robust few-optical-cycle dissipative solitons. We investigate in detail the existence and robustness of both linearly polarized and circularly polarized few-cycle solitons, that is, we also take into account the effect of the vectorial nature of the electric field. Some of these results concerning the systematic use of the reductive expansion method beyond the SVEA can be relatively easily extended to few

  5. Solitons in topologically trivial and nontrivial sectors of the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using of the new predictions of form of solitons in the Skyrme model new series of baryon and meson-like configurations are obtained. Some of the obtained configurations are classically stable objects. It is shown that proposed ansatz is the generalization of the Skyrme-Witten ansatz and k Φ one. The origin and approximate character of the last ansatz was demonstrated. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Pion Effect of Nuclear Matter in a Chiral Sigma Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jin-niu; Y.Ogawa; H.Toki; A.Hosaka; SHEN Hong

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new framework for the study of the nuclear matter based on the linear sigma model.We introduce a completely new viewpoint on the treatment of the nuclear matter with the inclusion of the pion.We extend the relativistic chiral mean field model by using the similar method in the tensor optimized shell model.We also regulate the pion-nucleon interaction by considering the form-factor and short range repulsion effects.We obtain the equation of state of nuclear matter and study the importance of the pion effect.

  7. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  8. Quasi-integrable non-linear Schr\\"odinger models, infinite towers of exactly conserved charges and bright solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, H; Vilela, A M

    2016-01-01

    Deformations of the focusing non-linear Schr\\"odinger model (NLS) are considered in the context of the quasi-integrability concept. We strengthen the results of JHEP09(2012)103 for bright soliton collisions. We addressed the focusing NLS as a complement to the one in JHEP03(2016)005, in which the modified defocusing NLS models with dark solitons were shown to exhibit an infinite tower of exactly conserved charges. We show, by means of analytical and numerical methods, that for certain two-bright-soliton solutions, in which the modulus and phase of the complex modified NLS field exhibit even parities under a space-reflection symmetry, the first four and the sequence of even order charges are exactly conserved during the scattering process of the solitons. We perform extensive numerical simulations and consider the bright solitons with deformed potential $ V = \\frac{ 2\\eta}{2+ \\epsilon} \\( |\\psi|^2\\)^{2 + \\epsilon}, \\epsilon \\in \\IR, \\eta<0$. However, for two-soliton field components without definite parity ...

  9. Influences of Quantum and Disorder Effects on Solitons Excited in Protein Molecules in Improved Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiao-Feng; YU Jia-Feng; LUO Yu-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Utilizing the improved model with quasi-coherent two-quantum state and new Hamiltonian containing an additional interaction term [Phys. Rev. E62 (2000) 6989 and Euro. Phys. J. B19 (2001) 297] we study numerically the influences of the quantum and disorder effects including distortion of the sequences of masses of amino acid molecules and fluctuations of force constant of molecular chains, and of exciton-phonon coupled constants and of the dipole-dipole interaction constant and of the ground state energy on the properties of the solitons transported the bio-energy in the protein molecules by Runge-Kutta method. The results obtained show that the new soliton is robust against these structure disorders, especially for stronger disorders in the sequence of masses spring constants and coupling constants,except for quite larger fluctuations of the ground state energy and dipole-dipole interaction constant. This means that the new soliton in the improved model is very stable in normal cases and is possibly a carrier of bio-energy transport in the protein molecules.

  10. Relativistic Chiral Mean Field Model for Finite Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Yoko; Toki, Hiroshi; Tamenaga, Setsuo; Haga, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    We present a relativistic chiral mean field (RCMF) model, which is a method for the proper treatment of pion-exchange interaction in the nuclear many-body problem. There the dominant term of the pionic correlation is expressed in two-particle two-hole (2p-2h) states with particle-holes having pionic quantum number, J^{pi}. The charge-and-parity-projected relativistic mean field (CPPRMF) model developed so far treats surface properties of pionic correlation in 2p-2h states with J^{pi} = 0^{-} ...

  11. On the chiral phase transition in the linear sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cornwall- Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action for composite operators at finite temperature is used to investigate the chiral phase transition within the framework of the linear sigma model as the low-energy effective model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new renormalization prescription for the CJT effective action in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation is proposed. A numerical study, which incorporates both thermal and quantum effect, shows that in this approximation the phase transition is of first order. However, taking into account the higher-loop diagrams contribution the order of phase transition is unchanged. (author)

  12. Compactons versus solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paulo E G Assis; Andreas Fring

    2010-06-01

    We investigate whether the recently proposed $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric extensions of generalized Korteweg–de Vries equations admit genuine soliton solutions besides compacton solitary waves. For models which admit stable compactons having a width which is independent of their amplitude and those which possess unstable compacton solutions the Painlevé test fails, such that no soliton solutions can be found. The Painlevé test is passed for models allowing for compacton solutions whose width is determined by their amplitude. Consequently, these models admit soliton solutions in addition to compactons and are integrable.

  13. Stable spatial Langmuir solitons as a model of long-lived atmospheric plasma structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    I study stable spatial Langmuir solitons in plasma based on nonlinear radial oscillations of charged particles. I discuss two situations when a Langmuir soliton can be stable. In the former case the stability of solitons against the collapse is due to electron-electron interactions which result in the nonlocal terms in the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. In the latter situation I derive the new cubic-quintic nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with accounts for the interaction of induced dipole moments of diatomic ions with a rapidly oscillating electric field and show that the collapse of Langmuir waves can be also arrested. In both cases I find the numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation and analyze their stability using the Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion. I discuss the application of my results for the description of long-lived atmospheric plasma structures. I show that, using my model, one can explain the existence of atmospheric plasmoids in the upper ionosphere. It is also demonst...

  14. Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Claudio; Peccianti, Marco; Assanto, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    We develop a general theory of spatial solitons in a liquid crystalline medium exhibiting a nonlinearity with an arbitrary degree of effective nonlocality. The model accounts the observability of "accessible solitons" and establishes an important link with parametric solitons.

  15. Scattering of Topological Solitons on Barriers and Holes in Two \\lambda \\phi^4 Models

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Alawi, Jassem H

    2007-01-01

    We present results of our studies of various scattering properties of topological solitons on obstructions in the form of holes and barriers in 1+1 dimensions. Our results are based on two models involving a \\phi^4 potential. The obstructions are characterised by a potential parameter, \\lambda which has a non-zero value in a certain region of space and zero elsewhere. In the first model the potential parameter is included in the potential and in the second model the potential parameter is included in the metric. Our results are based on numerical simulations and analytical considerations.

  16. Scattering of topological solitons on barriers and holes in two {psi}{sup 4} models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Alawi, Jassem H; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-14

    We present the results of our studies of various scattering properties of topological solitons on obstructions in the form of holes and barriers in 1+1 dimensions. Our results are based on two models involving a {psi}{sup 4} potential. The obstructions are characterized by a potential parameter, {lambda}, which has a nonzero value in a certain region of space and zero elsewhere. In the first model the potential parameter is included in the potential and in the second model the potential parameter is included in the metric. Our results are based on numerical simulations and analytical considerations.

  17. Scattering of Topological Solitons on Barriers and Holes in Two \\lambda \\phi^4 Models

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Alawi, Jassem H.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of our studies of various scattering properties of topological solitons on obstructions in the form of holes and barriers in 1+1 dimensions. Our results are based on two models involving a \\phi^4 potential. The obstructions are characterised by a potential parameter, \\lambda which has a non-zero value in a certain region of space and zero elsewhere. In the first model the potential parameter is included in the potential and in the second model the potential parameter is inc...

  18. Scattering of topological solitons on barriers and holes in two ψ4 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of our studies of various scattering properties of topological solitons on obstructions in the form of holes and barriers in 1+1 dimensions. Our results are based on two models involving a ψ4 potential. The obstructions are characterized by a potential parameter, λ, which has a nonzero value in a certain region of space and zero elsewhere. In the first model the potential parameter is included in the potential and in the second model the potential parameter is included in the metric. Our results are based on numerical simulations and analytical considerations

  19. NN Scattering Phase Shifts in a Chiral Constituent Quark Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bartz, D.; Stancu, Fl

    2000-01-01

    We study the nucleon-nucleon interaction within a chiral constituent quark model which reproduces succesfully the baryon spectra. We calculate the 3S1 and 1S0 phase shifts by using the resonating group method. They clearly indicate the presence of a strong repulsive interaction at short distance, due to the spin-flavor symmetry of the quark-quark interaction and of the quark interchange between the two interacting nucleons. A sigma-exchange quark-quark interaction, providing a medium-range at...

  20. Strange and Non-Strange Meson Fluctuations off the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Weigel, H; Alkofer, R

    1993-01-01

    Mesonic fluctuations off the chiral soliton of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model are investigated. The hedgehog configuration is proven to represent a local extremum of the action. The method is applied to flavor SU(3) and the energy eigenvalue of the kaon bound state in the soliton background is evaluated which is the key ingredient for the Callan-Klebanov approach to hyperons. The energy eigenvalue of the corresponding strange-valence-quark is found to be 183MeV higher than the energy eigenvalue of the up-valence-quark when 400MeV is assumed for the up-quark constituent mass.

  1. Finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model using the effective potential formalism. Assuming that the dilaton limit is applicable at some short length scale, we interpret the results to represent the behavior of hadrons in dense and hot matter. We obtain the scaling law, fπ(T)/fπ = mQ(T)/mQ ≅ mσ(T)/mσwhile we argue, using PCAC, that pion mass does not scale within the temperature range involved in our Lagrangian. It is found that the hadron masses and the pion decay constant drop faster with temperature in the dilated chiral quark model than in the conventional linear sigma model that does not take into account the QCD scale anomaly. We attribute the difference in scaling in heat bath to the effect of baryonic medium on thermal properties of the hadrons. Our finding would imply that the AGS experiments (dense and hot matter) and the RHIC experiments (hot and dilute matter) will ''see'' different hadron properties in the hadronization exit phase

  2. Scattering of topological solitons on barriers and holes of deformed Sine-Gordon models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Alawi, Jassem H; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: J.H.Al-Alawi@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: W.J.Zakrzewski@durham.ac.uk

    2008-08-08

    We study various scattering properties of topological solitons in two classes of models, which are the generalizations of the Sine-Gordon model and which have recently been proposed by Bazeia et al. These two classes of models depend on a positive real nonzero parameter n but in this paper we consider the models only for its integer values as when n = 2 (for the first class) and n = 1 (for the second class), the model reduces to the Sine-Gordon one. We take the soliton solutions of these models (generalizations of the 'kink' solution of the Sine-Gordon model) and consider their scattering on potential holes and barriers. We present our results for n = 1, ..., 6. We find that, like in the Sine-Gordon models, the scattering on the barrier is very elastic while the scattering on the hole is inelastic and can, at times, lead to a reflection. We discuss the dependence of our results on n and find that the critical velocity for the transmission through the hole is lowest for n = 3.

  3. Scattering of topological solitons on barriers and holes of deformed Sine-Gordon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study various scattering properties of topological solitons in two classes of models, which are the generalizations of the Sine-Gordon model and which have recently been proposed by Bazeia et al. These two classes of models depend on a positive real nonzero parameter n but in this paper we consider the models only for its integer values as when n = 2 (for the first class) and n = 1 (for the second class), the model reduces to the Sine-Gordon one. We take the soliton solutions of these models (generalizations of the 'kink' solution of the Sine-Gordon model) and consider their scattering on potential holes and barriers. We present our results for n = 1, ..., 6. We find that, like in the Sine-Gordon models, the scattering on the barrier is very elastic while the scattering on the hole is inelastic and can, at times, lead to a reflection. We discuss the dependence of our results on n and find that the critical velocity for the transmission through the hole is lowest for n = 3

  4. Fluctuations and the Phase Transition in a Chiral Model with Polyakov Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, C.; Friman, B.; Redlich, K.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the NJL model with Polyakov loops for a system of three colors and two flavors within the mean-field approximation, where both chiral symmetry and confinement are taken into account. We focus on the phase structure of the model and study the chiral and Polyakov loop susceptibilities.

  5. Baryon resonances in a chiral confining model, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Umino, Y

    1998-01-01

    In this two part series a chiral confining model of baryons is used to describe low--lying negative parity resonances $N^*$, $\\Delta^*$, $\\Lambda^*$ and $\\Sigma^*$ in the mean field approximation. A physical baryon in this model consists of interacting valence quarks, mesons and a color and chiral singlet hybrid field coexisting inside a dynamically generated confining region. This first paper presents the quark contribution to the masses and wave functions of negative parity baryons calculated with an effective spin--isospin dependent instanton induced interaction. It does not include meson exchanges between quarks. The three--quark wave functions are used to calculate meson--excited baryon vertex functions to lowest order in meson--quark coupling. When the baryons are on mass--shell each of these vertex functions is a product of a coupling constant and a form factor. As examples, quark contributions to $N^*$ hadronic form factors as well as axial coupling constants are extracted from the vertex functions an...

  6. Helmholtz algebraic solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P, E-mail: j.christian@salford.ac.u [Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones e Ingenieria Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-02-26

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first exact analytical algebraic solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation. This class of governing equation plays a key role in photonics modelling, allowing a full description of the propagation and interaction of broad scalar beams. New conservation laws are presented, and the recovery of paraxial results is discussed in detail. The stability properties of the new solitons are investigated by combining semi-analytical methods and computer simulations. In particular, new general stability regimes are reported for algebraic bright solitons.

  7. Scattering of periodic solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cova, R.J. [Carleton University, School of Mathematics and Statistics, 1125 Colonel by Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Zakrzewski, W.J. [University of Durham, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)]. e-mail: rcova@math.carleton.ca

    2004-07-01

    Through numerical simulations we study N-soliton scattering (N = 3, 4) in the (2 + 1)-dimensional CP{sup 1} model with periodic boundary conditions. Solitons colliding from symmetrical configurations scatter at {pi}/ N, as observed in the usual model with standard boundary conditions. When the initial configurations are not symmetric the angles differ from {pi}/ N. We describe our observed patterns based on a properly formulated geodesic approximation. (Author) 11 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Bio-Soliton Model that predicts Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Frequency Bands, that either Stabilize or Destabilize Life Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Geesink, J H

    2016-01-01

    Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organisation. Soliton models are able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by electromagnetic radiation. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells. The particular effects are exerted by a range of electromagnetic wave frequencies of one-tenth of a Hertz till Peta Hertz, that show a pattern of twelve bands, if positioned on an acoustic frequency scale. The model was substantiated by a meta-analysis of 240 published papers of biological radiation experiments, in which a spectrum of non-thermal electromagnetic waves were exposed to living cells and intact organisms. These data support the concept of coherent quantized electromagnet...

  9. Chiral Phase Transition at Finite Isospin Density in Linear Sigma Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Song; LI Jia-Rong

    2005-01-01

    Using the linear sigma model, we have introduced the pion isospin chemical potential. The chiral phase transition is studied at finite temperatures and finite isospin densities. We have studied the μ - T phase diagram for the chiral phase transition and found the transition cannot happen below a certain low temperature because of the BoseEinstein condensation in this system. Above that temperature, the chiral phase transition is studied by the isotherms of pressure versus density. We indicate that the transition, in the chiral limit, is a first-order transition from a low-density phase to a high-density phase like a gas-liquid phase transition.

  10. Explicit chiral symmetry breaking in Gross-Neveu type models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Christian

    2011-07-25

    This thesis is devoted to the study of a 1+1-dimensional, fermionic quantum field theory with Lagrangian L= anti {psi}i{gamma}{sup {mu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {mu}}{psi}-m{sub 0} anti {psi}{psi}+(g{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}{psi}){sup 2}+(G{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}i{gamma}{sub 5}{psi}){sup 2} in the limit of an infinite number of flavors, using semiclassical methods. The main goal of the present work was to see what changes if we allow for explicit chiral symmetry breaking, either by a bare mass term, or a splitting of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants, or both. In the first case, this becomes the massive NJL{sub 2} model. In the 2nd and 3rd cases we are dealing with a model largely unexplored so far. The first half of this thesis deals with the massive NJL{sub 2} model. Before attacking the phase diagram, it was necessary to determine the baryons of the model. We have carried out full numerical Hartree-Fock calculations including the Dirac sea. The most important result is the first complete phase diagram of the massive NJL{sub 2} model in ({mu},T,{gamma}) space, where {gamma} arises from m{sub 0} through mass renormalization. In the 2nd half of the thesis we have studied a generalization of the massless NJL{sub 2} model with two different (scalar and pseudoscalar) coupling constants, first in the massless version. Renormalization of the 2 coupling constants leads to the usual dynamical mass by dynamical transmutation, but in addition to a novel {xi} parameter interpreted as chiral quenching parameter. As far as baryon structure is concerned, the most interesting result is the fact that the new baryons interpolate between the kink of the GN model and the massless baryon of the NJL{sub 2} model, always carrying fractional baryon number 1/2. The phase diagram of the massless model with 2 coupling constants has again been determined numerically. At zero temperature we have also investigated the massive, generalized GN model with 3 parameters. It is well

  11. The properties of isolated chiral skyrmions in thin magnetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, A. O.; Monchesky, T. L.; Romming, N.; Kubetzka, A.; Bogdanov, A. N.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2016-06-01

    Axisymmetric solitonic states (chiral skyrmions) were first predicted theoretically more than two decades ago. However, until recently they have been observed in a form of skyrmionic condensates (hexagonal lattices and other mesophases). In this paper we report experimental and theoretical investigations of isolated chiral skyrmions discovered in PdFe/Ir(111) bilayers two years ago by Romming et al (2013 Science 341 636). The results of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy analyzed within the continuum and discrete models provide a consistent description of isolated skyrmions in thin layers. The existence region of chiral skyrmions is restricted by strip-out instabilities at low fields and a collapse at high fields. We demonstrate that the same equations describe axisymmetric localized states in all condensed matter systems with broken mirror symmetry, and thus our findings establish basic properties of isolated skyrmions common for chiral liquid crystals, different classes of noncentrosymmetric magnets, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics.

  12. Chiral HPLC Separation and Modeling of Four Stereomers of DL-Leucine-DL-Tryptophan Dipeptide on Amylose Chiral Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, Mohammed F; Hussain, Afzal; Suhail, Mohd; Mukhtar, Sofi Danish; Sahoo, Dibya Ranjan; Asnin, Leonid; Ali, Imran

    2016-09-01

    Chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and modeling of four stereomers of DL-leucine-tryptophan DL-dipeptide on AmyCoat-RP column are described. The mobile phase applied was ammonium acetate (10 mM)-methanol-acetonitrile (50:5:45, v/v). The flow rate of the mobile phases was 0.8 mL/min with UV detection at 230 nm. The values of retention factors for LL-, DD-, DL-, and LD- stereomers were 2.25, 3.60, 5.00, and 6.50, respectively. The values of separation and resolution factors were 1.60, 1.39, and 1.30 and 7.76, 8.05, and 7.19. The limits of detection and quantitation were ranging from 1.0-2.3 and 5.6-14.0 μg/mL. The simulation studies established the elution orders and the mechanism of chiral recognition. It was seen that π-π connections and hydrogen bondings were the main forces for enantiomeric resolution. The reported chiral HPLC method may be applied for the enantiomeric separation of DL-leucine-DL-tryptophan in unknown matrices. Chirality 28:642-648, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27474783

  13. Constructing Soliton and Kink Solutions of PDE Models in Transport and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod A. Vladimirov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of our recent works directed towards discovery of a periodic, kink-like and soliton-like travelling wave solutions within the models of transport phenomena and the mathematical biology. Analytical description of these wave patterns is carried out by means of our modification of the direct algebraic balance method. In the case when the analytical description fails, we propose to approximate invariant travelling wave solutions by means of an infinite series of exponential functions. The effectiveness of the method of approximation is demonstrated on a hyperbolic modification of Burgers equation.

  14. Modelling and measuring the irrational behaviour of agents in financial markets: Discovering the psychological soliton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhesi, Gurjeet; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Following a Geometrical Brownian Motion extension into an Irrational Fractional Brownian Motion model, we re-examine agent behaviour reacting to time dependent news on the log-returns thereby modifying a financial market evolution. We specifically discuss the role of financial news or economic information positive or negative feedback of such irrational (or contrarian) agents upon the price evolution. We observe a kink-like effect reminiscent of soliton behaviour, suggesting how analysts' forecasts errors induce stock prices to adjust accordingly, thereby proposing a measure of the irrational force in a market.

  15. Phase solitons and domain dynamics in an optically injected semiconductor laser

    CERN Document Server

    Gustave, F; Tissoni, G; Brambilla, M; Prati, F; Barland, S

    2016-01-01

    We analyze experimentally and theoretically the spatio-temporal dynamics of a highly multimode semiconductor laser with coherent optical injection. Due to the particular geometry of the device (a 1~m long ring cavity), the multimode dynamics can be resolved in real time and we observe stable chiral solitons and domain dynamics. The experiment is analyzed in the framework of a set of effective semiconductor Maxwell-Bloch equations. We analyze the stability of stationary solutions and simulate both the complete model and a reduced rate equation model. This allows us to predict domain shrinking and the stability of only one chiral charge that we ascribe to the finite active medium response time.

  16. SIMP model at NNLO in chiral perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rasmus Lundquist; Langaeble, K.; Sannino, F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenological viability of a recently proposed class of composite dark matter models where the relic density is determined by 3 to 2 number-changing processes in the dark sector. Here the pions of the strongly interacting field theory constitute the dark matter particles....... By performing a consistent next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-leading order chiral perturbative investigation we demonstrate that the leading order analysis cannot be used to draw conclusions about the viability of the model. We further show that higher order corrections substantially increase the tension...... with phenomenological constraints challenging the viability of the simplest realisation of the strongly interacting massive particle (SIMP) paradigm....

  17. Chiral Dynamics and Dubna-Mainz-Taipei Dynamical Model for Pion-Photoproduction Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shin Nan

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the Dubna-Mainz-Taipei (DMT) meson-exchange dynamical model, which starts from an effective chiral Lagrangian, for pion photoproduction provides an excellent and economic framework to describe both the pi^0 threshold production and the Delta deformation, two features dictated by chiral dynamics.

  18. Finite-Temperature Phase Structure in the Chiral σ-ω Model with Dilatons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Bing ZHANG Xiao-Bing; LI Xue-Qian; NING Ping-Zhi

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the finite-temperature phase structure in a scaled chiral model which includes the dilaton (glueball) field. It is shown that hot nuclear matter undergoes a discontinuous transition in the mean field of scalar mesons as well as the Lee-Wick abnormal transition. The corresponding behavior of the gluon condensate during the chiral phase transition is also studied.

  19. Non-uniform chiral phase studied within the Polyakov NJL model

    OpenAIRE

    Partyka, Tomasz L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider how does the introduction of a Polyakov loop affects the spatially inhomogeneous quark condensate. The primary result of our work is that the existence of the spatially non-uniform chiral phase is confirmed within the Polyakov NJL model in a chiral limit. These findings are obtained both in a 3d-cutoff and in a Schwinger (proper time) regularization schemes.

  20. Numerical Evidence of Spin-Chirality Decoupling in the Three-Dimensional Heisenberg Spin Glass Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Dao Xuan; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2009-01-01

    Ordering of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with Gaussian coupling is studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The model undergoes successive chiral-glass and spin-glass transitions at nonzero temperatures TCG>TSG>0, exhibiting spin-chirality decoupling.

  1. Painlevé test for integrability for a combination of Yang’s self-dual equations for (2) gauge fields and Charap's equations for chiral invariant model of pion dynamics and a comparative discussion among the three

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susanto Chakraborty; Pranab Krishna Chandra

    2007-04-01

    Painlevé test for integrability for the combined equations generated from Yang's self-dual equations for (2) gauge fields and Charap's equations for chiral invariant model of pion dynamics faces some peculiar situations that allow none of the stages (leading order analysis, resonance calculation and checking of the existence of the requisite number of arbitrary functions) to be conclusive. It is also revealed from a comparative study with the previous results that the existence of abnormal behaviour at any of the stated stages may have a correlation with the existence of chaotic property or some other properties that do not correspond to solitonic behaviour.

  2. Alfven solitons in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovenden, C.; Schwartz, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    A nonlinear Alfven soliton solution of the MHD equations is presented. This solution represents the final state of modulationally unstable Alfven waves. A model of the expected turbulent spectrum due to a collection of such solitons is briefly described.

  3. Three-dimensional homogeneous generalized Ricci solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calvaruso, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We study three-dimensional generalized Ricci solitons, both in Riemannian and Lorentzian settings. We shall determine their homogeneous models, classifying left-invariant generalized Ricci solitons on three-dimensional Lie groups.

  4. Soliton and Similarity Solutions of Ν = 2, 4 Supersymmetric Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Delisle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We produce soliton and similarity solutions of supersymmetric extensions of Burgers, Korteweg–de Vries and modified KdV equations. We give new representations of the τ -functions in Hirota bilinear formalism. Chiral superfields are used to obtain such solutions. We also introduce new solitons called virtual solitons whose nonlinear interactions produce no phase shifts.

  5. Chiral magnetic conductivity in an interacting lattice model of parity-breaking Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buividovich, P. V.; Puhr, M.; Valgushev, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the mean-field study of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in static magnetic fields within a simple model of parity-breaking Weyl semimetal given by the lattice Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian with constant chiral chemical potential. We consider both the mean-field renormalization of the model parameters and nontrivial corrections to the CME originating from resummed ladder diagrams with arbitrary number of loops. We find that onsite repulsive interactions affect the chiral magnetic conductivity almost exclusively through the enhancement of the renormalized chiral chemical potential. Our results suggest that nontrivial corrections to the chiral magnetic conductivity due to interfermion interactions are not relevant in practice since they only become important when the CME response is strongly suppressed by the large gap in the energy spectrum.

  6. Finite nuclei in relativistic models with a light chiral scalar meson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnstahl, R. J.; Serot, Brian D.

    1993-05-01

    Relativistic chiral models with a light scalar meson appear to provide an economical marriage of successful relativistic mean-field theories and chiral symmetry. The scalar meson serves as both the chiral partner of the pion and the mediator of the intermediate-range nucleon-nucleon (NN) attraction. However, while some of these models can reproduce the empirical nuclear matter saturation point, they fail to reproduce observed properties of finite nuclei, such as spin-orbit splittings, shell structure, charge densities, and surface energetics. These deficiencies imply that this realization of chiral symmetry is incorrect. An alternative scenario, which features a heavy chiral scalar and dynamical generation of the NN attraction, is discussed.

