WorldWideScience

Sample records for chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction

  1. Leading order relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiu-Lei; Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the need for a relativistic chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we explore a new relativistic scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of covariant chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the relativistic scheme induces all six spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the {}1S0 and {}3P0 phase shifts than the leading order Weinberg approach, and similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. For the other partial waves with angular momenta J≥slant 1, the relativistic results are almost the same as their leading order non-relativistic counterparts. )

  2. Parity violation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    I discuss the present status of our understanding of parity nonconservation (PNC) in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, and some of the difficulties inherent in nuclear tests of PNC. I also discuss the nucleon/nuclear anapole moment, the parity violating coupling of the photon, and its relation to the PNC NN interaction. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in the presence of the electromagnetic field: Nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, NNγ, is a fundamental process, which involves the strong and electromagnetic fields acting simultaneously. Since the electromagnetic interaction is well known, NNγ provides a calculable tool for comparing off-energy-shell effects from different two-nucleon potentials compared to experiment and also provides a simple testing ground, which is sensitive to meson-exchange-current contributions that are so important in electronuclear physics. Historically, experimental studies have focused on ppγ, with only a few measurements of npγ. The present workshop was organized primarily to investigate the interest in, the value of, and the feasibility of doing an npγ experiment using the neutron white source at LANL. An increasing amount of US nuclear physics dollars are being spent on electronuclear physics. npγ is a fundamental process with large meson-exchange currents. In the npγ calculations of Brown and Franklin, the meson-exchange contributions increase the cross section by a factor of roughly two and later the angular distribution of the emitted photon dramatically. The details of these calculated effects have never been verified experimentally, but the proper quantum-mechanical inclusion of meson-exchange contributions, using the methods of brown and Franklin, has proved to be essential in understanding the heavy-ion results. The understanding of the importance of such terms is extremely important inelectronuclear processes, such as are presently under investigation or being planned at Bates, SLAC, and CEBAF. Just one example is in the electrodisintegration of the deuteron, where meson-exchange contributions must be included properly before any conclusions about nuclear models, such as QCD versus meson-exchange potentials can be made

  4. Nucleon-nucleon interaction with quark exchanges and prediction to colour van der Waals potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1985-11-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction is considered by including the colour nucleon clusters. The nucleon-nucleon system is treated as a six-quark system. The obtained local potentials reduce the short-range repulsion. The resulted nucleon-nucleon potential by using a quark-quark potential well agrees with the central-force potentials. The phase shifts calculated by using these local potentials are in good agreement with those obtained from other methods. Introducing the quark-quark potential in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, leads to a colour van der Waals potential very strong compared with that predicted by experiments. (author)

  5. The nucleon-nucleon interaction and violation of fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanOers, W.T.H.

    1993-11-01

    The interplay of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and its observables with the fundamental symmetries of isospin conservation, parity conservation, time-reversal invariance or CP conservation was realized early on. Many tests of these symmetries through measurements of particular observables of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been made over a time frame spanning some five decades. It is only in the last decade or so that levels of experimental accuracy have been reached that allow for the deduction of quantitative results of significance. Precision measurements have been made of charge symmetry breaking in n-p elastic scattering (which is the result of isospin non-conservation) and of parity violation in pp scattering (which is a manifestation of the flavour conserving hadronic weak interaction). Time reversal invariance is much more difficult to study since in this case a null measurement, excluding transmission measurements, does not exist. In the nucleon-antinucleon system the potential exists of studying CP non-conservation in a system other than the kaon system. Unfortunately antiproton beams are at present of insufficient intensity. (author). 52 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.

  7. Giant and pigmy dipole resonances in 4He, 16,22O, and 40Ca from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacca, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Barnea, Nir [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Hagen, Gaute [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miorelli, Mirko [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Orlandini, Giuseppina [Univ. of Trento (Italy); Papenbrock, Thomas F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-24

    We combine the coupled-cluster method and the Lorentz integral transform for the computation of inelastic reactions into the continuum. We show that the bound-state-like equation characterizing the Lorentz integral transform method can be reformulated based on extensions of the coupled-cluster equation-of-motion method, and we discuss strategies for viable numerical solutions. Starting from a chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order, we compute the giant dipole resonances of 4He, 16,22O, and 40Ca, truncating the coupled-cluster equation-of-motion method at the two-particle–two-hole excitation level. Within this scheme, we find a low-lying E1 strength in the neutron-rich 22O nucleus, which compares fairly well with data from Leistenschneider et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5442 (2001)]. We also compute the electric dipole polarizability in 40Ca. Deficiencies of the employed Hamiltonian lead to overbinding, too-small charge radii, and a too-small electric dipole polarizability in 40Ca.

  8. Comparative study of various methods of primary energy estimation in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, D.P.; Yugindro Singh, K.; Singh, S.

    1986-01-01

    The various available methods for the estimation of primary energy in nucleon-nucleon interactions have been examined by using the experimental data on angular distributions of shower particles from p-N interactions at two accelerator energies, 67 and 400 GeV. Three different groups of shower particle multiplicities have been considered for interactions at both energies. It is found that the different methods give quite different estimates of primary energy. Moreover, each method is found to give different values of energy according to the choice of multiplicity groups. It is concluded that the E ch method is relatively the better method among all the methods available, and that within this method, the consideration of the group of small multiplicities gives a much better result. The method also yields plausible estimates of inelasticity in high energy nucleon-nucleon interactions. (orig.)

  9. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-07-25

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  10. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  11. Quark compound bag (QCB) model and nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1983-01-01

    Quark degrees of freedom are treated in the NN system in the framework of the QCB model. The resulting QCB potential is in agreement with experimental data. P-matrix analysis inherent to the QCB model is discussed in detail. Applications of the QCB model are given including the weak NN interaction

  12. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleson, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    We are applying for a three-year grant from the US Department of Energy to New Mexico State University to continue its support of our work on experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies, which has been carried out in collaboration with groups from various laboratories and universities. The nucleon-nucleon work is aimed at making measurements that will contribute to a determination of the isospin-zero amplitudes, as well as continuing our investigations of evidence for dibaryon resonances. It is based at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Current and planned experiments include measurements of total cross-section differences in pure spin states and of spin parameters in neutron-proton scattering. The pion-nucleus work is aimed at improving our understanding both of the nature of the pion-nucleus interaction and of nuclear structure. It consists of two programs, one based at LAMPF and one based principally at the SIN laboratory in Switzerland. The LAMPF-based work involves studies of large-angle scattering, double-charge-exchange scattering, including measurements at a new energy range above 300 MeV, and a new program of experiments with polarized nuclear targets. The SIN-based work involves studies of quasielastic scattering and absorption, including experiments with a new large-acceptance detector system planned for construction there. We are requesting support to continue the LAMPF-based work at its current level and to expand the SIN-based work to allow for increased involvement in experiments with the new detector system. 57 refs

  13. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Annual progress report, 1988--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988 under a grant from the US Department of Energy. The nucleon-nucleon research has involved studies of interactions between polarized neutrons and polarized protons. Its purpose is to help complete the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as part of a program currently in progress at LAMPF, as well as to investigate the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The pion-nucleus research involves studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been adequately explored. These include experiments on elastic and double charge exchange scattering at energies above the /Delta/(1232) resonance, interactions with polarized nuclear targets, and investigations of pion absorption using a detector covering nearly the full solid angle region. 21 refs., 4 figs

  14. Optical potentials derived from nucleon-nucleon chiral potentials at N4LO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorabbi, Matteo; Finelli, Paolo; Giusti, Carlotta

    2017-10-01

    Background: Elastic scattering is probably the main event in the interactions of nucleons with nuclei. Even if this process has been extensively studied in the past years, a consistent description, i.e., starting from microscopic two- and many-body forces connected by the same symmetries and principles, is still under development. Purpose: In a previous paper [M. Vorabbi, P. Finelli, and C. Giusti, Phys. Rev. C 93, 034619 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.034619] we derived a theoretical optical potential from N N chiral potentials at fourth order (N3LO ). In the present work we use N N chiral potentials at fifth order (N4LO ), with the purpose to check the convergence and to assess the theoretical errors associated with the truncation of the chiral expansion in the construction of an optical potential. Methods: Within the same framework and with the same approximations as the previous paper [M. Vorabbi, P. Finelli, and C. Giusti, Phys. Rev. C 93, 034619 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.034619], the optical potential is derived as the first-order term within the spectator expansion of the nonrelativistic multiple scattering theory and adopting the impulse approximation and the optimum factorization approximation. Results: The p p and n p Wolfenstein amplitudes and the cross section, analyzing power, and spin rotation of elastic proton scattering from 16O, 12C, and 40Ca nuclei are presented at an incident proton energy of 200 MeV. The results obtained with different versions of chiral potentials at N4LO are compared. Conclusions: Our results indicate that convergence has been reached at N4LO . The agreement with the experimental data is comparable with the agreement obtained in the previous paper [M. Vorabbi, P. Finelli, and C. Giusti, Phys. Rev. C 93, 034619 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.034619]. We confirm that building an optical potential within chiral perturbation theory is a promising approach for describing elastic proton-nucleus scattering.

  15. Experimental determination of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for p-nucleus reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.B.; Aas, B.; Azizi, A.

    1982-01-01

    A complete measurement of the polarization transfer observables has been made for the first time in the (p,p') reaction at intermediate energies. Measurements are reported for the 12 C(p,p') 12 C reaction to the 1 + , T = 0(12.71 MeV) and 1 + , T = 1(15.11 MeV) states at 500 MeV at laboratory scattering angles of 3.5 0 , 5.5 0 , 7.5 0 , and 12.0 0 . Linear combinations of these observables are shown to exhibit a very selective dependence on the isoscalar and isovector spin-dependent components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. To the extent of the validity of the single collision approximation, these amplitudes are compared directly to the free nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at small momentum transfers

  16. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988--91. Most of these studies have involved investigations of neutron-proton and pion-nucleus interactions. The neutron-proton research is part of a program of studies of interactions between polarized nucleons that we have been involved with for more than ten years. Its purpose has been to help complete the determination of the full set of ten complex nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as well as to continue investigating the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The give complex isospin-one amplitudes have been fairly well determined, partly as a result of this work. Our work in this period has involved measurements and analysis of data on elastic scattering and total cross sections for polarized neutrons on polarized protons. The pion-nucleus research continues our studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been well explored. One set of experiments includes studies of pion elastic and double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 550 MeV, where our data is unique. Another involves elastic and single-charge-exchange scattering of pions from polarized nuclear targets, a new field of research which will give the first extensive set of information on spin-dependent pion-nucleus amplitudes. Still another involves the first set of detailed studies of the kinematic correlations among particles emitted following pion absorption in nuclei.

  17. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988--91. Most of these studies have involved investigations of neutron-proton and pion-nucleus interactions. The neutron-proton research is part of a program of studies of interactions between polarized nucleons that we have been involved with for more than ten years. Its purpose has been to help complete the determination of the full set of ten complex nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as well as to continue investigating the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The give complex isospin-one amplitudes have been fairly well determined, partly as a result of this work. Our work in this period has involved measurements and analysis of data on elastic scattering and total cross sections for polarized neutrons on polarized protons. The pion-nucleus research continues our studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been well explored. One set of experiments includes studies of pion elastic and double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 550 MeV, where our data is unique. Another involves elastic and single-charge-exchange scattering of pions from polarized nuclear targets, a new field of research which will give the first extensive set of information on spin-dependent pion-nucleus amplitudes. Still another involves the first set of detailed studies of the kinematic correlations among particles emitted following pion absorption in nuclei

  18. Comparison between phase shift derived and exactly calculated nucleon--nucleon interaction matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregersen, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison is made between matrix elements calculated using the uncoupled channel Sussex approach to second order in DWBA and matrix elements calculated using a square well potential. The square well potential illustrated the problem of the determining parameter independence balanced with the concept of phase shift difference. The super-soft core potential was used to discuss the systematics of the Sussex approach as a function of angular momentum as well as the relation between Sussex generated and effective interaction matrix elements. In the uncoupled channels the original Sussex method of extracting effective interaction matrix elements was found to be satisfactory. In the coupled channels emphasis was placed upon the 3 S 1 -- 3 D 1 coupled channel matrix elements. Comparison is made between exactly calculated matrix elements, and matrix elements derived using an extended formulation of the coupled channel Sussex method. For simplicity the potential used is a nonseparable cut-off oscillator. The eigenphases of this potential can be made to approximate the realistic nucleon--nucleon phase shifts at low energies. By using the cut-off oscillator test potential, the original coupled channel Sussex method of determining parameter independence was shown to be incapable of accurately reproducing the exact cut-off oscillator matrix elements. The extended Sussex method was found to be accurate to within 10 percent. The extended method is based upon more general coupled channel DWBA and a noninfinite oscillator wave function solution to the cut-off oscillator auxiliary potential. A comparison is made in the coupled channels between matrix elements generated using the original Sussex method and the extended method. Tables of matrix elements generated using the original uncoupled channel Sussex method and the extended coupled channel Sussex method are presented for all necessary angular momentum channels

  19. NN → NN π: the new frontier in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbar, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The torch in nucleon-nucleon scattering has been passed to experimental and theoretical studies of pion production. Comparing two unitary models shows that most of the structures predicted for spin observables in NN → NNπ are model independent and roughly in agreement with the data. The contribution of rho- exchange is small, indicating the reaction is largely ''peripheral''. The energy dependence of these isobar models is smooth. The largely unstudied reactions producing neutral and negatively-charged pions show richer structure than positively-charged pion production. 6 refs

  20. Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signell, P.

    1981-03-01

    This project involves five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the πN and ππ physical regions of the N anti N → ππ amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon reseachers

  1. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Progress report, January 1, 1985-December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1985-87. These studies have involved investigations of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions. They have been carried out at the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, at the SIN laboratory near Zurich, Switzerland, and at the TRIUMF accelerator in Vancouver, Canada. 86 refs., 5 figs

  2. Weak interactions in deuterons: exchange currents and nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautry, F.; Rho, M.; Riska, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    While the meson-exchange electromagnetic current has been tested with an impressive success in the two-nucleon system, nothing much is known about the reliability of the exchange currents in weak interactions. This question is studied using muon absorption in the deuteron, μ - + d→n + n + γ. The meson-exchange current, previously derived in parallel to those of the electromagnetic interaction, is checked for consistency against the p-wave piece of the p + p→d + π + process near threshold and then tested with the total capture rate for which some (though not so accurate) data are available. The same Hamiltonian is then used to calculate the matrix elements for the solar neutrino processes p + p→d + e + + γ and p + p + e - → d + γ in the hope that they would be measured and help resolve the solar neutrino puzzle. Finally a detailed analysis is made of the differential capture rate dGAMMA/dEsub(n), Esub(n) being the kinematic energy in the c.m. of the two neutrons, in the expectation that it will be used to pin down the ever elusive n-n scattering length. (Auth.)

  3. Real and imaginary part of the potential between two nuclei and the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trefz, M.

    1985-01-01

    Starting from a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction (Reid soft-core) in the model of two infinitely extended confusing nuclear matter complex energy densities are calculated by means of a G matrix. By means of a generalized local-density approximation the results are transferred to finite nuclei. In the framework of the frozen-density approximation in the energy-density formalism a complex potential between two nuclei is calculated. The potential calculated so contains not the contribution of 1-particle-1-hole states to the optical potential. The contribution of these states is therefore calculated in the Feshbach formalism, respectively these states are explicitely regarded in coupled-channel calculations. The model is applied to light (for instance 12 C+ 12 C), medium heavy (for instance 48 Ca+ 48 Ca), and heavy (for instance 40 Ar+ 208 Pb) systems. Potentials for incident energies of 5-84 MeV per projectile nucleon are calculated. By means of these potentials differential cross sections and reaction cross sections are determined and compared with the experimental data. The energy dependence of the reaction cross section is discussed. It is shown that at higher energies (40 MeV/N) the differential cross sections can be quantitatively reproduced. For the reaction cross section in the whole energy range good agreement with the experiment is obtained. Contrarily to current theoretical models it is proved that at low energies the excitation of collective states yields a large contribution to the reaction cross section and therefore must not be neglected. (orig.) [de

  4. The nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclear many-body problem selected papers of Gerald E. Brown and T.T.S. Kuo

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Thomas T. S; Holt, Jeremy W; Lee, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of some key developments in the understanding of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear many-body theory. The main problems at the level of meson exchange physics have been solved, and we have an effective field theory using a phenomenological interaction pioneered by Achim Schwenk and Scott Bogner, which is nearly universally accepted as a unique low-momentum interaction that includes all experimental data to date. This understanding is based on a multi-step development in which different scientific insights and a wide range of physical and mat

  5. The off-shell nucleon-nucleon interaction in the singlet s-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, H. de

    1975-01-01

    This thesis studies the off-shell behaviour of the neutron-proton interaction in the singlet state. To generate phase-shift-equivalent potentials a particular type of inversion problem is solved. It requires the potential to contain a non-local, separable part which is supposed to describe part of the short-range interaction. A special solution of the general inversion problem that produces potentials consisting of two separable terms is studied. Criteria to accept or reject particular inversion solutions are discussed. Neutron-proton potentials in the 1 S 0 partial wave which form part of the input for the general inversion procedure are defined. Different local potential tails are chosen, as well as varying short-range interactions, both local and non-local. The input phase shifts are discussed including three extrapolations of the phase shifts at high energy. The half-shell transition matrix for the potentials defined is studied. Some problems introduced by the additional electromagnetic interaction in the proton-proton system is investigated. (Auth.)

  6. Study of the universal function of nuclear proximity potential between α and nuclei from density-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.L.; Zheng, H.B.; Qu, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    The universal function of proximity potential between α and nuclei is systematically studied from the double-folding model with the density-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction (CDM3Y6) by analyzing different target nuclei with Z=48-92. The analytical formula of universal function is obtained at s 0 >-1 by fitting all of the calculated values. Using this formula we calculate the half-lives of α decay for heavy nuclei in comparison with the values of the experimental data. It is shown that the half-lives of the α decay calculated from the presently obtained universal function in proximity potential can keep within a factor of 3 with the experimental data. (orig.)

  7. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the 1S0 partial wave in the modified Weinberg approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparyan A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the 1S0 partial wave is considered in chiral effective field theory within the recently suggested renormalizable formulation based on the Kadyshevsky equation. Contact interactions are taken into account beyond the leading-order approximation. The subleading contact terms are included non-perturbatively by means of subtractive renormalization. The dependence of the phase shifts on the choice of the renormalization condition is discussed. Perturbative inclusion of the subleading contact interaction is found to be justified only very close to threshold. The low-energy theorems are reproduced significantly better compared with the leading order results.

  8. Theoretical predictions for α -decay chains of 118 290 -298Og isotopes using a finite-range nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.

    2018-04-01

    The α -decay half-lives of the recently synthesized superheavy nuclei (SHN) are investigated by employing the density dependent cluster model. A realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The calculated values of α -decay half-lives of the recently synthesized Og isotopes and its decay products are in good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, the calculated values of α -decay half-lives have been compared with those values evaluated using other theoretical models, and it was found that our theoretical values match well with their counterparts. The competition between α decay and spontaneous fission is investigated and predictions for possible decay modes for the unknown nuclei 118 290 -298Og are presented. We studied the behavior of the α -decay half-lives of Og isotopes and their decay products as a function of the mass number of the parent nuclei. We found that the behavior of the curves is governed by proton and neutron magic numbers found from previous studies. The proton numbers Z =114 , 116, 108, 106 and the neutron numbers N =172 , 164, 162, 158 show some magic character. We hope that the theoretical prediction of α -decay chains provides a new perspective to experimentalists.

  9. Test of nucleon-nucleon interaction by p vector-d vector polarization transfer in the three-nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperisen, F.; Gruebler, W.; Koenig, V.; Schmelzbach, P.A.; Elsener, K.; Jenny, B.; Schweizer, C.; Ulbricht, J.; Doleschall, P.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of three vector-to-vector and seven vector-to-tensor polarization transfer coefficients of the 2 H(p vector, d vector) 1 H elastic scattering at Esub(p) = 10 MeV are reported in the angular range between THETAsub(cm) = 92 0 and 180 0 . These second-order observables are compared with Faddeev calculations. It is shown that the vector-to-tensor components depend largely on the details of the N-N P-wave interaction. (orig.)

  10. Nucleon-Nucleon Potentials and Computation of Scattering Phase Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhasaketan Bhoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By judicious exploitation of supersymmetry formalism of quantum mechanics higher partial wave nucleon-nucleon potentials are generated from its ground state interactions. The nuclear Hulthen potential and the corresponding ground state wave function with the parameters of Arnold and MacKellar are used as the starting point of our calculation. We compute the scattering phase shifts for our constructed potentials through Phase Function Method to examine the merit of our approach to the problem.

  11. Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology. Progress report and renewal proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signell, P.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is outlined on five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction with the new dramatically altered ππ s-wave interaction and using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the πN and ππ physical regions of the N anti N → ππ amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly, and determining which phases are given by theory at which energies; (4) the introduction of our K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated and verified permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0 to 1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon researchers (or anyone else) via Telenet dial-in and by means of a published compendium

  12. Linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph

    1997-07-01

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: All the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: It is a base-line linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to heavy ion collisions.

  13. A new form for the nucleon-nucleon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, B.K.

    1976-01-01

    The form of the internucleon force is considered. It is assumed that the nucleon-nucleon potential depends, in general, both on the distance ν and the angle theta. It is also assumed that the potential V(ν,ω) admits an analytic continuation into the complex ω-plane so that when ω=costheta is real it denotes the direction in which the potential is being determined. The analysis leads to a new parametryzation of the nucleon-nucleon potential

  14. Coupled channels Marchenko inversion for nucleon-nucleon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlhoff, H.; Geramb, H.V. von

    1994-01-01

    Marchenko inversion is used to determine local energy independent but channel dependent potential matrices from optimum sets of experimental phase shifts. 3 SD 1 and 3 PF 2 channels of nucleon-nucleon systems contain in their off-diagonal potential matrices explicitly the tensor force for T = 0 and 1 isospin. We obtain, together with single channels, complete sets of quantitative nucleon-nucleon potential results which are ready for application in nuclear structure and reaction analyses. The historic coupled channels inversion result of Newton and Fulton is revisited. (orig.)

  15. Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, H.; Ohta, K.

    1986-07-01

    We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P 33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P 11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P 33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P 33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1 D 2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference Δσ L (pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P 11 interaction. (author)

  16. Effective nucleon-nucleon t matrix in the (p,2p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Y.; Kanayama, N.; Wakasugi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The cross sections and the analyzing powers for the /sup 40/Ca(p-arrow-right,2p) reactions at E/sub p/ = 76.1, 101.3, and 200 MeV are calculated in the distorted-wave impulse approximation using the Love-Franey effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is shown that the calculated individual contributions of the central, spin-orbit, and tensor parts in the Love-Franey interaction to the cross sections and the analyzing powers strongly depend on the incident proton energies. The spectroscopic factors extracted are consistent with the other reaction studies

  17. Jets in high energy nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    From the experimental studies of high-energy hardon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon collisions, by means of nuclear targets applied as detectors, it follows that particles are produced via intermediate objects created first in a 2 → 2 type endoergic reaction. These objects, called generons, decay in flight into finally observed particles and resonances after their lifetime tausub(g) > or approximately 10 - 22 s. The jet structure of the outcome in nucleon-nucleon collisions is a simple and indispensable consequence of this particle production mechanism. The picture of the jet structure in the collision outcome observed in the CMS of the colliding nucleons depends on the energy of these nUcleons. New particle production scheme is proposed, which can be tested experimentally; corresponding simple relations between characteristics of colliding nucleons and of produced jets are proposed for a testing

  18. Properties of Nuclei up to A =16 using Local Chiral Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardoni, D.; Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Lynn, J. E.; Schmidt, K. E.; Schwenk, A.; Wang, X. B.

    2018-03-01

    We report accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations of nuclei up to A =16 based on local chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions up to next-to-next-to-leading order. We examine the theoretical uncertainties associated with the chiral expansion and the cutoff in the theory, as well as the associated operator choices in the three-nucleon interactions. While in light nuclei the cutoff variation and systematic uncertainties are rather small, in O 16 these can be significant for large coordinate-space cutoffs. Overall, we show that chiral interactions constructed to reproduce properties of very light systems and nucleon-nucleon scattering give an excellent description of binding energies, charge radii, and form factors for all these nuclei, including open-shell systems in A =6 and 12.

  19. Phase variation of nucleon-nucleon amplitude for proton-12C elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yibing; Wang Shilai; Yin Gaofang

    2006-01-01

    Franco and Yin studied for α- 4 He, 3 He, 2 He, 1 He elastic-scattering by using the phase of the nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering amplitude varies with momentum transfer in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy. The phase variation leads to large changes in the differential cross sections, and brings the Glauber theory into agreement with experimental data. Later Lombard and Maillet is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of Glauber theory, and found this phase to be actually important for the description of spin observables. Recently Wang Shilai and Deng Yibing et al studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of KMT multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy, and found this phase lead to differential cross sections and polarization, which are in better agreement with experimental data. This paper is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin that the phase of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude should vary with momentum transfer. The proton elastic scattering on 12 C is studied in the KMT multiple scattering theory with microscopic momentum space first term optical potential. The Coulomb interactions are taken into account in our calculation. The theoretical calculation results show that the phase leads to differential cross section and polarization are in better agreement with experimental data. In conclusion this phase is actually important in the framework of KMT theory. (authors)

  20. Leading order relativistic hyperon-nucleon interactions in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Wen; Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bing-Wei

    2018-01-01

    We apply a recently proposed covariant power counting in nucleon-nucleon interactions to study strangeness S=‑1 {{\\varLambda }}N-{{\\varSigma }}N interactions in chiral effective field theory. At leading order, Lorentz invariance introduces 12 low energy constants, in contrast to the heavy baryon approach, where only five appear. The Kadyshevsky equation is adopted to resum the potential in order to account for the non-perturbative nature of hyperon-nucleon interactions. A fit to the 36 hyperon-nucleon scattering data points yields {χ }2≃ 16, which is comparable with the sophisticated phenomenological models and the next-to-leading order heavy baryon approach. However, one cannot achieve a simultaneous description of the nucleon-nucleon phase shifts and strangeness S=‑1 hyperon-nucleon scattering data at leading order. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375024, 11522539, 11375120), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M600845, 2017T100008) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

  1. Database of Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering Cross Sections by Stochastic Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A database of nucleon-nucleon elastic differential and total cross sections will be generated by stochastic simulation of the quantum Liouville equation in the...

  2. Low-energy pion double charge exchange and nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of pion double-charge exchange (DCX) at energies 20 to 70 MeV are providing a new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At these energies the nucleus is relatively transparent, allowing simpler theoretical models to be used in interpreting the data and leading to a clearer picture. Also the contribution to DCX of sequential charge-exchange scattering through the intermediate analog state is suppressed near 50 MeV and transitions through non-analog intermediate states become very important. Recent theoretical studies by several groups have shown that while transitions through the analog route involve relatively long nucleon-nucleon distances, those through non-analog intermediate states obtain nearly half their strength from nucleon pairs with less than 1 fermi separation. Thus DCX near 50 MeV is an excellent way to study short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. 31 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Low-energy pion double charge exchange and nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of pion double-charge exchange (DCX) at energies 20 to 70 MeV are providing a new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At these energies the nucleus is relatively transparent, allowing simpler theoretical models to be used in interpreting the data and leading to a clearer picture. Also the contribution to DCX of sequential charge-exchange scattering through the intermediate analog state is suppressed near 50 MeV and transitions through non-analog intermediate states become very important. Recent theoretical studies by several groups have shown that while transitions through the analog route involve relatively long nucleon-nucleon distances, those through non-analog intermediate states obtain nearly half their strength from nucleon pairs with less than 1 fermi separation. Thus DCX near 50 MeV is an excellent way to study short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. 31 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Nucleon-nucleon optical model for energies to 3 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, A.; Von Geramb, H.V.; University of Melbourne, VIC; Amos, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Several nucleon-nucleon potentials, Paris, Nijmegen, Argonne, and those derived by quantum inversion, which describe the NN interaction for T Lab ≤ 300 MeV are extended in their range of application as NN optical models. Extensions are made in r-space using complex separable potentials definable with a wide range of form factor options including those of boundary condition models. We use the latest phase shift analyses SP00 (FA00, WI00) of Arndt et al. from 300 MeV to 3 GeV to determine these extensions. The imaginary parts of the optical model interactions account for loss of flux into direct or resonant production processes. The optical potential approach is of particular value as it permits one to visualize fusion, and subsequent fission, of nucleons when T Lab > 2 GeV. We do so by calculating the scattering wave functions to specify the energy and radial dependences of flux losses and of probability distributions. Furthermore, half-off the energy shell t-matrices are presented as they are readily deduced with this approach. Such t-matrices are required for studies of few- and many-body nuclear reactions

  5. Regularization and the potential of effective field theory in nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1998-04-01

    This paper examines the role that regularization plays in the definition of the potential used in effective field theory (EFT) treatments of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The author considers N N scattering in S-wave channels at momenta well below the pion mass. In these channels (quasi-)bound states are present at energies well below the scale m π 2 /M expected from naturalness arguments. He asks whether, in the presence of such a shallow bound state, there is a regularization scheme which leads to an EFT potential that is both useful and systematic. In general, if a low-lying bound state is present then cutoff regularization leads to an EFT potential which is useful but not systematic, and dimensional regularization with minimal subtraction leads to one which is systematic but not useful. The recently-proposed technique of dimensional regularization with power-law divergence subtraction allows the definition of an EFT potential which is both useful and systematic

  6. Nucleon-nucleon scattering studies at small angles at COSY-ANKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdasarian, Zara [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The most accepted approach to describe nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is the partial wave analysis (PWA). The SAID database and analysis program comprise various experimental observables at different energies over the full angular range and express them in the partial waves. The goal of the experiments held at COSY-Juelich is to provide SAID with new valuable measurements. Scattering data was taken at small angles for six beam energies between 0.8 and 2.4 GeV with polarized proton beam incident on both proton and deuteron unpolarized targets using the ANKE spectrometer. First, the results of the proton-proton (pp) scattering analyzing power and cross section are presented. While pp data closes a very important gap at small angles in the database, proton-neutron (pn) data is a crucial contribution to the almost non-explored pn database above 800 MeV. Therefore, the talk will mainly concentrate on the proton-deuteron (pd) scattering studies, which includes the overview of the older COSY experiments with polarized deuteron beam, and the abovementioned new experiment with polarized proton beam and unpolarized deuteron target. The presentation will show the most recent results of the analyzing powers of pd elastic and pn scattering.

  7. Search for basic properties of the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersten, A.

    1981-01-01

    Extraction of N-N amplitudes directly from phase-shift analysis is described and the results are compared to those obtained via potential or pseudopotential models at low and intermediate energies and through Regge trajectory exchanges and diffraction models at high energies. While potential models fit the experimental data up to about 400 MeV lab energy, the information obtained directly by phase-shift analysis of N-N amplitudes is obtained from experiments in the 400-800 MeV range. At higher energies the real part of the amplitudes becomes better approximated by the first Born term. In this way one can get an insight into the meson exchange structure of the N-N amplitudes. (O.T.)

  8. Measurements of dilepton production in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.K.; Beedoe, S.; Bougteb, M.; Cailiu, J.; Carroll, J.; Gong, W.G.; Hallman, T.; Heilbronn, L.; Huang, H.Z.; Igo, G.; Kirk, P.; Krebs, G.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Madansky, L.; Manso, F.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, D.; Miller, J.; Naudet, C.; Porter, R.J.; Roche, G.; Sche, G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Seidl, P.; Toy, M.; Wang, Z.F.; Welsh, R.; Yegneswaran, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, 63 - Aubiere (France)]|[Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-01-03

    The authors present experimental results on the pd/pp ratio for e{sup +}e{sup -} production and the invariant e{sup +}e{sup -} mass distribution measured in the process p+p{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}+X at energies between 1.03 and 4.9 GeV. From the mass spectra production cross sections for {eta}, {rho}, {omega}, and {Delta}are derived. (HSI)

  9. The multiple-scattering series in pion-deuteron scattering and the nucleon-nucleon potential: perspectives from effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baru, V. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Epelbaum, E. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Hanhart, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Hoferichter, M. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Ohio University, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Athens, OH (United States); Kudryavtsev, A.E. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Phillips, D.R. [Ohio University, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Athens, OH (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Important contributions to meson-nucleus scattering are produced by terms in the multiple-scattering series, which is defined as the sum of all diagrams where the meson scatters back and forth between a pair of static nucleons before leaving the nucleus. In particular, the sum of this series is needed for an accurate description of kaon-deuteron scattering, and appears as part of the nucleon-nucleon potential. In this article we present some effective-field-theory (EFT)-based insights into this series in the case of two-nucleon systems. In particular, we discuss the fact that, if meson-nucleon scattering is approximated by the scattering-length term, individual terms of the series are divergent, and enhanced with respect to the straightforward expectation from chiral perturbation theory ({chi} PT). This apparently indicates the presence of similarly enhanced counterterms. However, we show that when the series is resummed the divergences cancel, such that no additional information on short-range interactions is needed to obtain predictions for observables after resummation. We discuss the conditions under which this resummation is justified. We show that the same issues arise in the NN potential, where the resummed series produces poles whose appearance indicates the breakdown scale of the {chi} PT expansion for that quantity. This demonstrates unequivocally that {chi} PT cannot be applied to compute V(r) for distances smaller than r{proportional_to} 1 fm -at least in the theory without explicit Delta(1232) degrees of freedom. We briefly discuss whether this bound can be lowered if the Delta resonance is included in the EFT as an explicit degree of freedom. (orig.)

  10. Pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baru, Vadim [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Epelbaum, Evgeny [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Filin, Arseniy [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Haidenbauer, Johann; Hanhart, Christoph [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kudryavtsev, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lensky, Vadim [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas, Villazzano (Trento) (Italy); Meissner, Ulf G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    With the advent of chiral perturbation theory, the low-energy effective field theory of QCD, high accuracy calculations for hadronic reactions with a controlled error estimation have become possible. We survey the recent developments in the reaction NN{yields}NN{pi} in chiral EFT. We argue that the counting scheme that acknowledges the large momentum transfer between the initial and the final nucleons allows for a consistent description of s- and p-wave pion production. The status of the theory for pion production in the isospin conserving case allows us to challenge charge symmetry breaking effects recently observed experimentally in pn{yields}d{pi}{sup 0}.

  11. Consequences of the factorization hypothesis in nucleon-nucleon, $\\gamma p and \\gamma \\gamma$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Martin M

    2002-01-01

    Using an eikonal structure for the scattering amplitude, factorization theorems for nucleon-nucleon, gamma p and gamma gamma scattering at high energies have been derived, using only some very general assumptions. Using a QCD-inspired eikonal analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering, we present here experimental confirmation for factorization of cross sections, nuclear slope parameters B and rho -values (ratio of real to imaginary portion of forward scattering amplitudes), showing that: 1) the three factorization theorems of Block and Kaidalov [2000] hold, 2) the additive quark model holds to approximately=1%, and 3) vector dominance holds to better than approximately=4%. Predictions for the total cross section, elastic cross section and other forward scattering parameters at the LHC (14 TeV) are given. (12 refs).

  12. Polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering at intermediate and high energies including the present status of dibaryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1985-01-01

    We review experimental results concerning polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering in which both the elastic scattering and hadron-production reaction are included. We also present summary of S = 0 dibaryon resonances and candidates by reviewing experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system, ..gamma..d channel, ..pi..d elastic scattering, pp ..-->.. ..pi..d channel, deuteron break-up reactions, and narrow structures in missing-mass spectra. 93 refs., 26 figs.

  13. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the functional quantum theory of the nonlinear spinor field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, G.

    1979-01-01

    The author calculates the S matrix for the elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering in the lowest approximation using the quantum theory of nonlinear spinor fields with special emphasis to the ghost configuration of this theory. Introducing a general scalar product a new functional channel calculus is considered. From the results the R and T matrix elements and the differential and integral cross sections are derived. (HSI)

  14. Meson-baryon coupling constants from a chiral-invariant SU(3) Lagrangian and application to NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoks, V.G.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present a chiral-invariant meson-baryon Lagrangian which describes the interactions of the baryon octet with the lowest-mass meson nonets. The nonlinear realization of the chiral symmetry generates pair-meson interaction vertices. The corresponding pair-meson coupling constants can all be expressed in terms of the meson-nucleon-nucleon pseudovector, scalar, and vector coupling constants, and their corresponding F/(F+D) ratios, and for which empirical estimates are given. We show that it is possible to construct an NN potential of reasonable quality satisfying these theoretical and empirical constraints. (orig.)

  15. Boson-exchange nucleon-nucleon potential and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, Pierre.

    1976-01-01

    A fully momentum-dependent one-boson-exchange potential is derived which takes into account the mesons, π, eta, sigma, rho, ω and phi. Scattering bound states and nuclear matter properties are studied in momentum space. The use of such potential is shown to be as easy as the use of more simple phenomenological interactions. In nuclear matter the formalism of Bethe-Goldstone is chosen to compute the binding energy versus density in the approximation of two-body and three-body correlations. The three-body correlated wave function obtained is then used [fr

  16. Nucleon-nucleon scattering length from three-body reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments aimed at the measurement of the singlet scattering lengths 1 a np and 1 a nn of the NN-interaction in the presence of a heavy spectator are described. The values obtained are compared with the results of measurements of other reactions. The very good agreement of the experimental values of 1 a np from all breakup reactions and elastic scattering as well as agreement of the values of 1 a nn from breakup reactions and disagreement with the value from the π - d → nnγ reaction cast doubts on the hypothesis ascribing this discrepancy to a 3N-force. This result also suggests a stronger effect of a violation of the charge independence principle than previously accepted. 101 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  17. Nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts. [Resonance, 0 to 800 MeV, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, R.

    1978-01-01

    Here are presented 0 to 800 MeV nucleon-nucleon elastic and inelastic phase parameters derived by several groups: Arndt and Roper; Hoshizaki; Bugg; Bystricky, Lechanoine, and Lehar; and Bryan, Clark, and VerWest. Resonant-like behavior appears in the /sup 1/D/sub 2/ and /sup 3/F/sub 3/ states above the inelastic threshold in Hoshizaki's analysis but not in Arndt and Roper's. The np data are inadequate to permit determination of the I = O phase parameters above 600 MeV. 27 references.

  18. Investigation of the nucleon-nucleon tensor force in three-nucleon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clajus, M.; Egun, P.M.; Gruebler, W.; Hautle, P. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik); Slaus, I. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Vuaridel, B. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA) Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Sperisen, F. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA). Cyclotron Facility); Kretschmer, W.; Rauscher, A.; Schuster, W.; Weidmann, R.; Haller, M. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.)); Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; D' Agostino, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Witala, H.; Cornelius, T.; Gloeckle, W. (Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.)); Schmelzbach, P.A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1990-08-16

    Proton-deuteron elastic scattering has been investigated at E{sub p}=22.7 MeV by comparison of rigorous Faddeev calculations with experimental results. The observable most sensitive to the tensor force is the nucleon-nucleon polarization transfer coefficient K{sub y}sup(y'). The new angular distribution of K{sub y}sup(y') clearly favours the tensor force of the Bonn A potential, which is weaker than the one of the Paris potential. (orig.).

  19. Building the nucleus from quarks: The cloudy bag model and the quark description of the nucleon-nucleon wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the Cloudy Bag Model hadrons are treated as quarks confined in an M.I.T. bag that is surrounded by a cloud of pions. Computations of the charge and magnetism distributions of nucleons and baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and the strong and electromagnetic decays of mesons are discussed. Agreement with experimental results is excellent if the nucleon bag radius is in the range between 0.8 and 1.1 fm. Underlying qualitative reasons which cause the pionic corrections to be of the obtained sizes are analyzed. If bags are of such reasonably large sizes, nucleon bags in nuclei will often come into contact. As a result one needs to consider whether explicit quark degrees of freedom are relevant for Nuclear Physics. To study such possibilities a model which treats a nucleus as a collection of baryons, pions and six-quark bags is discussed. In particular, the short distance part of a nucleon-nucleon wave function is treated as six quarks confined in a bag. This approach is used to study the proton-proton weak interaction, the asymptotic D to S state ratio of the deuteron, the pp → dπ reaction, the charge density of /sup 3/He, magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and, the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H binding energy difference. It is found that quark effects are very relevant for understanding nuclear properties

  20. Single-particle potential of the Λ hyperon in nuclear matter with chiral effective field theory NLO interactions including effects of Y N N three-baryon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, M.

