WorldWideScience

Sample records for chiral pna analogues

  1. Chiral separation of substituted phenylalanine analogues using chiral palladium phosphine complexes with enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuijl, B.J.V.; Schuur, B.; Minnaard, A.J.; Vries, de J.G.; Feringa, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Chiral palladium phosphine complexes have been employed in the chiral separation of amino acids and phenylalanine analogues in particular. The use of (S)-xylyl-BINAP as a ligand for the palladium complex in enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction allowed the separation of the phenylalanine

  2. Synthesis of chiral chloroquine and its analogues as antimalarial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Manish; Dola, Vasanth R; Soni, Awakash; Agarwal, Pooja; Srivastava, Kumkum; Haq, Wahajul; Puri, Sunil K; Katti, Seturam B

    2014-11-01

    In this investigation, we describe a new approach to chiral synthesis of chloroquine and its analogues. All tested compounds displayed potent activity against chloroquine sensitive as well as chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium yoelii in vivo. Compounds S-13 b, S-13c, S-13 d and S-13 i displayed excellent in vitro antimalarial activity with an IC50 value of 56.82, 60.41, 21.82 and 7.94 nM, respectively, in the case of resistant strain. Furthermore, compounds S-13a, S-13c and S-13 d showed in vivo suppression of 100% parasitaemia on day 4 in the mouse model against Plasmodium yoelii when administered orally. These results underscore the application of synthetic methodology and need for further lead optimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deracemization of Racemic Amino Acids Using (R)- and (S)-Alanine Racemase Chiral Analogues as Chiral Converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Manjeong; Jeon, So Hee; Lee, Wonjae; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, Kwan Mook

    2014-01-01

    Our findings show that both (R)- and (S)-ARCA can be practical chiral converters for L- and D-amino acids, respectively, in the deracemization of racemic amino acids. The overall stereoselectivities of both chiral converters are generally greater than 90%. In addition, we developed chiral and achiral HPLC methods for the analysis of stereoselectivity determination. This chromatographic method proved much more accurate and convenient at determining both enantiomer and diastereomer purity than did those previously reported. Deracemization is the stereoselective process of converting a racemate into either a pure enantiomer or a mixture in which one enantiomer is present in excess.1 Previous studies have shown that (S)-alanine racemase chiral analogue (ARCA) [(S)-2-hydroxy-2'-(3-phenyluryl-benzyl)-1,1'-binaphthyl-3-carboxaldehyde], developed as a chiral convertor compound that imitates the function of alanine racemase, plays an essential role in the stereoselective conversion of amino acid. Since (S)-ARCA showed a higher stability with D-amino acids than with L-amino acids, several L-amino acids were preferentially converted to D-amino acids via (S)-ARCA/D-amino acid imine diastereomer formation. For the deracemization process undertaken in this study, we utilized both (R)-ARCA and (S)-ARCA as chiral converters, which were expected to generate L- and D-amino acids, respectively, from the starting racemic mixtures

  4. New Chiral Ebselen Analogues with Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata J. Pacuła

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New chiral camphane-derived benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones and corresponding diselenides have been synthetized using a convenient one-pot procedure. Se-N bond was efficiently converted to an Se-Se bond, which could also be easily re-oxidized to the initial benzisoselenazolone moiety. The antioxidant activity of camphor derivatives was evaluated and compared to the reactivity of a series of N-amino acid benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones obtained by a modified procedure involving the improved synthesis and isolation of the diseleno bis(dibenzoic acid. The most efficient peroxide scavengers, N-bornyl and N-leucine methyl ester benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones, were further evaluated as cytotoxic agents on four cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HEP G2, HL 6, and DU 145 and normal cell line PNT1A. The highest antiproliferative potential was evaluated for two compounds bearing a 3-methylbutyl carbon chain, N-leucine methyl ester and N-3-methylbutyl benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones.

  5. PNA Peptide chimerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, T.; Næsby, M.; Wittung, P.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive labelling of PNA has been performed try linking a peptide segment to the PNA which is substrate for protein kinase A. The enzymatic phosphorylation proceeds in almost quantitative yields....

  6. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  7. On the twisted chiral potential in 2d and the analogue of rigid special geometry for 4-folds

    CERN Document Server

    Kaste, P

    1999-01-01

    We discuss how to obtain an N=(2,2) supersymmetric SU(3) gauge theory in two dimensions via geometric engineering from a Calabi-Yau 4-fold and compute its non-perturbative twisted chiral potential. The relevant compact part of the 4-fold geometry consists of two intersecting P^1's fibered over P^2. The rigid limit of the local mirror of this geometry is a complex surface that generalizes the Seiberg-Witten curve and on which there exist two holomorphic 2-forms. These stem from the same meromorphic 2-form as derivatives w.r.t. the two moduli, respectively. The middle periods of this meromorphic form give directly the twisted chiral potential. The explicit computation of these and of the four-point Yukawa couplings allows for a non-trivial test of the analogue of rigid special geometry for a 4-fold with several moduli.

  8. RNA/PNA Approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this approach we want to develop structural analogue of the leader that might have higher affinity towards the Phosphoprotein, but would impair the dimerization process and viral leader RNA binding.

  9. Probing of miniPEGγ-PNA-DNA Hybrid Duplex Stability with AFM Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Samrat; Armitage, Bruce A; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2016-03-15

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) are synthetic polymers, the neutral peptide backbone of which provides elevated stability to PNA-PNA and PNA-DNA hybrid duplexes. It was demonstrated that incorporation of diethylene glycol (miniPEG) at the γ position of the peptide backbone increased the thermal stability of the hybrid duplexes (Sahu, B. et al. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 5614-5627). Here, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) to test the strength and stability of the hybrid 10 bp duplex. This hybrid duplex consisted of miniPEGγ-PNA and DNA of the same length (γ(MP)PNA-DNA), which we compared to a DNA duplex with a homologous sequence. AFM force spectroscopy data obtained at the same conditions showed that the γ(MP)PNA-DNA hybrid is more stable than the DNA counterpart, 65 ± 15 pN vs 47 ± 15 pN, respectively. The DFS measurements performed in a range of pulling speeds analyzed in the framework of the Bell-Evans approach yielded a dissociation constant, koff ≈ 0.030 ± 0.01 s⁻¹ for γ(MP)PNA-DNA hybrid duplex vs 0.375 ± 0.18 s⁻¹ for the DNA-DNA duplex suggesting that the hybrid duplex is much more stable. Correlating the high affinity of γ(MP)PNA-DNA to slow dissociation kinetics is consistent with prior bulk characterization by surface plasmon resonance. Given the growing interest in γ(MP)PNA as well as other synthetic DNA analogues, the use of single molecule experiments along with computational analysis of force spectroscopy data will provide direct characterization of various modifications as well as higher order structures such as triplexes and quadruplexes.

  10. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O

    2017-03-05

    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (K b ), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated K b and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81×10 -7 M for anthracene and 3.48×10 -8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a polarized

  11. Enhanced splicing correction effect by an oligo-aspartic acid-PNA conjugate and cationic carrier complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Mi; Kim, Myung Hee; Yu, Gwang Sig; Um, Bong Ho; Park, Hee Kyung; Lee, Hyun-il; Lee, Kang Taek; Suh, Yung Doug; Choi, Joon Sig

    2014-02-10

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are synthetic structural analogues of DNA and RNA. They recognize specific cellular nucleic acid sequences and form stable complexes with complementary DNA or RNA. Here, we designed an oligo-aspartic acid-PNA conjugate and showed its enhanced delivery into cells with high gene correction efficiency using conventional cationic carriers, such as polyethylenimine (PEI) and Lipofectamine 2000. The negatively charged oligo-aspartic acid-PNA (Asp(n)-PNA) formed complexes with PEI and Lipofectamine, and the resulting Asp(n)-PNA/PEI and Asp(n)-PNA/Lipofectamine complexes were introduced into cells. We observed significantly enhanced cellular uptake of Asp(n)-PNA by cationic carriers and detected an active splicing correction effect even at nanomolar concentrations. We found that the splicing correction efficiency of the complex depended on the kind of the cationic carriers and on the number of repeating aspartic acid units. By enhancing the cellular uptake efficiency of PNAs, these results may provide a novel platform technology of PNAs as bioactive substances for their biological and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. (α,α-dimethyl)glycyl (dmg) PNAs: achiral PNA analogs that form stronger hybrids with cDNA relative to isosequential RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourishankar, Aland; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2012-01-01

    The design and facile synthesis of sterically constrained new analogs of PNA having gem-dimethyl substitutions on glycine (dmg-PNA-T) is presented. The PNA oligomers [aminoethyl dimethylglycyl (aedmg) and aminopropyl dimethylglycyl (apdmg)] synthesized from the monomers 6 and 12) effected remarkable stabilization of homothyminePNA(2):homoadenine DNA/RNA triplexes and mixed base sequence duplexes with target cDNA or RNA. They show a higher binding to DNA relative to that with isosequential RNA. This may be a structural consequence of the sterically rigid gem-dimethyl group, imposing a pre-organized conformation favorable for complex formation with cDNA. The results complement our previous work that had demonstrated that cyclohexanyl-PNAs favor binding with cRNA compared with cDNA and imply that the biophysical and structural properties of PNAs can be directed by introduction of the right rigidity in PNA backbone devoid of chirality. This approach of tweaking selectivity in binding of PNA constructs by installing gem-dimethyl substitution in PNA backbone can be extended to further fine-tuning by similar substitution in the aminoethyl segment as well either individually or in conjunction with present substitution.

  13. Summarization on the synthesis and radionuclide-labeling of peptide nucleic acid for an oligonucleotide analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hongtao; Zhang, Huaming; Gao, Hui

    2009-04-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA), which is one kind of antisense nucleic acid compounds and an oligonucleotide analogue that binds strongly to DNA and RNA in a sequence specific manner, has its unique advantages in the field of molecular diagnostics and treatment of diseases. Now, people gradually attach more importance to PNA. To optimize the application of PNA in genetic re- search and therapy, a great number of backbone modifications on the newly- type structures of PNA were synthesized to improve its physicochemical proper- ties, such as hybridization speciality, solubility in biofluid, or cell permeability. The modified PNA labeled with radionuclides, which can obtain the aim at specific target and minimal non-target trauma, has important role in research and application of tumorous genitherapy. Here a review on the basic synthesis idea and several primary synthetic methods of PNA analogs was given, and also correlative studies and expectation on the compounds belonging to PNA series labeled with radionuclides were included. (authors)

  14. Thermodynamics of sequence-specific binding of PNA to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratilainen, T; Holmén, A; Tuite, E

    2000-01-01

    For further characterization of the hybridization properties of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), the thermodynamics of hybridization of mixed sequence PNA-DNA duplexes have been studied. We have characterized the binding of PNA to DNA in terms of binding affinity (perfectly matched duplexes) and seq......For further characterization of the hybridization properties of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), the thermodynamics of hybridization of mixed sequence PNA-DNA duplexes have been studied. We have characterized the binding of PNA to DNA in terms of binding affinity (perfectly matched duplexes...

  15. Sequence specific inhibition of DNA restriction enzyme cleavage by PNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Plasmids containing double-stranded 10-mer PNA (peptide nucleic acid chimera) targets proximally flanked by two restriction enzyme sites were challenged with the complementary PNA or PNAs having one or two mismatches, and the effect on the restriction enzyme cleavage of the flanking sites was ass...

  16. On the equivalence of four-dimensional self-duality equations to the continual analogue of the principal chiral field problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leznov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    A connection is found between the self-dual equations of 4-dimensional space and the principal chiral field problem in n-dimensional space. It is shown that any solution of the principal chiral field equations in n-dimensional space with arbitrary 2-dimensional functions of definite linear combinations of 4 variables y, y-bar, z, z-bar as independent arguments satisfies the system of self-dual equations of 4-dimensional space. General solution of self-dual equations depending on the suitable number of functions of three independent variables coincides with the general solution of the principal chiral field problem when the dimensionality of the space tends to the infinity

  17. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) antisense effects in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Good, L; Nielsen, P E

    1999-01-01

    Antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) can be used to control cell growth, gene expression and growth phenotypes in the bacteria Escherichia coli. PNAs targeted to the RNA components of the ribosome can inhibit translation and cell growth, and PNAs targeted to mRNA can limit gene expression with gene...... and sequence specificity. In an E. coli cell extract, efficient inhibition is observed when using PNA concentrations in the nanomolar range, whereas micromolar concentrations are required for inhibition in growing cells. A mutant strain of E. coli that is more permeable to antibiotics also is more susceptible...... to antisense PNAs than the wild type. This chapter details methods for testing the antisense activities of PNA in E. coli. As an example of the specific antisense inhibition possible, we show the effects of an anti-beta-galactosidase PNA in comparison to control PNAs. With improvements in cell uptake...

  18. En busca de visibilidad internacional: el caso de PNA

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Marta; Cañadas, María C.; Gallardo, Jesús; Gómez, Pedro; Lupiáñez, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el diseño y desarrollo del proyecto que ha dado lugar a PNA, la única revista española especializada en investigación en Educación Matemática. Es una revista de acceso abierto, que publica estudios de investigación, experimentales o teóricos. Dichos trabajos han sido revisados por pares de forma anónima, están escritos en inglés o en español y siguen las normas de estilo APA. PNA es editada, en formato electrónico (www.pna.es) e impreso, por el grupo de investigaci...

  19. PNA Directed Sequence Addressed Self-Assembly of DNA Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    sequence specifically recognize another PNA oligomer. We describe how such three domain PNAs have utility for assembling dsDNA grid and clover leaf structures, and in combination with SNAP-tag technol. of protein dsDNA structures. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics. [on SciFinder (R)] Udgivelsesdato...

  20. Clinical consequences of using PNA-FISH in Staphylococcal bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub, R R; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl

    2014-01-01

    To optimize patient treatment and rational use of antimicrobials, it is important to provide fast information on findings in blood-cultures (BCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of using peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) on positive BCs conta...

  1. Gene Targeting and Expression Modulation by Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) are artificial structural mimics of nucleic acids capable of sequence specific hybridization to both RNA and DNA. Thus they have obvious potential as gene targeting agents for drug discovery approaches. An overview with emphasis on recent progress on RNA "interference...

  2. Nucleic Acid Analogue Induced Transcription of Double Stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    RNA is transcribed from a double stranded DNA template by forming a complex by hybridizing to the template at a desired transcription initiation site one or more oligonucleic acid analogues of the PNA type capable of forming a transcription initiation site with the DNA and exposing the complex...... to the action of a DNA dependant RNA polymerase in the presence of nucleoside triphosphates. Equal length transcripts may be obtained by placing a block to transcription downstream from the initiation site or by cutting the template at such a selected location. The initiation site is formed by displacement...... of one strand of the DNA locally by the PNA hybridization....

  3. Telomere Q-PNA-FISH--reliable results from stochastic signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cukusic Kalajzic

    Full Text Available Structural and functional analysis of telomeres is very important for understanding basic biological functions such as genome stability, cell growth control, senescence and aging. Recently, serious concerns have been raised regarding the reliability of current telomere measurement methods such as Southern blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Since telomere length is associated with age related pathologies, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, both at the individual and population level, accurate interpretation of measured results is a necessity. The telomere Q-PNA-FISH technique has been widely used in these studies as well as in commercial analysis for the general population. A hallmark of telomere Q-PNA-FISH is the wide variation among telomere signals which has a major impact on obtained results. In the present study we introduce a specific mathematical and statistical analysis of sister telomere signals during cell culture senescence which enabled us to identify high regularity in their variations. This phenomenon explains the reproducibility of results observed in numerous telomere studies when the Q-PNA-FISH technique is used. In addition, we discuss the molecular mechanisms which probably underlie the observed telomere behavior.

  4. Chiral superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John

    2016-05-01

    Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a chiral triplet p-wave superconductor, and UPt3, which has two low-temperature superconducting phases (in zero magnetic field), the lower of which is believed to be chiral triplet f-wave. Other systems that may exhibit chiral superconductivity are also discussed. Key signatures of chiral superconductivity are surface currents and chiral Majorana modes, Majorana states in vortex cores, and the possibility of half-flux quantum vortices in the case of triplet pairing. Experimental evidence for chiral superconductivity from μSR, NMR, strain, polar Kerr effect and Josephson tunneling experiments are discussed.

  5. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  6. Photonic chiral current and its anomaly in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Khriplovich, I.B.; Vajnshtejn, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The notion of chirality for electromagnetic field which is conserved in interactions with gravitons is formulated. The correponding chiral current is the one-particle-state analogue of the Pauli-Lubansky vector. The anomaly of this current in an external gravitational field is found. The results obtained are used for the calculation of the electromagnetic radiative correction to the fermionic chiral anomaly in a gravitational field

  7. Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of this figure-eight conformation in relation to the num- ber of π-electrons attracts ... porphyrin moieties.7a–d In this context, application of ... become problematic. Lindsey .... cell. [a]. CD sign (λmax/nm). UV-vis θ/ abs. Ligand of 1st Cotton effect.

  8. Single base pair mutation analysis by PNA directed PCR clamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, H.; Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.

    1993-01-01

    A novel method that allows direct analysis of single base mutation by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described. The method utilizes the finding that PNAs (peptide nucleic acids) recognize and bind to their complementary nucleic acid sequences with higher thermal stability and specificity...... allows selective amplification/suppression of target sequences that differ by only one base pair. Finally we show that PNAs can be designed in such a way that blockage can be accomplished when the PNA target sequence is located between the PCR primers....

  9. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  10. Electroporation Enhanced Effect of Dystrophin Splice Switching PNA Oligomers in Normal and Dystrophic Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Brolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA is a synthetic DNA mimic that has shown potential for discovery of novel splice switching antisense drugs. However, in vivo cellular delivery has been a limiting factor for development, and only few successful studies have been reported. As a possible modality for improvement of in vivo cellular availability, we have investigated the effect of electrotransfer upon intramuscular (i.m. PNA administration in vivo. Antisense PNA targeting exon 23 of the murine dystrophin gene was administered by i.m. injection to the tibialis anterior (TA muscle of normal NMRI and dystrophic mdx mice with or without electroporation. At low, single PNA doses (1.5, 3, or 10 µg/TA, electroporation augmented the antisense exon skipping induced by an unmodified PNA by twofold to fourfold in healthy mouse muscle with optimized electric parameters, measured after 7 days. The PNA splice switching was detected at the RNA level up to 4 weeks after a single-dose treatment. In dystrophic muscles of the MDX mouse, electroporation increased the number of dystrophin-positive fibers about 2.5-fold at 2 weeks after a single PNA administration compared to injection only. In conclusion, we find that electroporation can enhance PNA antisense effects in muscle tissue.

  11. Sensitive detection of nucleic acids by PNA hybridization directed co-localization of fluorescent beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Büscher, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    )avidin-coated fluorescent beads, differing in size and color [green beads (1 µm) and red beads (5.9 µm)], thereby allowing distinct detection of each PNA probe by conventional fluorescence microscopy. These two PNA beads showed easily detectable co-localization when simultaneously hybridizing to a target nucleic acid...

  12. A Reconfigurable Design and Architecture of the Ethernet and HomePNA3.0 MAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilydermany, M.; Hosseinghadiry, M.

    In this paper a reconfigurable architecture for Ethernet and HomePNA MAC is presented. By using this new architecture, Ethernet and HomePNA reconfigurable network card can be produced. This architecture has been implemented using VHDL language and after that synthesized on a chip. The differences between HomePNA (synchronized and unsynchronized mode) and Ethernet in collision detection mechanism and priority access to media have caused the need to separate architectures for Ethernet and HomePNA, but by using similarities of them, both the Ethernet and the HomePNA can be implemented in a single chip with a little extra hardware. The number of logical elements of the proposed architecture is increased by 19% in compare to when only an Ethernet MAC is implemented

  13. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  14. Synthesis and application of aryl-ferrocenyl(pseudo-biarylic) complexes. Part 5. Design and synthesis of a new type of ferrocene-based planar chiral DMAP analogues. A new catalyst system for asymmetric nucleophilic catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitzberg, J.G; Dissing, C; Søtofte, Inger

    2005-01-01

    A new first-generation catalyst system for nucleophilic catalysis has been developed. It is based on a planar chiral ferrocene skeleton with either the potent nucleophile 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) or the related 4-nitropyridine N-oxide attached in either the 2- or the 3-position. The synth......A new first-generation catalyst system for nucleophilic catalysis has been developed. It is based on a planar chiral ferrocene skeleton with either the potent nucleophile 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) or the related 4-nitropyridine N-oxide attached in either the 2- or the 3-position...

  15. Chirality invariance and 'chiral' fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziino, G.

    1978-01-01

    The new field model derived in the present paper actually gives a definite answer to three fundamental questions concerning elementary-particle physics: 1) The phenomenological dualism between parity and chirality invariance: it would be only an apparent display of a general 'duality' principle underlying the intrinsic nature itself of (spin 1/2) fermions and expressed by the anticommutativity property between scalar and pseudoscalar charges. 2) The real physical meaning of V - A current structure: it would exclusively be connected to the one (just pointed out) of chiral fields themselves. 3) The unjustified apparent oddness shown by Nature in weak interactions, for the fact of picking out only one of the two (left- and right-handed) fermion 'chiral' projections: the key to such a 'mystery' would just be provided by the consequences of the dual and partial character of the two fermion-antifermion field bases. (Auth.)

  16. 2-Methoxypyridine as a Thymidine Mimic in Watson-Crick Base Pairs of DNA and PNA: Synthesis, Thermal Stability, and NMR Structural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosjolova, Irina; Kennedy, Scott D; Rozners, Eriks

    2017-11-02

    The development of nucleic acid base-pair analogues that use new modes of molecular recognition is important both for fundamental research and practical applications. The goal of this study was to evaluate 2-methoxypyridine as a cationic thymidine mimic in the A-T base pair. The hypothesis was that including protonation in the Watson-Crick base pairing scheme would enhance the thermal stability of the DNA double helix without compromising the sequence selectivity. DNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequences containing the new 2-methoxypyridine nucleobase (P) were synthesized and studied by using UV thermal melting and NMR spectroscopy. Introduction of P nucleobase caused a loss of thermal stability of ≈10 °C in DNA-DNA duplexes and ≈20 °C in PNA-DNA duplexes over a range of mildly acidic to neutral pH. Despite the decrease in thermal stability, the NMR structural studies showed that P-A formed the expected protonated base pair at pH 4.3. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of cationic unnatural base pairs; however, future optimization of such analogues will be required. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effect of secondary structure on the thermodynamics and kinetics of PNA hybridization to DNA hairpins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushon, S A; Jordan, J P; Seifert, J L

    2001-01-01

    The binding of a series of PNA and DNA probes to a group of unusually stable DNA hairpins of the tetraloop motif has been observed using absorbance hypochromicity (ABS), circular dichroism (CD), and a colorimetric assay for PNA/DNA duplex detection. These results indicate that both stable PNA...... structures in both target and probe molecules are shown to depress the melting temperatures and free energies of the probe-target duplexes. Kinetic analysis of hybridization yields reaction rates that are up to 160-fold slower than hybridization between two unstructured strands. The thermodynamic and kinetic...

  18. Non-Watson–Crick interactions between PNA and DNA inhibit the ATPase activity of bacteriophage T4 Dda helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Alan J.; Corey, David R.; Raney, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a DNA mimic in which the nucleobases are linked by an N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine backbone. Here we report that PNA can interact with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a non-sequence-specific fashion. We observed that a 15mer PNA inhibited the ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity of a bacteriophage T4 helicase, Dda. Surprisingly, when a fluorescein-labeled 15mer PNA was used in binding studies no interaction was observed between PNA and Dda. However, fluorescence polarization did reveal non-sequence-specific interactions between PNA and ssDNA. Thus, the inhibition of ATPase activity of Dda appears to result from depletion of the available ssDNA due to non-Watson–Crick binding of PNA to ssDNA. Inhibition of the ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity was observed for several PNAs of varying length and sequence. To study the basis for this phenomenon, we examined self-aggregation by PNAs. The 15mer PNA readily self-aggregates to the point of precipitation. Since PNAs are hydrophobic, they aggregate more than DNA or RNA, making the study of this phenomenon essential for understanding the properties of PNA. Non-sequence-specific interactions between PNA and ssDNA were observed at moderate concentrations of PNA, suggesting that such interactions should be considered for antisense and antigene applications. PMID:11842106

  19. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugates as carriers for cellular delivery of antisense oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    We have explored the merits of a novel delivery strategy for the antisense oligomers based on cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated to a carrier PNA with sequence complementary to part of the antisense oligomer. The effect of these carrier CPP-PNAs was evaluated by using antisense PNA targeting......-PNA (cPNA1(7)-(D-Arg)8) and hexamer carrier decanoyl-CPP-PNA (Deca-cPNA1(6)-(D-Arg)8), respectively, without showing significant additional cellular toxicity. Most interestingly, the activity reached the same level obtained by enhancement with endosomolytic chloroquine (CQ) treatment, suggesting...... that the carrier might facilitate endosomal escape. Furthermore, 50% downregulation of luciferase expression at 60 nM siRNA was obtained using this carrier CPP-PNA delivery strategy (with CQ co-treatment) for a single stranded antisense RNA targeting normal luciferase mRNA. These results indicated that CPP...

  20. Electroporation Enhanced Effect of Dystrophin Splice Switching PNA Oligomers in Normal and Dystrophic Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Camilla Brolin; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    for improvement of in vivo cellular availability, we have investigated the effect of electrotransfer upon intramuscular (i.m.) PNA administration in vivo. Antisense PNA targeting exon 23 of the murine dystrophin gene was administered by i.m. injection to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of normal NMRI......Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a synthetic DNA mimic that has shown potential for discovery of novel splice switching antisense drugs. However, in vivo cellular delivery has been a limiting factor for development, and only few successful studies have been reported. As a possible modality...... switching was detected at the RNA level up to 4 weeks after a single-dose treatment. In dystrophic muscles of the MDX mouse, electroporation increased the number of dystrophin-positive fibers about 2.5-fold at 2 weeks after a single PNA administration compared to injection only. In conclusion, we find...

  1. BALANOL ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a solid phase methodology for the preparation of a combinatorial library of structural analogues of the natural product balanol (ophiocordin, azepinostatin), which is a protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The method comprises solid...

  2. Insight into a conformation of the PNA-PNA duplex with (2‧R,4‧R)- and (2‧R,4‧S)-prolyl-(1S,2S)-2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid backbones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitarad, Amphawan; Poomsuk, Nattawee; Vilaivan, Chotima; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Siriwong, Khatcharin

    2018-04-01

    Suitable conformations for peptide nucleic acid (PNA) self-hybrids with (2‧R,4‧R)- and (2‧R,4‧S)-prolyl-(1S,2S)-2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid backbones (namely, acpcPNA and epi-acpcPNA, respectively) were investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. The results revealed that hybridization of the acpcPNA was observed only in the parallel direction, with a conformation close to the P-type structure. In contrast, self-hybrids of the epi-acpcPNA were formed in the antiparallel and parallel directions; the antiparallel duplex adopted the B-form conformation, and the parallel duplex was between B- and P-forms. The calculated binding energies and the experimental data indicate that the antiparallel epi-acpcPNA self-hybrid was more stable than the parallel duplex.

  3. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  4. [Molecular beacon based PNA-FISH method combined with fluorescence scanning for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Shuai, Jiangbing; Li, Ke; Yu, Huizhen; Jin, Chenchen

    2016-07-04

    To simplify the PNA-FISH (Peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization) test, molecular beacon based PNA probe combined with fluorescence scanning detection technology was applied to replace the original microscope observation to detect Listeria monocytogenes The 5′ end and 3′ end of the L. monocytogenes specific PNA probes were labeled with the fluorescent group and the quenching group respectively, to form a molecular beacon based PNA probe. When PNA probe used for fluorescence scanning and N1 treatment as the control, the false positive rate was 11.4%, and the false negative rate was 0; when N2 treatment as the control, the false positive rate decreased to 4.3%, but the false negative rate rose to 18.6%. When beacon based PNA probe used for fluorescence scanning, taken N1 treatment as blank control, the false positive rate was 8.6%, and the false negative rate was 1.4%; taken N2 treatment as blank control, the false positive rate was 5.7%, and the false negative rate was 1.4%. Compared with PNA probe, molecular beacon based PNA probe can effectively reduce false positives and false negatives. The success rates of hybridization of the two PNA probes were 83.3% and 95.2% respectively; and the rates of the two beacon based PNA probes were 91.7% and 90.5% respectively, which indicated that labeling the both ends of the PNA probe dose not decrease the hybridization rate with the target bacteria. The combination of liquid phase PNA-FISH and fluorescence scanning method, can significantly improve the detection efficiency.

  5. Chiral mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media

  6. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  7. FISH and PNA FISH for the diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis and vascular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Elsa; Lepidi, Hubert; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier

    2018-06-13

    Purpose. Endocarditis and vascular infections are common manifestations of persistent localized infection due to Coxiella burnetii and recently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was proposed as an alternative tool for their diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of FISH in a series of valve and vascular samples infected by C. burnetii. Methods. We tested 23 C. burnetii -positive valves and thrombus samples obtained from patients with Q fever endocarditis. Seven aneurysms and thrombus specimens were retrieved from patients with Q fever vascular infection. Samples were analyzed by culture, immunochemistry and FISH with oligonucleotide and PNA probes targeting C. burnetii -specific 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for five (17%) samples with significantly more copies of C. burnetii DNA than the negative ones ( p= 0.02). FISH was positive for 13 (43%) samples and presented 43% and 40% sensitivity compared to qPCR and culture, respectively. PNA FISH detected C. burnetii in 18 (60%) samples and presented 60% and 55% sensitivity compared to qPCR and culture, respectively. Immunohistochemistry had 38% and 28% sensitivity compared to FISH and PNA FISH, respectively. Samples found positive by both immunohistochemistry and PNA FISH contained significantly more copies of C. burnetii DNA than the negative ones ( p= 0.03). Finally, PNA FISH was more sensitive than FISH (60% versus 43%) for the detection of C. burnetii Conclusion. We provide evidence that PNA FISH and FISH are important assays for the diagnosis of C. burnetii endocarditis and vascular infections. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Chiral Magnetic Spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basar, Goekce; Dunne, Gerald V.; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the presence of a very strong magnetic field in the chirally broken phase induces inhomogeneous expectation values, of a spiral nature along the magnetic field axis, for the currents of charge and chirality, when there is finite baryon density or an imbalance between left and right chiralities. This 'chiral magnetic spiral' is a gapless excitation transporting the currents of (i) charge (at finite chirality), and (ii) chirality (at finite baryon density) along the direction of the magnetic field. In both cases it also induces in the transverse directions oscillating currents of charge and chirality. In heavy ion collisions, the chiral magnetic spiral possibly provides contributions both to the out-of-plane and the in-plane dynamical charge fluctuations recently observed at BNL RHIC.

  9. Effect of temperature and ionic strength on the dissociation kinetics and lifetime of PNA-DNA triplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosaganov, Y N; Stetsenko, D A; Lubyako, E N

    2000-01-01

    Dissociation kinetics of triplexes formed by molecules of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and DNA have been studied. The complexes consisted of oligomeric PNA containing 10 thymine bases and the dA(10) target incorporated in single-stranded (ssDNA) or double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Their dissociation wa...

  10. Subnanomolar antisense activity of phosphonate-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates delivered by cationic lipids to HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Hamzavi, Ramin; Nielsen, Peter E

    2008-01-01

    oligomer. This modification of the PNA does not interfere with the nucleic acid target binding affinity based on thermal stability of the PNA/RNA duplexes. When delivered to cultured HeLa pLuc705 cells by Lipofectamine, the PNAs showed dose-dependent nuclear antisense activity in the nanomolar range...

  11. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  12. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-01

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented

  13. Chiral discotics; expression and amplification of chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunsveld, L.; Meijer, E.W.; Rowan, A.E.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Denmark, S.E.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Meijer, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution, chirality and discotic liquid crystals are discussed as a tool for studying the self-assembly of these molecules, both in solution and in the solid state. Therefore, the objective of this chapter is to summarize and elucidate how molecular chirality can be expressed in discotic

  14. Enantiomeric Separation of 1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)alkylamines on Chiral Stationary Phases Based on Chiral Crown Ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soohyun; Kim, Sang Jun; Hyun, Myung Ho

    2012-01-01

    Optically active chiral amines are important as building blocks for pharmaceuticals and as scaffolds for chiral ligands and, consequently, many efforts have been devoted to the development of efficient methods for their preparation. For example, reduction of amine precursors with chiral catalysts, enzymatic kinetic resolution or dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic amines and the direct amination of ketones with transaminases have been developed as the efficient methods for the preparation of optically active chiral amines. During the process of developing or utilizing optically active chiral amines, the methods for the determination of their enantiomeric composition are essential. Among various methods, liquid chromatographic resolution of enantiomers on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been known to be one of the most accurate and economic means for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of optically active chiral compounds. Especially, CSPs based on chiral crown ethers have been successfully used for the resolution of racemic primary amines. For example, CSPs based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid (CSP 1, Figure 1) or (3,3'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl)-20-crown-6 (CSP 2 and CSP 3, Figure 1) have been known to be quite effective for the resolution of cyclic and non-cyclic amines, various fluoroquinolone antibacterials containing a primary amino group, tocainide (antiarrhythmic agent) and its analogues, aryl-a-amino ketones and 3-amino-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones

  15. Antibacterial Peptide Nucleic Acid-Antimicrobial Peptide (PNA-AMP) Conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anna Mette; Bonke, Gitte; Larsen, Camilla Josephine

    2016-01-01

    . In the present study we show that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with an intracellular mode of action can be efficient vehicles for bacterial delivery of an antibacterial PNA targeting the essential acpP gene. The results demonstrate that buforin 2-A (BF2-A), drosocin, oncocin 10, Pep-1-K, KLW-9,13-a, (P59→W59...

  16. Ultrasensitive FRET-based DNA sensor using PNA/DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan-Hee; Ahn, Dong June; Koo, Eunhae

    2016-12-01

    In the diagnosis of genetic diseases, rapid and highly sensitive DNA detection is crucial. Therefore, many strategies for detecting target DNA have been developed, including electrical, optical, and mechanical methods. Herein, a highly sensitive FRET based sensor was developed by using PNA (Peptide Nucleic Acid) probe and QD, in which red color QDs are hybridized with capture probes, reporter probes and target DNAs by EDC-NHS coupling. The hybridized probe with target DNA gives off fluorescent signal due to the energy transfer from QD to Cy5 dye in the reporter probe. Compared to the conventional DNA sensor using DNA probes, the DNA sensor using PNA probes shows higher FRET factor and efficiency due to the higher reactivity between PNA and target DNA. In addition, to elicit the effect of the distance between the donor and the acceptor, we have investigated two types of the reporter probes having Cy5 dyes attached at the different positions of the reporter probes. Results show that the shorter the distance between QDs and Cy5s, the stronger the signal intensity. Furthermore, based on the fluorescence microscopy images using microcapillary chips, the FRET signal is enhanced to be up to 276% times stronger than the signal obtained using the cuvette by the fluorescence spectrometer. These results suggest that the PNA probe system conjugated with QDs can be used as ultrasensitive DNA nanosensors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Organophosphonate-based PNA-functionalization of silicon nanowires for label-free DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani-Scholz, Anna; Pedone, Daniel; Dubey, Manish; Neppl, Stefan; Nickel, Bert; Feulner, Peter; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2008-08-01

    We investigated hydroxyalkylphosphonate monolayers as a novel platform for the biofunctionalization of silicon-based field effect sensor devices. This included a detailed study of the thin film properties of organophosphonate films on Si substrates using several surface analysis techniques, including AFM, ellipsometry, contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray reflectivity, and current-voltage characteristics in electrolyte solution. Our results indicate the formation of a dense monolayer on the native silicon oxide that has excellent passivation properties. The monolayer was biofunctionalized with 12 mer peptide nucleic acid (PNA) receptor molecules in a two-step procedure using the heterobifunctional linker, 3-maleimidopropionic-acid-N-hydroxysuccinimidester. Successful surface modification with the probe PNA was verified by XPS and contact angle measurements, and hybridization with DNA was determined by fluorescence measurements. Finally, the PNA functionalization protocol was translated to 2 microm long, 100 nm wide Si nanowire field effect devices, which were successfully used for label-free DNA/PNA hybridization detection.

  18. On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica

    2011-07-01

    In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)

  19. On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)

  20. PNA-PEG modified silicon platforms as functional bio-interfaces for applications in DNA microarrays and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani-Scholz, Anna; Pedone, Daniel; Blobner, Florian; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Tornow, Marc; Andruzzi, Luisa

    2009-03-09

    The synthesis and characterization of two types of silicon-based biofunctional interfaces are reported; each interface bonds a dense layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG(n)) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Phosphonate self-assembled monolayers were derivatized with PNA using a maleimido-terminated PEG(45). Similarly, siloxane monolayers were functionalized with PNA using a maleimido-terminated PEG(45) spacer and were subsequently modified with a shorter methoxy-terminated PEG(12) ("back-filling"). The long PEG(45) spacer was used to distance the PNA probe from the surface and to minimize undesirable nonspecific adsorption of DNA analyte. The short PEG(12) "back-filler" was used to provide additional passivation of the surface against nonspecific DNA adsorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis near the C 1s and N 1s ionization edges was done to characterize chemical groups formed in the near-surface region, which confirmed binding of PEG and PNA to the phosphonate and silane films. XPS also indicated that additional PEG chains were tethered to the surface during the back-filling process. Fluorescence hybridization experiments were carried out with complementary and noncDNA strands; both phosphonate and siloxane biofunctional surfaces were effective for hybridization of cDNA strands and significantly reduced nonspecific adsorption of the analyte. Spatial patterns were prepared by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micromolding on the PNA-functionalized surfaces; selective hybridization of fluorescently labeled DNA was shown at the PNA functionalized regions, and physisorption at the probe-less PEG-functionalized regions was dramatically reduced. These results show that PNA-PEG derivatized phosphonate monolayers hold promise for the smooth integration of device surface chemistry with semiconductor technology for the fabrication of DNA biosensors. In addition, our results confirm that PNA-PEG derivatized self-assembled carboxyalkylsiloxane films are

  1. Gelation induced supramolecular chirality: chirality transfer, amplification and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Pengfei; Cao, Hai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2014-08-14

    Supramolecular chirality defines chirality at the supramolecular level, and is generated from the spatial arrangement of component molecules assembling through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions, π-π stacking, hydrophobic interactions and so on. During the formation of low molecular weight gels (LMWGs), one kind of fascinating soft material, one frequently encounters the phenomenon of chirality as well as chiral nanostructures, either from chiral gelators or even achiral gelators. A view of gelation-induced supramolecular chirality will be very helpful to understand the self-assembly process of the gelator molecules as well as the chiral structures, the regulation of the chirality in the gels and the development of the "smart" chiral materials such as chiroptical devices, catalysts and chiral sensors. It necessitates fundamental understanding of chirality transfer and amplification in these supramolecular systems. In this review, recent progress in gelation-induced supramolecular chirality is discussed.