  7. Evolution of spherical domain walls in solitonic symmetron models

    CERN Document Server

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2016-01-01

    In this work, inspired by the symmetron model, we analyse the evolution of spherical domain walls by considering specific potentials that ensure symmetry breaking and the occurrence of degenerate vacua that are necessary for the formation of domain walls. By considering a simple analytical model of spherical domain wall collapse, in vacuum, it is shown that this model fits the more accurate numerical results very well until full collapse, after which oscillations and scalar radiation take place. Furthermore, we explore the effect of a central non-relativistic matter lump on the evolution of a spherical domain wall and show that the central lump can prevent the full collapse and annihilation of the domain wall bubble, due to the repulsion between the domain wall and matter over-density within the adopted symmetron inspired model.

  8. Topological phase entanglements of membrane solitons in division algebra sigma models with a Hopf term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung; Nam, Soonkeon

    1989-08-01

    Exploiting the unique connection between the division algebras of the complex numbers ( C), quaternions ( H), octonions ( Ω) and the essential Hopf maps S2 n - 1 → Sn with n = 2, 4, 8, we study Sn - 2 -membrane solitons in three D-dimensional KP(1) σ-models with a Hopf term, (D, K) = (3, C), (7, H), and (15, Ω). We present a comprehensive analysis of their topological phase entanglements. Extending Polyakov's approach to Fermi-Bose transmutations to higher dimensions, we detail a geometric regularization of Gauss' linking coefficient, its connections to the self-linking, twisting, writhing numbers of the Feynman paths of the solitons in their thin membrane limit. Alternative forms of the Hopf invariant show the latter as an Aharonov-Bohm-Berry phase of topologically massive, rank ( n - 1) antisymmetric tensor U(1) gauge fields coupled to the Sn - 2 -membranes. Via a K-bundle formulation of the dynamics of electrically and magnetically charged extended objects these phases are shown to induce a dyon-like structure on these membranes. We briefly discuss the connections to harmonic mappings, higher dimensional monopoles and instantons. We point out the relevance of the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem on the connection between spin and statistics. By way of the topology of the infinite groups of sphere mappings Sn → Sn, n = 2, 4, 8, we also analyze the implications of the Hopf phases on the fractional spin and statistics of the membranes.

  9. Collective Coordinates in One-Dimensional Soliton Models Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Takyi, I

    2016-01-01

    We compare numerical solutions to the full field equations to simplified approaches based on implementing three collective coordinates for kink-antikink interactions within the $\\varphi^4$ and $\\phi^6$ models in one time and one space dimensions. We particularly pursue the question whether the collective coordinate approximation substantiates the conjecture that vibrational modes are important for resonance structures to occur in kink-antikink scattering.

  10. △△ Dibaryon Structure in Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Lian-Rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ The structure of △△ dibaryon is studied in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model in which vector meson exchanges are included. The effect of the vector meson fields is very similar to that of the one-gluon exchange (OGE) interaction. Both in the chiral SU(3) quark model and in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model, the resultant mass of the △△ dibaryon is lower than the threshold of the △△ channel but higher than that of the△Nπ channel.

  11. Non-Abelian sine-Gordon solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneto Nitta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We point out that non-Abelian sine-Gordon solitons stably exist in the U(N chiral Lagrangian. They also exist in a U(N gauge theory with two N by N complex scalar fields coupled to each other. One non-Abelian sine-Gordon soliton can terminate on one non-Abelian global vortex. They are relevant in chiral Lagrangian of QCD or in color-flavor locked phase of high density QCD, where the anomaly is suppressed at asymptotically high temperature or density, respectively.

  12. Collective coordinate approximation to the scattering of solitons in modified NLS and sine-Gordon models

    CERN Document Server

    Zakrzewski, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    We use a collective coordinate approximation to model the scattering of two solitons in modified nonlinear Schr\\"odinger and sine-Gordon systems. We find that the anomalies of the conservation laws of the charges as calculated using the collective coordinate approximation demonstrate the same dependence on the symmetry of the field configuration as that previously found analytically and using a full numerical simulation. This suggests that the collective coordinate approximation is a suitable method to investigate quasi-integrability in perturbed integrable models. We also discuss the general accuracy of this approximation by comparing our results with those of the full numerical simulations and find that the approximation is often remarkably accurate though less so when the models are a long way from the integrable case.

  13. QCD topological susceptibility from the nonlocal chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Seung-il

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the QCD topological susceptibility $\\chi_t$ by using the nonlocal chiral quark model (NL$\\chi$QM). This model is based on the liquid instanton QCD-vacuum configuration in which $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$ flavor symmetry is explicitly broken by the current quark mass $(m_{u,d},m_s)\\approx(5,135)$ MeV. To compute $\\chi_t$, the local topological charge density operator $Q_t(x)$ is derived from the effective partition function of NL$\\chi$QM. We take into account the contributions from the leading-order (LO) ones $\\sim\\mathcal{O}(N_c)$ in the $1/N_c$ expansion. We also verify that the analytical expression of $\\chi_t$ in NL$\\chi$QM satisfy the Witten-Veneziano (WV) and the Leutwyler-Smilga (LS) formulae. Once the average instanton size and inter-instanton distance are fixed with $\\bar{\\rho}=1/3$ fm and $\\bar{R}=1$ fm, respectively, all the associated model parameters are all determined self-consistently within the model, including the $\\eta$ and $\\eta'$ weak decay constants. We obtain the results such as $F_{...

  14. Two-loop effective potentials in general N=2, d=3 chiral superfield model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study local superspace contributions to the low-energy effective action in general chiral three-dimensional superfield model. The effective Kähler and chiral potentials are computed in an explicit form up to the two-loop order. In accordance with the non-renormalization theorem, the ultraviolet divergences appear only in the full superspace while the effective chiral potential receives only finite quantum contributions in the massless case. As an application, the two-loop effective scalar potential is found for the three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric Wess-Zumino model.

  15. Geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that the LIE (Locally Induction Equation) admit soliton-type solutions and same soliton solutions arise from different and apparently irrelevant physical models. By comparing the solitons of LIE and Killing magnetic geodesics, we observe that these solitons are essentially decided by two families of isometries of the domain and the target space, respectively. With this insight, we propose the new concept of geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds, such as geometric Schrödinger flows and KdV flows for maps. Moreover, we give several examples of geometric solitons of the Schrödinger flow and geometric KdV flow, including magnetic curves as geometric Schrödinger solitons and explicit geometric KdV solitons on surfaces of revolution

  16. Spinning $\\sigma$-model solitons in $2+1$ Anti-de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Harms, B

    2016-01-01

    We obtain spinning topological solitons solutions of the nonlinear $\\sigma$-model in $2+1 $ dimensional Anti-de Sitter space using numerical methods. Two types of solutions, which we denote by $i)$ and $ii)$, are found. The $\\sigma$-model fields are everywhere well defined for both types of solutions, but they differ in their space-time domains. The space-time domain for the type $ii)$ solutions is singularity free. On the other hand, any time slice of the space-time for the type $i)$ solution has a causal singularity, despite the fact that all scalars constructed from the curvature tensor are bounded functions. No evidence of a horizon is seen for any of the solutions, and therefore the type $i)$ solutions have naked singularities.

  17. Non-leptonic decays in an extended chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Eeg, J O

    2012-01-01

    We consider the color suppressed (nonfactorizable) amplitude for the decay mode $\\bar{B_{d}^0} \\rightarrow \\pi^0 \\pi^{0} $. We treat the $b$-quark in the heavy quark limit and the energetic light ($u,d,s$) quarks within a variant of Large Energy Effective Theory combined with an extension of chiral quark models. Our calculated amplitude for $\\bar{B_{d}^0} \\rightarrow \\pi^0 \\pi^{0} $ is suppressed by a factor of order $\\Lambda_{QCD}/m_b$ with respect to the factorized amplitude, as it should according to QCD-factorization. Further, for reasonable values of the (model dependent) gluon condensate and the constituent quark mass, the calculated nonfactorizable amplitude for $\\bar{B_{d}^0} \\rightarrow \\pi^0 \\pi^{0} $ can easily accomodate the experimental value. Unfortunately, the color suppressed amplitude is very sensitive to the values of these model dependent parameters. Therefore fine-tuning is necessary in order to obtain an amplitude compatible with the experimental result for $\\bar{B_{d}^0} \\rightarrow \\pi^...

  18. Chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Saito, Hana

    2016-05-01

    Tensor network (TN) methods, in particular the matrix product states (MPS) ansatz, have proven to be a useful tool in analyzing the properties of lattice gauge theories. They allow for a very good precision, much better than standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for the models that have been studied so far, due to the possibility of reaching much smaller lattice spacings. The real reason for the interest in the TN approach, however, is its ability, shown so far in several condensed matter models, to deal with theories which exhibit the notorious sign problem in MC simulations. This makes it prospective for dealing with the nonzero chemical potential in QCD and other lattice gauge theories, as well as with real-time simulations. In this paper, using matrix product operators, we extend our analysis of the Schwinger model at zero temperature to show the feasibility of this approach also at finite temperature. This is an important step on the way to deal with the sign problem of QCD. We analyze in detail the chiral symmetry breaking in the massless and massive cases and show that the method works very well and gives good control over a broad range of temperatures, essentially from zero to infinite temperature.

  19. Conformal chiral boson models on twisted doubled tori and non-geometric string vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Avramis, Spyros D; Prezas, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    We derive and analyze the conditions for quantum conformal and Lorentz invariance of the duality symmetric interacting chiral boson sigma-models, which are conjectured to describe non-geometric string theory backgrounds. The one-loop Weyl and Lorentz anomalies are computed for the general case using the background field method. Subsequently, our results are applied to a class of (on-shell) Lorentz invariant chiral boson models which are based on twisted doubled tori. Our findings are in agreement with those expected from the effective supergravity approach, thereby firmly establishing that the chiral boson models under consideration provide the string worldsheet description of N=4 gauged supergravities with electric gaugings. Furthermore, they demonstrate that twisted doubled tori are indeed the doubled internal geometries underlying a large class of non-geometric string compactifications. For compact gaugings the associated chiral boson models are automatically conformal, a fact that is explained by showing ...

  20. Some Aspects of Optical Spatial Solitons in Photorefractive Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Konar, S.; Biswas, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    We have reviewed recent developments of some aspects of optical spatial solitons in photorefractive media. Underlying principles governing the dynamics of photorefractive nonlinearity have been discussed using band transport model. Nonlinear dynamical equations for propagating solitons have been derived considering single as well as two-photon photorefractive processes. Fundamental properties of three types of solitons, particularly, screening, photovoltaic and screening photovoltaic solitons...

  1. Antikaon induced Ξ production from a chiral model at NLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijoo A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the meson-baryon interaction in the strangeness S = −1 sector using a chiral unitary approach, paying particular attention to the K̄N → KΞ reaction, especially important for constraining the next-to-leading order chiral terms, and considering also the effect of high spin hyperonic resonances. We also present results for the production of Ξ hyperons in nuclei

  2. Triaxial projected shell model study of chiral rotation in odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, G.H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Sheikh, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Palit, R., E-mail: palit@tifr.res.in [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 400 005 (India)

    2012-01-20

    Chiral rotation observed in {sup 128}Cs is studied using the newly developed microscopic triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. The observed energy levels and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the nearly degenerate chiral dipole bands in this isotope are well reproduced by the present model. This demonstrates the broad applicability of the TPSM approach, based on a schematic interaction and angular-momentum projection technique, to explain a variety of low- and high-spin phenomena in triaxial rotating nuclei.

  3. An Emergent Universe with Dark Sector Fields in a Chiral Cosmological Model

    OpenAIRE

    Beesham, A.; Chervon, S. V.; S. D. Maharaj; Kubasov, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the emergent universe scenario supported by a chiral cosmological model with two interacting dark sector fields: phantom and canonical. We investigate the general properties of the evolution of the kinetic and potential energies as well as the development of the equation of state with time. We present three models based on asymptotic solutions and investigate the phantom part of the potential and chiral metric components. The exact solution corresponding to a global emergent unive...

  4. Weak magnetic field effects on chiral critical temperature in a nonlocal Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model

    CERN Document Server

    Loewe, M; Villavicencio, C; Zamora, R

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the nonlocal Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with a Gaussian regulator in the chiral limit. Finite temperature effects and the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field are considered. The magnetic evolution of the critical temperature for chiral symmetry restoration is then obtained. Here we restrict ourselves to the case of low magnetic field values, being this a complementary discussion to the exisiting analysis in nonlocal models in the strong magnetic field regime.

  5. Theory of Multidimensional Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, L. D.; Brand, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    We review a number of topics germane to higher-dimensional solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates. For dark solitons, we discuss dark band and planar solitons; ring dark solitons and spherical shell solitons; solitary waves in restricted geometries; vortex rings and rarefaction pulses; and multi-component Bose-Einstein condensates. For bright solitons, we discuss instability, stability, and metastability; bright soliton engineering, including pulsed atom lasers; solitons in a thermal bath; sol...

  6. Chiral geometry in multiple chiral doublet bands

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The chiral geometry of the multiple chiral doublet bands with identical configuration is discussed for different triaxial deformation parameters $\\gamma$ in the particle rotor model with $\\pi h_{11/2}\\otimes \

  7. Molecular modeling study of chiral drug crystals: lattice energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z J; Ojala, W H; Grant, D J

    2001-10-01

    The lattice energies of a number of chiral drugs with known crystal structures were calculated using Dreiding II force field. The lattice energies, including van der Waals, Coulombic, and hydrogen-bonding energies, of homochiral and racemic crystals of some ephedrine derivatives and of several other chiral drugs, are compared. The calculated energies are correlated with experimental data to probe the underlying intermolecular forces responsible for the formation of racemic species, racemic conglomerates, or racemic compounds, termed chiral discrimination. Comparison of the calculated energies among ephedrine derivatives reveals that a greater Coulombic energy corresponds to a higher melting temperature, while a greater van der Waals energy corresponds to a larger enthalpy of fusion. For seven pairs of homochiral and racemic compounds, correlation of the differences between the two forms in the calculated energies and experimental enthalpy of fusion suggests that the van der Waals interactions play a key role in the chiral discrimination in the crystalline state. For salts of the chiral drugs, the counter ions diminish chiral discrimination by increasing the Coulombic interactions. This result may explain why salt forms favor the formation of racemic conglomerates, thereby facilitating the resolution of racemates.

  8. A new exactly solvable spatially one-dimensional quantum superradiance fermi-medium model and properties of its quantum solitonic states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Blackmore

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new exactly solvable spatially one-dimensional quantum superradiance model describing a charged fermionic medium interacting with external electromagnetic field is proposed. The infinite hierarchy of quantuum conservation laws and many-particle Bethe eigenstates that model quantum solitonic impulse structures are constructed. The Hamilton operator renormalization procedure subject to a physically stable vacuum is described, the quantum excitations and quantum solitons, related with the thermodynamical equilibrity of the model, are discussed.

  9. Kerr-Newman electron as spinning soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Measurable parameters of the electron indicate that its background should be described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) solution. Spin/mass ratio of the electron is extreme large, and the black hole horizons disappear, opening a topological defect of spacetime -- the Kerr singular ring of the Compton size, which may be interpreted as a closed fundamental string to the low energy string theory. The singular and twosheeted structure of the corresponding Kerr space has to be regularized, and we consider the old problem of regular source of the KN solution. As a development of the earlier Keres-Israel-Hamity-L\\'opez model, we describe the model of smooth and regular source forming a gravitating and relativistically rotating soliton based on the chiral field model and the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. The model reveals some new remarkable properties: 1) the soliton forms a relativistically rotating bubble of the Compton radius, which is filled by the oscillating Higgs field in pseudo-vacuum state, 2) boundary of the ...

  10. Chiral Thermodynamic Model of QCD and its Critical Behavior in the Closed-Time-Path Green Function Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Da

    2011-01-01

    By applying the closed-time-path Green function formalism to the chiral dynamical model based on an effective Lagrangian of chiral quarks with the nonlinear-realized meson fields as bosonized auxiliary fields, we then arrive at a chiral thermodynamic model for the meson fields with finite temperature. Particular attention is paid to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and restoration from the dynamically generated effective composite Higgs potential of meson fields at finite temperature. It is shown that the minimal condition of the effective composite Higgs potential of meson fields leads to the thermodynamic gap equation at finite temperature, which enables us to investigate the critical behavior of the effective chiral thermodynamical model and to explore the QCD phase transition. After fixing the free parameters in the effective chiral Lagrangian at low energies with zero temperature, we determine the critical temperature of the chiral symmetry restoration and present a consistent prediction for the ...

  11. Chiral spin liquid in the extended Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjun; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Gong, Shoushu; Becca, Federico; Sheng, Dongning; Donna Sheng Team

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the extended Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice by using Gutzwiller projected fermionic states and the variational Monte Carlo technique. In particular, when both second- and third-neighbor super-exchanges are considered, we find that a gapped spin liquid described by non-trivial magnetic fluxes and long-range chiral-chiral correlations is energetically favored compared to the gapless U(1) Dirac state. Furthermore, the topological Chern number, obtained by integrating the Berry curvature, and the degeneracy of the ground state, by constructing linearly independent states, lead us to identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with C = 1 / 2 fractionalized Chern number.

  12. Resurgence in $\\eta$-deformed Principal Chiral Models

    CERN Document Server

    Demulder, Saskia; Thompson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    We study the $SU(2)$ Principal Chiral Model (PCM) in the presence of an integrable $\\eta$-deformation. We put the theory on $\\mathbb{R}\\times S^1$ with twisted boundary conditions and then reduce the circle to obtain an effective quantum mechanics associated with the Whittaker-Hill equation. Using resurgent analysis we study the large order behaviour of perturbation theory and recover the fracton events responsible for IR renormalons. The fractons are modified from the standard PCM due to the presence of this $\\eta$-deformation but they are still the constituents of uniton-like solutions in the deformed quantum field theory. We also find novel $SL(2,\\mathbb{C})$ saddles, thus strengthening the conjecture that the semi-classical expansion of the path integral gives rise to a resurgent transseries once written as a sum over Lefschetz thimbles living in a complexification of the field space. We conclude by connecting our quantum mechanics to a massive deformation of the $\\mathcal{N}=2~$ $4$-d gauge theory with g...

  13. Emerging Potentials in Higher-Derivative Gauged Chiral Models Coupled to N=1 Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, Fotis

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method to introduce scalar potentials to gauge-invariant chiral models coupled to supergravity. The theories under consideration contain consistent higher-derivative terms which do not give rise to instabilities and ghost states. The chiral auxiliaries are not propagating and can be integrated out. Their elimination gives rise to emerging potentials even when there is not a superpotential to start with. We present the case of a single chiral multiplet with and without a superpotential and, in the gauged theory, up to two chiral multiplets coupled to supergravity with no superpotential. A general feature of the emergent potential is that it is negative defined leading to anti-de Sitter vacua. In the gauge models, competing D-terms may lift the potential leading to stable and metastable de Sitter and Minkowski vacua as well with spontaneously broken supersymmetry.

  14. Partially conserved axial-vector current and model chiral field theories in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We comment on the relation between the two standard approaches to chiral symmetry--namely, the current algebra/partially conserved axial-vector current approach and the chiral Lagrangian method--in a manner intended to clarify recent and probable future applications of this symmetry in nuclear physics. Specifically, we show that in explicit chiral field theories the canonical πN scattering amplitude does not have the famed ''Adler zero'' unless partial conservation of axial-vector current holds as an operator equation. This implies that there are a number of familiar chiral models in which the ''Adler self-consistency'' condition does not apply to the canonical pion field. Among the problems of current interest for which our remarks are relevant are the studies of the pion-nucleus optical potential, pion condensation, and the attempts to formulate a model field theory having both reasonable nuclear saturation and good low energy pion phenomenology

  15. Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gitman, D M

    1996-01-01

    The phase structure of d=3 Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the 1/N-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the gravitational field.

  16. Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gitman, D. M.; Odintsov, S. D.; Shil'nov, Yu. I.

    1996-01-01

    The phase structure of $d=3$ Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the $1/N$-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the ...

  17. The temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with Matrix Product States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Ba nuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics

    2014-12-15

    We present our recent results for the tensor network (TN) approach to lattice gauge theories. TN methods provide an efficient approximation for quantum many-body states. We employ TN for one dimensional systems, Matrix Product States, to investigate the 1-flavour Schwinger model. In this study, we compute the chiral condensate at finite temperature. From the continuum extrapolation, we obtain the chiral condensate in the high temperature region consistent with the analytical calculation by Sachs and Wipf.

  18. Coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop in an extended NJL model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Yu-Xin

    2006-01-01

    The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with a Polyakov loop is extended to finite isospin chemical potential case, which is characterized by simultaneous coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop. The pion condensate, chiral condensate and the Polyakov loop as functions of temperature and isospin chemical potential are investigated by minimizing the thermodynamic potential of the system. The resulting $(T,\\mu_I)$ phase diagram is studied with emphasis on the critical point and Po...

  19. The temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with Matrix Product States

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Hana; Cichy, Krzysztof; Cirac, J Ignacio; Jansen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    We present our recent results for the tensor network (TN) approach to lattice gauge theories. TN methods provide an efficient approximation for quantum many-body states. We employ TN for one dimensional systems, Matrix Product States, to investigate the 1-flavour Schwinger model. In this study, we compute the chiral condensate at finite temperature. From the continuum extrapolation, we obtain the chiral condensate in the high temperature region consistent with the analytical calculation by Sachs and Wipf.

  20. Solutions of the Modified Chiral Model in (2+1) Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Zakrzewski, Wojtek

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with classical solutions of the modified chiral model on $R^{2+1}$. Such solutions are shown to correspond to products of various factor which we call time-dependent unitons. Then the problem of solving the system of second-order partial differential equations for the chiral field is reduced to solving a sequence of systems of first-order partial differential equations for the unitons.

  1. Soliton driven angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Terragni, F.; Birnir, B.

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process.

  2. Supersonic Vibron Solitons and Their Possible Existence in Polypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Shozo

    1999-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions of vibrons with lattice solitons due to the soft cubic nonlinearity in a quasi-one-dimensional lattice yield supersonic vibron solitons. Their binding energy is larger than those of the conventional Davydov solitons and vibron solitons, and their propagation velocity is uniquely determined in contrast to the latter two. Examination of parameters in the model Hamiltonian for polypeptides leads to the result that the supersonic vibron solitons obtained here are more likel...

  3. Scattering of periodic solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Cova, R J

    2003-01-01

    With the help of numerical simulations we study N-soliton scattering (N=3,4) in the (2+1)-dimensional CP^1 model with periodic boundary conditions. When the solitons are scattered from symmetrical configurations the scattering angles observed agree with the earlier \\pi/N predictions based on the model on R_2 with standard boundary conditions. When the boundary conditions are not symmetric the angles are different from \\pi/N. We present an explanation of our observed patterns based on a properly formulated geodesic approximation.

  4. Generation of bright soliton through the interaction of black solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Losano, L; Bazeia, D

    2001-01-01

    We report on the possibility of having two black solitons interacting inside a silica fiber that presents normal group-velocity dispersion, to generate a pair of solitons, a vector soliton of the black-bright type. The model obeys a pair of coupled nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations, that follows in accordance with a Ginzburg-Landau equation describing the anisotropic XY model. We solve the coupled equations using a trial-orbit method, which plays a significant role when the Schr\\"odinger equations are reduced to first order differential equations.

  5. Influence of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition in the two flavor chiral quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, G.; Szép, Zs.

    2010-09-01

    The SU(2)L×SU(2)R chiral quark model consisting of the (σ,π→) meson multiplet and the constituent quarks propagating on the homogeneous background of a temporal gauge field is solved at finite temperature and quark baryon chemical potential μq using an expansion in the number of flavors Nf, both in the chiral limit and for the physical value of the pion mass. Keeping the fermion propagator at its tree level, several approximations to the pion propagator are investigated. These approximations correspond to different partial resummations of the perturbative series. Comparing their solution with a diagrammatically formulated resummation relying on a strict large-Nf expansion of the perturbative series, one concludes that only when the local part of the approximated pion propagator resums infinitely many orders in 1/Nf of fermionic contributions a sufficiently rapid crossover transition at μq=0 is achieved allowing for the existence of a tricritical point or a critical end point in the μq-T phase diagram. The renormalization and the possibility of determining the counterterms in the resummation provided by a strict large-Nf expansion are investigated.

  6. Non-BPS Dirac-Born-Infeld Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Papadopoulos, George; Sutcliffe, Paul(Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, U.K.)

    1999-01-01

    We show that CPn sigma model solitons solve the field equations of a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action and, furthermore, we prove that the non-BPS soliton/anti-soliton solutions of the sigma model also solve the DBI equations. Using the moduli space approximation we compare the dynamics of the BPS sigma model solitons with that of the associated DBI solitons. We find that for the CP1 case the metric on the moduli space of sigma model solitons is identical to that of the moduli space of DBI solit...

  7. On magnetohydrodynamic solitons in jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear solitary wave propagation in a compressible magnetic beam model of an extragalactic radio jet is examined and shown to lead to solitons of the Benjamin-Ono type. A number of similarities between such magnetic beam models of jets and models of solar photospheric flux tubes are pointed out and exploited. A single soliton has the appearance of a symmetric bulge on the jet which propagates faster than the jet's flow.

  8. Solitons in Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A. V.

    1998-11-01

    Magnetic flux quanta in Josephson junctions, often called fluxons, in many cases behave as solitons. A review of recent experiments and modelling of fluxon dynamics in Josephson circuits is presented. Classic quasi-one-dimensional junctions, stacked junctions (Josephson superlattices), and discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTLs) are discussed. Applications of fluxon devices as high-frequency oscillators and digital circuits are also addressed.

  9. Unified dark matter and dark energy description in a chiral cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Abbyazov, Renat R

    2014-01-01

    We show the way of dark matter and dark energy presentation via ansatzs on the kinetic energies of the fields in the two-component chiral cosmological model. To connect a kinetic interaction of dark matter and dark energy with observational data the reconstruction procedure for the chiral metric component $h_{22}$ and the potential of (self)interaction $V$ has been developed. The reconstruction of $h_{22}$ and $V$ for the early and later inflation have been performed. The proposed model is confronted to $\\Lambda CDM$ model as well.

  10. Unified Dark Matter and Dark Energy Description in a Chiral Cosmological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbyazov, Renat R.; Chervon, Sergey V.

    2013-03-01

    We show the way of dark matter and dark energy presentation via ansatzs on the kinetic energies of the fields in the two-component chiral cosmological model (CCM). To connect a kinetic interaction of dark matter and dark energy with observational data the reconstruction procedure for the chiral metric component h22 and the potential of (self-)interaction V has been developed. The reconstruction of h22 and V for the early and later inflation have been performed. The proposed model is confronted to ΛCDM model as well.