    2018-03-01

    Adopting hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon-nucleon interactions parametrized in chiral effective field theory, single-particle potentials of the Λ and Σ hyperons are evaluated in symmetric nuclear matter and in pure neutron matter within the framework of lowest-order Bruckner theory. The chiral NLO interaction bears strong Λ N -Σ N coupling. Although the Λ potential is repulsive if the coupling is switched off, the Λ N -Σ N correlation brings about the attraction consistent with empirical data. The Σ potential is repulsive, which is also consistent with empirical information. The interesting result is that the Λ potential becomes shallower beyond normal density. This provides the possibility of solving the hyperon puzzle without introducing ad hoc assumptions. The effects of the Λ N N -Λ N N and Λ N N -Σ N N three-baryon forces are considered. These three-baryon forces are first reduced to normal-ordered effective two-baryon interactions in nuclear matter and then incorporated in the G -matrix equation. The repulsion from the Λ N N -Λ N N interaction is of the order of 5 MeV at normal density and becomes larger with increasing density. The effects of the Λ N N -Σ N N coupling compensate the repulsion at normal density. The net effect of the three-baryon interactions on the Λ single-particle potential is repulsive at higher densities.

  1. Asymmetry measurements in nucleon--nucleon scattering with polarized beams and targets at ZGS to Fermilab energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakosawa, A.

    1977-01-01

    Results of various asymmetry measurements in nucleon-nucleon scattering with polarized beams and targets at ZGS energies are presented. A possible direct-channel resonance in the pp system is discussed. Most of the discussion above ZGS energies are aimed at future measurements

  2. One-Boson Approach to Dilepton Production in Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglin, Kevin Lee

    1990-01-01

    We calculate energy dependent nucleon-nucleon total elastic cross sections and invariant mass dependent electron-positron pair production differential cross sections for the processes pp to pp, np to np and pp to ppe ^+e^-, pn to pne^+e ^- at laboratory kinetic energies in the 1-5 GeV range. These calculations will be based on relativistic quantum field theory in the one-boson-exchange (pi,rho,omega,sigma,delta, eta) approximation to the nucleon-nucleon scattering problem. There are several independent Feynman diagrams for each process--twenty-five for the case np to npe^+e^ - and forty-eight for the case pp to ppe^+e^- --which, for evaluation, require taking the trace of as many as ten gamma matrices and evaluating an angular integral of a quotient of polynomial functions of initial and final energies, particle masses, coupling constants and so on. These mathematical operations are carried out with the aid of the following algebraic manipulators: for the trace operations we use REDUCE 3.3 on the VAX at the ACS facility and for testing the angular integration algorithms we use MAPLE on the Cray-2 at the Minnesota Supercomputer Institute. Finally, we use Cray-2 Fortran for the resulting numerical substitutions. Gauge invariance is strictly observed while including strong and electromagnetic form factors. The numerical results for these calculations are compared with existing data from the Particle Data Group Booklet and compared with recently released data from the Dilepton Spectrometer (DLS) at the Bevalac of proton on Beryllium. For the latter comparison, the spectrometer's finite acceptance function is introduced before a rapidity and transverse momentum integration.

  3. Similarity renormalization group evolution of N N interactions within a subtractive renormalization scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durães F.O.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We apply the similarity renormalization group (SRG approach to evolve a nucleon-nucleon (N N interaction in leading-order (LO chiral effective field theory (ChEFT, renormalized within the framework of the subtracted kernel method (SKM. We derive a fixed-point interaction and show the renormalization group (RG invariance in the SKM approach. We also compare the evolution of N N potentials with the subtraction scale through a SKM RG equation in the form of a non-relativistic Callan-Symanzik (NRCS equation and the evolution with the similarity cutoff through the SRG transformation.

  4. Charge independence, charge symmetry breaking in the S-wave nucleon-nucleon interaction, and renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro Calle Cordon,Manuel Pavon Valderrama,Enrique Ruiz Arriola

    2012-02-01

    We study the interplay between charge symmetry breaking and renormalization in the NN system for S-waves. We find a set of universality relations which disentangle explicitly the known long distance dynamics from low energy parameters and extend them to the Coulomb case. We analyze within such an approach the One-Boson-Exchange potential and the theoretical conditions which allow to relate the proton-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-neutron scattering observables without the introduction of extra new parameters and providing good phenomenological success.

  5. Study of Z boson production in PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy = 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

    2011-05-01

    A search for Z bosons in the mu^+mu^- decay channel has been performed in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy = 2.76 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, in a 7.2 inverse microbarn data sample. The number of opposite-sign muon pairs observed in the 60--120 GeV/c^2 invariant mass range is 39, corresponding to a yield per unit of rapidity (y) and per minimum bias event of (33.8 +/- 5.5 (stat) +/- 4.4 (syst)) 10^{-8}, in the |y|<2.0 range. Rapidity, transverse momentum, and centrality dependencies are also measured. The results agree with next-to-leading order QCD calculations, scaled by the number of incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  6. Disappearance of flow and the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section for {sup 64}Zn+{sup 27}Al collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Yong He [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire]|[Academia Sinica, Lanzhou, GS (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Peter, J.; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Cussol, D. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Auger, A.; Cabot, C.; Crema, E. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Buta, A. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire]|[Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Experimental measurement and theoretical comparison of collective flow can give important information about the nuclear equation of state (EOS) and the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section. Experimental measurements of {sup 64}Zn+{sup 27}Al collision from 35 to 79 MeV/u with the 4{pi} array MUR=TONNEAU are presented. The results are compared to BUU calculations. (K.A.).

  7. Symmetric nuclear matter with Skyrme interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisa, K.; Bicer, A.; Atav, U.

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) and some properties of symmetric nuclear matter, such as the saturation density, saturation energy and incompressibility, are obtained by using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  8. Study of the neutron-proton interaction in the 300 to 700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report, 1981-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations of the nucleon-nucleon interaction at LAMPF energies, in both elastic and inelastic channels, are briefly described. Experiments and results are reviewed, and abstracts of papers presented are included

  9. Study of the neutron-proton interaction in the 300 to 700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report, 1975--76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    Research is summarized on n-p differential cross sections for charge-exchange interactions, meson production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, the spectra of charged particles produced in the bombardment of various targets by monoenergetic neutrons

  10. Renormalization of NN Interaction with Relativistic Chiral Two Pion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, R; Valderrama, M Pavon; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2007-06-14

    The renormalization of the NN interaction with the Chiral Two Pion Exchange Potential computed using relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory is considered. The short distance singularity reduces the number of counter-terms to about a half as those in the heavy-baryon expansion. Phase shifts and deuteron properties are evaluated and a general overall agreement is observed.

  11. Nuclear matter calculations with chiral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit Δ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter employing the microscopic Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach. Specifically, we present nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with Δ isobar intermediate states (N3LOΔ) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [1] supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit Δ isobar degrees of freedom. We show that for this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions it is possible to obtain a good saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. We also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and compare our results with the available empirical constraints on this quantity.

  12. J/Ψ production in proton-proton and deuteron-gold collisions at 200 GeV in the nucleon-nucleon center of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobigo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the quark-gluon plasma formed in heavy-ion collisions, we have to understand the cold nuclear matter behavior. In this aim we studied deuteron-gold collisions at 200 GeV in the nucleon-nucleon center of mass at the collider RHIC. The J/Ψ was suggested to probe the plasma. We studied its production via its muon decay measured in the muon spectrometers of the PHENIX experiment. We developed a Kalman fit method for tracks and vertex, for the muon spectrometers data analysis. The J/Ψ production was analyzed in function of kinematic and geometric variables. Comparison between proton-proton and deuterium-gold data allowed a better understanding of shadowing and absorption phenomena present in collisions without any dense matter. (author) [fr

  13. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Ingo

    2015-10-12

    The neutron-matter equation of state connects several physical systems over a wide density range, from cold atomic gases in the unitary limit at low densities, to neutron-rich nuclei at intermediate densities, up to neutron stars which reach supranuclear densities in their core. An accurate description of the neutron-matter equation of state is therefore crucial to describe these systems. To calculate the neutron-matter equation of state reliably, precise many-body methods in combination with a systematic theory for nuclear forces are needed. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) is such a theory. It provides a systematic framework for the description of low-energy hadronic interactions and enables calculations with controlled theoretical uncertainties. Chiral EFT makes use of a momentum-space expansion of nuclear forces based on the symmetries of Quantum Chromodynamics, which is the fundamental theory of strong interactions. In chiral EFT, the description of nuclear forces can be systematically improved by going to higher orders in the chiral expansion. On the other hand, continuum Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are among the most precise many-body methods available to study strongly interacting systems at finite densities. They treat the Schroedinger equation as a diffusion equation in imaginary time and project out the ground-state wave function of the system starting from a trial wave function by propagating the system in imaginary time. To perform this propagation, continuum QMC methods require as input local interactions. However, chiral EFT, which is naturally formulated in momentum space, contains several sources of nonlocality. In this Thesis, we show how to construct local chiral two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions and discuss results of first QMC calculations for pure neutron systems. We have performed systematic auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations for neutron matter using local chiral NN interactions. By

  14. Observation and studies of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy = 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-08-01

    Jet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV was studied with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.7 inverse microbarns. Jets are reconstructed using the energy deposited in the CMS calorimeters and studied as a function of collision centrality. With increasing collision centrality, a striking imbalance in dijet transverse momentum is observed, consistent with jet quenching. The observed effect extends from the lower cut-off used in this study (jet transverse momentum = 120 GeV/c) up to the statistical limit of the available data sample (jet transverse momentum approximately 210 GeV/c). Correlations of charged particle tracks with jets indicate that the momentum imbalance is accompanied by a softening of the fragmentation pattern of the second most energetic, away-side jet. The dijet momentum balance is recovered when integrating low transverse momentum particles distributed over a wide angular range relative to the direction of the away-side jet.

  15. Tailoring the chiral magnetic interaction between two individual atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, J.; Khajetoorians, A. A.; Steinbrecher, M.; Ternes, M.; Bouhassoune, M.; Dos Santos Dias, M.; Lounis, S.; Wiesendanger, R.

    Chiral magnets are a promising route toward dense magnetic storage technology due to their inherent nano-scale dimensions and energy efficient properties. Engineering chiral magnets requires atomic-level control of the magnetic exchange interactions, including the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which defines a rotational sense for the magnetization of two coupled magnetic moments. Here we show that the indirect conduction electron mediated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction between two individual magnetic atoms on a metallic surface can be manipulated by changing the interatomic distance with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. We quantify this interaction by comparing our measurements to a quantum magnetic model and ab-initio calculations yielding a map of the chiral ground states of pairs of atoms depending on the interatomic separation. The map enables tailoring the chirality of the magnetization in dilute atomic-scale magnets. Acknowledgements: SFB668, GrK1286, SFB767, LO 1659 5-1, Emmy Noether Program of the DFG, FOM of NWO, VH-NG-717.

  16. Chiral effective field theory analysis of hadronic parity violation in few-nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, M. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Baroni, A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Girlanda, L. [Univ. of Salento and INFN-Lecce, Lecce (Italy). Dept. of Mathematical and Physics; Kievsky, A. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Marcucci, L. E. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Schiavilla, R. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-06-18

    Weak interactions between quarks induce a parity-violating (PV) component in the nucleon-nucleon potential, whose effects are currently being studied in a number of experiments involving few-nucleon systems. In the present work, we reconsider the derivation of this PV component within a chiral effective field theory (${\\chi }$EFT) framework. Purpose: The objectives of the present work are twofold. The first is to perform a detailed analysis of the PV nucleon-nucleon potential up to next-to-next-to-leading (N2LO) order in the chiral expansion, in particular, by determining the number of independent low-energy constants (LECs) at N2LO. The second objective is to investigate PV effects in a number of few-nucleon observables, including the $\\vec{p}$-p longitudinal asymmetry, the neutron spin rotation in n-p and n-d scattering, and the longitudinal asymmetry in the 3He( $\\vec{n}$,p)3H charge-exchange reaction. Methods: The ${\\chi }$EFT PV potential includes one-pion-exchange, two-pion-exchange, and contact terms as well as 1/M (M being the nucleon mass) nonstatic corrections. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize pion loops. The wave functions for the A=2-4 nuclei are obtained by using strong two- and three-body potentials also derived, for consistency, from ${\\chi }$EFT. In the case of the A=3-4 systems, systems, the wave functions are computed by expanding on a hyperspherical harmonics functions basis. Results: We find that the PV potential at N2LO depends on six LECs: the pion-nucleon PV coupling constant h$1\\atop{π}$ and five parameters multiplying contact interactions. An estimate for the range of values of the various LECs is provided by using available experimental data, and these values are used to obtain predictions for the other PV observables. Conclusions: The ${\\chi }$EFT approach provides a very satisfactory framework to analyze PV effects in few-nucleon systems.

  17. Interaction of chiral rafts in self-assembled colloidal membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng; Hagan, Michael F.; Pelcovits, Robert A.

    2016-03-01

    Colloidal membranes are monolayer assemblies of rodlike particles that capture the long-wavelength properties of lipid bilayer membranes on the colloidal scale. Recent experiments on colloidal membranes formed by chiral rodlike viruses showed that introducing a second species of virus with different length and opposite chirality leads to the formation of rafts—micron-sized domains of one virus species floating in a background of the other viruses [Sharma et al., Nature (London) 513, 77 (2014), 10.1038/nature13694]. In this article we study the interaction of such rafts using liquid crystal elasticity theory. By numerically minimizing the director elastic free energy, we predict the tilt angle profile for both a single raft and two rafts in a background membrane, and the interaction between two rafts as a function of their separation. We find that the chiral penetration depth in the background membrane sets the scale for the range of the interaction. We compare our results with the experimental data and find good agreement for the strength and range of the interaction. Unlike the experiments, however, we do not observe a complete collapse of the data when rescaled by the tilt angle at the raft edge.

  18. A microscopic model for correlated 2πexchange model in free nucleon-nucleon scattering and in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul.

    1993-05-01

    A microscopic model for the N anti N→ππ amplitude has been constructed based on nucleon and delta-isobar exchange, which in the pseudophysical region (4 m π 2 ≤t≤50 m π 2 ) roughly agrees with information obtained by analytic continuation of empirical πN and ππ data. Starting from these amplitudes, the correlated 2 π exchange contribution to the NN interaction has been derived using dispersion theoretic methods. It turns out that, in high partial waves, this contribution is considerably larger (by about 20%) compared to the effective σ'- and ρ-exchange used in the full Bonn potential. As a consequence, it turned out that a quantitative description of high NN partial wave phase shifts definitely favors a somewhat smaller πNN coupling constant, in agreement with recent findings in an empirical analysis by the Nijmegen group. The prediction of low NN partial wave phase shifts has been presented, being compared with empirical NN data. In addition to free NN scattering, medium modifications of the σ channel in the NN potential have been studied. These modifications arise from a change in the ππ rescattering through the in-matter pion dispersion relation. We also have considered the possibility of dropping meson masses as suggested by QCD sum rules. (orig.)

  19. The spin-orbit interaction in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis previously made of the average nuclear potential has been extended to consideration of the spin-orbit interactions. It has not been possible to find a satisfactory two-body interaction consistent with all the data; that suggested by the phase-shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is just within the region of possible forms. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  20. Matching Pion-Nucleon Roy-Steiner Equations to Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Martin; Ruiz de Elvira, Jacobo; Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-11-01

    We match the results for the subthreshold parameters of pion-nucleon scattering obtained from a solution of Roy-Steiner equations to chiral perturbation theory up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order, to extract the pertinent low-energy constants including a comprehensive analysis of systematic uncertainties and correlations. We study the convergence of the chiral series by investigating the chiral expansion of threshold parameters up to the same order and discuss the role of the Δ (1232 ) resonance in this context. Results for the low-energy constants are also presented in the counting scheme usually applied in chiral nuclear effective field theory, where they serve as crucial input to determine the long-range part of the nucleon-nucleon potential as well as three-nucleon forces.

  1. The production of charmed particles in high-energy 16O-emulsion central interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Hoshino, K.; Kitamura, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Kodama, K.; Miyanishi, M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Nakanishi, S.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Nomura, M.; Tajima, H.; Tsukagoshi, K.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Poulard, G.; Meddi, F.; Rosa, G.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Simone, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Tasaka, S.; Sato, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The production of charmed particles has been detected in 200 GeV per nucleon 16 O-emulsion central interactions. Their production cross section in elementary nucleon-nucleon processes has been estimated to be σ charm =[14.1±9.3(stat.) -8.4 +5.6 (syst.)]μb. (orig.)

  2. Coupled-channels study of Lambda K and Sigma K states in the chiral SU(3) quark model

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, F.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Yu, Y. W.

    2005-01-01

    The $S$-wave $\\Lambda K$ and $\\Sigma K$ states with isospin $I=1/2$ are dynamically investigated within the framework of the chiral SU(3) quark model by solving a resonating group method (RGM) equation. The model parameters are taken from our previous work, which gave a good description of the energies of the baryon ground states, the binding energy of the deuteron, and the experimental data of the nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) and nucleon-hyperon ($NY$) scattering. Assumed not to give important con...

  3. Realistic non-local potentials from inverse scattering theory for the3S1−3D1nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H.L. Groenenboom

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Rank-three and -four separable3S1−3D1potentials have been constructed which reproduce the experimental phase shifts and a realistic deuteron wave function. The off-shell behaviour has been investigated and triton binding energies were calculated.

  4. Chiral realization of the non-leptonic weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1990-01-01

    After a short introduction to chiral perturbation theory an attempt to relate the strong and the non-leptonic weak low-energy constants is reviewed. The weak deformation model is stimulated both by the geometrical structure of chiral perturbation theory and by phenomenological considerations. Applications to the radiative decays K → πγγ and K L → γe + e - are discussed. (Author) 38 refs., 4 figs

  5. Pion-nucleon scattering: from chiral perturbation theory to Roy-Steiner equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Bastian; Hoferichter, Martin; de Elvira, Jacobo Ruiz; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2016-11-01

    Ever since Weinberg's seminal predictions of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes at threshold, this process has been of central interest for the study of chiral dynamics involving nucleons. The scattering lengths or the pion-nucleon σ-term are fundamental quantities characterizing the explicit breaking of chiral symmetry by means of the light quark masses. On the other hand, pion-nucleon dynamics also strongly affects the long-range part of nucleon-nucleon potentials, and hence has a far-reaching impact on nuclear physics. We discuss the fruitful combination of dispersion-theoretical methods, in the form of Roy-Steiner equations, with chiral dynamics to determine pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes at low energies with high precision.*

  6. Chiral and color-superconducting phase transitions with vector interaction in a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Koide, Tomoi; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio

    2002-01-01

    We investigate effects of the vector interaction on chiral and color superconducting (CSC) phase transitions at finite density and temperature in a simple Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is shown that the repulsive density-density interaction coming from the vector term, which is present in the effective chiral models but has been omitted, enhances the competition between the chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) and CSC phase transition, and thereby makes the thermodynamic potential have a shallow minimum over a wide range of values of the correlated chiral and CSC order parameters. We find that when the vector coupling is increased, the first order transition between the χSB and CSC phases becomes weaker, and the coexisting phase in which both the chiral and color-gauge symmetry are dynamically broken comes to exist over a wider range of the density and temperature. We also show that there can exist two endpoints, which are tricritical points in the chiral limit, along the critical line of the first order transition in some range of values of the vector coupling. Although our analysis is based on a simple model, the nontrivial interplay between the χSB and CSC phases induced by the vector interaction is expected to be a universal phenomenon and might give a clue to understanding results obtained with two-color QCD on the lattice. (author)

  7. Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-07-01

    First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.

  8. Elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering and breakup with chiral forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witała Henryk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results on three-nucleon (3N elastic scattering and breakup below the pion production threshold are discussed. The large discrepancies found between a theory based on numerical solutions of 3N Faddeev equations with standard nucleon-nucleon (NN potentials only and data point to the need for three-nucleon forces (3NF’s. This notion is supported by the fact that another possible reason for the discrepancies in elastic nucleon-deuteron (Nd scattering, relativistic effects, turned out to be small. Results for a new generation of chiral NN forces (up to N4LO together with theoretical truncation errors are shown. They support conclusions obtained with standard NN potentials

  9. Composite-meson--quark interactions under the condition of dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, M.

    1989-03-01

    Starting from the QCD-inspired model Hamiltonian which can lead to the dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry, we describe a vacuum consisting of a condensate of q-barq pairs and furthermore meson states and composite-meson field operators within the new Tamm-Dancoff approximation. Using these fields operators and the Hamiltonian we construct composite-meson--quark interactions.

  10. Description of meson strong and electromagnetic interactions in quantum chiral theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Pervushin, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Strong and electromagnetic interactions of mesons in the framework of the chiral theory are considered. The pion-pion scattering phases, the pion electromagnetic form factor, the mean squared radius of a K-meson, and the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions are calculated using the superpropagator method. The rho-meson mass, Msub(rho)=800 MeV, is calculated too

  11. Properties of 4He and 6Li with improved chiral EFT interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results for 4He and 6Li obtained with improved NN interactions derived from chiral effective field theory up to N4LO. The many-body calculations are performed order-by-order in the chiral expansion. At N3LO and N4LO additional renormalization using the Similarity Renormalization Group is adopted to improve numerical convergence of the many-body calculations. We discuss results for the ground state energies, as well as the magnetic moment and the low-lying spectrum of 6Li.

  12. Higher Spin Superfield Interactions with the Chiral Supermultiplet: Conserved Supercurrents and Cubic Vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioseph L. Buchbinder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate cubic interactions between a chiral superfield and higher spin superfields corresponding to irreducible representations of the 4 D , N = 1 super-Poincaré algebra. We do this by demanding an invariance under the most general transformation, linear in the chiral superfield. Following Noether’s method we construct an infinite tower of higher spin supercurrent multiplets which are quadratic in the chiral superfield and include higher derivatives. The results are that a single, massless, chiral superfield can couple only to the half-integer spin supermultiplets ( s + 1 , s + 1 / 2 and for every value of spin there is an appropriate improvement term that reduces the supercurrent multiplet to a minimal multiplet which matches that of superconformal higher spins. On the other hand a single, massive, chiral superfield can couple only to higher spin supermultiplets of type ( 2 l + 2 , 2 l + 3 / 2 (only odd values of s, s = 2 l + 1 and there is no minimal multiplet. Furthermore, for the massless case we discuss the component level higher spin currents and provide explicit expressions for the integer and half-integer spin conserved currents together with a R-symmetry current.

  13. Description of meson strong weak and electromagnetic interactions in quantum chiral theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Ehbert, D.

    1979-01-01

    The picture of all the principal meson decays of the basic octet has been obtained in the framework of the SU(3)xSU(3) symmetric chiral model of the field theory. An attempt is made to generalize the nonlinear chiral model for the case of charmed hadrons, i.e., a transition from the SU(3)xSU(3) group to the SU(4)xSU(4) group. The authors have succeeded in elucidating unambiguously the role of the Kabibbo angle both in weak and strong interactions (it defines the structure of weak hadron currents and hadron mass splitting in isotopic multiplets). Proceeding from decays of the basic octet mesons it has been shown that the nonlinear chiral SU(3)xSU(3) symmetric theory may be considered as the quantum field theory, which satisfactorily describes the low-energy meson physics in two first orders of the perturbation theory (tree and single-loop approximations)

  14. Chiral pinwheel clusters lacking local point chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Shao, Ting-Na; Xie, Jia-Le; Lan, Meng; Yuan, Hong-Kuan; Xiong, Zu-Hong; Wang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2012-07-09

    The supramolecular pinwheel cluster is a unique chiral structure with evident handedness. Previous studies reveal that the chiral pinwheels are composed of chiral or achiral molecules with polar groups, which result in strong intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen-bonding or dipole interactions. Herein, it is shown that the simple linear aromatic molecule, pentacene, can be self-assembled into large chiral pinwheel clusters on the semimetal Bi(111) surface, due to enhanced intermolecular interactions. The pentacene pinwheels reveal two levels of organizational chirality: the chiral hexamers resulting from asymmetric shifting along the long molecular axis, and chiral arrangement of six hexamers with a rotor motif. Furthermore, a new relation between the local point chirality and organizational chirality is identified from the pinwheels: the former is not essential for the latter in 2D pinwheel clusters of the pentacene molecule. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Centroids of effective interactions from measured single-particle energies: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Centroids of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for the mass region A=28--64 are extracted directly from experimental single-particle spectra, by comparing single-particle energies relative to different cores. Uncertainties in the centroids are estimated at approximately 100 keV, except in cases of exceptional fragmentation of the single-particle strength. The use of a large number of inert cores allows the dependence of the interaction on mass or model space to be investigated. The method permits accurate empirical modifications to be made to realistic interactions calculated from bare nucleon-nucleon potentials, which are known to possess defective centroids in many cases. In addition, the centroids can be used as input to the more sophisticated fitting procedures that are employed to produce matrix elements of the effective interaction

  16. Interactions of helquats with chiral acidic aromatic analytes investigated by partial-filling affinity capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Martin; Koval, Dušan; Vávra, Jan; Reyes Gutierrez, Paul Eduardo; Teplý, Filip; Kašička, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1467, Oct 7 (2016), s. 417-426 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S; GA ČR GA13-32974S; GA ČR GA13-19213S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : affinity capillary electrophoresis * binding constant * chiral separation * helquats * noncovalent interactions * partial filling Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  17. Features of electron-phonon interactions in nanotubes with chiral symmetry in magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kibis, O V

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of the electrons with acoustic phonons in the nanotube with chiral symmetry by availability of the magnetic field, parallel to the nanotube axis, is considered. It is shown that the electron energy spectrum is asymmetric relative to the electron wave vector inversion and for that reason the electron-phonon interaction appears to be different for similar phonons with mutually contrary directions of the wave vector. This phenomenon leads to origination of the electromotive force by the spatially uniform electron gas heating and to appearance of the quadrupole component in the nanotube volt-ampere characteristics

  18. One-dimensional model of chiral fermions with Feshbach resonant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, Abhinav; Gurarie, Victor

    2018-02-01

    We study a model of two species of 1D linearly dispersing fermions interacting via an s-wave Feshbach resonance at zero temperature. While this model is known to be integrable, it possesses novel features that have not previously been investigated. Here, we present an exact solution based on the coordinate Bethe Ansatz. In the limit of infinite resonance strength, which we term the strongly interacting limit, the two species of fermions behave as free Fermi gases. In the limit of infinitely weak resonance, or the weakly interacting limit, the gases can be in different phases depending on the detuning, the relative velocities of the particles, and the particle densities. When the molecule moves faster or slower than both species of atoms, the atomic velocities get renormalized and the atoms may even become non-chiral. On the other hand, when the molecular velocity is between that of the atoms, the system may behave like a weakly interacting Lieb–Liniger gas.

  19. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  20. Nuclear matter saturation with chiral three-nucleon interactions fitted to light nuclei properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logoteta, Domenico [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bombaci, Ignazio, E-mail: ignazio.bombaci@unipi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); European Gravitational Observatory, Via E. Amaldi, I-56021 S. Stefano a Macerata, Cascina (Italy); Kievsky, Alejandro [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-10

    The energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter is calculated using the many-body Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach and employing the Chiral Next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) nucleon–nucleon (NN) potential, supplemented with various parametrizations of the Chiral Next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) three-nucleon interaction. Such combination is able to reproduce several observables of the physics of light nuclei for suitable choices of the parameters entering in the three-nucleon interaction. We find that some of these parametrizations provide a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and values of the symmetry energy and its slope parameter L in very good agreement with those extracted from various nuclear experimental data. Thus, our results represent a significant step toward a unified description of few- and many-body nuclear systems starting from two- and three-nucleon interactions based on the symmetries of QCD.

  1. Chiral-glass transition in a diluted dipolar-interaction Heisenberg system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaicheng; Liu Guibin; Zhu Yan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, numerical simulations reveal that a spin-glass transition can occur in the three-dimensional diluted dipolar system. By defining the chirality of triple spins in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg spin glass, we study the chiral ordering in the system using parallel tempering algorithm and heat bath method. The finite-size scaling analysis reveals that the system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: → We define the chirality in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg system. → The system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. → We extract the critical exponents of the chiral-glass transition.

  2. Competitive chiral induction in a 2D molecular assembly: Intrinsic chirality versus coadsorber-induced chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Li, Shu-Ying; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Noncovalently introducing stereogenic information is a promising approach to embed chirality in achiral molecular systems. However, the interplay of the noncovalently introduced chirality with the intrinsic chirality of molecules or molecular aggregations has rarely been addressed. We report a competitive chiral expression of the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction and the intrinsic stereogenic center-controlled chirality induction in a two-dimensional (2D) molecular assembly at the liquid/solid interface. Two enantiomorphous honeycomb networks are formed by the coassembly of an achiral 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid (BIC) derivative and 1-octanol at the liquid/solid interface. The preferential formation of the globally homochiral assembly can be achieved either by using the chiral analog of 1-octanol, ( S )-6-methyl-1-octanol, as a chiral coadsorber to induce chirality to the BIC assembly via noncovalent hydrogen bonding or by covalently linking a chiral center in the side chain of BIC. Both the chiral coadsorber and the intrinsically chiral BIC derivative can act as a chiral seeds to induce a preferred handedness in the assembly of the achiral BIC derivatives. Furthermore, the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction can restrain or even overrule the manifestation of the intrinsic chirality of the BIC molecule and dominate the handedness of the 2D molecular coassembly. This study provides insight into the interplay of intrinsically chiral centers and external chiral coadsorbers in the chiral induction, transfer, and amplification processes of 2D molecular assembly.

  3. Induction of axial chirality in divanillin by interaction with bovine serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Venturini

    Full Text Available Vanillin is a plant secondary metabolite and has numerous beneficial health applications. Divanillin is the homodimer of vanillin and used as a taste enhancer compound and also a promissory anticancer drug. Here, divanillin was synthesized and studied in the context of its interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA. We found that divanillin acquires axial chirality when complexed with BSA. This chiroptical property was demonstrated by a strong induced circular dichroism (ICD signal. In agreement with this finding, the association constant between BSA and divanillin (3.3 x 105 mol-1L was higher compared to its precursor vanillin (7.3 x 104 mol-1L. The ICD signal was used for evaluation of the association constant, demonstration of the reversibility of the interaction and determination of the binding site, revealing that divanillin has preference for Sudlow's site I in BSA. This property was confirmed by displacement of the fluorescent markers warfarin (site I and dansyl-L-proline (site II. Molecular docking simulation confirmed the higher affinity of divanillin to site I. The highest scored conformation obtained by docking (dihedral angle 242° was used for calculation of the circular dichroism spectrum of divanillin using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT. The theoretical spectrum showed good similarity with the experimental ICD. In summary, we have demonstrated that by interacting with the chiral cavities in BSA, divanillin became a atropos biphenyl, i.e., the free rotation around the single bound that links the aromatic rings was impeded. This phenomenon can be explained considering the interactions of divanillin with amino acid residues in the binding site of the protein. This chiroptical property can be very useful for studying the effects of divanillin in biological systems. Considering the potential pharmacological application of divanillin, these findings will be helpful for researchers interested in the pharmacological

  4. Suppression of Magnetic Quantum Tunneling in a Chiral Single-Molecule Magnet by Ferromagnetic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Kai-Alexander; Mukherjee, Chandan; Broschinski, Jan-Philipp; Lippert, Yvonne; Walleck, Stephan; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Schnack, Jürgen; Glaser, Thorsten

    2017-12-18

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) retain a magnetization without applied magnetic field for a decent time due to an energy barrier U for spin-reversal. Despite the success to increase U, the difficult to control magnetic quantum tunneling often leads to a decreased effective barrier U eff and a fast relaxation. Here, we demonstrate the influence of the exchange coupling on the tunneling probability in two heptanuclear SMMs hosting the same spin-system with the same high spin ground state S t = 21/2. A chirality-induced symmetry reduction leads to a switch of the Mn III -Mn III exchange from antiferromagnetic in the achiral SMM [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ to ferromagnetic in the new chiral SMM RR [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ . Multispin Hamiltonian analysis by full-matrix diagonalization demonstrates that the ferromagnetic interactions in RR [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ enforce a well-defined S t = 21/2 ground state with substantially less mixing of M S substates in contrast to [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ and no tunneling pathways below the top of the energy barrier. This is experimentally verified as U eff is smaller than the calculated energy barrier U in [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ due to tunneling pathways, whereas U eff equals U in RR [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ demonstrating the absence of quantum tunneling.

  5. Folding model analyses of 12C-12C and 16O-16O elastic scattering using the density-dependent LOCV-averaged effective interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, M.; Modarres, M.

    2018-03-01

    The averaged effective two-body interaction (AEI), which can be generated through the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method for symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) with the input [Reid68, Ann. Phys. 50, 411 (1968), 10.1016/0003-4916(68)90126-7] nucleon-nucleon potential, is used as the effective nucleon-nucleon potential in the folding model to describe the heavy-ion (HI) elastic scattering cross sections. The elastic scattering cross sections of 12C-12C and 16O-16O systems are calculated in the above framework. The results are compared with the corresponding calculations coming from the fitting procedures with the input finite range D D M 3 Y 1 -Reid potential and the available experimental data at different incident energies. It is shown that a reasonable description of the elastic 12C-12C and 16O-16O scattering data at the low and medium energies can be obtained by using the above LOCV AEI, without any need to define a parametrized density-dependent function in the effective nucleon-nucleon potential, which is formally considered in the typical D D M 3 Y 1 -Reid interactions.

  6. (Anti-)chiral superfield approach to interacting Abelian 1-form gauge theories: Nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, B.; Kumar, S.; Malik, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    We derive the off-shell nilpotent (fermionic) (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations by exploiting the (anti-)chiral superfield approach (ACSA) to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism for the interacting Abelian 1-form gauge theories where there is a coupling between the U(1) Abelian 1-form gauge field and Dirac as well as complex scalar fields. We exploit the (anti-)BRST invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral superfields to derive the fermionic symmetries of our present D-dimensional Abelian 1-form gauge theories. The novel observation of our present investigation is the derivation of the absolute anticommutativity of the nilpotent (anti-)BRST charges despite the fact that our ordinary D-dimensional theories are generalized onto the (D,1)-dimensional (anti-) chiral super-submanifolds (of the general (D,2)-dimensional supermanifold) where only the (anti-)chiral super expansions of the (anti-)chiral superfields have been taken into account. We also discuss the nilpotency of the (anti-)BRST charges and (anti-)BRST invariance of the Lagrangian densities of our present theories within the framework of ACSA to BRST formalism.

  7. Neutron matter, neutron pairing, and neutron drops based on chiral effective field theory interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Thomas

    2016-10-19

    The physics of neutron-rich systems is of great interest in nuclear and astrophysics. Precise knowledge of the properties of neutron-rich nuclei is crucial for understanding the synthesis of heavy elements. Infinite neutron matter determines properties of neutron stars, a final stage of heavy stars after a core-collapse supernova. It also provides a unique theoretical laboratory for nuclear forces. Strong interactions are determined by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). However, QCD is non-perturbative at low energies and one presently cannot directly calculate nuclear forces from it. Chiral effective field theory circumvents these problems and connects the symmetries of QCD to nuclear interactions. It naturally and systematically includes many-nucleon forces and gives access to uncertainty estimates. We use chiral interactions throughout all calculation in this thesis. Neutron stars are very extreme objects. The densities in their interior greatly exceed those in nuclei. The exact composition and properties of neutron stars is still unclear but they consist mainly of neutrons. One can explore neutron stars theoretically with calculations of neutron matter. In the inner core of neutron stars exist very high densities and thus maybe exotic phases of matter. To investigate whether there exists a phase transition to such phases even at moderate densities we study the chiral condensate in neutron matter, the order parameter of chiral symmetry breaking, and find no evidence for a phase transition at nuclear densities. We also calculate the more extreme system of spin-polarised neutron matter. With this we address the question whether there exists such a polarised phase in neutron stars and also provide a benchmark system for lattice QCD. We find spin-polarised neutron matter to be an almost non-interacting Fermi gas. To understand the cooling of neutron stars neutron pairing is of great importance. Due to the high densities especially triplet pairing is of interest. We

  8. Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; de Moura, André F; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-06-28

    The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of individual nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others. Multiple chiral geometries were observed with characteristic scales from ångströms to microns. Uniquely high values of chiral anisotropy factors that spurred the development of the field and differentiate it from chiral structures studied before, are now well understood; they originate from strong resonances of incident electromagnetic waves with plasmonic and excitonic states typical for metals and semiconductors. At the same time, distinct similarities with chiral supramolecular and biological systems also emerged. They can be seen in the synthesis and separation methods, chemical properties of individual NPs, geometries of the nanoparticle assemblies, and interactions with biological membranes. Their analysis can help us understand in greater depth the role of chiral asymmetry in nature inclusive of both earth and space. Consideration of both differences and similarities between chiral inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures will also accelerate the development of technologies based on chiroplasmonic and chiroexcitonic effects. This review will cover both experiment and theory of chiral nanostructures starting with the origin and multiple components of mirror asymmetry of individual NPs and their assemblies. We shall consider four different types of chirality in nanostructures and related physical, chemical, and

  9. Isotopic chains around oxygen from evolved chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, A; Barbieri, C; Navrátil, P

    2013-08-09

    We extend the formalism of self-consistent Green's function theory to include three-body interactions and apply it to isotopic chains around oxygen for the first time. The third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction equations for two-body Hamiltonians can be exploited upon defining system-dependent one- and two-body interactions coming from the three-body force, and, correspondingly, dropping interaction-reducible diagrams. The Koltun sum rule for the total binding energy acquires a correction due to the added three-body interaction. This formalism is then applied to study chiral two- and three-nucleon forces evolved to low momentum cutoffs. The binding energies of nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine isotopes are reproduced with good accuracy and demonstrate the predictive power of this approach. Leading order three-nucleon forces consistently bring results close to the experiment for all neutron rich isotopes considered and reproduce the correct driplines for oxygen and nitrogen. The formalism introduced also allows us to calculate form factors for nucleon transfer on doubly magic systems.

  10. Chirality invariance and 'chiral' fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziino, G.

    1978-01-01

    The new field model derived in the present paper actually gives a definite answer to three fundamental questions concerning elementary-particle physics: 1) The phenomenological dualism between parity and chirality invariance: it would be only an apparent display of a general 'duality' principle underlying the intrinsic nature itself of (spin 1/2) fermions and expressed by the anticommutativity property between scalar and pseudoscalar charges. 2) The real physical meaning of V - A current structure: it would exclusively be connected to the one (just pointed out) of chiral fields themselves. 3) The unjustified apparent oddness shown by Nature in weak interactions, for the fact of picking out only one of the two (left- and right-handed) fermion 'chiral' projections: the key to such a 'mystery' would just be provided by the consequences of the dual and partial character of the two fermion-antifermion field bases. (Auth.)

  11. Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in pPb collisions and its implication for the search for the chiral magnetic effect

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Zykunov, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Sharma, Archana; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bahinipati, Seema; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Behnamian, Hadi; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Markin, Oleg; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; 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Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; 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Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; 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Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-03-24

    Charge-dependent azimuthal particle correlations with respect to the second-order event plane in pPb and PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV have been studied with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is performed with a three-particle correlation technique, using two particles with the same or opposite charge within the pseudorapidity range $| \\eta | < $ 2.4, and a third particle measured in the hadron forward calorimeters (4.4 $ < | \\eta | < $ 5). The observed differences between the same and opposite sign correlations, as functions of multiplicity and $\\eta$ gap between the two charged particles, are of similar magnitude in pPb and PbPb collisions at the same multiplicities. These results pose a challenge for the interpretation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in heavy ion collisions in terms of the chiral magnetic effect.

  12. Constraints on CP violating four-fermion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.G.; McKellar, B.

    1996-04-01

    It has been shown that CP violating electron-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon interactions can induce atomic electric dipole moments and are therefore constrained from experimental data. We show that using the experimental upper bounds on neutron and electron electric dipole moments, one can also obtain constraints, in some cases better ones, on these interactions. In addition stringent constraints can also be obtained for muon-quark and tauon-quark four-fermion CP violating interactions, which cannot be constrained from atomic electric dipole moment experiments. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Chiral quark dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkofer, R.; Reinhardt, H.