  2. Mechanical separation of chiral dipoles by chiral light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Hutchison, James A; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    We calculate optical forces and torques exerted on a chiral dipole by chiral light fields and reveal genuine chiral forces in combining the chiral contents of both light field and dipolar matter. Here, the optical chirality is characterized in a general way through the definition of optical chirality density and chirality flow. We show, in particular, that both terms have mechanical effects associated, respectively, with reactive and dissipative components of the chiral forces. Remarkably, these chiral force components are directly related to standard observables: optical rotation for the reactive component and circular dichroism for the dissipative one. As a consequence, the resulting forces and torques are dependent on the enantiomeric form of the chiral dipole. This suggests promising strategies for using chiral light forces to mechanically separate chiral objects according to their enantiomeric form. (paper)

  3. Role of SbmA in the Uptake of Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA)-Peptide Conjugates in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Vitali, Ally; Stach, James E M

    2013-01-01

    Antisense PNA oligomers targeting essential genes (acpP or ftsZ) and conjugated to the delivery peptide L((KFF)(3)K) show complete growth inhibition of wild type E. coli strain (MG1655) with submicromolar MIC. In this study we show that resistant mutants generated against such PNA......-peptide conjugates had disruptions in the region of sbmA, a gene encoding an inner membrane peptide transporter. The wild type sensitivity to the PNA conjugates was re-established in the resistance mutants by complementation with sbmA. Furthermore, deletion of sbmA in E. coli AS19, a strain that is sensitive...

  4. Rapid identification of bacteria and candida using pna-fish from blood and peritoneal fluid cultures: a retrospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Dana M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH is a rapid and established method for identification of Candida sp., Gram positive, and Gram negative bacteria from positive blood cultures. This study reports clinical experience in the evaluation of 103 positive blood cultures and 17 positive peritoneal fluid cultures from 120 patients using PNA-FISH. Our study provides evidence as to potential pharmaceutical cost savings based on rapid pathogen identification, in addition to the novel application of PNA-FISH to peritoneal fluid specimens. Methods Identification accuracy and elapsed time to identification of Gram positives, Gram negatives, and Candida sp., isolated from blood and peritoneal fluid cultures were assessed using PNA-FISH (AdvanDx, as compared to standard culture methods. Patient charts were reviewed to extrapolate potential pharmaceutical cost savings due to adjustment of antimicrobial or antifungal therapy, based on identification by PNA-FISH. Results In blood cultures, time to identification by standard culture methods for bacteria and Candida sp., averaged 83.6 hours (95% CI 56.7 to 110.5. Identification by PNA-FISH averaged 11.2 hours (95% CI 4.8 to 17.6. Overall PNA-FISH identification accuracy was 98.8% (83/84, 95% CI 93.5% to 99.9% as compared to culture. In peritoneal fluid, identification of bacteria by culture averaged 87.4 hours (95% CI −92.4 to 267.1. Identification by PNA-FISH averaged 16.4 hours (95% CI −57.3 to 90.0. Overall PNA-FISH identification accuracy was 100% (13/13, 95% CI 75.3% to 100%. For Candida sp., pharmaceutical cost savings based on PNA-FISH identification could be $377.74/day. For coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS, discontinuation of vancomycin could result in savings of $20.00/day. Conclusions In this retrospective study, excellent accuracy of PNA-FISH in blood and peritoneal fluids with reduced time to identification was observed, as compared to

  5. Active chiral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F

    2012-09-01

    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  6. Climatic Data Integration and Analysis - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.; Sheneman, L.; Gollberg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA) is a five-year USDA/NIFA-funded coordinated agriculture project to examine the sustainability of cereal crop production systems in the Pacific Northwest, in relationship to ongoing climate change. As part of this effort, an extensive data management system has been developed to enable researchers, students, and the public, to upload, manage, and analyze various data. The REACCH PNA data management team has developed three core systems to encompass cyberinfrastructure and data management needs: 1) the reacchpna.org portal (https://www.reacchpna.org) is the entry point for all public and secure information, with secure access by REACCH PNA members for data analysis, uploading, and informational review; 2) the REACCH PNA Data Repository is a replicated, redundant database server environment that allows for file and database storage and access to all core data; and 3) the REACCH PNA Libraries which are functional groupings of data for REACCH PNA members and the public, based on their access level. These libraries are accessible thru our https://www.reacchpna.org portal. The developed system is structured in a virtual server environment (data, applications, web) that includes a geospatial database/geospatial web server for web mapping services (ArcGIS Server), use of ESRI's Geoportal Server for data discovery and metadata management (under the ISO 19115-2 standard), Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) for data cataloging, and Interactive Python notebook server (IPython) technology for data analysis. REACCH systems are housed and maintained by the Northwest Knowledge Network project (www.northwestknowledge.net), which provides data management services to support research. Initial project data harvesting and meta-tagging efforts have resulted in the interrogation and loading of over 10 terabytes of climate model output, regional entomological data

  7. Cross-catalytic peptide nucleic acid (PNA) replication based on templated ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhal, Abhishek; Nielsen, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    We report the first PNA self-replicating system based on template directed cross-catalytic ligation, a process analogous to biological replication. Using two template PNAs and four pentameric precursor PNAs, all four possible carbodiimide assisted amide ligation products were detected...... precursors. Cross-catalytic product formation followed product inhibited kinetics, but approximately two replication rounds were observed. Analogous but less efficient replication was found for a similar tetrameric system. These results demonstrate that simpler nucleobase replication systems than natural...

  8. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  9. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1984-06-01

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP-violation, the Witten effect [a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP-non-conservation] is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a theta R-tilde R term in the Lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (author)

  10. Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-07-22

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

  11. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1985-01-01

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  12. Competitive chiral induction in a 2D molecular assembly: Intrinsic chirality versus coadsorber-induced chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Li, Shu-Ying; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Noncovalently introducing stereogenic information is a promising approach to embed chirality in achiral molecular systems. However, the interplay of the noncovalently introduced chirality with the intrinsic chirality of molecules or molecular aggregations has rarely been addressed. We report a competitive chiral expression of the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction and the intrinsic stereogenic center-controlled chirality induction in a two-dimensional (2D) molecular assembly at the liquid/solid interface. Two enantiomorphous honeycomb networks are formed by the coassembly of an achiral 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid (BIC) derivative and 1-octanol at the liquid/solid interface. The preferential formation of the globally homochiral assembly can be achieved either by using the chiral analog of 1-octanol, ( S )-6-methyl-1-octanol, as a chiral coadsorber to induce chirality to the BIC assembly via noncovalent hydrogen bonding or by covalently linking a chiral center in the side chain of BIC. Both the chiral coadsorber and the intrinsically chiral BIC derivative can act as a chiral seeds to induce a preferred handedness in the assembly of the achiral BIC derivatives. Furthermore, the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction can restrain or even overrule the manifestation of the intrinsic chirality of the BIC molecule and dominate the handedness of the 2D molecular coassembly. This study provides insight into the interplay of intrinsically chiral centers and external chiral coadsorbers in the chiral induction, transfer, and amplification processes of 2D molecular assembly.

  13. Nanoparticle for delivery of antisense γPNA oligomers targeting CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahal, Raman; McNeer, Nicole Ali; Ly, Danith H; Saltzman, W Mark; Glazer, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new class of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), i.e., gamma PNAs (γPNAs), creates the need for a general and effective method for its delivery into cells for regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. Here we report the antisense activity of a recently developed hydrophilic and biocompatible diethylene glycol (miniPEG)-based gamma peptide nucleic acid called MPγPNAs via its delivery by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticle system. We show that MPγPNA oligomers designed to bind to the selective region of chemokine receptor 5 (CC R5) transcript, induce potent and sequence-specific antisense effects as compared with regular PNA oligomers. In addition, PLGA nanoparticle delivery of MPγPNAs is not toxic to the cells. The findings reported in this study provide a combination of γPNA technology and PLGA-based nanoparticle delivery method for regulating gene expression in live cells via the antisense mechanism.

  14. Siegel's chiral boson and the chiral Schwinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper Siegel's proposal for a Lagrangian formulation of a chiral boson is analyzed by applying recent results on 2d chiral quantum gravity. A model is derived whose solution consists of a massive scalar and two massless chiral scalars. Therefore it is a minimally bosonized two-fermion chiral Schwinger model

  15. Observation of chiral phonons

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Hanyu; Yi, Jun; Li, Ming-yang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Lifa; Yang, Chih-Wen; Kaindl, Robert A.; Li, Lain-Jong; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.

  16. Observation of chiral phonons

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Hanyu

    2018-02-01

    Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.

  17. Chiral Spirals from Discontinuous Chiral Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Toru

    2014-09-01

    Recently phases of the inhomongeneous chiral condensates (IChC) attract renewed attentions in quark matter context. A number of theoretical studies have suggested that in some domain of moderate quark density the IChC phases are energetically more favored than the normal, chiral symmetric phase. In particular, the NJL-type model studies indicate that the phase of IChCs may mask the usual 1st order chiral phase transition line and its critical end point, and might change the conventional wisdom. In this talk, I will discuss characteristic features of the IChC phases and their potential impacts on the compact star physics. In particular, some of the IChC phases open gaps near the quark Fermi surface, suppressing back-reaction from the quark to gluon sectors. This mechanism delays the chiral restoration in the strange quark sector, forbids the emergence of the large bag constant, and as a consequence, makes the quark matter EOS very stiff. Recently phases of the inhomongeneous chiral condensates (IChC) attract renewed attentions in quark matter context. A number of theoretical studies have suggested that in some domain of moderate quark density the IChC phases are energetically more favored than the normal, chiral symmetric phase. In particular, the NJL-type model studies indicate that the phase of IChCs may mask the usual 1st order chiral phase transition line and its critical end point, and might change the conventional wisdom. In this talk, I will discuss characteristic features of the IChC phases and their potential impacts on the compact star physics. In particular, some of the IChC phases open gaps near the quark Fermi surface, suppressing back-reaction from the quark to gluon sectors. This mechanism delays the chiral restoration in the strange quark sector, forbids the emergence of the large bag constant, and as a consequence, makes the quark matter EOS very stiff. NSF Grants PHY09-69790, PHY13-05891.

  18. Geometrical approach to central molecular chirality: a chirality selection rule

    OpenAIRE

    Capozziello, S.; Lattanzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Chirality is of primary importance in many areas of chemistry and has been extensively investigated since its discovery. We introduce here the description of central chirality for tetrahedral molecules using a geometrical approach based on complex numbers. According to this representation, for a molecule having n chiral centres, it is possible to define an index of chirality. Consequently a chirality selection rule has been derived which allows the characterization of a molecule as achiral, e...

  19. Applications of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates

  20. Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musakhanov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The chiral bag model is considered. It is suggested that pions interact only with the surface of a quark ''bag'' and do not penetrate inside. In the case of a large bag the pion field is rather weak and goes to the linearized chiral bag model. Within that model the baryon mass spectrum, β decay axial constant, magnetic moments of baryons, pion-baryon coupling constants and their form factors are calculated. It is shown that pion corrections to the calculations according to the chiral bag model is essential. The obtained results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data

  1. The covariant chiral ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-23

    We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N=(4,4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T{sup 4}, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.

  2. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  3. Chiral near-fields around chiral dolmen nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tong; Wang, Tiankun; Chen, Yuyan; Wang, Yongkai; Qu, Yu; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating the handedness of the chiral molecule is of great importance in the field of pharmacology and biomedicine. Enhancing the chiral near-field is one way to increase the chiral signal of chiral molecules. In this paper, the chiral dolmen nanostructure (CDN) is proposed to enhance the chiral near-field. Numerical results show that the CDN can increase the optical chirality of the near-field by almost two orders of magnitude compared to that of a circularly polarized incident wave. In addition, the optical chirality of the near-field of the bonding mode is enhanced more than that of the antibonding mode. These results provide an effective method for tailoring the chiral near-field for biophotonics sensors. (paper)

  4. Chiral Gold Nanoclusters: Atomic Level Origins of Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2017-08-04

    Chiral nanomaterials have received wide interest in many areas, but the exact origin of chirality at the atomic level remains elusive in many cases. With recent significant progress in atomically precise gold nanoclusters (e.g., thiolate-protected Au n (SR) m ), several origins of chirality have been unveiled based upon atomic structures determined by using single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The reported chiral Au n (SR) m structures explicitly reveal a predominant origin of chirality that arises from the Au-S chiral patterns at the metal-ligand interface, as opposed to the chiral arrangement of metal atoms in the inner core (i.e. kernel). In addition, chirality can also be introduced by a chiral ligand, manifested in the circular dichroism response from metal-based electronic transitions other than the ligand's own transition(s). Lastly, the chiral arrangement of carbon tails of the ligands has also been discovered in a very recent work on chiral Au 133 (SR) 52 and Au 246 (SR) 80 nanoclusters. Overall, the origins of chirality discovered in Au n (SR) m nanoclusters may provide models for the understanding of chirality origins in other types of nanomaterials and also constitute the basis for the development of various applications of chiral nanoparticles. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  6. Pure chiral optical fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poladian, L; Straton, M; Docherty, A; Argyros, A

    2011-01-17

    We investigate the properties of optical fibres made from chiral materials, in which a contrast in optical activity forms the waveguide, rather than a contrast in the refractive index; we refer to such structures as pure chiral fibres. We present a mathematical formulation for solving the modes of circularly symmetric examples of such fibres and examine the guidance and polarisation properties of pure chiral step-index, Bragg and photonic crystal fibre designs. Their behaviour is shown to differ for left- and right-hand circular polarisation, allowing circular polarisations to be isolated and/or guided by different mechanisms, as well as differing from equivalent non-chiral fibres. The strength of optical activity required in each case is quantified.

  7. Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].

  8. Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanov, Mikhail

    2016-12-15

    This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].

  9. Baryon Chiral Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher,

    2002-08-08

    After contrasting the low energy effective theory for the baryon sector with one for the Goldstone sector, I use the example of pion nucleon scattering to discuss some of the progress and open issues in baryon chiral perturbation theory.

  10. Generalized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, M.; Stern, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Generalized Chiral Perturbation Theory enlarges the framework of the standard χPT (Chiral Perturbation Theory), relaxing certain assumptions which do not necessarily follow from QCD or from experiment, and which are crucial for the usual formulation of the low energy expansion. In this way, experimental tests of the foundations of the standard χPT become possible. Emphasis is put on physical aspects rather than on formal developments of GχPT. (author). 31 refs

  11. Generalized chiral membrane dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, R.; Rojas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We develop the dynamics of the chiral superconducting membranes (with null current) in an alternative geometrical approach. Besides of this, we show the equivalence of the resulting description with the one known Dirac-Nambu-Goto (DNG) case. Integrability for chiral string model is obtained using a proposed light-cone gauge. In a similar way, domain walls are integrated by means of a simple Ansatz. (Author)

  12. Surface density dependence of PCR amplicon hybridization on PNA/DNA probe layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Danfeng; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Fang

    2005-01-01

    at an intermediate sodium concentration (approximately 100 mM). These effects were mainly ascribed to the electrostatic cross talk among the hybridized DNA molecules and the secondary structure of PCR amplicons. For the negatively charged DNA probes, the hybridization reaction was subjected additionally to the DNA....../DNA electrostatic barrier, particularly in lower ionic strength range (e.g., 10 approximately 150 mM Na(+)). The electrostatic cross talk was shown to be largely reduced if the PNA probe layer was sufficiently diluted by following a strategic templated immobilization method. As a consequence, a pseudo...

  13. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...... in primary duck hepatocytes (PDH). RESULTS: Both PNAs reproducibly inhibited DHBV RT in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) of 10nM, whereas up to 600-fold higher concentration of S-ODNs was required for similar inhibition. The PNA targeting the bulge and upper stem of epsilon appeared as more efficient RT...

  14. Nanoparticle for delivery of antisense γPNA oligomers targeting CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Bahal, Raman; McNeer, Nicole Ali; Ly, Danith H.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Glazer, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new class of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), i.e., gamma PNAs (γPNAs), creates the need for a general and effective method for its delivery into cells for regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. Here we report the antisense activity of a recently developed hydrophilic and biocompatible diethylene glycol (miniPEG)-based gamma peptide nucleic acid called MPγPNAs via its delivery by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticle system. We show that MPγPNA oligome...

  15. Global anomalies in chiral gauge theories on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, O.; Campos, I.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the issue of global anomalies in chiral gauge theories on the lattice. In Luescher's approach, these obstructions make it impossible to define consistently a fermionic measure for the path integral. We show that an SU(2) theory has such a global anomaly if the Weyl fermion is in the fundamental representation. The anomaly in higher representations is also discussed. We finally show that this obstruction is the lattice analogue of the SU(2) anomaly first discovered by Witten. (orig.)

  16. Quenched chiral logarithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1992-04-01

    I develop a diagrammatic method for calculating chiral logarithms in the quenched approximation. While not rigorous, the method is based on physically reasonable assumptions, which can be tested by numerical simulations. The main results are that, at leading order in the chiral expansion, (a) there are no chiral logarithms in quenched f π m u = m d ; (b) the chiral logarithms in B K and related kaon B-parameters are, for m d = m s the same in the quenched approximation as in the full theory (c) for m π and the condensate, there are extra chiral logarithms due to loops containing the η', which lead to a peculiar non-analytic dependence of these quantities on the bare quark mass. Following the work of Gasser and Leutwyler, I discuss how there is a predictable finite volume dependence associated with each chiral logarithm. I compare the resulting predictions with numerical results: for most quantities the expected volume dependence is smaller than the errors. but for B V and B A there is an observed dependence which is consistent with the predictions

  17. Autoamplification of molecular chirality through the induction of supramolecular chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Beierle, John M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The

  18. Algebraic study of chiral anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral anomalies; gauge theories; bundles; connections; quantum field ... The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles by the introduction of a fixed background connection. ... Current Issue : Vol.

  19. Silver Films with Hierarchical Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liguo; Cao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Yingying; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

    2017-07-17

    Physical fabrication of chiral metallic films usually results in singular or large-sized chirality, restricting the optical asymmetric responses to long electromagnetic wavelengths. The chiral molecule-induced formation of silver films prepared chemically on a copper substrate through a redox reaction is presented. Three levels of chirality were identified: primary twisted nanoflakes with atomic crystal lattices, secondary helical stacking of these nanoflakes to form nanoplates, and tertiary micrometer-sized circinates consisting of chiral arranged nanoplates. The chiral Ag films exhibited multiple plasmonic absorption- and scattering-based optical activities at UV/Vis wavelengths based on their hierarchical chirality. The Ag films showed chiral selectivity for amino acids in catalytic electrochemical reactions, which originated from their primary atomic crystal lattices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references

  1. Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the

  2. Holographic Chiral Magnetic Spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun-Young; Sahoo, Bindusar; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2010-06-01

    We study the ground state of baryonic/axial matter at zero temperature chiral-symmetry broken phase under a large magnetic field, in the framework of holographic QCD by Sakai-Sugimoto. Our study is motivated by a recent proposal of chiral magnetic spiral phase that has been argued to be favored against previously studied phase of homogeneous distribution of axial/baryonic currents in terms of meson super-currents dictated by triangle anomalies in QCD. Our results provide an existence proof of chiral magnetic spiral in strong coupling regime via holography, at least for large axial chemical potentials, whereas we don't find the phenomenon in the case of purely baryonic chemical potential. (author)

  3. Chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1996-06-01

    After a general introduction to the structure of effective field theories, the main ingredients of chiral perturbation theory are reviewed. Applications include the light quark mass ratios and pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy. In the pion-nucleon system, the linear σ model is contrasted with chiral perturbation theory. The heavy-nucleon expansion is used to construct the effective pion-nucleon Lagrangian to third order in the low-energy expansion, with applications to nucleon Compton scattering. (author)

  4. Asymmetric chiral colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1990-01-01

    Chiral colour is considered in a general framework where the coupling constants associated with each SU(3) component are allowed to be different. To reproduce QCD at low energy, gluons and axigluons cannot then be maximally mixed. Present data form e + e - colliders contrains the axigluon mass to values between 50 GeV and 375 GeV whilst the mixing angle is bounded by 13deg and 45deg. The lower limit of the axigluon mass is a definite bound at 90% C.L., whereas the upper limit only applies if chiral colour is to explain the anomalously high rates of hadron production at TRISTAN. (orig.)

  5. Chirality: from QCD to condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharzeev, D.

    2015-01-01

    This lecture is about chirality and consists of 4 parts. In the first part a general introduction of chirality is given and its implementation in nuclear and particle physics, in particular the chiral magnetic effect, as well as Chirality in quantum materials (CME, optoelectronics, photonics) are discussed. The 2nd lecture is about the chiral magnetic effect. The 3rd lecture deals with the chiral magnetic effect and hydrodynamics and the last part with chirality and light. (nowak)

  6. Chiral algebras for trinion theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Madalena; Peelaers, Wolfger

    2015-01-01

    It was recently understood that one can identify a chiral algebra in any four-dimensional N=2 superconformal theory. In this note, we conjecture the full set of generators of the chiral algebras associated with the T n theories. The conjecture is motivated by making manifest the critical affine module structure in the graded partition function of the chiral algebras, which is computed by the Schur limit of the superconformal index for T n theories. We also explicitly construct the chiral algebra arising from the T 4 theory. Its null relations give rise to new T 4 Higgs branch chiral ring relations.

  7. Nanomolar Cellular Antisense Activity of Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Cholic Acid ("Umbrella") and Cholesterol Conjugates Delivered by Cationic Lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    of cholesterol and cholic acid ("umbrella") derivatives of splice correction antisense PNA oligomers. While the conjugates alone were practically inactive up to 1 µM, their activity was dramatically improved when delivered by a cationic lipid transfection agent (LipofectAMINE2000). In particular, PNAs...

  8. Chiral forces and molecular dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1992-01-01

    Chiral molecules leading to helical macromolecules seem to preserve information and extend it better. In the biological world RNA is the very paradigm for self-replication, elongation and autocatalytic editing. The nucleic acid itself is not chiral. It acquires its chirality by association with D-sugars. Although the chiral information or selectivity put in by the unit monomer is no longer of much interest to the biologists - they tend to leave it to the Darwinian selection principle to take care of it as illustrated by Frank's model - it is vital to understand the origin of chirality. There are three different approaches for the chiral origin of life: (1) Phenomenological, (2) Electromagnetic molecular and Coriolis forces and (3) Atomic or nuclear force, the neutral weak current. The phenomenological approach involves spontaneous symmetry breaking fluctuations in far for equilibrium systems or nucleation and crystallization. Chance plays a major role in the chiral molecule selected

  9. Chirality in molecular collision dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Chirality is a phenomenon that permeates the natural world, with implications for atomic and molecular physics, for fundamental forces and for the mechanisms at the origin of the early evolution of life and biomolecular homochirality. The manifestations of chirality in chemistry and biochemistry are numerous, the striking ones being chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis with important applications in molecular sciences and in industrial and pharmaceutical chemistry. Chiral discrimination phenomena, due to the existence of two enantiomeric forms, very well known in the case of interaction with light, but still nearly disregarded in molecular collision studies. Here we review some ideas and recent advances about the role of chirality in molecular collisions, designing and illustrating molecular beam experiments for the demonstration of chiral effects and suggesting a scenario for a stereo-directional origin of chiral selection.

  10. Application of PNA-technique for the measurement of multi-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevhoeiden, G.; Andersen, E.; Garder, K.; Rambaek, J.P.

    1986-09-01

    The pulsed neutron activation (PNA) technique is proposed for multi-phase flow monitoring of hydrocarbons. The reactions 12 C(n,p) 12 B and 12 C(n,n') 12 C both yeld 4.4 MeV in the form of gamma radiation as a measure of carbon content. Intensity measurement of the 4.4 MeV gamma line gives a measure of the carbon content in the irradiation zone. By use of a pulsed neutron source, an estimation of the carbon content time variation is possible. In the presence of sulphur in petroleum, the reaction 34 S(n,p) 34 P offers a better possibility for flow rate determination

  11. Insight into the chiral induction in supramolecular stacks through preferential chiral salvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, S.J.; Tomovic, Z.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    Preferred handedness in the supramolecular chirality of self-assembled achiral oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (OPV) derivatives is induced by chiral solvents and spectroscopic probing provides insight into the mechanistic aspects of this chiral induction through chiral solvation

  12. Synthesis and characterization of metastable, 20 nm-sized Pna21-LiCoPO4 nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Jennifer; Nordlund, Dennis; Doeff, Marca M.; Nilges, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The majority of research activities on LiCoPO 4 are focused on the phospho-olivine (space group Pnma), which is a promising high-voltage cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In contrast, comparably little is known about its metastable Pna2 1 modification. Herein, we present a comprehensive study on the structure–property relationships of 15–20 nm Pna2 1 -LiCoPO 4 nanospheres prepared by a simple microwave-assisted solvothermal process. Unlike previous reports, the results indicate that the compound is non-stoichiometric and shows cation-mixing with Co ions on the Li sites, which provides an explanation for the poor electrochemical performance. Co L 2,3 -edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic data confirm the local tetrahedral symmetry of Co 2+ . Comprehensive studies on the thermal stability using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and in situ powder X-ray diffraction show an exothermic phase transition to olivine Pnma-LiCoPO 4 at 527 °C. The influence of the atmosphere and the particle size on the thermal stability is also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Blue nano-sized Pna2 1 -LiCoPO 4, featuring tetrahedrally-coordinated Co 2+ , was synthesized in a rapid one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal process. The phase relation between this metastable and the stable polymorph was analyzed and electrochemical properties are discussed. - Highlights: • Preparation of uniform 15–20 nm nanospheres of metastable Pna2 1 -LiCoPO 4 polymorph. • Structure redetermination shows cation-mixing (Co blocking Li sites). • In situ investigation of phase transformation to olivine Pnma-LiCoPO 4 at 527 °C. • Pna2 1 -LiCoPO 4 reemerges as a stable high-temperature phase above 800 °C. • X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirms local tetrahedral symmetry (T d Co 2+ ).

  13. The impact of combined ENSO and PDO on the PNA climate: a 1,000-year climate modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, B. [Environment Canada, Climate Data and Analysis Section, Climate Research Division, Toronto, ON (Canada); Zwiers, F.W. [Environment Canada, Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Climate Research Division, Victoria (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzes the atmospheric response to the combined Pacific interannual ENSO and decadal-interdecadal PDO variability, with a focus on the Pacific-North American (PNA) sector, using a 1,000-year long integration of the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled climate model. Both the tropospheric circulation and the North American temperature suggest an enhanced PNA-like climate response and impacts on North America when ENSO and PDO variability are in phase. The anomalies of the centers of action for the PNA-like pattern are significantly different from zero and the anomaly pattern is field significant. In association with the stationary wave anomalies, large stationary wave activity fluxes appear in the mid-high latitudes originating from the North Pacific and flowing downstream toward North America. There are significant Rossby wave source anomalies in the extratropical North Pacific and in the subtropical North Pacific. In addition, the axis of the Pacific storm track shifts southward with the positive PNA. Atmospheric heating anomalies associated with ENSO variability are confined primarily to the tropics. There is an anomalous heating center over the northeast Pacific, together with anomalies with the same polarity in the tropical Pacific, for the PDO variability. The in-phase combination of ENSO and PDO would in turn provide anomalous atmospheric energy transports towards North America from both the Tropical Pacific and the North Pacific, which tends to favor the occurrence of stationary wave anomalies and would lead to a PNA-like wave anomaly structure. The modeling results also confirm our analysis based on the observational record in the twentieth century. (orig.)

  14. Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Huijuan; Hu Lian

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots

  15. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  16. Hybrid DNA i-motif: Aminoethylprolyl-PNA (pC5) enhance the stability of DNA (dC5) i-motif structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Chandrasekhar Reddy; Sharma, Nagendra K

    2017-12-15

    This report describes the synthesis of C-rich sequence, cytosine pentamer, of aep-PNA and its biophysical studies for the formation of hybrid DNA:aep-PNAi-motif structure with DNA cytosine pentamer (dC 5 ) under acidic pH conditions. Herein, the CD/UV/NMR/ESI-Mass studies strongly support the formation of stable hybrid DNA i-motif structure with aep-PNA even near acidic conditions. Hence aep-PNA C-rich sequence cytosine could be considered as potential DNA i-motif stabilizing agents in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-uniform chiral phase in effective chiral quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadzikowski, M.; Broniowski, W.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the phase diagram in effective chiral quark models (the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the σ-model with quarks) and show that at the mean-field level a phase with a periodically-modulated chiral fields separates the usual phases with broken and restored chiral symmetry. A possible signal of such a phase is the production of multipion jets travelling in opposite directions, with individual pions having momenta of the order of several hundred MeV. This signal can be interpreted in terms of disoriented chiral condensates. (author)

  18. Chiral magnetic effect of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Tomoya

    2018-05-01

    We study a photonic analog of the chiral magnetic (vortical) effect. We discuss that the vector component of magnetoelectric tensors plays a role of "vector potential," and its rotation is understood as "magnetic field" of a light. Using the geometrical optics approximation, we show that "magnetic fields" cause an anomalous shift of a wave packet of a light through an interplay with the Berry curvature of photons. The mechanism is the same as that of the chiral magnetic (vortical) effect of a chiral fermion, so that we term the anomalous shift "chiral magnetic effect of a light." We further study the chiral magnetic effect of a light beyond geometric optics by directly solving the transmission problem of a wave packet at a surface of a magnetoelectric material. We show that the experimental signal of the chiral magnetic effect of a light is the nonvanishing of transverse displacements for the beam normally incident to a magnetoelectric material.

  19. Chiral Responsive Liquid Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ma, Junkai; Shi, Fangdan; Tian, Demei; Li, Haibing

    2017-08-01

    How to convert the weak chiral-interaction into the macroscopic properties of materials remains a huge challenge. Here, this study develops highly fluorescent, selectively chiral-responsive liquid quantum dots (liquid QDs) based on the hydrophobic interaction between the chiral chains and the oleic acid-stabilized QDs, which have been designated as (S)-1810-QDs. The fluorescence spectrum and liquidity of thermal control demonstrate the fluorescence properties and the fluidic behavior of (S)-1810-QDs in the solvent-free state. Especially, (S)-1810-QDs exhibit a highly chiral-selective response toward (1R, 2S)-2-amino-1,2-diphenyl ethanol. It is anticipated that this study will facilitate the construction of smart chiral fluidic sensors. More importantly, (S)-1810-QDs can become an attractive material for chiral separation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chiral colour and axigluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studies the phenomenological implications of the Chiral Colour model which allow him to derive experimental bounds on the axigluon mass or to predict deviations from the Standard Model. After a short introduction to the theory, the author examines the way it modifies the standard decay of quarkonium. Comparison with the observed lifetime of the upsilon allows him to exclude the existence of axigluons lighter than 9 GeV. (Others have since extended the work and were able to increase this limit to 25 GeV.) He then studies the Chiral Colour contribution to the hadronic cross-section in the electron-positron scattering and derive a conservative lower bound of 50 GeV for the axigluon mass. Finally, he predicts observable enhancements of the lifetime and rare decay channels of the Z O in the presence of light axigluons

  1. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  2. On chiral bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastianelli, F.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the bosonization of chiral fermions in a gravitational background, using a path integral approach. The bosonic model is given by an action proposed some time ago by Floreanini and Jackiw, suitably coupled to gravity. We use a regulator for the path integral measure obtained from the general construction of Diaz, Hatsuda, Troost, van Nieuwenhuizen and Van Proeyen. We show that the effective actions are identical. (orig.)

  3. Dynamical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colanero, K.; Chu, M.-C.

    2002-01-01

    We study a dynamical chiral bag model, in which massless fermions are confined within an impenetrable but movable bag coupled to meson fields. The self-consistent motion of the bag is obtained by solving the equations of motion exactly assuming spherical symmetry. When the bag interacts with an external meson wave we find three different kinds of resonances: fermionic, geometric, and σ resonances. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results

  4. Chiral Dynamics 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry

    2007-10-01

    pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4

  5. Identifying chiral bands in real nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirinda, O.; Lawrie, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of the presently used fingerprints of chiral bands (originally derived for strongly broken chirality) is investigated for real chiral systems. In particular the chiral fingerprints concerning the B(M1) staggering patterns and the energy staggering are studied. It is found that both fingerprints show considerable changes for real chiral systems, a behaviour that creates a significant risk for misinterpretation of the experimental data and can lead to a failure to identify real chiral systems. (orig.)

  6. Chiral algebras of class S

    CERN Document Server

    Beem, Christopher; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C.

    2015-01-01

    Four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories have families of protected correlation functions that possess the structure of two-dimensional chiral algebras. In this paper, we explore the chiral algebras that arise in this manner in the context of theories of class S. The class S duality web implies nontrivial associativity properties for the corresponding chiral algebras, the structure of which is best summarized in the language of generalized topological quantum field theory. We make a number of conjectures regarding the chiral algebras associated to various strongly coupled fixed points.

  7. Simplified chiral superfield propagators for chiral constant mass superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    Unconstrained superfield potentials are introduced to derive Feynman rules for chiral superfields following conventional procedure which is easy and instructive. Propagators for the case when the mass parameters are constant chiral superfields are derived. The propagators reported here are very simple compared to those available in literature and allow a manageable calculation of higher loops. (Author) [pt

  8. A novel mode for transcription inhibition mediated by PNA-induced R-loops with a model in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Alicia D; Belotserkovskii, Boris P; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2018-02-01

    The selective inhibition of transcription of a chosen gene by an artificial agent has numerous applications. Usually, these agents are designed to bind a specific nucleotide sequence in the promoter or within the transcribed region of the chosen gene. However, since optimal binding sites might not exist within the gene, it is of interest to explore the possibility of transcription inhibition when the agent is designed to bind at other locations. One of these possibilities arises when an additional transcription initiation site (e.g. secondary promoter) is present upstream from the primary promoter of the target gene. In this case, transcription inhibition might be achieved by inducing the formation of an RNA-DNA hybrid (R-loop) upon transcription from the secondary promoter. The R-loop could extend into the region of the primary promoter, to interfere with promoter recognition by RNA polymerase and thereby inhibit transcription. As a sequence-specific R-loop-inducing agent, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) could be designed to facilitate R-loop formation by sequestering the non-template DNA strand. To investigate this mode for transcription inhibition, we have employed a model system in which a PNA binding site is localized between the T3 and T7 phage RNA polymerase promoters, which respectively assume the roles of primary and secondary promoters. In accord with our model, we have demonstrated that with PNA-bound DNA substrates, transcription from the T7 promoter reduces transcription from the T3 promoter by 30-fold, while in the absence of PNA binding there is no significant effect of T7 transcription upon T3 transcription. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chiral nanophotonics chiral optical properties of plasmonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schäferling, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the physics behind the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures focusing on chiral aspects. It explains in detail how the geometry determines chiral near-fields and how to tailor their shape and strength. Electromagnetic fields with strong optical chirality interact strongly with chiral molecules and, therefore, can be used for enhancing the sensitivity of chiroptical spectroscopy techniques. Besides a short review of the latest results in the field of plasmonically enhanced enantiomer discrimination, this book introduces the concept of chiral plasmonic near-field sources for enhanced chiroptical spectroscopy. The discussion of the fundamental properties of these light sources provides the theoretical basis for further optimizations and is of interest for researchers at the intersection of nano-optics, plasmonics and stereochemistry. .

  10. High affinity γPNA sandwich hybridization assay for rapid detection of short nucleic acid targets with single mismatch discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Johnathan M; Zhang, Li Ang; Manna, Arunava; Armitage, Bruce A; Ly, Danith H; Schneider, James W

    2013-07-08

    Hybridization analysis of short DNA and RNA targets presents many challenges for detection. The commonly employed sandwich hybridization approach cannot be implemented for these short targets due to insufficient probe-target binding strengths for unmodified DNA probes. Here, we present a method capable of rapid and stable sandwich hybridization detection for 22 nucleotide DNA and RNA targets. Stable hybridization is achieved using an n-alkylated, polyethylene glycol γ-carbon modified peptide nucleic acid (γPNA) amphiphile. The γPNA's exceptionally high affinity enables stable hybridization of a second DNA-based probe to the remaining bases of the short target. Upon hybridization of both probes, an electrophoretic mobility shift is measured via interaction of the n-alkane modification on the γPNA with capillary electrophoresis running buffer containing nonionic surfactant micelles. We find that sandwich hybridization of both probes is stable under multiple binding configurations and demonstrate single base mismatch discrimination. The binding strength of both probes is also stabilized via coaxial stacking on adjacent hybridization to targets. We conclude with a discussion on the implementation of the proposed sandwich hybridization assay as a high-throughput microRNA detection method.