  11. Bell's Theorem and Entangled Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakov, Yu. P.; Kamalov, T. F.

    2016-09-01

    Entangled solitons construction being introduced in the nonlinear spinor field model, the Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) spin correlation is calculated and shown to coincide with the quantum mechanical one for the 1/2-spin particles.

  12. Chirality and Circular Polarization in Models of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon; Sims, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a chiral asymmetry during inflation can manifest as net circular polarization in photons. Using an example known to produce a helicity imbalance in fermions, we show that superhorizon photon modes produced during inflation acquire net circular polarization. Modes that reenter the horizon around last scattering can thermalize into the Cosmic Microwave Background while retaining a portion of their net circular polarization. We also consider the possibility of direct detection of the circular polarization in the CMB.

  13. Simulation, Modeling, and Analysis of Soliton Waves Interaction and Propagation in CNN Transmission Lines for Innovative Data Communication and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Borgese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an innovative approach to study the interaction between oblique solitons, using nonlinear transmission lines, based on Cellular Neural Network (CNN paradigm. A single transmission line consists of a 1D array of cells that interact with neighboring cells, through both linear and nonlinear connections. Each cell is controlled by a nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation, in particular the Korteweg de Vries equation, which defines the cell status and behavior. Two typologies of CNN transmission lines are modelled: crisscross and ring lines. In order to solve KdV equations two different methods are used: 4th-order Runge-Kutta and Forward Euler methods. This is done to evaluate their accuracy and stability with the purpose of implementing CNN transmission lines on embedded systems such as FPGA and microcontrollers. Simulation/analysis Graphic User Interface platforms are designed to conduct numerical simulations and to display elaboration results. From this analysis it is possible both to identify the presence and the propagation of soliton waves on the transmission lines and to highlight the interaction between solitons and rich nonlinear dynamics. With this approach it is possible to simulate and develop the transmission and processing of information within large brain networks and high density sensor systems.

  14. Formulation and quantization of a generalized model related to the chiral Schwinger model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    2009-07-01

    A generalized theory which describes fermions interacting with a gauge field is investigated. In 1 + 1 dimensions such a model is equivalent to a theory in which a boson field appears in the Lagrangian density rather than a fermion field. In this form, the Lagrangian density can be diagonalized and then quantized in terms of the transformed fields. The case of the chiral Schwinger model can be obtained from the general model and the physics with respect to the operator form is discussed. It is shown how the theory can be made nonanomalous by means of a Wess-Zumino field.

  15. Chiral Phase Transition in the Soft-Wall Model of AdS/QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Chelabi, Kaddour; Huang, Mei; Li, Danning; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the chiral phase transition in the soft-wall model of AdS/QCD at zero chemical potential for two-flavor and three-flavor cases, respectively. We show that there is no spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the original soft-wall model. After detailed analysis, we find that in order to realize chiral symmetry breaking and restoration, both profiles for the scalar potential and the dilaton field are essential. The scalar potential determines the possible solution structure of the chiral condensate, except the mass term, it takes another quartic term for the two-flavor case, and for the three-flavor case, one has to take into account an extra cubic term due to the t'Hooft determinant interaction. The profile of the dilaton field reflects the gluodynamics, which is negative at a certain ultraviolet scale and approaches positive quadratic behavior at far infrared region. With this set-up, the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and its restoration at finite temperature can be realize...

  16. Homogeneous Cotton solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calviño-Louzao, E.; Hervella, L. M.; Seoane-Bascoy, J.; Vázquez-Lorenzo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Left-invariant Cotton solitons on homogeneous manifolds are determined. Moreover, algebraic Cotton solitons are studied providing examples of non-invariant Cotton solitons, both in the Riemannian and Lorentzian homogeneous settings.

  17. 1/N/sup 2/ expansion of the mean field for lattice chiral and gauge models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brihaye, Y.; Taormina, A.

    1985-08-21

    For lattice chiral and gauge models the authors develop an /sup 1//N/sup 2/ expansion of the mean-field approximation. Special attention is paid to the free energy for which the effect of fluctuations around the mean-field solution is presented as an /sup 1//N/sup 2/ expansion. The differences between U(N) and SU(N) are pointed out. Finally, for the chiral model the mean-field saddle-point technique is applied to compute the two-point correlation function. (author).

  18. Spatial Patterns of Dissipative Polariton Solitons in Semiconductor Microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chana, J K; Sich, M; Fras, F; Gorbach, A V; Skryabin, D V; Cancellieri, E; Cerda-Méndez, E A; Biermann, K; Hey, R; Santos, P V; Skolnick, M S; Krizhanovskii, D N

    2015-12-18

    We report propagating bound microcavity polariton soliton arrays consisting of multipeak structures either along (x) or perpendicular (y) to the direction of propagation. Soliton arrays of up to five solitons are observed, with the number of solitons controlled by the size and power of the triggering laser pulse. The breakup along the x direction occurs when the effective area of the trigger pulse exceeds the characteristic soliton size determined by polariton-polariton interactions. Narrowing of soliton emission in energy-momentum space indicates phase locking between adjacent solitons, consistent with numerical modeling which predicts stable multihump soliton solutions. In the y direction, the breakup originates from inhomogeneity across the wave front in the transverse direction which develops into a stable array only in the solitonic regime via phase-dependent interactions of propagating fronts. PMID:26722931

  19. Spatial solitons in photonic lattices with large-scale defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiao-Yu; Zheng Jiang-Bo; Dong Liang-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We address the existence, stability and propagation dynamics of solitons supported by large-scale defects surrounded by the harmonic photonic lattices imprinted in the defocusing saturable nonlinear medium. Several families of soliton solutions, including flat-topped, dipole-like, and multipole-like solitons, can be supported by the defected lattices with different heights of defects. The width of existence domain of solitons is determined solely by the saturable parameter. The existence domains of various types of solitons can be shifted by the variations of defect size, lattice depth and soliton order. Solitons in the model are stable in a wide parameter window, provided that the propagation constant exceeds a critical value, which is in sharp contrast to the case where the soliton trains is supported by periodic lattices imprinted in defocusing saturable nonlinear medium. We also find stable solitons in the semi-infinite gap which rarely occur in the defocusing media.

  20. Dark solitons in laser radiation build-up dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R I; Kelleher, E J R

    2016-03-01

    We reveal the existence of slowly decaying dark solitons in the radiation build-up dynamics of bright pulses in all-normal dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers, numerically modeled in the framework of a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The evolution of noise perturbations to quasistationary dark solitons is examined, and the significance of background shape and soliton-soliton collisions on the eventual soliton decay is established. We demonstrate the role of a restoring force in extending soliton interactions in conservative systems to include the effects of dissipation, as encountered in laser cavities, and generalize our observations to other nonlinear systems. PMID:27078358

  1. Efficient modeling of chiral media using SCN-TLM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaich M.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach allowing to include linear bi-isotropic chiral materials in time-domain transmission line matrix (TLM calculations by employing recursive evaluation of the convolution of the electric and magnetic fields and susceptibility functions is presented. The new technique consists to add both voltage and current sources in supplementary stubs of the symmetrical condensed node (SCN of the TLM method. In this article, the details and the complete description of this approach are given. A comparison of the obtained numerical results with those of the literature reflects its validity and efficiency.

  2. Orientifold ABJM Matrix Model: Chiral Projections and Worldsheet Instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Moriyama, Sanefumi

    2016-01-01

    We study the partition function of the orientifold ABJM theory, which is a superconformal Chern-Simons theory associated with the orthosymplectic supergroup. We find that the partition function associated with any orthosymplectic supergroup can be realized as that of a Fermi gas system whose density matrix is identical to that associated with the corresponding unitary supergroup with a projection to the even or odd chirality. Furthermore we propose an identity and use it to identify all of the Gopakumar-Vafa invariants for the worldsheet instanton effects systematically.

  3. Chiral density wave versus pion condensation in the 1+1 dimensional NJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Prabal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the possibility of an inhomogeneous quark condensate in the 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the large-$N_c$ limit at finite temperature $T$ and quark chemical potential $\\mu$ using dimensional regularization. The phase diagram in the $\\mu$--$T$ plane is mapped out. At zero temperature, an inhomogeneous phase with a chiral-density wave exists for all values of $\\mu>\\mu_c$. Performing a Ginzburg-Landau analysis, we show that in the chiral limit, the critical point and the Lifschitz point coincide. We also consider the competition between a chiral-density wave and a constant pion condensate at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$. The phase diagram in the $\\mu_I$--$\\mu$ plane is mapped out and shows a rich phase structure.

  4. QQqq Four-Quark Bound States in Chiral SU(3) Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; ZHANG Hai-Xia; ZHANG Zong-Ye

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of QQqq heavy-light four-quark bound states has been analyzed by means of the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q is the light quark (u, d, or s). We obtain a bound state for the bbnn configuration with quantum number JP=1+, I=0 and for the ccnn (JP=1+, I=0) configuration, which is not bound but slightly above the D*D* threshold (n is u or d quark). Meanwhile, we also conclude that a weakly bound state in bbnn system can also be found without considering the chiral quark interactions between the two light quarks, yet its binding energy is weaker than that with the chiral quark interactions.

  5. A New Model of Holographic QCD and Chiral Condensate in Dense Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Seki, Shigenori

    2013-01-01

    We consider the model of holographic QCD with asymptotic freedom and gluon condensation in its vacuum. It consists of the color D4-branes and D0-branes as a background and the flavor D8-branes as a probe. By taking a specific field theory limit, the effective coupling decreases to vanish in UV region. We then introduce the uniformly distributed baryons in terms of the baryon vertices and study the density dependence of chiral condensate, which is evaluated using the worldsheet instanton method. In the confined phase, the chiral condensate as a function of density monotonically decreases in high baryon density. Such behavior is in agreement with the expectation, while in extremely low density it increases. We attribute this anomaly to the incorrect approximation of uniformity in very low density. In the deconfined phase the chiral condensate monotonically decreases in the whole region of density.

  6. Chiral random matrix model at finite chemical potential: Characteristic determinant and edge universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Nowak, Maciej A.; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-08-01

    We derive an exact formula for the stochastic evolution of the characteristic determinant of a class of deformed Wishart matrices following from a chiral random matrix model of QCD at finite chemical potential. In the WKB approximation, the characteristic determinant describes a sharp droplet of eigenvalues that deforms and expands at large stochastic times. Beyond the WKB limit, the edges of the droplet are fuzzy and described by universal edge functions. At the chiral point, the characteristic determinant in the microscopic limit is universal. Remarkably, the physical chiral condensate at finite chemical potential may be extracted from current and quenched lattice Dirac spectra using the universal edge scaling laws, without having to solve the QCD sign problem.

  7. Surface second harmonic generation of chiral molecules using three-coupled-oscillator model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Ou; Li Chun-Fei; Li Jun-Qing

    2006-01-01

    Based on the three-coupled-oscillator molecular model we proposed, the relation between the second-order susceptibilities of a chiral film and the molecular hyperpolarizabilities is given. The effect of microscopic parameters on the second-order susceptibilities is simulated numerically and the difference between the efficiencies of s-polarized second-harmonic fields induced by the left- and the right-handed circularly-polarized fundamental beams is discussed. The theoretical basis for studying second-order nonlinear optical properties of the chiral molecular media with a tripod-like structure is provided in this paper.

  8. Pion Form Factor in Chiral Limit of Hard-Wall AdS/QCD Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin; Hovhannes Grigoryan

    2007-12-01

    We develop a formalism to calculate form factor and charge density distribution of pion in the chiral limit using the holographic dual model of QCD with hard-wall cutoff. We introduce two conjugate pion wave functions and present analytic expressions for these functions and for the pion form factor. They allow to relate such observables as the pion decay constant and the pion charge electric radius to the values of chiral condensate and hard-wall cutoff scale. The evolution of the pion form factor to large values of the momentum transfer is discussed, and results are compared to existing experimental data.

  9. Anomalies and the chiral magnetic effect in the Sakai-Sugimoto model

    OpenAIRE

    Rebhan, Anton; Schmitt, Andreas; Stricker, Stefan A.

    2009-01-01

    In the chiral magnetic effect an imbalance in the number of left- and right-handed quarks gives rise to an electromagnetic current parallel to the magnetic field produced in noncentral heavy-ion collisions. The chiral imbalance may be induced by topologically nontrivial gluon configurations via the QCD axial anomaly, while the resulting electromagnetic current itself is a consequence of the QED anomaly. In the Sakai-Sugimoto model, which in a certain limit is dual to large-N_c QCD, we discuss...

  10. Chiral and U(1) axial symmetry restoration in linear sigma models with two quark flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Michalski, S

    2006-01-01

    We study the restoration of chiral symmetry in linear sigma models with two quark flavors. The models taken into consideration have a U(2) x U(2) and an O(N) internal symmetry. The physical mesons of these models are sigma, pion, \\eta and a_0 where the latter two are not present in the O(N) model. Including two-loop contributions through sunset graphs we calculate the temperature behavior of the order parameter and the masses for explicit chiral symmetry breaking with and without a U(1) axial anomaly. Decay threshold effects introduced by the sunset graphs alter the temperature dependence of the condensate and consequently that of the masses as well. Chiral symmetry tends to be restored at higher temperatures in the two-loop approximation than in the Hartree-Fock approximation. To model a dynamical restoration of the U(1) axial symmetry we imply a temperature-dependent anomaly parameter that sharply drops at about 175 MeV. This triggers the restoration of chiral symmetry before the full symmetry is restored a...

  11. Explicit and Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Bresking in an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗红石; 吴小华; 侯丰尧; 赵恩广

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator from an effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach both the explicit and dynamical chiral symmetry breakings are analysed. A comparison with the previous results is given.

  12. From Chiral quark dynamics with Polyakov loop to the hadron resonance gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Arriola, E Ruiz; Salcedo, L L

    2012-01-01

    Chiral quark models with Polyakov loop at finite temperature have been often used to describe the phase transition. We show how the transition to a hadron resonance gas is realized based on the quantum and local nature of the Polyakov loop.

  13. Soliton mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gunasekaran, Sharmila; Kunduri, Hari K

    2016-01-01

    The domain of outer communication of five-dimensional asymptotically flat stationary spacetimes may possess non-trivial 2-cycles (bubbles). Spacetimes containing such 2-cycles can have non-zero energy, angular momenta, and charge even in the absence of horizons. A mass variation formula has been established for spacetimes containing bubbles and possibly a black hole horizon. This `first law of black hole and soliton mechanics' contains new intensive and extensive quantities associated to each 2-cycle. We consider examples of such spacetimes for which we explicitly calculate these quantities and show how regularity is essential for the formulae relating them to hold. We also derive new explicit expressions for the angular momenta and charge for spacetimes containing solitons purely in terms of fluxes supporting the bubbles.

  14. A theoretical description for solitons in polyacetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田强; 周会; 朱瑞

    2002-01-01

    The bond-alternation domain walls or the solitons in the dimerized polyacetylene are analyzed theoretically. The width of the soliton is many times the period of the chain, so that the soliton can be reasonably well described by a continuum model. Because of the existence of the bond-alternation domain walls, the electron density is different definitely. Thus the electron density can be used to describe the formation of the domain walls, and a self-trapped potential is discussed and introduced in the Hamiltonian. It is shown that the envelope of the wave functions of the chain is governed by the nonlinear Schr?dinger equation which has soliton solutions. Then the shape of the soliton is determined analytically which is in accordance with the numerical calculations by Su, Schrieffer and Heeger. This implies that the bond-alternation domain wall or the soliton is observed as the envelope of the wave function.

  15. A Chiral Schwinger model, its Constraint Structure and Applications to its Quantization

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Jackiw-Rajaraman version of the chiral Schwinger model is studied as a function of the renormalization parameter. The constraints are obtained and they are used to carry out canonical quantization of the model by means of Dirac brackets. By introducing an additional scalar field, it is shown that the model can be made gauge invariant. The gauge invariant model is quantized by establishing a pair of gauge fixing constraints in order that the method of Dirac can be used.

  16. a Chiral Schwinger Model, its Constraint Structure and Applications to its Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    The Jackiw-Rajaraman version of the chiral Schwinger model is studied as a function of the renormalization parameter. The constraints are obtained and they are used to carry out canonical quantization of the model by means of Dirac brackets. By introducing an additional scalar field, it is shown that the model can be made gauge invariant. The gauge invariant model is quantized by establishing a pair of gauge fixing constraints in order that the method of Dirac can be used.

  17. A Chiral Schwinger model, its Constraint Structure and Applications to its Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Bracken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Jackiw-Rajaraman version of the chiral Schwinger model is studied as a function of the renormalization parameter. The constraints are obtained and they are used to carry out canonical quantization of the model by means of Dirac brackets. By introducing an additional scalar field, it is shown that the model can be made gauge invariant. The gauge invariant model is quantized by establishing a pair of gauge fixing constraints, so the method of Dirac can be used.

  18. Chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, G

    1999-01-01

    Broken chiral symmetry has become the basis for a unified treatment of hadronic interactions at low energies. After reviewing mechanisms for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, I outline the construction of the low--energy effective field theory of the Standard Model called chiral perturbation theory. The loop expansion and the renormalization procedure for this nonrenormalizable quantum field theory are developed. Evidence for the standard scenario with a large quark condensate is presented, in particular from high--statistics lattice calculations of the meson mass spectrum. Elastic pion--pion scattering is discussed as an example of a complete calculation to O(p^6) in the low--energy expansion. The meson--baryon system is the subject of the last lecture. After a short summary of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, a recent analysis of pion--nucleon scattering to O(p^3) is reviewed. Finally, I describe some very recent progress in the chiral approach to the nucleon--nucleon interaction.

  19. Generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation induced from position-dependent effective mass quantum models and mass-deformed soliton solution through inverse scattering transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider one-dimensional stationary position-dependent effective mass quantum model and derive a generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in (1+1) dimension through Lax pair formulation, one being the effective mass Schrödinger operator and the other being the time-evolution of wave functions. We obtain an infinite number of conserved quantities for the generated nonlinear equation and explicitly show that the new generalized KdV equation is an integrable system. Inverse scattering transform method is applied to obtain general solution of the nonlinear equation, and then N-soliton solution is derived for reflectionless potentials. Finally, a special choice has been made for the variable mass function to get mass-deformed soliton solution. The influence of position and time-dependence of mass and also of the different representations of kinetic energy operator on the nature of such solitons is investigated in detail. The remarkable features of such solitons are demonstrated in several interesting figures and are contrasted with the conventional KdV-soliton associated with constant-mass quantum model

  20. Investigations in gauge theories, topological solitons and string theories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This is the Final Report on a supported research project on theoretical particle physics entitled ``Investigations in Gauge Theories, Topological Solitons and String Theories.`` The major theme of particle theory pursued has been within the rubric of the standard model, particularly on the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. Thus, the research has been carried out primarily in the context of gauge with or without chiral fermions and in effective chiral lagrangian field theories. The topics studied include the physical implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in a wide range of theories. A wide range of techniques of group theory, differential geometry and function theory have been applied to probe topological and conformal properties of quantum field theories in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD,the phenomenology of a possibly strongly interacting Higgs sector within the minimal standard model, and the relevance of solitonic ideas to non-perturbative phenomena at SSC energies.

  1. Chiral Gravitational Waves from Chiral Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Anber, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    We report on a new mechanism that leads to the generation of primordial chiral gravitational waves, and hence, the violation of the parity symmetry in the Universe. We show that nonperturbative production of fermions with a definite helicity is accompanied by the generation of chiral gravitational waves. This is a generic and model-independent phenomenon that can occur during inflation, reheating and radiation eras, and can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background polarization and may be observed in future ground- and space-based interferometers. We also discuss a specific model where chiral gravitational waves are generated via the production of light chiral fermions during pseudoscalar inflation.

  2. Integrable String Models in Terms of Chiral Invariants of SU(n, SO(n, SP(n Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Gershun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We considered two types of string models: on the Riemmann space of string coordinates with null torsion and on the Riemman-Cartan space of string coordinates with constant torsion. We used the hydrodynamic approach of Dubrovin, Novikov to integrable systems and Dubrovin solutions of WDVV associativity equation to construct new integrable string equations of hydrodynamic type on the torsionless Riemmann space of chiral currents in first case. We used the invariant local chiral currents of principal chiral models for SU(n, SO(n, SP(n groups to construct new integrable string equations of hydrodynamic type on the Riemmann space of the chiral primitive invariant currents and on the chiral non-primitive Casimir operators as Hamiltonians in second case. We also used Pohlmeyer tensor nonlocal currents to construct new nonlocal string equation.

  3. Thermodynamic phases and mesonic fluctuations in a chiral nucleon-meson model

    CERN Document Server

    Drews, Matthias; Klein, Bertram; Weise, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the QCD phase diagram must properly include nucleonic degrees of freedom and their thermodynamics in the range of baryon chemical potentials characteristic of nuclear matter. A useful framework for incorporating relevant nuclear physics constraints in this context is a chiral nucleon-meson effective Lagrangian. In the present paper, such a chiral nucleon-meson model is extended with systematic inclusion of mesonic fluctuations using the functional renormalization group approach. The resulting description of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition shows a remarkable agreement with three-loop calculations based on in-medium chiral effective field theory. No signs of a chiral first-order phase transition and its critical endpoint are found in the region of applicability of the model, at least up to twice the density of normal nuclear matter and at temperatures T<100 MeV. Fluctuations close to the critical point of the first-order liquid-gas transition are also examined with a detailed study of the ...

  4. Polyakov SU(3) extended linear $\\sigma$-model: Sixteen mesonic states in chiral phase-structure

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2014-01-01

    The derivative of the grand potential in mean field approximation, non-strange and strange condensates and deconfinement phase-transition in thermal and dense hadronic medium are verified in extended SU(3) linear sigma-model (eLSM). In determining the chiral phase-transition, the chiral condensates sigma_x and sigma_y are analysed. The chiral mesonic phase-structures in temperature- and density-dependence are taken as free parameters to be fitted. These parameters are classified corresponding to scalar meson nonets; (pseudo)-scalar and (axial)-vector. For deconfinement phase-transition, effective Polyakov loop-potentials phi and phi^* are utilized. We investigated the in-medium effects on the masses of sixteen mesonic states states. The results are presented for two different forms for the effective Polyakov loop-potential and compared with other models with and without anomalous terms. The Polyakov loop potential in LSM has considerable effects on the chiral phase-transition in meson masses so that the resto...

  5. Structure of the vacuum in the color dielectric model: confinement and chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the most important properties of Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD), spontaneous symmetry breaking of the vacuum and quark confinement at low energy, are first presented. Some important effective models for hadronic physics are then described. Putting QCD on the lattice and using the block-spin method, the color-dielectric model effective Lagrangian is obtained. The structure of the vacuum and the behaviour of uniform quark matter at high intensity are investigated in this model. Its original formulation is extended to handle chiral symmetry (by use of sigma model) and to include negative energy orbitals. At high baryonic density, the model describes the two phase transitions which are expected in QCD: deconfinement of quarks and chiral symmetry restoration. Finally, a heavy meson composed by a charmed quark anti-quark pair, is constructed, and the valence quarks confinement and the vacuum structure around them are studied

  6. On the nonlinear dynamics of topological solitons in DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Yakushevich, L. V.; Savin, A. V.; Manevitch, L. I.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamics of topological solitons describing open states in the DNA double helix are studied in the frameworks of the model which takes into account asymmetry of the helix. It is shown that three types of topological solitons can occur in the DNA double chain. Interaction between the solitons, their interactions with the chain inhomogeneities and stability of the solitons with respect to thermal oscillations are investigated.

  7. Diffusion of Classical Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Dziarmaga, J.; Zakrzewski, W.

    1998-01-01

    We study the diffusion and deformation of classical solitons coupled to thermal noise. The diffusion coefficient for kinks in the $\\phi^4$ theory is predicted up to the second order in $kT$. The prediction is verified by numerical simulations. Multiskyrmions in the vector O(3) sigma model are studied within the same formalism. Thermal noise results in a diffusion on the multisoliton collective coordinate space (moduli space). There are entropic forces which tend, for example, to bind pairs of...

  8. Rational solitons in deep nonlinear optical Bragg grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alatas, H.; Iskandar, A.A.; Tjia, M.O.; Valkering, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the rational solitons in the Generalized Coupled Mode model for a deep nonlinear Bragg grating. These solitons are the degenerate forms of the ordinary solitons and appear at the transition lines in the parameter plane. A simple formulation is presented for the investigation of the

  9. Highly nonlinear wave solutions in a dual to the chiral model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, S. G.; Ranken, Evan

    2016-05-01

    We consider a two-dimensional scalar field theory with a nilpotent current algebra, which is dual to the Principal Chiral Model. The quantum theory is renormalizable and not asymptotically free; the theory is strongly coupled at short distances (encountering a Landau pole). We suggest it can serve as a toy model for λ ϕ4 theory in four dimensions, just as the principal chiral model is a useful toy model for Yang-Mills theory. We find some classical wave solutions that survive the strong coupling limit and quantize them by the collective variable method. They describe excitations with an unusual dispersion relation ω ∝|k |2/3 . Perhaps they are the "preons" at strong coupling, the bound states of which form massless particles over long distances.

  10. Highly nonlinear wave solutions in a dual to the chiral model

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeev, S G

    2016-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional scalar field theory with a nilpotent current algebra, which is dual to the Principal Chiral Model. The quantum theory is renormalizable and not asymptotically free: the theory is strongly coupled at short distances (encountering a Landau pole). We suggest it can serve as a toy model for $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory in four dimensions, just as the principal chiral model is a useful toy model for Yang-Mills theory. We find some classical wave solutions that survive the strong coupling limit and quantize them by the collective variable method. They describe excitations with an unusual dispersion relation $\\omega\\propto|k|^{\\frac{2}{3}}$ . Perhaps they are the "preons" at strong coupling, whose bound states form massless particles over long distances.

  11. Chirality in Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupert, Levi M.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2009-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed the emergence of new measurement approaches and applications for chiral thin films and materials enabled by the observations of the high sensitivity of second-order nonlinear optical measurements to chirality. In thin films, the chiral response to second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation (SFG) from a single molecular monolayer is often comparable with the achiral response. The chiral specificity also allows for symmetry-allowed SFG in isotropic chiral media, confirming predictions made ˜50 years ago. With these experimental demonstrations in hand, an important challenge is the construction of intuitive predictive models that allow the measured chiral response to be meaningfully related back to molecular and macromolecular structure. This review defines and considers three distinct mechanisms for chiral effects in uniaxially oriented assemblies: orientational chirality, intrinsic chirality, and isotropic chirality. The role of each is discussed in experimental and computational studies of bacteriorhodopsin films, binaphthol, and collagen. Collectively, these three model systems support a remarkably simple framework for quantitatively recovering the measured chiral-specific activity.