    1995-01-01

    This book is an introduction to chiral quark dynamics. In the first chapter the reduction of low-energy QCD to QFD with the derivation of effective low-energy quark interactions and invariance properties is described. Then the effective meson theory is introduced. In this connection the functional integral bosonization of the quark-antiquark interaction, the small amplitude expansion of the action, the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry, the Bethe-Salpeter equation for pseudoscalar mesons, the gauged linear σ model, the Skyrme model, and the chiral anomaly are considered. Then baryons are described as chiral solitons. Finally baryons are considered as bound states of diquarks and quarks. (HSI)

  14. Recollections on the establishment of the weak interaction notion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.

    1985-01-01

    The generalization of conception of weak interaction to the processes where strange particles discovered is given. Indepene dently of Pais, the author came to an idea of pair production of new (strange) particles. In Dubna the experiments have been performed on the search for processes of production of the same pair of Λ-particles in nucleon-nucleon collisions. To interprete negative results of these experiments the author suggested a scheme based on an assumption that the isotopic spin is conserved in strong interaction and is not conserved in the weak one. It followed from this scheme, in particularly, that K 0 and anti K 0 - different particles

  15. Nuclear spin-orbit interaction from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, N.

    2002-01-01

    Using the two-loop approximation of chiral perturbation theory, we calculate the momentum and density dependent nuclear spin-orbit strength U ls (p,k f ). This quantity is derived from the spin-dependent part of the interaction energy Σ spin =((i)/(2))σ→·(q→xp→)U ls (p,k f ) of a nucleon scattering off weakly inhomogeneous isospin symmetric nuclear matter. We find that iterated 1π-exchange generates at saturation density, k f0 =272.7 MeV, a spin-orbit strength at p=0 of U ls (0,k f0 )≅35 MeV fm 2 , in perfect agreement with the empirical value used in the shell model. This novel spin-orbit strength is neither of relativistic nor of short range origin. The potential V ls underlying the empirical spin-orbit strength Ubar ls =V ls r ls 2 becomes a rather weak one, V ls ≅17 MeV, after the identification r ls =m π -1 as suggested by the present calculation. We observe, however, a strong p-dependence of U ls (p,k f0 ) leading even to a sign change above p=200 MeV. This and other features of the emerging spin-orbit Hamiltonian which go beyond the usual shell model parametrization leave questions about the ultimate relevance of the spin-orbit interaction generated by 2π-exchange for a finite nucleus. We also calculate the complex-valued isovector single-particle potential U I (p,k f )+iW I (p,k f ) in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter proportional to τ 3 (N-Z)/(N+Z). For the real part we find reasonable agreement with empirical values and the imaginary part vanishes at the Fermi-surface p=k f

  16. Active chiral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F

    2012-09-01

    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  17. Unified treatment of weak and electromagnetic interactions in a SU(4) x SU(4) chiral theory of mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from a phenomenological chiral SU(4)xSU(4) Lagrangian for hadrons weak and electromagnetic interactions are introduced by considering nonlinear realizations of the gauge group SU(2)sub(L)xU(1) of the Weinberg-Salam model. The final effective Lagrangian for the weak interaction of hadrons has the usual current x current structure. The charmed charged currents are of the Cabibbo type, the neutral current satisfies the condition Δ S = 0 of the G.I.M. scheme

  18. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  19. Equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star structure from nuclear chiral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico

    2018-02-01

    Aims: We report a new microscopic equation of state (EOS) of dense symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, and asymmetric and β-stable nuclear matter at zero temperature using recent realistic two-body and three-body nuclear interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and including the Δ(1232) isobar intermediate state. This EOS is provided in tabular form and in parametrized form ready for use in numerical general relativity simulations of binary neutron star merging. Here we use our new EOS for β-stable nuclear matter to compute various structural properties of non-rotating neutron stars. Methods: The EOS is derived using the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone quantum many-body theory in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Neutron star properties are next computed solving numerically the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov structure equations. Results: Our EOS models are able to reproduce the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter, the symmetry energy Esym, and its slope parameter L at the empirical saturation density n0. In addition, our EOS models are compatible with experimental data from collisions between heavy nuclei at energies ranging from a few tens of MeV up to several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. These experiments provide a selective test for constraining the nuclear EOS up to 4n0. Our EOS models are consistent with present measured neutron star masses and particularly with the mass M = 2.01 ± 0.04 M⊙ of the neutron stars in PSR J0348+0432.

  20. Threshold pion production in proton-proton collisions at NNLO in chiral EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baru, V. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Epelbaum, E.; Filin, A.A.; Krebs, H. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Hanhart, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, (Theorie) and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Myhrer, F. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The reaction NN→NNπ offers a good testing ground for chiral effective field theory at intermediate energies. It challenges our understanding of the first inelastic channel in nucleon-nucleon scattering and of the charge symmetry breaking pattern in hadronic reactions. In our previous studies, we presented a complete calculation of the pion production operator for s-wave pions up-to-and-including next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in the formulation of chiral effective field theory, which includes pions, nucleons and Δ(1232) degrees of freedom. In this paper we calculate the near-threshold cross section for the pp → dπ{sup +} reaction by performing the convolution of the obtained operators with nuclear wave functions based on modern phenomenological and chiral potentials. The available chiral NN wave functions are constructed with a cutoff comparable with the momentum transfer scale inherent in pion production reactions. Hence, a significant portion of the dynamical intermediate-range physics is thereby cut off by them. On the other hand, the NNLO amplitudes evaluated with phenomenological wave functions appear to be largely independent of the NN model used and give corrections to the dominant leading-order contributions as expected from dimensional analysis. The result gives support to the counting scheme used to classify the pion production operators, which is a precondition for a reliable investigation of the chirally suppressed neutral pion production. The explicit inclusion of the Δ(1232) is found to be important but smaller than expected due to cancellations. (orig.)

  1. Observation of chiral phonons

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Hanyu

    2018-02-01

    Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.

  2. Two pion mediated scalar isoscalar NN interaction in the nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaskulov, Murat M.; Oset, E.; Vacas, M.J. Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We study the modification of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in a nuclear medium in the scalar isoscalar channel, mediated by the exchange of two correlated (σ channel) or uncorrelated pions. For this purpose we use a standard approach for the renormalization of pions in nuclei. The corrections obtained for the NN interaction in the medium in this channel are of the order of 20% of the free one in average, and the consideration of short-range correlations plays an important role in providing these moderate changes. Yet, the corrections are sizable enough to suggest further studies of the stability and properties of nuclear matter

  3. Investigation on the chirality of positrons from 22Na decay and their asymmetrical interactions with D-, L- and DL-alanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, E.; Pieralice, M.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation on the chirality of the positrons from 22 Na and on their asymmetrical interactions with D-, L-, and DL-alanines was carried out. By using nuclear gamma-spectroscopy, the asymmetrical interaction was proved to be induced with a distinguishably asymmetrical effect

  4. Chiral recognition in separation science: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Gerhard K E

    2013-01-01

    Chiral recognition phenomena play an important role in nature as well as analytical separation sciences. In separation sciences such as chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, enantiospecific interactions between the enantiomers of an analyte and the chiral selector are required in order to observe enantioseparations. Due to the large structural variety of chiral selectors applied, different mechanisms and structural features contribute to the chiral recognition process. This chapter briefly illustrates the current models of the enantiospecific recognition on the structural basics of various chiral selectors.

  5. Production and interaction of the η meson with nucleons and nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzemień Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the status of the search for η-mesic nuclei and the studies of the interaction of the η meson with nucleons. Recently we have completed the analysis of the newWASA-at-COSY data on the production of the η meson with polarized proton beam. New results on the analyzing power for the p̄p → ppη reaction with more than an order of magnitude improved precision shed a new light on the production mechanism of the η meson in nucleon-nucleon collisions. Also, the latest results of the search for η-mesic nuclei are discussed.

  6. On the nuclear interaction potential in the heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Kh.L.; Shitikova, K.V.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction potential of heavy ions 4 He, 6 Li, 12 C and 16 O is constructed in the folding model. The density of nuclear matter distribution for these nuclei is calculated in the framework of the hyperspherical function method. For the calculation of the folding potential the Skyrme two-body nucleon-nucleon forces were employed. The influence of several effects on the results of calculation is studied. Density dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, dependence of the folding potential on the number of particles, the potential symmetry in the interaction of identical and different particles and the possibility of observing the monopole-resonance in the ion inelastic scattering are investigated. The investigations showed that the higher is the nuclear excitation energy the wider and shallower is the form of a potential. Non-diagonal matrix elements are not negligible. Nevertheless, in order to estimate the degree of the monopole giant resonance manifestation in the heavy ion collisions, it is necessary to carry out the direct calculation of inelastic collision cross-section for two heavy particles including the calculation over this channel into the scheme

  7. Chirality in molecular collision dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Chirality is a phenomenon that permeates the natural world, with implications for atomic and molecular physics, for fundamental forces and for the mechanisms at the origin of the early evolution of life and biomolecular homochirality. The manifestations of chirality in chemistry and biochemistry are numerous, the striking ones being chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis with important applications in molecular sciences and in industrial and pharmaceutical chemistry. Chiral discrimination phenomena, due to the existence of two enantiomeric forms, very well known in the case of interaction with light, but still nearly disregarded in molecular collision studies. Here we review some ideas and recent advances about the role of chirality in molecular collisions, designing and illustrating molecular beam experiments for the demonstration of chiral effects and suggesting a scenario for a stereo-directional origin of chiral selection.

  8. Insight into the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction through first-principles study of chiral magnetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandratskii, L. M.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to gain deeper insight into microscopic formation of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The paper aims at the development of the physical picture able to address apparently contradicting conclusions of recent studies concerning the location of the DMI energy in the real and reciprocal spaces as well as the relation between values of the atomic moments and the DMI strength. The main tools of our study are the first-principles calculations of the energies of the spiral magnetic states with opposite chiralities. We suggest a method of the calculation of the spiral structures with account for the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). It is based on the application of the generalized Bloch theorem and generalized Bloch functions and allows to reduce the consideration of arbitrary incommensurate spiral to small chemical unit cell. The method neglects the anisotropy in the plane orthogonal to the rotation axis of the spirals that does not influence importantly the DMI energy. For comparison, the supercell calculation with full account for the SOC is performed. The concrete calculations are performed for the Co/Pt bilayer. We consider the distribution of the DMI energy in both real and reciprocal spaces and the dependence of the DMI on the number of electrons. The results of the calculations reveal a number of energy compensations in the formation of the DMI. Thus, the partial atomic contributions as functions of the spiral wave vector q are nonmonotonic and have strongly varying slopes. However, in the total DMI energy these atom-related features compensate each other, resulting in a smooth q dependence. The reason for the peculiar form of the partial DMI contributions is a q -dependent difference in the charge distribution between q and -q spirals. The strongly q -dependent relation between atomic contributions shows that the real-space distribution of the DMI energy obtained for a selected q value cannot be considered as a general

  9. Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musakhanov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The chiral bag model is considered. It is suggested that pions interact only with the surface of a quark ''bag'' and do not penetrate inside. In the case of a large bag the pion field is rather weak and goes to the linearized chiral bag model. Within that model the baryon mass spectrum, β decay axial constant, magnetic moments of baryons, pion-baryon coupling constants and their form factors are calculated. It is shown that pion corrections to the calculations according to the chiral bag model is essential. The obtained results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data

  10. New chiral fermions, a new gauge interaction, Dirac neutrinos, and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouvêa, André de; Hernández, Daniel [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy,2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    We propose that all light fermionic degrees of freedom, including the Standard Model (SM) fermions and all possible light beyond-the-standard-model fields, are chiral with respect to some spontaneously broken abelian gauge symmetry. Hypercharge, for example, plays this role for the SM fermions. We introduce a new symmetry, U(1){sub ν}, for all new light fermionic states. Anomaly cancellations mandate the existence of several new fermion fields with nontrivial U(1){sub ν} charges. We develop a concrete model of this type, for which we show that (i) some fermions remain massless after U(1){sub ν} breaking — similar to SM neutrinos — and (ii) accidental global symmetries translate into stable massive particles — similar to SM protons. These ingredients provide a solution to the dark matter and neutrino mass puzzles assuming one also postulates the existence of heavy degrees of freedom that act as “mediators' between the two sectors. The neutrino mass mechanism described here leads to parametrically small Dirac neutrino masses, and the model also requires the existence of at least four Dirac sterile neutrinos. Finally, we describe a general technique to write down chiral-fermions-only models that are at least anomaly-free under a U(1) gauge symmetry.

  11. Amplification of chirality in liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, Rienk; Feringa, Ben L.

    2006-01-01

    The amplification of molecular chirality by liquid crystalline systems is widely applied in investigations towards enantioselective solvent - solute interactions, chiral supramolecular assemblies, smart materials, and the development of liquid crystal displays. Here we present an overview of recent

  12. Theoretical aspects of the nucleon-nucleon workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbar, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report concentrates on the inelastic NN system from 300 to 1500 MeV. Topics covered include the visibility of quark signals, dibaryons, the model dependence of predicted NN inelasticities, and a review of how well present conventional models compare with a rapidly expanding database. The general conclusion is that there is so far no clear evidence in the NN system at intermediate energies for unconventional dibaryon resonances. Short remarks are also made concerning one theoretical contribution on elastic scattering and on new experimental results for deuteron photo-disintegration and pion-nucleon charge exchange. 11 references

  13. Signatures of chiral symmetry restoration and its survival throughout the hadronic phase interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Moreau, P.; Palmese, A.; Cassing, W.; Seifert, E.; Steinert, T.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of the chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) on observables from heavy-ion collisions is studied in the energy range =3-20 GeV within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The PHSD includes the deconfinement phase transition as well as essential aspects of CSR in the dense and hot hadronic medium, which are incorporated in the Schwinger mechanism for the hadronic particle production. We adopt different parametrizations of the nuclear equation of state from the non-linear σ - ω model, which enter in the computation of the quark scalar density for the CSR mechanism, in order to estimate the uncertainty in our calculations. For the pion-nucleon ∑-term we adopt ∑π ≈ 45 MeV which corresponds to a 'world average'. Our systematic studies show that chiral symmetry restoration plays a crucial role in the description of heavy-ion collisions at =3-20 GeV, realizing an increase of the hadronic particle production in the strangeness sector with respect to the non-strange one. We identify particle abundances and rapidity spectra to be suitable probes in order to extract information about CSR, while transverse mass spectra are less sensitive ones. Our results provide a microscopic explanation for the "horn" structure in the excitation function of the K+/π+ ratio: the CSR in the hadronic phase produces the steep increase of this particle ratio up to ≈ 7 GeV, while the drop at higher energies is associated to the appearance of a deconfined partonic medium.

  14. Chiral photochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2004-01-01

    Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S

  15. Chiral algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Beilinson, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Chiral algebras form the primary algebraic structure of modern conformal field theory. Each chiral algebra lives on an algebraic curve, and in the special case where this curve is the affine line, chiral algebras invariant under translations are the same as well-known and widely used vertex algebras. The exposition of this book covers the following topics: the "classical" counterpart of the theory, which is an algebraic theory of non-linear differential equations and their symmetries; the local aspects of the theory of chiral algebras, including the study of some basic examples, such as the ch

  16. Study of neutron-proton interaction in the 300-700 MeV energy region: Progress report, July 1987-August 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1988-08-01

    The experimental program supported by the present grant is a continuation of the work supported under DOE Contract AS05-76ER04449. More detailed discussion of the experimental apparatus and earlier activities can be found in annual reports for that contract. The primary objective of the program the is investigation of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, in the medium-energy region, in both elastic and inelastic channels. This paper reviews experiments dealing with these types of high energy collisions. 41 refs

  17. Realistic effective interactions for nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Jensen, M.; Osnes, E.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1994-09-01

    A review of perturbative many-body descriptions of several nuclear systems is presented. Symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and finite nuclei with few valence particles are examples of systems considered. The many-body description starts with the most recent meson-exchange potential models for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, an interaction which in turn is used in perturbative schemes to evaluate the effective interaction for finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter. A unified perturbative approach based on time-dependent perturbation theory is elaborated. For finite nuclei new results are presented for the effective interaction and the energy spectra in the mass areas of oxygen, calcium and tin. 166 refs., 83 refs., 21 tabs

  18. QCD Structure of Nuclear Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-05-25

    This dissertation investigated selected processes involving baryons and nuclei in hard scattering reactions. Through these processes, this work explored the constituent structure of baryons and the mechanisms through which the interactions between these constituents ultimately control the selected reactions. First, hard nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering was studied considering the quark exchange (QE) between the nucleons to be the dominant mechanism of interaction in the constituent picture. It was found that an angular asymmetry exhibited by proton-neutron (pn) elastic scattering data is explained within this framework if a quark-diquark picture dominates the nucleon's structure instead of a more traditional SU(6) model. The latter yields an asymmetry around 90 deg center of mass scattering with a sign opposite to what is experimentally observed. The second process is the hard breakup by a photon of a nucleon-nucleon system in light nuclei. Proton-proton (pp) and pn breakup in 3He, and double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup were analyzed in the hard rescattering model (HRM), which in conjunction with the QE mechanism provides a QCD description of the reaction. Cross sections for both channels in 3He photodisintegration were computed without the need of a fitting parameter. The results presented here for pp breakup show excellent agreement with recent experimental data. In double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup, HRM angular distributions for the two double Δ channels were compared to the pn channel and to each other. An important prediction from this study is that the Δ++ Δ- channel consistently dominates Δ+Δ0, which is in contrast with models that unlike the HRM consider a double Δ system in the initial state of the interaction. For such models both channels should have the same strength.

  19. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-05-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  20. Pairing properties of realistic effective interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargano A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the pairing properties of an effective shell-model interaction defined within a model space outside 132Sn and derived by means of perturbation theory from the CD-Bonn free nucleon-nucleon potential. It turns out that the neutron pairing component of the effective interaction is significantly weaker than the proton one, which accounts for the large pairing gap difference observed in the two-valence identical particle nuclei 134Sn and 134Te. The role of the contribution arising from one particle-one hole excitations in determining the pairing force is discussed and its microscopic structure is also analyzed in terms of the multipole decomposition.

  1. Chirality of weakly bound complexes: The potential energy surfaces for the hydrogen-peroxide−noble-gas interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncaratti, L. F., E-mail: lz@fis.unb.br; Leal, L. A.; Silva, G. M. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Pirani, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210 Salvador (Brazil); Gargano, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Quantum Theory Project, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    We consider the analytical representation of the potential energy surfaces of relevance for the intermolecular dynamics of weakly bound complexes of chiral molecules. In this paper we study the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}−Ng (Ng=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) systems providing the radial and the angular dependence of the potential energy surface on the relative position of the Ng atom. We accomplish this by introducing an analytical representation which is able to fit the ab initio energies of these complexes in a wide range of geometries. Our analysis sheds light on the role that the enantiomeric forms and the symmetry of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule play on the resulting barriers and equilibrium geometries. The proposed theoretical framework is useful to study the dynamics of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule, or other systems involving O–O and S–S bonds, interacting by non-covalent forces with atoms or molecules and to understand how the relative orientation of the O–H bonds changes along collisional events that may lead to a hydrogen bond formation or even to selectivity in chemical reactions.

  2. Self-assembly of P-chiral supramolecular phosphines on rhodium and direct evidence for Rh-catalyst-substrate interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Vijay S; Sen, Anirban; Shinde, Dinesh; Chikkali, Samir H

    2017-10-17

    Supramolecular phosphine-derived catalysts are known to provide high enantioselectivity in asymmetric transformations such as hydrogenation, but direct evidence unravelling the role of secondary interactions is largely missing. As a representative case study, the role of hydrogen bonding in asymmetric hydrogenation catalysed by p-chiral supramolecular phosphines is investigated. To establish the nature of hydrogen bonding in the self-assembled Rh-complex, NMR experiments were performed at different concentrations and temperatures. It was found that with increasing concentration of 1-(3-(phenyl(o-tolyl)phosphanyl)phenyl)urea ligand (L1), the NH and NH 2 peaks shift downfield. This indicated the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in L1. This observation was further supported by variable temperature NMR experiments wherein, with decreasing temperature, the NH and NH 2 resonances of L1 shifted downfield. The downfield shift once again suggests the existence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in L1. In contrast, the chemical shift of NH and NH 2 signals did not significantly change with increasing concentration of the self-assembled Rh-complex (C1). This observation suggested the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the self-assembled complex. The concentration experiment was further corroborated by variable temperature NMR experiments. No change in the chemical shift of NH 2 resonance could be detected with decreasing temperature, which corroborates the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in C1. In a stoichiometric experiment, C1 was treated with hydrogenation substrate N-acetyldehydrophenylalanine (S2) and the proton NMR was recorded. The NH 2 protons of the self-assembled Rh-complex were found to shift downfield, as compared to untreated parent C1. These observations indicated that there is a hydrogen bonding interaction between the Rh-complex and the substrate. To further attest this hypothesis, NH and NH 2 groups were exchanged with ND

  3. Electric dipole polarizability: from few- to many-body systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miorelli Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the Lorentz integral transform coupled-cluster method for the calculation of the electric dipole polarizability. We benchmark our results with exact hyperspherical harmonics calculations for 4He and then we move to a heavier nucleus studying 16O. We observe that the implemented chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order underestimates the electric dipole polarizability.

  4. Chiral Spin Liquid on a Kagome Antiferromagnet Induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messio, Laura; Bieri, Samuel; Lhuillier, Claire; Bernu, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The quantum spin liquid material herbertsmithite is described by an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with a non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). A well-established phase transition to the q =0 long-range order occurs in this model when the DMI strength increases, but the precise nature of a small-DMI phase remains controversial. Here, we describe a new phase obtained from Schwinger-boson mean-field theory that is stable at small DMI, and which can explain the dispersionless spectrum seen in the inelastic neutron scattering experiment by Han et al. [Nature (London) 492, 406 (2012), 10.1038/nature11659]. It is a time-reversal symmetry breaking Z2 spin liquid, with the unique property of a small and constant spin gap in an extended region of the Brillouin zone. The phase diagram as a function of DMI and spin size is given, and dynamical spin structure factors are presented.

  5. Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w

  6. Compact bifluid hybrid stars: hadronic matter mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Basu, D.N. [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Atta, Debasis [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Government General Degree College, West Bengal (India); Imam, Kouser [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Aliah University, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Samanta, C. [Virginia Military Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, VA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    The masses and radii of non-rotating and rotating configurations of pure hadronic stars mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter are calculated within the two-fluid formalism of stellar structure equations in general relativity. The Equation of State (EoS) of nuclear matter is obtained from the density dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. We consider the dark matter particle mass of 1 GeV. The EoS of self-interacting dark matter is taken from two-body repulsive interactions of the scale of strong interactions. We explore the conditions of equal and different rotational frequencies of nuclear matter and dark matter and find that the maximum mass of differentially rotating stars with self-interacting dark matter to be ∝1.94 M {sub CircleDot} with radius ∝10.4 km. (orig.)

  7. Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, U.G.

    1991-09-01

    I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, {pi}N scattering and the {sigma}-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon.

  8. Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, U.G.

    1991-09-01

    I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, πN scattering and the σ-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon

  9. Dynamical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colanero, K.; Chu, M.-C.

    2002-01-01

    We study a dynamical chiral bag model, in which massless fermions are confined within an impenetrable but movable bag coupled to meson fields. The self-consistent motion of the bag is obtained by solving the equations of motion exactly assuming spherical symmetry. When the bag interacts with an external meson wave we find three different kinds of resonances: fermionic, geometric, and σ resonances. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results

  10. 1H and 13C NMR studies of glycine in anisotropic media: Double-quantum transitions and the effects of chiral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Christoph; Kuchel, Philip W.

    2011-07-01

    The 1H NMR spectrum of glycine in stretched gelatin gel and in cromolyn liquid crystal displays a well-resolved doublet due to 1H- 1H dipolar interaction. Multiple spectra were obtained within a wide range of offset frequencies of partially saturating radio-frequency (RF) radiation to generate steady-state irradiation envelopes or z-spectra of glycine. Maximal suppression of the doublet occurred when the irradiation was applied exactly at the centre frequency, between the two glycine peaks. This phenomenon is due to double-quantum transitions and is similar to our previous work on quadrupolar nuclei 2H (HDO) and 23Na +. When the 13C isotopomer glycine-2- 13C was used, the same effect was found in twice, split by 1JCH + 2 DCH. Additional signals in 1H and 13C NMR due to prochiral-chiral interactions were found when glycine-2- 13C was dissolved in chiral anisotropic gelatin and κ-carrageenan gels. The NMR spectra were successfully simulated assuming a 2JHH coupling constant of -16.5 Hz and two distinct dipolar coupling constants for the - 13CH 2- group ( DC,HA, and DC,HB).

  11. Characteristics of the chiral phase transition in nonlocal quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Dumm, D. Gomez; Scoccola, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of the chiral phase transition are analyzed within the framework of chiral quark models with nonlocal interactions in the mean-field approximation. In the chiral limit, we develop a semianalytic framework that allows us to explicitly determine the phase transition curve, the position of the critical points, some relevant critical exponents, etc. For the case of finite current quark masses, we show the behavior of various thermodynamical and chiral response functions across the phase transition

  12. Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Jing; Liu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites. Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed. Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs

  13. Tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetry with hadrons and nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordmans, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Using chiral-perturbation-theory techniques, we derive the low-energy effective Lagrangian in terms of pions and nucleons that corresponds to a selected set of dimension-five Lorentz- and CPT-violation quark and gluon operators. The form of the effective operators is determined by the symmetry properties of the original Lagrangian. Using the pion-nucleon Lagrangian, we find the Lorentz-violating contributions to comagnetometer experiments. This results in stringent limits on some of the parameters. For some other parameters we find that the best bounds will come from nucleon-nucleon interactions, and we derive the relevant nucleon-nucleon potential. These considerations imply possible new opportunities for spin-precession experiments involving for example the deuteron.

  14. Chiral Dynamics 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry

    2007-10-01

    of singular potentials and power counting / M.P. Valderrrama. The challenge of calculating Baryon-Baryon scattering from lattice QCD / S.R. Beane. Precise absolute np scattering cross section and the charged [Pie symbol] NN coupling constant / S. E. Vigdor. Probing hadronic parity violation using few nucleon systems / S.A. Page. Extracting the neutron-neutron scattering length from neutron-deuteron breakup / C.R. Howell. Extraction of [equationl] from [Pie symbol]-d --> [equation] / A. Grudestig. The three- and four-body system with large scattering length / L. Platter. 3N and 4N systems and the Ay puzzle / T. Clegg. Recent progress in nuclear lattice simulations with effective field theory / D. Lee. Few-body studies at KVI / J.G. Messchendorp. Results of three nucleon experiments from RIKEN / K. Sekiguchi. A new opportunity to measure the total photoabsorption cross section of helium / P. T. Debevec. Three-body photodisintegration of 3He with double polarizations / X. Zong. Large two-pion exchange contributions to the pp --> pp[Pie symbol]0 reaction / F. Myhrer. Towards a systematic theory of nuclear forces / E. Epelbaum. Ab initio calculations of eletromagnetic reactions in light nuclei / W. Leidemann. Electron scattering from a polarized deuterium target at BLAST / R. Fatemi. Neutron-neutron scattering length from the reaction [equation] / V. Lensky. Renormalization group analysis of nuclear current operators / S.X. Nakamura. Recent results and future plans at MAX-LAB / K.G. Fissum. Nucleon polarizabilities from deutron compton scattering, and its lessons for chiral power counting / H. W. Grie hammer. Compton scattering on HE-3 / D. Choudhury -- pt. D. Hadron structure and Meson-Baryon interactions. Summary of the working group on Hadron structure and Meson-Baryon interactions / G. Feldman and T.R. Hemmert. Finite volume effects: lattice meets CHPT / G. Schierholz. Lattice discretization errors in chiral effective field theories / B.C. Tiburzi. SU(3)-breaking

  15. Kaempferol-human serum albumin interaction: Characterization of the induced chirality upon binding by experimental circular dichroism and TDDFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana; Hillebrand, Mihaela

    2012-10-01

    The experimental induced circular dichroism (ICD) and absorption spectra of the achiral flavonoid kaempferol upon binding to human serum albumin (HSA) were correlated to electronic CD and UV-vis spectra theoretically predicted by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The neutral and four anionic species of kaempferol in various conformations were considered in the calculations. The appearance of the experimental ICD signal was rationalized in terms of kaempferol binding to HSA in a distorted, chiral, rigid conformation. The comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra allowed for the identification of the kaempferol species that binds to HSA, namely the anion generated by deprotonation of the hydroxyl group in position 7. This approach constitutes a convenient method for evidencing the binding species and for determining its conformation in the binding pocket of the protein. Its main advantage over the UV-vis absorption method lays in the fact that only the bound ligand species gives an ICD signal.

  16. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and chiral magnetism in 3d-5d zigzag chains: Tight-binding model and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashid, Vikas; Schena, Timo; Zimmermann, Bernd; Mokrousov, Yuriy; Blügel, Stefan; Shah, Vaishali; Salunke, H. G.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the chiral magnetic order in freestanding planar 3d-5d biatomic metallic chains (3d: Fe, Co; 5d: Ir, Pt, Au) using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We find that the antisymmetric exchange interaction, commonly known as the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), contributes significantly to the energetics of the magnetic structure. For the Fe-Pt and Co-Pt chains, the DMI can compete with the isotropic Heisenberg-type exchange interaction and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, and for both cases a homogeneous left-rotating cycloidal chiral spin-spiral with a wavelength of 51 Å and 36 Å, respectively, was found. The sign of the DMI, which determines the handedness of the magnetic structure, changes in the sequence of the 5d atoms Ir(+), Pt(-), Au(+). We use the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method and perform self-consistent calculations of homogeneous spin spirals, calculating the DMI by treating the effect of spin-orbit interaction in the basis of the spin-spiral states in first-order perturbation theory. To gain insight into the DMI results of our ab initio calculations, we develop a minimal tight-binding model of three atoms and four orbitals that contains all essential features: the spin canting between the magnetic 3d atoms, the spin-orbit interaction at the 5d atoms, and the structure inversion asymmetry facilitated by the triangular geometry. We find that spin canting can lead to spin-orbit active eigenstates that split in energy due to the spin-orbit interaction at the 5d atom. We show that the sign and strength of the hybridization, the bonding or antibonding character between d orbitals of the magnetic and nonmagnetic sites, the bandwidth, and the energy difference between occupied and unoccupied states of different spin projection determine the sign and strength of the DMI. The key features observed in the trimer model are also found in the first-principles results.

  17. Inclusive electron scattering on 3H and 3He with full inclusion of final state interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golak, J.; Wital, H.; Kamada, H.; Hueber, D.; Ishikawa, S.; Gloeckle, W.

    1995-01-01

    Inclusive electron scattering data on 3 He and 3 H are analyzed under full treatment of the final state interactions (FSI) using realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. The data are well described. We use two different methods, one where we calculate the pd and ppn breakup contributions separately and another one which is related to the optical theorem for Compton scattering. Both rely on precise solutions of Faddeev-like equations and agree perfectly. The importance of FSI and the inclusion of total isospin T=3/2 for the full breakup of 3 He is demonstrated. We also comment on the Coulomb sum rule and the extraction of the proton-proton correlation function

  18. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  19. Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Askarpour, Amir N.; Sun, Liuyang; Shi, Jinwei; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Many naturally occurring biomolecules, such as amino acids, sugars and nucleotides, are inherently chiral. Enantiomers, a pair of chiral isomers with opposite handedness, often exhibit similar physical and chemical properties due to their identical functional groups and composition, yet show different toxicity to cells. Detecting enantiomers in small quantities has an essential role in drug development to eliminate their unwanted side effects. Here we exploit strong chiral interactions with plasmonic metamaterials with specifically designed optical response to sense chiral molecules down to zeptomole levels, several orders of magnitude smaller than what is typically detectable with conventional circular dichroism spectroscopy. In particular, the measured spectra reveal opposite signs in the spectral regime directly associated with different chiral responses, providing a way to univocally assess molecular chirality. Our work introduces an ultrathin, planarized nanophotonic interface to sense chiral molecules with inherently weak circular dichroism at visible and near-infrared frequencies. PMID:28120825

  20. Emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the interaction of sup 1 sup 6 O with sup 5 sup 9 Co, sup 9 sup 3 Nb and sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au

    CERN Document Server

    Gadioli, E; Birattari, C; Cavinato, M; Fabrici, E; Gadioli-Erba, E; Pigni, M; Steyn, G F; Förtsch, S V; Lawrie, J J; Connell, S H; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Sideras-Haddad, E; Cowley, A A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the emission of sup 8 Be sub g sub s , B and N fragments in the interaction of sup 1 sup 6 O ions with sup 5 sup 9 Co, sup 9 sup 3 Nb and sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au at incident energies varying from 6 to 25 MeV/nucleon. The spectra of these fragments, as well as those of C fragments studied in a previous paper, are dominated at forward angles by a component originating from break-up of sup 1 sup 6 O. At the higher incident energies break-up occurs after quite a sizeable projectile energy loss. Another mechanism which dominates at large emission angles, favours the emission of low-energy fragments and is attributed to the coalescence of nucleons during the cascade of nucleon-nucleon interactions by means of which the excited nuclei produced in the primary two-ion interaction thermalize. (orig.)

  1. Quarkyonic Chiral Spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toru, Kojo; Hidaka, Y.; Pisarski, R.; McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    We argue the properties of confining dense quark matter, 'quarkyonic' matter, from the viewpoint of both bulk properties and excitation modes. After a brief review of confining aspects, the chiral breaking/restoration will be discussed. We argue that the strong infrared correlations induce the chiral spiral, i.e., the spatial modulation of the chiral condensate which breaks the chiral symmetry locally but restore it globally. The effective dimensional reduction takes place, allowing us to analyzing the system as 2D model in which several exact results can be explicitly derived. We also discuss the excitation spectra, both mesonic and baryonic ones, on the chiral spiral. (author)

  2. Chiral all-dielectric trimer nanoantenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Kaleem; Garcia-Camara, Braulio; Habib, Muhammad; Liu, Xuefeng; Krasnok, Alex; Lepeshov, Sergey; Hao, Jingjing; Liu, Juan; Yadav, N. P.

    2018-03-01

    Chirality is a property of certain molecules, materials or artificial nanostructures, which enables them to interact with the spin angular momentum of an incident light. This provides a different optical response, depending on the incident polarization, which gives rise to chiral optical spectroscopies. However, low-detection limits require an enhanced chiral light-matter interaction. Here, we propose a novel type of resonant chiral optical nanoantenna based on high-index dielectric (Cu2O) spherical nanoparticles arranged in a trimer geometry. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally that this trimer nanoantenna exhibits resonantly enhanced optical dichroism and light hotspots, which are associated with this geometry. Moreover, we apply near-field optical microscopy to measure the near-field peculiarities of the proposed nanoantenna. The ability of changing the nanoantenna near field scattering by varying the light polarization is shown.

  3. Chiral quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  4. Intelligent chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Richards, Gary J; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Izawa, Hironori; Hill, Jonathan P

    2010-01-01

    Of the known intelligently-operating systems, the majority can undoubtedly be classed as being of biological origin. One of the notable differences between biological and artificial systems is the important fact that biological materials consist mostly of chiral molecules. While most biochemical processes routinely discriminate chiral molecules, differentiation between chiral molecules in artificial systems is currently one of the challenging subjects in the field of molecular recognition. Therefore, one of the important challenges for intelligent man-made sensors is to prepare a sensing system that can discriminate chiral molecules. Because intermolecular interactions and detection at surfaces are respectively parts of supramolecular chemistry and interfacial science, chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts is a significant topic. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in these fields, including supramolecular hosts for color detection on chiral sensing, indicator-displacement assays, kinetic resolution in supramolecular reactions with analyses by mass spectrometry, use of chiral shape-defined polymers, such as dynamic helical polymers, molecular imprinting, thin films on surfaces of devices such as QCM, functional electrodes, FET, and SPR, the combined technique of magnetic resonance imaging and immunoassay, and chiral detection using scanning tunneling microscopy and cantilever technology. In addition, we will discuss novel concepts in recent research including the use of achiral reagents for chiral sensing with NMR, and mechanical control of chiral sensing. The importance of integration of chiral sensing systems with rapidly developing nanotechnology and nanomaterials is also emphasized.

  5. Intelligent Chiral Sensing Based on Supramolecular and Interfacial Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Izawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the known intelligently-operating systems, the majority can undoubtedly be classed as being of biological origin. One of the notable differences between biological and artificial systems is the important fact that biological materials consist mostly of chiral molecules. While most biochemical processes routinely discriminate chiral molecules, differentiation between chiral molecules in artificial systems is currently one of the challenging subjects in the field of molecular recognition. Therefore, one of the important challenges for intelligent man-made sensors is to prepare a sensing system that can discriminate chiral molecules. Because intermolecular interactions and detection at surfaces are respectively parts of supramolecular chemistry and interfacial science, chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts is a significant topic. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in these fields, including supramolecular hosts for color detection on chiral sensing, indicator-displacement assays, kinetic resolution in supramolecular reactions with analyses by mass spectrometry, use of chiral shape-defined polymers, such as dynamic helical polymers, molecular imprinting, thin films on surfaces of devices such as QCM, functional electrodes, FET, and SPR, the combined technique of magnetic resonance imaging and immunoassay, and chiral detection using scanning tunneling microscopy and cantilever technology. In addition, we will discuss novel concepts in recent research including the use of achiral reagents for chiral sensing with NMR, and mechanical control of chiral sensing. The importance of integration of chiral sensing systems with rapidly developing nanotechnology and nanomaterials is also emphasized.

  6. On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)

  7. On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica

    2011-07-01

    In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)

  8. Lorentz-like force emerging from kinematic interactions between electrons and nuclei in molecules: A quantum mechanical origin of symmetry breaking that can trigger molecular chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2017-02-01

    The Longuet-Higgins (Berry) phase arising from nonadiabatic dynamics and the Aharonov-Bohm phase associated with the dynamics of a charged particle in the electromagnetic vector potential are well known to be individually a manifestation of a class of the so-called geometrical phase. We herein discuss another similarity between the force working on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field, the Lorentz force, and a force working on nuclei while passing across a region where they have a strong quantum mechanical kinematic (nonadiabatic) coupling with electrons in a molecule. This kinematic force is indeed akin to the Lorentz force in that its magnitude is proportional to the velocity of the relevant nuclei and works in the direction perpendicular to its translational motion. Therefore this Lorentz-like nonadiabatic force is realized only in space of more or equal to three dimensions, thereby highlighting a truly multi-dimensional effect of nonadiabatic interaction. We investigate its physical significance qualitatively in the context of breaking of molecular spatial symmetry, which is not seen otherwise without this force. This particular symmetry breaking is demonstrated in application to a coplanar collision between a planar molecule and an atom sharing the same plane. We show that the atom is guided by this force to the direction out from the plane, resulting in a configuration that distinguishes one side of the mirror plane from the other. This can serve as a trigger for the dynamics towards molecular chirality.

  9. Magnetic chirality induced from Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction at an interface of a ferromagnet/heavy metal heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Taira; Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Masao

    2016-01-01

    We study a microscopic derivation and the properties of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) between local magnetic moments in ferromagnet/heavy metal heterostructures. First, we derive DMI by Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction through electrons in a heavy metal with Rashba spin orbit interaction (SOI). Next, we study the dependences of the DMI on the Rashba SOI, lattice constant, and chemical potential. We find that the DMI amplitude increases linearly when the Rashba SOI is small, has a maximum when the Rashba SOI is comparable to the hopping integral, and decreases when the Rashba SOI is large. The sign of the DMI not only changes depending on the sign of the Rashba SOI but also the lattice constants and the chemical potential of the heavy metal. The implications of the obtained results for experiments are discussed. (author)

  10. Chiral discrimination by chemical force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, Rachel; Theoclitou, Maria-Elena; Rayment, Trevor; Abell, Chris

    1998-02-01

    Chirality is a fundamental aspect of chemical biology, and is of central importance in pharmacology. Consequently there is great interest in techniques for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound. Chemical force microscopy is a technique that combines chemical discrimination with atomic force microscopy by chemical derivatization of the scanning probe tip. It has been applied to the study of hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, the binding between biotin and streptavidin, and between DNA bases. Here we report on the use of chemical force microscopy to discriminate between chiral molecules. Using chiral molecules attached to the probe tip, we can distinguish the two enantiomers of mandelic acid arrayed on a surface, through differences in both the adhesion forces and the frictional forces measured by the probe.