  11. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of PNA-peptide-DETA conjugates as potential cell penetrating artificial ribonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lene; de Koning, Martijn C; van Kuik-Romeijn, Petra; Weterings, Jimmy; Pol, Christine J; Platenburg, Gerard; Overhand, Mark; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; van Boom, Jacques H

    2004-01-01

    We report the synthesis of novel artificial ribonucleases with potentially improved cellular uptake. The design of trifunctional conjugates 1a and 1b is based on the specific RNA-recognizing properties of PNA, the RNA-cleaving abilities of diethylenetriamine (DETA), and the peptide (KFF)(3)K for potential uptake into E. coli. The conjugates were assembled in a convergent synthetic route involving native chemical ligation of a PNA, containing an N-terminal cysteine, with the C-terminal thioester of the cell-penetrating (KFF)(3)K peptide to give 12a and 12b. These hybrids contained a free cysteine side-chain, which was further functionalized with an RNA-hydrolyzing diethylenetriamine (DETA) moiety. The trifunctional conjugates (1a, 1b) were evaluated for RNA-cleaving properties in vitro and showed efficient degradation of the target RNA at two major cleavage sites. It was also established that the cleavage efficiency strongly depended on the type of spacer connecting the PNA and the peptide.

  12. Chiral Cliffs: Investigating the Influence of Chirality on Binding Affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Lewis, Richard A; Fechner, Nikolas; Ertl, Peter

    2018-05-11

    Chirality is understood by many as a binary concept: a molecule is either chiral or it is not. In terms of the action of a structure on polarized light, this is indeed true. When examined through the prism of molecular recognition, the answer becomes more nuanced. In this work, we investigated chiral behavior on protein-ligand binding: when does chirality make a difference in binding activity? Chirality is a property of the 3D structure, so recognition also requires an appreciation of the conformation. In many situations, the bioactive conformation is undefined. We set out to address this by defining and using several novel 2D descriptors to capture general characteristic features of the chiral center. Using machine-learning methods, we built different predictive models to estimate if a chiral pair (a set of two enantiomers) might exhibit a chiral cliff in a binding assay. A set of about 3800 chiral pairs extracted from the ChEMBL23 database was used to train and test our models. By achieving an accuracy of up to 75 %, our models provide good performance in discriminating chiral cliffs from non-cliffs. More importantly, we were able to derive some simple guidelines for when one can reasonably use a racemate and when an enantiopure compound is needed in an assay. We critically discuss our results and show detailed examples of using our guidelines. Along with this publication we provide our dataset, our novel descriptors, and the Python code to rebuild the predictive models. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.

    2004-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term

  14. Fluorine-18 labelling of a novel series of chimeric, mdm2 oncogene targeting, peptide-pna oligomers using [18F]FPyME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnast, B.; Hinnen, F.; Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B.; Dolle, F.; Nielsen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) form a unique class of synthetic macromolecules, originally designed as ligands for the recognition of double stranded DNA, where the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of original DNA is replaced by a pseudo-peptide N-(2-aminoethyl)glycyl backbone, while retaining the nucleobases of DNA. PNAs have already showed promising therapeutic potential as antisense and anti-gene agents and are inspiring the development of a variety of research and diagnostic assays, including their use as imaging tools. Within our intensive programs of development of oligonucleotide-based probes for PET-imaging, a novel series of chimeric peptide-PNA oligomers has been designed as complementary antisense probes targeting a specific 15-base sequence located at the intron-exon junction of the pre-mRNA of the murine double minute (mdm2) oncogene. This gene codes for a p53 interacting protein that represses p53 transcriptional activity, and appears to be over expressed in several tumor types including soft tissue sarcomas and osteosarcomas as well as breast tumors. For in vivo 3D-imaging purposes, all oligomers include a cysteine thus providing a sulfhydryl function permitting prosthetic conjugation with maleimide-based reagents such as AlexaFluor680 R (AF680) for optical fluorescence imaging and [ 18 F]FPyME (1-[3-(2-[ 18 F]fluoropyridin-3-yloxy)propyl]pyrrole-2, 5-dione), a prosthetic reagent labeled with the positron-emitter fluorine-18 for PET imaging, which latter work is presented herein. Methods: [ 18 F]FPyME was prepared using a three-step radiochemical pathway already reported and includes an HPLC-purification (semi-preparative SiO 2 Zorbax R Rx-SIL, Hewlett Packard). [ 18 F]FPyME was conjugated with the peptide-PNA oligomers (PNA3132, PNA3133, and PNA3135, 0.25-0.30 micro-moles) in 1/9 (v:v) mixture (1 mL) of DMSO and 0.1 M aq. PBS (pH 8) at room temperature for 15 min. The [ 18 F]FPyME-conjugated products (c-[ 18 F]PNA

  15. Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-08-01

    In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of metastable, 20 nm-sized Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4} nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Jennifer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Chemistry, Synthesis and Characterization of Innovative Materials, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Doeff, Marca M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nilges, Tom, E-mail: tom.nilges@lrz.tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Department of Chemistry, Synthesis and Characterization of Innovative Materials, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    The majority of research activities on LiCoPO{sub 4} are focused on the phospho-olivine (space group Pnma), which is a promising high-voltage cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In contrast, comparably little is known about its metastable Pna2{sub 1} modification. Herein, we present a comprehensive study on the structure–property relationships of 15–20 nm Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4} nanospheres prepared by a simple microwave-assisted solvothermal process. Unlike previous reports, the results indicate that the compound is non-stoichiometric and shows cation-mixing with Co ions on the Li sites, which provides an explanation for the poor electrochemical performance. Co L{sub 2,3}-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic data confirm the local tetrahedral symmetry of Co{sup 2+}. Comprehensive studies on the thermal stability using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and in situ powder X-ray diffraction show an exothermic phase transition to olivine Pnma-LiCoPO{sub 4} at 527 °C. The influence of the atmosphere and the particle size on the thermal stability is also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Blue nano-sized Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4,} featuring tetrahedrally-coordinated Co{sup 2+}, was synthesized in a rapid one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal process. The phase relation between this metastable and the stable polymorph was analyzed and electrochemical properties are discussed. - Highlights: • Preparation of uniform 15–20 nm nanospheres of metastable Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4} polymorph. • Structure redetermination shows cation-mixing (Co blocking Li sites). • In situ investigation of phase transformation to olivine Pnma-LiCoPO{sub 4} at 527 °C. • Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4} reemerges as a stable high-temperature phase above 800 °C. • X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirms local tetrahedral symmetry (T{sub d} Co{sup 2+}).

  17. Flatspace chiral supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Detournary, Stéphane; Parekh, Pulastya

    2018-05-01

    We propose a holographic duality between a 2 dimensional (2d) chiral superconformal field theory and a certain theory of supergravity in 3d with flatspace boundary conditions that is obtained as a double scaling limit of a parity breaking theory of supergravity. We show how the asymptotic symmetries of the bulk theory reduce from the "despotic" super Bondi-Metzner-Sachs algebra (or equivalently the inhomogeneous super Galilean conformal algebra) to a single copy of the super-Virasoro algebra in this limit and also reproduce the same reduction from a study of null vectors in the putative 2d dual field theory.

  18. Chiral Nuclear Dynamics II

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque

    2008-01-01

    This is the sequel to the first volume to treat in one effective field theory framework the physics of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions. This is vital for understanding the high temperature phenomena taking place in relativistic heavy ion collisions and in the early Universe, as well as the high-density matter predicted to be present in compact stars. The underlying thesis is that what governs hadronic properties in a heat bath and/or a dense medium is hidden local symmetry which emerges from chiral dynamics of light quark systems and from the duality between QCD in 4D and

  19. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  20. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin...

  1. NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere

  2. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport

  3. A novel pseudo-complementary PNA G-C base pair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne G.; Dahl, Otto; Petersen, Asger Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    Pseudo-complementary oligonucleotide analogues and mimics provide novel opportunities for targeting duplex structures in RNA and DNA. Previously, a pseudo-complementary A-T base pair has been introduced. Towards sequence unrestricted targeting, a pseudo-complementary G-C base pair consisting...

  4. Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatish; Thomas, K George; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2016-10-18

    The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided.

  5. Chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masayasu

    2009-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory has been used for great number of phenomenological analyses in low energy QCD as well as the lattice QCD analyses since the creation of the theory by Weinberg in 1979 followed by its consolidation by Gasser and Leutwyler in 1984 and 85. The theory is now the highly established one as the approach based on the effective field theory to search for Green function including quantum correlations in the frame of the systematic expansion technique using Lagrangian which includes all of the terms allowed by the symmetry. This review has been intended to describe how systematically physical quantities are calculated in the framework of the chiral symmetry. Consequently many of the various phenomenological analyses are not taken up here for which other reports are to be referred. Further views are foreseen to be developed based on the theory in addition to numbers of results reported up to the present. Finally π-π scattering is taken up to discuss to what energy scale the theory is available. (S. Funahashi)

  6. Chiral quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  7. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  8. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  9. Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, U.G.

    1991-09-01

    I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, πN scattering and the σ-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon

  10. Chiral recognition in separation science: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Gerhard K E

    2013-01-01

    Chiral recognition phenomena play an important role in nature as well as analytical separation sciences. In separation sciences such as chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, enantiospecific interactions between the enantiomers of an analyte and the chiral selector are required in order to observe enantioseparations. Due to the large structural variety of chiral selectors applied, different mechanisms and structural features contribute to the chiral recognition process. This chapter briefly illustrates the current models of the enantiospecific recognition on the structural basics of various chiral selectors.

  11. New remarks on chiral bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Dutra, A. de

    1992-01-01

    We discuss a certain duality between the constraints appearing in ordinary Lagrangian density and its first order counterpart for the gauged Siegel chiral boson. It is demonstrated the equivalence, at the classical level, of the two versions of the gauged Siegel chiral boson to its corresponding gauged Floreanini-Jackiw chiral bosons. It is also argued that the most general constrained Lagrangian density, that leads to a bosonic field obeying a first order differential equation of motion and preserve simultaneously Lorentz invariance, is just the Floreanini-Jackiw one. (author)

  12. Vector mesons and chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1989-01-01

    The ambiguities in the off-shell behaviour of spin-1 exchange can be resolved to O(p 4 ) in the chiral low-energy expansion if the asymptotic behaviour of QCD is properly incorporated. As a consequence, the chiral version of vector (and axial-vector) meson dominance is model independent. Additional high-energy constraints motivated by QCD determine the V,A resonance couplings uniquely. In particular, QCD in its effective chiral realization sucessfully predicts Γ(ρ→2π). 10 refs. (Author)

  13. Nonlinear spectroscopic studies of chiral media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, Mikhail Alexandrovich

    2004-01-01

    Molecular chirality plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and medicine. Traditional optical techniques for probing chirality, such as circular dichroism and Raman optical activity rely on electric-dipole forbidden transitions. As a result, their intrinsic low sensitivity limits their use to probe bulk chirality rather than chiral surfaces, monolayers or thin films often important for chemical or biological systems. Contrary to the traditional chirality probes, chiral signal in sum-frequency generation (SFG) is electric-dipole allowed both on chiral surface and in chiral bulk making it a much more promising tool for probing molecular chirality. SFG from a chiral medium was first proposed in 1965, but had never been experimentally confirmed until this thesis work was performed. This thesis describes a set of experiments successfully demonstrating that chiral SFG responses from chiral monolayers and liquids are observable. It shows that, with tunable inputs, SFG can be used as a sensitive spectroscopic tool to probe chirality in both electronic and vibrational resonances of chiral molecules. The monolayer sensitivity is feasible in both cases. It also discusses the relevant theoretical models explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in vibrational and electronic SFG spectroscopies

  14. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  15. A Tat-conjugated Peptide Nucleic Acid Tat-PNA-DR Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo by Targeting LTR Direct Repeats of HBV RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhengyang; Han, Shisong; Hong, Wei; Lang, Yange; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Yongxiang; Li, Zeyong; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Zhang, Xianzheng; Cao, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma, all of which are severe threats to human health. However, current clinical therapies for HBV are limited by potential side effects, toxicity, and drug-resistance. In this study, a cell-penetrating peptide-conjugated peptide nucleic acid (PNA), Tat-PNA-DR, was designed to target the direct repeat (DR) sequences of HBV. Tat-PNA-DR effectively inhibited HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells. Its anti-HBV effect relied on the binding of Tat-PNA-DR to the DR, whereby it suppressed the translation of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBsAg, HBV core, hepatitis B virus x protein, and HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) and the reverse transcription of the HBV genome. Furthermore, Tat-PNA-DR administered by intravenous injection efficiently cleared HBeAg and HBsAg in an acute hepatitis B mouse model. Importantly, it induced an 80% decline in HBV DNA in mouse serum, which was similar to the effect of the widely used clinical drug Lamivudine (3TC). Additionally, a long-term hydrodynamics HBV mouse model also demonstrated Tat-PNA-DR's antiviral effect. Interestingly, Tat-PNA-DR displayed low cytotoxicity, low mouse acute toxicity, low immunogenicity, and high serum stability. These data indicate that Tat-PNA-DR is a unique PNA and a promising drug candidate against HBV. PMID:26978579

  16. A Tat-conjugated Peptide Nucleic Acid Tat-PNA-DR Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo by Targeting LTR Direct Repeats of HBV RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyang Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major cause of chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma, all of which are severe threats to human health. However, current clinical therapies for HBV are limited by potential side effects, toxicity, and drug-resistance. In this study, a cell-penetrating peptide-conjugated peptide nucleic acid (PNA, Tat-PNA-DR, was designed to target the direct repeat (DR sequences of HBV. Tat-PNA-DR effectively inhibited HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells. Its anti-HBV effect relied on the binding of Tat-PNA-DR to the DR, whereby it suppressed the translation of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, HBsAg, HBV core, hepatitis B virus x protein, and HBV reverse transcriptase (RT and the reverse transcription of the HBV genome. Furthermore, Tat-PNA-DR administered by intravenous injection efficiently cleared HBeAg and HBsAg in an acute hepatitis B mouse model. Importantly, it induced an 80% decline in HBV DNA in mouse serum, which was similar to the effect of the widely used clinical drug Lamivudine (3TC. Additionally, a long-term hydrodynamics HBV mouse model also demonstrated Tat-PNA-DR's antiviral effect. Interestingly, Tat-PNA-DR displayed low cytotoxicity, low mouse acute toxicity, low immunogenicity, and high serum stability. These data indicate that Tat-PNA-DR is a unique PNA and a promising drug candidate against HBV.

  17. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  18. The Palmottu analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Blomqvist, R.; Suksi, J.

    1993-01-01

    The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out in 1992 at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, which is a small U-Th mineralization in Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland. Additionally, the report includes several separate articles dealing with various aspects of the Palmottu Analogue Project: (1) deep groundwater flow, (2) interpretation of hydraulic connections, (3) characterization of groundwater colloids, (4) uranium mineral-groundwater equilibrium, (5) water-rock interaction and (6) modelling of in situ matrix diffusion. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes (1) structural interpretations partly based on geophysical measurements, (2) hydrological studies including hydraulic drill-hole measurements, (3) flow modelling, (4) hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, (5) mineralogical studies, (6) geochemical interpretation and modelling, (7) studies of radionuclide mobilization and retardation including matrix diffusion, and (8) modelling of uranium series data. Palaeohydrogeological aspects, due to the anticipated future glaciation of the Fennoscandian Shield, are of special interest. Quaternary sediments are studied to gain information on post-glacial migration in the overburden. (orig.)

  19. Quantum analogue computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  20. Deformed chiral nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1991-04-18

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear {sigma}-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and g{sub A}. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations. (orig.).

  1. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  2. The impact of monthly variation of the Pacific–North America (PNA teleconnection pattern on wintertime surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Feng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific–North America teleconnection (PNA is the leading general circulation pattern in the troposphere over the region of North Pacific to North America during wintertime. This study examined the impacts of monthly variations of the PNA phase (positive or negative phase on wintertime surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States (US by analyzing observations during 1999–2013 from the Air Quality System of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-AQS and the model results for 1986–2006 from the global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. The composite analyses on the EPA-AQS observations over 1999–2013 showed that the average concentrations of PM2.5, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosols over the US were higher in the PNA positive phases (25 % of the winter months examined, and this fraction of months had the highest positive PNA index values than in the PNA negative phases (25 % of the winter months examined, and this fraction of months had the highest negative PNA index values by 1.0 µg m−3 (8.7 %, 0.01 µg m−3 (0.5 %, 0.3 µg m−3 (29.1 %, 0.1 µg m−3 (11.9 %, 0.6 µg m−3 (13.5 %, and 0.2 µg m−3 (27.8 %, respectively. The simulated geographical patterns of the differences in concentrations of all aerosol species between the PNA positive and negative phases were similar to observations. Based on the GEOS-Chem simulation, the pattern correlation coefficients were calculated to show the impacts of PNA-induced variations in meteorological fields on aerosol concentrations. The PNA phase was found (i to influence sulfate concentrations mainly through changes in planetary boundary layer height (PBLH, precipitation (PR, and temperature; (ii to influence nitrate concentrations mainly through changes in temperature; and (iii to influence concentrations of ammonium, organic carbon, and black

  3. Conformal scalar fields and chiral splitting on super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hoker, E.; Phong, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    We provide a complete description of correlation functions of scalar superfields on a super Riemann surface, taking into account zero modes and non-trivial topology. They are built out of chirally split correlation functions, or conformal blocks at fixed internal momenta. We formulate effective rules which determine these completely in terms of geometric invariants of the super Riemann surface. The chirally split correlation functions have non-trivial monodromy and produce single-valued amplitudes only upon integration over loop momenta. Our discussion covers the even spin structure as well as the odd spin structure case which had been the source of many difficulties in the past. Super analogues of Green's functions, holomorphic spinors, and prime forms emerge which should pave the way to function theory on super Riemann surfaces. In superstring theories, chirally split amplitudes for scalar superfields are crucial in enforcing the GSO projection required for consistency. However one really knew how to carry this out only in the operator formalism to one-loop order. Our results provide a way of enforcing the GSO projection to any loop. (orig.)

  4. Pyrrolidinyl PNA polypyrrole/silver nanofoam electrode as a novel label-free electrochemical miRNA-21 biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangkamano, Tawatchai; Numnuam, Apon; Limbut, Warakorn; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2018-04-15

    A label-free electrochemical miRNA biosensor was developed based on a pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA)/polypyrrole (PPy)/silver nanofoam (AgNF) modified electrode. The AgNF was electrodeposited as redox indicator on a gold electrode, which was then functionalized with an electropolymerized layer of PPy, a conducting polymer, to immobilize the PNA probes. The fabrication process was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biosensor was used to detect miRNA-21, a biomarker abnormally expressed in most cancers. The signal was monitored by the change in current of the AgNF redox reaction before and after hybridization using cyclic voltammetry. Two PNA probe lengths were investigated and the longer probe exhibited a better performance. Nucleotide overhangs on the electrode side affected the signal more than overhangs on the solution side due to the greater insulation of the sensing surface. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical signal was proportional to miRNA-21 concentrations between 0.20fM and 1.0nM, with a very low detection limit of 0.20fM. The biosensor showed a high specificity which could discriminate between complementary, single-, doubled-base mismatched, and non-complementary targets. Three out of the seven tested plasma samples provided detectable concentrations (63 ± 4, 111 ± 4 and 164 ± 7fM). The sensor also showed good recoveries (81-119%). The results indicated the possibilities of this biosensor for analysis without RNA extraction and/or amplification, making the sensor potentially useful for both the prognosis and diagnosis of cancer in clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and Chromatography-Free Purification of PNA-PEO Conjugates for the Functionalisation of Gold Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Romanato

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs linked to high molecular weight (MW poly(ethylene oxide (PEO derivatives could be useful conjugates for the direct functionalisation of gold surfaces dedicated to Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR-based DNA sensing. However their use is hampered by the difficulty to obtain them through a convenient and economical route. In this work we compared three synthetic strategies to obtain PNA-high MW PEO conjugates composed of (a a 15-mer PNA sequence as the probe complementary to genomic DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (b a PEO moiety (2 or 5 KDa MW and (c a terminal trityl-protected thiol necessary (after acidic deprotection for grafting to gold surfaces. The 15-mer PNA was obtained by solid-phase synthesis. Its amino terminal group was later condensed to bi-functional PEO derivatives (2 and 5 KDa MW carrying a Trt-cysteine at one end and a carboxyl group at the other end. The reaction was carried out either in solution, using HATU or PyOxim as coupling agents, or through the solid-phase approach, with 49.6%, 100% and 5.2% yield, respectively. A differential solvent extraction strategy for product purification without the need for chromatography is described. The ability of the 5 KDa PEO conjugate to function as a probe for complementary DNA detection was demonstrated using a Grating-Coupling Surface Plasmon Resonance (GC-SPR system. The optimized PEO conjugation and purification protocols are economical and simple enough to be reproduced also within laboratories that are not highly equipped for chemical synthesis.

  6. Chiral fermions on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.

    1995-01-01

    The overlap approach to chiral gauge theories on arbitrary D-dimensional lattices is studied. The doubling problem and its relation to chiral anomalies for D = 2 and 4 is examined. In each case it is shown that the doublers can be eliminated and the well known perturbative results for chiral anomalies can be recovered. We also consider the multi-flavour case and give the general criteria for the construction of anomaly free chiral gauge theories on arbitrary lattices. We calculate the second order terms in a continuum approximation to the overlap formula in D dimensions and show that they coincide with the bilinear part of the effective action of D-dimensional Weyl fermions coupled to a background gauge field. Finally, using the same formalism we reproduce the correct Lorentz, diffeomorphism and gauge anomalies in the coupling of a Weyl fermion to 2-dimensional gravitation and Maxwell fields. (author). 15 refs

  7. Switching of chirality by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, B.L.; Schoevaars, A.M; Jager, W.F.; de Lange, B.; Huck, N.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Optically active photoresponsive molecules are described by which control of chirality is achieved by light. These chiroptical molecular switches are based on inherently dissymmetric overcrowded alkenes and the synthesis, resolution and dynamic stereochemical properties are discussed. Introduction

  8. Chiral dynamics with (nonstrange quarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubis Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the results and achievements of the project B.3. Topics addressed include pion photoproduction off the proton and off deuterium, three-flavor chiral perturbation theory studies, chiral symmetry tests in Goldstone boson decays, the development of unitarized chiral perturbation theory to next-to-leading order, the two-pole structure of the Λ(1405, the dynamical generation of the lowest S11 resonances, the theory of hadronic atoms and its application to various systems, precision studies in light-meson decays based on dispersion theory, the Roy–Steiner analysis of pion–nucleon scattering, a high-precision extraction of the elusive pion–nucleon σ-term, and aspects of chiral dynamics in few-nucleon systems.

  9. Chiral topological insulator of magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a magnon realization of 3D topological insulator in the AIII (chiral symmetry) topological class. The topological magnon gap opens due to the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. The existence of the topological invariant is established by calculating the bulk winding number of the system. Within our model, the surface magnon Dirac cone is protected by the sublattice chiral symmetry. By analyzing the magnon surface modes, we confirm that the backscattering is prohibited. By weakly breaking the chiral symmetry, we observe the magnon Hall response on the surface due to opening of the gap. Finally, we show that by changing certain parameters, the system can be tuned between the chiral topological insulator, three-dimensional magnon anomalous Hall, and Weyl magnon phases.

  10. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  11. Rapid purification of diastereoisomers from Piper kadsura using supercritical fluid chromatography with chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Zhuoshun; Cai, Jianfeng; Ke, Yanxiong; Shi, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-08-04

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) is an advanced solution for the separation of achiral compounds in Piper kadsura. Analogues and stereoisomers are abundant in natural products, but there are obstacles in separation using conventional method. In this paper, four lignan diastereoisomers, (-)-Galbelgin, (-)-Ganschisandrin, Galgravin and (-)-Veraguensin, from Piper kadsura were separated and purified by chiral SFC. Purification strategy was designed, considering of the compound enrichment, sample purity and purification throughput. Two-step achiral purification method on chiral preparative columns with stacked automated injections was developed. Unconventional mobile phase modifier dichloromethane (DCM) was applied to improve the sample solubility. Four diastereoisomers was prepared at the respective weight of 103.1mg, 10.0mg, 152.3mg and 178.6mg from 710mg extract with the purity of greater than 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chirality-controlled crystallization via screw dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Baeckkyoung; de la Cotte, Alexis; Grelet, Eric

    2018-04-11

    Chirality plays an important role in science from enantiomeric separation in chemistry to chiral plasmonics in nanotechnology. However, the understanding of chirality amplification from chiral building blocks to ordered helical superstructures remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that topological defects, such as screw dislocations, can drive the chirality transfer from particle to supramolecular structure level during the crystallization process. By using a model system of chiral particles, which enables direct imaging of single particle incorporation into growing crystals, we show that the crystallization kinetic pathway is the key parameter for monitoring, via the defects, the chirality amplification of the crystalline structures from racemic to predominantly homohelical. We provide an explanation based on the interplay between geometrical frustration, racemization induced by thermal fluctuations, and particle chirality. Our results demonstrate that screw dislocations not only promote the growth, but also control the chiral morphology and therefore the functionality of crystalline states.

  13. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  14. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  15. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  16. Macdonald index and chiral algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaewon

    2017-08-01

    For any 4d N = 2 SCFT, there is a subsector described by a 2d chiral algebra. The vacuum character of the chiral algebra reproduces the Schur index of the corresponding 4d theory. The Macdonald index counts the same set of operators as the Schur index, but the former has one more fugacity than the latter. We conjecture a prescription to obtain the Macdonald index from the chiral algebra. The vacuum module admits a filtration, from which we construct an associated graded vector space. From this grading, we conjecture a notion of refined character for the vacuum module of a chiral algebra, which reproduces the Macdonald index. We test this prescription for the Argyres-Douglas theories of type ( A 1 , A 2 n ) and ( A 1 , D 2 n+1) where the chiral algebras are given by Virasoro and \\widehat{su}(2) affine Kac-Moody algebra. When the chiral algebra has more than one family of generators, our prescription requires a knowledge of the generators from the 4d.

  17. Analogue of the Witten effect in the Poincare gauge theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, E.W.

    1985-03-01

    The gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly is analysed in the framework of the Poincare gauge theory. It is shown that an additional CP-violating term 8*RR in the effective Lagrangian is equivalent to a shift in the mass of the Taub-NUT metric as felt by fermions. This analogue of the Witten effect is discussed in conjunction with the appearance of torsion in recently found exact solutions. (author)

  18. [Evaluation of PNA-FISH method for direct identification of Candida species in blood culture samples and its potential impact on guidance of antifungal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özlem; İnkaya, Ahmet Çağkan; Gülmez, Dolunay; Uzun, Ömrüm; Akova, Murat; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-10-01

    Early antifungal therapy has a major influence on survival in candidemia. Rapid identification of the species has importance for the treatment, prediction of the species-specific primary resistance and variable antifungal susceptibility. Recently, molecular-based methods attempt to reduce the time between the positive signal of a blood culture and identification of the fungus. PNA-FISH (Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay distinguishes a number of frequently isolated Candida species in groups following the growth in blood culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the species identified by PNA-FISH with conventional identification methods in yeast positive blood cultures and its influence on the selection of antifungal therapy. Specimens of adult patients diagnosed as yeast with Gram stain in signal-positive blood cultures between August to December 2013, were included in the study. The strains were concomitantly cultivated by subculturing from the blood culture bottles onto solid media and identified by conventional methods (germ tube test, ID32C and morphology on cornmeal Tween 80 agar). Rapid species identification was performed by Yeast Traffic Light PNA-FISH, which generates green flourescence for Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, yellow for Candida tropicalis, and red for Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. C.tropicalis was identified as a single species whereas the others were identified in pairs. The time points when the yeast positive blood culture bottle was received by the mycology laboratory and reporting of the species identification results by PNA-FISH and the conventional methods were recorded. Seven C.albicans, six C.glabrata, three C.parapsilosis, one C.tropicalis, one C.krusei, one Cryptococcus neoformans, one Saprochaete capitata (Blastoschizomyces capitatus), one C.albicans and Candida dubliniensis, one C.krusei and C.dubliniensis, and one C.glabrata and C.parapsilosis were

  19. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  20. Chirality in adsorption on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaera, Francisco

    2017-12-07

    In the present review we survey the main advances made in recent years on the understanding of chemical chirality at solid surfaces. Chirality is an important topic, made particularly relevant by the homochiral nature of the biochemistry of life on Earth, and many chiral chemical reactions involve solid surfaces. Here we start our discussion with a description of surface chirality and of the different ways that chirality can be bestowed on solid surfaces. We then expand on the studies carried out to date to understand the adsorption of chiral compounds at a molecular level. We summarize the work published on the adsorption of pure enantiomers, of enantiomeric mixtures, and of prochiral molecules on chiral and achiral model surfaces, especially on well-defined metal single crystals but also on other flat substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Several phenomena are identified, including surface reconstruction and chiral imprinting upon adsorption of chiral agents, and the enhancement or suppression of enantioselectivity seen in some cases upon adsorption of enantiomixtures of chiral compounds. The possibility of enhancing the enantiopurity of adsorbed layers upon the addition of chiral seeds and the so-called "sergeants and soldiers" phenomenon are presented. Examples are provided where the chiral behavior has been associated with either thermodynamic or kinetic driving forces. Two main approaches to the creation of enantioselective surface sites are discussed, namely, via the formation of supramolecular chiral ensembles made out of small chiral adsorbates, and by adsorption of more complex chiral molecules capable of providing suitable chiral environments for reactants by themselves, via the formation of individual adsorbate:modifier adducts on the surface. Finally, a discussion is offered on the additional effects generated by the presence of the liquid phase often required in practical applications such as enantioselective crystallization, chiral

  1. Modulation of mdm2 pre-mRNA splicing by 9-aminoacridine-PNA (peptide nucleic acid conjugates targeting intron-exon junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Peter E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of pre-mRNA splicing by antisense molecules is a promising mechanism of action for gene therapeutic drugs. In this study, we have examined the potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA 9-aminoacridine conjugates to modulate the pre-mRNA splicing of the mdm2 human cancer gene in JAR cells. Methods We screened 10 different 15 mer PNAs targeting intron2 at both the 5' - and the 3'-splice site for their effects on the splicing of mdm2 using RT-PCR analysis. We also tested a PNA (2512 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron3 with a complementarity of 4 bases to intron3 and 11 bases to exon4 for its splicing modulation effect. This PNA2512 was further tested for the effects on the mdm2 protein level as well as for inhibition of cell growth in combination with the DNA damaging agent camptothecin (CPT. Results We show that several of these PNAs effectively inhibit the splicing thereby producing a larger mRNA still containing intron2, while skipping of exon3 was not observed by any of these PNAs. The most effective PNA (PNA2406 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron2 had a complementarity of 4 bases to intron2 and 11 bases to exon3. PNA (2512 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron3 induced both splicing inhibition (intron3 skipping and skipping of exon4. Furthermore, treatment of JAR cells with this PNA resulted in a reduction in the level of MDM2 protein and a concomitant increase in the level of tumor suppressor p53. In addition, a combination of this PNA with CPT inhibited cell growth more than CPT alone. Conclusion We have identified several PNAs targeting the 5'- or 3'-splice sites in intron2 or the 3'-splice site of intron3 of mdm2 pre-mRNA which can inhibit splicing. Antisense targeting of splice junctions of mdm2 pre-mRNA may be a powerful method to evaluate the cellular function of MDM2 splice variants as well as a promising approach for discovery of mdm2 targeted anticancer drugs.

  2. Chiral memory via chiral amplification and selective depolymerization of porphyrin aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, F.A.; Lee, C.C.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    Chiral memory at the supramolecular level is obtained via a new approach using chiral Zn porphrins and achiral Cu porphyrins. In a "sergeant-and-soldiers" experiment, the Zn "sergeant" transfers its own chirality to Cu "soldiers" and, after chiral amplification, the "sergeant" is removed from the

  3. Strong cation exchange-type chiral stationary phase for enantioseparation of chiral amines in subcritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolrab, Denise; Kohout, Michal; Boras, Mario; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2013-05-10

    A new strong cation exchange type chiral stationary phase (SCX CSP) based on a syringic acid amide derivative of trans-(R, R)-2-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid was applied to subcritical fluid chromatography (SFC) for separation of various chiral basic drugs and their analogues. Mobile phase systems consisting of aliphatic alcohols as polar modifiers and a broad range of amines with different substitution patterns and lipophilicity were employed to evaluate the impact on the SFC retention and selectivity characteristics. The observed results point to the existence of carbonic and carbamic acid salts formed as a consequence of reactions occurring between carbon dioxide, the alcoholic modifiers and the amine species present in the sub/supercritical fluid medium, respectively. Evidence is provided that these species are essential for affecting ion exchange between the strongly acidic chiral selector units and the basic analytes, following the well-established stoichiometric displacement mechanisms. Specific trends were observed when different types of amines were used as basic additives. While ammonia gave rise to the formation of the most strongly eluting carbonic and carbamic salt species, simple tertiary amines consistently provided superior levels of enantioselectivity. Furthermore, trends in the chiral SFC separation characteristics were investigated by the systematic variation of the modifier content and temperature. Different effects of additives are interpreted in terms of changes in the relative concentration of the transient ionic species contributing to analyte elution, with ammonia-derived carbamic salts being depleted at elevated temperatures by decomposition. Additionally, in an effort to optimize SFC enantiomer separation conditions for selected analytes, the impact of the type of the organic modifier, temperature, flow rate and active back pressure were also investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of chirality and surface stresses on the bending and buckling of chiral nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Shimada, Takahiro; Kitamura, Takayuki; Wang, Gang-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Due to their superior optical, elastic and electrical properties, chiral nanowires have many applications as sensors, probes, and building blocks of nanoelectromechanical systems. In this paper, we develop a refined Euler–Bernoulli beam model for chiral nanowires with surface effects and material chirality incorporated. This refined model is employed to investigate the bending and buckling of chiral nanowires. It is found that surface effects and material chirality significantly affect the elastic behaviour of chiral nanowires. This study is helpful not only for understanding the size-dependent behaviour of chiral nanowires, but also for characterizing their mechanical properties. (paper)

  5. Chiral Thirring–Wess model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Anisur, E-mail: anisur.rahman@saha.ac.in

    2015-10-15

    The vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model was replaced by the chiral type and a new model was presented which was termed as chiral Thirring–Wess model in Rahaman (2015). The model was studied there with a Faddeevian class of regularization. Few ambiguity parameters were allowed there with the apprehension that unitarity might be threatened like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. In the present work it has been shown that no counter term containing the regularization ambiguity is needed for this model to be physically sensible. So the chiral Thirring–Wess model is studied here without the presence of any ambiguity parameter and it has been found that the model not only remains exactly solvable but also does not lose the unitarity like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this new model have been determined in the present scenario. The theoretical spectrum is found to contain a massive boson with ambiguity free mass and a massless boson.

  6. Chiral Thirring–Wess model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Anisur

    2015-01-01

    The vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model was replaced by the chiral type and a new model was presented which was termed as chiral Thirring–Wess model in Rahaman (2015). The model was studied there with a Faddeevian class of regularization. Few ambiguity parameters were allowed there with the apprehension that unitarity might be threatened like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. In the present work it has been shown that no counter term containing the regularization ambiguity is needed for this model to be physically sensible. So the chiral Thirring–Wess model is studied here without the presence of any ambiguity parameter and it has been found that the model not only remains exactly solvable but also does not lose the unitarity like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this new model have been determined in the present scenario. The theoretical spectrum is found to contain a massive boson with ambiguity free mass and a massless boson

  7. What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs

  8. Chirality: a relational geometric-physical property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Hans

    2013-11-01

    The definition of the term chirality by Lord Kelvin in 1893 and 1904 is analyzed by taking crystallography at that time into account. This shows clearly that chirality is a relational geometric-physical property, i.e., two relations between isometric objects are possible: homochiral or heterochiral. In scientific articles the relational term chirality is often mistaken for the two valued measure for the individual (absolute) sense of chirality, an arbitrary attributive term. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90 deg. in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.

  10. Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumsa-ard, K.

    2006-07-01

    In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints

  11. Chiral measurements with the Fixed-Point Dirac operator and construction of chiral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Hauswirth, S.; Holland, K.; Joerg, T.; Niedermayer, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we examine the chiral properties of the parametrized Fixed-Point Dirac operator D FP , see how to improve its chirality via the Overlap construction, measure the renormalized quark condensate Σ-circumflex and the topological susceptibility χ t , and investigate local chirality of near zero modes of the Dirac operator. We also give a general construction of chiral currents and densities for chiral lattice actions

  12. Pion polarizability in a chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Ehbert, D.

    1980-01-01

    The pion polarizability is calculated in a chiral meson-quark model at the one-loop level. The results are in complete agreement with earlier ones obtained within a chiral meson-baryon theory. A critical discussion of a recent paper by Lanta and Tarrach is given. The results of the paper give evidence to the nonlinear chiral Lagrangian favour

  13. Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory to one loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, G.; Pallante, E.

    The divergences of the generating functional of quenched Chiral Perturbation theory (qCHPT) to one loop are computed in closed form. We show how the quenched chiral logarithms can be reabsorbed in the renormalization of the B0 parameter of the leading order Lagrangian. Finally, we do the chiral

  14. Variational approach to chiral quark models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futami, Yasuhiko; Odajima, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Akira

    1987-03-01

    A variational approach is applied to a chiral quark model to test the validity of the perturbative treatment of the pion-quark interaction based on the chiral symmetry principle. It is indispensably related to the chiral symmetry breaking radius if the pion-quark interaction can be regarded as a perturbation.

  15. A variational approach to chiral quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futami, Yasuhiko; Odajima, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Akira.

    1987-01-01

    A variational approach is applied to a chiral quark model to test the validity of the perturbative treatment of the pion-quark interaction based on the chiral symmetry principle. It is indispensably related to the chiral symmetry breaking radius if the pion-quark interaction can be regarded as a perturbation. (author)

  16. Chirality plays important roles in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yumei

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic concept of chirality, target specific selectivity and their relationship in radiopharmaceuticals. If the ligands labeled by radionuclides have chiral center, the enantiomers must be separated, or the target specific selectivity will not be good. Chirality is one of the most important factors which must be considered in the study of the structure-activity relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  17. Pions and the chiral bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1982-01-01

    As an aid to discussing the structure of nucleons and nuclei conceptual framework, heuristic arguments are presented which indicate that a hadron can be considered as a bag consisting of two different phases. The chiral structure of the phase outside the bag is discussed in terms of effective field theories and it is shown to what extent experiments in nuclei can constrain the structure of such theories. Results thus obtained are then combined to set up a set of equations for the bag structure of u and d hadrons, incorporating asymptotic freedom in the phase inside of the bag confinement of quarks and gluons by boundary conditions and spontaneously broken chiral symmetry in the outside. This set of equations which represent a chirally invariant generalization of the M.I.T. bag model is then solved. (U.K.)