  12. The quantization of exotic states in SU(3) soliton models: A solvable quantum mechanical analog

    OpenAIRE

    Cherman, Aleksey; Cohen, Thomas D.; Nellore, Abhinav

    2004-01-01

    The distinction between the rigid rotor and Callan-Klebanov approaches to the quantization of SU(3) solitons is considered in the context of exotic baryons. A numerically tractable quantum mechanical analog system is introduced to test the reliability of the two quantization schemes. We find that in the equivalent of the large N_c limit of QCD, the Callan-Klebanov approach agrees with a numerical solution of the quantum mechanical analog. Rigid rotor quantization generally does not. The impli...

  13. Vector and axial vector mesons in a nonlocal chiral quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo Villafañe, M. F.; Gómez Dumm, D.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2016-09-01

    Basic features of nonstrange vector and axial vector mesons are analyzed in the framework of a chiral quark model that includes nonlocal four-fermion couplings. Unknown model parameters are determined from some input values of masses and decay constants, while nonlocal form factors are taken from a fit to lattice QCD results for effective quark propagators. Numerical results show a good agreement with the observed meson phenomenology.

  14. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F. [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal; Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  15. Vector and axial vector mesons in a nonlocal chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Villafañe, M F Izzo; Scoccola, N N

    2016-01-01

    Basic features of nonstrange vector and axial vector mesons are analyzed in the framework of a chiral quark model that includes nonlocal four fermion couplings. Unknown model parameters are determined from some input values of masses and decay constants, while nonlocal form factors are taken from a fit to lattice QCD results for effective quark propagators. Numerical results show a good agreement with the observed meson phenomenology.

  16. Higgs-Yukawa model in chirally-invariant lattice field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulava, John [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Department; Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim; Nagy, Attila [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Knippschild, Bastian [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Physics; Lin, C.J. David [National Chiao-Tung Univ., Hsinchu (China). Inst. of Physics; National Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu (China). Div. of Physics; Nagai, Kei-Ichi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan). Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute; Ogawa, Kenji [Chung-Yuan Christian Univ., Chung-Li (China). Dept. of Physics

    2012-10-15

    Non-perturbative numerical lattice studies of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the standard model with exact chiral symmetry are reviewed. In particular, we discuss bounds on the Higgs boson mass at the standard model top quark mass, and in the presence of heavy fermions. We present a comprehensive study of the phase structure of the theory at weak and very strong values of the Yukawa coupling as well as at non-zero temperature.

  17. UA(1) breaking and phase transition in chiral random matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, T; Ohtani, M

    2009-01-01

    We propose a chiral random matrix model which properly incorporates the flavor-number dependence of the phase transition owing to the \\UA(1) anomaly term. At finite temperature, the model shows the second-order phase transition with mean-field critical exponents for two massless flavors, while in the case of three massless flavors the transition turns out to be of the first order. The topological susceptibility satisfies the anomalous \\UA(1) Ward identity and decreases gradually with the temperature increased.

  18. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat Elmar P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for π-π-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  19. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Biernat, Elmar P; Ribeiro, J E; Stadler, A; Gross, F

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  20. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, A.; Gross, F.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for π-π-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  1. Collective coordinate quantization and spin statistics of the solitons in the C PN Skyrme-Faddeev model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Yuki; Klimas, Paweł; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    The C PN extended Skyrme-Faddeev model possesses planar soliton solutions. We consider quantum aspects of the solutions applying collective coordinate quantization in regime of rigid body approximation. In order to discuss statistical properties of the solutions we include an Abelian Chern-Simons term (the Hopf term) in the Lagrangian. Since Π3(C P1)=Z then for N =1 the term becomes an integer. On the other hand for N >1 it became perturbative because Π3(C PN) is trivial. The prefactor of the Hopf term (anyon angle) Θ is not quantized and its value depends on the physical system. The corresponding fermionic models can fix value of the angle Θ for all N in a way that the soliton with N =1 is not an anyon type whereas for N >1 it is always an anyon even for Θ =n π , n ∈Z . We quantize the solutions and calculate several mass spectra for N =2 . Finally we discuss generalization for N ≧3 .

  2. Collective coordinate quantization, spin statistics of the solitons in the $\\mathbb{C}P^N$ Skyrme-Faddeev model

    CERN Document Server

    Amari, Yuki; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The $\\mathbb{C}P^N$ extended Skyrme-Faddeev model possesses planar soliton solutions. We consider quantum aspects of the solutions applying collective coordinate quantization in regime of rigid body approximation. In order to discuss statistical properties of the solutions we include an abelian Chern-Simons term (the Hopf term) in the Lagrangian. Since $\\Pi_3(\\mathbb{C}P^1)=\\mathbb{Z}$ then for $N=1$ the term becomes integer. On the other hand for $N>1$ it became perturbative because $\\Pi_3(\\mathbb{C}P^N)$ is trivial. The prefactor of the Hopf term (anyon angle) $\\Theta$ is not quantized and its value depends on the physical system. The corresponding fermionic models can fix value of the angle $\\Theta$ for all $N$ in a way that the soliton with $N=1$ is not an anyon type whereas for $N>1$ it is always an anyon even for $\\Theta=n\\pi, n\\in \\mathbb{Z}$. We quantize the solutions and calculate several mass spectra for $N=2$. Finally we discuss generalization for $N\\geqq 3$.

  3. Dark Solitons in FPU Lattice Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on multiple scales method, we study the nonlinear properties of a new Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice model analytically. It is found that the lattice chain exhibits a novel nonlinear elementary excitation, i.e. a dark soliton.Moreover, the modulation depth of dark soliton is increasing as the anharmonic parameter increases.

  4. Chiral Symmetry Breaking on the Lattice a Study of the Strongly Coupled Lattice Schwinger Model

    CERN Document Server

    Berruto, F; Semenoff, Gordon W; Sodano, P

    1998-01-01

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the Schwinger model on the lattice using staggered fermions and the hamiltonian approach to lattice gauge theories. Although staggered fermions have no continuous chiral symmetry, they posses a discrete axial invari ance which forbids fermion mass and which must be broken in order for the lattice Schwinger model to exhibit the features of the spectrum of the continuum theory. We show that this discrete symmetry is indeed broken spontaneously in the strong coupling li mit. Expanding around a gauge invariant ground state and carefully considering the normal ordering of the charge operator, we derive an improved strong coupling expansion and compute the masses of the low lying bosonic excitations as well as the chiral co ndensate of the model. We find very good agreement between our lattice calculations and known continuum values for these quantities already in the fourth order of strong coupling perturbation theory. We also find the exact ground state of the antiferromag ...

  5. A large N phase transition in the continuum two dimensional SU(N) X SU(N) principal chiral model

    OpenAIRE

    R. Narayanan; Neuberger, H.; Vicari, E.

    2008-01-01

    It is established by numerical means that the continuum large N principal chiral model in two dimensions has a phase transition in a smoothed two point function at a critical distance of the order of the correlation length.

  6. SOLITONS: Optimal control of optical soliton parameters: Part 1. The Lax representation in the problem of soliton management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkin, Vladimir N.; Belyaeva, T. L.

    2001-11-01

    The existence of the Lax representation for a model of soliton management under certain conditions is shown, which proves a complete integrability of the model. The exact analytic solutions are obtained for the problem of the optimal control of parameters of Schrodinger solitons in nonconservative systems with the group velocity dispersion, nonlinear refractive index, and gain (absorption coefficient) varying over the length. The examples demonstrating the non-trivial amplification dynamics of optical solitons, which are important from practical point of view, are considered. The exact analytic solutions are obtained for problems of the optimal amplification of solitons in optical fibres with monotonically decreasing dispersion and of Raman pumping of solitons in fibreoptic communication systems.

  7. Intrinsic transverse momentum and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian Weiss, Peter Schweitzer, Mark Strikman

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of QCD vacuum structure on the intrinsic transverse momentum distribution of partons in the nucleon at a low scale. The dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry is caused by non-perturbative interactions at distances of the order rho ~ 0.2 - 0.3 fm, much smaller than the typical nucleon size R ~ 1 fm, resulting in a two-scale picture of nucleon structure. Using an effective dynamical model based on chiral constituent quark degrees of freedom and the 1/N_c expansion (chiral quark-soliton model), we calculate the transverse momentum distribution of quarks and antiquarks at a low scale. The distribution of valence quarks is localized at p_T ~ 1/R. The distribution of flavor-singlet unpolarized sea quarks exhibits a power-like tail extending up to the chiral-symmetry-breaking scale 1/{rho}. A similar tail is present in the flavor-nonsinglet polarized sea. These features are model-independent and represent the imprint of the QCD vacuum on the nucleon's partonic structure. At the level of the nucleon's light-cone wave function, we show that sea quarks partly exist in correlated pairs of transverse size {rho} << R, analogous to short-range NN correlations in nuclei. We discuss the implications of our findings for the transverse momentum distributions in hard scattering processes (semi-inclusive DIS, Drell-Yan pair production) and possible experimental tests of the non-perturbative parton correlations induced by QCD vacuum structure.

  8. Magnetic catalysis in a P-even, chiral-invariant three-dimensional model with four-fermion interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovskii, V C; Khudyakov, V V

    2000-01-01

    The influence of an external constant and homogeneous magnetic field H on the phase structure of the P-symmetric, chiral invariant 3-dimensional field theory model with two four-fermion interaction structures is considered. An arbitrary small (nonzero) magnetic field is shown to induce spontaneous violation of the initial symmetry (magnetic catalysis). Moreover, vacuum of the model at H>0 can be either P-symmetric or chiral invariant, depending on the values of the coupling constants.

  9. Chirality and Z2 vortices in a Heisenberg spin model on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenge, J.-C.; Lhuillier, C.; Messio, L.; Pierre, L.; Viot, P.

    2008-05-01

    The phase diagram of the classical J1-J2 model on the kagome lattice is investigated by using extensive Monte Carlo simulations. In a realistic range of parameters, this model has a low-temperature chiral-ordered phase without long-range spin order. We show that the critical transition marking the destruction of the chiral order is preempted by the first-order proliferation of Z2 point defects. The core energy of these vortices appears to vanish when approaching the T=0 phase boundary, where both Z2 defects and gapless magnons contribute to disordering the system at very low temperatures. This situation might be typical of a large class of frustrated magnets. Possible relevance for real materials is also discussed.

  10. Modelling the Global Solar Corona II: Coronal Evolution and Filament Chirality Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Yeates, A R; Van Ballegooijen, A A

    2007-01-01

    The hemispheric pattern of solar filaments is considered using newly-developed simulations of the real photospheric and 3D coronal magnetic fields over a 6-month period, on a global scale. The magnetic field direction in the simulation is compared directly with the chirality of observed filaments, at their observed locations. In our model the coronal field evolves through a continuous sequence of nonlinear force-free equilibria, in response to the changing photospheric boundary conditions and the emergence of new magnetic flux. In total 119 magnetic bipoles with properties matching observed active regions are inserted. These bipoles emerge twisted and inject magnetic helicity into the solar atmosphere. When we choose the sign of this active-region helicity to match that observed in each hemisphere, the model produces the correct chirality for up to 96% of filaments, including exceptions to the hemispheric pattern. If the emerging bipoles have zero helicity, or helicity of the opposite sign, then this percenta...

  11. Baryon and chiral symmetry breaking in holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsky, Alexander; Krikun, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between chiral symmetry breaking and baryons in holographic QCD. We construct a soliton with unit baryon charge in the presence of a nonzero mean value of the scalar bifundamental field, which is dual to the chiral condensate. We obtain a relation between the chiral condensate and the mass of the baryon and find in a clear-cut way that at large values of the condensate the holographic soliton is no longer located on the IR wall. Instead it is split into two halves, which are symmetrically located on the left and right flavor branes. On the other hand we find that the local value of the quark condensate is suppressed in the core of the soliton, which is evidence for a partial chiral symmetry restoration inside the baryon.

  12. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, M.; Torres-Silva, H.

    2006-04-01

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  13. Strange quark matter in a chiral SU(3) quark mean field model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, P.; Lyubovitskij, V. E.; Gutsche, Th.; Faessler, Amand

    2002-01-01

    We apply the chiral SU(3) quark mean field model to investigate strange quark matter. The stability of strange quark matter with different strangeness fraction is studied. The interaction between quarks and vector mesons destabilizes the strange quark matter. If the strength of the vector coupling is the same as in hadronic matter, strangelets can not be formed. For the case of beta equilibrium, there is no strange quark matter which can be stable against hadron emission even without vector m...

  14. Susceptibilities and the Phase Structure of a Chiral Model with Polyakov Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, C.; Friman, B.; Redlich, K.

    2006-01-01

    In an extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model where the quarks interact with the temporal gluon field, represented by the Polyakov loop, we explore the relation between the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. The effect of Polyakov loop dynamics on thermodynamic quantities, on the phase structure at finite temperature and baryon density and on various susceptibilities is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the behavior and properties of the fluctuations of the (approximate) ord...

  15. The Quantum and Local Polyakov loop in Chiral Quark Models at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Megias, E.; Arriola, E. Ruiz; Salcedo, L. L.

    2006-01-01

    We describe results for the confinement-deconfinement phase transition as predicted by the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model where the local and quantum Polyakov loop is coupled to the constituent quarks in a minimal way (PNJL). We observe that the leading correlation of two Polyakov loops describes the chiral transition accurately. The effects of the current quark mass on the transition are also analysed.

  16. Variational Monte Carlo study of a chiral spin liquid in the extended Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Gong, Shoushu; Becca, Federico; Sheng, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the extended Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice by using Gutzwiller projected fermionic states and the variational Monte Carlo technique. In particular, when both second- and third-neighbor superexchanges are considered, we find that a gapped spin liquid described by nontrivial magnetic fluxes and long-range chiral-chiral correlations is energetically favored compared to the gapless U(1) Dirac state. Furthermore, the topological Chern number, obtained by integrating the Berry curvature, and the degeneracy of the ground state, by constructing linearly independent states, lead us to identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with a C =1 /2 fractionalized Chern number.

  17. Duality between chiral symmetry breaking and charged pion condensation at large $N_c$: Consideration of an NJL$_2$ model with baryon-, isospin- and chiral isospin chemical potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, D; Klimenko, K G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the phase structure of a (1+1)-dimensional schematic quark model with four-quark interaction and in the presence of baryon ($\\mu_B$), isospin ($\\mu_I$) and chiral isospin ($\\mu_{I5}$) chemical potentials. It is established that in the large-$N_c$ limit ($N_c$ is the number of colored quarks) there exists a duality correspondence between the chiral symmetry breaking phase and the charged pion condensation (PC) one. The role and influence of this property on the phase structure of the model are studied. Moreover, it is shown that the chemical potential $\\mu_{I5}$ promotes the appearance of the charged PC phase with nonzero baryon density.

  18. A chiral matrix model of the semi-Quark Gluon Plasma in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarski, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    A chiral matrix model applicable to QCD with 2+1 flavors is developed. This requires adding a SU(3)_L x SU(3)_R x Z(3)_A nonet of scalar fields, with both parities, and coupling these to quarks through a Yukawa coupling, y. Treating the scalar fields in mean field approximation, the effective Lagrangian is computed by integrating out quarks to one loop order. In addition to the usual symmetry breaking term, linear in the current quark mass m_qk, at a nonzero temperature T it is necessary to add a new term, ~ m_qk T^2. The parameters of the gluon part of the matrix model, including especially the deconfining transition temperature T_d = 270 MeV, are identical to that for the pure glue theory without quarks. The parameters in the chiral matrix model are fixed by the values, at zero temperature, of the pion decay constant the masses of the pions, kaons, eta, and eta'. The temperature for the chiral crossover at T_chi = 155 MeV is determined by adjusting the Yukawa coupling y. We find reasonable agreement with th...

  19. Influence of gain dynamics on dissipative soliton interaction in the presence of a continuous wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, A.; Amrani, F.; Salhi, M.; Leblond, H.; Sanchez, F.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the effect of the gain dynamics on the motion and interactions of solitons in the frame of a complex Ginzburg-Landau-type model, which accounts for dissipative soliton formation and propagation in a ring fiber laser. It is shown that the gain dynamics modifies the soliton velocity and their interactions. In the presence of an injected continuous wave, an initial crystal of a few solitons gets broken, either into bunches or into individual solitons. Quasielastic collisions analogous to Newton's cradle have been seen. The soliton set may evolve into gas, solitons, or harmonic mode-locked patterns. The time jitter present in the last situation has been considered.

  20. The quantization of exotic states in SU(3) soliton models: A solvable quantum mechanical analog

    CERN Document Server

    Cherman, A; Nellore, A; Cherman, Aleksey; Cohen, Thomas D.; Nellore, Abhinav

    2004-01-01

    The distinction between the rigid rotor and Callan-Klebanov approaches to the quantization of SU(3) solitons is considered in the context of exotic baryons. A numerically tractable quantum mechanical analog system is introduced to test the reliability of the two quantization schemes. We find that in the equivalent of the large N_c limit of QCD, the Callan-Klebanov approach agrees with a numerical solution of the quantum mechanical analog. Rigid rotor quantization generally does not. The implications for exotic baryons are briefly discussed.

  1. Chiral phase transition in a lattice fermion-gauge-scalar model with U(1) gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chiral phase transition induced by a charged scalar field is investigated numerically in a lattice fermion-gauge-scalar model with U(1) gauge symmetry, proposed recently as a model for dynamical fermion mass generation. For very strong gauge coupling the transition is of second order and its scaling properties are very similar to those of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. However, in the vicinity of the tricritical point at somewhat weaker coupling, where the transition changes the order, the scaling behavior is different. Therefore it is worthwhile to investigate the continuum limit of the model at this point. (orig.)

  2. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-01

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant

  3. Two-dimensional solitons in saturable media with a quasi-one-dimensional lattice potential

    OpenAIRE

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    We study families of solitons in a two-dimensional (2D) model of the light transmission through a photorefractive medium equipped with a (quasi-)one-dimensional photonic lattice. The soliton families are bounded from below by finite minimum values of the peak and total power. Narrow solitons have a single maximum, while broader ones feature side lobes. Stability of the solitons is checked by direct simulations. The solitons can be set in motion across the lattice (actually, made tilted in the...

  4. Stochastic perturbation in quasi-ideal dispersion-managed soliton system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏; 黄德修

    2003-01-01

    The model of stochastic perturbation is built up systematically in quasi-ideal dispersion-managed soliton system,its influence on soliton propagation is investigated by both the variational approach and the numerical simulation,and it is found that the stochastic perturbation leads to disintegration of soliton and enhances the interaction between solitons.The nonlinear gain and filter are introduced to suppress effectively the influence on both soliton propagation and interaction.

  5. Poisson bracket algebra for chiral group elements in the WZNW model

    CERN Document Server

    Bimonte, G; Simoni, A; Stern, A

    1992-01-01

    We examine the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) model on a circle and compute the Poisson bracket algebra for left and right moving chiral group elements. Our computations apply for arbitrary groups and boundary conditions, the latter being characterized by the monodromy matrix. Unlike in previous treatments, they do not require specifying a particular parametrization of the group valued fields in terms of angles spanning the group. We do however find it necessary to make a gauge choice, as the chiral group elements are not gauge invariant observables. (On the other hand, the quadratic form of the Poisson brackets may be defined independent of a gauge fixing.) Gauge invariant observables can be formed from the monodromy matrix and these observables are seen to commute in the quantum theory.

  6. Non-Abelian twisted kinks in chiral Gross-Neveu model with isospin

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional, massless Gross-Neveu model with Nc colors and SU(2) isospin is studied analytically in the large Nc limit. The chiral SU(2)L X SU(2)R symmetry is broken spontaneously in the vacuum. Twisted kinks connecting two arbitrary points on the vacuum manifold S3 are constructed, and their properties are explored. The phase diagram as a function of temperature, baryon- and isospin chemical potential is discussed, with special emphasis on inhomogeneous phases. The preferred form of the condensate is a product of the real kink crystal and the chiral spiral. Kink-kink scattering is solved, using the general solution of the multicomponent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation recently presented by Takahashi.

  7. Interaction of spatially overlapping standing electromagnetic solitons in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical investigations on mutual interactions between two spatially overlapping standing electromagnetic solitons in a cold unmagnetized plasma are reported. It is found that an initial state comprising of two overlapping standing solitons evolves into different end states, depending on the amplitudes of the two solitons and the phase difference between them. For small amplitude solitons with zero phase difference, we observe the formation of an oscillating bound state whose period depends on their initial separation. These results suggest the existence of a bound state made of two solitons in the relativistic cold plasma fluid model.

  8. A simple formula for the conserved charges of soliton theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, L A

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple formula for all the conserved charges of soliton theories, evaluated on the solutions belonging to the orbit of the vacuum under the group of dressing transformations. For pedagogical reasons we perform the explicit calculations for the case of the sine-Gordon model, taken as a prototype of soliton theories. We show that the energy and momentum are boundary terms for all the solutions on the orbit of the vacuum. That orbit includes practically all the solutions of physical interest, namely solitons, multi-solitons, breathers, and combinations of solitons and breathers.

  9. A simple formula for the conserved charges of soliton theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple formula for all the conserved charges of soliton theories, evaluated on the solutions belonging to the orbit of the vacuum under the group of dressing transformations. For pedagogical reasons we perform the explicit calculations for the case of the sine-Gordon model, taken as a prototype of soliton theories. We show that the energy and momentum are boundary terms for all the solutions on the orbit of the vacuum. That orbit includes practically all the solutions of physical interest, namely solitons, multi-solitons, breathers, and combinations of solitons and breathers. The example of the mKdV equation is also given explicitly

  10. Chiral Symmetry Breaking and External Fields in the Kuperstein-Sonnenschein Model

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Sohaib; Kundu, Arnab

    2012-01-01

    A novel holographic model of chiral symmetry breaking has been proposed by Kuperstein and Sonnenschein by embedding non-supersymmetric probe D7 and anti-D7 branes in the Klebanov-Witten background. We study the dynamics of the probe flavours in this model in the presence of finite temperature and a constant electromagnetic field. In keeping with the weakly coupled field theory intuition, we find the magnetic field promotes spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry whereas the electric field restores it. The former effect is universally known as the "magnetic catalysis" in chiral symmetry breaking. In the presence of an electric field such a condensation is inhibited and a current flows. Thus we are faced with a steady-state situation rather than a system in equilibrium. We conjecture a definition of thermodynamic free energy for this steady-state phase and using this proposal we study the detailed phase structure when both electric and magnetic fields are present in two representative configurations: mutually p...

  11. The Sakai-Sugimoto soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sakai-Sugimoto model is the preeminent example of a string theory description of holographic QCD, in which baryons correspond to topological solitons in the bulk. Here we investigate the validity of various approximations of the Sakai-Sugimoto soliton that are used widely to study the properties of holographic baryons. These approximations include the flat space self-dual instanton, a linear expansion in terms of eigenfunctions in the holographic direction and an asymptotic power series at large radius. These different approaches have produced contradictory results in the literature regarding properties of the baryon, such as relations for the electromagnetic form factors. Here we determine the regions of validity of these various approximations and show how to relate different approximations in contiguous regions of applicability. This analysis clarifies the source of the contradictory results in the literature and resolves some outstanding issues, including the use of the flat space self-dual instanton, the detailed properties of the asymptotic soliton tail, and the role of the UV cutoff introduced in previous investigations. A consequence of our analysis is the discovery of a new large scale, that grows logarithmically with the ’t Hooft coupling, at which the soliton fields enter a nonlinear regime. Finally, we provide the first numerical computation of the Sakai-Sugimoto soliton and demonstrate that the numerical results support our analysis

  12. Equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean-field models with chiral limits

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wei-Zhou; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Using in-medium hadron properties according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities and considering naturalness of the coupling constants, we have newly constructed several relativistic mean-field Lagrangians with chiral limits. The model parameters are adjusted such that the symmetric part of the resulting equation of state at supra-normal densities is consistent with that required by the collective flow data from high energy heavy-ion reactions, whi...

  13. Topological Solitons in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Zohreh

    1979-01-01

    A broad definition of solitons and a discussion of their role in physics is given. Vortices and magnetic monopoles which are examples of topological solitons in two and three spatial dimensions are described in some detail. (BB)

  14. The Star Square in the Baxter-Bazhanov Model and the Star-Triangle Relation in the Chiral Potts Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhan-Ning

    In this letter, the connection is found between the "star-square" relation in the Baxter-Bazhanov model and the "star-triangle" relation in the chiral Potts model, which means that the tetrahedron equation of the Baxter-Bazhanov model is a consequence of the latter. The four additional constraints in the tetrahedron equation given by Kashaev et al. hold naturally in respect to the spherical trigonometry parametrizations.

  15. Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.

  16. Dark Soliton Fiber Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H.; Tang, D. Y.; L.M. Zhao; Wu, X; Bao, Q. L.; Loh, K. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Sch...

  17. Vector Soliton Fiber Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Han

    2011-01-01

    Solitons, as stable localized wave packets that can propagate long distance in dispersive media without changing their shapes, are ubiquitous in nonlinear physical systems. Since the first experimental realization of optical bright solitons in the anomalous dispersion single mode fibers (SMF) by Mollenauer et al. in 1980 and optical dark solitons in the normal dispersion SMFs by P. Emplit et al. in 1987, optical solitons in SMFs had been extensively investigated. In reality a SMF always suppo...

  18. Fragmentation functions of pions and kaons in the nonlocal chiral quark model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Chung Wen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the unpolarized pion and kaon fragmentation functions using the nonlocal chiral-quark model. In this model the interactions between the quarks and pseudoscalar mesons is manifested nonlocally. In addition, the explicit flavor SU(3 symmetry breaking effect is taken into account in terms of the current quark masses. The results of our model are evaluated to higher Q2 value Q2 = 4 GeV2 by the DGLAP evolution. Then we compare them with the empirical parametrizations. We find that our results are in relatively good agreement with the empirical parametrizations and the other theoretical estimations.