  11. The exponential-S-method in the momentum representation; Die Exponential-S-Methode in der Impulsdarstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauf, M.

    2007-07-13

    The aim of this work was, to describe the global characteristics like binding energy and radius of atomic nuclei on basis of realistic nucleon nucleon interactions. Because of the strong short-range components of the nucleon nucleon interaction, methods of many-body-theory have to be used, that go beyond mean field method or Hartree Fock method. (orig.)

  12. Light-Nuclei Spectra from Chiral Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piarulli, M.; Baroni, A.; Girlanda, L.; Kievsky, A.; Lovato, A.; Lusk, Ewing; Marcucci, L. E.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Viviani, M.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years local chiral interactions have been derived and implemented in quantum Monte Carlo methods in order to test to what extent the chiral effective field theory framework impacts our knowledge of few- and many-body systems. In this Letter, we present Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei based on the family of local two-body interactions presented by our group in a previous paper in conjunction with chiral three-body interactions fitted to bound- and scattering-state observables in the three-nucleon sector. These interactions include Δ intermediate states in their two-pion-exchange components. We obtain predictions for the energy levels and level ordering of nuclei in the mass range A =4 - 12 , accurate to ≤2 % of the binding energy, in very satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  13. Planar chirale Metallocene

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselgruber, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The element of planar chirality turned out to be of special importance to achieve high enantioselectivities in various asymmetric processes. In the course of this PhD thesis, the sulfoximine unit was established as a new chiral ortho-directing group for ferrocenes. By variation of the metal fragment and other structural properties of a published chiral ligand, a cyclopentadienylrhenium(I)tricarbonyl complex was identified as more selective than the original ferrocene system in the asymmetric ...

  14. Light hypernuclei and hyperon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.; Gibson, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    Light Hypernuclei are a vital testing ground for our understanding of the Hyperon-Nucleon interaction. We have performed microscopic calculations of four and five-body hypernuclei using the Nijmegen nucleon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon interactions. Our calculations include explicit Sigma degrees of freedom. These degrees of freedom are quite important since, in contrast to the Δ - N mass difference of ∼ 300 MeV, the Σ resonance is only about 80 MeV above the Λ. In addition, although there is no one-pion-exchange in the ΛN diagonal channel, this longest-range term does contribute to the transition ΛN - ΣN interaction. Our variational calculations show that the A=4 spin 0 ground state binding energy is well reproduced by the Nijmegen HN integration, a one-boson exchange model fit to the available scattering data. The spin 1 excited state and the A=5 ground state are strongly underbound, however. We demonstrate the importance of the strong tensor terms of the Nijmegen model, particularly those in the transition channel, in obtaining this result. The limited data currently available for hyperon-nucleon scattering must be greatly improved in order to place reasonable constraints on the interaction. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Light hypernuclei and hyperon-nucleon interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.; Gibson, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    Light Hypernuclei are a vital testing ground for our understanding of the Hyperon-Nucleon interaction. We have performed microscopic calculations of four and five-body hypernuclei using the Nijmegen nucleon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon interactions. Our calculations include explicit Sigma degrees of freedom. These degrees of freedom are quite important since, in contrast to the {Delta} {minus} N mass difference of {approx} 300 MeV, the {Sigma} resonance is only about 80 MeV above the {Lambda}. In addition, although there is no one-pion-exchange in the {Lambda}N diagonal channel, this longest-range term does contribute to the transition {Lambda}N {minus} {Sigma}N interaction. Our variational calculations show that the A=4 spin 0 ground state binding energy is well reproduced by the Nijmegen HN integration, a one-boson exchange model fit to the available scattering data. The spin 1 excited state and the A=5 ground state are strongly underbound, however. We demonstrate the importance of the strong tensor terms of the Nijmegen model, particularly those in the transition channel, in obtaining this result. The limited data currently available for hyperon-nucleon scattering must be greatly improved in order to place reasonable constraints on the interaction. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...

  17. Phenomenology of anomalous chiral transports in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2018-01-01

    High-energy Heavy-ion collisions can generate extremely hot quark-gluon matter and also extremely strong magnetic fields and fluid vorticity. Once coupled to chiral anomaly, the magnetic fields and fluid vorticity can induce a variety of novel transport phenomena, including the chiral magnetic effect, chiral vortical effect, etc. Some of them require the environmental violation of parity and thus provide a means to test the possible parity violation in hot strongly interacting matter. We will discuss the underlying mechanism and implications of these anomalous chiral transports in heavy-ion collisions.

  18. Chirality-dependent cellular uptake of chiral nanocarriers and intracellular delivery of different amounts of guest molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Nermin Seda; Jose, Joachim

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the organic molecules loaded and chiral polymers coated periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) to generate chiral nanocarriers that we used to study chirality-dependent cellular uptake in serum and serum-free media and the subsequent delivery of different amounts of organic molecules into cells. Our results show that the amount of internalized PMO and thus the transported amount of organic molecules by nanocarrier PMO into cells was chirality dependent and controlled by hard/soft protein corona formation on the PMO surfaces. Therefore, this study demonstrate that chiral porous nanocarriers could potentially be used as advanced drug delivery systems which are able to use the specific chiral surface-protein interactions to influence/control the amount of (bio)active molecules delivered to cells in drug delivery and/or imaging applications.

  19. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark flavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully ...

  20. Effective realistic interactions for low momentum Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials are an essential ingredient of modern microscopic many-body calculations. These potentials can be represented in two different ways: operator representation or matrix element representation. In operator representation the potential is represented by a set of quantum mechanical operators while in matrix element representation it is defined by the matrix elements in a given basis. Many modern potentials are constructed directly in matrix element representation. While the matrix element representation can be calculated from the operator representation, the determination of the operator representation from the matrix elements is more difficult. Some methods to solve the nuclear many-body problem, such as Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) or the Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) method, however require explicitly the operator representation of the potential, as they do not work in a fixed many-body basis. It is therefore desirable to derive an operator representation also for the interactions given by matrix elements. In this work a method is presented which allows the derivation of an approximate operator representation starting from the momentum space partial wave matrix elements of the interaction. For that purpose an ansatz for the operator representation is chosen. The parameters in the ansatz are determined by a fit to the partial wave matrix elements. Since a perfect reproduction of the matrix elements in general cannot be achieved with a finite number of operators and the quality of the results depends on the choice of the ansatz, the obtained operator representation is tested in nuclear many-body calculations and the results are compared with those from the initial interaction matrix elements. For the calculation of the nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts and the deuteron properties a computer code written within this work is used. For larger nuclei the No Core Shell Model (NCSM) and FMD are applied. The described

  1. Effective interactions for extreme isospin conditions; Interactions effectives pour des conditions extremes d`isospin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabanat, E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main goal in nuclear physics research is the study of nuclei in extreme conditions of spin and isospin. The more performing tools for theoretical predictions in this field are microscopic methods such as the Hartree-Fock one based on independent particle approximation. The main ingredient for such an approach is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The actual trend being the study of nuclei more and more far from the stability valley, it is necessary to cast doubt over the validity of usual effective interaction. This work constitute a study on the way one can construct a new interaction allowing some theoretical predictions on nuclei far from the stability. We have thus made a complete study of symmetric infinite nuclear matter and asymmetric one up to pure neutron matter. One shows that the asymmetry coefficient, which was considered until now as fixing isospin properties, is not sufficient to have a correct description of very exotic isospin states. A new type of constraint is shown for fixing this degree of freedom: the neutron matter equation of state. One include this equation of state, taken from a theoretical model giving a good description of radii and masses of neutron stars. One can thus expect to build up new Skyrme interaction with realistic properties of ground state of very neutron-rich nuclei. (author). 63 refs., 68 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellman, Andrew John [Carnegie Mellon University; Sholl, David S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tysoe, Wilfred T. [University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee; Zaera, Francisco [University of California at Riverside

    2013-04-28

    Understanding and controlling selectivity is one of the key challenges in heterogeneous catalysis. Among problems in catalytic selectivity enantioselectivity is perhaps the most the most challenging. The primary goal of the project on “Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts” is to understand the origins of enantioselectivity on chiral heterogeneous surfaces and catalysts. The efforts of the project team include preparation of chiral surfaces, characterization of chiral surfaces, experimental detection of enantioselectivity on such surfaces and computational modeling of the interactions of chiral probe molecules with chiral surfaces. Over the course of the project period the team of PI’s has made some of the most detailed and insightful studies of enantioselective chemistry on chiral surfaces. This includes the measurement of fundamental interactions and reaction mechanisms of chiral molecules on chiral surfaces and leads all the way to rationale design and synthesis of chiral surfaces and materials for enantioselective surface chemistry. The PI’s have designed and prepared new materials for enantioselective adsorption and catalysis. Naturally Chiral Surfaces • Completion of a systematic study of the enantiospecific desorption kinetics of R-3-methylcyclohexanone (R-3-MCHO) on 9 achiral and 7 enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces with orientations that span the stereographic triangle. • Discovery of super-enantioselective tartaric acid (TA) and aspartic acid (Asp) decomposition as a result of a surface explosion mechanism on Cu(643)R&S. Systematic study of super-enantiospecific TA and Asp decomposition on five enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces. • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-propylene oxide (PO) from Cu(100) imprinted with {3,1,17} facets by L-lysine adsorption. Templated Chiral Surfaces • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-PO from Pt(111) and Pd(111

  3. Chirality Recognition in Camphor - 1,2-PROPANEDIOL Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristobal; Fatima, Mariyam; Krin, Anna; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    The molecular interactions in complexes involving chiral molecules are of particular interest, because the interactions change in a subtle way upon replacing one of the partners by its mirror image. This is based on the fact that chiral molecules are sensitive probes for other chiral objects and chiral interactions. In this particular case, we will concentrate on molecule-molecule interactions and investigate them with broadband rotational spectroscopy. When two chiral molecules form complexes, the homochiral and heterochiral forms have different structures (and thus rotational constants and spectra) and different energies. They are diastereomers, which can easily be differentiated, for example via molecular spectroscopy. This is often exploited in chemical synthesis for identifying and separating enantiomers. The phenomena involving chirality recognition are relevant in the biosphere, in organic synthesis and in polymer design. We use chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy to study the structures and the underlying interactions of camphor-1,2-propanediol complexes. This system is also interesting because the complex formation can be expected to be ruled by an interplay between hydrogen bonding to the polar carbonyl group in camphor and dispersion interactions. The spectra are extremely rich because of the high number of conformers for 1,2-propanediol. We started out with racemic mixtures of both camphor and 1,2-propanediol. Using enantiopure samples of different handedness of the two partners nicely simplifies the spectra and guides the assignment. In the talk, we will report on the latest results for this chiral complex.

  4. Chirality conservation in the lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The derivation of conservation laws corresponding to chiral invariance in quantum field theories of interacting quarks and gluons are studied. In particular there is interest in observing how these conservation laws are constrained by the requirement that the field theory be locally gauge invariant. To examine this question, a manifestly gauge-invariant definition of local operators in a quantum field theory is introduced, a definition which relies in an essential way on the use of the formulation of gauge fields on a lattice due to Wilson and Polyakov to regulate ultraviolet divergences. The conceptual basis of the formalism is set out and applied to a long-standing puzzle in the phenomenology of quark-gluon theories: the fact that elementary particle interactions reflect the conservation of isospin-carrying chiral currents but not of the isospin-singlet chiral current. It is well known that the equation for the isospin-singlet current contains an extra term, the operator F/sub mu neu/F/sup mu neu/, not present in the other chirality conservation laws; however, this term conventionally has the form of a total divergence and so still allows the definition of a conserved chiral current. It is found that, when the effects of maintaining gauge invariance are properly taken into account, the structure of this operator is altered by renormalization effects, so that it provides an explicit breaking of the unwanted chiral invariance. The relation between this argument, based on renormaliztion, is traced to a set of more heuristic arguments based on gauge field topology given by 't Hooft; it is shown that the discussion provides a validation, through short-distance analysis, of the picture 'Hooft has proposed. The formal derivation of conservation laws for chiral currents are set out in detail

  5. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri; Tomalak, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  6. Applications of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates

  7. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  8. Chiral anomalous dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadofyev, Andrey; Sen, Srimoyee

    2018-02-01

    The linearized Einstein equation describing graviton propagation through a chiral medium appears to be helicity dependent. We analyze features of the corresponding spectrum in a collision-less regime above a flat background. In the long wave-length limit, circularly polarized metric perturbations travel with a helicity dependent group velocity that can turn negative giving rise to a new type of an anomalous dispersion. We further show that this chiral anomalous dispersion is a general feature of polarized modes propagating through chiral plasmas extending our result to the electromagnetic sector.

  9. Transport properties of chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhr, Matthias

    2017-04-26

    Anomalous transport phenomena have their origin in the chiral anomaly, the anomalous non-conservation of the axial charge, and can arise in systems with chiral fermions. The anomalous transport properties of free fermions are well understood, but little is known about possible corrections to the anomalous transport coefficients that can occur if the fermions are strongly interacting. The main goal of this thesis is to study anomalous transport effects in media with strongly interacting fermions. In particular, we investigate the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in a Weyl Semimetal (WSM) and the Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in finite-density Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The recently discovered WSMs are solid state crystals with low-energy excitations that behave like Weyl fermions. The inter-electron interaction in WSMs is typically very strong and non-perturbative calculations are needed to connect theory and experiment. To realistically model an interacting, parity-breaking WSM we use a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian with Wilson-Dirac fermions. This model features a non-trivial phase diagram and has a phase (Aoki phase/axionic insulator phase) with spontaneously broken CP symmetry, corresponding to the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry for interacting continuum Dirac fermions. We use a mean-field ansatz to study the CME in spatially modulated magnetic fields and find that it vanishes in the Aoki phase. Moreover, our calculations show that outside of the Aoki phase the electron interaction has only a minor influence on the CME. We observe no enhancement of the magnitude of the CME current. For our non-perturbative study of the CSE in QCD we use the framework of lattice QCD with overlap fermions. We work in the quenched approximation to avoid the sign problem that comes with introducing a finite chemical potential on the lattice. The overlap operator calls for the evaluation of the sign function of a matrix with a dimension proportional to the volume

  10. Data management design: nucleon-nucleon data bank (0 to 1200 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signell, P.; Freiheit, F.

    1981-01-01

    This is a guide to the design of the on-line data records in this bank, covering all energies and particle combinations up to about 1200 MeV. The design of the bank's management system satisfies almost all of the conditions set forth in the proposed Design Principles for Physics Data Banks

  11. Solutions of the Schrodinger Equation Using Approximate Nucleon-Nucleon and Lambda-Nucleon Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. N.; Chakraborty, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the outline of an approach related to the teaching of the chapter on bound and scattering states in a short-range potential, which forms a standard part of an undergraduate quantum mechanics course or nuclear physics course. (HM)

  12. Many-particle nucleon-nucleon forces from nuclear single-particle states

    OpenAIRE

    Birbrair, B. L.; Ryazanov, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    As follows from the energies of single-particle states in ^{40}Ca, ^{90}Zr and ^{208}Pb nuclei the contribution of many-particle NN forces to the nuclear single-particle potential is at least the sum of repulsive and attractive parts resulting from three-particle and four-particle forces respectively. In addition the specified nucleon density distributions in the above nuclei are determined from both the 1 GeV proton-nucleus elastic scattering and the single-particle energies.

  13. Baryon Chiral Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher,

    2002-08-08

    After contrasting the low energy effective theory for the baryon sector with one for the Goldstone sector, I use the example of pion nucleon scattering to discuss some of the progress and open issues in baryon chiral perturbation theory.

  14. Biocatalysis: Chiral cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Bo; Reetz, Manfred T.

    2015-12-01

    Racemic or enantiomerically pure alcohols can be converted with high yield into enantiopure chiral amines in a one-pot redox-neutral cascade process by the clever combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase and an appropriate amine dehydrogenase.

  15. Nonlinear chiral transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Ishii, Takeaki; Pu, Shi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    We study the nonlinear responses of relativistic chiral matter to the external fields such as the electric field E , gradients of temperature and chemical potential, ∇T and ∇μ . Using the kinetic theory with Berry curvature corrections under the relaxation time approximation, we compute the transport coefficients of possible new electric currents that are forbidden in usual chirally symmetric matter but are allowed in chirally asymmetric matter by parity. In particular, we find a new type of electric current proportional to ∇μ ×E due to the interplay between the effects of the Berry curvature and collisions. We also derive an analog of the "Wiedemann-Franz" law specific for anomalous nonlinear transport in relativistic chiral matter.

  16. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that ... I find that the mass of the state can be fitted to the experimentally observed mass by invoking a color neutral vector field and its interaction with the quarks. ... Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005, India ...

  17. Disoriented chiral condensate: Theory and phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    These notes are an abbreviated version of lectures given at the 1997 Zakopane School. They contain two topics. The first is a description in elementary terms of the basic ideas underlying the speculative hypothesis that pieces of strong-interaction vacuum with a rotated chiral order parameter, disoriented chiral condensate or DCC, might be produced in high energy elementary particle collisions. The second topic is a discussion of the phenomenological techniques which may be applied to data in order to experimentally search for the existence of DCC

  18. Lambda(1405) in chiral SU(3) dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hyodo, Tetsuo; Weise, Wolfram; Jido, Daisuke; Roca, Luis; Hosaka, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    We discuss several aspects of the Lambda(1405) resonance in relation to the recent theoretical developments in chiral dynamics. We derive an effective single-channel KbarK N interaction based on chiral SU(3) coupled-channel approach, emphasizing the important role of the pi Sigma channel and the structure of the Lambda(1405) in Kbar N phenomenology. In order to clarify the structure of the resonance, we study the behavior with the number of colors (Nc) of the poles associated with the Lambda(...

  19. Hidden QCD in Chiral Gauge Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The 't Hooft and Corrigan-Ramond limits of massless one-flavor QCD consider the two Weyl fermions to be respectively in the fundamental representation or the two index antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. We introduce a limit in which one of the two Weyl fermions is in the fundamental...... representation and the other in the two index antisymmetric representation of a generic SU(N) gauge group. This theory is chiral and to avoid gauge anomalies a more complicated chiral theory is needed. This is the generalized Georgi-Glashow model with one vector like fermion. We show that there is an interesting...... phase in which the considered chiral gauge theory, for any N, Higgses via a bilinear condensate: The gauge interactions break spontaneously to ordinary massless one-flavor SU(3) QCD. The additional elementary fermionic matter is uncharged under this SU(3) gauge theory. It is also seen that when...

  20. Chiral crossover transition in a finite volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Jia, Wenbao; Sun, An; Zhang, Liping; Zong, Hongshi

    2018-02-01

    Finite volume effects on the chiral crossover transition of strong interactions at finite temperature are studied by solving the quark gap equation within a cubic volume of finite size L. With the anti-periodic boundary condition, our calculation shows the chiral quark condensate, which characterizes the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, decreases as L decreases below 2.5 fm. We further study the finite volume effects on the pseudo-transition temperature {T}{{c}} of the crossover, showing a significant decrease in {T}{{c}} as L decreases below 3 fm. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475085, 11535005, 11690030, 51405027), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (020414380074), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M591808) and Open Research Foundation of State Key Lab. of Digital Manufacturing Equipment & Technology in Huazhong University of Science & Technology (DMETKF2015015)

  1. The role of resonances in chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Rafael, E. de

    1988-09-01

    The strong interactions of low-lying meson resonances (spin ≤ 1) with the octet of pseudoscalar mesons (π,Κ,η) are considered to lowest order in the derivative expansion of chiral SU(3). The resonance contributions to the coupling constants of the O(p 4 ) effective chiral lagrangian involving pseudoscalar fields only are determined. These low-energy coupling constants are found to be dominated by the resonance contributions. Although we do not treat the vector and axial-vector mesons as gauge bosons of local chiral symmetry, vector meson dominance emerges as a prominent result of our analysis. As a further application of chiral resonance couplings, we calculate the electromagnetic pion mass difference to lowest order in chiral perturbation theory with explicit resonance fields. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  2. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  3. Rationalization of chirality induction and inversion in a zinc trisporphyrinate by a chiral monoalcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Chuanjiang; Shi, Bo; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-10

    A new host-guest system is formed between a benzene tricarboxamide linked zinc trisporphyrinate and a chiral monoalcohol (1-phenylethylalcohol). CD spectra show the chirality induction and inversion processes, which are controlled by the corresponding 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 coordination complexes. The binding constants calculated by UV-vis and CD spectral data are much larger than that for [Zn(TPP)] (TPP = tetraphenylporphyrin). The crystallographic structure of the host-guest complex reveals that multiple intramolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions could contribute to its high binding affinity to 1-phenylethylalcohol. The DFT calculations suggest that the spatial orientations of porphyrin moieties change from the 1 : 1 complex to the 1 : 2 complex. The chirality induction and inversion processes are rationalized by the summation of pairwise interactions among multichromophores according to pairwise additivity.

  4. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.

  5. Chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1996-06-01

    After a general introduction to the structure of effective field theories, the main ingredients of chiral perturbation theory are reviewed. Applications include the light quark mass ratios and pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy. In the pion-nucleon system, the linear σ model is contrasted with chiral perturbation theory. The heavy-nucleon expansion is used to construct the effective pion-nucleon Lagrangian to third order in the low-energy expansion, with applications to nucleon Compton scattering. (author)

  6. Chiral algebras for trinion theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Madalena; Peelaers, Wolfger

    2015-01-01

    It was recently understood that one can identify a chiral algebra in any four-dimensional N=2 superconformal theory. In this note, we conjecture the full set of generators of the chiral algebras associated with the T n theories. The conjecture is motivated by making manifest the critical affine module structure in the graded partition function of the chiral algebras, which is computed by the Schur limit of the superconformal index for T n theories. We also explicitly construct the chiral algebra arising from the T 4 theory. Its null relations give rise to new T 4 Higgs branch chiral ring relations.

  7. Constraints on a Parity-Conserving Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Willem T. H.

    Time-reversal-invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement at CPLEAR. One then can ask the question: What about tests of time-reversal-invariance in systems other than the kaon system? Tests of time-reversal-invariance can be distinguished as belonging to two classes: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance-odd (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron (with a present upper limit of 6 × 10-26 e.cm [95% C.L.]). It provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is less than 10-4 times the weak interaction strength. Experimental limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. Following the standard approach of describing the nucleon-nucleon interaction in terms of meson exchanges it can be shown that only charged rho-meson exchange and A1-meson exchange can lead to a P-even/T-odd interaction. The better constraints stem from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron and from measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering. The latter experiments were executed at TRIUMF (497 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (183 MeV). Weak decay experiments may provide limits which will possibly be comparable. All other experiments, like gamma decay experiments, detailed balance experiments, polarization-analyzing power difference determinations, and five-fold correlation experiments with polarized incident nucleons and aligned nuclear targets, have been shown to be at least an order of magnitude less sensitive. The question then emerges: is there room for further experimentation?

  8. Rational concept to recognize/extract single-walled carbon nanotubes with a specific chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hiroaki; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Niidome, Yasuro; Hotta, Naosuke; Fujiki, Michiya; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2011-03-02

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have remarkable and unique electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which are closely related to their chiralities; thus, the chirality-selective recognition/extraction of the SWNTs is one of the central issues in nanotube science. However, any rational materials design enabling one to efficiently extract/solubilize pure SWNT with a desired chirality has yet not been demonstrated. Herein we report that certain chiral polyfluorene copolymers can well-recognize SWNTs with a certain chirality preferentially, leading to solubilization of specific chiral SWNTs. The chiral copolymers were prepared by the Ni(0)-catalyzed Yamamoto coupling reaction of 2,7-dibromo-9,9-di-n-decylfluorene and 2,7-dibromo-9,9-bis[(S)-(+)-2-methylbutyl]fluorene comonomers. The selectivity of the SWNT chirality was mainly determined by the relative fraction of the achiral and chiral side groups. By a molecular mechanics simulation, the cooperative interaction between the fluorene moiety, alkyl side chain, and graphene wall were responsible for the recognition/dissolution ability of SWNT chirality. This is a first example describing the rational design and synthesis of novel fluorene-based copolymers toward the recognition/extraction of targeted (n, m) chirality of the SWNTs.

  9. Chiral forces and molecular dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1992-01-01

    Chiral molecules leading to helical macromolecules seem to preserve information and extend it better. In the biological world RNA is the very paradigm for self-replication, elongation and autocatalytic editing. The nucleic acid itself is not chiral. It acquires its chirality by association with D-sugars. Although the chiral information or selectivity put in by the unit monomer is no longer of much interest to the biologists - they tend to leave it to the Darwinian selection principle to take care of it as illustrated by Frank's model - it is vital to understand the origin of chirality. There are three different approaches for the chiral origin of life: (1) Phenomenological, (2) Electromagnetic molecular and Coriolis forces and (3) Atomic or nuclear force, the neutral weak current. The phenomenological approach involves spontaneous symmetry breaking fluctuations in far for equilibrium systems or nucleation and crystallization. Chance plays a major role in the chiral molecule selected

  10. Magnetostatic mechanism for control of chirality of magnetization distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, I. M.; Fraerman, A. A.; Shereshevskii, I. A.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that the magnetostatic interaction in an inhomogeneous medium leads to the removal of the chiral degeneracy of magnetic distributions. Noncollinear states of two magnetic dipoles and a helical cycloid placed over a superconducting half-space have been considered as examples. The influence of a finite penetration depth of the magnetic field on the efficiency of removal of the chiral degeneracy has been studied in the framework of the London approximation.

  11. Homochiral Evolution in Self-Assembled Chiral Polymers and Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tao; Wang, Hsiao-Fang; Li, Ming-Chia; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2017-04-18

    The significance of chirality transfer is not only involved in biological systems, such as the origin of homochiral structures in life but also in man-made chemicals and materials. How the chiral bias transfers from molecular level (molecular chirality) to helical chain (conformational chirality) and then to helical superstructure or phase (hierarchical chirality) from self-assembly is vital for the chemical and biological processes in nature, such as communication, replication, and enzyme catalysis. In this Account, we summarize the methodologies for the examination of homochiral evolution at different length scales based on our recent studies with respect to the self-assembly of chiral polymers and chiral block copolymers (BCPs*). A helical (H*) phase to distinguish its P622 symmetry from that of normal hexagonally packed cylinder phase was discovered in the self-assembly of BCPs* due to the chirality effect on BCP self-assembly. Enantiomeric polylactide-containing BCPs*, polystyrene-b-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA) and polystyrene-b-poly(d-lactide) (PS-PDLA), were synthesized for the examination of homochiral evolution. The optical activity (molecular chirality) of constituted chiral repeating unit in the chiral polylactide is detected by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) whereas the conformational chirality of helical polylactide chain can be explicitly determined by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The H* phases of the self-assembled polylactide-containing BCPs* can be directly visualized by 3D transmission electron microscopy (3D TEM) technique at which the handedness (hierarchical chirality) of the helical nanostructure is thus determined. The results from the ECD, VCD, and 3D TEM for the investigated chirality at different length scales suggest the homochiral evolution in the self-assembly of the BCPs*. For chiral polylactides, twisted lamellae in crystalline banded spherulite can be formed by dense packing scheme and effective interactions upon helical

  12. Electromagnetic couplings of the chiral perturbation theory Lagrangian from the perturbative chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Gutsche, Th.; Faessler, Amand; Mau, R. Vinh

    2002-01-01

    We apply the perturbative chiral quark model to the study of the low-energy πN interaction. Using an effective chiral Lagrangian we reproduce the Weinberg-Tomozawa result for the S-wave πN scattering lengths. After inclusion of the photon field we give predictions for the electromagnetic O(p 2 ) low-energy couplings of the chiral perturbation theory effective Lagrangian that define the electromagnetic mass shifts of nucleons and first-order (e 2 ) radiative corrections to the πN scattering amplitude. Finally, we estimate the leading isospin-breaking correction to the strong energy shift of the π - p atom in the 1s state, which is relevant for the experiment 'pionic hydrogen' at PSI

  13. Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls

    KAUST Repository

    Jué, Emilie

    2015-12-21

    Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).

  14. Realization of chiral symmetry in the ERG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigo, Yoshio; Igarashi, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    We discuss within the framework of the ERG how chiral symmetry is realized in a linear σ model. A generalized Ginsparg-Wilson relation is obtained from the Ward-Takahashi identities for the Wilson action assumed to be bilinear in the Dirac fields. We construct a family of its non-perturbative solutions. The family generates the most general solutions to the Ward-Takahashi identities. Some special solutions are discussed. For each solution in this family, chiral symmetry is realized in such a way that a change in the Wilson action under non-linear symmetry transformation is canceled with a change in the functional measure. We discuss that the family of solutions reduces via a field redefinition to a family of the Wilson actions with some composite object of the scalar fields which has a simple transformation property. For this family, chiral symmetry is linearly realized with a continuum analog of the operator extension of γ 5 used on the lattice. We also show that there exist some appropriate Dirac fields which obey the standard chiral transformations with γ 5 in contrast to the lattice case. Their Yukawa interaction with scalars, however, becomes non-linear. (author)

  15. Testing refined shell-model interactions in the sd shell: Coulomb excitation of Na26

    CERN Document Server

    Siebeck, B; Blazhev, A; Reiter, P; Altenkirch, R; Bauer, C; Butler, P A; De Witte, H; Elseviers, J; Gaffney, L P; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Kröll, T; Lutter, R; Pakarinen, J; Pietralla, N; Radeck, F; Scheck, M; Schneiders, D; Sotty, C; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shell-model calculations crucially depend on the residual interaction used to approximate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Recent improvements to the empirical universal sd interaction (USD) describing nuclei within the sd shell yielded two new interactions—USDA and USDB—causing changes in the theoretical description of these nuclei. Purpose: Transition matrix elements between excited states provide an excellent probe to examine the underlying shell structure. These observables provide a stringent test for the newly derived interactions. The nucleus Na26 with 7 valence neutrons and 3 valence protons outside the doubly-magic 16O core is used as a test case. Method: A radioactive beam experiment with Na26 (T1/2=1,07s) was performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility (CERN) using Coulomb excitation at safe energies below the Coulomb barrier. Scattered particles were detected with an annular Si detector in coincidence with γ rays observed by the segmented MINIBALL array. Coulomb excitation cross sections...

  16. Chiral fermions in asymptotically safe quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meibohm, J. [Gothenburg University, Department of Physics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pawlowski, J.M. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    We study the consistency of dynamical fermionic matter with the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity using the functional renormalisation group. Since this scenario suggests strongly coupled quantum gravity in the UV, one expects gravity-induced fermion self-interactions at energies of the Planck scale. These could lead to chiral symmetry breaking at very high energies and thus to large fermion masses in the IR. The present analysis which is based on the previous works (Christiansen et al., Phys Rev D 92:121501, 2015; Meibohm et al., Phys Rev D 93:084035, 2016), concludes that gravity-induced chiral symmetry breaking at the Planck scale is avoided for a general class of NJL-type models. We find strong evidence that this feature is independent of the number of fermion fields. This finding suggests that the phase diagram for these models is topologically stable under the influence of gravitational interactions. (orig.)

  17. Pattern production through a chiral chasing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2017-09-01

    Recent experiments on zebrafish pigmentation suggests that their typical black and white striped skin pattern is made up of a number of interacting chromatophore families. Specifically, two of these cell families have been shown to interact through a nonlocal chasing mechanism, which has previously been modeled using integro-differential equations. We extend this framework to include the experimentally observed fact that the cells often exhibit chiral movement, in that the cells chase, and run away, at angles different to the line connecting their centers. This framework is simplified through the use of multiple small limits leading to a coupled set of partial differential equations which are amenable to Fourier analysis. This analysis results in the production of dispersion relations and necessary conditions for a patterning instability to occur. Beyond the theoretical development and the production of new pattern planiforms we are able to corroborate the experimental hypothesis that the global pigmentation patterns can be dependent on the chirality of the chromatophores.

  18. Optofluidic sorting of material chirality by chiral light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Georgiy; Brasselet, Etienne

    2014-04-01

    The lack of mirror symmetry, chirality, plays a fundamental role in physics, chemistry and life sciences. The passive separation of entities that only differ by their handedness without need of a chiral material environment remains a challenging task with attractive scientific and industrial benefits. To date, only a few experimental attempts have been reported and remained limited down to the micron scale, most of them relying on hydrodynamical forces associated with the chiral shape of the micro-objects to be sorted. Here we experimentally demonstrate that material chirality can be passively sorted in a fluidic environment by chiral light owing to spin-dependent optical forces without chiral morphology prerequisite. This brings a new twist to the state-of-the-art optofluidic toolbox and the development of a novel kind of passive integrated optofluidic sorters able to deal with molecular scale entities is envisioned.

  19. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  20. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  1. Dynamics of chiral oscillations: a comparative analysis with spin flipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, A E

    2006-01-01

    Chiral oscillation as well as spin flipping effects correspond to quantum phenomena of fundamental importance in the context of particle physics and, in particular, of neutrino physics. From the point of view of first quantized theories, we are specifically interested in pointing out the differences between chirality and helicity by obtaining their dynamic equations for a fermionic Dirac-type particle (neutrino). We also identify both effects when the non-minimal coupling with an external (electro)magnetic field in the neutrino interacting Lagrangian is taken into account. We demonstrate that, however, there is no constraint between chiral oscillations, when it takes place in vacuum, and the process of spin flipping related to the helicity quantum number, which does not take place in vacuum. To conclude, we show that the origin of chiral oscillations (in vacuum) can be interpreted as projections of very rapid oscillations of position onto the longitudinal direction of momentum

  2. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The studies in 1977 are reviewed. In theoretical nuclear physics: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics; in elementary particle physics: field theory, strong interactions dynamics, nucleon-nucleon interactions, new particles, current algebra, symmetries and quarks are studied [fr

  3. Effect of earth's orbital chirality on elementary particles and unification of chiral asymmetries in life on different levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y J; Qi, F; Qi, S C

    2000-05-01

    Life is chirally asymmetric at all scales from microscopic elementary particles to molecular and macroscopic levels. How these chiral asymmetries in life on different levels are unified remains unanswered. It has been demonstrated that both the biomolecular homochirality and biological rhythms can be caused by the right-handed helical force-field of the Earth's orbital chirality (EOC). Similar to the helical biomolecules (1), it is here suggested that the right-handed EOC force-field could make the right-handed elementary particles more stable than their left-handed enantiomers to result in the symmetry violation of elementary particles, and the EOC could also cause the macroscopic predominant selection of right-handed asymmetries of living objects (e.g. the helical seashells and plants). Our studies indicated that the weak force in weak interaction may only be a form of the EOC force-field at the microscopic particle level, and the chiral asymmetries in life on various levels could be unified by the natural right-handed EOC force-field. Moreover, the chiral and quantum effects, time, mass, rhythms and relativity could also be unified by the interaction of the EOC force-field with chiral motions and structures under certain conditions. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  4. Models and theory for precompound angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.; Pohl, B.A.; Remington, B.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Scobel, W.; Trabandt, M. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik); Byrd, R.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Foster, C.C. (Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (USA)); Bonetti, R.; Chiesa, C. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale Applicata); Grimes, S.M. (Ohio Univ

    1990-06-06

    We compare angular distributions calculated by folding nucleon- nucleon scattering kernels, using the theory of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin, and the systematics of Kalbach, with a wide range of data. The data range from (n,xn) at 14 MeV incident energy to (p,xn) at 160 MeV incident energy. The FKK theory works well with one adjustable parameter, the depth of the nucleon-nucleon interaction potential. The systematics work well when normalized to the hybrid model single differential cross section prediction. The nucleon- nucleon scattering approach seems inadequate. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Simplified chiral superfield propagators for chiral constant mass superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    Unconstrained superfield potentials are introduced to derive Feynman rules for chiral superfields following conventional procedure which is easy and instructive. Propagators for the case when the mass parameters are constant chiral superfields are derived. The propagators reported here are very simple compared to those available in literature and allow a manageable calculation of higher loops. (Author) [pt

  6. Symplectic no-core configuration interaction framework for ab initio nuclear structure. I. Convergence behavior in p-shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Anna E.; Caprio, Mark A.; Dytrych, Tomas

    2017-09-01

    A major challenge in quantitatively predicting nuclear structure ab initio, directly from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions, arises due to an explosion in the dimension of the traditional configuration interaction basis as the number of nucleons and included shells increases. The need for including highly excited configurations exists, in large part, because the kinetic energy induces strong coupling across shells. However, the kinetic energy conserves symplectic symmetry. Combining symplectic symmetry with the no-core configuration interaction (NCCI) framework provides a means of identifying and restricting the basis to include only the highly excited configurations which dominantly contribute to the nuclear wavefunction, thereby reducing the size of basis necessary to obtain accurate results. We present a framework for ab initio symplectic no-core configuration interaction (SpNCCI) calculations of the nuclear problem and explore convergence behavior of calculations of p-shell nuclei in this framework. Supported by the US DOE under Award No. DE-FG02-95ER-40934 and the Czech Science Foundation under Grant No. 16-16772S.

  7. A primer for Chiral Perturbative Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Stefan; Schindler, Matthias R.; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC

    2012-01-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques. (orig.)

  8. A primer for chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques.

  9. Chiral charge flux and electroweak baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funakubo, Koichi [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kakuto, Akira; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Takenaga, Kazunori; Toyoda, Fumihiko

    1995-06-01

    By treating CP-violating interaction of the electroweak bubble wall as a perturbative term, chiral charge flux through the bubble wall is estimated. It is found that the absolute value of the flux F{sub Q} has a sharp peak at m{sub 0} - a - T with F{sub Q}/(uT{sup 3}) - 10{sup -3}(Q{sub L}-Q{sub R}){Delta}{theta}. Here m{sub 0} is the fermion mass, 1/a is the wall thickness, T is the temperature at which the bubbles are growing, u is the wall velocity, Q{sub L(R)} is the chiral charge of the relevant left (right)-handed fermion and {Delta}{theta} is the measure of CP violation. (author).

  10. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wefel, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This program was established for the purpose of studying projectile fragmentation; (1) as a function of energy, focusing first on the intermediate energy region, < 1 GeV/nucleon, where there have been few previous measurements and no systematic studies, and (2) as a function of projectile mass, starting with light beams and proceeding to species as heavy as nickel (and possibly beyond). The intermediate energy region is important as the transition between the lower energy data, where the interaction appears to be dominated by collective effects and the decay of excited nuclei, and the highest energy results, where nucleon-nucleon interactions are fundamental, ''limiting fragmentation'' applies, and the nucleus may well break-up before any de-excitation. The mass dependence of projectile fragmentation is largely unknown since most detailed work has involved light ion beams. Nuclear structure effects, for example, may well be quite prominent for heavier beams. Furthermore, the nuclear excitation functions for the production of different fragment isotopes have immediate application to the astrophysical interpretation of existing isotopic datasets obtained from balloon and satellite measurements of galactic cosmic rays

  11. Immobilized strychnine as a new chiral stationary phase for HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sýkora, David; Vozka, Jiří; Tesařová, Eva; Kalíková, Květa; Havlík, Martin; Matějka, Pavel; Král, Vladimír

    2017-08-01

    A new ion-exchanger type chiral stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography was prepared. The synthetic protocol is based on derivatization of silica with (3-iodopropyl)trimethoxysilane in the first step followed by immobilization of strychnine via quaternization of nitrogen atom of the alkaloid strychnine. The synthesized chiral stationary phase was chromatographically characterized. The main effort was headed towards the evaluation of the enantioselectivity of the novel sorbent. For that purpose a set of suitable chiral probes, specifically, binaphthyl derivatives, was employed. The influence of methanol content, concentration of aqueous ammonium acetate buffer, and its pH on retention factors, separation selectivity, and resolution of the atropoisomers of the mentioned chiral solutes was studied in detail. It was demonstrated that the new chiral stationary phase was capable to separate atropoisomers of four out of seven testing compounds. Despite the strong influence of the above mentioned variables on retention, their impact on selectivity and resolution was rather moderate. Concerning retention mechanism, it seems that electrostatic interaction between the positively charged quaternary nitrogen of the chiral stationary phase and anionic solute participates significantly in the retention process. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Novel carbohydrate-based chiral ammonium ionic liquids derived from isomannide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vineet; Pei, Cao; Olsen, Carl E.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis and characterization of novel carbohydrate-based chiral ammonium ionic liquids using isomannide as a biorenewable substrate. The diastereomeric interactions of these chiral ammonium ionic liquids with racemic Mosher's acid salt have been studied using NMR, which...