  18. Fusion rules of chiral algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently we showed that for the case of the WZW and the minimal models fusion can be understood as a certain ring-like tensor product of the symmetry algebra. In this paper we generalize this analysis to arbitrary chiral algebras. We define the tensor product of conformal field theory in the general case and prove that it is associative and symmetric up to equivalence. We also determine explicitly the action of the chiral algebra on this tensor product. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate that this framework provides a powerful tool for calculating restrictions for the fusion rules of chiral algebras. We exhibit this for the case of the W 3 algebra and the N=1 and N=2 NS superconformal algebras. (orig.)

  19. Physics of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1991-01-01

    This subsection of the 'Modeling QCD' Workshop has included five talks. E. Shuryak spoke on 'Recent Progress in Understanding Chiral Symmetry Breaking'; below it is split into two parts: (i) a mini-review of the field and (ii) a brief presentation of the status of the theory of interacting instantons. The next sections correspond to the following talks: (iii) K. Goeke et al., 'Chiral Restoration and Medium Corrections to Nucleon in the NJL Model'; (iv) M. Takizawa and K. Kubodera, 'Study of Meson Properties and Quark Condensates in the NJL Model with Instanton Effects'; (v) G. Klein and A. G. Williams, 'Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Dual QCD'; and (vi) R. D. Ball, 'Skyrmions and Baryons.' (orig.)

  20. Chirality and gravitational parity violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Chiral interaction and biomolecular evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in the concept of chiral interaction open now new options and dynamical possibilities for biomolecules which have so far been overlooked. A few of these possibilities are mentioned, such as the control mechanism of enzymatic activity and the role played by non-ergodicity in evolutionary processes. It is shown that chiral interaction, being a surface phenomenon, does not obey Barron's symmetry constraints, which are suitable for force fields present in bulk interactions. In particular, the situation at the ocean-air surface in the prebiotic era is described, as well as the possible role played by chiral interaction in conjunction with the terrestrial magnetic field normal to the ocean surface, which could have lead to a process of deracernization at the ocean-air interface. (author)

  2. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  3. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  4. Design and synthesis of biotin analogues reversibly binding with streptavidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Aoki, Kiyoshi; Sugiyama, Akira; Doi, Hirofumi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2015-04-01

    Two new biotin analogues, biotin carbonate 5 and biotin carbamate 6, have been synthesized. These molecules were designed to reversibly bind with streptavidin by replacing the hydrogen-bond donor NH group(s) of biotin's cyclic urea moiety with oxygen. Biotin carbonate 5 was synthesized from L-arabinose (7), which furnishes the desired stereochemistry at the 3,4-cis-dihydroxy groups, in 11% overall yield (over 10 steps). Synthesis of biotin carbamate 6 was accomplished from L-cysteine-derived chiral aldehyde 33 in 11% overall yield (over 7 steps). Surface plasmon resonance analysis of water-soluble biotin carbonate analogue 46 and biotin carbamate analogue 47 revealed that KD values of these compounds for binding to streptavidin were 6.7×10(-6)  M and 1.7×10(-10)  M, respectively. These values were remarkably greater than that of biotin (KD =10(-15)  M), and thus indicate the importance of the nitrogen atoms for the strong binding between biotin and streptavidin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chiral soliton models for baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, H.

    2008-01-01

    This concise research monograph introduces and reviews the concept of chiral soliton models for baryons. In these models, baryons emerge as (topological) defects of the chiral field. The many applications shed light on a number of baryon properties, ranging from static properties via nucleon resonances and deep inelastic scattering to even heavy ion collisions. As far as possible, the theoretical investigations are confronted with experiment. Conceived to bridge the gap between advanced graduate textbooks and the research literature, this volume also features a number of appendices to help nonspecialist readers to follow in more detail some of the calculations in the main text. (orig.)

  6. Surface defects and chiral algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Gaiotto, Davide [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Shao, Shu-Heng [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-05-26

    We investigate superconformal surface defects in four-dimensional N=2 superconformal theories. Each such defect gives rise to a module of the associated chiral algebra and the surface defect Schur index is the character of this module. Various natural chiral algebra operations such as Drinfeld-Sokolov reduction and spectral flow can be interpreted as constructions involving four-dimensional surface defects. We compute the index of these defects in the free hypermultiplet theory and Argyres-Douglas theories, using both infrared techniques involving BPS states, as well as renormalization group flows onto Higgs branches. In each case we find perfect agreement with the predicted characters.

  7. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b......A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines...

  8. Chiral symmetry on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1994-11-01

    The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model

  9. Reversible optical transcription of supramolecular chirality into molecular chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Jaap J.D. de; Lucas, Linda N.; Kellogg, Richard M.; Esch, Jan H. van; Feringa, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    In nature, key molecular processes such as communication, replication, and enzyme catalysis all rely on a delicate balance between molecular and supramolecular chirality. Here we report the design, synthesis, and operation of a reversible, photoresponsive, self-assembling molecular system in which

  10. Modulation of mdm2 pre-mRNA splicing by 9-aminoacridine-PNA (peptide nucleic acid) conjugates targeting intron-exon junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Eysturskard, Jonhard; Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Modulation of pre-mRNA splicing by antisense molecules is a promising mechanism of action for gene therapeutic drugs. In this study, we have examined the potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) 9-aminoacridine conjugates to modulate the pre-mRNA splicing of the mdm2 human ca...

  11. Oscillation damping of chiral string loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav

    2002-01-01

    Chiral cosmic string loops tend to the stationary (vorton) configuration due to energy loss into gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We describe the asymptotic behavior of near stationary chiral loops and their fading to vortons. General limits on the gravitational and electromagnetic energy losses by near stationary chiral loops are found. For these loops we estimate the oscillation damping time. We present solvable examples of gravitational radiation energy loss by some chiral loop configurations. The analytical dependence of string energy with time is found in the case of the chiral ring with small amplitude radial oscillations

  12. Chiral Recognition and Separation by Chirality-Enriched Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saikat; Xu, Shixian; Ben, Teng; Qiu, Shilun

    2018-05-16

    Endowed with chiral channels and pores, chiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are highly useful; however, their synthesis remains a challenge given that most chiral building blocks are expensive. Although MOFs with induced chirality have been reported to avoid this shortcoming, no study providing evidence for the ee value of such MOFs has yet been reported. We herein describe the first study on the efficiency of chiral induction in MOFs using inexpensive achiral building blocks and fully recoverable chiral dopants to control the handedness of racemic MOFs. This method yielded chirality-enriched MOFs with accessible pores. The ability of the materials to form host-guest complexes was probed with enantiomers of varying size and coordination and in solvents with varying polarity. Furthermore, mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) composed of chirality-enriched MOF particles dispersed in a polymer matrix demonstrated a new route for chiral separation. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Chiral Induction with Chiral Conformational Switches in the Limit of Low "Sergeants to Soldiers" Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard

    2014-01-01

    Molecular-level insights into chiral adsorption phenomena are highly relevant within the fields of asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis or chiral separation and may contribute to understand the origins of homochirality in nature. Here, we investigate chiral induction by the "sergeants and soldiers......" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...... molecules down to 3%. The microscopic mechanism for the observed chiral induction is suggested to involve nucleation of the intrinsically chiral seeds, allowing for effective transfer and amplification of chirality to large numbers of soldier target molecules....

  14. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Wen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)

  15. No chiral truncation of quantum log gravity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2010-03-01

    At the classical level, chiral gravity may be constructed as a consistent truncation of a larger theory called log gravity by requiring that left-moving charges vanish. In turn, log gravity is the limit of topologically massive gravity (TMG) at a special value of the coupling (the chiral point). We study the situation at the level of linearized quantum fields, focussing on a unitary quantization. While the TMG Hilbert space is continuous at the chiral point, the left-moving Virasoro generators become ill-defined and cannot be used to define a chiral truncation. In a sense, the left-moving asymptotic symmetries are spontaneously broken at the chiral point. In contrast, in a non-unitary quantization of TMG, both the Hilbert space and charges are continuous at the chiral point and define a unitary theory of chiral gravity at the linearized level.

  16. A New Twist on Chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, Bernard

    2001-01-01

    One of the great mysteries in science is the homochirality (single handedness) of the essential molecules of life. Natural sugars are almost exclusively right-handed; natural amino acids are almost exclusively left-handed. Current life forms could not exist without the uniform chirality of these

  17. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation. (orig.)

  18. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-22

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation.

  19. Status of chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1996-10-01

    A survey is made of semileptonic and nonleptonic kaon decays in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. The emphasis is on what has been done rather than how it was done. The theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental results. (author)

  20. Principles of chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    1995-01-01

    An elementary discussion of the main concepts used in chiral perturbation theory is given in textbooks and a more detailed picture of the applications may be obtained from the reviews. Concerning the foundations of the method, the literature is comparatively scarce. So, I will concentrate on the basic concepts and explain why the method works. (author)

  1. Chiral symmetry in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueman, T.L.

    1979-04-01

    The chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics with massless quarks is unbroken in perturbation theory. Dimensional regularization is used. The ratio of the vector and axial vector renormalization constante is shown to be independent of the renormalization mass. The general results are explicitly verified to fourth order in g, the QCD coupling constant

  2. Descendants of the Chiral Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Jackiw, R.

    2000-01-01

    Chern-Simons terms are well-known descendants of chiral anomalies, when the latter are presented as total derivatives. Here I explain that also Chern-Simons terms, when defined on a 3-manifold, may be expressed as total derivatives.

  3. Nuclear chiral dynamics and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jeremy W.; Kaiser, Norbert; Weise, Wolfram

    2013-11-01

    This presentation reviews an approach to nuclear many-body systems based on the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of low-energy QCD. In the low-energy limit, for energies and momenta small compared to a characteristic symmetry breaking scale of order 1 GeV, QCD is realized as an effective field theory of Goldstone bosons (pions) coupled to heavy fermionic sources (nucleons). Nuclear forces at long and intermediate distance scales result from a systematic hierarchy of one- and two-pion exchange processes in combination with Pauli blocking effects in the nuclear medium. Short distance dynamics, not resolved at the wavelengths corresponding to typical nuclear Fermi momenta, are introduced as contact interactions between nucleons. Apart from a set of low-energy constants associated with these contact terms, the parameters of this theory are entirely determined by pion properties and low-energy pion-nucleon scattering observables. This framework (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) can provide a realistic description of both isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter, with emphasis on the isospin-dependence determined by the underlying chiral NN interaction. The importance of three-body forces is emphasized, and the role of explicit Δ(1232)-isobar degrees of freedom is investigated in detail. Nuclear chiral thermodynamics is developed and a calculation of the nuclear phase diagram is performed. This includes a successful description of the first-order phase transition from a nuclear Fermi liquid to an interacting Fermi gas and the coexistence of these phases below a critical temperature Tc. Density functional methods for finite nuclei based on this approach are also discussed. Effective interactions, their density dependence and connections to Landau Fermi liquid theory are outlined. Finally, the density and temperature dependences of the chiral (quark) condensate are investigated.

  4. Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues, ... These compounds .... using microscope with 400 × magnification. APC ... Figure 3: Microscopic images of rat colorectal tissue stained with APC rabbit polyclonal antibody with different.

  5. Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Yuan, L.; Wang, J. S.; Qin, Q. H.

    2018-06-01

    Natural and artificial chiral materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), chromatin fibers, flagellar filaments, chiral nanotubes, and chiral lattice materials widely exist. Due to the chirality of intricately helical or twisted microstructures, such materials hold great promise for use in diverse applications in smart sensors and actuators, force probes in biomedical engineering, structural elements for absorption of microwaves and elastic waves, etc. In this paper, a Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials is developed based on noncentrosymmetric micropolar elasticity theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a chiral beam problem are derived using the variational method and Hamilton's principle. The static bending and free vibration problem of a chiral beam are investigated using the proposed model. It is found that chirality can significantly affect the mechanical behavior of beams, making materials more flexible compared with nonchiral counterparts, inducing coupled twisting deformation, relatively larger deflection, and lower natural frequency. This study is helpful not only for understanding the mechanical behavior of chiral materials such as DNA and chromatin fibers and characterizing their mechanical properties, but also for the design of hierarchically structured chiral materials.

  6. Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Comby, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Garcia, G. A.; Géneaux, R.; Harvey, A. G.; Légaré, F.; Mašín, Z.; Nahon, L.; Ordonez, A. F.; Petit, S.; Pons, B.; Mairesse, Y.; Smirnova, O.; Blanchet, V.

    2018-05-01

    Chiral effects appear in a wide variety of natural phenomena and are of fundamental importance in science, from particle physics to metamaterials. The standard technique of chiral discrimination—photoabsorption circular dichroism—relies on the magnetic properties of a chiral medium and yields an extremely weak chiral response. Here, we propose and demonstrate an orders of magnitude more sensitive type of circular dichroism in neutral molecules: photoexcitation circular dichroism. This technique does not rely on weak magnetic effects, but takes advantage of the coherent helical motion of bound electrons excited by ultrashort circularly polarized light. It results in an ultrafast chiral response and the efficient excitation of a macroscopic chiral density in an initially isotropic ensemble of randomly oriented chiral molecules. We probe this excitation using linearly polarized laser pulses, without the aid of further chiral interactions. Our time-resolved study of vibronic chiral dynamics opens a way to the efficient initiation, control and monitoring of chiral chemical change in neutral molecules at the level of electrons.

  7. Enantioseparation of linear and cyclic chiral bis(phenethyl)amines by means of cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedig, M; Thunhorst, M; Laug, S; Decker, M; Lehmann, J; Holzgrabe, U

    2001-09-01

    For two years drugs introduced to the market have had- to be enantiomerically pure. Rapid and cheap methods of high reproducibility must, therefore, be available for evaluation of enantiomeric purity. Within the framework of a larger project dealing with chiral recognition of phenethylamines by means of native and derivatized cyclodextrins it was intended to find capillary electrophoresis methods suitable for separation of the enantiomers of chiral bis(phenethyl)amines and their corresponding cyclic analogues, within 10 min, using small amounts of a chiral selector, to save time and money. Heptakis(2,3-O-diacetyl-6-sulfato)beta-CD was found to be the most promising candidate most often fulfilling these requirements.

  8. Inexpensive chirality on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, W.; Williams, A.G.; Adams, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Implementing lattice fermions that resemble as closely as possible continuum fermions is one of the main goals of the theoretical physics community. Aside from a lack of infinitely powerful computers, one of the main impediments to this is the Nielsen-Ninomiya No-Go theorem for chirality on the lattice. One of the consequences of this theorem is that exact chiral symmetry and a lack of fermion doublers cannot be simultaneously satisfied for fermions on the lattice. In the commonly used Wilson fermion formulation, chiral symmetry is explicitly sacrificed on the lattice to avoid fermion doubling. Recently, an alternative has come forward, namely, the Ginsparg-Wilson relation and one of its solutions, the Overlap fermion. The Ginsparg-Wilson relation is a statement of lattice-deformed chirality. The Overlap-Dirac operator is a member of the family of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. In recent times, Overlap fermions have been of great interest to the community due to their excellent chiral properties. However, they are significantly more expensive to implement than Wilson fermions. This expense is primarily due to the fact that the Overlap implementation requires an evaluation of the sign function for the Wilson-Dirac operator. The sign function is approximated by a high order rational polynomial function, but this approximation is poor close to the origin. The less near-zero modes that the Wilson- Dirac operator possesses, the cheaper the Overlap operator will be to implement. A means of improving the eigenvalue properties of the Wilson-Dirac operator by the addition of a so-called 'Clover' term is put forward. Numerical results are given that demonstrate this improvement. The Nielsen-Ninomiya no-go theorem and chirality on the lattice are reviewed. The general form of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation are given, and the Overlap solution is discussed. Properties of the Overlap-Dirac operator are given, including locality and analytic

  9. Chiral heat wave and mixing of magnetic, vortical and heat waves in chiral media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernodub, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    We show that a hot rotating fluid of relativistic chiral fermions possesses a new gapless collective mode associated with coherent propagation of energy density and chiral density waves along the axis of rotation. This mode, which we call the Chiral Heat Wave, emerges due to a mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. At finite density the Chiral Heat Wave couples to the Chiral Vortical Wave while in the presence of an external magnetic field it mixes with the Chiral Magnetic Wave. The coupling of the Chiral Magnetic and Chiral Vortical Waves is also demonstrated. We find that the coupled waves — which are coherent fluctuations of the vector, axial and energy currents — have generally different velocities compared to the velocities of the individual waves.

  10. Static and dynamical anomalies caused by chiral soliton lattice in molecular-based chiral magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Inoue, Katsuya; Kikuchi, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Interplay of crystallographic chirality and magnetic chirality has been of great interest in both chemist's and physicist's viewpoints. Crystals belonging to chiral space groups are eligible to stabilize macroscopic chiral magnetic order. This class of magnetic order is described by the chiral XY model, where the transverse magnetic field perpendicular to the chiral axis causes the chiral soliton lattice (CSL) formation. As a clear evidence of the chiral magnetic order, the temperature dependence of the transverse magnetization exhibits sharp cusp just below the mean field ferrimagnetic transition temperature, indicating the formation of the CSL. In addition to the static anomaly, we expect the CSL formation also causes dynamical anomalies such as induction of the spin supercurrent

  11. Chiral supramolecular organization from a sheet-like achiral gel: a study of chiral photoinduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royes, Jorge; Polo, Víctor; Uriel, Santiago; Oriol, Luis; Piñol, Milagros; Tejedor, Rosa M

    2017-05-31

    Chiral photoinduction in a photoresponsive gel based on an achiral 2D architecture with high geometric anisotropy and low roughness has been investigated. Circularly polarized light (CPL) was used as a chiral source and an azobenzene chromophore was employed as a chiral trigger. The chiral photoinduction was studied by evaluating the preferential excitation of enantiomeric conformers of the azobenzene units. Crystallographic data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations show how chirality is transferred to the achiral azomaterials as a result of the combination of chiral photochemistry and supramolecular interactions. This procedure could be applied to predict and estimate chirality transfer from a chiral physical source to a supramolecular organization using different light-responsive units.

  12. QCD and the chiral critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, S.; Gocksch, A.; Pisarski, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As an extension of QCD, consider a theory with ''2+1'' flavors, where the current quark masses are held in a fixed ratio as the overall scale of the quark masses is varied. At nonzero temperature and baryon density it is expected that in the chiral limit the chiral phase transition is of first order. Increasing the quark mass from zero, the chiral transition becomes more weakly first order, and can end in a chiral critical point. We show that the only massless field at the chiral critical point is a σ meson, with the universality class that of the Ising model. Present day lattice simulations indicate that QCD is (relatively) near to the chiral critical point

  13. Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity.

  14. Nucleon parton distributions in chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseeva, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the chiral expansion of nucleon light-cone operators have been studied. In the framework of the chiral perturbation theory we have demonstrated that convergency of the chiral expansion of nucleon parton distributions strongly depends on the value of the variable x. Three regions in x with essentially different analytical properties of the resulting chiral expansion for parton distributions were found. For each of the regions we have elaborated special power counting rules corresponding to the partial resummation of the chiral series. The nonlocal effective operators for the vector and the axial nucleon parton distributions have been constructed at the zeroth and the first chiral order. Using the derived nonlocal operators and the derived power counting rules we have obtained the second order expressions for the nucleon GPDs H(x,ξ,Δ 2 ), H(x,ξ,Δ 2 ),E(x,ξ,Δ 2 ) valid in the region x>or similar a 2 χ .

  15. Specific heat of the chiral-soliton-lattice phase in Yb(Ni0.94Cu0.06)3Al9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroki; Sato, Takaaki; Inoue, Katsuya; Ohara, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the monoaxial-chiral helimagnet YbNi3Al9 and its-substituted analogue Yb(Ni0.94Cu0.06)3Al9. These compounds belong to a chiral space group R32. In Yb(Ni0.94Cu0.06)3Al9 with the magnetic ordering temperature TM = 6.4 K , only when the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, the chiral soliton lattice is observed below Hc = 10 kOe . YbNi3Al9 with TM = 3.4 K exhibits a metamagnetic transition at Hc = 1 kOe in 2 K. To study the formation of chiral helimagnetic state and chiral soliton lattice, we have measured the specific heat in magnetic fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the helical axis. In zero field, with decreasing temperature, specific heat shows λ-type phase transition from paramagnetic state to chiral helimagnetic one. At the temperature where the chiral soliton lattice emerges, we have found that the specific heat shows a sharp peak. In addition, at around the crossover between paramagnetic state and forced-ferromagnetic one, a broad maximum has been observed. We have determined the magnetic phase diagrams of YbNi3Al9 and Yb(Ni0.94Cu0.06)3Al9.

  16. Bootstrapping N=2 chiral correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Madalena; Liendo, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We apply the numerical bootstrap program to chiral operators in four-dimensional N=2 SCFTs. In the first part of this work we study four-point functions in which all fields have the same conformal dimension. We give special emphasis to bootstrapping a specific theory: the simplest Argyres-Douglas fixed point with no flavor symmetry. In the second part we generalize our setup and consider correlators of fields with unequal dimension. This is an example of a mixed correlator and allows us to probe new regions in the parameter space of N=2 SCFTs. In particular, our results put constraints on relations in the Coulomb branch chiral ring and on the curvature of the Zamolodchikov metric.

  17. Bootstrapping N=2 chiral correlators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Madalena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Liendo, Pedro [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). IMIP

    2015-12-15

    We apply the numerical bootstrap program to chiral operators in four-dimensional N=2 SCFTs. In the first part of this work we study four-point functions in which all fields have the same conformal dimension. We give special emphasis to bootstrapping a specific theory: the simplest Argyres-Douglas fixed point with no flavor symmetry. In the second part we generalize our setup and consider correlators of fields with unequal dimension. This is an example of a mixed correlator and allows us to probe new regions in the parameter space of N=2 SCFTs. In particular, our results put constraints on relations in the Coulomb branch chiral ring and on the curvature of the Zamolodchikov metric.

  18. Bootstrapping N=2 chiral correlators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Madalena [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Liendo, Pedro [IMIP, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, IRIS Adlershof,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-01-07

    We apply the numerical bootstrap program to chiral operators in four-dimensional N=2 SCFTs. In the first part of this work we study four-point functions in which all fields have the same conformal dimension. We give special emphasis to bootstrapping a specific theory: the simplest Argyres-Douglas fixed point with no flavor symmetry. In the second part we generalize our setup and consider correlators of fields with unequal dimension. This is an example of a mixed correlator and allows us to probe new regions in the parameter space of N=2 SCFTs. In particular, our results put constraints on relations in the Coulomb branch chiral ring and on the curvature of the Zamolodchikov metric.

  19. Chiral Tunnelling in Twisted Graphene Bilayer

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The perfect transmission in graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in twisted graphene bilayer shows adjustable probability of chiral tunnelling for normal incidence: they can be changed fr...

  20. Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Jing; Liu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites. Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed. Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs

  1. Supersymmetry and the chiral Schwinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, R.; Das, A.

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed the N= (1) /(2) supersymmetric general Abelian model with asymmetric chiral couplings. This leads to a N= (1) /(2) supersymmetrization of the Schwinger model. We show that the supersymmetric general model is plagued with problems of infrared divergence. Only the supersymmetric chiral Schwinger model is free from such problems and is dynamically equivalent to the chiral Schwinger model because of the peculiar structure of the N= (1) /(2) multiplets. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  2. Probing chirality with a femtosecond reaction microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen M. H. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of molecular chirality with high sensitivity and selectivity is important for many analytical and practical applications. Photoionization has emerged as a very sensitive probe of chirality in molecules. We show here that a table top setup with a femtosecond laser and a single imaging detector for both photoelectrons and photoions enables detection of chirality up to 3 orders of magnitude better than the existing conventional absorption based techniques.

  3. A spectral route to determining chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We show how one-dimensional structured media can be used to measure chirality, via the spectral shift of the photonic band gap edges. Analytically, we show that a chiral contrast can, in some cases, be mapped unto an index contrast, thereby greatly simplifying the analysis of such structures. Using...... this mapping, we derive a first-order shift of the band gap edges with chirality. Potentially, this effect could be used for measuring enantiomeric excess....

  4. Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yoshinori.

    1985-02-01

    A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)

  5. Chiral anomaly, bosonization and fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1984-01-01

    A method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion is presented. With this method the chiral anomaly ofr ν=4,6 dimensions is computed easily, bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models is discussed and the problem of charge fractionization is handled. Besides, the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-hermitean operators is commented. (Author) [pt

  6. The chirality operators for Heisenberg spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, V.

    1994-01-01

    The ground state of closed Heisenberg spin chains with an odd number of sites has a chiral degeneracy, in addition to a two-fold Kramers degeneracy. A non-zero chirality implies that the spins are not coplanar, and is a measure of handedness. The chirality operator, which can be treated as a spin-1/2 operator, is explicitly constructed in terms of the spin operators, and is given as commutator of permutation operators. (author). 3 refs

  7. Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-01-01

    We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ν = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators

  8. Broadband reflection of polymer-stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals induced by a chiral azobenzene compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingwu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinjie; Li, Chenyue; Hou, Guoyan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoguang; He, Wanli; Yang, Huai

    2014-01-21

    A chiral nematic liquid crystal-photopolymerizable monomer-chiral azobenzene compound composite was prepared and then polymerized under UV irradiation. The reflection wavelength of the composite can be extended to cover the 1000-2400 nm range and also be adjusted to the visible light region by controlling the concentration of chiral compounds.

  9. Staggered chiral random matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, James C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a random matrix theory for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered random matrix theory is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.

  10. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Malureanu, Radu; Lederer, Falk; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as e.g. propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size a critical density exists above which increasing coupling between neighboring meta-atoms prevails a reasonable homogenization. On the contrary, a dilution in excess will induce features reminiscent to pho...

  11. Chiral Lagrangians and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.

    1991-09-01

    In the event that the SSC does not observe any resonances such as a Higgs boson or a techni-rho meson, we would like to know if the SSC can still discover something about the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking. We will use chiral Lagrangian techniques to address this question and analyze their utility for studying events containing W and Z gauge bosons at the SSC. 20 refs., 4 figs

  12. Is there chirality in atomic nuclei?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Jie

    2009-01-01

    Static chiral symmetries are common in nature, for example, the macroscopic spirals of snail shells, the microscopic handedness of certain molecules, and human hands. The concept of chirality in atomic nuclei was first proposed in 1997, and since then many efforts have been made to understand chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking in atomic nuclei. Recent theoretical and experimental progress in the verification of chirality in atomic nuclei will be reviewed, together with a discussion of the problems that await to be solved in the future. (authors)

  13. Laser Writing of Multiscale Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Furlani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to metamaterials is presented that involves laser-based patterning of novel chiral polymer media, wherein chirality is realized at two distinct length scales, intrinsically at the molecular level and geometrically at a length scale on the order of the wavelength of the incident field. In this approach, femtosecond-pulsed laser-induced two-photon lithography (TPL is used to pattern a photoresist-chiral polymer mixture into planar chiral shapes. Enhanced bulk chirality can be realized by tuning the wavelength-dependent chiral response at both the molecular and geometric level to ensure an overlap of their respective spectra. The approach is demonstrated via the fabrication of a metamaterial consisting of a two-dimensional array of chiral polymer-based L-structures. The fabrication process is described and modeling is performed to demonstrate the distinction between molecular and planar geometric-based chirality and the effects of the enhanced multiscale chirality on the optical response of such media. This new approach to metamaterials holds promise for the development of tunable, polymer-based optical metamaterials with low loss.

  14. Self-inductance of chiral conducting nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Rubio, Angel; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    1998-01-01

    Chiral conductivity in nanotubes has recently been predicted theoretically. The realization and application of chiral conducting nanotubes can be of great interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints. These chiral currents, if they are realized, can be detected by measuring the self-inductance. We have treated Maxwell's equations for chiral conducting nanotubes (nanocoils) and find that the self-inductance and the resistivity of nanocoils should depend on the frequency of the alternating current even when the capacitance of the nanocoils is not taken into account. This is in contrast to elementary treatment of ordinary coils. This fact is useful to distinguish nanocoils by electrical measurements

  15. Chiral four-membered cyclic nitrones; asymmetric induction in the (4+2)-cycloaddition reaction of chiral ynamines and nitroalkenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, P.A.; Honig, G.W.N.; Reinhoudt, David

    1987-01-01

    Chiral four-membered cyclic nitrones were synthesized by the asymmetric (4+2)-cycloaddition of nitroalkenes 1 and chiral ynamines 2. The subsequent stereoselective addition of nucleophiles to these nitrones enabled the synthesis of chiral N-hydroxyazetidines.

  16. Two-chiral-component microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography-chiral surfactant and chiral oil: part 1. dibutyl tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-06-01

    The first simultaneous use of a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil for microemulsion EKC (MEEKC) is reported. Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and dibutyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 1.23% v/v) were examined as chiral pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the separation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Subtle differences were observed for three chromatographic figures of merit (alpha(enant), alpha(meth), k) among the chiral microemulsions; a moderate difference was observed for efficiency (N) and elution range. Dual-chirality microemulsions provided both the largest and smallest enantioselectivities, due to small positive and negative synergies between the chiral microemulsion components. For the ephedrine family of compounds, dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in opposite stereochemical configurations provided higher enantioselectivities than the single-chiral component microemulsion (RXX), whereas dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in the same stereochemical configurations provided lower enantioselectivities than RXX. Slight to moderate enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Efficiencies observed with microemulsions comprised of racemic dibutyl tartrate or dibutyl-D-tartrate were significantly higher than those obtained with dibutyl-L-tartrate, with an average difference in plate count of about 25 000. Finally, one two-chiral-component microemulsion (RXS) provided significantly better resolution than the remaining one- and two-chiral-component microemulsions for the ephedrine-based compounds, but only slightly better or equivalent resolution for non-ephedrine compounds.

  17. Chiral ferrocenes in asymmetric catalysis: synthesis and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dai, Li-Xin; Hou, Xue-Long

    2010-01-01

    .... It provides a thorough overview of the synthesis and characterization of different types of chiral ferrocene ligands, their application to various catalytic asymmetric reactions, and versatile chiral...

  18. A New FRET-Based Sensitive DNA Sensor for Medical Diagnostics using PNA Probe and Water-Soluble Blue Light Emitting Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mathur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable, fast, and low-cost biosensor for medical diagnostics using DNA sequence detection has been developed and tested for the detection of the bacterium “Bacillus anthracis.” In this sensor, Poly [9,9-di (6,6′- N, N′ trimethylammonium hexylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl-alt-co- (1,4-phenylene] dibromide salt (PFP has been taken as cationic conjugated polymer (CCP and PNA attached with fluorescein dye (PNAC∗ as a probe. The basic principle of this sensor is that when a PNAC∗ probe is hybridized with a single strand DNA (ssDNA having complementary sequence, Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET may take place from PFP to the PNAC∗/DNA complex. If the FRET is efficient, the photoluminescence from the PFP will be highly quenched and that from PNAC∗ will be enhanced. On the other hand, if the DNA sequence is noncomplementary to PNA, FRET will not occur.

  19. PNA binding to the non-template DNA strand interferes with transcription, suggesting a blockage mechanism mediated by R-loop formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotserkovskii, Boris P; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2015-11-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are artificial DNA mimics with superior nucleic acid binding capabilities. T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) transcription upon encountering PNA bound to the non-template DNA strand was studied in vitro. A characteristic pattern of blockage signals was observed, extending downstream from the PNA binding site, similar to that produced by G-rich homopurine-homopyrimidine (hPu-hPy) sequences and likely caused by R-loop formation. Since blocked transcription complexes in association with stable R-loops may interfere with replication and in some cases trigger apoptosis, targeted R-loop formation might be employed to inactivate selected cells, such as those in tumors, based upon their unique complement of expressed genes. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparative analysis of Gram's stain, PNA-FISH and Sepsityper with MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of yeast direct from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Rebecca L; Ramnarain, P; Barker, K; Stone, N; Rattenbury, S; McHugh, T D; Kibbler, C C

    2014-10-01

    Fungaemia diagnosis could be improved by reducing the time to identification of yeast from blood cultures. This study aimed to evaluate three rapid methods for the identification of yeast direct from blood cultures; Gram's stain analysis, the AdvanDX Peptide Nucleic Acid in Situ Hybridisation Yeast Traffic Light system (PNA-FISH YTL) and Bruker Sepsityper alongside matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fifty blood cultures spiked with a known single yeast strain were analysed by blinded operators experienced in each method. Identifications were compared with MALDI-TOF MS CHROMagar Candida culture and ITS rRNA sequence-based identifications. On first attempt, success rates of 96% (48/50) and 76% (36/50) were achieved using PNA-FISH YTL and Gram's stain respectively. MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated a success rate of 56% (28/50) when applying manufacturer's species log score thresholds and 76% (38/50) using in-house parameters, including lowering the species log score threshold to >1.5. In conclusion, PNA-FISH YTL demonstrated a high success rate successfully identifying yeast commonly encountered in fungaemia. Sepsityper(™) with MALDI-TOF MS was accurate but increased sensitivity is required. Due to the misidentification of commonly encountered yeast Gram's stain analysis demonstrated limited utility in this setting. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  2. Pion polarizability in a chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The pion polarizability is calculated in a chiral meson-quark model at the one-loop level. The results are in complete agreement with earlier ones obtained within a chiral meson-baryon theory. A critical discussion of a recent paper by Llanta and Tarrach is given. (orig.)

  3. Pion polarizability in a chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Ehbert, D.

    1981-01-01

    The pion polarizability is calculated in a chiral meson- quark model at the one-loop level. The results are in complete agreement with earlier ones obtained within a chiral meson-baryon theory. A critical discussion of a recent paper by Llanta and Tarrach is given [ru

  4. Pion polarizability in a chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Ebert, D.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the pion polarizability calculated in a chiral model with quark loops agrees exactly with the analogous quantity found in a chiral meson-baryon model. The results of a paper by Llanta and Tarrach are discussed critically

  5. Massive states in chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    1995-08-01

    It is shown that the chiral nonanalytic terms generated by {Delta}{sub 33} resonance in the nucleon self-energy is reproduced in chiral perturbation theory by perturbing appropriate local operators contained in the pion-nucleon effective Lagrangian itself. (orig.)

  6. LINEARLY POLARIZED PROBES OF SURFACE CHIRALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERBIEST, T; KAURANEN, M; MAKI, JJ; TEERENSTRA, MN; SCHOUTEN, AJ; NOLTE, RJM; PERSOONS, A

    1995-01-01

    We present a new nonlinear optical technique to study surface chirality. We demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation from isotropic chiral surfaces is different for excitation with fundamental light that is +45 degrees and -45 degrees linearly polarized with

  7. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is about 30 MeV.

  8. Orientation-Dependent Handedness and Chiral Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Efrati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in the paradox of chiral connectedness. In this work, we put forward a quantification scheme in which the handedness of an object depends on the direction in which it is viewed. While consistent with familiar chiral notions, such as the right-hand rule, this framework allows objects to be simultaneously right and left handed. We demonstrate this orientation dependence in three different systems—a biomimetic elastic bilayer, a chiral propeller, and optical metamaterial—and find quantitative agreement with chirality pseudotensors whose form we explicitly compute. The use of this approach resolves the existing paradoxes and naturally enables the design of handed metamaterials from symmetry principles.

  9. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  10. Chirality in nonlinear optics and optical switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Feringa, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical

  11. On infinite regular and chiral maps

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán

    2015-01-01

    We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.

  12. Chiral bosonization on a Riemann surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1987-01-01

    We point out that the basic addition theorem of θ-functions, Fay's identity, implies an equivalence between bosons and chiral fermions on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus. We present a rule for a bosonized calculation of correlation functions. We also discuss ghost systems of n and (1-n) tensors and derive formulas for their chiral determinants. (orig.)

  13. Dual chiral density wave in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2002-01-01

    We prove that quark matter is unstable for forming a dual chiral density wave above a critical density, within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Presence of a dual chiral density wave leads to a uniform ferromagnetism in quark matter. A similarity with the spin density wave theory in electron gas and the pion condensation theory is also pointed out. (author)

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND REGISTRATION OF CHIRAL DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WITTE, DT; ENSING, K; FRANKE, JP; DEZEEUW, RA

    1993-01-01

    In this review we describe the impact of chirality on drug development and registration in the United States, Japan and the European Community. Enantiomers may have differences in their pharmacological profiles, and, therefore, chiral drugs ask for special analytical and pharmacological attention

  15. Chiralities of spiral waves and their transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-ting; Cai, Mei-chun; Li, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    The chiralities of spiral waves usually refer to their rotation directions (the turning orientations of the spiral temporal movements as time elapses) and their curl directions (the winding orientations of the spiral spatial geometrical structures themselves). Traditionally, they are the same as each other. Namely, they are both clockwise or both counterclockwise. Moreover, the chiralities are determined by the topological charges of spiral waves, and thus they are conserved quantities. After the inwardly propagating spirals were experimentally observed, the relationship between the chiralities and the one between the chiralities and the topological charges are no longer preserved. The chiralities thus become more complex than ever before. As a result, there is now a desire to further study them. In this paper, the chiralities and their transition properties for all kinds of spiral waves are systemically studied in the framework of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and the general relationships both between the chiralities and between the chiralities and the topological charges are obtained. The investigation of some other models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, the nonuniform Oregonator model, the modified standard model, etc., is also discussed for comparison.

  16. Insights on some chiral smectic phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. August 2003 physics pp. 285–295. Insights on some chiral ... Liquid crystals; smectics; chirality; frustrated phases; twist grain boundary phases. ... molecules are more or less packed in layers and smectic phases can be seen ..... (imaging plate or CCD camera) which was located at about 300 mm from the sample.