  19. Magnetic catalysis and inverse magnetic catalysis in nonlocal chiral quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Pagura, V P; Noguera, S; Scoccola, N N

    2016-01-01

    We study the behavior of strongly interacting matter under an external constant magnetic field in the context of nonlocal chiral quark models within the mean field approximation. We find that at zero temperature the behavior of the quark condensates shows the expected magnetic catalysis effect, our predictions being in good quantitative agreement with lattice QCD results. On the other hand, in contrast to what happens in the standard local Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, when the analysis is extended to the case of finite temperature our results show that nonlocal models naturally lead to the Inverse Magnetic Catalysis effect.

  20. Chirally Invariant Avatar in a Model of Neutrinos with Light Cone Reflection Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chodos, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In previous work we developed a model of neutrinos based on a new symmetry, Light Cone Reflection (LCR), that interchanges spacelike and timelike intervals. In this paper we start with the four-dimensional model, and construct a two-dimensional avatar that obeys the same equations of motion, and preserves both the light-cone reflection symmetry and the chiral symmetry of the original theory. The avatar also contains the interaction that rendered the four-dimensional model gauge invariant. In an addendum, we make some remarks about how to determine the scalar field that enters into the definition of the LCR-covariant derivative.

  1. Vertex operator representation of the soliton tau functions in the A{sub n} {sup (1)} Toda models by dressing transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Cuba, G.; Paunov, R

    1997-12-01

    Affine Toda theories based on simple Lie algebras G are known to posses soliton solutions. Toda solitons has been found by Olive, Turok and Underwood within the group-theoretical approach to the integrable field equations. Single solitons are created by exponentials of special elements of the underlying affine Lie algebra which diagonalize the adjoint action of the principal Heisenberg subalgebra. When G is simply laced and level one representations are considered, the generators of the affine Lie algebra are expressed in terms of the principal Heisenberg oscillators. This representation is known as vertex operator construction. It plays a crucial role in the string theory as well as in the conformal field theory. Alternatively, solitons can be generated from the vacuum by dressing transformations. The problem to relate dressing symmetry to the vertex operator representation of the tau functions for the sine-Gordon model was previously considered by Babelon and Bernard. In the present paper, we extend this relation for arbitrary A{sup (1)}{sub n} Toda field theory. (author) 37 refs.

  2. The chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sadofyev, A. V.; Isachenkov, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    In quark-gluon plasma nonzero chirality can be induced by the chiral anomaly. When a magnetic field is applied to a system with nonzero chirality an electromagnetic current is induced along the magnetic field. This phenomenon is called the chiral magnetic effect. In this paper appearance of the chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamical approximation is shown. We consider a hydrodynamical model for chiral liquid with two independent currents of left and right handed particles in the presence of...

  3. Model studies of the chiral and deconfinement transitions in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Naylor, William R

    2015-01-01

    The Doctoral thesis of William Naylor. Gives the background of the three papers included, specifically introducing both the quark meson model and the NJL model, the basic formalism of thermal field theory, and functional renormalization group (including some details on numerically solving the FRG equation for the QM model).

  4. Introduction to solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Miki Wadati

    2001-11-01

    As an introduction to the special issue on nonlinear waves, solitons and their significance in physics are reviewed. The soliton is the first universal concept in nonlinear science. Universality and ubiquity of the soliton concept are emphasized.

  5. Chiral Superfluidity for QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma formed at LHC and RHIC can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The "normal" component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the "superfluid" part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use the bosonization procedure with a finite cut-off and obtain a dynamical axion-like field out of the chiral fermionic modes. Then we use relativistic hydrodynamics for macroscopic description of the effective theory obtained after the bosonization. Finally, solving the hydrodynamic equations in gradient expansion, we find that in the presence of external electromagnetic fields or rotation the motion of the "superfluid" component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, chiral vortical, chiral electric and dipole wave effects. Latter two effects are specific for a two-component fluid, which provides us with crucial experimental tests of the model.

  6. The Effect of Logarithmic Mesonic Potential on the Magnetic Catalysis in the Chiral Quark-Sigma Model

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Shady, M

    2015-01-01

    The chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of external magnetic field is studied in the framework of logarithmic quark-sigma model. The effective logarithmic mesonic potential is employed and is numerically solved in the mean-field approximation. We find that the chiral symmetry breaking enhances in comparison with the original sigma model. Two sets of parameterization are investigated in the present model. We find that increasing coupling constant enhances the breaking symmetry while increasing sigma mass inhibits enhancing chiral broken vacuum state. A comparison with the Numbu-Jona-Lasinio model and the Schwinger-Dyson equation is discussed. We conclude that the logarithmic sigma model enhances the magnetic catalysis in comparison with the original sigma model and other models.

  7. Eta and kaon production in a chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Golli, Bojan

    2016-01-01

    We apply a coupled-channel formalism incorporating quasi-bound quark-model states to calculate pion scattering into eta N, K Lambda and K Sigma channels, as well eta p, eta n, K+Lambda, and K0Sigma+ photo-production processes. The meson-baryon and photon-baryon vertices are determined in a SU(3) version of the Cloudy Bag Model. Our model predicts sizable amplitudes in the P11, P13, P33 and S11 partial waves in agreement with the latest MAID isobar model and the recent partial-wave analyses of the Bonn-Gatchina group. We are able to give a quark-model explanation for the apparent resonance at 1685 MeV in the eta n channel.

  8. Kaon semileptonic decay (K_{l3}) form factor in the nonlocal chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Seung-il

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the kaon semileptonic decay (K_{l3}) form factors within the framework of the nonlocal chiral quark model from the instanton vacuum, taking into account the effects of flavor SU(3) symmetry breaking. All theoretical calculations are carried out without any adjustable parameter. We also show that the present results satisfy the Callan-Treiman low-energy theorem as well as the Ademollo-Gatto theorem. It turns out that the effects of flavor SU(3) symmetry breaking are essential in reproducing the kaon semileptonic form factors. The present results are in a good agreement with experiments, and are compatible with other model calculations.

  9. Anomalous transport model study of chiral magnetic effects in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yifeng; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Using an anomalous transport model for massless quarks, we study the effect of magnetic field on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions. With initial conditions from a blast wave model and assuming that the strong magnetic field produced in non-central heavy ion collisions can last for a sufficiently long time, we obtain an appreciable electric quadrupole moment in the transverse plane of a heavy ion collision, which subsequently leads to a splitting between the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks as expected from the chiral magnetic wave formed in the produced QGP and observed in experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  10. A chiral random matrix model with 2+1 flavors at finite temperature and density

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, H

    2009-01-01

    Phase diagram of a chiral random matrix model with the degenerate ud quarks and the s quark at finite temperature and density is presented. The model exhibits a first-order transition at finite temperature for three massless flavors, owing to the U_A(1) breaking determinant term. We study the order of the transition with changing the quark masses and the quark chemical potential, and show that the first-order transition region expands as the chemical potential increases. We also discuss the behavior of the meson masses and the susceptibilities near the critical point.

  11. Generalized vector form factors of the pion in a chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Broniowski, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Generalized vector form factors of the pion, related to the moments of the generalized parton distribution functions, are evaluated in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with the Pauli-Villars regularization. The lowest moments (the electromagnetic and the gravitational form factors) are compared to recent lattice data, with fair agreement. Predictions for higher-order moments are also made. Relevant features of the generalized form factors in the chiral quark models are highlighted and the role of the QCD evolution for the higher-order GFFs is stressed.

  12. Multicolor Bound Soliton Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Rui; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We show a new class of bound soliton molecule that exists in a parametrically driven nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The composed solitons exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, bound together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor bound soliton molecule shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which may open up a great avenue towards versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy.

  13. The Role of Stochastic Models in Interpreting the Origins of Biological Chirality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lente

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent stochastic modeling efforts in the theoretical research aimed at interpreting the origins of biological chirality. Stochastic kinetic models, especially those based on the continuous time discrete state approach, have great potential in modeling absolute asymmetric reactions, experimental examples of which have been reported in the past decade. An overview of the relevant mathematical background is given and several examples are presented to show how the significant numerical problems characteristic of the use of stochastic models can be overcome by non-trivial, but elementary algebra. In these stochastic models, a particulate view of matter is used rather than the concentration-based view of traditional chemical kinetics using continuous functions to describe the properties system. This has the advantage of giving adequate description of single-molecule events, which were probably important in the origin of biological chirality. The presented models can interpret and predict the random distribution of enantiomeric excess among repetitive experiments, which is the most striking feature of absolute asymmetric reactions. It is argued that the use of the stochastic kinetic approach should be much more widespread in the relevant literature.

  14. The nonstrange dibaryon and hidden-color effect in a chiral quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, L. R.; Zhang, Y. N.; Sun, Y. L.; Shao, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    The exotic nonstrange ΔΔ dibaryon with I(JP) = 0(3+) has been confirmed by the experimental data reported by WASA-at-COSY Collaboration, and the result is consistent with our theoretical prediction in the chiral SU(3) quark model and extended chiral SU(3) quark model, showing that the effect from hidden-color channel ( CC is important. In the present work, we further investigate another exotic nonstrange ΔΔ dibaryon with I(JP) = 3(0+) in the chiral SU(3) quark model that describes the energies of baryon ground states and the nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering data satisfactorily. We perform a dynamical coupled-channel study of the ΔΔ - CC system with I(JP) = 3(0+) within the framework of resonating group method (RGM). We find that the binding energy of I(JP) = 3(0+) state is about 22.3 MeV and a root-mean-square radius (RMS) of 1.03 fm in single-channel calculation. Then we extend the model to include the CC channel to further study the I(JP) = 3(0+) state and find that the binding energy is about 31.3 MeV and RMS is 0.97 fm in coupled-channel calculation. We can see that the CC channel coupling has a relatively large effect on this state. The color screening effect is further considered and we find that the bound state property will not change much. It is shown that the binding energy of this state is stably ranged around several tens of MeV; it means that its mass is always lower than the threshold of the ΔΔ channel and higher than the mass of NΔπ.

  15. Approximate sine-Gordon solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratopoulos, G.N. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Zakrzewski, W.J. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1993-08-01

    We look at the recently proposed scheme of approximating a sine-Gordon soliton by an expression derived from two dimensional instantons. We point out that the scheme of Sutcliffe in which he uses two dimensional instantons can be generalised to higher dimensions and that these generalisations produce even better approximations than the original approximation. We also comment on generalisations to other models. (orig.)

  16. Chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with Matrix Product Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Jansen, Karl; Saito, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Tensor network (TN) methods, in particular the Matrix Product States (MPS) ansatz, have proven to be a useful tool in analyzing the properties of lattice gauge theories. They allow for a very good precision, much better than standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for the models that have been studied so far, due to the possibility of reaching much smaller lattice spacings. The real reason for the interest in the TN approach, however, is its ability, shown so far in several condensed matter models, to deal with theories which exhibit the notorious sign problem in MC simulations. This makes it prospective for dealing with the non-zero chemical potential in QCD and other lattice gauge theories, as well as with real-time simulations. In this paper, using matrix product operators, we extend our analysis of the Schwinger model at zero temperature to show the feasibility of this approach also at finite temperature. This is an important step on the way to deal with the sign problem of QCD. We analyze in detail the chir...

  17. A Series of Variable Separation Solutions and New Soliton Structures of (2+1)-Dimensional Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-Zhi

    2006-01-01

    Variable separation approach is introduced to solve the (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation. A series of variable separation solutions is derived with arbitrary functions in system. We present a new soliton excitation model (24). Based on this excitation, new soliton structures such as the multi-lump soliton and periodic soliton are revealed by selecting the arbitrary function appropriately.

  18. Meson cloud effects on the pion quark distribution function in the chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Akira; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the valence quark distribution function of the pion $v^{\\pi}(x,Q^2)$ in the framework of the chiral constituent quark model and evaluate the meson cloud effects on $v^{\\pi}(x,Q^2)$. We explicitly demonstrate how the meson cloud effects affect $v^{\\pi}(x,Q^2)$ in detail. We find that the meson cloud correction causes an overall 32\\% reduction of the valence quark distribution and an enhancement at the small Bjorken $x$ regime. Besides, we also find that the dressing effect of the meson cloud will make the valence quark distribution to be softer in the large $x$ region.

  19. $Z_b(10650)$ and $Z_b(10610)$ states in a chiral quark model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, M. T.; Wang, W L; Dong, Y. B.; Zhang, Z. Y.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of $B\\bar{B}^*$, $B^*\\bar{B}^*$, $D\\bar{D}^*$ and $D^*\\bar{D}^*$ systems by using effective interaction in our chiral quark model. Our results show that the interactions of $B\\bar{B}^*$, $B^*\\bar{B}^*$, $D\\bar{D}^*$ and $D^*\\bar{D}^*$ states are attractive, which consequently result in $B\\bar{B}^*$, $B^*\\bar{B}^*$, $D\\bar{D}^*$ and $D^*\\bar{D}^*$ bound states. The recent observed exotic-like hadrons of $Z_b(10610)$ and $Z_b(10650)$ are, therefore in our approach,...

  20. Chiral phase transition in an extended linear sigma model: initial results

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Gy; Szép, Zs

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the scalar meson mass dependence on the chiral phase transition in the framework of an SU(3), (axial)vector meson extended linear sigma model with additional constituent quarks and Polyakov loops. We determine the parameters of the Lagrangian at zero temperature in a hybrid approach, where we treat the mesons at tree-level, while the constituent quarks at 1-loop level. We assume two nonzero scalar condensates and together with the Polyakov-loop variables we determine their temperature dependence according to the 1-loop level field equations.

  1. Nucleon shape and electromagnetic form factors in the chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Dahiya, Harleen

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors are the most fundamental quantities to describe the internal structure of the nucleon and the shape of a spatially extended particle is determined by its intrinsic quadrupole moment which can be related to the charge radii. We have calculated the electromagnetic form factors, nucleon charge radii and the intrinsic quadrupole moment of the nucleon in the framework of chiral constituent quark model. The results obtained are comparable to the latest experimental studies and also show improvement over some theoretical interpretations.

  2. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  3. Two chiral preon models with SU(N) metacolor satisfying complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, C. Q.; Marshak, R. E.

    1987-04-01

    We have constructed two chiral preon models based on the group SU(N)MC×SU(N+4)F×U(1)F (MC is gauged metacolor and F is global color flavor), the simplest (M=0) version of a class of models SU(N)MC×SU(N+M+4)F×SU(M)F×U(1)F 2 studied by bars and Yankielowicz. In contrast with earlier work, our models satisfy the principle of complementarity between the Higgs and confining phases. In one model, N=16 and four generations of ordinary quarks and leptons are found at the gauged SO(10) level. The second model predicts three quark-lepton families at the gauged SU(5) level without a right-handed neutrino. We also show that complementarity holds for the M≠0 models but that, for N=15 or 16, the results at the gauged level are identical with the M=0 case.

  4. Scaling violation and the magnetic equation of state in chiral models

    CERN Document Server

    Almasi, Gabor Andras; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The critical behavior of the order parameter at the chiral phase transition of strongly interacting matter and the corresponding magnetic equation of state is studied within effective models. We explore universal and non-universal structures near the critical point. These include the scaling functions, the leading corrections to scaling and the corresponding size of the critical region as well as their dependence on an external symmetry breaking field. We consider two models in the mean-field approximation, the quark-meson (QM) and the Polyakov loop extended quark-meson (PQM) models, and compare their critical properties with a purely bosonic theory, the $O(N)$ linear sigma (LS) model in the $N\\to\\infty$ limit. In these models the order parameter scaling function is found analytically using the high temperature expansion of the thermodynamic potential. The effects of a gluonic background on the non-universal scaling parameters are quantified within the PQM model.

  5. Effect of Soliton Propagation in Fiber Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of optical solitons in fiber amplifiers is discussed by considering a model that includes linear high order dispersion, two-photon absorption, nonlinear high-order dispersion, self-induced Ramam and five-order nonlinear effects. Based on travelling wave method, the solutions of the nonlinear Schrdinger equations, and the influence on soliton propagation as well as high-order effect in the fiber amplifier are discussed in detail. It is found that because of existing five-order nonlinear effect, the solution is not of secant hyperbola type, but shows high gain state of the fiber amplifier which is very favourable to the propagation of solitons.

  6. Rarefaction solitons initiated by sheath instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levko, Dmitry [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The instability of the cathode sheath initiated by the cold energetic electron beam is studied by the one-dimensional fluid model. Numerical simulations show the generation of travelling rarefaction solitons at the cathode. It is obtained that the parameters of these solitons strongly depend on the parameters of electron beam. The “stretched” variables are derived using the small-amplitude analysis. These variables are used in order to obtain the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the propagation of the rarefaction solitons through the plasma with cold energetic electron beam.

  7. Weakly relativistic electromagnetic solitons in warm plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sita

    2016-06-01

    For slowly propagating electromagnetic solitons, validity of the cold plasma model is addressed using a more realistic model involving effects arising due to temperature as well as ion dynamics. Small amplitude single peak structures which are quasineutral are studied, and different regions of existence of bright and dark classes of solitons are delineated. Influence of temperature on spectral characteristics of the solitary structures is presented.

  8. The binding energy of soliton molecules in dispersion-managed optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solitons in dispersion managed optical fibers can form stable bound states known as soliton molecules. In this work, a mathematical model based on the variational approximation has been proposed, which describes the propagation of soliton molecules in optical fibers. Analytic results are compared with numerical simulation of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and qualitative agreement between them is demonstrated. The advantage of the proposed model consists in the possibility to estimate the binding energy of solitons in the molecule and interpretation of the decay of a molecule into separate solitons. The results can be useful in the design of communication systems where optical solitons are employed as carriers of information. (authors)

  9. Integrable motion of curves in self-consistent potentials: Relation to spin systems and soliton equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrzakulov, R.; Mamyrbekova, G.K.; Nugmanova, G.N.; Yesmakhanova, K.R. [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Lakshmanan, M., E-mail: lakshman@cnld.bdu.ac.in [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India)

    2014-06-13

    Motion of curves and surfaces in R{sup 3} lead to nonlinear evolution equations which are often integrable. They are also intimately connected to the dynamics of spin chains in the continuum limit and integrable soliton systems through geometric and gauge symmetric connections/equivalence. Here we point out the fact that a more general situation in which the curves evolve in the presence of additional self-consistent vector potentials can lead to interesting generalized spin systems with self-consistent potentials or soliton equations with self-consistent potentials. We obtain the general form of the evolution equations of underlying curves and report specific examples of generalized spin chains and soliton equations. These include principal chiral model and various Myrzakulov spin equations in (1+1) dimensions and their geometrically equivalent generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations, including Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch equations, all in the presence of self-consistent potential fields. The associated gauge equivalent Lax pairs are also presented to confirm their integrability. - Highlights: • Geometry of continuum spin chain with self-consistent potentials explored. • Mapping on moving space curves in R{sup 3} in the presence of potential fields carried out. • Equivalent generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations identified. • Integrability of identified nonlinear systems proved by deducing appropriate Lax pairs.

  10. Structures of (ΩΩ)0+ and (([1])Ω)1+ in Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zong-Ye; YU You-Wen; DAI Lian-Rong

    2003-01-01

    The structures of (ΩΩ)0+ and (([1])Ω)1+ are studied in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model in whichvector meson exchanges are included. The effect from the vector meson fields is very similar to that from the one-gluonexchange (OGE) interaction. Both in the chiral SU(3) quark model and in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model,di-omega (ΩΩ)0+ is always deeply bound, with over one hundred MeV binding energy, and (([1])Ω)1+ 's binding energyis around 20 MeV. An analysis shows that the quark exchange effect plays a very important role for making di-omega(ΩΩ)0+ deeply bound.

  11. Relativistic quasi-solitons and embedded solitons with circular polarization in cold plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G

    2016-01-01

    The existence of localized electromagnetic structures is discussed in the framework of the 1-dimensional relativistic Maxwell-fluid model for a cold plasma with immobile ions. New partially localized solutions are found with a finite-difference algorithm designed to locate numerically exact solutions of the Maxwell-fluid system. These solutions are called quasi-solitons and consist of a localized electromagnetic wave trapped in a spatially extended electron plasma wave. They are organized in families characterized by the number of nodes $p$ of the vector potential and exist in a continuous range of parameters in the $\\omega-V$ plane, where $V$ is the velocity of propagation and $\\omega$ is the vector potential angular frequency. A parametric study shows that the familiar fully localized relativistic solitons are special members of the families of partially localized quasi-solitons. Soliton solution branches with $p>1$ are therefore parametrically embedded in the continuum of quasi-solitons. On the other hand,...

  12. Hybrid (Vlasov-Fluid) simulation of ion-acoustic soliton chain formation and validity of Korteweg de-Vries model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminmansoor, F.; Abbasi, H., E-mail: abbasi@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The present paper is devoted to simulation of nonlinear disintegration of a localized perturbation into ion-acoustic solitons train in a plasma with hot electrons and cold ions. A Gaussian initial perturbation is used to model the localized perturbation. For this purpose, first, we reduce fluid system of equations to a Korteweg de-Vries equation by the following well-known assumptions. (i) On the ion-acoustic evolution time-scale, the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is assumed to be stationary. (ii) The calculation is restricted to small amplitude cases. Next, in order to generalize the model to finite amplitudes cases, the evolution of EVDF is included. To this end, a hybrid code is designed to simulate the case, in which electrons dynamics is governed by Vlasov equation, while cold ions dynamics is, like before, studied by the fluid equations. A comparison between the two models shows that although the fluid model is capable of demonstrating the general features of the process, to have a better insight into the relevant physics resulting from the evolution of EVDF, the use of kinetic treatment is of great importance.

  13. Coupled spatial multi-mode solitons in microcavity wires

    CERN Document Server

    Slavcheva, G; Pimenov, A

    2016-01-01

    A modal expansion approach is developed and employed to investigate and elucidate the nonlinear mechanism behind the multistability and formation of coupled multi-mode polariton solitons in microcavity wires. With pump switched on and realistic dissipation parameters, truncating the expansion up to the second-order wire mode, our model predicts two distinct coupled soliton branches: stable and ustable. Modulational stability of the homogeneous solution and soliton branches stability are studied. Our simplified 1D model is in remarkably good agreement with the full 2D mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii model, reproducing correctly the soliton existence domain upon variation of pump amplitude and the onset of multistability.

  14. Chiral symmetry restoration in the massive Thirring model at finite T and μ: dimensional reduction and the Coulomb gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that in certain limits the (1+1)-dimensional massive Thirring model at finite temperature T is equivalent to a one-dimensional Coulomb gas of charged particles at the same T. This equivalence is then used to explore the phase structure of the massive Thirring model. For strong coupling and T >>m (the fermion mass), the system is shown to behave as a free gas of 'molecules' (charge pairs in the Coulomb gas terminology) made of pairs of chiral condensates. This binding of chiral condensates is responsible for the restoration of chiral symmetry as T→∞. In addition, when a fermion chemical potential μ≠0 is included, the analogy with a Coulomb gas still holds with μ playing the role of a purely imaginary external electric field. For small T and μ we find a typical massive Fermi gas behaviour for the fermion density, whereas for large μ it shows chiral restoration by means of a vanishing effective fermion mass. Some similarities with the chiral properties of low-energy QCD at finite T and baryon chemical potential are discussed

  15. Two-dimensional dissipative gap solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a model which integrates the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in two dimensions (2Ds) with the linear-cubic-quintic combination of loss and gain terms, self-defocusing nonlinearity, and a periodic potential. In this system, stable 2D dissipative gap solitons (DGSs) are constructed, both fundamental and vortical ones. The soliton families belong to the first finite band gap of the system's linear spectrum. The solutions are obtained in a numerical form and also by means of an analytical approximation, which combines the variational description of the shape of the fundamental and vortical solitons and the balance equation for their total power. The analytical results agree with numerical findings. The model may be implemented as a laser medium in a bulk self-defocusing optical waveguide equipped with a transverse 2D grating, the predicted DGSs representing spatial solitons in this setting.

  16. Envelope Solitons in Acoustically Dispersive Vitreous Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic radiation-induced static strains, displacements, and stresses are manifested as rectified or dc waveforms linked to the energy density of an acoustic wave or vibrational mode via the mode nonlinearity parameter of the material. An analytical model is developed for acoustically dispersive media that predicts the evolution of the energy density of an initial waveform into a series of energy solitons that generates a corresponding series of radiation-induced static strains (envelope solitons). The evolutionary characteristics of the envelope solitons are confirmed experimentally in Suprasil W1 vitreous silica. The value (-11.9 plus or minus 1.43) for the nonlinearity parameter, determined from displacement measurements of the envelope solitons via a capacitive transducer, is in good agreement with the value (-11.6 plus or minus 1.16) obtained independently from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The agreement provides strong, quantitative evidence for the validity of the model.

  17. Quadratic spatial soliton interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Ladislav

    Quadratic spatial soliton interactions were investigated in this Dissertation. The first part deals with characterizing the principal features of multi-soliton generation and soliton self-reflection. The second deals with two beam processes leading to soliton interactions and collisions. These subjects were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were performed by using potassium niobate (KNBO 3) and periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals. These particular crystals were desirable for these experiments because of their large nonlinear coefficients and, more importantly, because the experiments could be performed under non-critical-phase-matching (NCPM) conditions. The single soliton generation measurements, performed on KNBO3 by launching the fundamental component only, showed a broad angular acceptance bandwidth which was important for the soliton collisions performed later. Furthermore, at high input intensities multi-soliton generation was observed for the first time. The influence on the multi-soliton patterns generated of the input intensity and beam symmetry was investigated. The combined experimental and theoretical efforts indicated that spatial and temporal noise on the input laser beam induced multi-soliton patterns. Another research direction pursued was intensity dependent soliton routing by using of a specially engineered quadratically nonlinear interface within a periodically poled KTP sample. This was the first time demonstration of the self-reflection phenomenon in a system with a quadratic nonlinearity. The feature investigated is believed to have a great potential for soliton routing and manipulation by engineered structures. A detailed investigation was conducted on two soliton interaction and collision processes. Birth of an additional soliton resulting from a two soliton collision was observed and characterized for the special case of a non-planar geometry. A small amount of spiraling, up to 30

  18. Path Integral Quantization of the Chiral Schwinger Model in Bosonized Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    The development of the Wess-Zumino action or one-cycle is reviewed from the path integral approach. This is related to the occurrence of anomalies in the theory, and generally signifies a breakdown of gauge invariance. The Jackiw-Rajaraman version of the chiral Schwinger model is studied by means of path integrals. It is shown how the model can be made gauge invariant by using a Wess-Zumino term to write a gauge invariant Lagrangian. The model is considered only in bosonized form without any reference to fermions. The constraints are determined. These components are then used to write a path integral quantization for the bosonized form of the model. Some physical quantities and information, in particular, propagators are derived from the path integral.