  13. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    41] which will be measured to high accuracy at Jefferson Laboratory at the experiment PrimEx. 4. Baryon chiral perturbation theory. Baryon chiral perturbation theory in the modern era was first formulated in [6]. This was a relativistic formulation ...

  14. Algebraic study of chiral anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-14

    Jun 14, 2012 ... Abstract. The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles ... Editor's Note: †Reproduced with kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Algebraic study of chiral anoma- ..... We shall see in the sequel several examples in which this ambiguity helps.

  15. Quark search at the CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.C.; Leipuner, L.B.; Morse, W.M.; Adair, R.K.; Kasha, H.; Schmidt, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment to search for quarks at the CBA is described. The cross sections for the production of massive quark-antiquark pairs in nucleon-nucleon interactions is estimated, and the experimental design and procedures are described

  16. Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-08-01

    In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.

  17. Amino-acid- and peptide-directed synthesis of chiral plasmonic gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Ahn, Hyo-Yong; Mun, Jungho; Lee, Yoon Young; Kim, Minkyung; Cho, Nam Heon; Chang, Kiseok; Kim, Wook Sung; Rho, Junsuk; Nam, Ki Tae

    2018-04-01

    Understanding chirality, or handedness, in molecules is important because of the enantioselectivity that is observed in many biochemical reactions 1 , and because of the recent development of chiral metamaterials with exceptional light-manipulating capabilities, such as polarization control 2-4 , a negative refractive index 5 and chiral sensing 6 . Chiral nanostructures have been produced using nanofabrication techniques such as lithography 7 and molecular self-assembly 8-11 , but large-scale and simple fabrication methods for three-dimensional chiral structures remain a challenge. In this regard, chirality transfer represents a simpler and more efficient method for controlling chiral morphology 12-18 . Although a few studies 18,19 have described the transfer of molecular chirality into micrometre-sized helical ceramic crystals, this technique has yet to be implemented for metal nanoparticles with sizes of hundreds of nanometres. Here we develop a strategy for synthesizing chiral gold nanoparticles that involves using amino acids and peptides to control the optical activity, handedness and chiral plasmonic resonance of the nanoparticles. The key requirement for achieving such chiral structures is the formation of high-Miller-index surfaces ({hkl}, h ≠ k ≠ l ≠ 0) that are intrinsically chiral, owing to the presence of 'kink' sites 20-22 in the nanoparticles during growth. The presence of chiral components at the inorganic surface of the nanoparticles and in the amino acids and peptides results in enantioselective interactions at the interface between these elements; these interactions lead to asymmetric evolution of the nanoparticles and the formation of helicoid morphologies that consist of highly twisted chiral elements. The gold nanoparticles that we grow display strong chiral plasmonic optical activity (a dis-symmetry factor of 0.2), even when dispersed randomly in solution; this observation is supported by theoretical calculations and direct

  18. Chiral analysis of baryon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, T.A.

    2007-11-08

    This work presents an extensive theoretical investigation of the structure of the nucleon within the standard model of elementary particle physics. In particular, the long range contributions to a number of various form factors parametrizing the interactions of the nucleon with an electromagnetic probe are calculated. The theoretical framework for those calculations is chiral perturbation theory, the exact low energy limit of Quantum Chromo Dynamics, which describes such long range contributions in terms of a pion-cloud. In this theory, a nonrelativistic leading one loop order calculation of the form factors parametrizing the vector transition of a nucleon to its lowest lying resonance, the {delta}, a covariant calculation of the isovector and isoscalar vector form factors of the nucleon at next to leading one loop order and a covariant calculation of the isoscalar and isovector generalized vector form factors of the nucleon at leading one loop order are performed. In order to perform consistent loop calculations in the covariant formulation of chiral perturbation theory an appropriate renormalization scheme is defined in this work. All theoretical predictions are compared to phenomenology and results from lattice QCD simulations. These comparisons allow for a determination of the low energy constants of the theory. Furthermore, the possibility of chiral extrapolation, i.e. the extrapolation of lattice data from simulations at large pion masses down to the small physical pion mass is studied in detail. Statistical as well as systematic uncertainties are estimated for all results throughout this work. (orig.)

  19. The topological structures in strongly coupled QGP with chiral fermions on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sayantan [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York-11973 (United States); Dick, Viktor [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätstasse 25, D33619 Bielefeld (Germany); Karsch, Frithjof [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York-11973 (United States); Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätstasse 25, D33619 Bielefeld (Germany); Laermann, Edwin [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätstasse 25, D33619 Bielefeld (Germany); Mukherjee, Swagato [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York-11973 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The nature of chiral phase transition for two flavor QCD is an interesting but unresolved problem. One of the most intriguing issues is whether or not the anomalous U(1) symmetry in the flavor sector is effectively restored along with the chiral symmetry. This may determine the universality class of the chiral phase transition. Since the physics near the chiral phase transition is essentially non-perturbative, we employ first principles lattice techniques to address this issue. We use overlap fermions, which have exact chiral symmetry on the lattice, to probe the anomalous U(1) symmetry violation of 2+1 flavor dynamical QCD configurations with domain wall fermions. The latter also optimally preserves chiral and flavor symmetries on the lattice, since it is known that the remnant chiral symmetry of the light quarks influences the scaling of the chiral condensate in the crossover transition region. We observe that the anomalous U(1) is not effectively restored in the chiral crossover region. We perform a systematic study of the finite size and cut-off effects since the signals of U(1) violation are sensitive to it. We also provide a glimpse of the microscopic topological structures of the QCD medium that are responsible for the strongly interacting nature of the quark gluon plasma phase. We study the effect of these microscopic constituents through our first calculations for the topological susceptibility of QCD at finite temperature, which could be a crucial input for the equation of state for anomalous hydrodynamics.

  20. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Kenichi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    {pi} meson, (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone particle caused by a spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, was studied by use of Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in the limits of effective model as a bound state of quark and antiquark. The effective model has nonlocal interaction and proved to satisfy the Gell-Mann-Oaks-Renner (GMOR) mass formula by treating correct Noether current in spite of loss of local chiral invariance of interaction term. GMOR mass formula: M{sub {pi}}{sup 2}f{sub {pi}}{sup 2}{approx_equal}-2m{sub 0} was realized as the result of the dynamical breaking and the clear breaking of chiral symmetry. M{sub {pi}}, f{sub {pi}}, m{sub 0}, and indicate mass of pseudo scalar meson, decay constant, mass of quark and vacuum condensation of quark and antiquark. (S.Y.)

  1. Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

    2011-03-09

    A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

  2. Supernovae, neutrinos and the chirality of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Richard N; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the (14)N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's proteinaceous amino acids.

  3. Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.; Kajino, T.; Onaka, T.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

  4. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Richard N.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids. PMID:21747686

  5. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kajino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids.

  6. Study of Muon Pairs and Vector Mesons Produced in High Energy Pb-Pb Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    Karavicheva, T; Atayan, M; Bordalo, P; Constans, N P; Gulkanyan, H; Kluberg, L

    2002-01-01

    %NA50 %title\\\\ \\\\The experiment studies dimuons produced in Pb-Pb and p-A collisions, at nucleon-nucleon c.m. energies of $ \\sqrt{s} $ = 18 and 30 GeV respectively. The setup accepts dimuons in a kinematical range roughly defined as $0.1$ $1 GeV/c$, and stands maximal luminosity (5~10$^{7}$~Pb ions and 10$^7$ interactions per burst). The physics includes signals which probe QGP (Quark-Gluon Plasma), namely the $\\phi$, J/$\\psi$ and $\\psi^\\prime$ vector mesons and thermal dimuons, and reference signals, namely the (unseparated) $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ mesons, and Drell-Yan dimuons. The experiment is a continuation, with improved means, of NA38, and expands its study of {\\it charmonium suppression} and {\\it strangeness enhancement}.\\\\ \\\\The muons are measured in the former NA10 spectrometer, which is shielded from the hot target region by a beam stopper and absorber wall. The muons traverse 5~m of BeO and C. The impact parameter is determined by a Zero Degree Calorimeter (Ta with silica fibres). Energy dissipation ...

  7. Deuteron spin-flip reactions and supermultiplet potential model of interaction of the lightest clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V M; Struzhko, B G

    2002-01-01

    Heterogeneous data on the double and triple differential cross sections of d + p -> np + p and d + t(h) -> np + t(h) or d + t -> nn + h nuclear reactions are reduced by Migdal-Watson approximation to the unified shape of the differential cross section angular dependence having in mind just singlet nucleon-nucleon pair formation. The results are compared with the supermultiplet potential model of the lightest nuclei interaction. The d + t(h) collision is characterized by the fact that the power of V sup [ sup 4 sup 1 sup ] (r) potential is 50% higher than that of the V sup [ sup 3 sup 2 sup ] (r) one ([f] = [41] and [f] = [32] are the orbital Young patterns. This is why the theory is able to describe quantitatively both the above experiment and the elastic scattering one. However, for d + p collision the difference of potential powers for the [f] = [3] and [f] = [21] patterns equals 20% only and the agreement of theory with experiment on deuteron spin-flip is merely qualitative

  8. Optical Chirality in Nonlinear Optics: Application to High Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Ofer; Cohen, Oren

    2018-03-01

    Optical chirality (OC)—one of the fundamental quantities of electromagnetic fields—corresponds to the instantaneous chirality of light. It has been utilized for exploring chiral light-matter interactions in linear optics, but has not yet been applied to nonlinear processes. Motivated to explore the role of OC in the generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses, we first separate the OC of transversal and paraxial beams to polarization and orbital terms. We find that the polarization-associated OC of attosecond pulses corresponds approximately to that of the pump in the quasimonochromatic case, but not in the multichromatic pump cases. We associate this discrepancy with the fact that the polarization OC of multichromatic pumps vary rapidly in time along the optical cycle. Thus, we propose new quantities, noninstantaneous polarization-associated OC, and time-scale-weighted polarization-associated OC, and show that these quantities link the chirality of multichromatic pumps and their generated attosecond pulses. The presented extension to OC theory should be useful for exploring various nonlinear chiral light-matter interactions. For example, it stimulates us to propose a tricircular pump for generation of highly elliptical attosecond pulses with a tunable ellipticity.

  9. Towards chiral diamines as chiral catalytic precursors for the borane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2)-2-anilinomethylpiperidine (2) have been employed as chiral catalytic sources in the borane-mediated asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones thus providing the resulting secondary alcohols in good enantiomeric purities (up to 81% ) ...

  10. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  11. Chiral higher spin gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2017-06-01

    We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.

  12. Dipole response in neutron-rich nuclei within self-consistent approaches using realistic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Iudice N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nucleon-nucleon chiral potential with a corrective density dependent term simulating a three-body force is used in a self-consistent calculation of the dipole strength distribution in neutron-rich nuclei, with special attention to the low-lying spectra associated to the pygmy resonance. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov basis is generated and adopted in Tamm-Dancoff and random-phase approximations and, then, in an equation of motion approach which includes a basis of two-phonon states. The direct use of the mentioned chiral potential improves the description of both giant and pygmy dipole modes with respect to other realistic interactions. Moreover, the inclusion of the two-phonon states induces a pronounced fragmentation of the giant resonance and enhances the density of the low-lying levels in the pygmy region in agreement with recent experiments.

  13. Continuous chiral separations in microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Meinds, Tim G.; Pinxterhuis, Erik; Schuur, Boelo; de Vries, Johannes G.; Feringa, B.L.; Winkelman, Jozef; Yue, Jun; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The potential of microreactors for enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction has been explored. The experiments were performed in capillary microreactors with combined reactive extraction and phase separation, for the chiral separation of a representative racemic amino acid derivative

  14. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  15. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  16. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  17. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  18. NMR-based Enantiodifferentiation of Chiral trans-2-Phenylcyclopropane Derivatives Using a Chiral Lanthanide Shift Reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam Sook; Kim, Hyun Sook; Song, Mi Sook

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with optical methods, there is no need to characterize the pure enantiomers. Instead, the NMR method makes use of chiral reagents that convert a mixture of enantiomers into a mixture of diastereomeric complexes. Integration of the resulting NMR spectra yields a direct measurement of enantiomeric purity as long as there is a sufficiently large difference between the chemical shifts of the two diastereoisomeric complexes to produce baseline-resolved peaks. Absolute enantiomeric configurations can also be determined using this method. Chiral lanthanide shift reagents have been used since the 1970s to form addition complexes with various compounds through interactions with electron donor sites. Lanthanide-induced, pseudo-contact shifts (LIS) are a function of the distance, r, between the nuclei under observation and the lanthanide center, and the angle, θ, between the line connecting the metal ion with the observed nucleus and the line representing the CLSR magnetic axis

  19. Spin flexoelectricity and chiral spin structures in magnetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatakov, A. P.; Sergeev, A. S.; Mikailzade, F. A.; Zvezdin, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    In this short review a broad range of chiral phenomena observed in magnetic films (spin cycloid and skyrmion structures formation as well as chirality dependent domain wall motion) is considered under the perspective of spin flexoelectricity, i.e. the relation between bending of magnetization pattern and electric polarization. The similarity and the difference between the spin flexoelectricity and the newly emerged notion of spin flexomagnetism are discussed. The phenomenological arguments based on the geometrical idea of curvature-induced effects are supported by analysis of the microscopic mechanisms of spin flexoelectricity based on three-site ion indirect exchange and twisted RKKY interaction models.

  20. Scattering of decuplet baryons in chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidenbauer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Petschauer, S.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    A formalism for treating the scattering of decuplet baryons in chiral effective field theory is developed. The minimal Lagrangian and potentials in leading-order SU(3) chiral effective field theory for the interactions of octet baryons (B) and decuplet baryons (D) for the transitions BB → BB, BB <-> DB, DB → DB, BB <-> DD, DB <-> DD, and DD → DD are provided. As an application of the formalism we compare with results from lattice QCD simulations for ΩΩ and NΩ scattering. Implications of our results pertinent to the quest for dibaryons are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Macdonald index and chiral algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaewon

    2017-08-01

    For any 4d N = 2 SCFT, there is a subsector described by a 2d chiral algebra. The vacuum character of the chiral algebra reproduces the Schur index of the corresponding 4d theory. The Macdonald index counts the same set of operators as the Schur index, but the former has one more fugacity than the latter. We conjecture a prescription to obtain the Macdonald index from the chiral algebra. The vacuum module admits a filtration, from which we construct an associated graded vector space. From this grading, we conjecture a notion of refined character for the vacuum module of a chiral algebra, which reproduces the Macdonald index. We test this prescription for the Argyres-Douglas theories of type ( A 1 , A 2 n ) and ( A 1 , D 2 n+1) where the chiral algebras are given by Virasoro and \\widehat{su}(2) affine Kac-Moody algebra. When the chiral algebra has more than one family of generators, our prescription requires a knowledge of the generators from the 4d.

  2. Chiral ligand exchange countercurrent chromatography: Enantioseparation of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Jin, Jing; Lv, Liqiong; Bu, Zhisi; Tong, Shengqiang

    2018-03-01

    This work deals with the enantioseparation of α-amino acids by chiral ligand exchange high-speed countercurrent chromatography using N-n-dodecyl-l-hydroxyproline as a chiral ligand and copper(II) as a transition metal ion. A biphasic solvent system composed of n-hexane/n-butanol/aqueous phase with different volume ratios was selected for each α-amino acid. The enantioseparation conditions were optimized by enantioselective liquid-liquid extractions, in which the main influence factors, including type of chiral ligand, concentration of chiral ligand and transition metal ion, separation temperature, and pH of the aqueous phase, were investigated for racemic phenylalanine. Altogether, we tried to enantioseparate 15 racemic α-amino acids by the analytical countercurrent chromatography, of which only five of them could be successfully enantioseparated. Different elution sequence for phenylalanine enantiomer was observed compared with traditional liquid chromatography and the proposed interactions between chiral ligand, transition metal ion (Cu 2+ ), and enantiomer are discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Chirality-selected phase behaviour in ionic polypeptide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah L.; Leon, Lorraine; Hoffmann, Kyle Q.; Kade, Matthew J.; Priftis, Dimitrios; Black, Katie A.; Wong, Derek; Klein, Ryan A.; Pierce, Charles F.; Margossian, Khatcher O.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes present new opportunities for self-assembled soft matter. Factors determining whether the phase of the complex is solid or liquid remain unclear. Ionic polypeptides enable examination of the effects of stereochemistry on complex formation. Here we demonstrate that chirality determines the state of polyelectrolyte complexes, formed from mixing dilute solutions of oppositely charged polypeptides, via a combination of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Fluid complexes occur when at least one of the polypeptides in the mixture is racemic, which disrupts backbone hydrogen-bonding networks. Pairs of purely chiral polypeptides, of any sense, form compact, fibrillar solids with a β-sheet structure. Analogous behaviour occurs in micelles formed from polypeptide block copolymers with polyethylene oxide, where assembly into aggregates with either solid or fluid cores, and eventually into ordered phases at high concentrations, is possible. Chirality is an exploitable tool for manipulating material properties in polyelectrolyte complexation. PMID:25586861

  4. Chirality Quantum Phase Transition in Noncommutative Dirac Oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shao-Hua; Hou Yu-Long; Jing Jian; Wang Qing; Long Zheng-Wen

    2014-01-01

    The charged Dirac oscillator on a noncommutative plane coupling to a uniform perpendicular magnetic held is studied in this paper. We map the noncommutative plane to a commutative one by means of Bopp shift and study this problem on the commutative plane. We find that this model can be mapped onto a quantum optics model which contains Anti—Jaynes—Cummings (AJC) or Jaynes—Cummings (JC) interactions when a dimensionless parameter ζ (which is the function of the intensity of the magnetic held) takes values in different regimes. Furthermore, this model behaves as experiencing a chirality quantum phase transition when the dimensionless parameter ζ approaches the critical point. Several evidences of the chirality quantum phase transition are presented. We also study the non-relativistic limit of this model and find that a similar chirality quantum phase transition takes place in its non-relativistic limit. (physics of elementary particles and fields)

  5. Helimagnon Resonances in an Intrinsic Chiral Magnonic Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Mathias; Aqeel, Aisha; Mostovoy, Maxim; Leonov, Andrey; Geprägs, Stephan; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally study magnetic resonances in the helical and conical magnetic phases of the chiral magnetic insulator Cu2OSeO3 at the temperature T =5 K . Using a broadband microwave spectroscopy technique based on vector network analysis, we identify three distinct sets of helimagnon resonances in the frequency range 2 GHz ≤f ≤20 GHz with low magnetic damping α ≤0.003 . The extracted resonance frequencies are in accordance with calculations of the helimagnon band structure found in an intrinsic chiral magnonic crystal. The periodic modulation of the equilibrium spin direction that leads to the formation of the magnonic crystal is a direct consequence of the chiral magnetic ordering caused by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The mode coupling in the magnonic crystal allows excitation of helimagnons with wave vectors that are multiples of the spiral wave vector.

  6. Chirality transfer across length-scales in nematic liquid crystals: fundamentals and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieraccini, Silvia; Masiero, Stefano; Ferrarini, Alberta; Piero Spada, Gian

    2011-01-01

    When a chiral dopant is dissolved in an achiral liquid crystal medium, the whole sample organizes into a helical structure with a characteristic length-scale of the order of microns. The relation between chirality at these quite different length-scales can be rationalized by a relatively simple model, which retains the relevant factors coming into play: the molecular shape of the chiral dopant, which controls the chirality of short range intermolecular interactions, and the elastic properties of the nematic environment, which control the restoring torques opposing distortion of the director. In this tutorial review the relation between molecular and phase chirality will be reviewed and several applications of the chiral doping of nematic LCs will be discussed. These range from the exploitation of the amplified molecular chirality for stereochemical purposes (e.g., the determination of the absolute configuration or the enantiomeric excess), to newer applications in physico-chemical fields. The latter take advantage of the periodicity of the chiral field, with length-scales ranging from hundreds to thousands of nanometres, which characterise the cholesteric phase.

  7. Chirality in adsorption on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaera, Francisco

    2017-12-07

    In the present review we survey the main advances made in recent years on the understanding of chemical chirality at solid surfaces. Chirality is an important topic, made particularly relevant by the homochiral nature of the biochemistry of life on Earth, and many chiral chemical reactions involve solid surfaces. Here we start our discussion with a description of surface chirality and of the different ways that chirality can be bestowed on solid surfaces. We then expand on the studies carried out to date to understand the adsorption of chiral compounds at a molecular level. We summarize the work published on the adsorption of pure enantiomers, of enantiomeric mixtures, and of prochiral molecules on chiral and achiral model surfaces, especially on well-defined metal single crystals but also on other flat substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Several phenomena are identified, including surface reconstruction and chiral imprinting upon adsorption of chiral agents, and the enhancement or suppression of enantioselectivity seen in some cases upon adsorption of enantiomixtures of chiral compounds. The possibility of enhancing the enantiopurity of adsorbed layers upon the addition of chiral seeds and the so-called "sergeants and soldiers" phenomenon are presented. Examples are provided where the chiral behavior has been associated with either thermodynamic or kinetic driving forces. Two main approaches to the creation of enantioselective surface sites are discussed, namely, via the formation of supramolecular chiral ensembles made out of small chiral adsorbates, and by adsorption of more complex chiral molecules capable of providing suitable chiral environments for reactants by themselves, via the formation of individual adsorbate:modifier adducts on the surface. Finally, a discussion is offered on the additional effects generated by the presence of the liquid phase often required in practical applications such as enantioselective crystallization, chiral

  8. Decay of kaonium in a chiral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevansky, S. P.; Lemmer, R. H.

    2011-08-01

    The decay of the KK hadronic atom kaonium is investigated non-perturbatively using meson-meson interaction amplitudes taken from leading order chiral perturbation theory in an approach adapted from that proposed by Oller and Oset (1997) [18]. The Kudryavtsev-Popov eigenvalue equation is solved numerically for the energy shift and decay width due to strong interactions in the 1s state. These calculations introduce a cutoff ˜1.4 GeV in O(4) momentum space that is necessary to regulate divergent loop contributions to the meson-meson scattering amplitudes in the strong-interaction sector. One finds lifetimes of (2.2±0.9)×10 s for the ground state of kaonium.

  9. Decay of kaonium in a chiral approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevansky, S.P.; Lemmer, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The decay of the K + K - hadronic atom kaonium is investigated non-perturbatively using meson-meson interaction amplitudes taken from leading order chiral perturbation theory in an approach adapted from that proposed by Oller and Oset (1997) . The Kudryavtsev-Popov eigenvalue equation is solved numerically for the energy shift and decay width due to strong interactions in the 1s state. These calculations introduce a cutoff ∼1.4 GeV in O(4) momentum space that is necessary to regulate divergent loop contributions to the meson-meson scattering amplitudes in the strong-interaction sector. One finds lifetimes of (2.2±0.9)x10 -18 s for the ground state of kaonium.

  10. Doped Chiral Polymer Negative Index Materials (DCPNIM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer-Negative Index Materials (DCP-NIM) with tunable resonance frequencies are developed by adding various plasmonic nanoinclusions into chiral...

  11. Chiral Dynamics in Pion-Photon Reactions Habilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Jan Michael

    As the lightest particle of the strong force, the pion plays a central role in the field of strong interactions, and understanding its properties is of prime relevance for understanding the strong interaction in general. The low-energy behaviour of pions is of particular interest. Although the quark-gluon substructure and their quantum chromodynamics is not apparent then, this specific inner structure causes the presence of approximate symmetries in pion-pion interactions and in pion decays, which gives rise to the systematic description of processes involving pions in terms of few low-energy constants. Specifically, the chiral symmetry and its spontaneous and explicit breaking, treated in chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), leads to firm predictions for low-energy properties of the pion. To those belong the electromagnetic polarisabilities of the pion, describing the leading-order structure effect in pion Compton scattering. The research presented in this work is concerned with the interaction of pions and ph...

  12. Tactoids of chiral liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Betancur, Viviana; Villada-Gil, Stiven; Zhou, Ye; Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; de Pablo, Juan José; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan Pablo

    The phase diagram of chiral liquid crystals confined in ellipsoids is obtained, by following a theoretically informed Monte Carlo relaxation of the tensor alignment field Q. The free energy of the system is described by a functional in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. This study also includes the effect of anchoring strength, curvature, and chirality of the system. In the low chirality region of the phase diagram we found the twist bipolar (BS) phase and some cholesteric phases such as the radial spherical structure (RSS), twist cylinder (TC) and double twist cylinder (DTC) whose axis of rotation is not necessarily aligned with the major axis of the geometry. For high chirality scenarios, the disclination lines are twisted or bent near the surface preventing the formation of symmetric networks of defects, although an hexagonal pattern is formed on the surface which might serve as open sites for collocation of colloids. By analyzing the free energies of isochoric systems, prolate geometries tend to be more favorable for high chirality and low anchoring conditions. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Ph.D. grant and COLCIENCIAS under the Contract No. 110-165-843-748. CONACYT for Postdoctoral Fellowships Nos. 186166 and 203840.

  13. Relativistic scalar-vector models of the N-N and N-nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper for the Proceedings of Conference an Anti-Nucleon and Nucleon-Nucleus Interactions summarizes work by the principal investigator and his collaborators on the nucleon-nucleon (N-N) and nucleon-nuclear (N-eta) interactions. It draws heavily on a paper presented at the Many Body Conference in Rome in 1972 but also includes a brief review of our phenomenological N-eta interaction studies. We first summarize our 48-49 generalized scalar-vector meson field theory model of the N-N interactions. This is followed by a brief description of our phenomenological work in the 50's on the N-eta interaction sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission (the present DOE). This work finally led to strong velocity dependent potentials with spin orbit and isospin terms for shell and optical model applications. This is followed by a section on the Emergence of One-Boson Exchange Models describing developments in the 60's of quantitative generalized one boson exchange potentials (GOBEP) including our purely relativistic N-N analyses. Then follows a section on the application of this meson field model to the N-eta interaction, in particular to spherical closed shell nuclei. This work was sponsored by AFOSR but funding was halted with the Mansfield amendment. We conclude with a discussion of subsequent collateral work by former colleagues and by others who have converged upon scalar-vector relativistic models of N-N, antiN-N, N-eta and antiN-eta interactions and some lessons learned from this extended endeavor. 61 refs

  14. Constraints of a parity-conserving/time-reversal-non-conserving interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2002-01-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement at CPLEAR. One then can ask the question: What about tests of time-reversal-invariance in systems other than the kaon system? Tests of time-reversal-invariance can be distinguished as belonging to two classes: the first one deals with time-reversal-invariance-non-conserving (T-odd)/parity violating (P-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with T-odd/P-even interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a T-odd/P-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron ( -26 e.cm [95% C.L.]). It provides a limit on a T-odd/P-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is less than 10 -4 times the weak interaction strength. Experimental limits on a T-odd/P-even interaction are much less stringent. Following the standard approach of describing the nucleon-nucleon interaction in terms of meson exchanges, it can be shown that only charged ρ-meson exchange and A 1 -meson exchange can lead to a T-odd/P-even interaction. The better constraints stem from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron and from measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering. The latter experiments were executed at TRIUMF (497 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (183 MeV). All other experiments, like detailed balance experiments, polarization - analyzing power difference determinations, and five-fold correlation experiments with polarized incident nucleons and aligned nuclear targets, have been shown to be at least an order to magnitude less sensitive. Is there room for further experimentation?

  15. What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs

  16. Dynamics of hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Recent progress in diffraction theory shows that proton-nucleus scattering at nonforward angles is dominated by the interference of waves from two or more bright spots. Analytic formulas based on asymptotic theories of diffraction yield valuable new insights into the scattering and these formulas can be readily extended to illuminate the role of dynamical ingredients, i.e., the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. The governing parameters of the diffraction and some direct connections between the observed cross sections and the input dynamics are reviewed. New information regarding the nucleon-nucleon parameters based on recent phase shift analyses show some systematic differences from the effective NN amplitudes which produce fits to proton-nucleus diffraction data. Recent progress in understanding the role of Δ-isobars in proton-nucleus dynamics is reviewed. 126 references

  17. Nucleon-nucleon correlations and multiquark cluster effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simula, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1994-04-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off nuclei is investigated assuming that virtual boson absorption occurs on a hadronic cluster which can be either a two-nucleon correlated pair or a six-quark bag. The differences in the energy distribution of nucleons produced in backward and forward directions are analyzed both at x<1 and x>1.

  18. Solutions of ward's modified chiral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, T.; Zakrzewski, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the adaptation of Uhlenbeck's method of solving the chiral model in 2 Euclidean dimensions to Ward's modified chiral model in (2+1) dimensions. We show that the method reduces the problem of solving the second-order partial differential equations for the chiral field to solving a sequence of first-order partial differential equations for time dependent projector valued fields

  19. Introduction to chiral symmetry in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdjian H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of chiral symmetry in QCD are presented. The necessity of its spontaneous breakdown is explained. Some low-energy theorems are reviewed. The role of chiral effective Lagrangians in the formulation and realization of chiral perturbation theory is emphasized. The consequences of the presence of anomalies are sketched.

  20. Developments of Chiral Metallocenes as Polymerization Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Shiono

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This review article describes developments in chiral metallocenes as polymerization catalysts focusing on C2 symmetric ansa-zirconocene complexes. Selective synthesis of rac-isomers of ansa-zirconocenes are surveyed. Isospecific polymerizations of propylene catalyzed by chiral zirconocenes are summarized. Advanced series of polymerizations by chiral metallocenes such as asymmetric polymerization and polymerization of polar monomers are also introduced.

  1. Covariant perturbation theory and chiral superpropagators

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, G

    1972-01-01

    The authors use a covariant formulation of perturbation theory for the non-linear chiral invariant pion model to define chiral superpropagators leading to S-matrix elements which are independent of the choice of the pion field coordinates. The relation to the standard definition of chiral superpropagators is discussed. (11 refs).

  2. Chiral sedimentation of extended objects in viscous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Nathan W.; Witten, Thomas A.; Keim, Nathan C.

    2009-05-01

    We study theoretically the chirality of a generic rigid object’s sedimentation in a fluid under gravity in the low Reynolds number regime. We represent the object as a collection of small Stokes spheres or stokeslets and the gravitational force as a constant point force applied at an arbitrary point of the object. For a generic configuration of stokeslets and forcing point, the motion takes a simple form in the nearly free draining limit where the stokeslet radius is arbitrarily small. In this case, the internal hydrodynamic interactions between stokeslets are weak, and the object follows a helical path while rotating at a constant angular velocity ω about a fixed axis. This ω is independent of initial orientation and thus constitutes a chiral response for the object. Even though there can be no such chiral response in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions between the stokeslets, the angular velocity obtains a fixed nonzero limit as the stokeslet radius approaches zero. We characterize empirically how ω depends on the placement of the stokeslets, concentrating on three-stokeslet objects with the external force applied far from the stokeslets. Objects with the largest ω are aligned along the forcing direction. In this case, the limiting ω varies as the inverse square of the minimum distance between stokeslets. We illustrate the prevalence of this robust chiral motion with experiments on small macroscopic objects of arbitrary shape.

  3. Fusion rules of chiral algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently we showed that for the case of the WZW and the minimal models fusion can be understood as a certain ring-like tensor product of the symmetry algebra. In this paper we generalize this analysis to arbitrary chiral algebras. We define the tensor product of conformal field theory in the general case and prove that it is associative and symmetric up to equivalence. We also determine explicitly the action of the chiral algebra on this tensor product. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate that this framework provides a powerful tool for calculating restrictions for the fusion rules of chiral algebras. We exhibit this for the case of the W 3 algebra and the N=1 and N=2 NS superconformal algebras. (orig.)

  4. Chirally motivated K- nuclear potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieply, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mares, J.

    2011-01-01

    In-medium subthreshold K-bar N scattering amplitudes calculated within a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model are used self consistently to confront K - atom data across the periodic table. Substantially deeper K - nuclear potentials are obtained compared to the shallow potentials derived in some approaches from threshold K-bar N amplitudes, with ReV K chiral =-(85±5) MeV at nuclear matter density. When K-bar NN contributions are incorporated phenomenologically, a very deep K - nuclear potential results, ReV K c hiral+phen. =-(180±5) MeV, in agreement with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits to the data. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K - -nuclear quasibound states generated by V K chiral are reported and discussed.

  5. Chiral symmetry on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.

    1994-11-01

    The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model.

  6. Chiral symmetry on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1994-11-01

    The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model

  7. The Calculation of Single-Nucleon Energies of Nuclei by Considering Two-Body Effective Interaction, n(k,ρ, and a Hartree-Fock Inspired Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mariji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleon single-particle energies (SPEs of the selected nuclei, that is, O16, Ca40, and Ni56, are obtained by using the diagonal matrix elements of two-body effective interaction, which generated through the lowest-order constrained variational (LOCV calculations for the symmetric nuclear matter with the Aυ18 phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potential. The SPEs at the major levels of nuclei are calculated by employing a Hartree-Fock inspired scheme in the spherical harmonic oscillator basis. In the scheme, the correlation influences are taken into account by imposing the nucleon effective mass factor on the radial wave functions of the major levels. Replacing the density-dependent one-body momentum distribution functions of nucleons, n(k,ρ, with the Heaviside functions, the role of n(k,ρ in the nucleon SPEs at the major levels of the selected closed shell nuclei is investigated. The best fit of spin-orbit splitting is taken into account when correcting the major levels of the nuclei by using the parameterized Wood-Saxon potential and the Aυ18 density-dependent mean field potential which is constructed by the LOCV method. Considering the point-like protons in the spherical Coulomb potential well, the single-proton energies are corrected. The results show the importance of including n(k,ρ, instead of the Heaviside functions, in the calculation of nucleon SPEs at the different levels, particularly the valence levels, of the closed shell nuclei.

  8. Towards chiral diamines as chiral catalytic precursors for the borane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    anilinomethylpiperidine (2) have been employed as chiral catalytic sources in the borane-mediated asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones ..... 7⋅86 min (S) and 8.53 min (R)]. 2.7c (S)-2-Bromo-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol [(S)– ... of (a) compound 8 and (b) compound 15-TFA salt (Hydrogen atoms were omitted for clarity).

  9. Chiral trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane derivatives as chiral solvating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    pounds in biological and pharmaceutical chemistry,. 1–4 there is increasing requirement for fast and accurate methodologies for the determination of enantiomeric composition of these chiral compounds. Among the various available methods, NMR spectroscopy has the advantages of easy performance and accessibi- lity.

  10. Chiral xenobiotics bioaccumulations and environmental health prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqbal; ALOthman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Ali, Imran

    2015-08-01

    The chiral xenobiotics are very dangerous for all of us due to the different enantioselective toxicities of the enantiomers. Besides, these have different enantioselective bioaccumulations and behaviors in our body and other organisms. It is of urgent need to understand the enantioselective bioaccumulations, toxicities, and the health hazards of the chiral xenobiotics. The present article describes the classification, sources of contamination, distribution, enantioselective bioaccumulation, and the toxicities of the chiral xenobiotics. Besides, the efforts are also made to discuss the prevention and remedial measures of the havoc of the chiral xenobiotics. The challenges of the chiral xenobiotics have also been highlighted. Finally, future prospectives are also discussed.

  11. Degenerate and chiral states in the extended Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Pujol, P.

    2018-03-01

    We present a study of the low-temperature phases of the antiferromagnetic extended classical Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice, up to third-nearest neighbors. First, we focus on the degenerate lines in the boundaries of the well-known staggered chiral phases. These boundaries have either semiextensive or extensive degeneracy, and we discuss the partial selection of states by thermal fluctuations. Then, we study the model under an external magnetic field on these lines and in the staggered chiral phases. We pay particular attention to the highly frustrated point, where the three exchange couplings are equal. We show that this point can be mapped to a model with spin-liquid behavior and nonzero chirality. Finally, we explore the effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions in two ways: a homogeneous and a staggered DM interaction. In both cases, there is a rich low-temperature phase diagram, with different spontaneously broken symmetries and nontrivial chiral phases.

  12. Why (almost) all bundles are chiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Zachary V.; Blackwell, Robert A.; Glaser, Matthew A.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the self assembly of bundles of achiral hard rods with distributed, short-range attractive interactions. We show that in the majority of cases the equilibrium state of the bundle is chiral, with a double twist structure. We use biased Monte Carlo techniques and cell theory to compute the free energy as a function of an appropriately defined twist order parameter, and show that the formation of spontaneously chiral bundles is driven by maximization of orientational entropy. The finite curvature of the bundle boundary permits orientational escape, in which the circumferential angular range of motion of the rods is maximized for some finite average tilt. We map out the phase diagram of bundles in terms of the density, the ratio of rod length to bundle radius, L / R , and rod aspect ratio, L / D , and find transitions between untwisted, weakly twisted, and strongly twisted states. This work helps explain the common observation of twisted macroscopic bundles, and may provide insight into observations of twist in self-assembled membranes of colloidal rods.[2] This work funded by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-0820579.

  13. 8th International Workshop on Chiral Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The International Workshop on Chiral Dynamics 2015, the eighth in a series which started in 1994 at MIT, and was later held in Mainz (1997), Jefferson Lab (2000 and 2012), Bonn (2003), Duke (2006) and Bern (2009), will take place in Pisa, from June 29 to July 3 2015, and will be jointly hosted by the Department of Physics of the University of Pisa and the Pisa branch of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The purpose of this workshop series is to bring physicists together who are active in this field, as well as those who are interested, to discuss and debate the most recent achievements and future developments. The workshop will have a near equal contribution from theorists and experimentalists and, as in the latest editions, a strong synergy with the lattice community will be present. Topics: Hadron structure Isospin breaking in hadronic systems Meson-meson and meson-baryon interaction Effective field theory and chiral perturbation theory Few-body physics Compton scattering and the polarizabilities o...

  14. Directing the phase behavior of polyelectrolyte complexes using chiral patterned peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacalin, Naomi M.; Leon, Lorraine; Tirrell, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) have a broad range of promising applications as soft materials due to their self-assembly and diversity of structure and chemical composition. Peptide polymer PECs are highly biocompatible and biodegradable, making them particularly useful for encapsulation of food additives and flavors, micellar drug delivery, medical and underwater adhesives, fetal membrane patches, and scaffolds for cell growth in tissue engineering. While parameters affecting PEC formation and stability in regards to charge effects are well researched, little is known about the effects of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding, and secondary structure in these materials. Peptide chirality provides a unique opportunity to manipulate PEC phase to modulate the amount of solid-like (precipitate) or liquid-like (coacervate) character by influencing hydrogen bonding interactions among peptide chains. In previous work, we showed that chiral peptides form solid complexes, while complexes with even one racemic peptide were fluid. This raised the interesting question of how long a homochiral sequence must be to result in solid phase formation. In this work, we designed chiral patterned peptides of polyglutamic acid and polylysine ranging from 50 to 90% L-chiral residues with increasing numbers of sequential L-chiral residues before a chirality change. These polymers were mixed together to form PECs. We observed that 8 or more sequential L-chiral residues are necessary to achieve both the appearance of a precipitate phase and sustained beta-sheets in the complex, as determined by optical imaging and FTIR Spectroscopy. Less homochiral content results in formation of a coacervate phase. Thus, we show that chiral sequence can be used to control the phase transition of PECs. Understanding how to manipulate PEC phase using chiral sequence as presented here may enable tuning of the material properties to achieve the desired mechanical strength for coatings and polymer

  15. Directing the phase behavior of polyelectrolyte complexes using chiral patterned peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacalin, Naomi M.; Leon, Lorraine; Tirrell, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) have a broad range of promising applications as soft materials due to their self-assembly and diversity of structure and chemical composition. Peptide polymer PECs are highly biocompatible and biodegradable, making them particularly useful for encapsulation of food additives and flavors, micellar drug delivery, medical and underwater adhesives, fetal membrane patches, and scaffolds for cell growth in tissue engineering. While parameters affecting PEC formation and stability in regards to charge effects are well researched, little is known about the effects of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding, and secondary structure in these materials. Peptide chirality provides a unique opportunity to manipulate PEC phase to modulate the amount of solid-like (precipitate) or liquid-like (coacervate) character by influencing hydrogen bonding interactions among peptide chains. In previous work, we showed that chiral peptides form solid complexes, while complexes with even one racemic peptide were fluid. This raised the interesting question of how long a homochiral sequence must be to result in solid phase formation. In this work, we designed chiral patterned peptides of polyglutamic acid and polylysine ranging from 50 to 90% L-chiral residues with increasing numbers of sequential L-chiral residues before a chirality change. These polymers were mixed together to form PECs. We observed that 8 or more sequential L-chiral residues are necessary to achieve both the appearance of a precipitate phase and sustained β-sheets in the complex, as determined by optical imaging and FTIR Spectroscopy. Less homochiral content results in formation of a coacervate phase. Thus, we show that chiral sequence can be used to control the phase transition of PECs. Understanding how to manipulate PEC phase using chiral sequence as presented here may enable tuning of the material properties to achieve the desired mechanical strength for coatings and polymer

  16. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Wen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)

  17. Planar chiral metamaterials for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, Sangeeta; De Leon, Israel; Horton, Matthew; Qassim, Hammam; Leach, Jonathan; Boyd, Robert W.