  17. Transport properties of chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhr, Matthias

    2017-04-26

    Anomalous transport phenomena have their origin in the chiral anomaly, the anomalous non-conservation of the axial charge, and can arise in systems with chiral fermions. The anomalous transport properties of free fermions are well understood, but little is known about possible corrections to the anomalous transport coefficients that can occur if the fermions are strongly interacting. The main goal of this thesis is to study anomalous transport effects in media with strongly interacting fermions. In particular, we investigate the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in a Weyl Semimetal (WSM) and the Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in finite-density Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The recently discovered WSMs are solid state crystals with low-energy excitations that behave like Weyl fermions. The inter-electron interaction in WSMs is typically very strong and non-perturbative calculations are needed to connect theory and experiment. To realistically model an interacting, parity-breaking WSM we use a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian with Wilson-Dirac fermions. This model features a non-trivial phase diagram and has a phase (Aoki phase/axionic insulator phase) with spontaneously broken CP symmetry, corresponding to the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry for interacting continuum Dirac fermions. We use a mean-field ansatz to study the CME in spatially modulated magnetic fields and find that it vanishes in the Aoki phase. Moreover, our calculations show that outside of the Aoki phase the electron interaction has only a minor influence on the CME. We observe no enhancement of the magnitude of the CME current. For our non-perturbative study of the CSE in QCD we use the framework of lattice QCD with overlap fermions. We work in the quenched approximation to avoid the sign problem that comes with introducing a finite chemical potential on the lattice. The overlap operator calls for the evaluation of the sign function of a matrix with a dimension proportional to the volume

  18. Chiral tunneling in a twisted graphene bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-08-09

    The perfect transmission in a graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in a Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in a twisted graphene bilayer show an adjustable probability of chiral tunneling for normal incidence: they can be changed from perfect tunneling to partial or perfect reflection, or vice versa, by controlling either the height of the barrier or the incident energy. As well as addressing basic physics about how the chiral fermions with different chiralities tunnel through a barrier, our results provide a facile route to tune the electronic properties of the twisted graphene bilayer.

  19. Hadron properties in chiral sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Hong

    2005-01-01

    The modification of hadron masses in nuclear medium is studied by using the chiral sigma model, which is extended to generate the omega meson mass by the sigma condensation in the vacuum in the same way as the nucleon mass. The chiral sigma model provides proper equilibrium properties of nuclear matter. It is shown that the effective masses of both nucleons and omega mesons decrease in nuclear medium, while the effective mass of sigma mesons increases oat finite density in the chiral sigma model. The results obtained in the chiral sigma model are compared with those obtained in the Walecka model, which includes sigma and omega mesons in a non-chiral fashion. (author)

  20. Cosmic chirality both true and false.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Laurence D

    2012-12-01

    The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Genetically programmed chiral organoborane synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S. B. Jennifer; Huang, Xiongyi; Gumulya, Yosephine; Chen, Kai; Arnold, Frances H.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in enzyme engineering and design have expanded nature’s catalytic repertoire to functions that are new to biology. However, only a subset of these engineered enzymes can function in living systems. Finding enzymatic pathways that form chemical bonds that are not found in biology is particularly difficult in the cellular environment, as this depends on the discovery not only of new enzyme activities, but also of reagents that are both sufficiently reactive for the desired transformation and stable in vivo. Here we report the discovery, evolution and generalization of a fully genetically encoded platform for producing chiral organoboranes in bacteria. Escherichia coli cells harbouring wild-type cytochrome c from Rhodothermus marinus (Rma cyt c) were found to form carbon-boron bonds in the presence of borane-Lewis base complexes, through carbene insertion into boron-hydrogen bonds. Directed evolution of Rma cyt c in the bacterial catalyst provided access to 16 novel chiral organoboranes. The catalyst is suitable for gram-scale biosynthesis, providing up to 15,300 turnovers, a turnover frequency of 6,100 h-1, a 99:1 enantiomeric ratio and 100% chemoselectivity. The enantiopreference of the biocatalyst could also be tuned to provide either enantiomer of the organoborane products. Evolved in the context of whole-cell catalysts, the proteins were more active in the whole-cell system than in purified forms. This study establishes a DNA-encoded and readily engineered bacterial platform for borylation; engineering can be accomplished at a pace that rivals the development of chemical synthetic methods, with the ability to achieve turnovers that are two orders of magnitude (over 400-fold) greater than those of known chiral catalysts for the same class of transformation. This tunable method for manipulating boron in cells could expand the scope of boron chemistry in living systems.

  2. Cirurgia por orifícios naturais transcolônica: acesso NOTES peri-retal (PNA para excisão mesoretal total Transcolonic natural orifice surgery: peri-rectal NOTES access (PNA for total mesorectal excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zorron

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Cirurgia por orifícios naturais tem sido recentemente aplicada em series clínicas para cirurgia abdominal. Apesar de potenciais vantagens do acesso NOTES transcolônico para doenças colorretais, este ainda não havia sido utilizado clinicamente. O presente trabalho descreve a primeira aplicação bem-sucedida de NOTES transcolônico da literatura, em uma nova abordagem de excisão mesoretal total (TME para cancer de reto. MÉTODOS: Foi obtida aprovação de Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa para cirurgias por orifícios naturais, e o paciente assinou termo de consentimento informado. Em um paciente de 54 anos portador de adenocarcinoma de reto, o procedimento de retossigmoidectomia e linfadenectomia, com excisão mesoretal total foi realizada utilizando um acesso posterior transcolônico pouco acima da borda anal. A dissecção mesorretal foi conseguida utilizando um colonoscópio flexível e instrumentos endoscópicos, com assistência laparoscópica. O espécime foi retirado via transanal, e anastomose foi transorificial, com estoma proximal de proteção. RESULTADOS: O tempo operatório foi de 350 min, não ocorrendo complicações operatórias. A evolução pós-operatória foi favorável, e o paciente recebeu alta no sexto dia de pós-operatório com dieta plena. CONCLUSÃO: Este primeiro relato bem sucedido de cirurgia NOTES transcolônica traz potencialmente novas fronteiras de aplicações clínicas na cirurgia minimamente invasiva. O tratamento de doenças colorretais utilizando o novo acesso flexível PNA (Perirectal NOTES Access é uma promissora nova abordagem, paralelamente à laparoscopia e cirurgia aberta, para melhoria do tratamento dos pacientes.OBJECTIVES: Clinical natural orifice surgery has been applied for abdominal surgery in recent years. Despite potential advantages of transcolonic NOTES for colorectal diseases, it was since now not yet clinically applied. The study describes the first successful human

  3. Principal chiral model on superspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, V.; Schomerus, V.; Quella, T.

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the spectrum of the principal chiral model (PCM) on odd-dimensional superspheres as a function of the curvature radius R. For volume-filling branes on S 3 vertical stroke 2 , we compute the exact boundary spectrum as a function of R. The extension to higher dimensional superspheres is discussed, but not carried out in detail. Our results provide very convincing evidence in favor of the strong-weak coupling duality between supersphere PCMs and OSP(2S+2 vertical stroke 2S) Gross-Neveu models that was recently conjectured by Candu and Saleur. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear forces and chiral theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1995-01-01

    Recent successes in ab initio calculations of light nuclei (A=2-6) will be reviewed and correlated with the dynamical consequences of chiral symmetry. The tractability of nuclear physics evinced by these results is evidence for that symmetry. The relative importance of three-nucleon forces, four-nucleon forces, multi-pion exchanges, and relativistic corrections will be discussed in the context of effective field theories and dimensional power counting. Isospin violation in the nuclear force will also be discussed in this context

  5. Chiral quarks and proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, S.; Daniel, M.; Gounaris, G.J.; Murphy, A.J.

    1984-04-01

    The authors calculate the hadronic matrix elements of baryon decay operators using a chiral effective Lagrangian with quarks, gluons and Goldstone boson fields. The cases where the ΔB=1 operators arise from supersymmetric SU(5) GUT as well as the minimal SU(5) GUT model are studied. In each model the results depend on two parameters. In particular there is a range of values for the two parameters, where the dominant decay modes in the minimal SU(5) GUT are: p→etae + and n→π - e + . (author)

  6. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.

  7. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  8. Causal structure of analogue spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    The so-called 'analogue models of general relativity' provide a number of specific physical systems, well outside the traditional realm of general relativity, that nevertheless are well-described by the differential geometry of curved spacetime. Specifically, the propagation of perturbations in these condensed matter systems is described by 'effective metrics' that carry with them notions of 'causal structure' as determined by an exchange of quasi-particles. These quasi-particle-induced causal structures serve as specific examples of what can be done in the presence of a Lorentzian metric without having recourse to the Einstein equations of general relativity. (After all, the underlying analogue model is governed by its own specific physics, not necessarily by the Einstein equations.) In this paper we take a careful look at what can be said about the causal structure of analogue spacetimes, focusing on those containing quasi-particle horizons, both with a view to seeing what is different from standard general relativity, and what the similarities might be. For definiteness, and because the physics is particularly simple to understand, we will phrase much of the discussion in terms of acoustic disturbances in moving fluids, where the underlying physics is ordinary fluid mechanics, governed by the equations of traditional hydrodynamics, and the relevant quasi-particles are the phonons. It must however be emphasized that this choice of example is only for the sake of pedagogical simplicity and that our considerations apply generically to wide classes of analogue spacetimes

  9. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Guven, Zekiye P.

    2016-06-22

    Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Guven, Zekiye P.; Ustbas, Burcin; Harkness, Kellen M.; Coskun, Hikmet; Joshi, Chakra Prasad; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Stellacci, Francesco; Bakr, Osman; Akbulut, Ozge

    2016-01-01

    Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Nitrile ylides: diastereoselective cycloadditions using chiral oxazolidinones without Lewis acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Soeta, Takahiro; Jasperse, Craig P

    2009-12-03

    Lewis acid complexation is generally required for chiral-auxiliary-controlled stereoselectivity, and chiral Lewis acid catalysis is frequently optimal for introducing asymmetry. In this work, we show that nitrile ylide cycloadditions to electron-poor acceptors attached to chiral auxiliaries proceed in high yield and stereoselectivity in the absence of Lewis acids. In contrast, chiral Lewis acids are inferior in these cycloadditions.

  12. Chiral symmetry breaking and cooling in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshyn, R.M.; Lee, F.X.

    1995-08-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking is calculated as a function of cooling in quenched lattice QCD. A non-zero signal is found for the chiral condensate beyond one hundred cooling steps, suggesting that there is chiral symmetry breaking associated with instantons. Quantitatively, the chiral condensate in cooled gauge field configurations is small compared to the value without cooling. (author) 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  13. A Review on Chiral Chromatography and its Application to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MoZarD

    amounts of material and is for measuring the relative proportions of ... the stationary phase must themselves be made chiral, giving differing ... electrophoretic medium that change it to chiral mobile phase (Eliel, et ... column containing a chiral stationary phase is also called a chiral ... densitometry, and a TLC method for the.

  14. Induction of Chirality in Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Chiral 2D MoS2 Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Milton, Finn; McKenna, Robert; Brennan, Lorcan J; Cullen, Conor P; Guillemeney, Lilian; Tepliakov, Nikita V; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Perova, Tatiana S; Duesberg, Georg S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gun'ko, Yurii K

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been intensively investigated due to their interesting properties and range of potential applications. Although most research has focused on graphene, atomic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and particularly MoS 2 have gathered much deserved attention recently. Here, we report the induction of chirality into 2D chiral nanomaterials by carrying out liquid exfoliation of MoS 2 in the presence of chiral ligands (cysteine and penicillamine) in water. This processing resulted in exfoliated chiral 2D MoS 2 nanosheets showing strong circular dichroism signals, which were far past the onset of the original chiral ligand signals. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrated that the chiral nature of MoS 2 nanosheets is related to the presence of chiral ligands causing preferential folding of the MoS 2 sheets. There was an excellent match between the theoretically calculated and experimental spectra. We believe that, due to their high aspect ratio planar morphology, chiral 2D nanomaterials could offer great opportunities for the development of chiroptical sensors, materials, and devices for valleytronics and other potential applications. In addition, chirality plays a key role in many chemical and biological systems, with chiral molecules and materials critical for the further development of biopharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, and this research therefore should have a strong impact on relevant areas of science and technology such as nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology.

  15. Nucleic acids, proteins, and chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, D. A.; Profy, A. T.; Walstrum, S. A.; Needels, M. C.; Bulack, S. C.; Lo, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with experimental results related, in one case, to the chirality of nucleotides, and, in another case, to the possibility of a link between the chirality of nucleic acids, and that of peptides. It has been found that aminoacylation of the 'internal' hydroxyl group of a dinucleoside monophosphate can occur stereoselectively. However, this reaction has not yet been made a part of a working peptide synthesis scheme. The formation and cleavage of oligonucleotides is considered. In the event of the formation of a helical complex between the oligonucleotide and the polymer, 1-prime,5-prime-bonds in the oligomer are found to become more resistant towards cleavage. The conditions required for peptide bond formation are examined, taking into account the known structures of RNA and possible mechanisms for prebiotic peptide bond formation. The possibility is considered that the 2-prime,5-prime-internucleotide linkage could have played an important part in the early days of biological peptide synthesis.

  16. Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties. PMID:24173107

  17. Supersymmetric chiral electrodynamics as a renormalized theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansel'm, A.A.; Iogansen, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is well know that the QED of chiral fermions is a nonrenormalizable theory, inasmuch as the gauge current in it is not conserved because of the presence of an anomaly. It is evident that in this theory unitarity is also violated. The principal object of investigation in the present paper is supersymmetric chiral QED, supersymmetric QED is a renormalizable theory. This happens because the radiative corrections generate here a charged current of a chiral fermion that appears in the chiral (i.e., longitudinal) part of the vector supermultiplet. At first sight, the chiral part of the vector multiplet is unphysical and contains only supergauge degrees of freedom. However, this is valid only at the classical level, whereas, because of the anomaly, the radiative corrections lead to nonconservation of the gauge current, as a result of which the degrees of freedom associated with the chiral part of the vector multiplet become physical. On the other hand, owing to the nonconservation of the gauge charge, the apparently neutral fermion appearing int he chiral (longitudinal) part of the vector superfield becomes charged

  18. Chiral polarization scale of QCD vacuum and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horv, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been found that dynamics of pure glue QCD supports the low energy band of Dirac modes with local chiral properties qualitatively different from that of a bulk: while bulk modes suppress chirality relative to statistical independence between left and right, the band modes enhance it. The width of such chirally polarized zone – chiral polarization scale bigwedge ch – has been shown to be finite in the continuum limit at fixed physical volume. Here we present evidence that bigwedge ch remains non-zero also in the infinite volume, and is therefore a dynamical scale in the theory. Our experiments in N f = 2+1 QCD support the proposition that the same holds in the massless limit, connecting bigwedge ch to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In addition, our results suggest that thermal agitation in quenched QCD destroys both chiral polarization and condensation of Dirac modes at the same temperature T ch > T c .

  19. The paradigm of Pseudodual Chiral Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachos, C.K.; Curtright, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    This is a synopsis and extension of Phys. Rev. D49 5408 (1994). The Pseudodual Chiral Model illustrates 2-dimensional field theories which possess an infinite number of conservation laws but also allow particle production, at variance with naive expectations-a folk theorem of integrable models. We monitor the symmetries of the pseudodual model, both local and nonlocal, as transmutations of the symmetries of the (very different) usual Chiral Model. We refine the conventional algorithm to more efficiently produce the nonlocal symmetries of the model. We further find the canonical transformation which connects the usual chiral model to its fully equivalent dual model, thus contradistinguishing the pseudodual theory

  20. Recent status of the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    In this note, recent status of the chiral bag model is presented. As it combines the MIT quark bag model and the Skyrme model, the chiral bag model interpolates the two models smoothly as a function of the chiral bag radius R. The correct limit of R → ∞ is reproduced by including the higher order terms in the Ω expansion of the cranking method. It resolves the so-called small g A problem in a class of models where the semiclassical method is used. (author)

  1. A nonlocal model of chiral dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdom, B.; Terning, J.; Verbeek, K.

    1989-01-01

    We consider a nonlocal generalization of the nonlinear σ model. Our chirally symmetric model couples quarks with self-energy Σ(p) to Goldstone bosons (GBs). By integrating out the quarks we obtain a chiral lagrangian, the parameters of which are finite integrals of Σ(p). We find that chiral symmetry is not sufficient to derive the well-known Pagels-Stokar formula for the GB decay constant. We reproduce the Wess-Zumino term and we illustrate the dependence of other four derivative coefficients on Σ(p). (orig.)

  2. Fluxionally chiral DMAP catalysts: kinetic resolution of axially chiral biaryl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gaoyuan; Deng, Jun; Sibi, Mukund P

    2014-10-27

    Can organocatalysts that incorporate fluxional groups provide enhanced selectivity in asymmetric transformations? To address this issue, we have designed chiral 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalysts with fluxional chirality. These catalysts were found to be efficient in promoting the acylative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols and axially chiral biaryl compounds with selectivity factors of up to 37 and 51, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Status of natural analogue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Keiichi

    1994-03-01

    This report is based on the materials for the meeting at the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan held on September 1993. Details are as follows: Alteration of glass as the study of alteration of natural minerals; alteration of uranium minerals, migration of uranium and thorium series radionuclides, alteration of chlorite, fixation of uranium alteration of minerals and migration of uranium as the study of alligator rivers analogue project held at Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. (author)

  4. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran, E-mail: tigran@caltech.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 845 W Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, M/S 298, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Murchikova, Elena [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium {sup 3}He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.

  5. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Murchikova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium "3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.

  6. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran Kalaydzhyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave. We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.

  7. Determining chiral couplings at NLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosell, Ignasi

    2007-01-01

    We present a general method that allows to estimate the low-energy constants of Chiral Perturbation Theory up to next-to-leading corrections in the 1/N C expansion, that is, keeping full control of the renormalization scale dependence. As a first step we have determined L 8 and C 38 , the couplings related to the difference of the two-point correlation functions of two scalar and pseudoscalar currents, L 8 r (μ 0 ) = (0.6±0.4)·10 -3 and C 38 r (μ 0 ) = (2±6)·10 -6 , with μ 0 0.77 GeV. As in many effective approaches, one of the main ingredients of this method is the matching procedure: some comments related to this topic are presented here

  8. Dynamics of inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Juan Pablo; Krein, Gastão; Kroff, Daniel; Peixoto, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the formation of inhomogeneous chirally broken phases in the final stages of a heavy-ion collision, with particular interest on the time scales involved in the formation process. The study is conducted within the framework of a Ginzburg-Landau time evolution, driven by a free energy functional motivated by the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Expansion of the medium is modeled by one-dimensional Bjorken flow and its effect on the formation of inhomogeneous condensates is investigated. We also use a free energy functional from a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model which predicts metastable phases that lead to long-lived inhomogeneous condensates before reaching an equilibrium phase with homogeneous condensates.

  9. Chiral equations and fiber bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, T.; Becerril, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using the hypothesis g = g (lambda i ), the chiral equations (rhog, z g -1 ), z -bar + (rhog, z -barg -1 ), z = 0 are reduced to a Killing equation of a p-dimensional space V p , being lambda i lambda i (z, z-bar) 'geodesic' parameters of V p . Supposing that g belongs to a Lie group G, one writes the corresponding Lie algebra elements (F) in terms of the Killing vectors of V p and the generators of the subalgebra of F of dimension d = dimension of the Killing space. The elements of the subalgebras belong to equivalence classes which in the respective group form a principal fiber bundle. This is used to integrate the matrix g in terms of the complex variables z and z-bar ( Author)

  10. Critical constraints on chiral hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivukula, R.S.; Golden, M.; Simmons, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Critical dynamics constrains models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the scale of high-energy physics is far above 1 TeV. A big hierarchy requires the high-energy theory to have a second-order chiral phase transition, near which the theory is described by a low-energy effective Lagrangian with composite ''Higgs'' scalars. As scalar theories with more than one Φ 4 coupling can have a Coleman-Weinberg instability and a first-order transition, such dynamical EWSB models cannot always support a large hierarchy. If the large-N c Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model is a good approximation to the top-condensate and strong extended technicolor models, they will not produce acceptable EWSB

  11. Axions from chiral family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Algebraic structure of chiral anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.

    1985-09-01

    I will describe first the algebraic aspects of chiral anomalies, exercising however due care about the topological delicacies. I will illustrate the structure and methods in the context of gauge anomalies and will eventually make contact with results obtained from index theory. I will go into two sorts of generalizations: on the one hand, generalizing the algebraic set up yields e.g. gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories; on the other hand most constructions applied to the cohomologies which characterize anomalies easily extend to higher cohomologies. Section II is devoted to a description of the general set up as it applies to gauge anomalies. Section III deals with a number of algebraic set ups which characterize more general types of anomalies: gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories. It also includes brief remarks on σ models and a reminder on the full BRST algebra of quantized gauge theories

  13. Biaxiality of chiral liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longa, L.; Trebin, H.R.; Fink, W.

    1993-10-01

    Using extended deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau free energy expansion in terms of the anisotropic part of the dielectric tensor field Q αβ (χ) a connection between the phase biaxiality and the stability of various chiral liquid crystalline phases is studied. In particular the cholesteric phase, the cubic Blue Phases and the phases characterized by an icosahedral space group symmetry are analysed in detail. Also a general question concerning the applicability of the mean-field approximation in describing the chiral phases is addressed. By an extensive study of the model over a wide range of the parameters a new class of phenomena, not present in the original deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau model, has been found. These include: a) re-entrant phase transitions between the cholesteric and the cubic blue phases and b) the existence of distinct phases of the same symmetry but of different biaxialities. The phase biaxiality serves here as an extra scalar order parameter. Furthermore, it has been shown that due to the presence of the competing bulk terms in the free energy, the stable phases may acquire a large degree of biaxiality, also in liquid crystalline materials composed of effectively uniaxial molecules. A study of icosahedral space group symmetries gives a partial answer to the question as to whether an icosahedral quasicrystalline liquid could be stabilized in liquid crystals. Although, in general, the stability of icosahedral structures could be enhanced by the extra terms in the free energy no absolutely stable icosahedral phase has been found. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. Localised polymer networks in chiral nematic liquid crystals for high speed photonic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartan, Chloe C.; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled periodic structures based upon chiral liquid crystalline materials have significant potential in the field of photonics ranging from fast-switching optoelectronic devices to low-threshold lasers. The flexoelectro-optic effect, which is observed in chiral nematic liquid crystals (LCs) when an electric field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, has significant potential as it exhibits analogue switching in 10–100 μs. However, the major technological barrier that prohibits the commercial realisation of this electro-optic effect is the requirement of a uniform, in-plane alignment of the helix axis between glass substrates. Here, it is shown that periodic polymer structures engineered in the nematic phase of a chiral nematic LC device using direct laser writing can result in the spontaneous formation of the necessary uniform lying helix (ULH) state. Specifically, two-photon polymerization is used in conjunction with a spatial light modulator so as to correct for aberrations introduced by the bounding glass substrates enabling the polymer structures to be fabricated directly into the device. The ULH state appears to be stable in the absence of an externally applied electric field, and the optimum contrast between the bright and dark states is obtained using polymer structures that have periodicities of the order of the device thickness.

  15. Localised polymer networks in chiral nematic liquid crystals for high speed photonic switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartan, Chloe C., E-mail: chloe.tartan@eng.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: steve.elston@eng.ox.ac.uk; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J., E-mail: chloe.tartan@eng.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: steve.elston@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-14

    Self-assembled periodic structures based upon chiral liquid crystalline materials have significant potential in the field of photonics ranging from fast-switching optoelectronic devices to low-threshold lasers. The flexoelectro-optic effect, which is observed in chiral nematic liquid crystals (LCs) when an electric field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, has significant potential as it exhibits analogue switching in 10–100 μs. However, the major technological barrier that prohibits the commercial realisation of this electro-optic effect is the requirement of a uniform, in-plane alignment of the helix axis between glass substrates. Here, it is shown that periodic polymer structures engineered in the nematic phase of a chiral nematic LC device using direct laser writing can result in the spontaneous formation of the necessary uniform lying helix (ULH) state. Specifically, two-photon polymerization is used in conjunction with a spatial light modulator so as to correct for aberrations introduced by the bounding glass substrates enabling the polymer structures to be fabricated directly into the device. The ULH state appears to be stable in the absence of an externally applied electric field, and the optimum contrast between the bright and dark states is obtained using polymer structures that have periodicities of the order of the device thickness.

  16. Localised polymer networks in chiral nematic liquid crystals for high speed photonic switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartan, Chloe C.; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J.

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembled periodic structures based upon chiral liquid crystalline materials have significant potential in the field of photonics ranging from fast-switching optoelectronic devices to low-threshold lasers. The flexoelectro-optic effect, which is observed in chiral nematic liquid crystals (LCs) when an electric field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, has significant potential as it exhibits analogue switching in 10-100 μs. However, the major technological barrier that prohibits the commercial realisation of this electro-optic effect is the requirement of a uniform, in-plane alignment of the helix axis between glass substrates. Here, it is shown that periodic polymer structures engineered in the nematic phase of a chiral nematic LC device using direct laser writing can result in the spontaneous formation of the necessary uniform lying helix (ULH) state. Specifically, two-photon polymerization is used in conjunction with a spatial light modulator so as to correct for aberrations introduced by the bounding glass substrates enabling the polymer structures to be fabricated directly into the device. The ULH state appears to be stable in the absence of an externally applied electric field, and the optimum contrast between the bright and dark states is obtained using polymer structures that have periodicities of the order of the device thickness.

  17. Chirality induction and protonation-induced molecular motions in helical molecular strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomiets, Elena; Berl, Volker; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The long oligopyridinedicarboxamide strand 9, containing 15 heterocyclic rings has been synthesized and its helical structure determined by X-ray crystallography. It was shown that the shorter analogue 6 displays induced circular dichroism and amplification of induced chirality upon dissolution in an optically active solvent, diethyl-L-tartrate. A novel class of helical foldamers was prepared, strands 14-16, based on two oligopyridine carboxamide segments linked through a L-tartaric acid derived spacer. These tartro strands display internal chirality induction as well as chirality amplification. NMR spectroscopy (on 8 and 9) and circular dichroism (on 16) studies show that the oligopyridine carboxamide strands undergo reversible unfolding/folding upon protonation. The protonation-induced unfolding has been confirmed by X-ray crystallographic determination of the molecular structure of the extended protonated heptameric form 8(+). The molecular-scale mechano-chemical motions of the protonation-induced structural switching consist of a change of the length of the molecule, from 6 angstroms (6, coiled form) to 29 angstroms (8(+), uncoiled form) for the heptamer and from 12.5 angstroms (9, coiled form, X-ray structure) to 57 angstroms (9(+), uncoiled form, from modeling) for the pentadecamer. Similar unfolding/folding motional processes take place in the L-tartro strands 15 and 16 upon protonation/deprotonation, with loss of helicity-induced circular dichroism on unfolding as shown for the protonated form 16(+).

  18. Symmetry properties of chiral carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jishi, R.A.; Venkataraman, L.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Dresselhaus, G.

    1995-01-01

    The method of zone folding is applied to the calculation of the phonon mode frequencies in carbon nanotubules. The Raman and infrared-active mode frequencies are determined for nanotubules of different diameters and chiralities

  19. Parity doublers in chiral potential quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu. S.; Nefediev, A. V.; Ribeiro, J. E. F. T.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry over the spectrum of highly excited hadrons is addressed in the framework of a microscopic chiral potential quark model (Generalised Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model) with a vectorial instantaneous quark kernel of a generic form. A heavy-light quark-antiquark bound system is considered, as an example, and the Lorentz nature of the effective light-quark potential is identified to be a pure Lorentz-scalar, for low-lying states in the spectrum, and to become a pure spatial Lorentz vector, for highly excited states. Consequently, the splitting between the partners in chiral doublets is demonstrated to decrease fast in the upper part of the spectrum so that neighboring states of an opposite parity become almost degenerate. A detailed microscopic picture of such a 'chiral symmetry restoration' in the spectrum of highly excited hadrons is drawn and the corresponding scale of restoration is estimated

  20. Chiral Selectivity as a Bridge to Homochirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Berger, E. L.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the transition from racemic, abiotic chemistry to homochiral polymers used in proteins; exploring the polymerization behavior of chiral amino acids to determine if they show a preference for homochiral or heterochiral polymerization.

  1. Functional chiral hydrogen-bonded assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateos timoneda, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis different aspects of functional hydrogen-bonded (double and tetrarosette) assemblies are described. The functions were inspired by naturally occurring mechanisms such as molecular recognition, supramolecular chirality and its origin, and biostrategies for the correct folding of

  2. Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...

  3. Chiral dynamics with (non)strange quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2017-01-01

    We review the results and achievements of the project B.3. Topics addressed include pion photoproduction off the proton and off deuterium, three-flavor chiral perturbation theory studies, chiral symmetry tests in Goldstone boson decays, the development of unitarized chiral perturbation theory to next-to-leading order, the two-pole structure of the Λ(1405), the dynamical generation of the lowest S_1_1 resonances, the theory of hadronic atoms and its application to various systems, precision studies in light-meson decays based on dispersion theory, the Roy–Steiner analysis of pion–nucleon scattering, a high-precision extraction of the elusive pion–nucleon σ-term, and aspects of chiral dynamics in few-nucleon systems.

  4. Chiral dynamics with (non)strange quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2017-01-01

    We review the results and achievements of the project B.3. Topics addressed include pion photoproduction off the proton and off deuterium, three-flavor chiral perturbation theory studies, chiral symmetry tests in Goldstone boson decays, the development of unitarized chiral perturbation theory to next-to-leading order, the two-pole structure of the Λ(1405), the dynamical generation of the lowest S11 resonances, the theory of hadronic atoms and its application to various systems, precision studies in light-meson decays based on dispersion theory, the Roy-Steiner analysis of pion-nucleon scattering, a high-precision extraction of the elusive pion-nucleon σ-term, and aspects of chiral dynamics in few-nucleon systems.

  5. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems ... Physics Department, Nara Women University, Nara, Japan. 5 ... RCNP, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan ...... We acknowledge partial financial support from the DGICYT under contract ...

  6. Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Galain, R.; Ripka, G.

    1990-01-01

    Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons are presented. Emphasis is placed on the underlying quark structure of hadrons including the Skyrmion. The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with vector mesons is discussed

  7. Quark matter in a chiral chromodielectric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniowski, W.; Kutschera, M.; Cibej, M.; Rosina, M.

    1989-03-01

    Zero and finite temperature quark matter is studied in a chiral chromodielectric model with quark, meson and chromodielectric degrees of freedom. Mean field approximation is used. Two cases are considered: two-flavor and three-flavor quark matter. It is found that at sufficiently low densities and temperatures the system is in a chirally broken phase, with quarks acquiring effective masses of the order of 100 MeV. At higher densities and temperatures a chiral phase transition occurs and the quarks become massless. A comparison to traditional nuclear physics suggests that the chirally broken phase with massive quark gas may be the ground state of matter at densities of the order of a few nuclear saturation densities. 24 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  8. #126. Nova estratégia para detetar e localizar patogénicos periodontais: a técnica de PNA-FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Luzia; Rocha, Rui; Azevedo, Andreia S.; Henriques, Mariana; Pinto, Miguel G.; Azevedo, N. F.

    2016-01-01

    [Excerto] Objetivos: A compreensão da dinâmica periodontal biofilme-hospedeiro, in situ, é crucial para melhorar o diagnóstico e definir tratamentos mais racionais e eficazes. Este trabalho tem como objetivo o desenvolvimento de sondas de ácido peptídico nucleico (PNA), um mímico do DNA, para a identificac¸ão e localizac¸ão de Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans)ePorphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis)emamostrasdeplacasubgengivalebiópsiasgengivais, pelo método de hibri...

  9. Small scale separation of isoxazole structurally related analogues by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehani, Yasmine; Lemaire, Lucas; Millet, Regis; Lipka, Emmanuelle

    2017-07-07

    Chromatographic preparative enantioseparation is now the preferred method to obtain milligram amounts of pure enantiomers in the first step of the development of a therapeutic molecule. Supercritical fluid chromatography has many advantages over liquid chromatography and was therefore chosen for the small scale enantioseparation of four original 3-carboxamido-5-aryl isoxazole molecules, ligands of the CB2 cannabinoid receptors. The preparation of about 10mg of each of the eight enantiomers was achieved successfully on a Chiralpak ® AD-H (tris-3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate of amylose) polysaccharide based stationary phase with various percentages of ethanol as a co-solvent, through mixed-stream injections and touching-band approach. For the all compounds, no peak distortion is observed during the volume overloading, in spite of the injection mode. Production rate (mgmin -1 ), productivity (kilogram of racemate separated per kilogram of CSP per day (kkd)) and solvent usage were found higher and environmental factors (E Factor) were found lower for compounds 1 and 3. The yields of each purified enantiomer were comprised between 60 and 94%. In order to improve the limit of detection calculated with the diode array detector, the hyphenation with an evaporating light scattering detector was explored and a factor of ten was won. Lastely, the enantiomeric excess and achiral purity of each of the eight individual enantiomer generated was determined and found higher than 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chiral symmetry breaking and confinement - solutions of relativistic wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis, an attempt is made to explore the question whether confinement automatically leads to chiral symmetry breaking. While it should be accepted that chiral symmetry breaking manifests in nature in the absence of scalar partners of pseudoscalar mesons, it does not necessarily follow that confinement should lead to chiral symmetry breaking. If chiral conserving forces give rise to observed spectrum of hadrons, then the conjuncture that confinement is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking is not valid. The method employed to answer the question whether confinement leads to chiral symmetry breaking or not is to solve relativistic wave equations by introducing chiral conserving as well as chiral breaking confining potentials and compare the results with experimental observations. It is concluded that even though chiral symmetry is broken in nature, confinement of quarks need not be the cause of it

  11. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierl, Dieter

    2008-05-15

    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  12. Analytic progress on exact lattice chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikukawa, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical issues of exact chiral symmetry on the lattice are discussed and related recent works are reviewed. For chiral theories, the construction with exact gauge invariance is reconsidered from the point of view of domain wall fermion. The issue in the construction of electroweak theory is also discussed. For vector-like theories, we discuss unitarity (positivity), Hamiltonian approach, and several generalizations of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation (algebraic and odd-dimensional)

  13. Quantum chromodynamics, chiral symmetry and bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, M.

    1983-08-01

    This course deals with the following subjects: quarks; quantum chromodynamics (the classical Lagrangian of QCD, quark masses, the classical equations of motion of QCD, general properties, lattices); chiral symmetry (massless free Dirac theory, realizations, the σ-model); the M.I.T. bag model (basic assumptions and equations of motion, spherical cavity approximation, properties of hadrons); the chiral bag models (basic assumptions, the cloudy bag model, the little bag model); non-topological soliton bag models

  14. On the covariantization of the Chiral constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotzasek, Clovis; Abreu, E.M.C. de; Neves, C.

    1994-01-01

    We show that a complete covariantization of the chiral constraint in the Floreanini-Jackiw necessitates an infinite number of auxiliary Wess-Zumino fields otherwise the covariantization is only partial and unable to remove the nonlocality in the chiral boson operator. We comment on recent works that claim to obtain covariantization through the use of Batalin-Fradklin-Tyutin method, that uses just one Wess-Zumino field. (author)

  15. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  16. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierl, Dieter

    2008-05-01

    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ + pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  17. Chiral bags, skyrmions and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1984-09-01

    Recent developments on an intriguing connection between the quark-bag description of the baryons (nucleons in particular) and the Skyrmion model are discussed in terms of the constraints coming from chiral anomalies. Topics treated are the leaking baryon charge, axial charge and energy density; the role of chiral anomalies; the role of Skyrme's quartic term and the connection to the meson degrees of freedom; and finally some qualitative implications in nuclei. The presentation is purposely descriptive and intuitive instead of mathematically precise

  18. Bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed

  19. Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luescher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, whose elements are its cosets, is isomorphic to the continuum chiral symmetry group. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact that some different, noncommuting symmetry generators lead to the same Noether current. These are universal features of lattice chiral fermions based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation; they occur in the overlap, domain-wall, and perfect-action formulations. In a solvable example, free overlap fermions, these noncanonical elements of lattice chiral symmetry are related to complex energy singularities that violate reflection positivity and impede continuation to Minkowski space.

  20. Chirality and chiroptical properties of amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwolak, Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Chirality of amyloid fibrils-linear beta-sheet-rich aggregates of misfolded protein chains-often manifests in morphological traits such as helical twist visible in atomic force microscopy and in chiroptical properties accessible to vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). According to recent studies the relationship between molecular chirality of polypeptide building blocks and superstructural chirality of amyloid fibrils may be more intricate and less deterministic than previously assumed. Several puzzling experimental findings have put into question earlier intuitive ideas on: 1) the bottom-up chirality transfer upon amyloidogenic self-assembly, and 2) the structural origins of chiroptical properties of protein aggregates. For example, removal of a single amino acid residue from an amyloidogenic all-L peptide was shown to reverse handedness of fibrils. On the other hand, certain types of amyloid aggregates revealed surprisingly strong VCD spectra with the sign and shape dependent on the conditions of fibrillation. Hence, microscopic and chiroptical studies have highlighted chirality as one more aspect of polymorphism of amyloid fibrils. This brief review is intended to outline the current state of research on amyloid-like fibrils from the perspective of their structural and superstructural chirality and chiroptical properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Illuminating the chirality of Weyl fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chan, Ching-Kit; Zhang, Cheng-Long; Chang, Guoqing; Lin, Hsin; Jia, Shuang; Lee, Patrick; Gedik, Nuh; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    In particle physics, Weyl fermions (WF) are elementary particles that travel at the speed of light and have a definite chirality. In condensed matter, it has been recently realized that WFs can arise as magnetic monopoles in the momentum space of a novel topological metal, the Weyl semimetal (WSM). Their chirality, given by the sign of the monopole charge, is the defining property of a WSM, since it directly serves as the topological number and gives rise to exotic properties such as Fermi arcs and the chiral anomaly. Moreover, the two chiralities, analogous to the two valleys in 2D materials, lead to a new degree of freedom in a 3D crystal, suggesting novel pathways to store and carry information. By shining circularly polarized light on the WSM TaAs, we illuminate the chirality of the WFs and achieve an electrical current that is highly controllable based on the WFs' chirality. Our results open up a wide range of new possibilities for experimentally studying and controlling the WFs and their associated quantum anomalies by optical and electrical means, which suggest the exciting prospect of ``Weyltronics''.