  19. Modeling spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and deracemization phenomena: discrete versus continuum approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Celia; Ribó, Josep M; Hochberg, David

    2015-02-01

    We derive the class of population balance equations (PBE), recently applied to model the Viedma deracemization experiment, from an underlying microreversible kinetic reaction scheme. The continuum limit establishing the relationship between the micro- and macroscopic processes and the associated particle fluxes erases the microreversible nature of the molecular interactions in the population growth rate functions and limits the scope of such PBE models to strict kinetic control. The irreversible binary agglomeration processes modeled in those PBEs contribute an additional source of kinetic control. These limitations are crucial regarding the question of the origin of biological homochirality, where the interest in any model lies precisely in its ability for absolute asymmetric synthesis and the amplification of the tiny inherent statistical chiral fluctuations about the ideal racemic composition up to observable enantiometric excess levels.

  20. Molecular Modeling Study of Chiral Separation and Recognition Mechanism of β-Adrenergic Antagonists by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Chai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral separations of five β-adrenergic antagonists (propranolol, esmolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and bisoprolol were studied by capillary electrophoresis using six cyclodextrins (CDs as the chiral selectors. Carboxymethylated-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD exhibited a higher enantioselectivity power compared to the other tested CDs. The influences of the concentration of CM-β-CD, buffer pH, buffer concentration, temperature, and applied voltage were investigated. The good chiral separation of five β-adrenergic antagonists was achieved using 50 mM Tris buffer at pH 4.0 containing 8 mM CM-β-CD with an applied voltage of 24 kV at 20 °C. In order to understand possible chiral recognition mechanisms of these racemates with CM-β-CD, host-guest binding procedures of CM-β-CD and these racemates were studied using the molecular docking software Autodock. The binding free energy was calculated using the Autodock semi-empirical binding free energy function. The results showed that the phenyl or naphthyl ring inserted in the hydrophobic cavity of CM-β-CD and the side chain was found to point out of the cyclodextrin rim. Hydrogen bonding between CM-β-CD and these racemates played an important role in the process of enantionseparation and a model of the hydrogen bonding interaction positions was constructed. The difference in hydrogen bonding formed with the –OH next to the chiral center of the analytes may help to increase chiral discrimination and gave rise to a bigger separation factor. In addition, the longer side chain in the hydrophobic phenyl ring of the enantiomer was not beneficial for enantioseparation and the chiral selectivity factor was found to correspond to the difference in binding free energy.

  1. Anomalous transport model study of chiral magnetic effects in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifeng; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Using an anomalous transport model for massless quarks and antiquarks, we study the effect of a magnetic field on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions. With initial conditions from a blast wave model and assuming that the strong magnetic field produced in noncentral heavy ion collisions can last for a sufficiently long time, we obtain an appreciable electric quadrupole moment in the transverse plane of a heavy ion collision. The electric quadrupole moment subsequently leads to a splitting between the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks. The slope of the charge asymmetry dependence of the elliptic flow difference between positively and negatively charged particles is positive, which is expected from the chiral magnetic wave formed in the produced QGP and observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, only if the Lorentz force acting on the charged particles is neglected and the quark-antiquark scattering is assumed to be dominated by the chirality changing channel.

  2. Chiral Quark-Meson model of N and DELTA with vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vector mesons rho, A1 and ω are introduced in the Chiral Quark-Meson Theory (CQMT) of N and Δ. We propose a new viewpoint for developing CQMT from QCD at the mean-field level. The SU(2) x SU(2) chiral Lagrangian incorporates universal coupling. Accordingly, rho is coupled to the conserved isospin current, A to the partially conserved axial-vector current (PCAC), and ω to the conserved baryon current. As a result the only parameter of the model not directly related to experiment is the quark-pion coupling constant. A fully self-consistent mean-field solution to the model is found for fields in the hedgehog ansatz. The vector mesons play a very important role in the system. They contribute significantly to the values of observables and produce a high-quality fit to many data. The classical stability of the system with respect to hedgehog excitations is analyzed through the use of the Quark-Meson RPA equations (QMRPA)

  3. Random matrix model for chiral symmetry breaking and color superconductivity in QCD at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderheyden, B J; Vanderheyden, Benoit

    2000-01-01

    We consider a random matrix model which describes the competition between chiral symmetry breaking and the formation of quark Cooper pairs in QCD at finite density. We study the evolution of the phase structure in temperature and chemical potential with variations of the strength of the interaction in the quark-quark channel and demonstrate that the phase diagram can realize a total of six different topologies. A vector interaction representing single-gluon exchange reproduces a topology commonly encountered in previous QCD models, in which a low-density chiral broken phase is separated from a high-density diquark phase by a first-order line. The other five topologies either do not possess a diquark phase or display a new phase and new critical points. Since these five cases require large variations of the coupling constants away from the values expected for a vector interaction, we conclude that the phase diagram of finite density QCD has the topology suggested by single-gluon exchange and that this topology...

  4. Pure-quartic solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; de Sterke, C Martijn; Martijn, de Sterke C; Sipe, J E; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758

  5. Pure-Quartic Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Sipe, John E; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Husko, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we report the discovery of an entirely new class of bright solitons arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. Using analytic theory, we derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by the unique dispersion of photonic crystal waveguides, could find applications i...

  6. Solitons and deformed lattices I

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Betti; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2002-01-01

    We study a model describing some aspects of the dynamics of biopolymers. The models involve either one or two finite chains with a number N of sites that represent the "units" of a biophysical system. The mechanical degrees of freedom of these chains are coupled to the internal degrees of freedom through position dependent excitation transfer functions. We reconsider the case of the one chain model discussed by Mingaleev et al. and present new results concerning the soliton sector of this mod...

  7. Nonlinear evolution equations associated with the chiral-field spectral problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschi, M.; Ragnisco, O. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Roma (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Rome (Italy))

    1985-08-11

    In this paper we derive and investigate the class of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs) associated with the linear problem psisub(x) = lambdaApsi. It turns out that many physically interesting NEEs pertain to this class: for instance, the chiral-field equation, the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations, the Heisenberg and Papanicolau spin chain models, the modified Boussinesq equation, the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa equations, etc. We display also the Baecklund transformations for such a class and exploit them to derive in a special case the one-soliton solution.

  8. Oblique collision of dust acoustic solitons in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oblique collision between two equal amplitude dust acoustic solitons is observed in a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The solitons are subjected to oblique interaction at different colliding angles. We observe a resonance structure during oblique collision at a critical colliding angle which is described by the idea of three wave resonance interaction modeled by Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation. After collision, the solitons preserve their identity. The amplitude of the resultant wave formed during interaction is measured for different collision angles as well as for different colliding soliton amplitudes. At resonance, the maximum amplitude of the new soliton formed is nearly 3.7 times the initial soliton amplitude

  9. Stability of gap solitons in dual-core Bragg gratings with cubic-quintic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the existence and stability of quiescent gap solitons in a system of two linearly coupled Bragg gratings with cubic-quintic nonlinearity. It is found that the model supports two disjoint families of solitons that fill the entire bandgap. There exist symmetric and asymmetric solitons in each family. Exact analytical solutions of symmetric solitons for both families are found. The stability of solitons is investigated by means of systematic numerical stability analysis. The effect of quintic nonlinearity and coupling coefficient on the stability of solitons and the stability regions are analyzed. (letter)

  10. Zero-velocity solitons in high-index photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    -light modes in a solid core chalcogenide PCF are used to parameterize the model, which is shown to support standing and moving spatial solitons. Inclusion of Raman scattering slows down moving solitons exponentially, so that the zero-velocity soliton becomes an attractor state. An analytical expression for...... the deceleration rate that compares favorably with the numerical results is derived. Collisions of successive solitons due to the Raman deceleration are studied numerically, and it is found that the soliton interaction is mostly repulsive, as expected from the established theory of fiber solitons....

  11. Oblique collision of dust acoustic solitons in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boruah, A.; Sharma, S. K., E-mail: sumita-sharma82@yahoo.com; Bailung, H.; Nakamura, Y. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati 781035 (India)

    2015-09-15

    The oblique collision between two equal amplitude dust acoustic solitons is observed in a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The solitons are subjected to oblique interaction at different colliding angles. We observe a resonance structure during oblique collision at a critical colliding angle which is described by the idea of three wave resonance interaction modeled by Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation. After collision, the solitons preserve their identity. The amplitude of the resultant wave formed during interaction is measured for different collision angles as well as for different colliding soliton amplitudes. At resonance, the maximum amplitude of the new soliton formed is nearly 3.7 times the initial soliton amplitude.

  12. Vortex Solitons, Soliton Clusters, and Vortex Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desyatnikov A.S.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce novel types of self-trapped extended optical structures, which can be generated in both self-focusing and self-defocusing nonlinear media in the form of two-dimensional vortex lattices. We discuss a link of these novel objects with other types of spatially local-ised self-trapped states, such as vortex solitons and ring-shaped rotating clusters of solitons.

  13. Exact Kink Solitons in Skyrme Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shouxin; Yang, Yisong

    2013-01-01

    We present an explicit integration of the kink soliton equation obtained in a recent interesting study of the classical Skyrme model where the field configurations are of a generalized hedgehog form which is of a domain-wall type. We also show that in such a reduced one-dimensional setting the first-order and second-order equations are equivalent. Consequently, in such a context, all finite-energy solitons are BPS type and precisely known.

  14. Phase-locked Josephson soliton oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, T.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Grønbech-Jensen, N.;

    1991-01-01

    Detailed experimental characterization of the phase-locking at both DC and at microwave frequencies is presented for two closely spaced Josephson soliton (fluxon) oscillators. In the phase-locked state, the radiated microwave power exhibited an effective gain. With one common bias source, a...... frequency tunability of the phase-locked oscillators up to 7% at 10 GHz was observed. The interacting soliton oscillators were modeled by two inductively coupled nonlinear transmission lines...

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic solitons and radio knots in jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, R.

    1986-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear surface waves are examined in the context of the beam model for jetlike radio sources. By introducing a finite scale length, viz. the beam radius, geometrical dispersion can act to balance nonlinear wave growth and thereby produce solitons, localized wave packets of stable waveform. A method for obtaining a soliton equation from the MHD equations is presented and then applied to radio knots in jets.

  16. Nucleon Properties and Restoration of Chiral Symmetry at Finite\

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, C V; Göke, K; Christov, Chr.V.

    1993-01-01

    Modifications of baryon properties due to the restoration of the chiral symmetry in an external hot and dense baryon medium are investigated in an effective chiral quark-meson theory. The nucleon arises as a soliton of the Gell-Mann - L\\'evi $\\zs$-model, the parameters of which are chosen to be the medium-modified meson values evaluated within the Nambu - Jona-Lasinio model. The nucleon properties are obtained by means of variational projection techniques. The nucleon form factors as well as the nucleon delta transition form factors are evaluated for various densities and temperatures of the medium. Similar to the chiral phase transition line the critical curve in the $T-\\zr$ plane for delocalization of the nucleon is non-monotonic and this feature is reflected in all nucleon properties. At medium densities of about $(2-3) \\rnm$ the baryonic phase exists only at intermediate temperatures. For finite temperature and densities the nucleon form factors get strongly reduced at finite transfer momenta.

  17. Some aspects of pion physics in the Nambu- and Jona-Lasinio model and chiral Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss here to what extent the original two-flavour NJL model (which has a minimal number of adjustable parameters) reproduces pion observables. In particular, the sensitivity of the recently calculated electromagnetic mass shift to these NJL parameters is pointed out and a new way to fix them is suggested. A new set of O(1/Nc) diagrams, which are the first meson loop corrections to the RPA, is presented and its effect on the pionic Goldstone mode, its electromagnetic form factor, weak decay constant, and on the constituent quark mass m is discusseed. The relation of these NJL model results to some other chiral Lagrangians is pointed out, where ever possible. The here presented higher order diagrams indicate how one could systematically generate the next-order diagrams. It is, however, questionable whether the simplistic but mathematically manageable contact interaction of the NJL model should be maintained also in these higher order diagrams. (orig.)

  18. The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2011-11-15

    The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self coupling. (orig.)

  19. The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self coupling.

  20. The Versatile Soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, Alexandre T

    2010-01-01

    If you have not already heard about solitons, you will sooner or later encounter them. The soliton, a solitary wave impulse preserving its shape and strikingly similar to a particle, is one of the most fascinating and beautiful phenomena in the physics of nonlinear waves. In this engaging book, the concept of the soliton is traced from the beginning of the last century to modern times, with recent applications in biology, oceanography, solid state physics, electronics, elementary particle physics, and cosmology. The main concepts and results of theoretical physics related to solitons can be ex

  1. Solitons, monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the theory of solitons and related objects in the fields of high energy physics and nuclear physics are reviewed. The aim is to concentrate on the physical aspects and explain why these objects have awakened the interest of physicists. The physics of solitons is discussed with the help of a simple one-dimensional soliton. Then the physically more interesting monopole-soliton is considered and its connection with the original Dirac monopole is pointed out. The ''revolutionary'' possibility of making fermions as composites of bosons is indicated. Both the one-dimensional solitons and the monopole-soliton are examples of ''topological solitons'' and the role of topology in the physics of solitons is explained. The possible importance of topological quantum numbers in providing a fundamental understanding of the basic conservation laws of physics is pointed out. Two examples of non-topological solitons namely, the nucleon as a bag of almost-massless quarks and the abnormal nucleons as a bag of almost massless nucleons is discussed. (auth.)

  2. Adler synchronization of spatial laser solitons pinned by defects

    CERN Document Server

    Paulau, P V; Noblet, Y; Radwell, N; Firth, W J; Colet, P; Ackemann, T; Oppo, G -L

    2011-01-01

    Defects due to growth fluctuations in broad-area semiconductor lasers induce pinning and frequency shifts of spatial laser solitons. The effects of defects on the interaction of two solitons are considered in lasers with frequency-selective feedback both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate frequency and phase synchronization of paired laser solitons as their detuning is varied. In both theory and experiment the locking behavior is well described by the Adler model for the synchronization of coupled oscillators.

  3. Adler Synchronization of Spatial Laser Solitons Pinned by Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulau, P. V.; McIntyre, C.; Noblet, Y.; Radwell, N.; Firth, W. J.; Colet, P.; Ackemann, T.; Oppo, G.-L.

    2012-05-01

    Defects due to growth fluctuations in broad-area semiconductor lasers induce pinning and frequency shifts of spatial laser solitons. The effects of defects on the interaction of two solitons are considered in lasers with frequency-selective feedback both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate frequency and phase synchronization of paired laser solitons as their detuning is varied. In both theory and experiment the locking behavior is well described by the Adler model for the synchronization of coupled oscillators.

  4. Adler synchronization of spatial laser solitons pinned by defects

    OpenAIRE

    Paulau, P. V.; McIntyre, C.; Noblet, Y.; Radwell, N.; Firth, William J.; Colet, Pere; Ackemann, Thorsten; Oppo, Gian-Luca

    2012-01-01

    Defects due to growth fluctuations in broad-area semiconductor lasers induce pinning and frequency shifts of spatial laser solitons. The effects of defects on the interaction of two solitons are considered in lasers with frequency-selective feedback both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate frequency and phase synchronization of paired laser solitons as their detuning is varied. In both theory and experiment the locking behavior is well described by the Adler model for the synchro...

  5. Modeling Textural Processes during Self-Assembly of Plant-Based Chiral-Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K. Murugesan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological liquid crystalline polymers are found in cellulosic, chitin, and DNA based natural materials. Chiral nematic liquid crystalline orientational order is observed frozen-in in the solid state in plant cell walls and is known as a liquid crystal analogue characterized by a helicoidal plywood architecture. The emergence of the plywood architecture by directed chiral nematic liquid crystalline self assembly has been postulated as the mechanism that leads to optimal cellulose fibril organization. In natural systems, tissue growth and development takes place in the presence of inclusions and secondary phases leaving behind characteristic defects and textures, which provide a unique testing ground for the validity of the liquid crystal self-assembly postulate. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, is used to simulate defect textures arising in the domain of self assembly, due to presence of secondary phases representing plant cells, lumens and pit canals. It is shown that the obtained defect patterns observed in some plant cell walls are those expected from a truly liquid crystalline phase. The analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the viscoelastic material parameters that lead to observed patterns in plant-based helicoids through directed self-assembly. In addition, the results provide new guidance to develop biomimetic plywoods for structural and functional applications.

  6. Solitons in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai

    2008-01-01

    We report results of a systematic analysis of spatial solitons in the model of 1D photonic crystals, built as a periodic lattice of waveguiding channels, of width D, separated by empty channels of width L-D. The system is characterized by its structural "duty cycle", DC = D/L. In the case of the self-defocusing (SDF) intrinsic nonlinearity in the channels, one can predict new effects caused by competition between the linear trapping potential and the effective nonlinear repulsive one. Several species of solitons are found in the first two finite bandgaps of the SDF model, as well as a family of fundamental solitons in the semi-infinite gap of the system with the self-focusing nonlinearity. At moderate values of DC (such as 0.50), both fundamental and higher-order solitons populating the second bandgap of the SDF model suffer destabilization with the increase of the total power. Passing the destabilization point, the solitons assume a flat-top shape, while the shape of unstable solitons gets inverted, with loc...

  7. Gap solitons attached to a gapless layer

    CERN Document Server

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai

    2015-01-01

    We consider linear and nonlinear modes pinned to a grating-free (gapless) layer placed between two symmetric or asymmetric semi-infinite Bragg gratings (BGs), with a possible phase shift between them, in a medium with the uniform Kerr nonlinearity. The asymmetry is defined by a difference between bandgap widths in the two BGs. In the linear system, exact defect modes (DMs) are found. Composite gap solitons pinned to the central layer are found too, in analytical and numerical forms, in the nonlinear model. In the asymmetric system, existence boundaries for the DMs and gap solitons, due to the competition between attraction to the gapless layer and repulsion from the reflectivity step, are obtained analytically. Stability boundaries for solitons in the asymmetric system are identified by means of direct simulations. Collisions of moving BG solitons with the gapless layer are studied too.

  8. Kink solitons in DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Zdravković, S; Daniel, M

    2012-01-01

    We here examine the nonlinear dynamics of artificial homogeneous DNA chain relying on the plain-base rotator model. It is shown that such dynamics can exhibit kink and antikink solitons of sine-Gordon type. In that respect we propose possible experimental assays based on single molecule micromanipulation techniques. The aim of these experiments is to excite the rotational waves and to determine their speeds along excited DNA. We propose that these experiments should be conducted either for the case of double stranded (DS) or single stranded (SS) DNA. A key question is to compare the corresponding velocities of the rotational waves indicating which one is bigger. The ratio of these velocities appears to be related with the sign of the model parameter representing ratio of the hydrogen-bonding and the covalent-bonding interaction within the considered DNA chain.

  9. Modeling chiral sculptured thin films as platforms for surface-plasmonic-polaritonic optical sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Tom G

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic nanoengineered metamaterials called chiral sculptured thin films (CSTFs) are attractive platforms for optical sensing because their porosity, morphology and optical properties can be tailored to order. Furthermore, their ability to support more than one surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) wave at a planar interface with a metal offers functionality beyond that associated with conventional SPP--based sensors. An empirical model was constructed to describe SPP-wave propagation guided by the planar interface of a CSTF--infiltrated with a fluid which supposedly contains analytes to be detected--and a metal. The inverse Bruggeman homogenization formalism was first used to determine the nanoscale model parameters of the CSTF. These parameters then served as inputs to the forward Bruggeman homogenization formalism to determine the reference relative permittivity dyadic of the infiltrated CSTF. By solving the coresponding boundary-value problem for a modified Kretschmann configuration, the characteristics of t...

  10. Chiral phase transition scenarios from the vector meson extended Polyakov quark meson model

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Chiral phase transition is investigated in an $SU(3)_L \\times SU(3)_R$ symmetric vector meson extended linear sigma model with additional constituent quarks and Polyakov loops (extended Polyakov quark meson model). The parameterization of the Lagrangian is done at zero temperature in a hybrid approach, where the mesons are treated at tree-level, while the constituent quarks at 1-loop level. The temperature and baryochemical potential dependence of the two assumed scalar condensates are calculated from the hybrid 1-loop level equations of states. The order of the phase transition along the $T=0$ and $\\mu_B=0$ axes are determined for various parameterization scenarios. We find that in order to have a first order phase transition at $T=0$ as a function of $\\mu_B$ a light isoscalar particle is needed.

  11. Adler function and hadronic contribution to the muon g-2 in a nonlocal chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the vector Adler function at spacelike momenta is studied in the framework of a covariant chiral quark model with instantonlike quark-quark interaction. This function describes the transition between the high-energy asymptotically free region of almost massless current quarks to the low-energy hadronized regime with massive constituent quarks. The model reproduces the Adler function and V-A correlator extracted from the ALEPH and OPAL data on hadronic τ lepton decays, transformed into the Euclidean domain via dispersion relations. The leading order contribution from the hadronic part of the photon vacuum polarization to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, aμhvp(1), is estimated

  12. Charge radii of octet and decuplet baryons in chiral constituent quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neetika Sharma; Harleen Dahiya

    2013-09-01

    The charge radii of the spin-$\\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ octet and spin-$\\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$ decuplet baryons have been calculated in the framework of chiral constituent quark model ( CQM) using a general parametrization method (GPM). Our results are not only comparable with the latest experimental studies but also agree with other phenomenological models. The effects of (3) symmetry breaking pertaining to the strangeness contribution and GPM parameters pertaining to the one-, two- and three-quark contributions have also been investigated in detail and are found to be the key parameters in understanding the non-zero values for the neutral octet $(n, \\sum^{0}, \\Xi, )$ and decuplet $(^{0}, \\sum^{*0}, \\Xi^{*0})$ baryons.

  13. Soliton Solutions and Interaction Between a Line Soliton and a y-Periodic Soliton in Generalized (2W1)-Dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGWen-Hua; ZHANGJie-Fang

    2004-01-01

    Using the variable separation approach, many types of exact solutions of the generalized (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation are derived. One of the exact solutions of this model is analyzed to study the interaction between a line soliton and a y-periodic soliton.

  14. Soliton Solutions and Interaction Between a Line Soliton and a y-Periodic Soliton in Generalized (2+1)-Dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-Hua; ZHANG Jie-Fang

    2004-01-01

    Using the variable separation approach, many types of exact solutions of the generalized (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation are derived. One of the exact solutions of this model is analyzed to study the interaction between a line soliton and a y-periodic soliton.

  15. Nontopological solitons as nucleation sites for cosmological phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, D.

    2001-04-01

    I consider quantum field theories that admit charged nontopological solitons of the Q-ball type, and use the fact that in a first-order cosmological phase transition, below the critical temperature, there is a value of the soliton charge above which the soliton becomes unstable and expands, converting space to the true vacuum, much like a critical bubble in the case of ordinary tunneling. Using a simple model for the production rate of Q-balls through charge accretion during a random walk out of equilibrium, I calculate the probability for the formation of critical charge solitons and estimate the amount of supercooling needed for the phase transition to be completed.

  16. Helmholtz solitons in power-law optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlinear Helmholtz equation for optical materials with regimes of power-law type of nonlinearity is proposed. This model captures the evolution of broad beams at any angle with respect to the reference direction in a wide range of media, including some semiconductors, doped glasses, and liquid crystals. Exact analytical soliton solutions are presented for a generic nonlinearity, within which known Kerr solitons comprise a subset. Three general conservation laws are also reported. Analysis and numerical simulations examine the stability of the Helmholtz power-law solitons. A propagation feature, associated with spatial solitons in power-law media, constituting a class of oscillatory solution, is identified

  17. Applications of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  18. Chiral forces and molecular dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiral molecules leading to helical macromolecules seem to preserve information and extend it better. In the biological world RNA is the very paradigm for self-replication, elongation and autocatalytic editing. The nucleic acid itself is not chiral. It acquires its chirality by association with D-sugars. Although the chiral information or selectivity put in by the unit monomer is no longer of much interest to the biologists - they tend to leave it to the Darwinian selection principle to take care of it as illustrated by Frank's model - it is vital to understand the origin of chirality. There are three different approaches for the chiral origin of life: (1) Phenomenological, (2) Electromagnetic molecular and Coriolis forces and (3) Atomic or nuclear force, the neutral weak current. The phenomenological approach involves spontaneous symmetry breaking fluctuations in far for equilibrium systems or nucleation and crystallization. Chance plays a major role in the chiral molecule selected

  19. Affine Toda Solitons and Systems of Calogero-Moser Type

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, H. W.; Hone, Andrew N. W.

    1996-01-01

    The solitons of affine Toda field theory are related to the spin-generalised Ruijsenaars-Schneider (or relativistic Calogero-Moser) models. This provides the sought after extension of the correspondence between the sine-Gordon solitons and the Ruijsenaars-Schneider model.

  20. Solitons reduced from Heterotic fivebranes

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1992-01-01

    In view of the expectation that the solitonic sector of the lower dimensional world may be originated from the solitonic sector of string theory, various solitonic solutions are reduced from the heterotic fivebrane solutions in the ten-dimensional heterotic string theory. These solitons in principle can appear after proper compactifications, {\\it e.g.} toroidal compactifications.

  1. Quasiperiodic Envelope Solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole;

    1999-01-01

    We analyze nonlinear wave propagation and cascaded self-focusing due to second-harmonic generation in Fibbonacci optical superlattices and introduce a novel concept of nonlinear physics. the quasiperiodic soliton, which describes spatially localized self-trapping of a quasiperiodic wave. We point...... out a link between the quasiperiodic soliton and partially incoherent spatial solitary waves recently generated experimentally....

  2. Lossless polariton solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komineas, Stavros; Shipman, Stephen P.; Venakides, Stephanos

    2016-02-01

    Photons and excitons in a semiconductor microcavity interact to form exciton-polariton condensates. These are governed by a nonlinear quantum-mechanical system involving exciton and photon wavefunctions. We calculate all non-traveling harmonic soliton solutions for the one-dimensional lossless system. There are two frequency bands of bright solitons when the inter-exciton interactions produce an attractive nonlinearity and two frequency bands of dark solitons when the nonlinearity is repulsive. In addition, there are two frequency bands for which the exciton wavefunction is discontinuous at its symmetry point, where it undergoes a phase jump of π. A band of continuous dark solitons merges with a band of discontinuous dark solitons, forming a larger band over which the soliton far-field amplitude varies from 0 to ∞; the discontinuity is initiated when the operating frequency exceeds the free exciton frequency. The far fields of the solitons in the lowest and highest frequency bands (one discontinuous and one continuous dark) are linearly unstable, whereas the other four bands have linearly stable far fields, including the merged band of dark solitons.