    2013-02-01

    There has been a considerable effort recently in the development of planar chiral metamaterials. Owing to the lack of inversion symmetry, these materials have been shown to display interesting physical properties such as negative index of refraction and giant optical activity. However, the biosensing capabilities of these chiral metamaterials have not been fully explored. Ultrasensitive detection and structural characterization of proteins adsorbed on chiral plasmonic substrates was demonstrated recently using UV-visible circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Second harmonic generation microscopy is an extremely sensitive nonlinear optical probe to investigate the chirality of biomaterials. In this study, we characterize the chiral response of chiral plasmonic metamaterials using second harmonic generation microscopy and CD spectroscopy. These planar chiral metamaterials, fabricated by electron-beam lithography, consist of right-handed and left-handed gold gammadions of length 400 nm and thickness 100nm, deposited on a glass substrate and arranged in a square lattice with a periodicity of 800nm.

  18. New Cu(II) coordination polymer by chiral tridentate Schiff base ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messai, Amel; Bilge, Duygu; Bilge, Metin; Parlak, Cemal

    2017-06-01

    The present research reports the synthesis, X-ray, magnetic and electronic properties for novel coordination polymer based upon copper (II) with chiral tridentate Schiff base ligand synthesized at condensation of acetylacetone and L-leucine amino acid. The investigation was also conducted by quantum mechanical calculations. The large energy gap indicates a high kinetic stability. Magnetic measurement gives predominant antiferromagnetic interactions within the chain. Results reveals further insight into copper(II) chiral tridentate Schiff base complexes.

  19. Single chirality through crystal grinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of chiral molecules in living organisms can be different for left- and right-handed molecules. Therefore, ways to produce molecules of single handedness are of paramount importance, especially for economical, high yielding processes to synthesize pharmaceutical compounds that must be

  20. Principles of chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    1995-01-01

    An elementary discussion of the main concepts used in chiral perturbation theory is given in textbooks and a more detailed picture of the applications may be obtained from the reviews. Concerning the foundations of the method, the literature is comparatively scarce. So, I will concentrate on the basic concepts and explain why the method works. (author)

  1. The chiral condensate in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, R.; Weise, W.

    1995-01-01

    The change of the chiral condensate in dense matter is discussed. Especially the higher order terms in the density of nuclear matter are evaluated (in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach). Implications for nuclear physics and relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, such as the strong Dirac scalar mean field that results from the density dependence of . (orig.)

  2. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with .... terms of the effective Lagrangian at two-loop or O(p6) order is now available [12]. The formidable task of ... and straightforward manner for the system and are of great importance for the analysis of experimental ...

  3. Descendants of the Chiral Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Jackiw, R.

    2000-01-01

    Chern-Simons terms are well-known descendants of chiral anomalies, when the latter are presented as total derivatives. Here I explain that also Chern-Simons terms, when defined on a 3-manifold, may be expressed as total derivatives.

  4. Chiral phosphines in nucleophilic organocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the tertiary phosphines possessing various chiral skeletons that have been used in asymmetric nucleophilic organocatalytic reactions, including annulations of allenes, alkynes, and Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH acetates, carbonates, and ketenes with activated alkenes and imines, allylic substitutions of MBH acetates and carbonates, Michael additions, γ-umpolung additions, and acylations of alcohols.

  5. Topics in three flavor chiral dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissler, Robin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we investigate several processes in low-energy hadron physics by combining chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), the effective field theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies, with a unitarization method based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Such so-called chiral unitary approaches are capable of describing processes in the three flavor sector of the strong interaction which involve substantial effects from final-state interactions and the excitation of (subthreshold) resonances, a domain where the perturbative framework of ChPT is not applicable. In part I of this work we study η and η' decays which constitute a perfect tool to examine symmetries and symmetry breaking patterns of QCD being incorporated in a model-independent fashion in ChPT. In particular, these decays allow to investigate the breaking of isospin symmetry due to the light quark mass difference m d -m u as well as effects of anomalies stemming from the quantum nature of QCD. For these reasons the decays of η and η' have also attracted considerable experimental interest. They are currently under investigation at several facilities including KLOE rate at DAΦNE, Crystal Ball at MAMI, WASA-at-COSY, VES at IHEP, and CLEO at CESR. In part II we investigate low-energy meson-baryon scattering in the strangeness S=-1 sector which is dominated by the Λ(1405) resonance immediately below the anti KN threshold. The anti KN interaction below threshold is of relevance for the quest of possible deeply bound anti K-nuclear clusters and has recently received an additional tight constraint: the K - p scattering length as determined from kaonic hydrogen by the KEK and the DEAR collaborations. Apart from successfully describing a large amount of experimental data and furnishing predictions for yet unmeasured quantities, our calculations allow to interrelate different experimental observables providing important consistency tests of experiments. E.g. the DEAR results are shown to be

  6. Topics in three flavor chiral dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Robin

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we investigate several processes in low-energy hadron physics by combining chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), the effective field theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies, with a unitarization method based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Such so-called chiral unitary approaches are capable of describing processes in the three flavor sector of the strong interaction which involve substantial effects from final-state interactions and the excitation of (subthreshold) resonances, a domain where the perturbative framework of ChPT is not applicable. In part I of this work we study {eta} and {eta}' decays which constitute a perfect tool to examine symmetries and symmetry breaking patterns of QCD being incorporated in a model-independent fashion in ChPT. In particular, these decays allow to investigate the breaking of isospin symmetry due to the light quark mass difference m{sub d}-m{sub u} as well as effects of anomalies stemming from the quantum nature of QCD. For these reasons the decays of {eta} and {eta}' have also attracted considerable experimental interest. They are currently under investigation at several facilities including KLOE rate at DA{phi}NE, Crystal Ball at MAMI, WASA-at-COSY, VES at IHEP, and CLEO at CESR. In part II we investigate low-energy meson-baryon scattering in the strangeness S=-1 sector which is dominated by the {lambda}(1405) resonance immediately below the anti KN threshold. The anti KN interaction below threshold is of relevance for the quest of possible deeply bound anti K-nuclear clusters and has recently received an additional tight constraint: the K{sup -}p scattering length as determined from kaonic hydrogen by the KEK and the DEAR collaborations. Apart from successfully describing a large amount of experimental data and furnishing predictions for yet unmeasured quantities, our calculations allow to interrelate different experimental observables providing important consistency tests of experiments. E

  7. Spectral statistics in chiral-orthogonal disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, S N; Katsanos, D E

    2003-01-01

    We describe the singularities in the averaged density of states and the corresponding statistics of the energy levels in two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) chiral symmetric and time-reversal invariant disordered systems, realized in bipartite lattices with real off-diagonal disorder. For off-diagonal disorder of zero mean, we obtain a singular density of states in 2D which becomes much less pronounced in 3D, while the level-statistics can be described by a semi-Poisson distribution with mostly critical fractal states in 2D and Wigner surmise with mostly delocalized states in 3D. For logarithmic off-diagonal disorder of large strength, we find behaviour indistinguishable from ordinary disorder with strong localization in any dimension but in addition one-dimensional 1/ vertical bar E vertical bar Dyson-like asymptotic spectral singularities. The off-diagonal disorder is also shown to enhance the propagation of two interacting particles similarly to systems with diagonal disorder. Although disordered models with chiral symmetry differ from non-chiral ones due to the presence of spectral singularities, both share the same qualitative localization properties except at the chiral symmetry point E=0 which is critical

  8. Chiral higher spin theories and self-duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry

    2017-12-01

    We study recently proposed chiral higher spin theories — cubic theories of interacting massless higher spin fields in four-dimensional flat space. We show that they are naturally associated with gauge algebras, which manifest themselves in several related ways. Firstly, the chiral higher spin equations of motion can be reformulated as the self-dual Yang-Mills equations with the associated gauge algebras instead of the usual colour gauge algebra. We also demonstrate that the chiral higher spin field equations, similarly to the self-dual Yang-Mills equations, feature an infinite algebra of hidden symmetries, which ensures their integrability. Secondly, we show that off-shell amplitudes in chiral higher spin theories satisfy the generalised BCJ relations with the usual colour structure constants replaced by the structure constants of higher spin gauge algebras. We also propose generalised double copy procedures featuring higher spin theory amplitudes. Finally, using the light-cone deformation procedure we prove that the structure of the Lagrangian that leads to all these properties is universal and follows from Lorentz invariance.

  9. Theory of Magnetic Edge States in Chiral Graphene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaz, Rodrigo; Yazyev, Oleg; Louie, Steven

    2011-03-01

    Using a model Hamiltonian approach including electron Coulomb interactions, we systematically investigate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of chiral graphene nanoribbons. We show that the presence of magnetic edge states is an intrinsic feature of any smooth graphene nanoribbons with chiral edges, and discover a number of structure-property relations. Specifically, we describe how the edge-state energy gap, zone-boundary edge-state energy splitting, and magnetic moment per edge length depend on the nanoribbon width and chiral angle. The role of environmental screening effects is also studied. Our results address a recent experimental observation of signatures of magnetic ordering at smooth edges of chiral graphene nanoribbons and provide an avenue towards tuning their properties via the structural and environmental degrees of freedom. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR10-1006184, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the ONR MURI program. RBC acknowledges financial support from Brazilian agencies CNPq, FAPERJ and INCT-Nanomateriais de Carbono.

  10. Study of effective interactions and models in nuclei using the moment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical investigation of nuclear properties almost always involves the use of approximate schemes. A common starting point in many of these studies is the shell-model which describes a nucleus as a system consisting of m active nucleons in a N-dimensional single-particle space having an effective (1+2)-body Hamiltonian H. The Schrodinger equation in such a case reduces to a matrix (diagonalization) problem. The dimensionality of the matrix increases very rapidly with m and N. As a result, numerical computations become very large and hence additional approximations have to be used. One approach is to invoke symmetries like space symmetry and SU(3) in light nuclei so that there is a substantial reduction in the size of the many-particle vector space. Another approach which is more widely applicable is the variational one and in particular the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. Here the ground state is approximated by a single determinantal wave function having the lowest energy. In most of these applications the effective two-body interaction is chosen to be either a phenomenological one or a realistic one deduced from the free nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is of interest to study the nature of the Hamiltonian operator H under the group transformations which define the model in such spectroscopic spaces - i.e., a tensor decomposition of the interaction under the appropriate group is carried out. From this one would know about the different possible tensor components of H and their relative importance. One would also learn about symmetry breaking-its nature and the tensor components which lead to the breaking. Work done for effective interactions decomposed according to irreducible tensors under the transformations generated by the HF s.p. basis as well as the space symmetry is described

  11. Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Yuan, L.; Wang, J. S.; Qin, Q. H.

    2017-12-01

    Natural and artificial chiral materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), chromatin fibers, flagellar filaments, chiral nanotubes, and chiral lattice materials widely exist. Due to the chirality of intricately helical or twisted microstructures, such materials hold great promise for use in diverse applications in smart sensors and actuators, force probes in biomedical engineering, structural elements for absorption of microwaves and elastic waves, etc. In this paper, a Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials is developed based on noncentrosymmetric micropolar elasticity theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a chiral beam problem are derived using the variational method and Hamilton's principle. The static bending and free vibration problem of a chiral beam are investigated using the proposed model. It is found that chirality can significantly affect the mechanical behavior of beams, making materials more flexible compared with nonchiral counterparts, inducing coupled twisting deformation, relatively larger deflection, and lower natural frequency. This study is helpful not only for understanding the mechanical behavior of chiral materials such as DNA and chromatin fibers and characterizing their mechanical properties, but also for the design of hierarchically structured chiral materials.

  12. Escherichia coli adhesive coating as a chiral stationary phase for open tubular capillary electrochromatography enantioseparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Qifeng; Zhang, Kailian; Gao, Die; Wang, Lujun; Yang, Fengqing; Liu, Yao; Xia, Zhining

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria, the microorganism with intrinsic chirality, have numerous fascinating chiral phenomena such as various chirality-triggered biological processes and behaviors. Herein, bacteria were firstly explored as novel chiral stationary phases in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) for enantioseparation of fluoroquinolone enantiomers and simultaneous separation of six fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The model strain, i.e. non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α, was adhered onto the inner surface of positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified capillaries based on the bacterial adhesion characteristics and strong electrostatic interaction. The morphology and thickness of the bacteria adhesive coatings in the capillary were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Baseline separation of ofloxacin and partial separation of lomefloxacin enantiomers could be achieved by the E. coli coated columns. The preparation parameters including the coating time and concentration of bacteria that affecting the chiral resolution were intensively investigated. The electrophoretic parameters, including pH, buffer concentration and applied voltage, were also optimized. The developed method was validated (linearity, LOD, LOQ, intra-day, inter-day and column-to-column repeatability and recovery) and successfully utilized for the quantitative analysis of ofloxacin enantiomers in the ofloxacin tablets. Moreover, only a slight decrease in the separation efficiency was observed after 90 consecutive runs on the E. coli@capillary. These results demonstrated that bacteria are promising stationary phases for chiral separation in CEC. - Highlights: • Bacteria were firstly introduced in OT-CEC as a chiral stationary phase for chiral separation. • Enantioseparation of ofloxacin enantiomers was achieved on E. coli coated open tubular capillary column. • Bacterial stationary phases may be used to

  13. Escherichia coli adhesive coating as a chiral stationary phase for open tubular capillary electrochromatography enantioseparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qifeng, E-mail: fuqifeng1990@163.com [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000 (China); Zhang, Kailian; Gao, Die; Wang, Lujun [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000 (China); Yang, Fengqing; Liu, Yao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Xia, Zhining, E-mail: tcm_anal_cqu@163.com [Innovative Drug Research Centre and School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2017-05-29

    Bacteria, the microorganism with intrinsic chirality, have numerous fascinating chiral phenomena such as various chirality-triggered biological processes and behaviors. Herein, bacteria were firstly explored as novel chiral stationary phases in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) for enantioseparation of fluoroquinolone enantiomers and simultaneous separation of six fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The model strain, i.e. non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α, was adhered onto the inner surface of positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified capillaries based on the bacterial adhesion characteristics and strong electrostatic interaction. The morphology and thickness of the bacteria adhesive coatings in the capillary were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Baseline separation of ofloxacin and partial separation of lomefloxacin enantiomers could be achieved by the E. coli coated columns. The preparation parameters including the coating time and concentration of bacteria that affecting the chiral resolution were intensively investigated. The electrophoretic parameters, including pH, buffer concentration and applied voltage, were also optimized. The developed method was validated (linearity, LOD, LOQ, intra-day, inter-day and column-to-column repeatability and recovery) and successfully utilized for the quantitative analysis of ofloxacin enantiomers in the ofloxacin tablets. Moreover, only a slight decrease in the separation efficiency was observed after 90 consecutive runs on the E. coli@capillary. These results demonstrated that bacteria are promising stationary phases for chiral separation in CEC. - Highlights: • Bacteria were firstly introduced in OT-CEC as a chiral stationary phase for chiral separation. • Enantioseparation of ofloxacin enantiomers was achieved on E. coli coated open tubular capillary column. • Bacterial stationary phases may be used to

  14. Chiral phase transition in the soft-wall model of AdS/QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelabi, Kaddour [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS),Beijing 100049 (China); Laboratory of Particle Physics and Statistical Physics, Ecole Normale Superieure-Kouba,B.P. 92,16050, Vieux-Kouba, Algiers (Algeria); Fang, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS),Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Mei [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Danning [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Yue-Liang [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS),Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-04-06

    We investigate the chiral phase transition in the soft-wall model of AdS/QCD at zero chemical potential for two-flavor and three-flavor cases, respectively. We show that there is no spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the original soft-wall model. After detailed analysis, we find that in order to realize chiral symmetry breaking and restoration, both profiles for the scalar potential and the dilaton field are essential. The scalar potential determines the possible solution structure of the chiral condensate, except the mass term, it takes another quartic term for the two-flavor case, and for the three-flavor case, one has to take into account an extra cubic term due to the t’Hooft determinant interaction. The profile of the dilaton field reflects the gluodynamics, which is negative at a certain ultraviolet scale and approaches positive quadratic behavior at far infrared region. With this set-up, the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and its restoration at finite temperature can be realized perfectly. In the two-flavor case, it gives a second order chiral phase transition in the chiral limit, while the transition turns to be a crossover for any finite quark mass. In the case of three-flavor, the phase transition becomes a first order one in the chiral limit, while above sufficient large quark mass it turns to be a crossover again. This scenario agrees exactly with the current understanding on chiral phase transition from lattice QCD and other effective model studies.

  15. Kinetics of the chiral phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hees, Hendrik van [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany); Wesp, Christian; Meistrenko, Alex; Greiner, Carsten [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We simulate the kinetics of the chiral phase transition in hot and dense strongly interacting matter within a novel kinetic-theory approach. Employing an effective linear σ model for quarks, σ mesons, and pions we treat the quarks within a test-particle ansatz for solving the Boltzmann transport equation and the mesons in terms of classical fields. The decay-recombination processes like σ <-> anti q+q are treated using a kind of wave-particle dualism using the exact conservation of energy and momentum. After demonstrating the correct thermodynamic limit for particles and fields in a ''box calculation'' we apply the simulation to the dynamics of an expanding fireball similar to the medium created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  16. Evolved chiral Hamiltonians at the three-body level and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calci, Angelo

    2014-07-14

    Based on the fundamental symmetries of QCD, chiral effective field theory (EFT) provides two- (NN), three- (3N), four- (4N), and many-nucleon interactions in a consistent and systematic scheme. Recent developments to construct chiral NN+3N interactions at different chiral orders and regularizations enable exciting nuclear structure investigations as well as a quantification of the fundamental uncertainties resulting from the chiral expansion and regularization. We present the complete toolchain to employ the present and future chiral NN, 3N, and 4N interactions in nuclear structure calculations and emphasize technical developments in the three- and four-body space, such as the similarity renormalization group (SRG), the frequency conversion, and the transformation to the JT-coupled scheme. We study the predictions of the chiral NN+3N interactions in ab initio nuclear structure calculations with the importance-truncated no-core shell model and coupled-cluster approach. We demonstrate that the inclusion of chiral 3N forces improves the overall agreement with experiment for excitation energies of p-shell nuclei and it qualitatively reproduces the systematics of nuclear binding energies throughout the nuclear chart up to heavy tin isotopes. In this context it is necessary to introduce truncations in the three-body model space and we carefully analyze their impact and confirm the reliability of the reported results. The SRG evolution induces many-nucleon forces that generally cannot be included in the calculations and constitute a major limitation for the applicability of SRG-evolved chiral forces. We study the origin and effect of the induced many-nucleon forces and propose a modification of the interaction, which suppresses the induced beyond-3N forces. This enables applications of the chiral interactions far beyond the mid-p shell. Furthermore, we test alternative formulations of SRG generators aiming to prevent the induced many-body forces from the outset. The

  17. Synthesis and reactivity of ortho-carbaborane-containing chiral aminohalophosphines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Sven; Frank, René; Maulana, Ilham; Lönnecke, Peter; Kirchner, Barbara; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2009-07-06

    The synthesis of chiral ortho-carbaboranyl bis(aminohalophosphines) is presented, and spectroscopic and crystallographic data of these compounds are discussed. Furthermore, their reactivity toward alcoholysis was investigated. Quantum chemical calculations showed that the inhibition of methanolysis is of kinetic and not of thermodynamic origin. The disubstitution of the carbaboranes leads to P...P interactions as strong as a hydrogen bond that extremely lower the rate of the methanolysis.

  18. Continuum strong QCD: Confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuum strong QCD is the application of models and continuum quantum field theory to the study of phenomena in hadronic physics, which includes; e.g., the spectrum of QCD bound states and their interactions. Herein the author provides a Dyson-Schwinger equation perspective, focusing on qualitative aspects of confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in cold, sparse QCD, and also elucidating consequences of the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity and features of the heavy-quark limit

  19. Inexpensive chirality on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, W.; Williams, A.G.; Adams, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Implementing lattice fermions that resemble as closely as possible continuum fermions is one of the main goals of the theoretical physics community. Aside from a lack of infinitely powerful computers, one of the main impediments to this is the Nielsen-Ninomiya No-Go theorem for chirality on the lattice. One of the consequences of this theorem is that exact chiral symmetry and a lack of fermion doublers cannot be simultaneously satisfied for fermions on the lattice. In the commonly used Wilson fermion formulation, chiral symmetry is explicitly sacrificed on the lattice to avoid fermion doubling. Recently, an alternative has come forward, namely, the Ginsparg-Wilson relation and one of its solutions, the Overlap fermion. The Ginsparg-Wilson relation is a statement of lattice-deformed chirality. The Overlap-Dirac operator is a member of the family of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. In recent times, Overlap fermions have been of great interest to the community due to their excellent chiral properties. However, they are significantly more expensive to implement than Wilson fermions. This expense is primarily due to the fact that the Overlap implementation requires an evaluation of the sign function for the Wilson-Dirac operator. The sign function is approximated by a high order rational polynomial function, but this approximation is poor close to the origin. The less near-zero modes that the Wilson- Dirac operator possesses, the cheaper the Overlap operator will be to implement. A means of improving the eigenvalue properties of the Wilson-Dirac operator by the addition of a so-called 'Clover' term is put forward. Numerical results are given that demonstrate this improvement. The Nielsen-Ninomiya no-go theorem and chirality on the lattice are reviewed. The general form of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation are given, and the Overlap solution is discussed. Properties of the Overlap-Dirac operator are given, including locality and analytic

  20. Chiral logarithms in quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F. X. Lee; K. F. Liu; N. Mathur; and J. B. Zhang

    2004-08-01

    The quenched chiral logarithms are examined on a 163x28 lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant fpi is used to set the lattice spacing, a = 0.200(3) fm. With pion mass as low as {approx}180 MeV, we see the quenched chiral logarithms clearly in mpi2/m and fP, the pseudoscalar decay constant. The authors analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) to apply. With the constrained curve-fitting method, they are able to extract the quenched chiral logarithmic parameter delta together with other low-energy parameters. Only for mpi<=300 MeV do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant delta which they determine to be 0.24(3)(4) (at the chiral scale Lambdachi = 0.8 GeV). By comparing to the 123x28 lattice, they estimate the finite volume effect to be about 2.7% for the smallest pion mass. They also fitted the pion mass to the form for the re-summed cactus diagrams and found that its applicable region is extended farther than the range for the one-loop formula, perhaps up to mpi {approx}500-600 MeV. The scale independent delta is determined to be 0.20(3) in this case. The authors study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon mass and find that the coefficient C1/2 in the nucleon mass is consistent with the prediction of one-loop chiPT. They also obtain the low energy constant L5 from fpi. They conclude from this study that it is imperative to cover only the range of data with the pion mass less than {approx}300 MeV in order to examine the chiral behavior of the hadron masses and decay constants in quenched QCD and match them with quenched one-loop chiPT.

  1. Spin-frustrated V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets with Dzialoshinsky-Moriya exchange. 2. Spin structure, spin chirality and tunneling gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, Moisey I.

    2009-01-01

    The spin chirality and spin structure of the Cu 3 and V 3 nanomagnets with the Dzialoshinsky-Moriya (DM) exchange interaction are analyzed. The correlations between the vector κ and the scalar χ chirality are obtained. The DM interaction forms the spin chirality which is equal to zero in the Heisenberg clusters. The dependences of the spin chirality on magnetic field and deformations are calculated. The cluster distortions reduce the spin chirality. The vector chirality is reduced partially and the scalar chirality vanishes in the transverse magnetic field. In the isosceles clusters, the DM exchange and distortions determine the sign and degree of the spin chirality κ. The correlations between the chirality parameters κ n and the intensities of the EPR and INS transitions are obtained. The vector chirality κ n describes the spin chirality of the Cu 3 and V 3 nanomagnets, the scalar chirality describes the pseudoorbital moment of the DM cluster. It is shown that in the consideration of the DM exchange, the spin states DM mixing and tunneling gaps at level crossing fields depend on the coordinate system of the DM model. The calculations in the DM exchange models in the right-handed and left-handed frame show opposite magnetic behavior at the level crossing field and allow to explain the opposite schemes of the tunneling gaps and levels crossing, which have been obtained in different treatments. The results of the DM model in the right-handed frame are consistent with the results of the group-theoretical analysis, whereas the results in the left-handed frame are inconsistent with that. The correlations between the spin chirality of the ground state and tunneling gaps at the level crossing field are obtained for the equilateral and isosceles nanoclusters.

  2. A multi-functional coordination polymer coexisting spontaneous chirality resolution and weak ferromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiu-Hua; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A multifunctional homochiral coordination polymer, [Co(H 2 O)(BDC)(4,4′-BPY)]∙3H 2 O (1) (H 2 BDC=1,2-benzenedicarboxylate and 4,4′-BPY=4,4′-bipyridine), has been successfully isolated from Co(II) ions and mixed ligands (1,2-benzenedicarboxylate and 4,4′-bipyridine). Complex 1, which exhibits spontaneous chirality resolution and weak ferromagnetism, is built by chiral helices interconnected via end-to-end 4,4′-BPY bridges into a two-dimensional (2D) layer structure. - Graphical abstract: A 2D cobalt coordination polymer compound showing spontaneous chirality resolution and weak ferromagnetism. - Highlights: • A new 2D cobalt mix-ligand coordination polymer complex has been synthesized. • The cobalt coordination polymer complex shows spontaneous chirality resolution in solid state. • The cobalt coordination polymer complex displays dominant and weak intrachain ferromagnetic interactions

  3. Chirality Driven by Magnetic Dipole Response for Demultiplexing of Surface Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinev, Ivan S.; Bogdanov, Andrey A.; Komissarenko, Filipp E.

    2017-01-01

    Surface electromagnetic waves are characterized by the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction which results in the fascinating spin-momentum locking. Therefore, directional coupling of light to surface waves can be achieved through chiral nanoantennas. Here, we show that dielectric nanoantenna provides...... chiral response with strong spectral dependence due to the interference of electric and magnetic dipole momenta when placed in the vicinity of the metal-air interface. Remarkably, chiral behaviour in the proposed scheme does not require elliptical polarization of the pump beam or the geometric chirality...... of the nanoantenna. We show that the proposed ultracompact and simple dielectric nanoantenna allows for both directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on a thin gold film and their demultiplexing with a high spectral resolution....

  4. Metamaterials with magnetism and chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sawada, Kei

    2018-02-01

    This review introduces and overviews electromagnetism in structured metamaterials which undergo simultaneous time-reversal and space-inversion symmetry breaking due to magnetism and chirality. Direct experimental observation of optical magnetochiral effects in a single metamolecule with magnetism and chirality is demonstrated at microwave frequencies. Numerical simulations based on a finite element method reproduce the experimental results well, and predict the emergence of giant magnetochiral effects, by combining resonances in the metamolecule. Toward the realization of magnetochiral effects at higher frequencies than microwaves, a metamolecule is miniaturized in the presence of ferromagnetic resonance in a cavity and coplanar waveguide. This work opens the door to the realization of a one-way mirror and synthetic gauge fields for electromagnetic waves.

  5. A spectral route to determining chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We show how one-dimensional structured media can be used to measure chirality, via the spectral shift of the photonic band gap edges. Analytically, we show that a chiral contrast can, in some cases, be mapped unto an index contrast, thereby greatly simplifying the analysis of such structures. Using...... this mapping, we derive a first-order shift of the band gap edges with chirality. Potentially, this effect could be used for measuring enantiomeric excess....

  6. The chirality operators for Heisenberg spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, V.

    1994-01-01

    The ground state of closed Heisenberg spin chains with an odd number of sites has a chiral degeneracy, in addition to a two-fold Kramers degeneracy. A non-zero chirality implies that the spins are not coplanar, and is a measure of handedness. The chirality operator, which can be treated as a spin-1/2 operator, is explicitly constructed in terms of the spin operators, and is given as commutator of permutation operators. (author). 3 refs

  7. The deuteron-radius puzzle is alive: A new analysis of nuclear structure uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, O. J.; Ekström, A.; Nevo Dinur, N.; Ji, C.; Bacca, S.; Barnea, N.

    2018-03-01

    To shed light on the deuteron radius puzzle we analyze the theoretical uncertainties of the nuclear structure corrections to the Lamb shift in muonic deuterium. We find that the discrepancy between the calculated two-photon exchange correction and the corresponding experimentally inferred value by Pohl et al. [1] remain. The present result is consistent with our previous estimate, although the discrepancy is reduced from 2.6 σ to about 2 σ. The error analysis includes statistic as well as systematic uncertainties stemming from the use of nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory at various orders. We therefore conclude that nuclear theory uncertainty is more likely not the source of the discrepancy.

  8. Status of effective field theory of NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beane, S.R.

    1998-06-01

    There exist many nucleon-nucleon potentials which reproduce phase shifts and nuclear properties with remarkable accuracy. Three fundamental features are shared by these potential models: (1) pions are important at long distances, (2) there is a source of intermediate-range attraction, and (3) there is a source of short-distance repulsion. However, in general, distinct physical mechanisms in these models account for the same feature of the nuclear force. Agreement with experiment is maintained in spite of these differences because of the large number of fit parameters. Systematic approaches to the scattering of strongly interacting particles, such as chiral perturbation theory, are based on the ideas of effective field theory (EFT). The author reviews recent progress in developing a systematic power counting scheme for scattering processes involving more than one nucleon

  9. Chiral solitons a review volume

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    This review volume on topological and nontopological chiral solitons presents a global view on the current developments of this field in particle and nuclear physics. The book addresses problems in quantization, restoration of translational and rotational symmetry, and the field theoretical approach to solitons which are common problems in the field of solitons. Primarily aimed for graduate students and the novice in the field, the collected articless cover a broad spectrum of topics in formalism as well as phenomenology.

  10. Chiral Lagrangians and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.

    1991-09-01

    In the event that the SSC does not observe any resonances such as a Higgs boson or a techni-rho meson, we would like to know if the SSC can still discover something about the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking. We will use chiral Lagrangian techniques to address this question and analyze their utility for studying events containing W and Z gauge bosons at the SSC. 20 refs., 4 figs

  11. An epistemological note on chirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mislow, K.; Bickart, P.

    1976-01-01

    The terms ''chiral'' and ''achiral'' are sharply defined when applied to geometric figures or models. The same terms are also commonly used to refer to the real systems to which these models have been adjoined. e.g., molecules, solvents, or reagents. Here, the terms are not sharply defined but depend upon conditions or measurement. The contrast between the geometric and operational usages is discussed in detail

  12. Chiral symmetry and nucleon structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstein, B.R. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astromony Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory)

    1992-01-01

    Recently it has been realized that significant tests of the validity of QCD are available in low energy experiments (E < 500 MeV) by exploiting the property of (broken) chiral symmetry. This technique has been highly developed in The Goldstone boson sector by the work of Gasser and Leutwyler. Application to the nucleon system is much more difficult and is now being carefully developed.

  13. Electric-field–induced assembly and propulsion of chiral colloidal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuduo; Wang, Sijia; Wu, David T.; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chiral molecules with opposite handedness exhibit distinct physical, chemical, or biological properties. They pose challenges as well as opportunities in understanding the phase behavior of soft matter, designing enantioselective catalysts, and manufacturing single-handed pharmaceuticals. Microscopic particles, arranged in a chiral configuration, could also exhibit unusual optical, electric, or magnetic responses. Here we report a simple method to assemble achiral building blocks, i.e., the asymmetric colloidal dimers, into a family of chiral clusters. Under alternating current electric fields, two to four lying dimers associate closely with a central standing dimer and form both right- and left-handed clusters on a conducting substrate. The cluster configuration is primarily determined by the induced dipolar interactions between constituent dimers. Our theoretical model reveals that in-plane dipolar repulsion between petals in the cluster favors the achiral configuration, whereas out-of-plane attraction between the central dimer and surrounding petals favors a chiral arrangement. It is the competition between these two interactions that dictates the final configuration. The theoretical chirality phase diagram is found to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations. We further demonstrate that the broken symmetry in chiral clusters induces an unbalanced electrohydrodynamic flow surrounding them. As a result, they rotate in opposite directions according to their handedness. Both the assembly and propulsion mechanisms revealed here can be potentially applied to other types of asymmetric particles. Such kinds of chiral colloids will be useful for fabricating metamaterials, making model systems for both chiral molecules and active matter, or building propellers for microscale transport. PMID:25941383

  14. A gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework for kaon photo- and electroproduction on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, B.; Bruns, P.C.; Nissler, R.; Meissner, U.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a gauge-invariant approach to photoproduction of mesons on nucleons within a chiral unitary framework. The interaction kernel for meson-baryon scattering is derived from the chiral effective Lagrangian and iterated in a Bethe-Salpeter equation. Within the leading-order approximation to the interaction kernel, data on kaon photoproduction from SAPHIR, CLAS and CBELSA/TAPS are analyzed in the threshold region. The importance of gauge invariance and the precision of various approximations in the interaction kernel utilized in earlier works are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Laser Writing of Multiscale Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Furlani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to metamaterials is presented that involves laser-based patterning of novel chiral polymer media, wherein chirality is realized at two distinct length scales, intrinsically at the molecular level and geometrically at a length scale on the order of the wavelength of the incident field. In this approach, femtosecond-pulsed laser-induced two-photon lithography (TPL is used to pattern a photoresist-chiral polymer mixture into planar chiral shapes. Enhanced bulk chirality can be realized by tuning the wavelength-dependent chiral response at both the molecular and geometric level to ensure an overlap of their respective spectra. The approach is demonstrated via the fabrication of a metamaterial consisting of a two-dimensional array of chiral polymer-based L-structures. The fabrication process is described and modeling is performed to demonstrate the distinction between molecular and planar geometric-based chirality and the effects of the enhanced multiscale chirality on the optical response of such media. This new approach to metamaterials holds promise for the development of tunable, polymer-based optical metamaterials with low loss.

  16. Two-chiral-component microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography-chiral surfactant and chiral oil: part 1. dibutyl tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-06-01

    The first simultaneous use of a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil for microemulsion EKC (MEEKC) is reported. Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and dibutyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 1.23% v/v) were examined as chiral pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the separation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Subtle differences were observed for three chromatographic figures of merit (alpha(enant), alpha(meth), k) among the chiral microemulsions; a moderate difference was observed for efficiency (N) and elution range. Dual-chirality microemulsions provided both the largest and smallest enantioselectivities, due to small positive and negative synergies between the chiral microemulsion components. For the ephedrine family of compounds, dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in opposite stereochemical configurations provided higher enantioselectivities than the single-chiral component microemulsion (RXX), whereas dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in the same stereochemical configurations provided lower enantioselectivities than RXX. Slight to moderate enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Efficiencies observed with microemulsions comprised of racemic dibutyl tartrate or dibutyl-D-tartrate were significantly higher than those obtained with dibutyl-L-tartrate, with an average difference in plate count of about 25 000. Finally, one two-chiral-component microemulsion (RXS) provided significantly better resolution than the remaining one- and two-chiral-component microemulsions for the ephedrine-based compounds, but only slightly better or equivalent resolution for non-ephedrine compounds.

  17. Baryons in the chiral regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippschild, Bastian

    2012-03-05

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, one of the four fundamental forces in our Universe. It describes the interaction of gluons and quarks which build up hadrons like protons and neutrons. Most of the visible matter in our universe is made of protons and neutrons. Hence, we are interested in their fundamental properties like their masses, their distribution of charge and their shape. The only known theoretical, non-perturbative and ab initio method to investigate hadron properties at low energies is lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). However, up-to-date simulations (especially for baryonic quantities) do not achieve the accuracy of experiments. In fact, current simulations do not even reproduce the experimental values for the form factors. The question arises wether these deviations can be explained by systematic effects in lattice QCD simulations. This thesis is about the computation of nucleon form factors and other hadronic quantities from lattice QCD. So called Wilson fermions are used and the u- and d-quarks are treated fully dynamically. The simulations were performed using gauge ensembles with a range of lattice spacings, volumes and pion masses. First of all, the lattice spacing was set to be able to make contact between the lattice results and their experimental complement and to be able to perform a continuum extrapolation. The light quark mass has been computed and found to be m{sub ud}{sup MS}(2 GeV)=3.03(17)(38) MeV. This value is in good agreement with values from experiments and other lattice determinations. Electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon have been calculated. From these form factors the nucleon radii and the coupling constants were computed. The different ensembles enabled us to investigate systematically the dependence of these quantities on the volume, the lattice spacing and the pion mass. Finally we perform a continuum extrapolation and chiral extrapolations to the physical point

  18. Baryons in the chiral regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knippschild, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, one of the four fundamental forces in our Universe. It describes the interaction of gluons and quarks which build up hadrons like protons and neutrons. Most of the visible matter in our universe is made of protons and neutrons. Hence, we are interested in their fundamental properties like their masses, their distribution of charge and their shape. The only known theoretical, non-perturbative and ab initio method to investigate hadron properties at low energies is lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). However, up-to-date simulations (especially for baryonic quantities) do not achieve the accuracy of experiments. In fact, current simulations do not even reproduce the experimental values for the form factors. The question arises whether these deviations can be explained by systematic effects in lattice QCD simulations. This thesis is about the computation of nucleon form factors and other hadronic quantities from lattice QCD. So called Wilson fermions are used and the u- and d-quarks are treated fully dynamically. The simulations were performed using gauge ensembles with a range of lattice spacings, volumes and pion masses. First of all, the lattice spacing was set to be able to make contact between the lattice results and their experimental complement and to be able to perform a continuum extrapolation. The light quark mass has been computed and found to be m ud MS (2 GeV)=3.03(17)(38) MeV. This value is in good agreement with values from experiments and other lattice determinations. Electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon have been calculated. From these form factors the nucleon radii and the coupling constants were computed. The different ensembles enabled us to investigate systematically the dependence of these quantities on the volume, the lattice spacing and the pion mass. Finally we perform a continuum extrapolation and chiral extrapolations to the physical point. In

  19. Chiral pion dynamics for spherical nucleon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, V.; Rho, M.; Nyman, E.M.; Jun, J.H.; Brown, G.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1980-01-01

    A chirally symmetric quark-bag model for the nucleon is obtained by introducing an explicit, classical, pion field exterior to the bag. The coupling at the bag surface is determined by the requirement of a conserved axial-vector current. The pion field satisfies equations of motion corresponding to the non-linear sigma-model. We study on this paper the simplified case where the bag and the pion field are spherically symmetric. Corrections due to gluon exchange between the quarks are ignored along with other interactions which split the N- and Δ-masses. The equations of motion for the pion field are solved and we find a substantial pion pressure at the bag surface, along with an attractive contribution to the nucleon self-energy. The total energy of the system, bag plus meson cloud, turns out to be approximately Msub(n)c 2 for a wide range of bag radii, from 1.5 fm down to about 0.5 fm. Introduction of a form factor for the pion would extend the range of possible radii to even smaller values. We propose that the bag with the smallest allowed radius be identified with the 'little bag' discussed before. One surprising result of the paper is that as long as one restricts to spherically symmetric bags, restoring chiral symmetry to the bag model makes the axial-vector current coupling constant gsub(A) to be always too large compared with the experimental value for any bag radius, suggesting a deviation from spherical symmetry for the intrinsic bag wave functions of the 'ground-state' hadrons. (orig.)