  2. Chiral ward-Takahashi identities at finite temperature and chiral phase transition in (2+1) dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Kun; Qiu Zhongping

    1993-01-01

    Chiral Ward-Takahashi identities at finite temperature are derived in (2+1) dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model. In terms of these identities, fermion mass generation and the mass spectra of bound states are investigate at finite temperature. Taking the fermion mass as an order parameter, the authors discuss the phase structure and chiral phase transition and obtain the critical temperature

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  4. PNA Diagnostic Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention pertains to certain nucleic acid analogs and related kits that are useful for the capture, recognition, detection, identification, or quantification of certain chemical or biological entities....

  5. Magnetoelectronic properties of chiral carbon nanotubes and tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, F L; Tsai, C C; Lee, C H; Lin, M F

    2006-01-01

    Magnetoelectronic properties of chiral carbon nanotubes and toroids are studied for any magnetic field. They are sensitive to the changes in the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field, as well as the chirality. The important differences between chiral and achiral carbon nanotubes include band symmetry, band curvature, band crossing, band-edge state, state degeneracy, band spacing, energy gap, and semiconductor-metal transition. Carbon tori also exhibit the strong chirality dependence on the field modulation of discrete states. Chiral carbon tori might differ from chiral carbon nanotubes in energy-gap modulation, density of states, and state degeneracy

  6. Modification of the twist angle in chiral nematic polymer films by photoisomerization of the chiral dopant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, van de P.; Neuteboom, E.E.; Brehmer, M.; Lub, Johan

    1999-01-01

    A method for the production of polarization sensitive recordings in liquid crystalline polymers is presented. The system is based on local modification of the twist angle of chiral nematic polymer films. The twist angle of the polymer film is varied by modifying the chemical structure of the chiral

  7. Enantioselectively controlled release of chiral drug (metoprolol) using chiral mesoporous silica materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhen; Liu Xianbin; Ng, Siu-Choon; Chen Yuan; Yang Yanhui; Du Yu

    2010-01-01

    Chiral porous materials have attracted burgeoning attention on account of their potential applications in many areas, such as enantioseparation, chiral catalysis, chemical sensors and drug delivery. In this report, chiral mesoporous silica (CMS) materials with various pore sizes and structures were prepared using conventional achiral templates (other than chiral surfactant) and a chiral cobalt complex as co-template. The synthesized CMS materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. These CMS materials, as carriers, were demonstrated to be able to control the enantioselective release of a representative chiral drug (metoprolol). The release kinetics, as modeled by the power law equation, suggested that the release profiles of metoprolol were remarkably dependent on the pore diameter and pore structure of CMS materials. More importantly, R- and S-enantiomers of metoprolol exhibited different release kinetics on CMS compared to the corresponding achiral mesoporous silica (ACMS), attributable to the existence of local chirality on the pore wall surface of CMS materials. The chirality of CMS materials on a molecular level was further substantiated by vibrational circular dichroism measurements.

  8. Sensitive criterion for chirality; Chiral doublet bands in 104Rh59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, T.; Starosta, K.; Vaman, C.; Ahn, T.; Fossan, D.B.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.

    2003-01-01

    A particle plus triaxial rotor model was applied to odd-odd nuclei in the A ∼ 130 region in order to study the unique parity πh11/2xνh11/2 rotational bands. With maximum triaxiality assumed and the intermediate axis chosen as the quantization axis for the model calculations, the two lowest energy eigenstates of a given spin have chiral properties. The independence of the quantity S(I) on spin can be used as a new criterion for chirality. In addition, a diminishing staggering amplitude of S(I) with increasing spin implies triaxiality in neighboring odd-A nuclei. Chiral quartet bases were constructed specifically to examine electromagnetic properties for chiral structures. A set of selection rules unique to chirality was derived. Doublet bands built on the πg9/2xνh11/2 configuration have been discovered in odd-odd 104Rh using the 96Zr(11B, 3n) reaction. Based on the discussed criteria for chirality, it is concluded that the doublet bands observed in 104Rh exhibit characteristic chiral properties suggesting a new region of chirality around A ∼110. In addition, magnetic moment measurements have been performed to test the πh11/2xνh11/2 configuration in 128Cs and the πg9/2xνh11/2 configuration in 104Rh

  9. Enantioselectively controlled release of chiral drug (metoprolol) using chiral mesoporous silica materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Zhen; Liu Xianbin; Ng, Siu-Choon; Chen Yuan; Yang Yanhui [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Du Yu, E-mail: du_yu@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: yhyang@ntu.edu.sg [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-04-23

    Chiral porous materials have attracted burgeoning attention on account of their potential applications in many areas, such as enantioseparation, chiral catalysis, chemical sensors and drug delivery. In this report, chiral mesoporous silica (CMS) materials with various pore sizes and structures were prepared using conventional achiral templates (other than chiral surfactant) and a chiral cobalt complex as co-template. The synthesized CMS materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. These CMS materials, as carriers, were demonstrated to be able to control the enantioselective release of a representative chiral drug (metoprolol). The release kinetics, as modeled by the power law equation, suggested that the release profiles of metoprolol were remarkably dependent on the pore diameter and pore structure of CMS materials. More importantly, R- and S-enantiomers of metoprolol exhibited different release kinetics on CMS compared to the corresponding achiral mesoporous silica (ACMS), attributable to the existence of local chirality on the pore wall surface of CMS materials. The chirality of CMS materials on a molecular level was further substantiated by vibrational circular dichroism measurements.

  10. Helical Polyacetylenes Induced via Noncovalent Chiral Interactions and Their Applications as Chiral Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Katsuhiro; Yashima, Eiji

    2017-08-01

    Construction of predominantly one-handed helical polyacetylenes with a desired helix sense utilizing noncovalent chiral interactions with nonracemic chiral guest compounds based on a supramolecular approach is described. As with the conventional dynamic helical polymers possessing optically active pendant groups covalently bonded to the polymer chains, this noncovalent helicity induction system can show significant chiral amplification phenomena, in which the chiral information of the nonracemic guests can transfer with high cooperativity through noncovalent bonding interactions to induce an almost single-handed helical conformation in the polymer backbone. An intriguing "memory effect" of the induced macromolecular helicity is observed for some polyacetylenes, which means that the helical conformations induced in dynamic helical polyacetylene can be transformed into metastable static ones by tuning their helix-inversion barriers. Potential applications of helical polyacetylenes with controlled helix sense constructed by the "noncovalent helicity induction and/or memory effect" as chiral materials are also described.

  11. PNA-COMBO-FISH: From combinatorial probe design in silico to vitality compatible, specific labelling of gene targets in cell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Patrick; Rößler, Jens; Schwarz-Finsterle, Jutta; Schmitt, Eberhard; Hausmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recently, advantages concerning targeting specificity of PCR constructed oligonucleotide FISH probes in contrast to established FISH probes, e.g. BAC clones, have been demonstrated. These techniques, however, are still using labelling protocols with DNA denaturing steps applying harsh heat treatment with or without further denaturing chemical agents. COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligonucleotide FISH) allows the design of specific oligonucleotide probe combinations in silico. Thus, being independent from primer libraries or PCR laboratory conditions, the probe sequences extracted by computer sequence data base search can also be synthesized as single stranded PNA-probes (Peptide Nucleic Acid probes). Gene targets can be specifically labelled with at least about 20 PNA-probes obtaining visibly background free specimens. By using appropriately designed triplex forming oligonucleotides, the denaturing procedures can completely be omitted. These results reveal a significant step towards oligonucleotide-FISH maintaining the 3D-nanostructure and even the viability of the cell target. The method is demonstrated with the detection of Her2/neu and GRB7 genes, which are indicators in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. - Highlights: • Denaturation free protocols preserve 3D architecture of chromosomes and nuclei. • Labelling sets are determined in silico for duplex and triplex binding. • Probes are produced chemically with freely chosen backbones and base variants. • Peptide nucleic acid backbones reduce hindering charge interactions. • Intercalating side chains stabilize binding of short oligonucleotides.

  12. PNA-COMBO-FISH: From combinatorial probe design in silico to vitality compatible, specific labelling of gene targets in cell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Patrick; Rößler, Jens; Schwarz-Finsterle, Jutta [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmitt, Eberhard, E-mail: eschmitt@kip.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); University of Göttingen, Institute for Numerical and Applied Mathematics, Lotzestraße 16-18, D-37083 Göttingen (Germany); Hausmann, Michael, E-mail: hausmann@kip.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, advantages concerning targeting specificity of PCR constructed oligonucleotide FISH probes in contrast to established FISH probes, e.g. BAC clones, have been demonstrated. These techniques, however, are still using labelling protocols with DNA denaturing steps applying harsh heat treatment with or without further denaturing chemical agents. COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligonucleotide FISH) allows the design of specific oligonucleotide probe combinations in silico. Thus, being independent from primer libraries or PCR laboratory conditions, the probe sequences extracted by computer sequence data base search can also be synthesized as single stranded PNA-probes (Peptide Nucleic Acid probes). Gene targets can be specifically labelled with at least about 20 PNA-probes obtaining visibly background free specimens. By using appropriately designed triplex forming oligonucleotides, the denaturing procedures can completely be omitted. These results reveal a significant step towards oligonucleotide-FISH maintaining the 3D-nanostructure and even the viability of the cell target. The method is demonstrated with the detection of Her2/neu and GRB7 genes, which are indicators in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. - Highlights: • Denaturation free protocols preserve 3D architecture of chromosomes and nuclei. • Labelling sets are determined in silico for duplex and triplex binding. • Probes are produced chemically with freely chosen backbones and base variants. • Peptide nucleic acid backbones reduce hindering charge interactions. • Intercalating side chains stabilize binding of short oligonucleotides.

  13. Cell Chirality Drives Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaki, Mikiko; Sasamura, Takeshi; Matsuno, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species. The actin cytoskeleton plays important roles in the formation of cell chirality. In addition, Myosin31DF ( Myo31DF ), which encodes Drosophila Myosin ID, was identified as a molecular switch for cell chirality. In other invertebrate species, including snails and Caenorhabditis elegans , chirality of the blastomeres, another type of cell chirality, determines the LR asymmetry of structures in the body. Thus, chirality at the cellular level may broadly contribute to LR asymmetric development in various invertebrate species. Recently, cell chirality was also reported for various vertebrate cultured cells, and studies suggested that cell chirality is evolutionarily conserved, including the essential role of the actin cytoskeleton. Although the biological roles of cell chirality in vertebrates remain unknown, it may control LR asymmetric development or other morphogenetic events. The investigation of cell chirality has just begun, and this new field should provide valuable new insights in biology and medicine.

  14. Symmetry, structure, and dynamics of monoaxial chiral magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Yoshihiko; Kousaka, Yusuke; Inoue, Katsuya; Kishine, Jun-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Nontrivial spin orders with magnetic chirality emerge in a particular class of magnetic materials with structural chirality, which are frequently referred to as chiral magnets. Various interesting physical properties are expected to be induced in chiral magnets through the coupling of chiral magnetic orders with conduction electrons and electromagnetic fields. One promising candidate for achieving these couplings is a chiral spin soliton lattice. Here, we review recent experimental observations mainly carried out on the monoaxial chiral magnetic crystal CrNb_3S_6 via magnetic imaging using electron, neutron, and X-ray beams and magnetoresistance measurements, together with the strategy for synthesizing chiral magnetic materials and underlying theoretical backgrounds. The chiral soliton lattice appears under a magnetic field perpendicular to the chiral helical axis and is very robust and stable with phase coherence on a macroscopic length scale. The tunable and topological nature of the chiral soliton lattice gives rise to nontrivial physical properties. Indeed, it is demonstrated that the interlayer magnetoresistance scales to the soliton density, which plays an essential role as an order parameter in chiral soliton lattice formation, and becomes quantized with the reduction of the system size. These interesting features arising from macroscopic phase coherence unique to the chiral soliton lattice will lead to the exploration of routes to a new paradigm for applications in spin electronics using spin phase coherence. (author)

  15. Natural and archaeological analogues: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter natural analogues in the geomedia for various aspects of radioactive waste disposal are discussed. Particular reference is made to the Okla Natural Reactor in Gabon. Igneous contact zones are discussed and natural analogues of waste-form materials. The importance of archaeological remains and anthropogenic materials left by man, in assessing weathering conditions and serving as radioactive waste analogues, is also emphasised. (UK)

  16. Stereoselective Preparation of N-Alkyl Dipeptide Analogues via Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of α-Halo Acyl Amino Esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Kyoung; Chang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yong Tae; Park, Yong Sun

    2006-01-01

    We have shown that dynamic kinetic resolution of α-bromo and α-chloro amides in nucleophilic substitution reaction can be successfully applied towards the preparation of various N-terminal functionalized dipeptide analogues. The stereochemical aspects of the results showed that stereoselectivity depends critically on the structures of amine nucleophiles. This mild and practical method can be run on a multi-gram scale without any special precautions and should be applicable to stereoselective syntheses of various peptidomimetics. Extension of this synthetic methodology to dynamic resolution of N-(α-haloacetyl) peptides in the stereospecific nucleophilic substitution (S N 2) could be an attractive synthetic strategy for asymmetric syntheses of peptide analogues. Recently it has been shown from our group that the chiral information of adjacent amino acid residue is efficiently transferred to the new C-N bond formation at α-halo carbon center for asymmetric syntheses of di-, tri- and tetrapeptide analogues. The α-halo stereogenic center of undergoes rapid epimerization in the presence of diisopropylethylamine (DIEA) and tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), and (αS) reacts with the nucleophile preferentially to provide the dipeptide analogue (αR). The mechanistic investigation showed that this is a case of dynamic kinetic resolution, in which the stereoselectivity is determined by the difference in the diastereomeric transition state energies for the reaction with the nucleophiles. Herein we describe our recent progress to extend the scope of the methodology to stereoselective preparation of N-terminal functionalized dipeptide analogues with various amine nucleophiles

  17. Chirality conservation in the lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The derivation of conservation laws corresponding to chiral invariance in quantum field theories of interacting quarks and gluons are studied. In particular there is interest in observing how these conservation laws are constrained by the requirement that the field theory be locally gauge invariant. To examine this question, a manifestly gauge-invariant definition of local operators in a quantum field theory is introduced, a definition which relies in an essential way on the use of the formulation of gauge fields on a lattice due to Wilson and Polyakov to regulate ultraviolet divergences. The conceptual basis of the formalism is set out and applied to a long-standing puzzle in the phenomenology of quark-gluon theories: the fact that elementary particle interactions reflect the conservation of isospin-carrying chiral currents but not of the isospin-singlet chiral current. It is well known that the equation for the isospin-singlet current contains an extra term, the operator F/sub mu neu/F/sup mu neu/, not present in the other chirality conservation laws; however, this term conventionally has the form of a total divergence and so still allows the definition of a conserved chiral current. It is found that, when the effects of maintaining gauge invariance are properly taken into account, the structure of this operator is altered by renormalization effects, so that it provides an explicit breaking of the unwanted chiral invariance. The relation between this argument, based on renormaliztion, is traced to a set of more heuristic arguments based on gauge field topology given by 't Hooft; it is shown that the discussion provides a validation, through short-distance analysis, of the picture 'Hooft has proposed. The formal derivation of conservation laws for chiral currents are set out in detail

  18. Chiral properties of baryon interpolating fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Hosaka, Atsushi; Dmitrasinovic, V.

    2008-01-01

    We study the chiral transformation properties of all possible local (non-derivative) interpolating field operators for baryons consisting of three quarks with two flavors, assuming good isospin symmetry. We derive and use the relations/identities among the baryon operators with identical quantum numbers that follow from the combined color, Dirac and isospin Fierz transformations. These relations reduce the number of independent baryon operators with any given spin and isospin. The Fierz identities also effectively restrict the allowed baryon chiral multiplets. It turns out that the non-derivative baryons' chiral multiplets have the same dimensionality as their Lorentz representations. For the two independent nucleon operators the only permissible chiral multiplet is the fundamental one, ((1)/(2),0)+(0,(1)/(2)). For the Δ, admissible Lorentz representations are (1,(1)/(2))+((1)/(2),1) and ((3)/(2),0)+(0,(3)/(2)). In the case of the (1,(1)/(2))+((1)/(2),1) chiral multiplet, the I(J)=(3)/(2)((3)/(2)) Δ field has one I(J)=(1)/(2)((3)/(2)) chiral partner; otherwise it has none. We also consider the Abelian (U A (1)) chiral transformation properties of the fields and show that each baryon comes in two varieties: (1) with Abelian axial charge +3; and (2) with Abelian axial charge -1. In case of the nucleon these are the two Ioffe fields; in case of the Δ, the (1,(1)/(2))+((1)/(2),1) multiplet has an Abelian axial charge -1 and the ((3)/(2),0)+(0,(3)/(2)) multiplet has an Abelian axial charge +3. (orig.)

  19. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  20. Search for chirality in 109Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timar, J.; Nyako, B.M.; Berek, G.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, J.; Zolnai, L.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The existence of nuclear chirality is one of the most intriguing questions of contemporary high-spin nuclear structure studies. Rotational doublet-band candidates for chiral structures have been observed mostly in two regions of the nuclear chart: around 134 Pr, and around 104 Rh. In this second region chirality in the Rh isotopes are rather well studied, chiral doubling have also been observed in 100 Tc, however, results obtained for chirality in the studied Ag nuclei ( 105 Ag and 106 Ag) look rather contradictory. Thus, it is interesting to study these doublet bands in the nearby higher-mass Ag nuclei. In order to search for a chiral-candidate partner band to the yrast πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band in 109 Ag, high-spin states of this nucleus have been studied using the 96 Zr( 18 O,p4n) reaction. The experiment was performed at iThemba LABS using 8 Clover detectors of the AFRODITE array and the DIAMANT charged-particle array to detect the γ-rays and the charged particles, respectively. Altogether ∼140 million γγ-coincidence events were collected. Approximately 10 million events of them correspond to the reaction channel producing 109 Ag. No chiral candidate partner band has been found to the πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band with this statistics, however, the level scheme could be extended by several new levels and γ-transitions. A preliminary level scheme of 109 Ag obtained from the ongoing data analysis is shown in Fig. 1

  1. The Valles natural analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39 Ar/ 4O isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  2. Chirality, nongauge couplings and compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mahiko

    1985-01-01

    We study from a phenomenological viewpoint what constraints exist on a possible scale of compositeness for W, Z, leptons, and quarks. A few critical arguments are presented about excited fermions and spinless partners of W and Z. It is argued that irrespective of a compositeness scale, the coupling of an excited fermion to a ground state light fermion is likely to be maximally parity violating. Besides chirality breaking interactions of light fermions, gauge noninvariant, dimensionless, unrenormalizable couplings are specially interesting in many classes of composite theories. The deviation of the W magnetic moment from the standard theory (g = 2) is such an example. We relate the ''g-2'' of W to a compositeness scale through an unitarity argument and make a guess on its effect on the muon g-2 for a given compositeness scale. The present experimental data on the W-Z mass ratio is already accurate enough to indicate that if a compositeness scale is larger than 0(1 TeV), gauge noninvariant couplings of W and Z should be negligibly small and a composite theory is hardly distinguishable from an elementary particle theory at the electroweak energy scale (≅ 250 GeV). However, a compositeness scale close to the electroweak scale can not be ruled out for W and Z at present. (author)

  3. Chiral ionic liquids in chromatographic and electrophoretic separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P; Stavrou, Ioannis J; Mavroudi, Maria C

    2014-10-10

    This report provides an overview of the application of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) in separation technology, and particularly in capillary electrophoresis and both gas and liquid chromatography. There is a large number of CILs that have been synthesized and designed as chiral agents. However, only a few have successfully been applied in separation technology. Even though this application of CILs is still in its early stages, the scientific interest is increasing dramatically. This article is focused on the use of CILs as chiral selectors, background electrolyte additives, chiral ligands and chiral stationary phases in electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques. Different examples of CILs, which contain either a chiral cation, a chiral anion or both, are presented in this review article, and their major advantages along with their potential applications in chiral electrophoretic and chromatographic recognition are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A web site for calculating the degree of chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayit, Amir; Pinsky, Mark; Elgavi, Hadassah; Dryzun, Chaim; Avnir, David

    2011-01-01

    The web site, http://www.csm.huji.ac.il/, uses the Continuous Chirality Measure to evaluate quantitatively the degree of chirality of a molecule, a structure, a fragment. The value of this measure ranges from zero, the molecule is achiral, to higher values (the upper limit is 100); the higher the chirality value, the more chiral the molecule is. The measure is based on the distance between the chiral molecule and the nearest structure that is achiral. Questions such as the following can be addressed: by how much is one molecule more chiral than the other? how does chirality change along conformational motions? is there a correlation between chirality and enantioselectivity in a series of molecules? Both elementary and advanced features are offered. Related calculation options are the symmetry measures and shape measures. Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakli, A.; Nair, G. G.; Lee, C. K.; Sun, R.; Chien, L. C.

    2001-01-01

    The transfer of chirality from nonchiral polymer networks to the racemic B2 phase of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules is demonstrated. This corresponds to the transfer of chirality from an achiral material to another achiral material. There are two levels of chirality transfers. (a) On a microscopic level the presence of a polymer network (chiral or nonchiral) favors a chiral state over a thermodynamically stable racemic state due to the inversion symmetry breaking at the polymer-liquid crystal interfaces. (b) A macroscopically chiral (enantimerically enriched) sample can be produced if the polymer network has a helical structure, and/or contains chemically chiral groups. The chirality transfer can be locally suppressed by exposing the liquid crystal to a strong electric field treatment

  6. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  7. About chiral models of dense matter and its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.

    1990-12-01

    The chiral models of dense nucleon matter are discussed. The quark matter with broken chiral symmetry is described. The magnetic properties of dense matter are presented and conclusions are given. 37 refs. (A.S.)

  8. Superconducting Analogue of the Parafermion Fractional Quantum Hall States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhassan Vaezi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Read-Rezayi Z_{k} parafermion wave functions describe ν=2+(k/kM+2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH states. These states support non-Abelian excitations from which protected quantum gates can be designed. However, there is no experimental evidence for these non-Abelian anyons to date. In this paper, we study the ν=2/k FQH-superconductor heterostructure and find the superconducting analogue of the Z_{k} parafermion FQH state. Our main tool is the mapping of the FQH into coupled one-dimensional chains, each with a pair of counterpropagating modes. We show that by inducing intrachain pairing and charge preserving backscattering with identical couplings, the one-dimensional chains flow into gapless Z_{k} parafermions when k<4. By studying the effect of interchain coupling, we show that every parafermion mode becomes massive except for the two outermost ones. Thus, we achieve a fractional topological superconductor whose chiral edge state is described by a Z_{k} parafermion conformal field theory. For instance, we find that a ν=2/3 FQH in proximity to a superconductor produces a Z_{3} parafermion superconducting state. This state is topologically indistinguishable from the non-Abelian part of the ν=12/5 Read-Rezayi state. Both of these systems can host Fibonacci anyons capable of performing universal quantum computation through braiding operations.

  9. Patterns of symmetry breaking in chiral QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Konishi, Kenichi; Shifman, Mikhail

    2018-05-01

    We consider S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory with massless chiral fermions in a complex representation of the gauge group. The main emphasis is on the so-called hybrid ψ χ η model. The possible patterns of realization of the continuous chiral flavor symmetry are discussed. We argue that the chiral symmetry is broken in conjunction with a dynamical Higgsing of the gauge group (complete or partial) by bifermion condensates. As a result a color-flavor locked symmetry is preserved. The 't Hooft anomaly matching proceeds via saturation of triangles by massless composite fermions or, in a mixed mode, i.e. also by the "weakly" coupled fermions associated with dynamical Abelianization, supplemented by a number of Nambu-Goldstone mesons. Gauge-singlet condensates are of the multifermion type and, though it cannot be excluded, the chiral symmetry realization via such gauge invariant condensates is more contrived (requires a number of four-fermion condensates simultaneously and, even so, problems remain) and less plausible. We conclude that in the model at hand, chiral flavor symmetry implies dynamical Higgsing by bifermion condensates.

  10. Influence of microemulsion chirality on chromatographic figures of merit in EKC: results with novel three-chiral-component microemulsions and comparison with one- and two-chiral-component microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-08-01

    Novel microemulsion formulations containing all chiral components are described for the enantioseparation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers (atenolol, ephedrine, metoprolol, N-methyl ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and synephrine). The chiral surfactant dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV, R- and S-), the chiral cosurfactant S-2-hexanol, and the chiral oil diethyl tartrate (R- and S-) were combined to create four different chiral microemulsions, three of which were stable. Results obtained for enantioselectivity, efficiency, and resolution were compared for the triple-chirality systems and the single-chirality system that contained chiral surfactant only. Improvements in enantioselectivity and resolution were achieved by simultaneously incorporating three chiral components into the aggregate. The one-chiral-component microemulsion provided better efficiencies. Enantioselective synergies were identified for the three-chiral-component nanodroplets using a thermodynamic model. Additionally, two types of dual-chirality systems, chiral surfactant/chiral cosurfactant and chiral surfactant/chiral oil, were examined in terms of chromatographic figures of merit, with the former providing much better resolution. The two varieties of two-chiral-component microemulsions gave similar values for enantioselectivity and efficiency. Lastly, the microemulsion formulations were divided into categories based on the number of chiral microemulsion reagents and the average results for each pair of enantiomers were analyzed for trends. In general, enantioselectivity and resolution were enhanced while efficiency was decreased as more chiral components were used to create the pseudostationary phase (PSP).

  11. Chirality - The forthcoming 160th Anniversary of Pasteur's Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Molčanov, K.; Kojić-Prodić., B.

    2007-01-01

    The presented review on chirality is dedicated to the centennial birth anniversary of Nobel laureate Vladimir Prelog and 160 years of Pasteur's discovery of chirality on tartrates. Chirality has been recognized in nature by artists and architects, who have used it for decorations and basic constructions, as shown in the Introduction. The progress of science through history has enabled the gathering of knowledge on chirality and its many ways of application. The key historical discoveries abou...

  12. Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Oromí-Farrús

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α=3.00 and 2-hexyl acetates (α=1.95. This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC.

  13. Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α = 3.00) and 2-hexyl acetates (α = 1.95). This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC.

  14. Bifunctional organocatalysts for the asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral benzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Miyaji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bifunctional organocatalysts bearing amino and urea functional groups in a chiral molecular skeleton were applied to the enantioselective synthesis of axially chiral benzamides via aromatic electrophilic bromination. The results demonstrate the versatility of bifunctional organocatalysts for the enantioselective construction of axially chiral compounds. Moderate to good enantioselectivities were afforded with a range of benzamide substrates. Mechanistic investigations were also carried out.

  15. Chiral Topological Orders in an Optical Raman Lattice (Open Source)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    PAPER • OPEN ACCESS Chiral topological orders in an optical Raman lattice To cite this article: Xiong-Jun Liu et al 2016 New J. Phys. 18...... chiral spin liquid Abstract Wefind an optical Raman lattice without spin-orbit coupling showing chiral topological orders for cold atoms. Two

  16. The chiral bosonization in non-Abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Novozhilov, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The chiral bosonization in non-Abelian gauge theories is described starting directly from the QCD functional. For a given mass scale Λ, the QCD may be equivalently represented by colour chiral fields, gauge fields and high energy fermions. The effective action for colour chiral fields may admit the existence of a colour Skyrmion-boson with the baryon number 2/3. (author)

  17. Magnetic test of chiral dynamics in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    2014-01-01

    Strong magnetic fields in the range eB≫m π 2 effectively probe internal quark structure of chiral mesons and test basic parameters of the chiral theory, such as 〈q-barq〉,f π . We argue on general grounds that 〈q-barq〉 should grow linearly with eB when charged quark degrees of freedom come into play. To make explicit estimates we extend the previously formulated chiral theory, including quark degrees of freedom, to the case of strong magnetic fields and show that the quark condensate |〈q-barq〉| u,d grows quadratically with eB for eB<0.2 GeV 2 and linearly for higher field values. These results agree quantitatively with recent lattice data and differ from χPT predictions

  18. Attosecond-resolved photoionization of chiral molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S; Comby, A; Clergerie, A; Caillat, J; Descamps, D; Dudovich, N; Fabre, B; Géneaux, R; Légaré, F; Petit, S; Pons, B; Porat, G; Ruchon, T; Taïeb, R; Blanchet, V; Mairesse, Y

    2017-12-08

    Chiral light-matter interactions have been investigated for two centuries, leading to the discovery of many chiroptical processes used for discrimination of enantiomers. Whereas most chiroptical effects result from a response of bound electrons, photoionization can produce much stronger chiral signals that manifest as asymmetries in the angular distribution of the photoelectrons along the light-propagation axis. We implemented self-referenced attosecond photoelectron interferometry to measure the temporal profile of the forward and backward electron wave packets emitted upon photoionization of camphor by circularly polarized laser pulses. We measured a delay between electrons ejected forward and backward, which depends on the ejection angle and reaches 24 attoseconds. The asymmetric temporal shape of electron wave packets emitted through an autoionizing state further reveals the chiral character of strongly correlated electronic dynamics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Analysis of chiral symmetry breaking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X. H.; Academia Sinica, Beijing; Huang, T.; CCAST

    1997-01-01

    The renormalization group invariant quark condensate μ is determined both from the consistent equation for quark condensate in the chiral limit and from the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation improved by the intermediate range QCD force singular like δ (q) which is associated with the gluon condensate. The solutions of μ in these two equations are consistent. The authors also obtain the critical strong coupling constant α c above which chiral symmetry breaks in these two approaches. The nonperturbative kernel of the SD equation makes α c smaller and μ bigger. An intuitive picture of the condensation above α c is discussed. In addition, with the help of the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward (STW) identity they derive the equations for the nonperturbative quark propagator from the SD equation in the presence of the intermediate range force and find that the intermediate-range force is also responsible for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

  20. Chiral symmetry and strangeness at SIS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.F.M.

    2003-11-01

    In this talk we review the consequences of the chiral SU(3) symmetry for strangeness propagation in nuclear matter. Objects of crucial importance are the meson-baryon scattering amplitudes obtained within the chiral coupled-channel effective field theory. Results for antikaon and hyperon-resonance spectral functions in cold nuclear matter are presented and discussed. The importance of the Σ(1385) resonance for the subthreshold antikaon production in heavy-ion reaction at SIS is pointed out. The in-medium properties of the latter together with an antikaon spectral function based on chiral SU(3) dynamics suggest a significant enhancement of the π Λ → anti Κ N reaction in nuclear matter. (orig.)

  1. Hidden QCD in Chiral Gauge Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The 't Hooft and Corrigan-Ramond limits of massless one-flavor QCD consider the two Weyl fermions to be respectively in the fundamental representation or the two index antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. We introduce a limit in which one of the two Weyl fermions is in the fundamental...... representation and the other in the two index antisymmetric representation of a generic SU(N) gauge group. This theory is chiral and to avoid gauge anomalies a more complicated chiral theory is needed. This is the generalized Georgi-Glashow model with one vector like fermion. We show that there is an interesting...... phase in which the considered chiral gauge theory, for any N, Higgses via a bilinear condensate: The gauge interactions break spontaneously to ordinary massless one-flavor SU(3) QCD. The additional elementary fermionic matter is uncharged under this SU(3) gauge theory. It is also seen that when...

  2. On chiral-odd Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Paris (France); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process {gamma} + N {yields} {pi} + {rho} + N', in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. Estimated counting rates show that the experiment is feasible with real or quasi real photon beams expected at JLab at 12 GeV and in the COMPASS experiment. (Phys Letters B688,154,2010) In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral-odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented. Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral-odd GPDs to a minimal set. (author)

  3. Chiral battery, scaling laws and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Pandey, Arun Kumar, E-mail: sampurn@prl.res.in, E-mail: jeet@prl.res.in, E-mail: arunp@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India)

    2017-07-01

    We study the generation and evolution of magnetic field in the presence of chiral imbalance and gravitational anomaly which gives an additional contribution to the vortical current. The contribution due to gravitational anomaly is proportional to T {sup 2} which can generate seed magnetic field irrespective of plasma being chirally charged or neutral. We estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field to be 10{sup 30} G at T ∼ 10{sup 9} GeV, with a typical length scale of the order of 10{sup −18} cm, which is much smaller than the Hubble radius at that temperature (10{sup −8} cm). Moreover, such a system possess scaling symmetry. We show that the T {sup 2} term in the vorticity current along with scaling symmetry leads to more power transfer from lower to higher length scale as compared to only chiral anomaly without scaling symmetry.

  4. Chiral crossover transition in a finite volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Jia, Wenbao; Sun, An; Zhang, Liping; Zong, Hongshi

    2018-02-01

    Finite volume effects on the chiral crossover transition of strong interactions at finite temperature are studied by solving the quark gap equation within a cubic volume of finite size L. With the anti-periodic boundary condition, our calculation shows the chiral quark condensate, which characterizes the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, decreases as L decreases below 2.5 fm. We further study the finite volume effects on the pseudo-transition temperature {T}{{c}} of the crossover, showing a significant decrease in {T}{{c}} as L decreases below 3 fm. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475085, 11535005, 11690030, 51405027), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (020414380074), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M591808) and Open Research Foundation of State Key Lab. of Digital Manufacturing Equipment & Technology in Huazhong University of Science & Technology (DMETKF2015015)

  5. Self-assembly of chiral molecular polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Lin, Wenbin

    2003-07-09

    Treatment of 2,2'-diacetyl-1,1'-binaphthyl-6,6'-bis(ethyne), L-H2, with 1 equiv of trans-Pt(PEt3)2Cl2 led to a mixture of different sizes of chiral metallocycles [trans-(PEt3)2Pt(L)]n (n = 3-8, 1-6). Each of the chiral molecular polygons 1-6 was purified by silica gel column chromatography and characterized by 1H, 13C{1H}, and 31P{1H} NMR spectroscopy, MS, IR, UV-vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies, and microanalysis. The presence of tunable cavities (1.4-4.3 nm) and chiral functionalities in these molecular polygons promises to make them excellent receptors for a variety of guests.

  6. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  7. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell

  8. New chiral zwitterionic phosphorus heterocycles: synthesis, structure, properties and application as chiral solvating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshenev, Andrey E; Boltukhina, Ekaterina V; Grishina, Anastasiya A; Cisařova, Ivana; Lyapkalo, Ilya M; Hii, King Kuok Mimi

    2013-06-17

    A family of new chiral zwitterionic phosphorus-containing heterocycles (zPHC) have been derived from methylene-bridged bis(imidazolines). These structures were unambiguously determined, including single-crystal XRD analysis for two compounds. The stability, acid/base and electronic properties of these dipolar phosphorus heterocycles were subsequently investigated. zPHCs can be successfully employed as a new class of chiral solvating agents for the enantiodifferentiation of chiral carboxylic and sulfonic acids by NMR spectroscopy. The stoichiometry and binding constants for the donor-acceptor complexes formed were established by NMR titration methods. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of enantiomerically pure cyclopropyl analogues of combretastatin A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ty, Nancy; Pontikis, Renée; Chabot, Guy G; Devillers, Emmanuelle; Quentin, Lionel; Bourg, Stéphane; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of stereochemistry on biological activities of cis-cyclopropyl combretastatin A4 (CA4) analogues, we have prepared several cyclopropyl compounds in their pure enantiomeric forms. The key reactions in our synthesis are the cyclopropanation of a (Z)-alkenylboron compound bearing a chiral auxiliary, and the cross-coupling of both enantiomeric cyclopropyl trifluoroborate salts with aryl and olefinic halides. Three pairs of cis-cyclopropyl CA4 analogues were evaluated for their potential antivascular activities. The diarylcyclopropyl compounds with SR-configuration (-)-1b, (-)-2b and the cyclopropylvinyl enantiomer (+)-3a with RR-configuration were the most potent tubulin polymerization inhibitors. A correlation was noted between anti-tubulin activity and rounding up activity of endothelial cells. The cytotoxic activity on B16 melanoma cells was in the submicromolar range for most compounds, but unlike the anti-tubulin activity, there was no difference in cytotoxic activity between racemic and enantiomerically pure forms for the three series of compounds. Molecular docking studies within the colchicine binding site of tubulin were in good agreement with the tubulin polymerization inhibitory data and confirmed the importance of the configuration of the synthesized cis-cyclopropyl CA4 analogues for potential antivascular activities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Intrinsic Chirality Origination in Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Neal; Chen, Gugang; P Rajukumar, Lakshmy; Chou, Nam Hawn; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Maruyama, Shigeo; Terrones, Mauricio; Harutyunyan, Avetik R

    2017-10-24

    Elucidating the origin of carbon nanotube chirality is key for realizing their untapped potential. Currently, prevalent theories suggest that catalyst structure originates chirality via an epitaxial relationship. Here we studied chirality abundances of carbon nanotubes grown on floating liquid Ga droplets, which excludes the influence of catalyst features, and compared them with abundances grown on solid Ru nanoparticles. Results of growth on liquid droplets bolsters the intrinsic preference of carbon nuclei toward certain chiralities. Specifically, the abundance of the (11,1)/χ = 4.31° tube can reach up to 95% relative to (9,4)/χ = 17.48°, although they have exactly the same diameter, (9.156 Å). However, the comparative abundances for the pair, (19,3)/χ = 7.2° and (17,6)/χ = 14.5°, with bigger diameter, (16.405 Å), fluctuate depending on synthesis temperature. The abundances of the same pairs of tubes grown on floating solid polyhedral Ru nanoparticles show completely different trends. Analysis of abundances in relation to nucleation probability, represented by a product of the Zeldovich factor and the deviation interval of a growing nuclei from equilibrium critical size, explain the findings. We suggest that the chirality in the nanotube in general is a result of interplay between intrinsic preference of carbon cluster and induction by catalyst structure. This finding can help to build the comprehensive theory of nanotube growth and offers a prospect for chirality-preferential synthesis of carbon nanotubes by the exploitation of liquid catalyst droplets.