  3. Semirelativity and Kink Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Mariusz Karol

    2014-01-01

    It is hard to observe relativistic effects in everyday life. However, table experiments using a mechanical transmission line for solitons may be an efficient and simple way to show effects such as Lorentz contraction in a classroom. A kink soliton is a deformation of a lattice of several dozen or more pendulums placed on a wire and connected by a…

  4. Geometry of Ricci Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-Dong CAO

    2006-01-01

    Ricci solitons are natural generalizations of Einstein metrics on one hand, and are special solutions of the Ricci flow of Hamilton on the other hand. In this paper we survey some of the recent developments on Ricci solitons and the role they play in the singularity study of the Ricci flow.

  5. Chiral symmetry breaking from two-loop effective potential of the holographic non-local NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the two-loop effective potential of the non-local Nambu–Jona–Lasinio (NJL) model derived from the Sakai–Sugimoto model in string theory. In contrast to the conventional NJL with 4-fermion contact interaction, the chiral symmetry was previously found to be dynamically broken for an arbitrary weak coupling at the one-loop level. As a confirmation, the approximate numerical solutions to the gap equation at the one-loop level are explicitly demonstrated for weak couplings. We then calculate the one- and two-loop contributions to the effective potential of the non-local NJL model and found that the two-loop contribution is negative. The two-loop potential for the chiral-symmetric vacuum is also negative but larger than the combined effective potential of the chiral broken vacuum at the two-loop level. The chiral symmetry breaking thus persists for the arbitrary weak coupling at the two-loop level. (paper)

  6. Dissipative soliton comb

    CERN Document Server

    Podivilov, Evgeniy V; Bednyakova, Anastasia E; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Babin, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative solitons are stable localized coherent structures with linear frequency chirp generated in normal-dispersion mode-locked lasers. The soliton energy in fiber lasers is limited by the Raman effect, but implementation of intracavity feedback for the Stokes wave enables synchronous generation of a coherent Raman dissipative soliton. Here we demonstrate a new approach for generating chirped pulses at new wavelengths by mixing in a highly-nonlinear fiber of two frequency-shifted dissipative solitons, as well as cascaded generation of their clones forming a "dissipative soliton comb" in the frequency domain. We observed up to eight equidistant components in a 400-nm interval demonstrating compressibility from ~10 ps to ~300 fs. This approach, being different from traditional frequency combs, can inspire new developments in fundamental science and applications.

  7. Solitons in optomechanical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jing-Hui; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-15

    We show that optical solitons can be obtained with a one-dimensional optomechanical array that consists of a chain of periodically spaced identical optomechanical systems. Unlike conventional optical solitons, which originate from nonlinear polarization, the optical soliton here stems from a new mechanism, namely, phonon-photon interaction. Under proper conditions, the phonon-photon induced nonlinearity that refers to the optomechanical nonlinearity will exactly compensate the dispersion caused by photon hopping of adjacent optomechanical systems. Moreover, the solitons are capable of exhibiting very low group velocity, depending on the photon hopping rate, which may lead to many important applications, including all-optical switches and on-chip optical architecture. This work may extend the range of optomechanics and nonlinear optics and provide a new field to study soliton theory and develop corresponding applications. PMID:27304261

  8. Strong decays of N~*(1535) in an extended chiral quark model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The strong decays of the N*(1535) resonance are investigated in an extended chiral quark model by including the low-lying qqqqq components in addition to the qqq component.The results show that these five-quark components in N*(1535) contribute significantly to the N*(1535)→ Nπ and N*(1535) → Nη decays.The contributions to the Nη decay come from both the lowest energy and the next-to-lowest energy five-quarks components,while the contributions to the Nπ decay come from only the latter one.Taking these contributions into account,the description for the strong decays of N*(1535) is improved,especially for the puzzling large ratio of the decays to Nη and Nπ.

  9. Chiral phase transition in the vector meson extended linear sigma model

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, Péter; Wolf, György

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of an SU(3) (axial)vector meson extended linear sigma model with additional constituent quarks and Polyakov loops, we investigate the effects of (axial)vector mesons on the chiral phase transition. The parameters of the Lagrangian are set at zero temperature and we use a hybrid approach where in the effective potential the constituent quarks are treated at one-loop level and all the mesons at tree-level. We have four order parameters, two scalar condensates and two Polyakov loop variables and their temperature and baryochemical potential dependence are determined from the corresponding field equations. We also investigate the changes of the tree-level scalar meson masses in the hot and dense medium.

  10. Neutral kaon mixing beyond the standard model with nf=2+1 chiral fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, P A; Hudspith, R J

    2012-01-01

    We compute the hadronic matrix elements of the four-quark operators needed for the study of neutral kaon mixing beyond the Standard Model (SM). We use nf=2+1 flavours of domain-wall fermions (DWF) which exhibit good chiral-flavour symmetry. The renormalization is performed non-perturbatively through the RI-MOM scheme and our results are converted perturbatively to MSbar. The computation is performed on a single lattice spacing a=0.086 fm with a lightest unitary pion mass of 290 MeV. The various systematic errors, including the discretisation effects, are estimated and discussed. Our results confirm a previous quenched study, where large ratios of non-SM to SM matrix elements were obtained.

  11. The phase structure of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model. Numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagram of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model is explored by means of numerical simulations. The results revealing a rich phase structure are compared to analytical large Nf calculations which we performed earlier. The analytical and numerical results are in excellent agreement at large values of Nf. In the opposite case the large Nf computation still gives a good qualitative description of the phase diagram. In particular we find numerical evidence for the predicted ferrimagnetic phase at intermediate values of the Yukawa coupling constant and for the symmetric phase at strong Yukawa couplings. Emphasis is put on the finite size effects which can hide the existence of the latter symmetric phase. (orig.)

  12. Stokes Soliton in Optical Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Qi-Fan; Yang, Ki Youl; Vahala, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Solitons are wavepackets that resist dispersion through a self-induced potential well. They are studied in many fields, but are especially well known in optics on account of the relative ease of their formation and control in optical fiber waveguides. Besides their many interesting properties, solitons are important to optical continuum generation, in mode-locked lasers and have been considered as a natural way to convey data over great distances. Recently, solitons have been realized in microcavities thereby bringing the power of microfabrication methods to future applications. This work reports a soliton not previously observed in optical systems, the Stokes soliton. The Stokes soliton forms and regenerates by optimizing its Raman interaction in space and time within an optical-potential well shared with another soliton. The Stokes and the initial soliton belong to distinct transverse mode families and benefit from a form of soliton trapping that is new to microcavities and soliton lasers in general. The di...

  13. Dispersion-managed soliton interactions in fibers with randomly varying birefringence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡炬; 杨祥林

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a soliton transmission model in high-speed dispersion-managed systems is advanced, and the equation of intrachannel soliton interactions in randomly varying birefringent fibers is acquired. The soliton interactions with the impact of PMD in uniform dispersion systems and DMS systems are also investigated numerically. We reveal the change in the collision length with PMD and map strength, and verify the robustness of DMS to PMD in soliton interactions.

  14. How to kick a soliton ?

    OpenAIRE

    Dziarmaga, J.; Zakrzewski, W.

    1997-01-01

    A simple method how to study response of solitons in dissipative systems to external impulsive perturbations is developed. Thanks to nontrivial choice of small parameter, the perturbative scheme captures genuine nonlinear phenomena. The method is developed and tested by numerical simulations for kinks in 1+1 dimensions and for skyrmions in 2+1 dimensions. Extension to models including second order time derivatives is discussed.

  15. Chiral Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2012-01-01

    We consider the properties of electric circuits involving Weyl semimetals. The existence of the anomaly-induced chiral magnetic current in a Weyl semimetal subjected to magnetic field causes an interesting and unusual behavior of such circuits. We consider two explicit examples: i) a circuit involving the "chiral battery" and ii) a circuit that can be used as a "quantum amplifier" of magnetic field. The unique properties of these circuits stem from the chiral anomaly and may be utilized for c...

  16. Chiral photochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2004-01-01

    Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S

  17. FD-TD modeling of 2-D dielectric waveguides for propagation and scattering of femtosecond optical solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rose; Goorjian, Peter; Taflove, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Experimentalists have produced all-optical switches capable of 100-fs responses. To adequately model such switches, nonlinear effects in optical materials (both instantaneous and dispersive) must be included. In principle, the behavior of electromagnetic fields in nonlinear dielectrics can be determined by solving Maxwell's equations subject to the assumption that the electric polarization has a nonlinear relation to the electric field. However, until our previous work, the resulting nonlinear Maxwell's equations have not been solved directly. Rather, approximations have been made that result in a class of generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equations (GNLSE) that solve only for the envelope of the optical pulses. In this paper, we present first-time calculations from the vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations of femtosecond soliton propagation and scattering, including carrier waves, in two-dimensional systems of dielectric waveguides exhibiting the Kerr and Raman quantum effects. We use the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method in an extension of our 1-D work. There, in a fundamental innovation, we treated the linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization as new dependent variables. By differentiating these convolutions in the time domain, we derived an equivalent system of coupled, nonlinear second-order ODE's. These equations together with Maxwell's equations form the system that is solved to determine the electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous nonlinear dispersive media. Backstorage in time is limited to only that needed by the time-integration algorithm for the ODE's, rather than that needed to store the time-history of the kernel functions of the convolutions (1000-10,000 time steps). Thus, a 2-D nonlinear optics model from Maxwell's equations is now feasible.

  18. A self-consistent approach to the Wigner-Seitz treatment of soliton matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, U; Weber, Urban; Govern, Judith A. Mc

    1998-01-01

    We propose a self-consistant approach to the treatment of nuclear matter as a crystal of solitons in the Wigner-Seitz approximation. Specifically, we use a Bloch-like boundary condition on the quarks at the edge of a spherical cell which allows the dispersion relation for a given radius to be calculated self-consistently along with the meson fields; in previous work some ansatz for the dispersion relation has always been an input. Results in all models are very sensitive to the form of the dispersion relation, so our approach represents a significant advance. We apply the method to both the Friedberg Lee model and the chiral quark-meson model of Birse and Banerjee. Only the latter shows short range repulsion; in the former the transition to a quark plasma occurs at unrealistically low densities.

  19. Effective field theories on solitons of generic shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke, E-mail: bjarke@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nitta, Muneto, E-mail: nitta@phys-h.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University, Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2015-07-30

    A class of effective field theories for moduli or collective coordinates on solitons of generic shapes is constructed. As an illustration, we consider effective field theories living on solitons in the O(4) non-linear sigma model with higher-derivative terms.

  20. Manakov spatial solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. U.; Stegeman, G. I.; Aitchison, J. S.; Akhmediev, N.

    1996-12-01

    The Manakov soliton is a two-component soliton that was first considered by Manakov in the early 1970s.1 Based on the work of Zakharov and Shabat,2 Manakov found that the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger (CNSE) equations with special choice of the coefficients in front of nonlinear terms can be solved exactly. This system is integrable and solitons have therefore a number of special properties which might be useful in practice. In particular, for same total power, the soliton of a single nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Manakov soliton behave similarly. There are certain conditions for the integrability of the CNSE. Namely, for the coupled set of equations with cubic nonlinearity, the ratio between the self-phase modulation (SPM) to the cross-phase modulation coefficients has to be equal to unity, and the SPM coefficients need to be equal for the two polarizations. Moreover, the energy exchange terms or four-wave mixing (FWM) terms must be zero. Physically, the Manakov soliton is a mutually trapped state of two orthogonally polarized beams where each component of the soliton experiences exactly the same index potential which is proportional to the total intensity of the beam. There are no crystal symmetries that a priori lead to a SPM/XPM ratio of unity. Thus, the Manakov soliton has not been observed experimentally prior to the work we reported.3 Based on our previous work, we found that in AlGaAs, for photon energies just below half the band gap, the conditions for integrability can be satisfied. This led to the first experimental observation of spatial Manakov solitons.

  1. Chiral geometry in multiple chiral doublet bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Qibo

    2016-02-01

    The chiral geometry of multiple chiral doublet bands with identical configuration is discussed for different triaxial deformation parameters γ in the particle rotor model with . The energy spectra, electromagnetic transition probabilities B(M1) and B(E2), angular momenta, and K-distributions are studied. It is demonstrated that the chirality still remains not only in the yrast and yrare bands, but also in the two higher excited bands when γ deviates from 30°. The chiral geometry relies significantly on γ, and the chiral geometry of the two higher excited partner bands is not as good as that of the yrast and yrare doublet bands. Supported by Plan Project of Beijing College Students’ Scientific Research and Entrepreneurial Action, Major State 973 Program of China (2013CB834400), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175002, 11335002, 11375015, 11461141002), National Fund for Fostering Talents of Basic Science (NFFTBS) (J1103206), Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20110001110087) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M580007)

  2. The electrical soliton oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, David Shawn

    Solitons are a special class of pulse-shaped waves that propagate in nonlinear dispersive media while maintaining their spatial confinement. They are found throughout nature where the proper balance between nonlinearity and dispersion is achieved. Examples of the soliton phenomena include shallow water waves, vibrations in a nonlinear spring-mass lattice, acoustic waves in plasma, and optical pulses in fiber optic cable. In electronics, the nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) serves as a nonlinear dispersive medium that propagates voltage solitons. Electrical solitons on the NLTL have been actively investigated over the last 40 years, particularly in the microwave domain, for sharp pulse generation applications and for high-speed RF and microwave sampling applications. In these past studies the NLTL has been predominantly used as a 2-port system where a high-frequency input is required to generate a sharp soliton output through a transient process. One meaningful extension of the past 2-port NLTL works would be to construct a 1-port self-sustained electrical soliton oscillator by properly combining the NLTL with an amplifier (positive active feedback). Such an oscillator would self-start by growing from ambient noise to produce a train of periodic soliton pulses in steady-state, and hence would make a self-contained soliton generator not requiring an external high-frequency input. While such a circuit may offer a new direction in the field of electrical pulse generation, there has not been a robust electrical soliton oscillator reported to date to the best of our knowledge. In this thesis we introduce the first robust electrical soliton oscillator, which is able to self-generate a stable, periodic train of electrical solitons. This new oscillator is made possible by combining the NLTL with a unique nonlinear amplifier that is able to "tame" the unruly dynamics of the NLTL. The principle contribution of this thesis is the identification of the key instability

  3. Solitons and ionospheric modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.

  4. Scalar - vector soliton fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhichao; Li, Lei; Luo, Yiyang; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming

    2016-01-01

    Rapid progress in passively mode-locked fiber lasers is currently driven by the recent discovery of vector feature of mode-locking pulses, namely, the group velocity-locked vector solitons, the phase locked vector solitons, and the high-order vector solitons. Those vector solitons are fundamentally different from the previously known scalar solitons. Here, we report a fiber laser where the mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is novel and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the working regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the conditions of very small birefringence.

  5. Chiral Crystal Growth under Grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Yukio; Hyuga, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    To study the establishment of homochirality observed in the crystal growth experiment of chiral molecules from a solution under grinding, we extend the lattice gas model of crystal growth as follows. A lattice site can be occupied by a chiral molecule in R or S form, or can be empty. Molecules form homoclusters by nearest neighbor bonds. They change their chirality if they are isolated monomers in the solution. Grinding is incorporated by cutting and shafling the system randomly. It is shown ...

  6. Thimble regularization at work: From toy models to chiral random matrix theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, F.; Eruzzi, G.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the Lefschetz thimble formulation of field theories to a couple of different problems. We first address the solution of a complex zero-dimensional ϕ4 theory. Although very simple, this toy model makes us appreciate a few key issues of the method. In particular, we will solve the model by a correct accounting of all the thimbles giving a contribution to the partition function and we will discuss a number of algorithmic solutions to simulate this (simple) model. We will then move to a chiral random matrix (CRM) theory. This is a somehow more realistic setting, giving us once again the chance to tackle the same couple of fundamental questions: How many thimbles contribute to the solution? How can we make sure that we correctly sample configurations on the thimble? Since the exact result is known for the observable we study (a condensate), we can verify that, in the region of parameters we studied, only one thimble contributes and that the algorithmic solution that we set up works well, despite its very crude nature. The deviation of results from phase quenched ones highlights that in a certain region of parameter space there is a quite important sign problem. In view of this, the success of our thimble approach is quite a significant one.

  7. Chiral heavy fermions in a two Higgs doublet model: 750 GeV resonance or not

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Shalom, Shaouly

    2016-01-01

    We revisit models where a heavy chiral 4th generation doublet of fermions is embedded in a class of two Higgs doublets models (2HDM) with a discrete $Z_2$ symmetry, which couples the "heavy" scalar doublet only to the 4th generation fermions and the "light" one to the Standard Model (SM) fermions - the so-called 4G2HDM introduced by us several years ago. We study the constraints imposed on the 4G2HDM from direct searches of heavy fermions, from precision electroweak data (PEWD) and from the measured production and decay signals of the 125 GeV scalar, which in the 4G2HDM corresponds to the lightest CP-even scalar h. We then show that the recently reported excess in the $\\gamma\\gamma$ spectrum around 750 GeV can be accommodated by the heavy CP-even scalar of the 4G2HDM, H, resulting in a unique choice of parameter space: negligible mixing (sin\\alpha ~ O(0.001)) between the two CP-even scalars h,H and heavy 4th generation quark and lepton masses m_t',m_b' 900 GeV, respectively. Whether or not the 750 GeV \\gamma...

  8. Thimble regularization at work: from toy models to chiral random matrix theories

    CERN Document Server

    Di Renzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Lefschetz thimble formulation of field theories to a couple of different problems. We first address the solution of a complex 0-dimensional phi^4 theory. Although very simple, this toy-model makes us appreciate a few key issues of the method. In particular, we will solve the model by a correct accounting of all the thimbles giving a contribution to the partition function and we will discuss a number of algorithmic solutions to simulate this (simple) model. We will then move to a chiral random matrix (CRM) theory. This is a somehow more realistic setting, giving us once again the chance to tackle the same couple of fundamental questions: how many thimbles contribute to the solution? how can we make sure that we correctly sample configurations on the thimble? Since the exact result is known for the observable we study (a condensate), we can verify that, in the region of parameters we studied, only one thimble contributes and that the algorithmic solution that we set up works well, despite its very ...

  9. Matter wave solitons in coupled system with external potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Lax-pair corresponding to the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equation (CGPE) which governs the evolution of the macroscopic wave function of two components Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in time-dependent harmonic potential. Kinds of soliton solutions can be derived from the Lax-pair through Darboux transformation conveniently. Furthermore, soliton management in two-component Bose-Einstein condensate would be realized base on that the shape and motion of soliton in both components are investigated analytically. Moreover, it is found that there is a transformation existed between the nonautonomous coupled system and Manakov model. -- Highlights: → We derive the Lax-pair of coupled GP equation with external potentials. → The corresponding Darboux transformation is presented. → The bright-bright solitons are presented as an example. → Soliton manipulation could be realized theoretically in our model. → A transformation is presented to transform the CGP to Manakov system.

  10. Quantum Soliton Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Villari, Leone Di Mauro; Biancalana, Fabio; Conti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We have very little experience of the quantum dynamics of the ubiquitous nonlinear waves. Observed phenomena in high energy physics are perturbations to linear waves, and classical nonlinear waves, like solitons, are barely affected by quantum effects. We know that solitons, immutable in classical physics, exhibit collapse and revivals according to quantum mechanics. However this effect is very weak and has never been observed experimentally. By predicting black hole evaporation Hawking first introduced a distinctly quantum effect in nonlinear gravitational physics.Here we show the existence of a general and universal quantum process whereby a soliton emits quantum radiation with a specific frequency content, and a temperature given by the number of quanta, the soliton Schwarzschild radius, and the amount of nonlinearity, in a precise and surprisingly simple way. This result may ultimately lead to the first experimental evidence of genuine quantum black hole evaporation. In addition, our results show that bla...

  11. Nonlocal incoherent solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Wyller, John

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons.

  12. Temporal dark polariton solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Skryabin, Dmitry V

    2016-04-15

    We predict that strong coupling between waveguide photons and excitons of quantum well embedded into waveguide results in the formation of hybrid-dark and antidark light-matter solitons. Such temporal solitons exist due to interplay between repulsive excitonic nonlinearity and giant group-velocity dispersion arising in the vicinity of excitonic resonance. Such fully conservative states do not require external pumping to counteract losses and form continuous families parameterized by the power-dependent phase shift and velocity of their motion. Dark solitons are stable in the considerable part of their existence domain, while antidark solitons are always unstable. Both families exist outside the forbidden frequency gap of the linear system. PMID:27082338

  13. Signature and parity splitting in rotational bands and chiral bands. Double minimum potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the signature and parity splitting in nuclear spectra and the properties of the chiral bands are analyzed basing on a one-dimensional Schrödinger equation with a double-minimum potential. Rotational bands in odd axial nuclei, alternating parity bands in even-even nuclei and the chiral bands in odd-odd nuclei are considered. The results obtained are discussed.

  14. Nonlocal incoherent solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Wyller, John

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons.......We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons....

  15. Gap polariton solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbach, A V; Skryabin, D V

    2009-01-01

    We report the existence, and study mobility and interactions of gap polariton solitons in a microcavity with a periodic potential, where the light field is strongly coupled to excitons. Gap solitons are formed due to the interplay between the repulsive exciton-exciton interaction and cavity dispersion. The analysis is carried out in an analytical form, using the coupled-mode (CM) approximation, and also by means of numerical methods.

  16. Chiral U(1) flavor models and flavored Higgs doublets: the top FB asymmetry and the W jj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P.; Omura, Yuji; Yu, Chaehyun

    2012-01-01

    We present U(1) flavor models for leptophobic Z' with flavor dependent couplings to the right-handed up-type quarks in the Standard Model (SM), which can accommodate the recent data on the top forward-backward (FB) asymmetry and the dijet resonance associated with a W boson reported by CDF Collaboration. Such flavor-dependent leptophobic charge assignments generally require extra chiral fermions for anomaly cancellation. Also the chiral nature of U(1)' flavor symmetry calls for new U(1)'-charged Higgs doublets in order for the SM fermions to have realistic renormalizable Yukawa couplings. The stringent constraints from the top FB asymmetry at the Tevatron and the same sign top pair production at the LHC can be evaded due to contributions of the extra Higgs doublets. We also show that the extension could realize cold dark matter candidates.

  17. Properties of mesons and nucleons in chiral topological models of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Rakhimov, A

    2005-01-01

    The problem under consideration in this thesis has, actually, two aspects. The first one concerns the case when a nucleon is in free space that is in vacuum, while the second one studies a nucleon embedded into a nuclear environment. Both of these two aspects have been considered in the framework of chiral topological models of QCD. The whole content of the thesis may be divided into two main parts. In the first part the original Skyrme model with finite pion mass has been extended by inclusion of the light scalar - isoscalar sigma - meson. The Lagrangian has been further extended by explicit inclusion of sigma, rho and omega - mesons as well. In order to get a more complete picture of NN potential the appropriate meson - nucleon vertex form - factors are obtained. The second part of the thesis considers a nucleon immersed into a nuclear medium. For this purpose a medium modified Skyrme Lagrangian has been proposed. The Lagrangian describes well such well known medium effects as decreasing of nucleon mass and...

  18. A Chiral Composite Model for the 750 GeV Diphoton Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Yang; Osborne, James; Stefanek, Ben A

    2016-01-01

    The 750 GeV diphoton resonance could be a big-pion of a new QCD-like strong dynamics with a confinement scale around a few TeV. The new fermion constituents of the big-pions, vector-like under the strong dynamics group, could be chiral under a $U(1)^\\prime$ gauge symmetry, such that their bare masses are related to the $U(1)^\\prime$-breaking and the new confinement scales. Based on a minimal GUT-motivated and gauge anomaly-free model, we have found that the 750 GeV resonance could have an observable branching ratio into $Z^\\prime \\gamma$. The $Z^\\prime$ naturally has a large leptonic branching ratio because of its kinetic mixing with the hypercharge gauge boson. Searching for an $\\ell^+ \\ell^- \\gamma$ 750 GeV resonance with the two lepton invariant mass away from the $Z$-boson pole can confirm our model. Furthermore, the heavier color-octet big-pion can decay into $Z^\\prime g$ and could also be discovered by the LHC Run 2.

  19. The soliton stars evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, I; Bednarek, Ilona; Manka, Ryszard

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of a soliton star filled with fermions is studied in the framework of general relativity. Such a system can be described by the surface tension $\\sigma$, the bag constant $B$, and the fermion number density affects the spacetime inside the soliton. Whether it is described by Friedman or de Sitter metric depends on the prevailing parameter. The whole spacetime is devided by the surface of the soliton into the false vacuum region inside the soliton and the true vacuum region outside, the latter being described by the Schwarzschild line element. The aim of this paper is to study the equations of motion of the domain wall in two cases. In the first case the de Sitter metric describes the interior in the first case, and in the second case it is replaced by the Friedman metric. In both of them the Schwarzschild metric is outside the soliton. From the analysis of obtained equations one can draw conclusions concerning further evolution of a soliton star.

  20. A lattice study of a chirally invariant Higgs-Yukawa model including a higher dimensional Φ{sup 6}-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, David Y.J. [National Chiao-Tung Univ., Hsinchu (China). Dept. of Electrophysics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Knippschild, Bastian [HISKP, Bonn (Germany); Lin, C.J. David [National Chiao-Tung Univ., Hsinchu (China). Inst. of Physics; Nagy, Attila [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2015-01-15

    We discuss the non-thermal phase structure of a chirally invariant Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice in the presence of a higher dimensional Φ{sup 6}-term. For the exploration of the phase diagram we use analytical, lattice perturbative calculations of the constraint effective potential as well as numerical simulations. We also present first results of the effects of the Φ{sup 6}-term on the lower Higgs boson mass bounds.

  1. Possible $D\\bar{D}$ and $B\\bar{B}$ Molecular states in a chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, M T; Dong, Y B; Zhang, Z Y

    2012-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of the bound state problem of $D\\bar{D}$ and $B\\bar{B}$ systems by using effective interaction in our chiral quark model. Our results show that both the interactions of $D\\bar{D}$ and $B\\bar{B}$ states are attractive, which consequently result in $I^G(J^{PC})=0^+(0^{++})$ $D\\bar{D}$ and $B\\bar{B}$ bound states.

  2. The laboratory investigation of surface envelope solitons: reflection from a vertical wall and collisions of solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slunyaev, Alexey; Klein, Marco; Clauss, Günther F.