  20. Inherently chiral calixarenes: synthesis, optical resolution, chiral recognition and asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Yong; Xu, Yao-Wei; Liu, Jun-Min; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2011-01-17

    Inherently chiral calixarenes, whose chirality is based on the absence of a planar symmetry or an inversion center in the molecules as a whole through the asymmetric array of several achiral groups upon the three-dimensional calix-skeletons, are challenging and attractive chiral molecules, because of their potential in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis and optical resolution of all varieties of inherently chiral calixarenes are systematically discussed and classified, and their applications in chiral recognition and asymmetric catalysis are thoroughly illustrated in this review.

  1. Scaling behaviour of the effective chiral action and stability of the chiral soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, H.

    1986-12-01

    The effective chiral action is evaluated within a novel improved heat-kernel expansion, which includes gradients of the chiral field in a non-perturbative way. The exact scaling behaviour of the effective action of a localized chiral field with respect to changing its spatial size is found. From this it is proved that the radiatively induced derivative terms cannot absolutely stabilize the chiral soliton against collapsing. The collapsing of the soliton is, however, accompanied by a vanishing of the baryon charge. It is argued that the effective chiral action constrained to a fixed baryon number may still admit stable soliton configurations. (orig.)

  2. Spin flexoelectricity and chiral spin structures in magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyatakov, A.P.; Sergeev, A.S.; Mikailzade, F.A.; Zvezdin, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    In this short review a broad range of chiral phenomena observed in magnetic films (spin cycloid and skyrmion structures formation as well as chirality dependent domain wall motion) is considered under the perspective of spin flexoelectricity, i.e. the relation between bending of magnetization pattern and electric polarization. The similarity and the difference between the spin flexoelectricity and the newly emerged notion of spin flexomagnetism are discussed. The phenomenological arguments based on the geometrical idea of curvature-induced effects are supported by analysis of the microscopic mechanisms of spin flexoelectricity based on three-site ion indirect exchange and twisted RKKY interaction models. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure formation in thin films is analogous to flexoelectric phenomena in crystals. • The microscopic mechanism of spin flexoelectricity is the antisymmetric exchange. • Spin cycloid in thin film of metals can be the result of Rashba interaction in 2DEG. • The chirality-dependent Néel-type magnetic domain wall motion is observed in electric field

  3. Spin flexoelectricity and chiral spin structures in magnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyatakov, A.P., E-mail: pyatakov@physics.msu.ru [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gori, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Sergeev, A.S. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gori, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Mikailzade, F.A. [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Zvezdin, A.K. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilova St., 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    In this short review a broad range of chiral phenomena observed in magnetic films (spin cycloid and skyrmion structures formation as well as chirality dependent domain wall motion) is considered under the perspective of spin flexoelectricity, i.e. the relation between bending of magnetization pattern and electric polarization. The similarity and the difference between the spin flexoelectricity and the newly emerged notion of spin flexomagnetism are discussed. The phenomenological arguments based on the geometrical idea of curvature-induced effects are supported by analysis of the microscopic mechanisms of spin flexoelectricity based on three-site ion indirect exchange and twisted RKKY interaction models. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure formation in thin films is analogous to flexoelectric phenomena in crystals. • The microscopic mechanism of spin flexoelectricity is the antisymmetric exchange. • Spin cycloid in thin film of metals can be the result of Rashba interaction in 2DEG. • The chirality-dependent Néel-type magnetic domain wall motion is observed in electric field.

  4. Neutral pion electroproduction off light nuclei in chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkewitz, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Threshold pion electroproduction on tri-nucleon systems is investigated in the framework of baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) at next-to-leading one-loop order O(q 4 ) in the chiral expansion. To this order in small momenta, the production operator is a sum of one- and two-nucleon terms. While the one-nucleon terms resemble the impulse approximation, the two-nucleon contributions represent corrections due to the relevant nuclear interactions, e.g. pion-exchange interactions, which prove to be dominant, and due to recoil effects of the participating nucleons, which appear to be negligible. We calculate the expectation value of the production operator using chiral wave functions in a three-dimensional approach without partial wave expansion. The resulting integrals are evaluated using adaptive Monte Carlo integration, the VEGAS algorithm of Lepage. We obtain results for the threshold production multipoles E 0+ and L 0+ on 3 He and 3 H and comment on the sensitivity to the fundamental neutron amplitude E 0+ π 0 n . 3 He appears to be a particularly promising target to extract information about the neutron amplitude. This idea is usually invoked for spin-dependent quantities since the 3 He wave function is strongly dominated by the principal S-state component which suggests that its spin is largely driven by the one of the neutron.

  5. Parafermionic wires at the interface of chiral topological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luiz; Hughes, Taylor

    We discuss a scenario where local interactions form one-dimensional gapped interfaces between a pair of distinct chiral two-dimensional topological states such that each gapped region terminates at a domain wall separating the chiral gapless edge states of these phases. We show that this type of T-junction supports point-like fractionalized excitations obeying parafermion statistics, thus implying that the one-dimensional gapped interface forms an effective topological parafermionic wire possessing a non-trivial ground state degeneracy. The physical properties of the anyon condensate that gives rise to the gapped interface are investigated. Remarkably, this condensate causes the gapped interface to behave as a type of anyon ``Andreev reflector'' in the bulk, whereby anyons from one phase, upon hitting the interface, can be transformed into a combination of reflected anyons and outgoing anyons from the other phase. Thus, we conclude that while different topological orders can be connected via gapped interfaces, the interfaces are themselves topological.

  6. Thermoelectric figure of merit of chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah-Buandoh, G.K.; Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Twum, A.K.

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectrical properties of chiral carbon nanotube and numerically evaluated the figure of merit. We observed that the properties are highly anisotropic and depend on the geometric chiral angle (GCA) θ h , temperature and the overlapping integrals (exchange energy) for the jumps along the tubular axis Δ z and the base helix Δ s . The thermopower α exhibited giant values with the peak occurring between 100 K and 150 K. The electron thermal conductivity showed unusually high value with the peaks shifting towards high temperature. We attribute the high peak values to electron-phonon interactions. Finally we noted that by changing the Δ s and Δ z it is possible to get a figure of merit greater than 1. (author)

  7. Study of the neutron--proton interaction in the 300--700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report, 1976--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of the differential cross section for charge-exchange scattering, meson production in nucleon--nucleon collisions, and the momentum spectra and angular distributions of charged particles produced in bombardment of various targets by neutrons are summarized. A list of publications is given

  8. arXiv Chiral Effective Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bishara, Fady

    2017-02-03

    We present the effective field theory for dark matter interactions with the visible sector that is valid at scales of O(1 GeV). Starting with an effective theory describing the interactions of fermionic and scalar dark matter with quarks, gluons and photons via higher dimension operators that would arise from dimension-five and dimension-six operators above electroweak scale, we perform a nonperturbative matching onto a heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory that describes dark matter interactions with light mesons and nucleons. This is then used to obtain the coefficients of the nuclear response functions using a chiral effective theory description of nuclear forces. Our results consistently keep the leading contributions in chiral counting for each of the initial Wilson coefficients.

  9. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV

  10. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  11. The fruitful introduction of chirality and control of absolute configurations in molecular magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Train, Cyrille; Gruselle, Michel; Verdaguer, Michel

    2011-06-01

    In this critical review, it is shown how the introduction of chirality and the control of the absolute configurations of chiral elements in molecular magnets allow obtaining enantiopure chiral magnets (ECM), an archetype of multifunctional materials. This task has been recognised as a major challenge for both chemists and physicists of molecular magnetism. To reach this goal, the former have combined the rational approaches towards molecular-based magnets and of enantiopure metal-organic frameworks. They have used enantiopure stable radicals, ligands from the chiral pool, enantiopure coligands associated with achiral connectors or enantioselective self-assembly to successfully reach their synthetic targets. They were motivated by the will to obtain suitable systems for the experimental demonstration of the influence of enantiomeric purity on the physico-chemical properties. This influence can be found in the magnetic properties themselves but, most interestingly, in the coexistence and interaction between the properties arising from controlled non-centrosymmetry. Thus the combination of natural circular dichroism, second harmonic generation or ferroelectricity with long-range magnetic ordering can give birth to new properties like magneto-chiral dichroism, magnetisation induced second harmonic generation or multiferroicity. The two former synergetic effects have already been demonstrated in enantiopure chiral magnets. The third one remains a challenging target that can be reached by adapting strategies developed towards enantiopure molecular ferroelectrics (119 references).

  12. The formation of right-handed and left-handed chiral nanopores within a single domain during amino acid self-assembly on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sena; Jeon, Aram; Driver, Russell W; Kim, Yeonwoo; Jeon, Eun Hee; Kim, Sehun; Lee, Hee-Seung; Lee, Hangil

    2016-05-25

    We report the formation of both right- and left-handed chiral nanopores within a single domain during the self-assembly of an amino acid derivative on an inert Au(111) surface using STM. DFT calculations employed to rationalize this unusual result identified that intermolecular interactions between chiral, windmill-shaped tetramers are crucial for self-assembly.

  13. Adsorption of lactic acid on chiral Pt surfaces—A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, J.-H.; Kosov, D. S.

    2013-02-01

    The adsorption of the chiral molecule lactic acid on chiral Pt surfaces is studied by density functional theory calculations. First, we study the adsorption of L-lactic acid on the flat Pt(111) surface. Using the optimed PBE - van der Waals (oPBE-vdW) functional, which includes van der Waals forces on an ab initio level, it is shown that the molecule has two binding sites, a carboxyl and the hydroxyl oxygen atoms. Since real chiral surfaces are (i) known to undergo thermal roughening that alters the distribution of kinks and step edges but not the overall chirality and (ii) kink sites and edge sites are usually the energetically most favored adsorption sites, we focus on two surfaces that allow qualitative sampling of the most probable adsorption sites. We hereby consider chiral surfaces exhibiting (111) facets, in particular, Pt(321) and Pt(643). The binding sites are either both on kink sites—which is the case for Pt(321) or on one kink site—as on Pt(643). The binding energy of the molecule on the chiral surfaces is much higher than on the Pt(111) surface. We show that the carboxyl group interacts more strongly than the hydroxyl group with the kink sites. The results indicate the possible existence of very small chiral selectivities of the order of 20 meV for the Pt(321) and Pt(643) surfaces. L-lactic acid is more stable on Pt(321)S than D-lactic acid, while the chiral selectivity is inverted on Pt(643)S. The most stable adsorption configurations of L- and D-lactic acid are similar for Pt(321) but differ for Pt(643). We explore the impact of the different adsorption geometries on the work function, which is important for field ion microscopy.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND REGISTRATION OF CHIRAL DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WITTE, DT; ENSING, K; FRANKE, JP; DEZEEUW, RA

    1993-01-01

    In this review we describe the impact of chirality on drug development and registration in the United States, Japan and the European Community. Enantiomers may have differences in their pharmacological profiles, and, therefore, chiral drugs ask for special analytical and pharmacological attention

  15. Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2,2 -Bipyridine was readily obtained from 6,6 - dibromo-2,2 -bipyridine and then used for synthesizing cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine O3.18. 3. Helical chirality induction. 3.1 Chirality sensing of carboxylic acids by O1. Facile methods for the determination of molecular chi- rality are of increasing interest in view of the role of.

  16. On infinite regular and chiral maps

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán

    2015-01-01

    We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.

  17. Insights on some chiral smectic phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Insights on some chiral smectic phases. B PANSU. Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bt 510, UMR 8502, Universit Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex,. France. Abstract. Combining layered positional order as smectic order and chirality can generate complex architectures since twist parallel to the layers is not allowed.

  18. Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for Metamaterial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-27

    elt @rice.edu Institution : Rice University Mailing Address : Department of...information from the molecular level to the micro and macrodomain levels. This joint work3 was published in the Journal of the American Chemical...Chirality from Molecule to Phase in Self‐Assembled Chiral Block Copolymers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134 (26), 10974 – 10986, (2012).

  19. Cofactor-Controlled Chirality of Tropoisomeric Ligand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Théveau, L.; Bellini, R.; Dydio, P.; Szabo, Z.; van der Werf, A.; Sander, R.A.; Reek, J.N.H.; Moberg, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new tropos ligand with an integrated anion receptor receptor site has been prepared. Chiral carboxylate and phosphate anions that bind in the anion receptor unit proved capable of stabilizing chiral conformations of the achiral flexible bidentate biaryl phosphite ligand, as shown by variable

  20. CHIRALITY IN NONLINEAR OPTICS AND OPTICAL SWITCHING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Feringa, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical

  1. Chiral discrimination in biomimetic systems: Phenylalanine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Chiral discrimination and recognition is important in peptide biosynthesis, amino acid syn- thesis and drug ... acid segments. In order to understand the chiral dis- crimination in this system, a detailed molecular under- standing of the conformational energy variation in ... and their mutual configuration shall also be the mini-.

  2. Orientation-Dependent Handedness and Chiral Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Efrati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in the paradox of chiral connectedness. In this work, we put forward a quantification scheme in which the handedness of an object depends on the direction in which it is viewed. While consistent with familiar chiral notions, such as the right-hand rule, this framework allows objects to be simultaneously right and left handed. We demonstrate this orientation dependence in three different systems—a biomimetic elastic bilayer, a chiral propeller, and optical metamaterial—and find quantitative agreement with chirality pseudotensors whose form we explicitly compute. The use of this approach resolves the existing paradoxes and naturally enables the design of handed metamaterials from symmetry principles.

  3. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is about 30 MeV.

  4. High harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dian; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Xi; Li, Liang; Zhang, Xiaofan; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-09-18

    Axial chiral molecules, whose stereogenic element is an axis rather than a chiral center, have attracted widespread interest due to their important application, such as asymmetric synthesis and chirality transfer. We investigate high harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules with bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields. High harmonic generation from three typical molecules: (Sa)-3-chloropropa-1,2-dien-1-ol, propadiene, and (Ra)-2,3-pentadiene is simulated with time-dependent density-functional theory and strong field approximation. We found that harmonic spectra for 3D oriented axial chiral molecules exhibit obvious circular dichroism. However, the circular dichroism of High harmonic generation from an achiral molecule is much trivial. Moreover, the dichroism of high harmonic generation still exists when axial chiral molecules are 1D oriented,such as (Sa) -3-chloropropa-1,2-dien-1-ol. For a special form of axial chiral molecules with the formula abC=C=Cab (a, b are different substituents), like (Ra)-2,3-pentadiene, the dichroism discriminations disappear when the molecules are only in 1D orientation. The circular dichroism of high harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules is well explained by the trajectory analysis based on the semiclassical three-step mechanism.

  5. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sept. 2001 physics pp. 417–431. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems ... parameters which are adjusted to the data or alternatively derived in some models. Chiral perturbation theory up ..... consistent with a large broadening of the and more experimental studies are under way at GSI (HADES collaboration) ...

  6. Chiralities of spiral waves and their transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-ting; Cai, Mei-chun; Li, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    The chiralities of spiral waves usually refer to their rotation directions (the turning orientations of the spiral temporal movements as time elapses) and their curl directions (the winding orientations of the spiral spatial geometrical structures themselves). Traditionally, they are the same as each other. Namely, they are both clockwise or both counterclockwise. Moreover, the chiralities are determined by the topological charges of spiral waves, and thus they are conserved quantities. After the inwardly propagating spirals were experimentally observed, the relationship between the chiralities and the one between the chiralities and the topological charges are no longer preserved. The chiralities thus become more complex than ever before. As a result, there is now a desire to further study them. In this paper, the chiralities and their transition properties for all kinds of spiral waves are systemically studied in the framework of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and the general relationships both between the chiralities and between the chiralities and the topological charges are obtained. The investigation of some other models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, the nonuniform Oregonator model, the modified standard model, etc., is also discussed for comparison.

  7. The Baryon Number Two System in the Chiral Soliton Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovani-Sarti, V.; Drago, A.; Vento, V.; Park, B.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between two B = 1 states in a chiral soliton model where baryons are described as non-topological solitons. By using the hedgehog solution for the B = 1 states we construct three possible B = 2 configurations to analyze the role of the relative orientation of the hedgehog quills in the dynamics. The strong dependence of the inter soliton interaction on these relative orientations reveals that studies of dense hadronic matter using this model should take into account their implications. (author)

  8. Structural insights into two inorganic-organic hybrids based on chiral amino acids and polyoxomolybdates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefian, Mina; Mirzaei, Masoud; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    A new chiral inorganic-organic hybrid with the formula (L-His)2(H7CoMo6O24)·6H2O (1), based on natural amino acid and Anderson type polyoxomolybdate was synthesized through mild condition. The chiral L-histidine molecules induced chirality to the whole structure through various types of strong and unconventional hydrogen bond (HB) interactions (CH⋯O, NH⋯O and CH···π interactions), as well as bifurcated hydrogen bonds (BHBs) between L-histidine amino acid, hexamer water cluster molecules, and H7CoMo6O24·xH2O. Following, important non-covalent CH⋯O interactions is investigated in another chiral inorganic-organic hybrid structure, (L-Pro)3(PMo12O40).4.5H2O (2), in detail. The CH⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to a chiral network similar to the DNA strands affording a promising candidate to bio-inorganic studies.

  9. Quantum formulation for nanoscale optical and material chirality: symmetry issues, space and time parity, and observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. L.

    2018-03-01

    To properly represent the interplay and coupling of optical and material chirality at the photon-molecule or photon-nanoparticle level invites a recognition of quantum facets in the fundamental aspects and mechanisms of light–matter interaction. It is therefore appropriate to cast theory in a general quantum form, one that is applicable to both linear and nonlinear optics as well as various forms of chiroptical interaction including chiral optomechanics. Such a framework, fully accounting for both radiation and matter in quantum terms, facilitates the scrutiny and identification of key issues concerning spatial and temporal parity, scale, dissipation and measurement. Furthermore it fully provides for describing the interactions of structured or twisted light beams with a vortex character, and it leads to the complete identification of symmetry conditions for materials to provide for chiral discrimination. Quantum considerations also lend a distinctive perspective to the very different senses in which other aspects of chirality are recognized in metamaterials. Duly attending to the symmetry principles governing allowed or disallowed forms of chiral discrimination supports an objective appraisal of the experimental possibilities and developing applications.

  10. Hadron properties in chiral sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Hong

    2005-01-01

    The modification of hadron masses in nuclear medium is studied by using the chiral sigma model, which is extended to generate the omega meson mass by the sigma condensation in the vacuum in the same way as the nucleon mass. The chiral sigma model provides proper equilibrium properties of nuclear matter. It is shown that the effective masses of both nucleons and omega mesons decrease in nuclear medium, while the effective mass of sigma mesons increases oat finite density in the chiral sigma model. The results obtained in the chiral sigma model are compared with those obtained in the Walecka model, which includes sigma and omega mesons in a non-chiral fashion. (author)

  11. Chiral capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is a powerful analytical tool, especially in the case of chiral separations, due to the fact that it combines the high efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility of the CE with the sensitivity, selectivity, and the capacity for the identification of unknown chiral compounds offered by MS detection. This chapter describes three methodologies enabling the chiral separation of cationic and anionic compounds using different strategies, illustrating the most employed approaches used in chiral CE-MS. The first methodology uses the partial filling technique for the enantioseparation of a cationic compound using a neutral cyclodextrin. Secondly, the enantioseparation of a cationic compound using low concentrations of a neutral cyclodextrin under acidic conditions is described. Finally, a methodology for the chiral separation of an anionic compound employing low concentrations of a native cyclodextrin under basic conditions is illustrated.

  12. Genetically programmed chiral organoborane synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S. B. Jennifer; Huang, Xiongyi; Gumulya, Yosephine; Chen, Kai; Arnold, Frances H.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in enzyme engineering and design have expanded nature’s catalytic repertoire to functions that are new to biology. However, only a subset of these engineered enzymes can function in living systems. Finding enzymatic pathways that form chemical bonds that are not found in biology is particularly difficult in the cellular environment, as this depends on the discovery not only of new enzyme activities, but also of reagents that are both sufficiently reactive for the desired transformation and stable in vivo. Here we report the discovery, evolution and generalization of a fully genetically encoded platform for producing chiral organoboranes in bacteria. Escherichia coli cells harbouring wild-type cytochrome c from Rhodothermus marinus (Rma cyt c) were found to form carbon-boron bonds in the presence of borane-Lewis base complexes, through carbene insertion into boron-hydrogen bonds. Directed evolution of Rma cyt c in the bacterial catalyst provided access to 16 novel chiral organoboranes. The catalyst is suitable for gram-scale biosynthesis, providing up to 15,300 turnovers, a turnover frequency of 6,100 h-1, a 99:1 enantiomeric ratio and 100% chemoselectivity. The enantiopreference of the biocatalyst could also be tuned to provide either enantiomer of the organoborane products. Evolved in the context of whole-cell catalysts, the proteins were more active in the whole-cell system than in purified forms. This study establishes a DNA-encoded and readily engineered bacterial platform for borylation; engineering can be accomplished at a pace that rivals the development of chemical synthetic methods, with the ability to achieve turnovers that are two orders of magnitude (over 400-fold) greater than those of known chiral catalysts for the same class of transformation. This tunable method for manipulating boron in cells could expand the scope of boron chemistry in living systems.

  13. Principal chiral model on superspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, V.; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quella, T. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-09-15

    We investigate the spectrum of the principal chiral model (PCM) on odd-dimensional superspheres as a function of the curvature radius R. For volume-filling branes on S{sup 3} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 2}, we compute the exact boundary spectrum as a function of R. The extension to higher dimensional superspheres is discussed, but not carried out in detail. Our results provide very convincing evidence in favor of the strong-weak coupling duality between supersphere PCMs and OSP(2S+2 vertical stroke 2S) Gross-Neveu models that was recently conjectured by Candu and Saleur. (orig.)

  14. Principal chiral model on superspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, V.; Schomerus, V.; Quella, T.

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the spectrum of the principal chiral model (PCM) on odd-dimensional superspheres as a function of the curvature radius R. For volume-filling branes on S 3 vertical stroke 2 , we compute the exact boundary spectrum as a function of R. The extension to higher dimensional superspheres is discussed, but not carried out in detail. Our results provide very convincing evidence in favor of the strong-weak coupling duality between supersphere PCMs and OSP(2S+2 vertical stroke 2S) Gross-Neveu models that was recently conjectured by Candu and Saleur. (orig.)

  15. Chiral quarks and proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, S.; Daniel, M.; Gounaris, G.J.; Murphy, A.J.

    1984-04-01

    The authors calculate the hadronic matrix elements of baryon decay operators using a chiral effective Lagrangian with quarks, gluons and Goldstone boson fields. The cases where the ΔB=1 operators arise from supersymmetric SU(5) GUT as well as the minimal SU(5) GUT model are studied. In each model the results depend on two parameters. In particular there is a range of values for the two parameters, where the dominant decay modes in the minimal SU(5) GUT are: p→etae + and n→π - e + . (author)

  16. Axially chiral allenyl gold complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alice; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2014-09-17

    Unprecedented allenyl gold complexes have been achieved starting from triphenylpropargylphosphonium bromide. Two different coordination modes of the allene isomer of triphenylphosphoniumpropargylide to gold have been found depending on the gold oxidation state. Bromo-, pentafluorophenyl-, and triphenylphosphine-gold(I) allenyl complexes were prepared in which the α carbon coordinates to the gold(I) center. A chiral pentafluorophenyl-gold(III) allenyl complex with the gold atoms coordinated to the γ carbon was also prepared. All the complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction showing the characteristic distances for a C═C═C unit.

  17. Baryonic forces and hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschauer, Stefan Karl

    2016-02-12

    In this work the baryon-baryon interaction is studied at next-to-leading order in SU(3) chiral effective field theory and applied to hyperon-nucleon scattering. The properties of hyperons in isospin-symmetric as well as asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated within the Bruecker-Hartree-Fock formalism. Moreover, the leading three-baryon interaction is derived and its low-energy constants are estimated from decuplet intermediate states. We conclude, that chiral effective field theory is a well-suited tool to describe the baryonic forces.

  18. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.

  19. The phi-meson and Chiral-mass-meson production in heavy-ion collisions as potential probes of quark-gluon-plasma and Chiral symmetry transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Eby, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    Possibilities of observing abundances of phi mesons and narrow hadronic pairs, as results of QGP and Chiral transitions, are considered for nucleus-nucleus interactions. Kinematical requirements in forming close pairs are satisfied in K+K decays of S(975) and delta (980) mesons with small phi, and phi (91020) mesons with large PT, and in pi-pi decays of familiar resonance mesons only in a partially restored chiral symmetry. Gluon-gluon dominance in QGP can enhance phi meson production. High hadronization rates of primordial resonance mesons which form narrow hadronic pairs are not implausible. Past cosmic ray evidences of anomalous phi production and narrow pair abundances are considered.

  20. Induction of Chirality in Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Chiral 2D MoS2 Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Milton, Finn; McKenna, Robert; Brennan, Lorcan J; Cullen, Conor P; Guillemeney, Lilian; Tepliakov, Nikita V; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Perova, Tatiana S; Duesberg, Georg S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gun'ko, Yurii K

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been intensively investigated due to their interesting properties and range of potential applications. Although most research has focused on graphene, atomic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and particularly MoS 2 have gathered much deserved attention recently. Here, we report the induction of chirality into 2D chiral nanomaterials by carrying out liquid exfoliation of MoS 2 in the presence of chiral ligands (cysteine and penicillamine) in water. This processing resulted in exfoliated chiral 2D MoS 2 nanosheets showing strong circular dichroism signals, which were far past the onset of the original chiral ligand signals. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrated that the chiral nature of MoS 2 nanosheets is related to the presence of chiral ligands causing preferential folding of the MoS 2 sheets. There was an excellent match between the theoretically calculated and experimental spectra. We believe that, due to their high aspect ratio planar morphology, chiral 2D nanomaterials could offer great opportunities for the development of chiroptical sensors, materials, and devices for valleytronics and other potential applications. In addition, chirality plays a key role in many chemical and biological systems, with chiral molecules and materials critical for the further development of biopharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, and this research therefore should have a strong impact on relevant areas of science and technology such as nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Guven, Zekiye P.

    2016-06-22

    Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. 3D chiral nanoplasmonics: fabrication, chiroptic engineering, mechanism, and application in enantioselection (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-09-01

    Chirality does naturally exist, and the building blocks of life (e.g. DNA, proteins, peptides and sugars) are usually chiral. Chirality inherently imposes chemical/biological selectivity on functional molecules; hence the discrimination in molecular chirality from an enantiomer to the other mirror image (i.e. enantioselection) has fundamental and application significance. Enantiomers interact with left and right handed circularly polarized light in a different manner with respect to optical extinction; hence, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) has been widely used for enantioselection. However, enantiomers usually have remarkably low ECD intensity, mainly owing to the small electric transition dipole moment induced by molecular sizes compared to the ECD-active wavelength in the UV-visible-near IR region. To enhance ECD magnitude, recently it has being developed 3D chiral nanoplasmonic structures having a helical path, and the dimensions are comparable to the ECD wavelength. However, it is still ambiguous the origin of 3D chiroplasmonics, and there is a lack of studying the interaction of 3D chiroplasmoncs with enantiomers for the application of enantioselection. Herein, we will present a one-step fabrication of 3D silver nanospirals (AgNSs) via low-substrate-temperature glancing angle deposition. AgNSs can be deposited on a wide range of substrates (including transparent and flexible substrates), in an area on the order of cm2. A set of spiral dimensions (such as spiral pitches, number of turns and handedness) have been easily engineered to tune the chiroptic properties, leading to studying the chiroplasmonic principles together with finite element simulation and the LC model. At the end, it will be demonstrated that 3D chiroplasmonics can differentiate molecular chirality of enantiomers with dramatic enhancement in the anisotropy g factor. This study opens a door to sensitively discriminate enantiomer chirality.

  3. Chirality-selected phase behavior in ionic polypeptide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that chirality determines the phase state of polyelectrolyte complexes formed from mixing dilute solutions of oppositely charged polypeptides. In these systems, the physical state of the resultant complex is determined by the combination of electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The formation of fluid complexes occurs when at least one of the polypeptides in the mixture is racemic, which disrupts backbone hydrogen bonding networks. Pairs of purely chiral polypeptides, of any sense, form compact, fibrillar solids with a β-sheet structure on mixing. Analogous behavior occurs in micellar cores formed from polypeptide block copolymers with polyethylene oxide, where microphase separation into discrete, self-assembled aggregates with either solid or fluid cores, and eventually into ordered phases at high concentrations, is possible. Chirality is an exploitable tool for manipulating material properties in systems based on polyelectrolyte complexation. Its role in these systems gives insight into polyelectrolyte complex phase behavior more broadly. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Program in Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  4. K- nuclear potentials from in-medium chirally motivated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieply, A.; Gazda, D.; Mares, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2011-01-01

    A self-consistent scheme for constructing K - nuclear optical potentials from subthreshold in-medium KN s-wave scattering amplitudes is presented and applied to analysis of kaonic atoms data and to calculations of K - quasibound nuclear states. The amplitudes are taken from a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model, both at the Tomozawa-Weinberg leading order and at the next to leading order. Typical kaonic atoms potentials are characterized by a real part -Re V K - chiral =85±5 MeV at nuclear matter density, in contrast to half this depth obtained in some derivations based on in-medium KN threshold amplitudes. The moderate agreement with data is much improved by adding complex ρ- and ρ 2 -dependent phenomenological terms, found to be dominated by ρ 2 contributions that could represent KNN→YN absorption and dispersion, outside the scope of meson-baryon chiral models. Depths of the real potentials are then near 180 MeV. The effects of p-wave interactions are studied and found secondary to those of the dominant s-wave contributions. The in-medium dynamics of the coupled-channel model is discussed and systematic studies of K - quasibound nuclear states are presented.

  5. Alternative method for determination of contaminated heparin using chiral recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, J; Collins, M; Currie, C A

    2014-05-15

    Since 2008 a significant amount of work has focused on the development of methods to analyze contaminated heparin. This work focuses on utilizing heparin's ability to serve as a chiral selector as a means for determining contamination. Specifically, the effect of contamination on the separation of pheniramine and chloroquine enantiomers was explored. Separations were conducted using heparin contaminated with chondroitin sulfate at varying levels. For each pair of enantiomers, electrophoretic mobility and resolution were calculated. For pheniramine enantiomers, an increase in contamination leads to a decrease in the electrophoretic mobility and resolution. A linear relationship between contamination level and electrophoretic mobility of the pheniramine enantiomers was observed for the entire contamination range. A linear relationship was also found between contamination level and resolution of the enantiomers between 0 and 70 percent contamination. For the separation of chloroquine enantiomers, it was found that at low levels of contamination, the resolution of enantiomers was increased due to the secondary interaction between the chloroquine enantiomers and the chondroitin sulfate. Results of this study illustrate the potential of using chiral recognition as a means to determine heparin contamination as well as the improvement of the chiral resolution of chloroquine with the additional of low levels of chondroitin sulfate A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Big, strong, neutral, twisted, and chiral π acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingjie; Huang, Guangxi; Besnard, Celine; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2015-04-13

    General synthetic access to expanded π-acidic surfaces of variable size, topology, chirality, and π acidity is reported. The availability of π surfaces with these characteristics is essential to develop the functional relevance of anion-π interactions with regard to molecular recognition, translocation, and transformation. The problem is that, with expanded π surfaces, the impact of electron-withdrawing substituents decreases and the high π acidity needed for strong anion-π interactions can be more difficult to obtain. To overcome this problem, it is herein proposed to build large surfaces from smaller fragments and connect these fragments with bridges that are composed only of single atoms. Two central surfaces for powerful anion-π interactions, namely, perfluoroarenes and naphthalenediimides (NDIs), were selected as fragments and coupled with through sulfide bridges. Their oxidation to sulfoxides and sulfones, as well as fluorine substitution in the peripheral rings, provides access to the full chemical space of relevant π acidities. According to cyclic voltammetry, LUMO levels range from -3.96 to -4.72 eV. With sulfoxide bridges, stereogenic centers are introduced to further enrich the intrinsic planar chirality of the expanded surfaces. The stereoisomers were separated by chiral HPLC and characterized by X-ray crystallography. Their topologies range from chairs to π boats, and the latter are reminiscent of the cation-π boxes in operational neuronal receptors. With pentafluorophenyl acceptors, the π acidity of NDIs with two sulfoxide groups in the core reaches -4.45 eV, whereas two sulfone moieties give a value of -4.72 eV, which is as low as with four ethyl sulfone groups, that is, a π superacid near the limit of existence. Beyond anion-π interactions, these conceptually innovative π-acidic surfaces are also of interest as electron transporters in conductive materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Liquid crystal behavior induced assembling fabrication of conductive chiral MWCNTs@NCC nanopaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yumei; Wang, Tianjiao; Chen, Zhimin; Li, Jing; Tian, Qiuge; Yang, Hongxia; Xu, Qun, E-mail: qunxu@zzu.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • In this study conductive chiral MWCNTs@NCC nanopapers were prepared. • The introduction of the MWCNTs has a pronounced effect on the chiral structure of the as-prepared nanopaper. • The multiple weak molecular interactions existing between MWCNTs and NCC are responsible for the effective dispersion and stabilization of MWCNTs. • The resulting nanopaper has an increased conductivity. - Abstract: The conductive chiral MWCNTs@NCC nanopapers obtained by the assembly of nanocrystalline cellulose liquid crystals (NCC LCs) host matrix along with one-dimensional (1-D) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been studied in this work. Circular dichroism (CD) studies show strong signals stemming from the chiral nematic structure. Notably, the introduction of the MWCNTs has a pronounced effect on the chiral structure of the as-prepared nanopaper. Our experimental results indicate the multiple weak molecular interactions existing between MWCNTs and NCC are responsible for the effective dispersion and stabilization of MWCNTs. Moreover it also confirms the resulting nanopaper has an increased conductivity of 4.2 S/m at 1.96 wt% MWCNTs. So the co-assembly of the nanocomposite herein opens a gateway for preparing functional materials combining the photonic properties of the NCC LCs matrix with other building blocks that can supply other advantageous functions.

  8. Generalized parton distributions for the nucleon in chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Manashov, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik]|[Sankt-Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Schaefer, A. [Sankt-Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    2006-11-15

    We complete the analysis of twist-two generalized parton distributions of the nucleon in one-loop order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. Extending our previous study of the chiral-even isosinglet sector, we give results for chiral-even isotriplet distributions and for the chiral-odd sector. We also calculate the one-loop corrections for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions of the pion. (orig.)

  9. Generalized parton distributions for the nucleon in chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton DESY, Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany); Manashov, A. [Universitaet Regensburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg (Germany); Sankt-Petersburg State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schaefer, A. [Universitaet Regensburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    We complete the analysis of twist-two generalized parton distributions of the nucleon in one-loop order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. Extending our previous study of the chiral-even isosinglet sector, we give results for chiral-even isotriplet distributions and for the chiral-odd sector. We also calculate the one-loop corrections for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions of the pion. (orig.)

  10. Enhancing circular dichroism by super chiral hot spots from a chiral metasurface with apexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Teh, Bing Hong; Wang, Yue; Adamo, Giorgio; Teng, Jinghua; Sun, Handong

    2017-05-01

    Manipulating light spin (or circular polarization) is an important research field and may find broad applications from sensors, display technology, to quantum computing and communication. To this end, planar metasurfaces with larger circular dichroism are strongly demanded. However, current planar chiral metasurface structures suffer from either fabrication challenge, especially from near-infrared to visible spectrum, or insufficient circular dichroism. Here, we report a chiral metasurface composed of achiral nanoholes which allow for precisely creating apexes in the designed structure. Our investigation indicates that the apexes act as super chiral hot spots and enable the highly concentrated near-field optical chirality leading to a remarkable enhancement of circular dichroism in the far-field. A 4-fold enhancement of the circular dichroism and a strong optical activity of ˜15 degrees have been experimentally achieved. Besides the enhanced chirality, our design genuinely overcomes the nanofabrication challenge faced in existing planar chiral metasurfaces.

  11. Recent status of the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    In this note, recent status of the chiral bag model is presented. As it combines the MIT quark bag model and the Skyrme model, the chiral bag model interpolates the two models smoothly as a function of the chiral bag radius R. The correct limit of R → ∞ is reproduced by including the higher order terms in the Ω expansion of the cranking method. It resolves the so-called small g A problem in a class of models where the semiclassical method is used. (author)

  12. The paradigm of Pseudodual Chiral Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachos, C.K.; Curtright, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    This is a synopsis and extension of Phys. Rev. D49 5408 (1994). The Pseudodual Chiral Model illustrates 2-dimensional field theories which possess an infinite number of conservation laws but also allow particle production, at variance with naive expectations-a folk theorem of integrable models. We monitor the symmetries of the pseudodual model, both local and nonlocal, as transmutations of the symmetries of the (very different) usual Chiral Model. We refine the conventional algorithm to more efficiently produce the nonlocal symmetries of the model. We further find the canonical transformation which connects the usual chiral model to its fully equivalent dual model, thus contradistinguishing the pseudodual theory

  13. Chiral Light Design and Detection Inspired by Optical Antenna Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, Lisa V; Thureja, Prachi; Stollmann, Alexia; De Leo, Eva; Norris, David J

    2018-03-23

    Chiral metallic nanostructures can generate evanescent fields which are more highly twisted than circularly polarized light. However, it remains unclear how best to exploit this phenomenon, hindering the optimal utilization of chiral electromagnetic fields. Here, inspired by optical antenna theory, we address this challenge by introducing chiral antenna parameters: the chirality flux efficiency and the chiral antenna aperture. These quantities, which are based on chirality conservation, quantify the generation and dissipation of chiral light. We then present a label-free experimental technique, chirality flux spectroscopy, which measures the chirality flux efficiency, providing valuable information on chiral near fields in the far field. This principle is verified theoretically and experimentally with two-dimensionally chiral coupled nanorod antennas, for which we show that chiral near and far fields are linearly dependent on the magnetoelectric polarizability. This elementary system confirms our concept to quantify chiral electromagnetic fields and paves the way toward broadly tunable chiral optical applications including ultrasensitive detection of molecular chirality or optical information storage and transfer.

  14. The production of {eta} and {omega} mesons in 3.5 GeV p+p interaction in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilab, Khaled

    2011-08-31

    The study of meson production in proton-proton collisions in the energy range up to one GeV above the production threshold provides valuable information about the nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Theoretical models describe the interaction between nucleons via the exchange of mesons. In such models, different mechanisms contribute to the production of the mesons in nucleon-nucleon collisions. The measurement of total and differential production cross sections provide information which can help in determining the magnitude of the various mechanisms. Moreover, such cross section information serves as an input to the transport calculations which describe e.g. the production of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in proton- and pion-induced reactions as well as in heavy ion collisions. In this thesis, the production of {omega} and {eta} mesons in proton-proton collisions at 3.5 GeV beam energy was studied using the High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES) installed at the Schwerionensynchrotron (SIS 18) at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. About 80 000 {omega} mesons and 35 000 {eta} mesons were reconstructed. Total production cross sections of both mesons were determined. Furthermore, the collected statistics allowed for extracting angular distributions of both mesons as well as performing Dalitz plot studies. The {omega} and {eta} mesons were reconstructed via their decay into three pions ({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}) in the exclusive reaction pp {yields} pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}. The charged particles were identified via their characteristic energy loss, via the measurement of their time of flight and momentum, or using kinematics. The neutral pion was reconstructed using the missing mass method. A kinematic fit was applied to improve the resolution and to select events in which a {pi}{sup 0} was produced. The correction of measured yields for the effects of spectrometer acceptance was done as a function of four

  15. Nuclear structure with unitarily transformed two-body plus phenomenological three-body interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Anneke

    2011-02-02

    The importance of three-nucleon forces for a variety of nuclear structure phenomena is apparent in various investigations. This thesis provides a first step towards the inclusion of realistic three-nucleon forces by studying simple phenomenological threebody interactions. The Unitary Correlation Operator Method (UCOM) and the Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) provide two different approaches to derive soft phase-shift equivalent nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions via unitary transformations. Although their motivations are quite different the NN interactions obtained with the two methods exhibit some similarities. The application of the UCOM- or SRG-transformed Argonne V18 potential in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation and including the second-order energy corrections emerging from many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) reveals that the systematics of experimental ground-state energies can be reproduced by some of the interactions considering a series of closed-shell nuclei across the whole nuclear chart. However, charge radii are systematically underestimated, especially for intermediate and heavy nuclei. This discrepancy to experimental data is expected to result from neglected three-nucleon interactions. As first ansatz for a three-nucleon force, we consider a finite-range three-body interaction of Gaussian shape. Its influence on ground-state energies and charge radii is discussed in detail on the basis of HF plus MBPT calculations and shows a significant improvement in the description of experimental data. As the handling of the Gaussian three-body interaction is time-extensive, we show that it can be replaced by a regularized three-body contact interaction exhibiting a very similar behavior. An extensive study characterizes its properties in detail and confirms the improvements with respect to nuclear properties. To take into account information of an exact numerical solution of the nuclear eigenvalue problem, the No-Core Shell Model is applied to

  16. Axions from chiral family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Biaxiality of chiral liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longa, L.; Trebin, H.R.; Fink, W.