  11. Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles; Manchon, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.

  12. Chiral surface waves for enhanced circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Giovanni; Finazzi, Marco; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    We present a novel chiral sensing platform that combines a one-dimensional photonic crystal design with a birefringent surface defect. The platform sustains simultaneous transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface modes, which are exploited to generate chiral surface waves. The present design provides homogeneous and superchiral fields of both handednesses over arbitrarily large areas in a wide spectral range, resulting in the enhancement of the circular dichroism signal by more than two orders of magnitude, thus paving the road toward the successful combination of surface-enhanced spectroscopies and electromagnetic superchirality.

  13. Covariant, chirally symmetric, confining model of mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Milana, J.

    1991-01-01

    We introduce a new model of mesons as quark-antiquark bound states. The model is covariant, confining, and chirally symmetric. Our equations give an analytic solution for a zero-mass pseudoscalar bound state in the case of exact chiral symmetry, and also reduce to the familiar, highly successful nonrelativistic linear potential models in the limit of heavy-quark mass and lightly bound systems. In this fashion we are constructing a unified description of all the mesons from the π through the Υ. Numerical solutions for other cases are also presented

  14. Chiral algebras in Landau-Ginzburg models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushenko, Mykola

    2018-03-01

    Chiral algebras in the cohomology of the {\\overline{Q}}+ supercharge of two-dimensional N=(0,2) theories on flat spacetime are discussed. Using the supercurrent multiplet, we show that the answer is renormalization group invariant for theories with an R-symmetry. For N=(0,2) Landau-Ginzburg models, the chiral algebra is determined by the operator equations of motion, which preserve their classical form, and quantum renormalization of composite operators. We study these theories and then specialize to the N=(2,2) models and consider some examples.

  15. Chirality sensing with stereodynamic biphenolate zinc complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Keith W; de Los Santos, Zeus A; Weiss, Mary J; Wolf, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Two bidentate ligands consisting of a fluxional polyarylacetylene framework with terminal phenol groups were synthesized. Reaction with diethylzinc gives stereodynamic complexes that undergo distinct asymmetric transformation of the first kind upon binding of chiral amines and amino alcohols. The substrate-to-ligand chirality imprinting at the zinc coordination sphere results in characteristic circular dichroism signals that can be used for direct enantiomeric excess (ee) analysis. This chemosensing approach bears potential for high-throughput ee screening with small sample amounts and reduced solvent waste compared to traditional high-performance liquid chromatography methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. SU(3) chiral symmetry for baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrasinovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Three-quark nucleon interpolating fields in QCD have well-defined SU L (3)xSU R (3) and U A (1) chiral transformation properties, viz. [(6,3)+(3,6)], [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)], [(8,1)+(1,8)] and their 'mirror' images. It has been shown (phenomenologically) in Ref. [2] that mixing of the [(6,3)+(3,6)] chiral multiplet with one ordinary ('naive') and one 'mirror' field belonging to the [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)], [(8,1)+(1,8)] multiplets can be used to fit the values of the isovector (g A (3) ) and the flavor-singlet (isoscalar) axial coupling (g A (0) ) of the nucleon and then predict the axial F and D coefficients, or vice versa, in reasonable agreement with experiment. In an attempt to derive such mixing from an effective Lagrangian, we construct all SU L (3)xSU R (3) chirally invariant non-derivative one-meson-baryon interactions and then calculate the mixing angles in terms of baryons' masses. It turns out that there are (strong) selection rules: for example, there is only one non-derivative chirally symmetric interaction between J 1/2 fields belonging to the [(6,3)+(3,6)] and the [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)] chiral multiplets, that is also U A (1) symmetric. We also study the chiral interactions of the [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)] and [(8,1)+(1,8)] nucleon fields. Again, there are selection rules that allow only one off-diagonal non-derivative chiral SU L (3)xSU R (3) interaction of this type, that also explicitly breaks the U A (1) symmetry. We use this interaction to calculate the corresponding mixing angles in terms of baryon masses and fit two lowest lying observed nucleon (resonance) masses, thus predicting the third (J = 1/2, I = 3/2)Δ resonance, as well as one or two flavor-singlet Λ hyperon(s), depending on the type of mixing. The effective chiral Lagrangians derived here may be applied to high density matter calculations.

  17. Disoriented chiral condensate: Theory and phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    These notes are an abbreviated version of lectures given at the 1997 Zakopane School. They contain two topics. The first is a description in elementary terms of the basic ideas underlying the speculative hypothesis that pieces of strong-interaction vacuum with a rotated chiral order parameter, disoriented chiral condensate or DCC, might be produced in high energy elementary particle collisions. The second topic is a discussion of the phenomenological techniques which may be applied to data in order to experimentally search for the existence of DCC

  18. Low-energy meson physics (chiral theory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Pervushin, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum chiral theory which allows to obtain low-energy expansions of various hadron processes without introducing arbitrary parameters into the theory with the exception of hadron masses and interaction constants is presented. A hypothesis about the dynamic symmetry of strong interactions is suggested. The interaction lagrangian is derived which satisfies conditions of the dynamic symmetry. Examples of the use of the quantum chiral theory for describing low-energy processes of meson interaction are given. It is noted that the results obtained reproduce the actual qualitative pattern of various physical processes and in most cases result in good quantitative agreement with experiments

  19. Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2016-06-21

    A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.

  20. Physical properties of the chiral quantum baryon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, A.J.; Wulck, S.

    1989-01-01

    It is presented an account to understand the quantum chiral baryon, which a stable chiral soliton with baryon number one obtained after first quantization by collective coordinates. Starting from the exact series solution to the non-linear sigma model with the hedge-hog configuration, the values of several physical quantities (mass, axial weak coupling, gyromagnetic ratios and radii) as a function of the order of Pade approximants used as approximanted representations of the solution, are calculated. It turns out that consistent results may be obtained, but a better approximation should be developed. (author) [pt

  1. Speciation and gene flow between snails of opposite chirality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Davison

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in snails is intriguing because individuals of opposite chirality are either unable to mate or can only mate with difficulty, so could be reproductively isolated from each other. We have therefore investigated chiral evolution in the Japanese land snail genus Euhadra to understand whether changes in chirality have promoted speciation. In particular, we aimed to understand the effect of the maternal inheritance of chirality on reproductive isolation and gene flow. We found that the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of Euhadra is consistent with a single, relatively ancient evolution of sinistral species and suggests either recent "single-gene speciation" or gene flow between chiral morphs that are unable to mate. To clarify the conditions under which new chiral morphs might evolve and whether single-gene speciation can occur, we developed a mathematical model that is relevant to any maternal-effect gene. The model shows that reproductive character displacement can promote the evolution of new chiral morphs, tending to counteract the positive frequency-dependent selection that would otherwise drive the more common chiral morph to fixation. This therefore suggests a general mechanism as to how chiral variation arises in snails. In populations that contain both chiral morphs, two different situations are then possible. In the first, gene flow is substantial between morphs even without interchiral mating, because of the maternal inheritance of chirality. In the second, reproductive isolation is possible but unstable, and will also lead to gene flow if intrachiral matings occasionally produce offspring with the opposite chirality. Together, the results imply that speciation by chiral reversal is only meaningful in the context of a complex biogeographical process, and so must usually involve other factors. In order to understand the roles of reproductive character displacement and gene flow in the chiral evolution of Euhadra, it will be

  2. Examination and experimental constraints of the stellar reaction rate factor N-A of the Ne-18(alpha, p)Na-21 reaction at temperatures of x-ray bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matic, A.; Mohr, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Ne-18(alpha, p)Na-21 reaction is one key for the breakout from the hot CNO cycles to the rp-process. Recent papers have provided reaction rate factors N-A which are discrepant by at least one order of magnitude. The compatibility of the latest experimental results is tested, and a partial

  3. A versatile method for the preparation of conjugates of peptides with DNA/PNA/analog by employing chemo-selective click reaction in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Khirud; Mane, Meenakshi V.; Kunte, Sunita S.; Kumar, Vaijayanti A.

    2007-01-01

    The specific 1,3 dipolar Hüisgen cycloaddition reaction known as ‘click-reaction’ between azide and alkyne groups is employed for the synthesis of peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates. The peptide nucleic acids (PNA)/DNA and peptides may be appended either by azide or alkyne groups. The cycloaddition reaction between the azide and alkyne appended substrates allows the synthesis of the desired conjugates in high purity and yields irrespective of the sequence and functional groups on either of the two substrates. The versatile approach could also be employed to generate the conjugates of peptides with thioacetamido nucleic acid (TANA) analog. The click reaction is catalyzed by Cu (I) in either water or in organic medium. In water, ∼3-fold excess of the peptide-alkyne/azide drives the reaction to completion in 2 h with no side products. PMID:17981837

  4. Enantiopure Ferrocene-Based Planar-Chiral Iridacycles: Stereospecific Control of Iridium-Centred Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Ross A; Ismail, Muhammad; Prior, Christopher C; Oganesyan, Vasily S; Horton, Peter N; Coles, Simon J; Richards, Christopher J

    2016-02-24

    Reaction of [IrCp*Cl2 ]2 with ferrocenylimines (Fc=NAr, Ar=Ph, p-MeOC6 H4 ) results in ferrocene C-H activation and the diastereoselective synthesis of half-sandwich iridacycles of relative configuration Sp *,RIr *. Extension to (S)-2-ferrocenyl-4-(1-methylethyl)oxazoline gave highly diastereoselective control over the new elements of planar chirality and metal-based pseudo-tetrahedral chirality, to give both neutral and cationic half-sandwich iridacycles of absolute configuration Sc ,Sp ,RIr . Substitution reactions proceed with retention of configuration, with the planar chirality controlling the metal-centred chirality through an iron-iridium interaction in the coordinatively unsaturated cationic intermediate. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Intelligent Chiral Sensing Based on Supramolecular and Interfacial Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Izawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the known intelligently-operating systems, the majority can undoubtedly be classed as being of biological origin. One of the notable differences between biological and artificial systems is the important fact that biological materials consist mostly of chiral molecules. While most biochemical processes routinely discriminate chiral molecules, differentiation between chiral molecules in artificial systems is currently one of the challenging subjects in the field of molecular recognition. Therefore, one of the important challenges for intelligent man-made sensors is to prepare a sensing system that can discriminate chiral molecules. Because intermolecular interactions and detection at surfaces are respectively parts of supramolecular chemistry and interfacial science, chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts is a significant topic. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in these fields, including supramolecular hosts for color detection on chiral sensing, indicator-displacement assays, kinetic resolution in supramolecular reactions with analyses by mass spectrometry, use of chiral shape-defined polymers, such as dynamic helical polymers, molecular imprinting, thin films on surfaces of devices such as QCM, functional electrodes, FET, and SPR, the combined technique of magnetic resonance imaging and immunoassay, and chiral detection using scanning tunneling microscopy and cantilever technology. In addition, we will discuss novel concepts in recent research including the use of achiral reagents for chiral sensing with NMR, and mechanical control of chiral sensing. The importance of integration of chiral sensing systems with rapidly developing nanotechnology and nanomaterials is also emphasized.

  6. Topological chiral phonons in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xifang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Lifa

    2018-06-01

    Since chiral phonons were found in an asymmetric two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, there has been growing interest in the study of phonon chirality, which were experimentally verified very recently in monolayer tungsten diselenide (2018 Science 359 579). In this work, we find chiral phonons with nontrivial topology in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices. At the Brillouin-zone corners, (), circularly polarized phonons and nonzero phonon Berry curvature are observed. Moreover, we find that the phonon chirality remain robust with changing sublattice mass ratio and interlayer coupling. The chiral phonons at the valleys are demonstrated in doubler-layer sodium chloride along the [1 1 1] direction. We believe that the findings on topological chiral phonons in triangle lattices will give guidance in the study of chiral phonons in real materials and promote the phononic applications.

  7. Chiral symmetry breaking is permitted in supersymmetric QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A chirally symmetric theory will generally have a chirally symmetric and a chirally asymmetric solution for the dressed fermionic propagator. It has been claimed that no chirally asymmetric solution for the fermionic propagator exists in supersymmetric QED. This result in the superfield formalism uses a gauge dependent argument whose validity has since been questioned. We present an analogous analysis using the component formalism which demonstrates that chiral symmetry breaking is permitted in this theory. We open the presentation with a brief introduction to supersymmetry, supersymmetric QED, and the superfield formalism. We describe chiral symmetry breaking and the Dyson-Schwinger equation used to analyse it. The derivation of the erroneous theorem claiming the lack of an a chiral propagator is outlined and its flaws discussed. We finish with the equivalent derivation in component fields and our contradictory result

  8. Chiral Rayleigh particles discrimination in dynamic dual optical traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A chiral optical conveyor belt for enantiomeric separation of nanopar-ticles is numerically demonstrated. • Chiral resolution has been theoretically analyzed for chiral spheres immersed in water. • Electromagnetic fields have been designed for obtaining Chiral selective optical tweezers to separate enantiomers in different spatial regions. - Abstract: A chiral optical conveyor belt for enantiomeric separation of nanoparticles is numerically demonstrated by using different types of counter propagating elliptical Laguerre Gaussian beams with different beam waist and topological charge. The analysis of chiral resolution has been made for particles immersed in water demonstrating that in the analyzed conditions one type of enantiomer is trapped in a deep potential and the others are transported by the chiral conveyor toward another trap located in a different geometrical region.

  9. Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Askarpour, Amir N.; Sun, Liuyang; Shi, Jinwei; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Many naturally occurring biomolecules, such as amino acids, sugars and nucleotides, are inherently chiral. Enantiomers, a pair of chiral isomers with opposite handedness, often exhibit similar physical and chemical properties due to their identical functional groups and composition, yet show different toxicity to cells. Detecting enantiomers in small quantities has an essential role in drug development to eliminate their unwanted side effects. Here we exploit strong chiral interactions with plasmonic metamaterials with specifically designed optical response to sense chiral molecules down to zeptomole levels, several orders of magnitude smaller than what is typically detectable with conventional circular dichroism spectroscopy. In particular, the measured spectra reveal opposite signs in the spectral regime directly associated with different chiral responses, providing a way to univocally assess molecular chirality. Our work introduces an ultrathin, planarized nanophotonic interface to sense chiral molecules with inherently weak circular dichroism at visible and near-infrared frequencies. PMID:28120825

  10. Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuki Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a “continent” of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.

  11. The application of strand invasion phenomenon, directed by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) for the recognition of specific sequences of human endogenous retroviral HERV-W family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnik, Grzegorz; Bułdak, Łukasz; Ruczyński, Jarosław; Gąsior, Tomasz; Huzarska, Małgorzata; Belowski, Dariusz; Alenowicz, Magdalena; Mucha, Piotr; Rekowski, Piotr; Okopień, Bogusław

    2017-05-01

    The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated technique for the discrimination between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus and ERVWE1 sequence has been developed. The assay uses a PNA probe that, being fully complementary to the ERVWE1 but not to multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) template, shows high selective potential. Single-stranded DNA binding protein facilitates the PNA-mediated, sequence-specific formation of strand invasion complex and, consequently, local DNA unwinding. The target DNA may be then excluded from further analysis in any downstream process such as single-stranded DNA-specific exonuclease action. Finally, the reaction conditions have been optimized, and several PNA probes that are targeted toward distinct loci along whole HERV-W env sequences have been evaluated. We believe that PNA/single-stranded DNA binding protein-based application has the potential to selectively discriminate particular HERV-W molecules as they are at least suspected to play pathogenic role in a broad range of medical conditions, from psycho-neurologic disorders (multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia) and cancers (breast cancer) to that of an auto-immunologic background (psoriasis and lupus erythematosus). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Chiral anomaly, Berry phase, and chiral kinetic theory from worldlines in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Niklas; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-03-01

    In previous work, we outlined a worldline framework that can be used for systematic computations of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Towards this end, we first expressed the real part of the fermion determinant in the QCD effective action as a supersymmetric worldline action of spinning, colored, Grassmanian point particles in background gauge fields, with equations of motion that are covariant generalizations of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi and Wong equations. The chiral anomaly, in contrast, arises from the phase of the fermion determinant. Remarkably, the latter too can be expressed as a point particle worldline path integral, which can be employed to derive the anomalous axial vector current. We will show here how Berry's phase can be obtained in a consistent nonrelativistic adiabatic limit of the real part of the fermion determinant. Our work provides a general first principles demonstration that the topology of Berry's phase is distinct from that of the chiral anomaly confirming prior arguments by Fujikawa in specific contexts. This suggests that chiral kinetic treatments of the CME in heavy-ion collisions that include Berry's phase alone are incomplete. We outline the elements of a worldline covariant relativistic chiral kinetic theory that captures the physics of how the chiral current is modified by many-body scattering and topological fluctuations.

  13. Chiral stationary phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography: A strategy for the separation of chiral isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegade, Ravindra Suryakant; De Beer, Maarten; Lynen, Frederic

    2017-09-15

    Chiral Stationary-Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOSLC) is proposed as a tool to optimally separate mixtures of enantiomers on a set of commercially available coupled chiral columns. This approach allows for the prediction of the separation profiles on any possible combination of the chiral stationary phases based on a limited number of preliminary analyses, followed by automated selection of the optimal column combination. Both the isocratic and gradient SOSLC approach were implemented for prediction of the retention times for a mixture of 4 chiral pairs on all possible combinations of the 5 commercial chiral columns. Predictions in isocratic and gradient mode were performed with a commercially available and with an in-house developed Microsoft visual basic algorithm, respectively. Optimal predictions in the isocratic mode required the coupling of 4 columns whereby relative deviations between the predicted and experimental retention times ranged between 2 and 7%. Gradient predictions led to the coupling of 3 chiral columns allowing baseline separation of all solutes, whereby differences between predictions and experiments ranged between 0 and 12%. The methodology is a novel tool allowing optimizing the separation of mixtures of optical isomers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Marco

    2017-07-24

    The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.

  15. Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls

    KAUST Repository

    Jué , Emilie; Safeer, C.  K.; Drouard, Marc; Lopez, Alexandre; Balint, Paul; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Boulle, Olivier; Auffret, Stephane; Schuhl, Alain; Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).

  16. Vortex in the chiral quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek

    1995-02-01

    We construct the classical vortex solution in the model of chiral field interacting with the non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field. This solution is topologically nontrivial and well localized. We discuss its relevance for effective hadron models based on the flux-tube picture and the possibility of its extension to the higher symmetry gauge groups SU(N).

  17. Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.

  18. Wave propagation retrieval method for chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the wave propagation method for the retrieving of effective properties of media with circularly polarized eigenwaves, in particularly for chiral metamaterials. The method is applied for thick slabs and provides bulk effective parameters. Its strong sides are the absence...

  19. Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls

    KAUST Repository

    Jué, Emilie

    2015-12-21

    Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).

  20. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amit@fs.rri.local.net (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic ... In the vicinity of the direct beam for a sample aligned in the Bragg mode and. 297 ... experimental investigations on these modes. Duke and Du ..... scattering volume is not true in practice. In an actual ...

  1. Separation of Chiral Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein

    is regarded as a first step towards a fully continuous PC process. The current knowledge of the importance of crystallization processes in the pharmaceutical industry and the complex thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena accompanied with the separation of chiral compounds are addressed. The experimental work...

  2. Anion-π Catalysts with Axial Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Matile, Stefan

    2017-09-04

    The idea of anion-π catalysis is to stabilize anionic transition states by anion-π interactions on aromatic surfaces. For asymmetric anion-π catalysis, π-acidic surfaces have been surrounded with stereogenic centers. This manuscript introduces the first anion-π catalysts that operate with axial chirality. Bifunctional catalysts with tertiary amine bases next to π-acidic naphthalenediimide planes are equipped with a bulky aromatic substituent in the imide position to produce separable atropisomers. The addition of malonic acid half thioesters to enolate acceptors is used for evaluation. In the presence of a chiral axis, the selective acceleration of the disfavored but relevant enolate addition was much better than with point chirality, and enantioselectivity could be observed for the first time for this reaction with small-molecule anion-π catalysts. Enantioselectivity increased with the π acidity of the π surface, whereas the addition of stereogenic centers around the aromatic plane did not cause further improvements. These results identify axial chirality of the active aromatic plane generated by atropisomerism as an attractive strategy for asymmetric anion-π catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  4. Hamiltonian formulation of anomaly free chiral bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Devecchi, F.P.; Zadra, A.

    1988-01-01

    Starting out of an anomaly free Lagrangian formulation for chiral scalars, which a Wess-Zumino Term (to cancel the anomaly), we formulate the corresponding hamiltonian problem. Ther we use the (quantum) Siegel invariance to choose a particular, which turns out coincide with the obtained by Floreanini and Jackiw. (author) [pt

  5. Mirror fermions in chiral gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvay, I.

    1992-06-01

    Mirror fermions appear naturally in lattice formulations of the standard model. The phenomenological limits on their existence and discovery limits at future colliders are discussed. After an introduction of lattice actions for chiral Yukawa-models, a recent numerical simulation is presented. In particular, the emerging phase structures and features of the allowed region in renormalized couplings are discussed. (orig.)

  6. ISOSPIN BREAKING AND THE CHIRAL CONDENSATE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ, M.

    2005-07-25

    With two degenerate quarks, the chiral condensate exhibits a jump as the quark masses pass through zero. I discuss how this single transition splits into two Ising like transitions when the quarks are made non-degenerate. The order parameter is the expectation of the neutral pion field. The transitions represent long distance coherent phenomena occurring without the Dirac operator having vanishingly small eigenvalues.

  7. Chiral discrimination in biomimetic systems: Phenylalanine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral discrimination and recognition is important in peptide biosynthesis, amino acid synthesis and drug designing. Detailed structural information is available about the peptide synthesis in ribosome. However, no detailed study is available about the discrimination in peptide synthesis. We study the conformational energy ...

  8. Chiral symmetry breaking in finite quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, J.C.; Pleitez, V.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in a finite Abelian gauge theory using a variational approach for the effective potential for composite operators is discussed. It is shown that, at least in a variational approach, the fermion either remains massless or gets a dynamical mass for every non-zero coupling constant. (Author) [pt

  9. Theory of conductivity of chiral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kailasvuori, Janik; Šopík, Břetislav; Trushin, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    In this methodology focused paper we scrutinize the application of the band-coherent Boltzmann equation approach to calculating the conductivity of chiral particles. As the ideal testing ground we use the two-band kinetic Hamiltonian with an N-fold chiral twist that arises in a low-energy description of charge carriers in rhombohedrally stacked multilayer graphene. To understand the role of chirality in the conductivity of such particles we also consider the artificial model with the chiral winding number decoupled from the power of the dispersion. We first utilize the approximate but analytically solvable band-coherent Boltzmann approach including the ill-understood principal value terms that are a byproduct of several quantum many-body theory derivations of Boltzmann collision integrals. Further on, we employ the finite-size Kubo formula with the exact diagonalization of the total Hamiltonian perturbed by disorder. Finally, we compare several choices of Ansatz in the derivation of the Boltzmann equation according to the qualitative agreement between the Boltzmann and Kubo conductivities. We find that the best agreement can be reached in the approach where the principal value terms in the collision integral are absent. (paper)

  10. Realization of chiral symmetry in the ERG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigo, Yoshio; Igarashi, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    We discuss within the framework of the ERG how chiral symmetry is realized in a linear σ model. A generalized Ginsparg-Wilson relation is obtained from the Ward-Takahashi identities for the Wilson action assumed to be bilinear in the Dirac fields. We construct a family of its non-perturbative solutions. The family generates the most general solutions to the Ward-Takahashi identities. Some special solutions are discussed. For each solution in this family, chiral symmetry is realized in such a way that a change in the Wilson action under non-linear symmetry transformation is canceled with a change in the functional measure. We discuss that the family of solutions reduces via a field redefinition to a family of the Wilson actions with some composite object of the scalar fields which has a simple transformation property. For this family, chiral symmetry is linearly realized with a continuum analog of the operator extension of γ 5 used on the lattice. We also show that there exist some appropriate Dirac fields which obey the standard chiral transformations with γ 5 in contrast to the lattice case. Their Yukawa interaction with scalars, however, becomes non-linear. (author)

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of febrifugine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Thanh, Giang Vo; Tran, Van Hieu; Vu, Van Nam; Vu, Van Loi; Le, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Phi, Thi Dao; Truong, Bich Ngan; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2014-12-01

    A series of febrifugine analogues were designed and synthesized. Antimalarial activity evaluation of the synthetic compounds indicated that these derivatives had a strong inhibition against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Many of them were found to be more active than febrifugine hydrochloride. The tested analogues had also a significant cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, LU1 and HepG2). Among the synthetic analogues, two compounds 17b and 17h displayed a moderate cytotoxicity while they exhibited a remarkable antimalarial activity.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  13. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  14. Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Matt M.; Andrews, David L.

    2012-06-01

    This paper develops, in precise quantum electrodynamic terms, photonic attributes of the “optical chirality density,” one of several measures long known to be conserved quantities for a vacuum electromagnetic field. The analysis lends insights into some recent interpretations of chiroptical experiments, in which this measure, and an associated chirality flux, have been treated as representing physically distinctive “superchiral” phenomena. In the fully quantized formalism the chirality density is promoted to operator status, whose exploration with reference to an arbitrary polarization basis reveals relationships to optical angular momentum and helicity operators. Analyzing multimode beams with complex wave-front structures, notably Laguerre-Gaussian modes, affords a deeper understanding of the interplay between optical chirality and optical angular momentum. By developing theory with due cognizance of the photonic character of light, it emerges that only the spin-angular momentum of light is engaged in such observations. Furthermore, it is shown that these prominent measures of the helicity of chiral electromagnetic radiation have a common basis in differences between the populations of optical modes associated with angular momenta of opposite sign. Using a calculation of the rate of circular dichroism as an example, with coherent states to model the electromagnetic field, it is discovered that two terms contribute to the differential effect. The primary contribution relates to the difference in left- and right-handed photon populations; the only other contribution, which displays a sinusoidal distance dependence corresponding to the claim of nodal enhancements, is connected with the quantum photon number-phase uncertainty relation. From the full analysis, it appears that the term “superchiral” can be considered redundant.

  15. Quenched QED in the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermark, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    The main goal in this project has been to understand, through analytical methods, whether there could be a continuum limit for QED. This possibility is motivated by recent lattice simulations on quenched QED which apparently exhibit a chiral phase transition at strong coupling in the chiral limit. Another goal is to develop a novel perturbation expansion which may also be usefully applied to other theories. The author begins with the general expression for the chiral order parameter, (bar ψψ), in the quenched limit of euclidean QED, where the number of fermion flavors goes to zero, using the path integral formulation. A cutoff scale, Λ, is introduced into the photon propagator and a new expansion, the open-quotes wormhole expansion,close quotes in powers of Λ 2 /m 2 , where m is the fermion mass, is derived. Graphical rules for the wormhole expansion of left-angle bar ψψ right-angle are described in detail. The author then devises algorithms to generate recursively the graphs at each successive order and to perform the loop momentum integral and γ matrix trace involved in the evaluation of each graph. These algorithms are implemented in Mathmatica and the left-angle bar ψψ right-angle expansion is carried out to order (Λ 2 / m 2 ) 6 . The author employs pade techniques to extrapolate this expansion to the chiral limit (Λ 2 /m 2 → ∞) and looks for a singularity at strong coupling to signal a phase transition. Indications have been found that there may be a phase transition but apparently there are not enough terms in the wormhole expansion to attain stability in our pade analysis. The author therefore cannot conclude that there is a chiral phase transition, although the results are consistent with the existence of one

  16. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    Chirality is a fundamental scientific concept best described by the absence of mirror symmetry and the inability to superimpose an object onto its mirror image by translation and rotation. Chirality is expressed at almost all molecular levels, from single molecules to supramolecular systems, and present virtually everywhere in nature. Here, to explore how chirality propagates from a chiral nanoscale surface, we study gold nanoparticles functionalized with axially chiral binaphthyl molecules. In particular, we synthesized three enantiomeric pairs of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles differing in size, curvature, and ligand density to tune the chirality transfer from nanoscale solid surfaces to a bulk anisotropic liquid crystal medium. Ultimately, we are examining how far the chirality from a nanoparticle surface reaches into a bulk material. Circular dichroism spectra of the gold nanoparticles decorated with binaphthyl thiols confirmed that the binaphthyl moieties form a cisoid conformation in isotropic organic solvents. In the chiral nematic liquid crystal phase, induced by dispersing the gold nanoparticles into an achiral anisotropic nematic liquid crystal solvent, the binaphthyl moieties on the nanoparticle surface form a transoid conformation as determined by imaging the helical twist direction of the induced cholesteric phase. This suggests that the ligand density on the nanoscale metal surfaces provides a dynamic space to alter and adjust the helicity of binaphthyl derivatives in response to the ordering of the surrounding medium. The helical pitch values of the induced chiral nematic phase were determined, and the helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral gold nanoparticles calculated to elucidate the chirality transfer efficiency of the binaphthyl ligand capped gold nanoparticles. Remarkably, the HTP increases with increasing diameter of the particles, that is, the efficiency of the chirality transfer of the binaphthyl units bound to the nanoparticle

  17. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study. A case of Tono natural analogue study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1996-01-01

    Natural analogue regarding long-term performance of the geological disposal system for radioactive waste isolation is essentially the study of geochemical process which has been evolved in geological environment. All geochemical studies, however, will not be nominated as natural analogue studies. It is, therefore, important to be clear the criteria for natural analogue study with the view of analogy by following three categories, (1) Conceptual model development, (2) Data provision and (3) Model testing, for the concept of geological disposal and safety assessment model. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study through the case of Tono Natural Analogue Study, and the usefulness of natural analogue study for the safety assessment of geological disposal system in Japan have been presented in this paper. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the chiral recognition properties as well as the column performance of four chiral stationary phases based on cellulose (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) by parallel HPLC and SFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelander, Hanna; Andersson, Shalini; Ohlén, Kristina

    2011-12-30

    The performance of four commercially available cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) was evaluated with parallel high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and super critical fluid chromatography (SFC). Retention, enantioselectivity, resolution and efficiency were compared for a set of neutral, basic and acidic compounds having different physico-chemical properties by using different mobile phase conditions. Although the chiral selector is the same in all the four CSPs, a large difference in the ability to retain and resolve enantiomers was observed under the same chromatographic conditions. We believe that this is mainly due to differences in the silica matrix and immobilization techniques used by the different vendors. An extended study of metoprolol and structure analogues gave a deeper understanding of the accessibility of the chiral discriminating interactions and its impact on the resolution of the racemic compounds on the four CSPs studied. Also, a clear difference in enantioselectivity is observed between SFC and LC mode, hydrogen bonding was found to play an important role in the differential binding of the enantiomers to the CSPs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. International video project on natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentensperger, Marcel

    1993-01-01

    A natural analogue can be defined as a natural process which has occurred in the past and is studied in order to test predictions about the future evolution of similar processes. In recent years, natural analogues have been used increasingly to test the mathematical models required for repository performance assessment. Analogues are, however, also of considerable use in public relations as they allow many of the principles involved in demonstrating repository safety to be illustrated in a clear manner using natural systems with which man is familiar. The international Natural Analogue Working Group (NAWG), organised under the auspices of the CEC, has recognised that such PR applications are of considerable importance and should be supported from a technical level. At the NAWG meeting in Pitlochry, Scotland (June 1990), it was recommended that the possibilities for making a video film on this topic be investigated and Nagra was requested to take the lead role in setting up such a project

  20. Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)

  1. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  2. Baryons in the chiral regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippschild, Bastian

    2012-03-05

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, one of the four fundamental forces in our Universe. It describes the interaction of gluons and quarks which build up hadrons like protons and neutrons. Most of the visible matter in our universe is made of protons and neutrons. Hence, we are interested in their fundamental properties like their masses, their distribution of charge and their shape. The only known theoretical, non-perturbative and ab initio method to investigate hadron properties at low energies is lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). However, up-to-date simulations (especially for baryonic quantities) do not achieve the accuracy of experiments. In fact, current simulations do not even reproduce the experimental values for the form factors. The question arises wether these deviations can be explained by systematic effects in lattice QCD simulations. This thesis is about the computation of nucleon form factors and other hadronic quantities from lattice QCD. So called Wilson fermions are used and the u- and d-quarks are treated fully dynamically. The simulations were performed using gauge ensembles with a range of lattice spacings, volumes and pion masses. First of all, the lattice spacing was set to be able to make contact between the lattice results and their experimental complement and to be able to perform a continuum extrapolation. The light quark mass has been computed and found to be m{sub ud}{sup MS}(2 GeV)=3.03(17)(38) MeV. This value is in good agreement with values from experiments and other lattice determinations. Electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon have been calculated. From these form factors the nucleon radii and the coupling constants were computed. The different ensembles enabled us to investigate systematically the dependence of these quantities on the volume, the lattice spacing and the pion mass. Finally we perform a continuum extrapolation and chiral extrapolations to the physical point

  3. Baryons in the chiral regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knippschild, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, one of the four fundamental forces in our Universe. It describes the interaction of gluons and quarks which build up hadrons like protons and neutrons. Most of the visible matter in our universe is made of protons and neutrons. Hence, we are interested in their fundamental properties like their masses, their distribution of charge and their shape. The only known theoretical, non-perturbative and ab initio method to investigate hadron properties at low energies is lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). However, up-to-date simulations (especially for baryonic quantities) do not achieve the accuracy of experiments. In fact, current simulations do not even reproduce the experimental values for the form factors. The question arises whether these deviations can be explained by systematic effects in lattice QCD simulations. This thesis is about the computation of nucleon form factors and other hadronic quantities from lattice QCD. So called Wilson fermions are used and the u- and d-quarks are treated fully dynamically. The simulations were performed using gauge ensembles with a range of lattice spacings, volumes and pion masses. First of all, the lattice spacing was set to be able to make contact between the lattice results and their experimental complement and to be able to perform a continuum extrapolation. The light quark mass has been computed and found to be m ud MS (2 GeV)=3.03(17)(38) MeV. This value is in good agreement with values from experiments and other lattice determinations. Electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon have been calculated. From these form factors the nucleon radii and the coupling constants were computed. The different ensembles enabled us to investigate systematically the dependence of these quantities on the volume, the lattice spacing and the pion mass. Finally we perform a continuum extrapolation and chiral extrapolations to the physical point. In

  4. Light-front realization of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Kazunori; Maedan, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a description of chiral symmetry breaking in the light-front (LF) formalism. Based on careful analyses of several modes, we give clear answers to the following three fundamental questions: (i) What is the difference between the LF chiral transformation and the ordinary chiral transformation? (ii) How does a gap equation for the chiral condensate emerge? (iii) What is the consequence of the coexistence of a nonzero chiral condensate and the trivial Fock vacuum? The answer to Question (i) is given through a classical analysis of each model. Question (ii) is answered based on our recognition of the importance of characteristic constraints, such as the zero-mode and fermionic constraints. Question (iii) is intimately related to another important problem, reconciliation of the nonzero chiral condensate ≠ 0 and the invariance of the vacuum under the LF chiral transformation Q 5 LF | 0> = 0. This and Question (iii) are understood in terms of the modified chiral transformation laws of the dependent variables. The characteristic ways in which the chiral symmetry breaking is realized are that the chiral charge Q 5 LF is no longer conserved and that the transformation of the scalar and pseudoscalar fields is modified. We also discuss other outcomes, such as the light-cone wave function of the pseudoscalar meson in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. (author)

  5. Chiral corrections to the Adler-Weisberger sum rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Silas R.; Klco, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    The Adler-Weisberger sum rule for the nucleon axial-vector charge, gA , offers a unique signature of chiral symmetry and its breaking in QCD. Its derivation relies on both algebraic aspects of chiral symmetry, which guarantee the convergence of the sum rule, and dynamical aspects of chiral symmetry breaking—as exploited using chiral perturbation theory—which allow the rigorous inclusion of explicit chiral symmetry breaking effects due to light-quark masses. The original derivations obtained the sum rule in the chiral limit and, without the benefit of chiral perturbation theory, made various attempts at extrapolating to nonvanishing pion masses. In this paper, the leading, universal, chiral corrections to the chiral-limit sum rule are obtained. Using PDG data, a recent parametrization of the pion-nucleon total cross sections in the resonance region given by the SAID group, as well as recent Roy-Steiner equation determinations of subthreshold amplitudes, threshold parameters, and correlated low-energy constants, the Adler-Weisberger sum rule is confronted with experimental data. With uncertainty estimates associated with the cross-section parametrization, the Goldberger-Treimann discrepancy, and the truncation of the sum rule at O (Mπ4) in the chiral expansion, this work finds gA=1.248 ±0.010 ±0.007 ±0.013 .

  6. Stereocontrolled dopamine receptor binding and subtype selectivity of clebopride analogues synthesized from aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedel, Jürgen; Weber, Klaus; Thomas, Christoph; Lehmann, Thomas; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2003-10-06

    Employing the achiral 4-aminopiperidine derivative clebopride as a lead compound, chiral analogues were developed displaying dopamine receptor binding profiles that proved to be strongly dependent on the stereochemistry. Compared to the D1 receptor, the test compounds showed high selectivity for the D2-like subtypes including D2(long), D2(short), D3 and D4. The highest D4 and D3 affinities were observed for the cis-3-amino-4-methylpyrrolidines 3e and the enantiomer ent3e resulting in K(i) values of 0.23 and 1.8 nM, respectively. The benzamides of type 3 and 5 were synthesized in enantiopure form starting from (S)-aspartic acid and its unnatural optical antipode.