    2016-04-01

    Envelope soliton solutions are key elements governing the nonlinear wave dynamics within a simplified theory for unidirectional weakly modulated weakly nonlinear wave groups on the water surface. Within integrable models the solitons preserve their structure in collisions with other waves; they do not disperse and can carry energy infinitively long. Steep and short soliton-like wave groups have been shown to exist in laboratory tests [1] and, even earlier, in numerical simulations [2, 3]. Thus, long-living wave groups may play important role in the dynamics of intense sea waves and wave-structure interactions. The solitary wave groups may change the wave statistics and can be taken into account when developing approaches for the deterministic forecasting of dangerous waves, including so-called rogue waves. An experimental campaign has been conducted in the wave basin of the Technical University of Berlin on simulations of intense solitary wave groups. The first successful experimental observation of intense envelope solitons took place in this facility [1]. The new experiments aimed at following main goals: 1) to reproduce intense envelope solitons with different carrier wave lengths; 2) to estimate the rate of envelope soliton dissipation; 3) to consider the reflection of envelope solitons on a vertical wall; 4) to consider head-on collisions of envelope solitons, and 5) to consider overtaking interactions of envelope solitons. Up to 9 wave gauges were used in each experimental run, which enabled registration of the surface movement at different distances from the wavemaker, at different locations across the wave flume and near the wall. Besides surface displacements, the group envelope shapes were directly recorded, with use of phase shifts applied to the modulated waves generated by the wavemaker. [1] A. Slunyaev, G.F. Clauss, M. Klein, M. Onorato, Simulations and experiments of short intense envelope solitons of surface water waves. Phys. Fluids 25, 067105

  3. Breather solitons in highly nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the breathing of optical spatial solitons in highly nonlocal media. Generalizing the Ehrenfest theorem, we demonstrate that oscillations in beam width obey a fourth-order ordinary differential equation. Moreover, in actual highly nonlocal materials, the original accessible soliton model by Snyder and Mitchell [Science \\textbf{276}, 1538 (1997)] cannot accurately describe the dynamics of self-confined beams as the transverse size oscillations have a period which not only depends on power but also on the initial width. Modeling the nonlinear response by a Poisson equation driven by the beam intensity we verify the theoretical results against numerical simulations.

  4. Dissipative soliton dynamics in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliton dynamics is studied in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain by means of micromagnetic simulations together with an analytic model equation. A soliton under a dissipative system is driven by an applied field. The field-driven dissipative soliton enhances its mobility nonlinearly, as the characteristic frequency and the intrinsic Gilbert damping decrease. During the propagation, the soliton emits spin waves which act as an extrinsic damping channel. The characteristic frequency, the maximum velocity, and the localization length of the soliton are found to be proportional to the threshold field, the threshold velocity, and the initial mobility, respectively

  5. Dissipative soliton dynamics in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong [Department of Physics and Center for Nanospinics of Spintronic Materials, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KI for the Nanocentury, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, Chun-Yeol [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyon-Seok; Shin, Sung-Chul, E-mail: scshin@dgist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Center for Nanospinics of Spintronic Materials, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Emerging Materials Science, DGIST, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byong-Guk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KI for the Nanocentury, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    Soliton dynamics is studied in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain by means of micromagnetic simulations together with an analytic model equation. A soliton under a dissipative system is driven by an applied field. The field-driven dissipative soliton enhances its mobility nonlinearly, as the characteristic frequency and the intrinsic Gilbert damping decrease. During the propagation, the soliton emits spin waves which act as an extrinsic damping channel. The characteristic frequency, the maximum velocity, and the localization length of the soliton are found to be proportional to the threshold field, the threshold velocity, and the initial mobility, respectively.

  6. Special Bi-Solitons for Asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhuo-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Employing a constructive algorithm and the symbolic computation, we obtain a new explicit bi-soliton-like solution of the asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation.The solution contains two arbitrary functions which indicates that it can model various bi-soliton-like waves.In particular, specially choosing the arbitrary functions, we lind some interesting bi-solitons with special shapes, which possess the traveling property of the traditional bi-solitons.We show the evolution of such bi-solitons by figures.

  7. Strong Raman-induced non-instantaneous soliton interactions in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Marini, Andrea; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an analytical model based on the perturbation theory in order to study the optical propagation of two successive intense solitons in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled with Raman-active gases. Based on the time delay between the two solitons, we have found that the trailing soliton dynamics can experience unusual nonlinear phenomena such as spectral and temporal soliton oscillations and transport towards the leading soliton. The overall dynamics can lead to a spatiotemporal modulation of the refractive index with a uniform temporal period and a uniform or chirped spatial period.

  8. Bunching of temporal cavity solitons via forward Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erkintalo, Miro; Jang, Jae K; Coen, Stéphane; Murdoch, Stuart G

    2015-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of bunching dynamics with temporal cavity solitons in a continuously-driven passive fibre resonator. Specifically, we excite a large number of ultrafast cavity solitons with random temporal separations, and observe in real time how the initially random sequence self-organizes into regularly-spaced aggregates. To explain our experimental observations, we develop a simple theoretical model that allows long-range acoustically-induced interactions between a large number of temporal cavity solitons to be simulated. Significantly, results from our simulations are in excellent agreement with our experimental observations, strongly suggesting that the soliton bunching dynamics arise from forward Brillouin scattering. In addition to confirming prior theoretical analyses and unveiling a new cavity soliton self-organization phenomenon, our findings elucidate the manner in which sound interacts with large ensembles of ultrafast pulses of light.

  9. Analysis of Green's functions and stability problem in models of quantum field theory with solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of models of quantum field theory for a multiplet phi-vector=(phi1,...,phisub(N)) of real scalar fields, possessing a particle-like classical solution phi-vector0, is considered. A new formula for generating functional for time-ordered Green's functions in terms of effective propagators is derived. The problem of classical and quantum stability is analyzed in detail. It is shown by partly non-perturbative analysis that in the considered models the excited states of mesons do exist and form the trajectories in the plane mass2-spin. These trajectories are linear or approximately linear like experimental trajectories. (author)

  10. A Lattice Non-Perturbative Definition of an SO(10) Chiral Gauge Theory and Its Induced Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2013-01-01

    The standard model is a chiral gauge theory where the gauge fields couple to the right-hand and the left-hand fermions differently. The standard model is defined perturbatively and describes all elementary particles (except gravitons) very well. However, for a long time, we do not know if we can have a non-perturbative definition of the standard model as a Hamiltonian quantum mechanical theory. Here we propose a way to give a modified standard model (with 48 two-component Weyl fermions) a non...

  11. A lattice non-perturbative definition of an SO(10) chiral gauge theory and its induced standard model

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2013-01-01

    The standard model is a chiral gauge theory where the gauge fields couple to the right-hand and the left-hand fermions differently. The standard model is defined perturbatively and describes all elementary particles (except gravitons) very well. However, for a long time, we do not know if we can have a non-perturbative definition of standard model as a Hamiltonian quantum mechanical theory. In this paper, we propose a way to give a modified standard model (with 48 two-component Weyl fermions)...

  12. Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika

    2016-06-01

    We have analyzed the phenomenological dependence of the spin independent (F1p ,n and F2p ,n) and the spin dependent (g1p ,n) structure functions of the nucleon on the Bjorken scaling variable x using the unpolarized distribution functions of the quarks q (x ) and the polarized distribution functions of the quarks Δ q (x ) respectively. The chiral constituent quark model, which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin crisis and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, has been used to compute explicitly the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of p and n . In light of the improved precision of the world data, the p and n longitudinal spin asymmetries [A1p(x ) and A1n(x )] have been calculated. The implication of the presence of the sea quarks has been discussed for the ratio of polarized to unpolarized quark distribution functions for up and down quarks in the p and n Δ/up(x ) up(x ) , Δ/dp(x ) dp(x ) , Δ/un(x ) un(x ) , and Δ/dn(x ) dn(x ) . The ratio of the n and p structure functions Rn p(x )=F/2n(x ) F2p(x ) has also been presented. The results have been compared with the recent available experimental observations. The results on the spin sum rule have also been included and compared with data and other recent approaches.

  13. Microscopic nuclear structure models and methods : Chiral symmetry, Wobbling motion and $\\gamma-$bands

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikh, J A; Dar, W A; Jehangir, S; Ganai, P A

    2015-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the nuclear observables related to the triaxial degree of freedom is presented using the multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. These properties correspond to the observation of $\\gamma$-bands, chiral doublet bands and the wobbling mode. In the TPSM approach, $\\gamma$-bands are built on each quasiparticle configuration and it is demonstrated that some observations in high-spin spectroscopy that have remained unresolved for quite some time could be explained by considering $\\gamma$-bands based on two-quasiparticle configurations. It is shown in some Ce-, Nd- and Ge-isotopes that the two observed aligned or s-bands originate from the same intrinsic configuration with one of them as the $\\gamma$-band based on a two-quasiparticle configuration. In the present work, we have also performed a detailed study of $\\gamma$-bands observed up to the highest spin in Dysposium, Hafnium, Mercury and Uranium isotopes. Furthermore, several measurements related to chira...

  14. Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model

    CERN Document Server

    Dahiya, Harleen

    2016-01-01

    We have analysed the phenomenological dependence of the spin independent ($F_1^{p,n}$ and $F_2^{p,n}$) and the spin dependent ($g_1^{p,n}$) structure functions of the nucleon on the the Bjorken scaling variable $x$ using the unpolarized distribution functions of the quarks $q(x)$ and the polarized distribution functions of the quarks $\\Delta q(x)$ respectively. The chiral constituent quark model ($\\chi$CQM), which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin crisis and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, has been used to compute explicitly the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of $p$ and $n$. In light of the improved precision of the world data, the $p$ and $n$ longitudinal spin asymmetries ($A_1^p(x)$ and $A_1^n(x)$) have been calculated. The implication of the presence of the sea quarks has been discussed for ratio of polarized to unpolarized quark distribution functions for up and down quarks in the $p$ and $n$ $\\frac{\\Delta u^p(x)}{u^p(x)}$, $\\frac{\\Delta d...

  15. Properties of single cluster structure of $d^*(2380)$ in chiral SU(3) quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Dong, Yu-Bing; Shen, Peng-Nian; Zhang, Zong-Ye

    2016-01-01

    The structure of $d^*(2380)$ is re-studied with the single cluster structure in the chiral SU(3) quark model which has successfully been employed to explain the scattering and binding behaviors of baryonic systems. The mass and width are explicitly calculated with two types of trial wave functions. The result shows that the $(0s)^6 [6]_{orb}$ configuration is easy to convert to the configuration with the same $[6]_{orb}$ symmetry but $2\\hbar \\omega$ excitation back and forth, however, it is seldom to turn into a two-cluster configuration with a (1s) relative motion in between. The resultant mass and width are about $2394$MeV and $25$MeV, respectively, and the stable size is about $0.75fm$, which are consistent with both the results in the two-cluster configuration calculation and the data measured by the COSY collaboration. It seems that the observed $d^*$ is a six-quark dominated exotic state with a spherical shape and breath mode in the coordinate space. Moreover, if $d^*$ does have $2\\hbar \\omega$ excitati...

  16. Chiral phase transitions in the linear sigma model in the Tsallis nonextensive statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masamichi

    2016-01-01

    We studied chiral phase transitions in the Tsallis nonextensive statistics which has two parameters, the temperature $T$ and entropic parameter $q$. The linear sigma model was used in this study. The critical temperature, condensate, masses, and energy density were calculated under the massless free particle approximation. The critical temperature decreases as $q$ increases. The condensate at $q>1$ is smaller than that at $q=1$. The sigma mass at $q>1$ is heavier than the mass at $q=1$ at high temperature, while the sigma mass at $q>1$ is lighter than the mass at $q=1$ at low temperature. The pion mass at $q>1$ is heavier than the mass at $q=1$. The energy density increases remarkably as $q$ increases. The $q$ dependence in the case of the $q$-expectation value is weaker than that in the case of the conventional expectation value with a Tsallis distribution. The parameter $q$ should be smaller than $4/3$ from energetic point of view. The validity of the Tsallis statistics can be determined by the difference i...

  17. Enantiodifferentiation of chiral baclofen by β-cyclodextrin using capillary electrophoresis: A molecular modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Elbashir, Abdalla A.

    2012-07-01

    Using capillary electrophoresis baclofen (BF) enantiomers were separated only in the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) as a chiral selector when added to the background electrolyte. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques were used to determine the structure of the BF-βCD inclusion complexes. From the MS data BF was found to form a 1:1 complex with α- and βCD, while the NMR data suggest location of the aromatic ring of BF into the cyclodextrin cavity. A molecular modeling study, using the semiempirical PM6 calculations was used to investigate the mechanism of enantiodifferentiation of BF with cyclodextrins. Optimization of the structures of the complexes by PM6 method indicated that separation is obtained in the presence of β-CD due to a large binding energy difference (ΔΔE) of 46.8 kJ mol-1 between S-BF-βCD and R-BF-βCD complexes. In the case of αCD complexes ΔΔE was 1.3 kJ mol-1 indicating poor resolution between the two enantiomers. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations show that the formation of more stable S-BF-βCD complex compared to R-BF-β-CD complex is primarily due to differences in intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

  18. Soliton Solution of SU(3) Gauge Fields at Finite Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Starting from a soliton model of SU(3) gauge fields, we investigate the behaviour of the model at finite temperature. it is found that colour confinement at zero temperature can be melted away under high temperatures.

  19. Dynamic Chirality in Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirality has recently been proposed as a novel feature of rotating nuclei [1]. Because the chiral symmetry is dichotomic, its spontaneous breaking by the axial angular momentum vector leads to doublets of closely lying rotational bands of the same parity. To investigate nuclear chirality, next to establish the existence of almost degenerate rotational bands, it is necessary to measure also other observables and compare them to the model predictions. The crucial test for the suggested nuclei as candidates to express chirality is based on precise lifetime measurements. Two lifetime experiments and theoretical approaches for the description of the experimental results will be presented. Lifetimes of exited states in 134Pr were measured [2,3] by means of the recoil distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation techniques. The branching ratios and the electric or magnetic character of the transitions were also investigated [3]. The experiments were performed at IReS, Strasbourg, using the EUROBALL IV spectrometer, in conjunction with the inner bismuth germanate ball and the Cologne coincidence plunger apparatus. Exited states in 134Pr were populated in the fusion-evaporation reaction 119Sn(19F, 4n)134Pr. The possible chiral interpretation of twin bands was investigated in the two-quasiparticle triaxial rotor [1] and interacting boson-fermion-fermion models [4]. Both theoretical approaches can describe the level-scheme of 134Pr. The analysis of the wave functions has shown that the possibility for the angular momenta of the proton, neutron, and core to find themselves in the favorable, almost orthogonal geometry, is present but is far from being dominant [3,5]. The structure is characterized by large β and γ fluctuations. The existence of doublets of bands in 134Pr can be attributed to weak chirality dominated by shape fluctuations. In a second experiment branching ratios and lifetimes in 136Pm were measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler-shift and

  20. Rigidity of gradient Ricci Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Peter; Wylie, William

    2007-01-01

    We define a gradient Ricci soliton to be rigid if it is a flat bundle $% N\\times_{\\Gamma}\\mathbb{R}^{k}$ where $N$ is Einstein. It is known that not all gradient solitons are rigid. Here we offer several natural conditions on the curvature that characterize rigid gradient solitons. Other related results on rigidity of Ricci solitons are also explained in the last section.

  1. Bright solitons from defocusing nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Borovkova, Olga V.; Kartashov, Yaroslav; Torner Sabata, Lluís; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    We report that defocusing cubic media with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearity, whose strength increases rapidly enough toward the periphery, can support stable bright localized modes. Such nonlinearity landscapes give rise to a variety of stable solitons in all three dimensions, including one-dimensional fundamental and multihump states, two-dimensional vortex solitons with arbitrarily high topological charges, and fundamental solitons in three dimensions. Solitons maintain their coherence ...

  2. A Simple Classification of Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Yousef; Muminov, Khikmat Kh.

    2012-01-01

    In this report, fundamental educational concepts of linear and non-linear equations and solutions of nonlinear equations from the book High-Temperature Superconductivity: The Nonlinear Mechanism and Tunneling Measurements (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002, pages 101-142) is given. There are a few ways to classify solitons. For example, there are topological and nontopological solitons. Independently of the topological nature of solitons, all solitons can be divided into two groups ...

  3. Transverse stability of Kawahara solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The transverse stability of the planar solitons described by the fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries equation (Kawahara solitons) is studied. It is shown that the planar solitons are unstable with respect to bending if the coefficient at the fifth-derivative term is positive and stable if it is negative....... This is in agreement with the dynamics of the two-dimensional Kawahara solitons....

  4. The SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio soliton in the collective quantization formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On grounds of a semibosonized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, which has SU(3)RxSU(3)L symmetry in the chiral limit, mass splittings for spin 1/2 and spin 3/2 baryons are studied in the presence of an explicit chiral-symmetry-breaking strange-quark mass. To this aim these strangeness-carrying baryons are understood as SU(3)-rotational excitations of an SU(2)-embedded soliton solution. Therefore, within the framework of collective quantization, the fermion determinant with the strange-quark mass is expanded up to the second order in the flavor rotation velocity and up to the first order in this quark mass. Besides, the strange and non-strange moments of inertia, which have some counterparts within the Skyrme model, some so-called anomalous moments of inertia are obtained. These can be related to the imaginary part of the effective euclidian action and contain among others the anomalous baryon current. This is shown in a gradient expansion up to the first non-vanishing order. Together with the Σ-commutator these are the solitonic ingredients of the collective hamiltonian, which is then diagnonalized by means of strict perturbation theory in the strange-quark mass and by the Yabu-Ando method. Both methods yield very good results for the masses of the spin 1/2 and 3/2 baryons. The former one reproduces some interesting mass formulas of Gell-Mann, Okubo and of Guadagnini and the latter one is able to describe the mass splittings up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  5. Scattering of topological solitons on holes and barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Piette, B; Brand, J; Piette, Bernard; Brand, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    We study the scattering properties of topological solitons on obstructions in the form of holes and barriers. We use the 'new baby Skyrme' model in (2+1) dimensions and we model the obstructions by making the coefficient of the baby skyrme model potential - position dependent. We find that that the barrier leads to the repulsion of the solitons (for low velocities) or their complete transmission (at higher velocities) with the process being essentially elastic. The hole case is different; for small velocities the solitons are trapped while at higher velocities they are transmitted with a loss of energy. We present some comments explaining the observed behaviour.

  6. Scattering of topological solitons on holes and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Bernard [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zakrzewski, W J [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Brand, Joachim [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-12-02

    We study the scattering properties of topological solitons on obstructions in the form of holes and barriers. We use the 'new baby Skyrme' model in (2 + 1) dimensions and we model the obstructions by making the coefficient of the baby Skyrme model potential-position dependent. We find that the barrier leads to the repulsion of the solitons (for low velocities) or their complete transmission (at higher velocities) with the process being essentially elastic. The hole case is different; for small velocities the solitons are trapped while at higher velocities they are transmitted with a loss of energy. We present some comments explaining the observed behaviour.

  7. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  8. Chiral Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a c...

  9. Rice-Mele model with topological solitons in an optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysiężna, Anna; Dutta, Omjyoti; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Attractive ultracold fermions trapped in a one-dimensional periodically shaken optical lattice are considered. For an appropriate resonant shaking, a dimerized structure emerges for which the system realizes paradigmatic physics described by the Rice-Mele model. The emergent nature of the system together with density fluctuations or controlled modifications of lattice filling allow for the creation of defects. Those defects lead to topologically protected localized modes carrying the fractional particle number. Their possible experimental signatures are discussed.

  10. Scattering of solitons on resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselev, O M; Glebov, S. G.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate a propagation of solitons for nonlinear Schrodinger equation under small driving force. The driving force passes the resonance. The process of scattering on the resonance leads to changing of number of solitons. After the resonance the number of solitons depends on the amplitude of the driving force.

  11. Special solitons on 3-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Malekzadeh, Nasrin; Abedi, Esmaiel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study solitons on $3$-dimensional manifolds. In particular, we show that $3$-dimensional pseudo-symmetric gradient Ricci solitons and nontrivial gradient Yamabe solitons are locally isometric to either $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$, $\\mathbb{S}^{3}$, $\\mathbb{H}^{3}$, $\\mathbb{R} \\times \\mathbb{S}^{2}$ or $\\mathbb{R} \\times \\mathbb{H}^{2}$.

  12. Soliton-like solution in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Skoromnik, O D; Keitel, C H

    2016-01-01

    A novel soliton-like solution in quantum electrodynamics is obtained via a self-consistent field method. By writing the Hamiltonian of quantum electrodynamics in the Coulomb gauge, we separate out a classical component in the density operator of the electron-positron field. Then, by modeling the state vector in analogy with the theory of superconductivity, we minimize the functional for the energy of the system. This results in the equations of the self-consistent field, where the solutions are associated with the collective excitation of the electron-positron field---the soliton-like solution. In addition, the canonical transformation of the variables allowed us to separate out the total momentum of the system and, consequently, to find the relativistic energy dispersion relation for the moving soliton.

  13. Resonance vector soliton of the Rayleigh wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamashvili, G T

    2016-02-01

    A theory of acoustic vector solitons of self-induced transparency of the Rayleigh wave is constructed. A thin resonance transition layer on an elastic surface is considered using a model of a two-dimensional gas of impurity paramagnetic atoms or quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for the profile and parameters of the Rayleigh vector soliton with two different oscillation frequencies is obtained, as well as simulations of this nonlinear surface acoustic wave with realistic parameters, which can be used in acoustic experiments. It is shown that the properties of a surface vector soliton of the Rayleigh wave depend on the parameters of the resonance layer, the elastic medium, and the transverse structure of the surface acoustic wave. PMID:26986400

  14. Soliton form factors from lattice simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2010-01-01

    The form factor provides a convenient way to describe properties of topological solitons in the full quantum theory, when semiclassical concepts are not applicable. It is demonstrated that the form factor can be calculated numerically using lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The approach is very general and can be applied to essentially any type of soliton. The technique is illustrated by calculating the kink form factor near the critical point in 1+1-dimensional scalar field theory. As expected from universality arguments, the result agrees with the exactly calculable scaling form factor of the two-dimensional Ising model.

  15. Dissipative plasmon solitons in graphene nanodisk arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Daria A; Smirnov, Lev A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2014-01-01

    We study nonlinear modes in one-dimensional arrays of doped graphene nanodisks with Kerr-type nonlinear response in the presence of an external electric field. We present the theoretical model describing the evolution of the disks' polarizations, taking into account intrinsic graphene losses and dipole-dipole coupling between the graphene nanodisks. We reveal that this nonlinear system can support discrete dissipative scalar solitons of both longitudinal and transverse polarizations, as well as vector solitons composed of two mutually coupled polarization components. We demonstrate the formation of stable resting and moving localized modes under controlling guidance of the external driving field.

  16. Quark models of hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soliton model represents an extension of the MIT bag model to allow for the dynamical degrees of freedom associated with the confinement mechanism. The soliton model has 5 parameters, MIT has 3, but the soliton model has the flexibility, by choice of the parameters, to reproduce either the MIT or the SLAC bags. With appropriate choice of parameters and inclusion of one gluon exchange, the resulting hadronic spectra is similar to the MIT model. Because the model can be cast in Hamiltonian form, dynamical processes can be calculated using techniques developed for nuclear collective motion. This permits calculation of N-N collisions, recoil corrections and the construction of bag states of good momentum. The last is essential for the proper calculation of electromagnetic form factors. In this paper, the pion has been alluded to frequently. It is currently being studied actively in the context of the soliton model. The pion appears here as an anomalously light particle, split off and pushed down from the meson multiplet by OGE. The nucleon bag should be soft to qq, virtual excitation with pion quantum numbers. In the soliton model, these virtual excitations are to be identified with the pion cloud. One can also calculate pi-nucleon coupling and the weak decay of the pion, π → μ + anti nu/sub μ/. Indeed, bags can be created and destroyed in the model. This description of pion physics begins with a Lagrangian which does not respect chiral invariance and seeks to achieve PCAC from dynamics. The more fashionable approach is to begin with a chirally invariant Lagrangian from which the pion emerges as a massless Goldstone boson; somewhere, the pion must be given a mass and CAC broken. In all models, effective fields (sigma or π or both) are introduced to describe degrees of freedom which are too difficult to handle explicitly. 20 references

  17. Annihilation Solitons and Chaotic Solitons for the (2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By means of an improved mapping method and a variable separation method, a scries of variable separation solutions (including solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and rational function solutions) to the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton system is derived. Based on the derived solitary wave excitation, we obtain some special annihilation solitons and chaotic solitons in this short note.

  18. Timing jitter of Raman solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gengji; Xin, Ming; Kaertner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    We study the relative intensity noise (RIN) and timing jitter of a Raman soliton. We demonstrate that the RIN of an excitation pulse causes center-wavelength fluctuations of the resulting Raman soliton which translates by fiber dispersion into relative timing jitter (RTJ) between the Raman soliton and the excitation pulse. The Raman soliton's absolute timing jitter is dominated by the excitation pulse's timing jitter at low frequency and by the RTJ at high frequency. The experimental study reveals that RTJ can be significantly reduced by reducing the accumulated fiber dispersion (e.g., using less dispersive fibers with shorter length) experienced by the Raman soliton. PMID:26512530

  19. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin Xiao-Gang; Liu Wen-Jun; Lei Ming

    2016-03-01

    Oscillating solitons are obtained in nonlinear optics. Analytical study of the variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is used to describe the soliton propagation in those systems, is carried out using the Hirota’s bilinear method. The bilinear forms and analytic soliton solutions are derived, and the relevant properties and features of oscillating solitons are illustrated. Oscillating solitons are controlled by the reciprocal of the group velocity and Kerr nonlinearity. Results of this paper will be valuable to the study of dispersion-managed optical communication system and mode-locked fibre lasers.

  20. Solitons and chaos in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yoshi H.

    1990-08-01

    The present discussion of the structure of soliton equations and dynamics of low-dimensional Hamiltonian nonlinear plasma systems emphasizes the universality of solitonic and chaotic concepts for other branches of physical research and engineering applications. Attention is given to the significance of the inverse-scattering transformation for the KdV equation in soliton-phenomena studies, as well as to the multidimensional behavior of solitons and their Alfvenic and optical-fiber types. An account is given of the development status of computational physics and integrable mapping methodologies applicable to solitonic plasma phenomena.