  7. Dirac operator, chirality and random matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullirsch, R.

    2001-05-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is considered to be the correct theory which describes quarks and gluons and, thus, all strong interaction phenomena from the fundamental forces of nature. However, important properties of QCD such as the physical mechanism of color confinement and the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry are still not completely understood and under extensive discussion. Analytical calculations are limited, because in the low-energy regime where quarks are confined, application of perturbation theory is restricted due to the large gluon coupling. A powerful tool to investigate numerically and analytically the non-perturbative region is provided by the lattice formulation of QCD. From Monte Carlo simulations of lattice QCD we know that chiral symmetry is restored above a critical temperature. As the chiral condensate is connected to the spectral density of the Dirac operator via the Banks-Casher relation, the QCD Dirac spectrum is an interesting object for detailed studies. In search for an analytical expression of the infrared limit of the Dirac spectrum it has been realized that chiral random-matrix theory (chRMT) is a suitable tool to compare with the distribution and the correlations of the small Dirac eigenvalues. Further, it has been shown that the correlations of eigenvalues on the scale of mean level spacings are universal for complex physical systems and are given by random-matrix theory (Rm). This has been formulated as the Baghouse-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture which states that spectral correlations of a classically chaotic system are given by RMT on the quantum level. The aim of this work is to analyze the relationship between chiral phase transitions and chaos to order transitions in quantum field theories. We study the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator for Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) with compact gauge group U(1) on the lattice. This theory shows chiral symmetry breaking and confinement in the strong coupling region. Although being

  8. Modeling Textural Processes during Self-Assembly of Plant-Based Chiral-Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K. Murugesan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological liquid crystalline polymers are found in cellulosic, chitin, and DNA based natural materials. Chiral nematic liquid crystalline orientational order is observed frozen-in in the solid state in plant cell walls and is known as a liquid crystal analogue characterized by a helicoidal plywood architecture. The emergence of the plywood architecture by directed chiral nematic liquid crystalline self assembly has been postulated as the mechanism that leads to optimal cellulose fibril organization. In natural systems, tissue growth and development takes place in the presence of inclusions and secondary phases leaving behind characteristic defects and textures, which provide a unique testing ground for the validity of the liquid crystal self-assembly postulate. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, is used to simulate defect textures arising in the domain of self assembly, due to presence of secondary phases representing plant cells, lumens and pit canals. It is shown that the obtained defect patterns observed in some plant cell walls are those expected from a truly liquid crystalline phase. The analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the viscoelastic material parameters that lead to observed patterns in plant-based helicoids through directed self-assembly. In addition, the results provide new guidance to develop biomimetic plywoods for structural and functional applications.

  9. Boundary stress tensor and asymptotically AdS3 non-Einstein spaces at the chiral point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, Gaston; Goya, Andres; Leston, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Chiral gravity admits asymptotically AdS 3 solutions that are not locally equivalent to AdS 3 ; meaning that solutions do exist which, while obeying the strong boundary conditions usually imposed in general relativity, happen not to be Einstein spaces. In topologically massive gravity (TMG), the existence of non-Einstein solutions is particularly connected to the question about the role played by complex saddle points in the Euclidean path integral. Consequently, studying (the existence of) nonlocally AdS 3 solutions to chiral gravity is relevant to understanding the quantum theory. Here, we discuss a special family of nonlocally AdS 3 solutions to chiral gravity. In particular, we show that such solutions persist when one deforms the theory by adding the higher-curvature terms of the so-called new massive gravity. Moreover, the addition of higher-curvature terms to the gravity action introduces new nonlocally AdS 3 solutions that have no analogues in TMG. Both stationary and time-dependent, axially symmetric solutions that asymptote AdS 3 space without being locally equivalent to it appear. Defining the boundary stress tensor for the full theory, we show that these non-Einstein geometries have associated vanishing conserved charges.

  10. Molecular-Level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The following is a proposal to continue our multi-institutional research on heterogeneous chiral catalysis. Our team combines the use of surface-sensitive analytical techniques for the characterization of model systems with quantum and statistical mechanical calculations to interpret experimental data and guide the design of future research. Our investigation focuses on the interrelation among the three main mechanisms by which enantioselectivity can be bestowed to heterogeneous catalysts, namely: (1) by templating chirality via the adsorption of chiral supramolecular assemblies, (2) by using chiral modifiers capable of forming chiral complexes with the reactant and force enantioselective surface reactions, and (3) by forming naturally chiral surfaces using imprinting chiral agents. Individually, the members of our team are leaders in these various aspects of chiral catalysis, but the present program provides the vehicle to generate and exploit the synergies necessary to address the problem in a comprehensive manner. Our initial work has advanced the methodology needed for these studies, including an enantioselective titration procedure to identify surface chiral sites, infrared spectroscopy in situ at the interface between gases or liquids and solids to mimic realistic catalytic conditions, and DFT and Monte Carlo algorithms to simulate and understand chirality on surfaces. The next step, to be funded by the monies requested in this proposal, is to apply those methods to specific problems in chiral catalysis, including the identification of the requirements for the formation of supramolecular surface structures with enantioselective behavior, the search for better molecules to probe the chiral nature of the modified surfaces, the exploration of the transition from supramolecular to one-to-one chiral modification, the correlation of the adsorption characteristics of one-to-one chiral modifiers with their physical properties, in particular with their configuration

  11. Spin Chirality of Cu3 and V3 Nanomagnets. 1. Rotation Behavior of Vector Chirality, Scalar Chirality, and Magnetization in the Rotating Magnetic Field, Magnetochiral Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinsky, Moisey I

    2016-05-02

    The rotation behavior of the vector chirality κ, scalar chirality χ, and magnetization M in the rotating magnetic field H1 is considered for the V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets, in which the Dzialoshinsky-Moriya coupling is active. The polar rotation of the field H1 of the given strength H1 results in the energy spectrum characterized by different vector and scalar chiralities in the ground and excited states. The magnetochiral correlations between the vector and scalar chiralities, energy, and magnetization in the rotating field were considered. Under the uniform polar rotation of the field H1, the ground-state chirality vector κI performs sawtooth oscillations and the magnetization vector MI performs the sawtooth oscillating rotation that is accompanied by the correlated transformation of the scalar chirality χI. This demonstrates the magnetochiral effect of the joint rotation behavior and simultaneous frustrations of the spin chiralities and magnetization in the rotating field, which are governed by the correlation between the chiralities and magnetization.

  12. Nuclear matter from chiral effective field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drischler, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear matter is an ideal theoretical system that provides key insights into the physics of different length scales. While recent ab initio calculations of medium-mass to heavy nuclei have demonstrated that realistic saturation properties in infinite matter are crucial for reproducing experimental binding energies and charge radii, the nuclear-matter equation of state allows tight constraints on key quantities of neutron stars. In the present thesis we take advantage of both aspects. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) with pion and nucleon degrees of freedom has become the modern low-energy approach to nuclear forces based on the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of strong interactions. The systematic chiral expansion enables improvable calculations associated with theoretical uncertainty estimates. In recent years, chiral many-body forces were derived up to high orders, allowing consistent calculations including all many-body contributions at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N 3 LO). Many further advances have driven the construction of novel chiral potentials with different regularization schemes. Here, we develop advanced methods for microscopic calculations of the equation of state of homogeneous nuclear matter with arbitrary proton-to-neutron ratio at zero temperature. Specifically, we push the limits of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) considerations to high orders in the chiral and in the many-body expansion. To address the challenging inclusion of three-body forces, we introduce a new partial-wave method for normal ordering that generalizes the treatment of these contributions. We show improved predictions for the neutron-matter equation of state with consistent N 3 LO nucleon-nucleon (NN) plus three-nucleon (3N) potentials using MBPT up to third order and self-consistent Green's function theory. The latter also provides nonperturbative benchmarks for the many-body convergence. In addition, we extend the normal

  13. Nuclear matter from chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drischler, Christian

    2017-11-15

    Nuclear matter is an ideal theoretical system that provides key insights into the physics of different length scales. While recent ab initio calculations of medium-mass to heavy nuclei have demonstrated that realistic saturation properties in infinite matter are crucial for reproducing experimental binding energies and charge radii, the nuclear-matter equation of state allows tight constraints on key quantities of neutron stars. In the present thesis we take advantage of both aspects. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) with pion and nucleon degrees of freedom has become the modern low-energy approach to nuclear forces based on the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of strong interactions. The systematic chiral expansion enables improvable calculations associated with theoretical uncertainty estimates. In recent years, chiral many-body forces were derived up to high orders, allowing consistent calculations including all many-body contributions at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO). Many further advances have driven the construction of novel chiral potentials with different regularization schemes. Here, we develop advanced methods for microscopic calculations of the equation of state of homogeneous nuclear matter with arbitrary proton-to-neutron ratio at zero temperature. Specifically, we push the limits of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) considerations to high orders in the chiral and in the many-body expansion. To address the challenging inclusion of three-body forces, we introduce a new partial-wave method for normal ordering that generalizes the treatment of these contributions. We show improved predictions for the neutron-matter equation of state with consistent N{sup 3}LO nucleon-nucleon (NN) plus three-nucleon (3N) potentials using MBPT up to third order and self-consistent Green's function theory. The latter also provides nonperturbative benchmarks for the many-body convergence. In addition, we extend the

  14. Novel electrochemical method for the characterization of the degree of chirality in chiral polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhang; Li, Ma; Yan, Yang; Jihai, Tang; Xiao, Li; Wanglin, Li

    2013-01-01

    A novel method to indicate the degree of chirality in polyaniline (PANI) was developed. The (D-camphorsulfonic acid)- and (HCl)-PANI-based electrodes exhibited significantly different electrochemical performances in D- and L-Alanine (Ala) aqueous solution, respectively, which can be used for the characterization the optical activity of chiral PANI. Cyclic voltammogram, tafel, and open circuit potential of PANI-based electrodes were measured within D- and L-Ala electrolyte solution, respectively. The open circuit potentials under different reacting conditions were analyzed by Doblhofer model formula, in which [C(+)](poly1)/[C(+)](poly2) was used as a parameter to characterize the degree of chirality in chiral PANI. The results showed that [C(+)](poly1)/[C(+)](poly2) can be increased with increasing concentrations of (1S)-(+)- and (1R)-(-)-10-camphorsulfonic acid. In addition, we detected that appropriate response time and lower temperature are necessary to improve the degree of chirality. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Enantioseparation and chiral recognition mechanism of new chiral derivatives of xanthones on macrocyclic antibiotic stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carla; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth; Cass, Quezia; Kairys, Visvaldas; Fernandes, Miguel Xavier; Pinto, Madalena

    2012-06-08

    A chiral HPLC method using four macrocyclic antibiotic chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been investigated for determination of the enantiomeric purity of fourteen new chiral derivatives of xanthones (CDXs). The separations were performed with the CSPs Chirobiotic T, Chirobiotic TAG, Chirobiotic V and Chirobiotic R under multimodal elution conditions (normal-phase, reversed-phase and polar ionic mode). The analyses were performed at room temperature in isocratic mode and UV and CD detection at a wavelength of 254 nm. The best enantioselectivity and resolution were achieved on Chirobiotic R and Chirobiotic T CSPs, under normal elution conditions, with R(S) ranging from 1.25 to 2.50 and from 0.78 to 2.06, respectively. The optimized chromatographic conditions allowed the determination of the enantiomeric ratio of eight CDXs, always higher than 99%. In order to better understand the chromatographic behavior at a molecular level, and the structural features associated with the chiral recognition mechanism, computational studies by molecular docking were carried out using VDock. These studies shed light on the mechanisms involved in the enantioseparation for this important class of chiral compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  17. Chiral fermions in asymptotically safe quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibohm, J; Pawlowski, J M

    2016-01-01

    We study the consistency of dynamical fermionic matter with the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity using the functional renormalisation group. Since this scenario suggests strongly coupled quantum gravity in the UV, one expects gravity-induced fermion self-interactions at energies of the Planck scale. These could lead to chiral symmetry breaking at very high energies and thus to large fermion masses in the IR. The present analysis which is based on the previous works (Christiansen et al., Phys Rev D 92:121501, 2015; Meibohm et al., Phys Rev D 93:084035, 2016), concludes that gravity-induced chiral symmetry breaking at the Planck scale is avoided for a general class of NJL-type models. We find strong evidence that this feature is independent of the number of fermion fields. This finding suggests that the phase diagram for these models is topologically stable under the influence of gravitational interactions.

  18. Stochastic Field evolution of disoriented chiral condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Luis M.A.

    2003-01-01

    I present a summary of recent work [1] where we describe the time-evolution of a region of disoriented chiral condensate via Langevin field equations for the linear σ model. We analyze the model in equilibrium, paying attention to subtracting ultraviolet divergent classical terms and replacing them by their finite quantum counter-parts. We use results from lattice gauge theory and chiral perturbation theory to fix nonuniversal constants. The result is a ultraviolet cutoff independent theory that reproduces quantitatively the expected equilibrium behavior of pion and σ quantum fields. We also estimate the viscosity η(T), which controls the dynamical timescale in the Langevin equation, so that the near equilibrium dynamical response agrees with theoretical expectations

  19. Chirality of Modern Antidepressants: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Budău

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have one or two centers of asymmetry in their structure; resulting in the formation of enantiomers which may exhibit different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Recent developments in drug stereochemistry has led to understanding the role of chirality in modern therapy correlated with increased knowledge regarding the molecular structure of specific drug targets and towards the possible advantages of using pure enantiomers instead of racemic mixtures. The current review deals with chiral antidepressant drugs; presenting examples of stereoselectivity in the pharmacological actions of certain antidepressants and their metabolites and emphasizing the differences between pharmacological actions of the racemates and pure enantiomers.

  20. A primer for Chiral Perturbative Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Stefan; Schindler, Matthias R.; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC

    2012-01-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques. (orig.)

  1. Chiral meta-atoms rotated by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.

    2012-01-01

    We study the opto-mechanical properties of coupled chiral meta-atoms based on a pair of twisted split-ring resonators. By using a simple analytical model in conjunction with the Maxwell stress tensor, we capture insight into the mechanism and find that this structure can be used as a general prototype of subwavelength light-driven actuators over a wide range of frequencies. This coupled structure can provide a strong and tunable torque, and can support different opto-mechanical modes, including uniform rotation, periodically variable rotation and damped oscillations. Our results suggest that chiral meta-atoms are good candidates for creating sub-wavelength motors or wrenches controlled by light.

  2. Chiral meta-atoms rotated by light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.

    2012-07-01

    We study the opto-mechanical properties of coupled chiral meta-atoms based on a pair of twisted split-ring resonators. By using a simple analytical model in conjunction with the Maxwell stress tensor, we capture insight into the mechanism and find that this structure can be used as a general prototype of subwavelength light-driven actuators over a wide range of frequencies. This coupled structure can provide a strong and tunable torque, and can support different opto-mechanical modes, including uniform rotation, periodically variable rotation and damped oscillations. Our results suggest that chiral meta-atoms are good candidates for creating sub-wavelength motors or wrenches controlled by light.

  3. Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yu; Chai, Zhen; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    An all-optical tunabe chirality is realized in a photonic metamaterial, the metamolecule of which consists of a nonlinear nano-Au:polycrystalline indium-tin oxide layer sandwiched between two L-shaped gold nano-antennas twisted 90° with each other. The maximum circular dichroism reached 30%. Under excitation of a 40 kW/cm 2 weak pump light, the peak in the circular dichroism shifts 45 nm in the short-wavelength direction. An ultrafast response time of 35 ps is maintained. This work not only opens up the possibility for the realization of ultralow-power and ultrafast all-optical tunable chirality but also offers a way to construct ultrahigh-speed on-chip biochemical sensors

  4. Instantons, monopoles and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurstein, M.; Markum, H.; Thurner, S.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the interplay of topological objects in four dimensional QCD. The distributions of color magnetic monopoles obtained in the maximum abelian gauge are computed around instantons in both pure and full QCD. We find an enhanced probability of encountering monopoles inside the core of an instanton. We show this by means of local correlation functions of the topological variables. For specific gauge field configurations we visualize the situation graphically. Motivated by the fact that a fermion in the field of a static monopole has an energy zero mode we investigate how monopole loops and instantons are locally correlated with the chiral condensate. The observed correlations suggest that monopoles are involved in the mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry. (orig.)

  5. Chiral charge flux and electroweak baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funakubo, Koichi [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kakuto, Akira; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Takenaga, Kazunori; Toyoda, Fumihiko

    1995-06-01

    By treating CP-violating interaction of the electroweak bubble wall as a perturbative term, chiral charge flux through the bubble wall is estimated. It is found that the absolute value of the flux F{sub Q} has a sharp peak at m{sub 0} - a - T with F{sub Q}/(uT{sup 3}) - 10{sup -3}(Q{sub L}-Q{sub R}){Delta}{theta}. Here m{sub 0} is the fermion mass, 1/a is the wall thickness, T is the temperature at which the bubbles are growing, u is the wall velocity, Q{sub L(R)} is the chiral charge of the relevant left (right)-handed fermion and {Delta}{theta} is the measure of CP violation. (author).

  6. Pattern production through a chiral chasing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2017-09-01

    Recent experiments on zebrafish pigmentation suggests that their typical black and white striped skin pattern is made up of a number of interacting chromatophore families. Specifically, two of these cell families have been shown to interact through a nonlocal chasing mechanism, which has previously been modeled using integro-differential equations. We extend this framework to include the experimentally observed fact that the cells often exhibit chiral movement, in that the cells chase, and run away, at angles different to the line connecting their centers. This framework is simplified through the use of multiple small limits leading to a coupled set of partial differential equations which are amenable to Fourier analysis. This analysis results in the production of dispersion relations and necessary conditions for a patterning instability to occur. Beyond the theoretical development and the production of new pattern planiforms we are able to corroborate the experimental hypothesis that the global pigmentation patterns can be dependent on the chirality of the chromatophores.

  7. A primer for chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques.

  8. Mass generation and chiral symmetry breaking by pseudoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietarinta, J.; Palmer, W.F.; Pinsky, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Massless QCD is studied with regard to mass generation and chiral SU(N/sub f/) symmetry breaking from pseudoparticle effects. While mass is generated when there is only one massless quark, and chiral U(1) is always broken, no rigorous indication of the breaking of chiral SU(N/sub f/) and mass generation is seen when there are more than one massless quarks in the original theory

  9. Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. I. Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ruchayskiy, Oleg [Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Boyarsky, Alexey [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Fröhlich, Jürg [Institute of Theoretical Physics, ETH Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brandenburg, Axel; Schober, Jennifer, E-mail: gary@bgu.ac.il [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-09-10

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of plasmas with relativistic particles necessarily includes an additional new field, the chiral chemical potential associated with the axial charge (i.e., the number difference between right- and left-handed relativistic fermions). This chiral chemical potential gives rise to a contribution to the electric current density of the plasma ( chiral magnetic effect ). We present a self-consistent treatment of the chiral MHD equations , which include the back-reaction of the magnetic field on a chiral chemical potential and its interaction with the plasma velocity field. A number of novel phenomena are exhibited. First, we show that the chiral magnetic effect decreases the frequency of the Alfvén wave for incompressible flows, increases the frequencies of the Alfvén wave and of the fast magnetosonic wave for compressible flows, and decreases the frequency of the slow magnetosonic wave. Second, we show that, in addition to the well-known laminar chiral dynamo effect, which is not related to fluid motions, there is a dynamo caused by the joint action of velocity shear and chiral magnetic effect. In the presence of turbulence with vanishing mean kinetic helicity, the derived mean-field chiral MHD equations describe turbulent large-scale dynamos caused by the chiral alpha effect, which is dominant for large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The chiral alpha effect is due to an interaction of the chiral magnetic effect and fluctuations of the small-scale current produced by tangling magnetic fluctuations (which are generated by tangling of the large-scale magnetic field by sheared velocity fluctuations). These dynamo effects may have interesting consequences in the dynamics of the early universe, neutron stars, and the quark–gluon plasma.

  10. Regular Scanning Tunneling Microscope Tips can be Intrinsically Chiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Heather L.; Murphy, Colin J.; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    We report our discovery that regular scanning tunneling microscope tips can themselves be chiral. This chirality leads to differences in electron tunneling efficiencies through left- and right-handed molecules, and, when using the tip to electrically excite molecular rotation, large differences in rotation rate were observed which correlated with molecular chirality. As scanning tunneling microscopy is a widely used technique, this result may have unforeseen consequences for the measurement of asymmetric surface phenomena in a variety of important fields.

  11. Regular scanning tunneling microscope tips can be intrinsically chiral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Heather L; Murphy, Colin J; Sykes, E Charles H

    2011-01-07

    We report our discovery that regular scanning tunneling microscope tips can themselves be chiral. This chirality leads to differences in electron tunneling efficiencies through left- and right-handed molecules, and, when using the tip to electrically excite molecular rotation, large differences in rotation rate were observed which correlated with molecular chirality. As scanning tunneling microscopy is a widely used technique, this result may have unforeseen consequences for the measurement of asymmetric surface phenomena in a variety of important fields.

  12. Controlling vortex chirality and polarity by geometry in magnetic nanodots

    OpenAIRE

    Agramunt Puig, Sebastià

    2014-01-01

    The independent control of both vortex chirality and polarity is a significant challenge in magnetic devices based on nano-sized magnetic vortex structures. By micromagnetic simulations here, we show that in soft ferromagnetic nanodots with an adequate modulated thickness, the desired combination of chirality and polarity can be achieved just by changing the direction of the in-plane applied magnetic field. Despite the complex behavior, the vortex chirality and polarity control can be summari...

  13. Chiral perturbation theory for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Manashov, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik]|[Sankt-Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Schaefer, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik

    2006-08-15

    We analyze the moments of the isosinglet generalized parton distributions H, E, H, E of the nucleon in one-loop order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. We discuss in detail the construction of the operators in the effective theory that are required to obtain all corrections to a given order in the chiral power counting. The results will serve to improve the extrapolation of lattice results to the chiral limit. (orig.)

  14. Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Brandenburg, Axel; Schober, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of plasmas with relativistic particles necessarily includes an additional new field, the chiral chemical potential associated with the axial charge (i.e., the number difference between right- and left-handed relativistic fermions). This chiral chemical potential gives rise to a contribution to the electric current density of the plasma ( chiral magnetic effect ). We present a self-consistent treatment of the chiral MHD equations , which include the back-reaction of the magnetic field on a chiral chemical potential and its interaction with the plasma velocity field. A number of novel phenomena are exhibited. First, we show that the chiral magnetic effect decreases the frequency of the Alfvén wave for incompressible flows, increases the frequencies of the Alfvén wave and of the fast magnetosonic wave for compressible flows, and decreases the frequency of the slow magnetosonic wave. Second, we show that, in addition to the well-known laminar chiral dynamo effect, which is not related to fluid motions, there is a dynamo caused by the joint action of velocity shear and chiral magnetic effect. In the presence of turbulence with vanishing mean kinetic helicity, the derived mean-field chiral MHD equations describe turbulent large-scale dynamos caused by the chiral alpha effect, which is dominant for large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The chiral alpha effect is due to an interaction of the chiral magnetic effect and fluctuations of the small-scale current produced by tangling magnetic fluctuations (which are generated by tangling of the large-scale magnetic field by sheared velocity fluctuations). These dynamo effects may have interesting consequences in the dynamics of the early universe, neutron stars, and the quark–gluon plasma.

  15. Isotope chirality in long-armed multifunctional organosilicon ("Cephalopod") molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, Béla; Kurdi, Róbert; Zucchi, Claudia; Pályi, Gyula

    2018-07-01

    Long-armed multifunctional organosilicon molecules display self-replicating and self-perfecting behavior in asymmetric autocatalysis (Soai reaction). Two representatives of this class were studied by statistical methods aiming at determination of probabilities of natural abundance chiral isotopomers. The results, reported here, show an astonishing richness of possibilities of the formation of chiral isotopically substituted derivatives. This feature could serve as a model for the evolution of biological chirality in prebiotic and early biotic stereochemistry. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Chiral Drug Analysis in Forensic Chemistry: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Ribeiro; Cristiana Santos; Valter Gonçalves; Ana Ramos; Carlos Afonso; Maria Elizabeth Tiritan

    2018-01-01

    Many substances of forensic interest are chiral and available either as racemates or pure enantiomers. Application of chiral analysis in biological samples can be useful for the determination of legal or illicit drugs consumption or interpretation of unexpected toxicological effects. Chiral substances can also be found in environmental samples and revealed to be useful for determination of community drug usage (sewage epidemiology), identification of illicit drug manufacturing locations, ille...

  17. Observation of asymmetric electromagnetic field profiles in chiral metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamoto, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sawada, Kei; Tomita, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally observe asymmetric electromagnetic field profiles along two-dimensional chiral metamaterials. The asymmetric field profiles depending on the chirality and the operation frequency have been reproduced well by the numerical simulation. Around a chiral meta-atom, distribution of a Poynting vector is found to be shifted asymmetrically. These results are explained in terms of an analogy with the side-jump mechanism in the electronic anomalous Hall systems.

  18. What flows in the chirally anomalous transport?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2016-12-15

    A combination of the magnetic field and the quantum anomaly leads to transport phenomena of chiral fermions. On the microscopic level, however, what really flows is a non-trivial question. I propose an answer to this question; the particle production affected by the magnetic field and the quantum anomaly has an anisotropic distribution in momentum space, which should be realized in the heavy-ion collision by a fast process occurring on top of color flux tubes in the glasma.

  19. Gluonic contributions in the chiral hyperbag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B.Y.; Vento, V.; Valencia Univ./CSIC, Valencia

    1990-01-01

    We incorporate into a non-perturbative chiral bag model scheme the gluons and the η' in a perturbative fashion. We analyze in this context the proton matrix element for the flavor singlet axial current, where due account is taken of the anomaly, and the delta-nucleon mass difference. Our results show that the contribution due to the gluons is significant for large bag radii and that they are crucial in order to establish the Cheshire cat principle. (orig.)

  20. Chiral Lagrangians and quark condensate in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.; Chanfray, G.; Ericson, M.

    1996-03-01

    The evolution of density of quark condensate in nuclear medium with interacting nucleons, including the short range correlations is examined. Two chiral models are used, the linear sigma model and the non-linear one. It is shown that the quark condensate, as other observables, is independent on the variant selected. The application to physical pions excludes the linear sigma model as a credible one. The non-linear models restricted to pure s-wave pion-nucleon scattering are examined. (author)

  1. Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.

    2003-01-01

    The nonstrange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the σ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum

  2. Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.

    2003-01-01

    The non-strange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the $\\sigma$ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum.

  3. Baryon form factors in chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, B.; Meissner, U.G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic form factors of the ground state baryon octet to fourth order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. Predictions for the {sigma}{sup -} charge radius and the {lambda}-{sigma}{sup 0} transition moment are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental information. Furthermore, the convergence behavior of the hyperon charge radii is shown to be more than satisfactory. (orig.)

  4. Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of chiral molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, C.J.

    1980-12-01

    In this thesis a theory of the Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of chiral molecules as modelled by a helix oriented with respect to the direction of incidence of light is presented. It is shown that a necessary condition for the existence of CIDS is the presence of an asymmetric polarizability in the scatterer. The polarizability of the scatterer is assumed generally complex, so that both refractive and absorptive phenomena are taken into account.

  5. The nucleon as a topological chiral soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1983-10-01

    Through topology, baryon charge ''leaks'' from a confinement region into a meson-cloud region. This suggests that there is a sort of topological equivalence principle which renders physically equivalent the Skyrmion description with a zero bag radius and the chiral bag description with a non-zero bag radius. The issue as to whether future nuclear physics experiments will reveal a ''smoking gun'' evidence for a quark presence in nuclei is discussed in the light of the recently discovered topological structure

  6. Hadron spectroscopy with dynamical chirally improved fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattringer, Christof; Hagen, Christian; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, Markus; Mohler, Daniel; Schäfer, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    We simulate two dynamical, mass-degenerate light quarks on 163×32 lattices with a spatial extent of 2.4 fm using the chirally improved Dirac operator. The simulation method, the implementation of the action, and signals of equilibration are discussed in detail. Based on the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator we discuss some qualitative features of our approach. Results for ground-state masses of pseudoscalar and vector mesons as well as for the nucleon and delta baryons are presented.

  7. Baryon mass splittings in chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, M.K.; Milana, J.

    1995-01-01

    Baryon masses are calculated in chiral perturbation theory at the one-loop O(p 3 ) level in chiral expansion and to leading order in the heavy baryon expansion. Ultraviolet divergences occur requiring the introduction of counterterms. Despite this necessity, no knowledge of the counterterms is required to determine the violations of the Gell-Mann--Okubo mass relation for the baryon octet or of the decuplet equal-mass-spacing rule, as all divergences cancel exactly at this order. For the same reason all references to an arbitrary scale μ are absent. Neither of these features continue to higher powers in the chiral expansion. We also discuss critically the absolute necessity of simultaneously going beyond the leading-order heavy baryon expansion, if one goes beyond the one-loop O(p 3 ) level. We point out that these corrections in 1/M B generate new divergences ∝m 4 /M 10 . These divergences together with the divergences occurring in one-loop O(p 4 ) graphs of chiral perturbation theory are taken care of by the same set of counterterms. Because of these unknown counterterms one cannot predict the baryon mass splittings at the one-loop O(p 4 ) level even if the parameters of all scrL 1 πN terms are known. We point out another serious problem of going to the one-loop O(p 4 ) level. When the decuplet is off its mass shell there are additional πNΔ and πΔΔ interaction terms. These interactions contribute to the divergent terms ∝(m 4 /M 10 ), and also to nonanalytic terms such as ∝(m 4 /M 10 )ln(m/M 10 ). Without knowledge of the coupling constants appearing in these interactions, one cannot carry out a consistent one-loop O(p 4 ) level calculation

  8. Chiral Schwinger model and lattice fermionic regularizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.; Sen, D.; Xue, S.

    1988-01-01

    The chiral Schwinger model is studied on the lattice with use of Wilson fermions. The arbitrary mass term for the gauge boson is shown to originate from the arbitrariness of the Wilson parameter, which is required to avoid the doubling phenomenon on the lattice. The necessity for such a term is thus demonstrated in contrast to the mere admissibility as indicated by previous continuum calculations

  9. Modular invariance, chiral anomalies and contact terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasov, D.

    1988-03-01

    The chiral anomaly in heterotic strings with full and partial modular invariance in D=2n+2 dimensions is calculated. The boundary terms which were present in previous calculations are shown to be cancelled in the modular invariant case by contact terms, which can be obtained by an appropriate analytic continuation. The relation to the low energy field theory is explained. In theories with partial modular invariance, an expression for the anomaly is obtained and shown to be non zero in general. (author)

  10. The effective action for chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports on recent work which given an exact characterization of the imaginary part of the effective action for chiral fermions in 2n dimensions in terms of the spectral asymmetry of a suitable (2n+1)-dimensional operator. In order to keep the discussion as simple as possible, the author concentrates on four dimensional fermions with arbitrary external gauge fields. This approach can be extended without difficulty to higher dimensions and also to include external gravitational fields

  11. Chiral analysis of baryon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, T.A.

    2007-11-08

    This work presents an extensive theoretical investigation of the structure of the nucleon within the standard model of elementary particle physics. In particular, the long range contributions to a number of various form factors parametrizing the interactions of the nucleon with an electromagnetic probe are calculated. The theoretical framework for those calculations is chiral perturbation theory, the exact low energy limit of Quantum Chromo Dynamics, which describes such long range contributions in terms of a pion-cloud. In this theory, a nonrelativistic leading one loop order calculation of the form factors parametrizing the vector transition of a nucleon to its lowest lying resonance, the {delta}, a covariant calculation of the isovector and isoscalar vector form factors of the nucleon at next to leading one loop order and a covariant calculation of the isoscalar and isovector generalized vector form factors of the nucleon at leading one loop order are performed. In order to perform consistent loop calculations in the covariant formulation of chiral perturbation theory an appropriate renormalization scheme is defined in this work. All theoretical predictions are compared to phenomenology and results from lattice QCD simulations. These comparisons allow for a determination of the low energy constants of the theory. Furthermore, the possibility of chiral extrapolation, i.e. the extrapolation of lattice data from simulations at large pion masses down to the small physical pion mass is studied in detail. Statistical as well as systematic uncertainties are estimated for all results throughout this work. (orig.)

  12. Rationalization of chirality induction and inversion in a zinc trisporphyrinate by a chiral monoalcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Chuanjiang; Shi, Bo; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-10

    A new host-guest system is formed between a benzene tricarboxamide linked zinc trisporphyrinate and a chiral monoalcohol (1-phenylethylalcohol). CD spectra show the chirality induction and inversion processes, which are controlled by the corresponding 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 coordination complexes. The binding constants calculated by UV-vis and CD spectral data are much larger than that for [Zn(TPP)] (TPP = tetraphenylporphyrin). The crystallographic structure of the host-guest complex reveals that multiple intramolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions could contribute to its high binding affinity to 1-phenylethylalcohol. The DFT calculations suggest that the spatial orientations of porphyrin moieties change from the 1 : 1 complex to the 1 : 2 complex. The chirality induction and inversion processes are rationalized by the summation of pairwise interactions among multichromophores according to pairwise additivity.

  13. Electromagnetic couplings of the chiral perturbation theory Lagrangian from the perturbative chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Gutsche, Th.; Faessler, Amand; Mau, R. Vinh

    2002-01-01

    We apply the perturbative chiral quark model to the study of the low-energy πN interaction. Using an effective chiral Lagrangian we reproduce the Weinberg-Tomozawa result for the S-wave πN scattering lengths. After inclusion of the photon field we give predictions for the electromagnetic O(p 2 ) low-energy couplings of the chiral perturbation theory effective Lagrangian that define the electromagnetic mass shifts of nucleons and first-order (e 2 ) radiative corrections to the πN scattering amplitude. Finally, we estimate the leading isospin-breaking correction to the strong energy shift of the π - p atom in the 1s state, which is relevant for the experiment 'pionic hydrogen' at PSI

  14. Chirality-induced magnon transport in AA-stacked bilayer honeycomb chiral magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2016-11-30

    In this Letter, we study the magnetic transport in AA-stacked bilayer honeycomb chiral magnets coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically. For both couplings, we observe chirality-induced gaps, chiral protected edge states, magnon Hall and magnon spin Nernst effects of magnetic spin excitations. For ferromagnetically coupled layers, thermal Hall and spin Nernst conductivities do not change sign as function of magnetic field or temperature similar to single-layer honeycomb ferromagnetic insulator. In contrast, for antiferromagnetically coupled layers, we observe a sign change in the thermal Hall and spin Nernst conductivities as the magnetic field is reversed. We discuss possible experimental accessible honeycomb bilayer quantum materials in which these effects can be observed.

  15. Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.

  16. Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. II. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Jennifer; Rogachevskii, Igor; Brandenburg, Axel; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Kleeorin, Nathan

    2018-05-01

    Using direct numerical simulations (DNS), we study laminar and turbulent dynamos in chiral magnetohydrodynamics with an extended set of equations that accounts for an additional contribution to the electric current due to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). This quantum phenomenon originates from an asymmetry between left- and right-handed relativistic fermions in the presence of a magnetic field and gives rise to a chiral dynamo. We show that the magnetic field evolution proceeds in three stages: (1) a small-scale chiral dynamo instability, (2) production of chiral magnetically driven turbulence and excitation of a large-scale dynamo instability due to a new chiral effect (α μ effect), and (3) saturation of magnetic helicity and magnetic field growth controlled by a conservation law for the total chirality. The α μ effect becomes dominant at large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers and is not related to kinetic helicity. The growth rate of the large-scale magnetic field and its characteristic scale measured in the numerical simulations agree well with theoretical predictions based on mean-field theory. The previously discussed two-stage chiral magnetic scenario did not include stage (2), during which the characteristic scale of magnetic field variations can increase by many orders of magnitude. Based on the findings from numerical simulations, the relevance of the CME and the chiral effects revealed in the relativistic plasma of the early universe and of proto-neutron stars are discussed.

  17. The three dimensional dual of 4D chirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porrati, M.; Girardello, L.

    2009-01-01

    Chiral gauge theories can be defined in four-dimensional Anti de Sitter space, but AdS boundary conditions explicitly break the chiral symmetry in a specific, well defined manner, which in turns results in an anomalous Ward identity. When the 4D theory admits a dual description in terms of a 3D CFT, the 3D dual of the broken chiral symmetry is a certain double-trace deformation of the CFT, which produces the same anomalous chiral Ward identities that obtains in the 4D bulk theory.

  18. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri; Tomalak, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  19. The ''closed'' chiral symmetry and its application to tetraquark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hua-Xing

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the chiral (flavor) structure of tetraquarks, and study chiral transformation properties of the ''non-exotic'' [(anti 3, 3)+(3, anti 3)] and [(8,1)+(1,8)] tetraquark chiral multiplets. We find that as long as this kind of tetraquark states contains one quark and one antiquark having the same chirality, such as q L q L anti q L anti q R + q R q R anti q R anti q L , they transform in the same way as the lowest level anti q q chiral multiplets under chiral transformations. There is only one [(anti 3, 3)+(3, anti 3)] chiral multiplet whose quark-antiquark pairs all have the opposite chirality (q L q L anti q R anti q R + q R q R anti q L anti q L ), and it transforms differently from others. Based on these studies, we construct local tetraquark currents belonging to the ''non-exotic'' chiral multiplet [(anti 3, 3)+(3, anti 3)] and having quantum numbers J PC =1 -+ . (orig.)

  20. Influence of Chirality in Ordered Block Copolymer Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ishan; Grason, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    Block copolymers are known to assemble into rich spectrum of ordered phases, with many complex phases driven by asymmetry in copolymer architecture. Despite decades of study, the influence of intrinsic chirality on equilibrium mesophase assembly of block copolymers is not well understood and largely unexplored. Self-consistent field theory has played a major role in prediction of physical properties of polymeric systems. Only recently, a polar orientational self-consistent field (oSCF) approach was adopted to model chiral BCP having a thermodynamic preference for cholesteric ordering in chiral segments. We implement oSCF theory for chiral nematic copolymers, where segment orientations are characterized by quadrupolar chiral interactions, and focus our study on the thermodynamic stability of bi-continuous network morphologies, and the transfer of molecular chirality to mesoscale chirality of networks. Unique photonic properties observed in butterfly wings have been attributed to presence of chiral single-gyroid networks, this has made it an attractive target for chiral metamaterial design.