    1993-10-01

    Using extended deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau free energy expansion in terms of the anisotropic part of the dielectric tensor field Q αβ (χ) a connection between the phase biaxiality and the stability of various chiral liquid crystalline phases is studied. In particular the cholesteric phase, the cubic Blue Phases and the phases characterized by an icosahedral space group symmetry are analysed in detail. Also a general question concerning the applicability of the mean-field approximation in describing the chiral phases is addressed. By an extensive study of the model over a wide range of the parameters a new class of phenomena, not present in the original deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau model, has been found. These include: a) re-entrant phase transitions between the cholesteric and the cubic blue phases and b) the existence of distinct phases of the same symmetry but of different biaxialities. The phase biaxiality serves here as an extra scalar order parameter. Furthermore, it has been shown that due to the presence of the competing bulk terms in the free energy, the stable phases may acquire a large degree of biaxiality, also in liquid crystalline materials composed of effectively uniaxial molecules. A study of icosahedral space group symmetries gives a partial answer to the question as to whether an icosahedral quasicrystalline liquid could be stabilized in liquid crystals. Although, in general, the stability of icosahedral structures could be enhanced by the extra terms in the free energy no absolutely stable icosahedral phase has been found. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  18. Traces of chiral symmetry on light planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdjian, Hagop.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of a description of the hadronic world by field theories defined on light planes and formulated in terms of three interacting quark field variables has been investigated. The framework of models where the chiral symmetry breaking is produced by the only mechanical masses of quarks has been considered. The hypothesis that the light plane charges generate in the real world approximate symmetries of one particle states has also been emitted. The projection of the algebraic structure of the observables in the space of physical states have yielded various relations in terms of the masses and couplings of the low lying mesons. They seem to be in agreement with experimental data, and suggest the consistency of the adopted model to describe symmetry breaking phenomena. The quark mechanical masses m(u) approximately 30MeV and m(s) approximately 200MeV have also been estimated. The smallness of these masses in respect to those of hadrons seems to indicate that they do not constitute the only mass scale of the hadronic world, but that there should exist another scale parameter, independent of the quark mechanical masses, and symmetric of SU(3) [fr

  19. Chiral Gauge Dynamics and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2009-05-07

    We study the dynamics of a chiral SU(2) gauge theory with a Weyl fermion in the I = 3/2 representation and of its supersymmetric generalization. In the former, we find a new and exotic mechanism of confinement, induced by topological excitations that we refer to as magnetic quintets. The supersymmetric version was examined earlier in the context of dynamical supersymmetry breaking by Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shenker, who showed that if this gauge theory confines at the origin of moduli space, one may break supersymmetry by adding a tree level superpotential. We examine the dynamics by deforming the theory on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}, and show that the infrared behavior of this theory is an interacting CFT at small S{sup 1}. We argue that this continues to hold at large S{sup 1}, and if so, that supersymmetry must remain unbroken. Our methods also provide the microscopic origin of various superpotentials in SQCD on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}--which were previously obtained by using symmetry and holomorphy--and resolve a long standing interpretational puzzle concerning a flux operator discovered by Affleck, Harvey, and Witten. It is generated by a topological excitation, a 'magnetic bion', whose stability is due to fermion pair exchange between its constituents. We also briefly comment on composite monopole operators as leading effects in two dimensional antiferromagnets.

  20. Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...

  1. Symmetry properties of chiral carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jishi, R.A.; Venkataraman, L.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Dresselhaus, G.

    1995-01-01

    The method of zone folding is applied to the calculation of the phonon mode frequencies in carbon nanotubules. The Raman and infrared-active mode frequencies are determined for nanotubules of different diameters and chiralities

  2. Organometallic chemistry of chiral diphosphazane ligands ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 4. Organometallic chemistry of chiral diphosphazane ligands: Synthesis and structural characterisation. Kannan Raghuraman Swadhin K Mandal T S Venkatakrishnan Setharampattu S Krishnamurthy Munirathinam Nethaji. Volume 114 Issue 4 August 2002 ...

  3. Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Galain, R.; Ripka, G.

    1990-01-01

    Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons are presented. Emphasis is placed on the underlying quark structure of hadrons including the Skyrmion. The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with vector mesons is discussed

  4. Odd viscosity in chiral active fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debarghya; Souslov, Anton; Abanov, Alexander G; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-17

    We study the hydrodynamics of fluids composed of self-spinning objects such as chiral grains or colloidal particles subject to torques. These chiral active fluids break both parity and time-reversal symmetries in their non-equilibrium steady states. As a result, the constitutive relations of chiral active media display a dissipationless linear-response coefficient called odd (or equivalently, Hall) viscosity. This odd viscosity does not lead to energy dissipation, but gives rise to a flow perpendicular to applied pressure. We show how odd viscosity arises from non-linear equations of hydrodynamics with rotational degrees of freedom, once linearized around a non-equilibrium steady state characterized by large spinning speeds. Next, we explore odd viscosity in compressible fluids and suggest how our findings can be tested in the context of shock propagation experiments. Finally, we show how odd viscosity in weakly compressible chiral active fluids can lead to density and pressure excess within vortex cores.

  5. Vector meson decays in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Jennings, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Vector meson decays are examined in a model where a confined quark and antiquark annihilate, producing a pair of elementary pseudoscalar mesons. Two versions of the pseudoscalar meson-quark interaction are employed, one where the coupling is restricted to the bag surface and one where it extends throughout the bag volume. Energy conservation is ensured in the model through insertion of exponential factors containing the bag energy at each interaction vertex. To guarantee momentum conservation, a wave-packet description is utilized in which the decay widths are normalized by a factor involving the overlap of the initial bag state with the confined qanti q state of zero momentum. With either interaction, the model yields a value for the p-width that exceeds the empirical width by a factor two. For the Ksup(*) and PHI mesons, the computed widths depend strongly on the interaction employed. Implications of these results for chiral bag models are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Hybrid stars within a covariant, nonlocal chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, D. B.; Dumm, D. Gomez; Grunfeld, A. G.; Klaehn, T.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2007-01-01

    We present a hybrid equation of state (EoS) for dense matter in which a nuclear matter phase is described within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach and a two-flavor quark matter phase is modelled according to a recently developed covariant, nonlocal chiral quark model. We show that modern observational constraints for compact star masses (M∼2M · ) can be satisfied when a small vector-like four quark interaction is taken into account. The corresponding isospin symmetric EoS is consistent with flow data analyses of heavy ion collisions and points to a deconfinement transition at about 0.55 fm -3

  7. Pion-nucleon scattering in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Pion-nucleon scattering in the (3.3) resonance region in the framework of chiral bag model(CBM) is considered. The effective Hamiltonian of πNΔ-system in the framework of the CBM contains πNN, πNΔ, πΔΔ interaction terms with the formfactor which is essentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The iteration of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3.3) and (3.1) scattering where the values of the parameters agree with CBM [ru

  8. Chiral Topological Orders in an Optical Raman Lattice (Open Source)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    system. In otherwords, the topology is not changed under the C4ˆ transformation in position and (pseudo)spin space R, e 2 , 144 4 1 4 i 4 4 z...PAPER • OPEN ACCESS Chiral topological orders in an optical Raman lattice To cite this article: Xiong-Jun Liu et al 2016 New J. Phys. 18...P Öhberg et al. - Physics of higher orbital bands in optical lattices: a review Xiaopeng Li and W Vincent Liu - Interaction-driven topological and

  9. Radiative decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabachenko, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A new model of radiative π-meson decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model is proposed. The quark-π-meson interaction has the form of a pseudoscalar coupling and is located on the bag surface. The vector meson decay width depends on the quark masses, the π-meson decay constant, the radius of the bag, and the free parameter Z 2 , which specifies the disappearance of the bag during the decay. The obtained results for the omega- and p-decay widths are in satisfactory agreement with the experiment

  10. Pion-nucleon scattering in the Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effective hamiltonian of the πNΔ-system in the framework of the Chiral Bag Model (CBM) contains πNN-, πNΔ-, πΔΔ-interaction terms with a form factor which is esstentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The interation of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3,3) and (3,1) phase shifts [in the (3,3) resonance region] where the values of the paramters agree with the CBM. (orig.)

  11. Hierarchically assembled DNA origami tubules with reconfigurable chirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haorong; Cha, Tae-Gon; Pan, Jing; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic reconfiguration of a hierarchically assembled tubular structure is demonstrated using the DNA origami technique. Short cylindrical DNA origami monomers are synthesized and linked into elongated tubules, which can then be disassembled via toehold-mediated strand displacement. The disassembled subunits are subsequently linked into tubules of a different chirality. The reconfiguration is performed with the subunits carrying dumbbell hairpin DNA oligonucleotides or gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The reconfiguration of higher order origami structures presented here is useful for constructing dynamic nanostructures that exceed the size limit of single DNA origami and may facilitate the study of molecular or particle interactions by tuning their relative distance and organization. (paper)

  12. Research in theoretical nuclear physics, Nuclear Theory Group. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Jackson, A.D.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1984-01-01

    Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the nature of nucleon-nucleon and meson-nucleon interactions and on determining the consequences of such microscopic interactions in nuclear systems. We have constructed models of baryons which smoothly interpolate between currently popular bag and Skyrme models of hadrons and provide a vehicle for introducing the notions of quantum chromodynamics to low energy nuclear physics without violating the constraints of chiral invariance. Such models have been used to study the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the spectrum of baryons, and the important question of the radius of the quark bag. We have used many-body techniques to consider a variety of problems in finite nuclei and infinite many-body systems. New light has been shed on the nuclear coexistence of spherical and deformed states in the A = 18 region as well as the role of genuine three-body forces in this region. Phenomenological studies of infinite systems have led to a number of predictions particularly regarding the spin-polarized quantum liquids of current experimental interest. Microscopic many-body theories, based on the parquet diagrams, have been improved to a fully quantitative level for the ground state properties of infinite many-body systems. Finite temperature theories of nuclear matter, important in the study of heavy ion reactions, have been constructed. An expanded program in heavy ion theory has led to major advances in the multi-dimensional barrier penetration problem. Activities in nuclear astrophysics have provided a far more reliable description of the role of electron capture processes in stellar collapse. As a consequence, we have been able to perform legitimate calculations of the unshocked mass in Type II supernovae

  13. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierl, Dieter

    2008-05-15

    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  14. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierl, Dieter

    2008-05-01

    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ + pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  15. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  16. Quantum chromodynamics, chiral symmetry and bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, M.

    1983-08-01

    This course deals with the following subjects: quarks; quantum chromodynamics (the classical Lagrangian of QCD, quark masses, the classical equations of motion of QCD, general properties, lattices); chiral symmetry (massless free Dirac theory, realizations, the σ-model); the M.I.T. bag model (basic assumptions and equations of motion, spherical cavity approximation, properties of hadrons); the chiral bag models (basic assumptions, the cloudy bag model, the little bag model); non-topological soliton bag models

  17. Chiral bags, skyrmions and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1984-09-01

    Recent developments on an intriguing connection between the quark-bag description of the baryons (nucleons in particular) and the Skyrmion model are discussed in terms of the constraints coming from chiral anomalies. Topics treated are the leaking baryon charge, axial charge and energy density; the role of chiral anomalies; the role of Skyrme's quartic term and the connection to the meson degrees of freedom; and finally some qualitative implications in nuclei. The presentation is purposely descriptive and intuitive instead of mathematically precise

  18. Bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed

  19. Organocatalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis of Axially, Planar, and Helical Chiral Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Seiji; Liu, Shiyao; Kaneko, Shiho

    2016-02-04

    Axially, planar, and helical chiral compounds are indispensable building blocks in modern organic synthesis. A wide variety of chiral ligands and catalysts were designed based on these chiral scaffolds, and these chiral ligands and catalysts were used for various catalytic asymmetric transformations to produce important chiral compounds in an optically enriched form. Furthermore, these chiral skeletons are found in the structure of biologically active natural products. Thus, the development of efficient enantioselective methods for the synthesis of these chiral compounds is an important task in the field of organic chemistry. In the last few years, organocatalyzed approaches, which are one of the most reliable catalytic asymmetric methods, became a hot topic. This Focus Review summarizes asymmetric organocatalytic methods for the synthesis of axially, planar, and helical chiral compounds as useful chiral building blocks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Current-induced rotational torques in the skyrmion lattice phase of chiral magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everschor, K.; Garst, M.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Rosch, A.

    2011-01-01

    In chiral magnets without inversion symmetry, the magnetic structure can form a lattice of magnetic whirl lines, a two-dimensional skyrmion lattice, stabilized by spin-orbit interactions in a small range of temperatures and magnetic fields. The twist of the magnetization within this phase gives rise

  1. Minimal Extended Flavor Groups, Matter Fields Chiral Representations, and the Flavor Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doff, A.; Pisano, F.

    We show the specific unusual features on chiral gauge anomalies cancellation in the minimal, necessarily 3-3-1, and the largest 3-4-1 weak isospin chiral gauge semisimple group leptoquark-bilepton extensions of the 3-2-1 conventional standard model of nuclear and electromagnetic interactions. In such models a natural answer for the fundamental question of fermion generation replication arises directly from the self-consistency of a local gauge quantum field theory, which constrains the number of the QFD fermion families to the QCD color charges.

  2. Chiral metal-organic frameworks bearing free carboxylic acids for organocatalyst encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xi, Xiaobing; Ye, Chengcheng; Gong, Tengfei; Yang, Zhiwei; Cui, Yong

    2014-12-08

    Two chiral carboxylic acid functionalized micro- and mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are constructed by the stepwise assembly of triple-stranded heptametallic helicates with six carboxylic acid groups. The mesoporous MOF with permanent porosity functions as a host for encapsulation of an enantiopure organic amine catalyst by combining carboxylic acids and chiral amines in situ through acid-base interactions. The organocatalyst-loaded framework is shown to be an efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the asymmetric direct aldol reactions with significantly enhanced stereoselectivity in relative to the homogeneous organocatalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Nucleon parton distributions in chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseeva, Alena

    2013-11-19

    Properties of the chiral expansion of nucleon light-cone operators have been studied. In the framework of the chiral perturbation theory we have demonstrated that convergency of the chiral expansion of nucleon parton distributions strongly depends on the value of the variable x. Three regions in x with essentially different analytical properties of the resulting chiral expansion for parton distributions were found. For each of the regions we have elaborated special power counting rules corresponding to the partial resummation of the chiral series. The nonlocal effective operators for the vector and the axial nucleon parton distributions have been constructed at the zeroth and the first chiral order. Using the derived nonlocal operators and the derived power counting rules we have obtained the second order expressions for the nucleon GPDs H(x,ξ,Δ{sup 2}), H(x,ξ,Δ{sup 2}),E(x,ξ,Δ{sup 2}) valid in the region x>or similar a{sup 2}{sub χ}.

  4. Electric dipole moment of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.; Fabre de la Ripelle, M.

    1986-01-01

    The contribution of a CP-nonconserving nucleon-nucleon interaction to the electric dipole moment of 3 He is evaluated in view of a recent proposal for its experimental detection. We use two models of CP-nonconserving interactions in combination with a Reid soft-core strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. In the Kobayashi-Maskawa model of CP nonconservation the order of magnitude is 10 -30 eX while the presence of the theta term in the QCD Langrangian contributes an order of magnitude 10 -16 theta-bar e cm

  5. Relativistic chiral SU(3) symmetry, large Nc sum rules and meson-baryon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.F.M.; Kolomeitsev, E.E.

    2001-05-01

    The relativistic chiral SU(3) Lagrangian is used to describe kaon-nucleon scattering imposing constraints from the pion-nucleon sector and the axial-vector coupling constants of the baryon octet states. We solve the covariant coupled-channel Bethe-Salpeter equation with the interaction kernel truncated at chiral order Q 3 where we include only those terms which are leading in the large N c limit of QCD. The baryon decuplet states are an important explicit ingredient in our scheme, because together with the baryon octet states they form the large N c baryon ground states of QCD. Part of our technical developments is a minimal chiral subtraction scheme within dimensional regularization, which leads to a manifest realization of the covariant chiral counting rules. All SU(3) symmetry-breaking effects are well controlled by the combined chiral and large N c expansion, but still found to play a crucial role in understanding the empirical data. We achieve an excellent description of the data set typically up to laboratory momenta of p lab ≅ 500 MeV. (orig.)

  6. Independent control of the vortex chirality and polarity in a pair of magnetic nanodots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junqin; Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong@sinap.ac.cn; Cao, Jiefeng; Meng, Xiangyu; Zhu, Fangyuan; Wu, Yanqing; Tai, Renzhong

    2017-08-01

    Independent control of the vortex chirality and polarity is realized by changing the in-plane magnetic field direction in nanodot pair through Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF) simulation. The two magnetic circles are close to each other and have magnetic interaction. The two circles always have the same polarity and opposite chirality at every remanent state. There are totally four predictable magnetic states in the nanodot pair which can be obtained in the remanent state relaxed from the saturation state along all possible directions. An explanation on the formation of vortex states is given by vortex dynamics. The vortex states are stable in large out-of-plane magnetic field which is in a direction opposite to the vortex polarity. The geometry of the nanodot pair gives a way to easily realize a vortex state with specific polarity and chirality.

  7. Electroweak chiral Lagrangian from a natural topcolor-assisted technicolor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang Junyi; Jiang Shaozhou; Wang Qing

    2009-01-01

    Based on previous studies on computing coefficients of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian from C. T. Hill's schematic topcolor-assisted technicolor model, we generalize the calculation to K. Lane's prototype natural topcolor-assisted technicolor model. We find that typical features of the model are qualitatively similar to those of Hill's, but Lane's model prefers a smaller technicolor group and the Z ' mass must be smaller than 400 GeV. Furthermore, the S parameter is around the order of +1, mainly due to the existence of three doublets of techniquarks. We obtain the values for all coefficients of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian up to the order p 4 . Apart from large negative four-fermion coupling values, the extended technicolor impacts on the electroweak chiral Lagrangian coefficients are small, since the techniquark self energy, which determines these coefficients, in general receives almost no influence from the extended technicolor induced four-fermion interactions except for its large momentum tail.

  8. Stereoselective synthesis of cyclopropanes based on a 1,2-chirality transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehling, Olaf; Wessig, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    A stereoselective route to enantiomerically enriched bicyclic cyclopropane derivatives 13 is described which is based on a conceptually novel 1,2-chirality transfer approach. The hyperconjugative interaction of an electronically excited carbonyl group with the sigma* orbital of an adjacent C--X bond in the transition state of a hydrogen abstraction causes the preference of a certain conformation and consequently the differentiation between two diastereotopic methylene groups. The 1,2-chirality transfer is completed by a subsequent HX elimination which destroys the only stereogenic center in the reactants 12. Furthermore, it was found that contrary enthalpic and entropic influences result in the existence of an inversion temperature T 0. Upon crossing T 0 the stereoselectivity is reversed. Considering this temperature dependency, chirality transfer efficiencies of up to 83 % could be achieved. The absolute configuration of most products could be unambiguously determined by VCD spectroscopy combined with DFT calculations.

  9. Liquid crystal behavior induced assembling fabrication of conductive chiral MWCNTs@NCC nanopaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yumei; Wang, Tianjiao; Chen, Zhimin; Li, Jing; Tian, Qiuge; Yang, Hongxia; Xu, Qun

    2016-11-01

    The conductive chiral MWCNTs@NCC nanopapers obtained by the assembly of nanocrystalline cellulose liquid crystals (NCC LCs) host matrix along with one-dimensional (1-D) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been studied in this work. Circular dichroism (CD) studies show strong signals stemming from the chiral nematic structure. Notably, the introduction of the MWCNTs has a pronounced effect on the chiral structure of the as-prepared nanopaper. Our experimental results indicate the multiple weak molecular interactions existing between MWCNTs and NCC are responsible for the effective dispersion and stabilization of MWCNTs. Moreover it also confirms the resulting nanopaper has an increased conductivity of 4.2 S/m at 1.96 wt% MWCNTs. So the co-assembly of the nanocomposite herein opens a gateway for preparing functional materials combining the photonic properties of the NCC LCs matrix with other building blocks that can supply other advantageous functions.

  10. Exploring the Chiral Recognition of Carboxylates by C2-Symmetric Receptors Bearing Glucosamine Pendant Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichosyt, Dawid; Wasiłek, Sylwia; Jurczak, Janusz

    2016-09-02

    Two urea-based receptors containing a glucosamine derivative were synthesized and investigated in terms of their ability to recognize chiral and achiral anions. Both receptors demonstrated a high affinity toward carboxylates in very competitive DMSO/water mixtures. The chiral recognition properties of these compounds were studied using structurally differentiated guests derived from mandelic acid and α-amino acids. We found that receptor 1 exhibits significantly higher enantioselectivities than compound 2 for all anions investigated, with a KS/KR ratio of up to 2. This low enantiodiscrimination in the case of receptor 2 is attributed to a lack of interactions between its sugar moieties and the side chain of chiral anions, due to their inadequate spatial arrangement.

  11. Low-energy hadronic interactions beyond the current algebra approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.N.; Troitskaya, N.I.; Nagy, M.

    1993-06-01

    The new low-energy AP 3 -interaction, which is produced by convergent box-constituent-quark-loop diagrams, is obtained within chiral perturbation theory at the quark level (CHPT) q with linear realization of chiral U(3) x U(3) symmetry. Its contributions to processes of low-energy interactions of low-lying mesons are investigated. The new interaction goes beyond the framework of the low-energy current algebra approach and of the effective chiral Lagrangians with linear realization of chiral symmetry, constructed at the hadronic level. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs

  12. Enantioselectively controlled release of chiral drug (metoprolol) using chiral mesoporous silica materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Zhen; Liu Xianbin; Ng, Siu-Choon; Chen Yuan; Yang Yanhui [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Du Yu, E-mail: du_yu@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: yhyang@ntu.edu.sg [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-04-23

    Chiral porous materials have attracted burgeoning attention on account of their potential applications in many areas, such as enantioseparation, chiral catalysis, chemical sensors and drug delivery. In this report, chiral mesoporous silica (CMS) materials with various pore sizes and structures were prepared using conventional achiral templates (other than chiral surfactant) and a chiral cobalt complex as co-template. The synthesized CMS materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. These CMS materials, as carriers, were demonstrated to be able to control the enantioselective release of a representative chiral drug (metoprolol). The release kinetics, as modeled by the power law equation, suggested that the release profiles of metoprolol were remarkably dependent on the pore diameter and pore structure of CMS materials. More importantly, R- and S-enantiomers of metoprolol exhibited different release kinetics on CMS compared to the corresponding achiral mesoporous silica (ACMS), attributable to the existence of local chirality on the pore wall surface of CMS materials. The chirality of CMS materials on a molecular level was further substantiated by vibrational circular dichroism measurements.

  13. Chiral polymerization in open systems from chiral-selective reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Nelson, Bradley J; Walker, Sara Imari

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the possibility that prebiotic homochirality can be achieved exclusively through chiral-selective reaction rate parameters without any other explicit mechanism for chiral bias. Specifically, we examine an open network of polymerization reactions, where the reaction rates can have chiral-selective values. The reactions are neither autocatalytic nor do they contain explicit enantiomeric cross-inhibition terms. We are thus investigating how rare a set of chiral-selective reaction rates needs to be in order to generate a reasonable amount of chiral bias. We quantify our results adopting a statistical approach: varying both the mean value and the rms dispersion of the relevant reaction rates, we show that moderate to high levels of chiral excess can be achieved with fairly small chiral bias, below 10%. Considering the various unknowns related to prebiotic chemical networks in early Earth and the dependence of reaction rates to environmental properties such as temperature and pressure variations, we argue that homochirality could have been achieved from moderate amounts of chiral selectivity in the reaction rates.

  14. Stereochemical control of nonamphiphilic lyotropic liquid crystals: chiral nematic phase of assemblies separated by six nanometers of aqueous solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sijie; Wang, Bing; Cui, Dawei; Kerwood, Deborah; Wilkens, Stephan; Han, Junjie; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2013-06-13

    Unlike conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals, nonamphiphilic lyotropic liquid crystals consist of hydrated assemblies of nonamphiphilic molecules that are aligned with a separation of about 6 nm between assemblies in an aqueous environment. This separation raises the question of how chirality, either from chiral mesogens or chiral dopants, would impact the phase as the assemblies that need to interact with each other are about 6 nm apart. Here, we report the synthesis of three stereoisomers of disodium chromonyl carboxylate, 5'DSCG-diviol, and the correlation between the molecular structure, bulk assembly, and liquid crystal formation. We observed that the chiral isomers (enantiomers 5'DSCG-(R,R)-diviol and 5'DSCG-(S,S)-diviol) formed liquid crystals while the achiral isomer 5'DSCG-meso-diviol did not. Circular dichroism indicated a chiral conformation with bisignate cotton effect. The nuclear Overhauser effect in proton NMR spectroscopy revealed conformations that are responsible for liquid crystal formation. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy showed that chiral 5'DSCG-diviols form assemblies with crossings. Interestingly, only planar alignment of the chiral nematic phase was observed in liquid crystal cells with thin spacers. The homeotropic alignment that permitted a fingerprint texture was obtained only when the thickness of the liquid crystal cell was increase to above ~500 μm. These studies suggest that hydrated assemblies of chiral 5'DSCG-diviol can interact with each other across a 6 nm separation in an aqueous environment by having a twist angle of about 0.22° throughout the sample between the neighboring assemblies.

  15. Chiral twist drives raft formation and organization in membranes composed of rod-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Louis; Lubensky, Tom C

    2017-01-03

    Lipid rafts are hypothesized to facilitate protein interaction, tension regulation, and trafficking in biological membranes, but the mechanisms responsible for their formation and maintenance are not clear. Insights into many other condensed matter phenomena have come from colloidal systems, whose micron-scale particles mimic basic properties of atoms and molecules but permit dynamic visualization with single-particle resolution. Recently, experiments showed that bidisperse mixtures of filamentous viruses can self-assemble into colloidal monolayers with thermodynamically stable rafts exhibiting chiral structure and repulsive interactions. We quantitatively explain these observations by modeling the membrane particles as chiral liquid crystals. Chiral twist promotes the formation of finite-sized rafts and mediates a repulsion that distributes them evenly throughout the membrane. Although this system is composed of filamentous viruses whose aggregation is entropically driven by dextran depletants instead of phospholipids and cholesterol with prominent electrostatic interactions, colloidal and biological membranes share many of the same physical symmetries. Chiral twist can contribute to the behavior of both systems and may account for certain stereospecific effects observed in molecular membranes.

  16. Search for chirality in 109Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timar, J.; Nyako, B.M.; Berek, G.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, J.; Zolnai, L.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The existence of nuclear chirality is one of the most intriguing questions of contemporary high-spin nuclear structure studies. Rotational doublet-band candidates for chiral structures have been observed mostly in two regions of the nuclear chart: around 134 Pr, and around 104 Rh. In this second region chirality in the Rh isotopes are rather well studied, chiral doubling have also been observed in 100 Tc, however, results obtained for chirality in the studied Ag nuclei ( 105 Ag and 106 Ag) look rather contradictory. Thus, it is interesting to study these doublet bands in the nearby higher-mass Ag nuclei. In order to search for a chiral-candidate partner band to the yrast πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band in 109 Ag, high-spin states of this nucleus have been studied using the 96 Zr( 18 O,p4n) reaction. The experiment was performed at iThemba LABS using 8 Clover detectors of the AFRODITE array and the DIAMANT charged-particle array to detect the γ-rays and the charged particles, respectively. Altogether ∼140 million γγ-coincidence events were collected. Approximately 10 million events of them correspond to the reaction channel producing 109 Ag. No chiral candidate partner band has been found to the πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band with this statistics, however, the level scheme could be extended by several new levels and γ-transitions. A preliminary level scheme of 109 Ag obtained from the ongoing data analysis is shown in Fig. 1

  17. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  18. Supernova matter at subnuclear densities as a resonant Fermi gas: enhancement of neutrino rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, A; Pethick, C J; Schwenk, A

    2014-08-22

    At low energies nucleon-nucleon interactions are resonant and therefore supernova matter at subnuclear densities has many similarities to atomic gases with interactions dominated by a Feshbach resonance. We calculate the rates of neutrino processes involving nucleon-nucleon collisions and show that these are enhanced in mixtures of neutrons and protons at subnuclear densities due to the large scattering lengths. As a result, the rate for neutrino pair bremsstrahlung and absorption is significantly larger below 10(13) g cm(-3) compared to rates used in supernova simulations.

  19. LEXUS heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sang Yong Jeon

    1997-01-01

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus- nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: all the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: Linear EXtrapolation of Ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon Scattering to heavy ion collisions. (11 refs).

  20. Lexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangyong

    1997-05-01

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: all the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: Linear EX-trapolation of Ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon Scattering to heavy ion collisions.

  1. A High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR Study of the Enantiodiscrimination of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA by an Immobilized Polysaccharide-Based Chiral Phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C Barreiro

    Full Text Available This paper reports the investigation of the chiral interaction between 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA enantiomers and an immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral phase. For that, suspended-state high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS NMR was used. 1H HR-MAS longitudinal relaxation time and Saturation Transfer Difference (STD NMR titration experiments were carried out yielding information at the molecular level of the transient diastereoisomeric complexes of MDMA enantiomers and the chiral stationary phase. The interaction of the enantiomers takes place through the aromatic moiety of MDMA and the aromatic group of the chiral selector by π-π stacking for both enantiomers; however, a stronger interaction was observed for the (R-enantiomer, which is the second one to elute at the chromatographic conditions.

  2. Halbach Effect at the Nanoscale from Chiral Spin Textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, Miguel A; Penedo, Marcos; Baćani, Mirko; Schwenk, Johannes; Hug, Hans J

    2018-04-11

    Mallinson's idea that some spin textures in planar magnetic structures could produce an enhancement of the magnetic flux on one side of the plane at the expense of the other gave rise to permanent magnet configurations known as Halbach magnet arrays. Applications range from wiggler magnets in particle accelerators and free electron lasers to motors and magnetic levitation trains, but exploiting Halbach arrays in micro- or nanoscale spintronics devices requires solving the problem of fabrication and field metrology below a 100 μm size. In this work, we show that a Halbach configuration of moments can be obtained over areas as small as 1 μm × 1 μm in sputtered thin films with Néel-type domain walls of unique domain wall chirality, and we measure their stray field at a controlled probe-sample distance of 12.0 ± 0.5 nm. Because here chirality is determined by the interfacial Dyzaloshinkii-Moriya interaction, the field attenuation and amplification is an intrinsic property of this film, allowing for flexibility of design based on an appropriate definition of magnetic domains. Skyrmions (magnetic fields and mapping of the spin structure shows they funnel the field toward one specific side of the film given by the sign of the Dyzaloshinkii-Moriya interaction parameter D.

  3. Finite-Temperature Properties of Three-Dimensional Chiral Helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Misako; Hoshino, Shintaro; Masaki, Yusuke; Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Kato, Yusuke

    2016-07-01

    We study a three-dimensional (3d) classical chiral helimagnet at finite temperatures through analysis of a spin Hamiltonian, which is defined on a simple cubic lattice and consists of the Heisenberg exchange, monoaxial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, and the Zeeman energy due to a magnetic field applied in the plane perpendicular to the helical axis. We take account of the quasi-two-dimensionality of the known monoaxial chiral helimagnet CrNb3S6 and we adopt three methods: (i) a conventional mean-field (MF) analysis, which we call the 3dMF method, (ii) a hybrid method called the 2dMC-1dMF method, which is composed of a classical Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a MF approximation applied respectively to the intra- and interlayer interactions, and (iii) a simple-MC simulation (3dMC) at zero field. The temperature dependence of the magnetization calculated by the 3dMF method shows a cusp-like structure similar to that observed in experiments. In the absence of a magnetic field, both 2dMC-1dMF and 3dMC yield similar values of the transition temperature. The 2dMC-1dMF method provides a quantitative description of the thermodynamic properties, even under an external field, at an accessible numerical cost.

  4. Detection of amyloid fibrils in Parkinson's disease using plasmonic chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatish; Eraña, Hasier; López-Martínez, Elena; Claes, Nathalie; Martín, Víctor F; Solís, Diego M; Bals, Sara; Cortajarena, Aitziber L; Castilla, Joaquín; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2018-03-27

    Amyloid fibrils, which are closely associated with various neurodegenerative diseases, are the final products in many protein aggregation pathways. The identification of fibrils at low concentration is, therefore, pivotal in disease diagnosis and development of therapeutic strategies. We report a methodology for the specific identification of amyloid fibrils using chiroptical effects in plasmonic nanoparticles. The formation of amyloid fibrils based on α-synuclein was probed using gold nanorods, which showed no apparent interaction with monomeric proteins but effective adsorption onto fibril structures via noncovalent interactions. The amyloid structure drives a helical nanorod arrangement, resulting in intense optical activity at the surface plasmon resonance wavelengths. This sensing technique was successfully applied to human brain homogenates of patients affected by Parkinson's disease, wherein protein fibrils related to the disease were identified through chiral signals from Au nanorods in the visible and near IR, whereas healthy brain samples did not exhibit any meaningful optical activity. The technique was additionally extended to the specific detection of infectious amyloids formed by prion proteins, thereby confirming the wide potential of the technique. The intense chiral response driven by strong dipolar coupling in helical Au nanorod arrangements allowed us to detect amyloid fibrils down to nanomolar concentrations.

  5. About chiral models of dense matter and its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.

    1990-12-01

    The chiral models of dense nucleon matter are discussed. The quark matter with broken chiral symmetry is described. The magnetic properties of dense matter are presented and conclusions are given. 37 refs. (A.S.)

  6. The extended chiral quark model confronts QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Espriu, D.; Tarrach, R.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the truncation of low energy effective action of QCD below the chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) scale, including all operators of dimensionality less or equal to 6 which can be built with quark and chiral fields. We perform its bosonization in the scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector channels in the large-Nc and leading-log approximation. Constraints on the coefficients of the effective lagrangian are derived from the requirement of Chiral Symmetry Restoration (CSR) at energies above the CSB scale in the scalar-pseudoscalar and vector-axial-vector channels, from matching to QCD at intermediate scales, and by fitting some hadronic observables. In this truncation two types of pseudoscalar states (massless pions and massive Π-mesons), as well as a scalar, vector and axial-vector one arise as a consequence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Their masses and coupling constants as well as a number of chiral structural constants are derived. A reasonable fit of all parameters supports a relatively heavy scalar meson (quarkonium) with the mass ∼ 1 GeV and a small value of axial pion-quark coupling constant gA ≅= 0.55

  7. Optical chirality in gyrotropic media: symmetry approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskurin, Igor; Ovchinnikov, Alexander S; Nosov, Pavel; Kishine, Jun-ichiro

    2017-01-01

    We discuss optical chirality in different types of gyrotropic media. Our analysis is based on the formalism of nongeometric symmetries of Maxwell’s equations in vacuum generalized to material media with given constituent relations. This approach enables us to directly derive conservation laws related to nongeometric symmetries. For isotropic chiral media, we demonstrate that like a free electromagnetic field, both duality and helicity generators belong to the basis set of nongeometric symmetries that guarantees the conservation of optical chirality. In gyrotropic crystals, which exhibit natural optical activity, the situation is quite different from the case of isotropic media. For light propagating along a certain crystallographic direction, there arises two distinct cases: (1) the duality is broken but the helicity is preserved, or (2) only the duality symmetry survives. We show that the existence of one of these symmetries (duality or helicity) is enough to define optical chirality. In addition, we present examples of low-symmetry media, where optical chirality cannot be defined. (paper)

  8. Influence of microemulsion chirality on chromatographic figures of merit in EKC: results with novel three-chiral-component microemulsions and comparison with one- and two-chiral-component microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-08-01

    Novel microemulsion formulations containing all chiral components are described for the enantioseparation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers (atenolol, ephedrine, metoprolol, N-methyl ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and synephrine). The chiral surfactant dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV, R- and S-), the chiral cosurfactant S-2-hexanol, and the chiral oil diethyl tartrate (R- and S-) were combined to create four different chiral microemulsions, three of which were stable. Results obtained for enantioselectivity, efficiency, and resolution were compared for the triple-chirality systems and the single-chirality system that contained chiral surfactant only. Improvements in enantioselectivity and resolution were achieved by simultaneously incorporating three chiral components into the aggregate. The one-chiral-component microemulsion provided better efficiencies. Enantioselective synergies were identified for the three-chiral-component nanodroplets using a thermodynamic model. Additionally, two types of dual-chirality systems, chiral surfactant/chiral cosurfactant and chiral surfactant/chiral oil, were examined in terms of chromatographic figures of merit, with the former providing much better resolution. The two varieties of two-chiral-component microemulsions gave similar values for enantioselectivity and efficiency. Lastly, the microemulsion formulations were divided into categories based on the number of chiral microemulsion reagents and the average results for each pair of enantiomers were analyzed for trends. In general, enantioselectivity and resolution were enhanced while efficiency was decreased as more chiral components were used to create the pseudostationary phase (PSP).

  9. Planar chiral meta-materials for optical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, A.; Papakostas, A.; Bagnall, D. M.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2004-01-01

    Room temperature nanoimprint lithography has successfully been applied to the fabrication of planar chiral photonic meta-materials. For dielectric chiral structures a single layer of thick HSQ was used while for metallic chiral structures a bi-layer technique using PMMA/hydrogen silsequioxane (HSQ) was applied. The polarization conversion capabilities of planar chiral structures imprinted in dielectric materials have experimentally been observed. This indicates that the developed processes in...

  10. Chirality - The forthcoming 160th Anniversary of Pasteur's Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Molčanov, K.; Kojić-Prodić., B.

    2007-01-01

    The presented review on chirality is dedicated to the centennial birth anniversary of Nobel laureate Vladimir Prelog and 160 years of Pasteur's discovery of chirality on tartrates. Chirality has been recognized in nature by artists and architects, who have used it for decorations and basic constructions, as shown in the Introduction. The progress of science through history has enabled the gathering of knowledge on chirality and its many ways of application. The key historical discoveries abou...

  11. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F. [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal; Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  12. Weak ωNN coupling in the non-linear chiral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmatikov, M.

    1988-01-01

    In the non-linear chiral model with the soliton solution stabilized by the ω-meson field the weak ωNN coupling constants are calculated. Applying the vector dominance model for the isoscalar current the constant of the isoscalar P-odd ωNN interaction h ω (0) =0 is obtained while the constant of the isovector (of the Lagrangian of the ωNN interaction proves to be h ω (1) ≅ 1.0x10 -7

  13. Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α = 3.00) and 2-hexyl acetates (α = 1.95). This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC.

  14. Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Oromí-Farrús

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α=3.00 and 2-hexyl acetates (α=1.95. This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC.

  15. Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α = 3.00) and 2-hexyl acetates (α = 1.95). This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC. PMID:22649749

  16. The chiral bosonization in non-Abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Novozhilov, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The chiral bosonization in non-Abelian gauge theories is described starting directly from the QCD functional. For a given mass scale Λ, the QCD may be equivalently represented by colour chiral fields, gauge fields and high energy fermions. The effective action for colour chiral fields may admit the existence of a colour Skyrmion-boson with the baryon number 2/3. (author)

  17. Chiral copper(II) complex based on natural product rosin derivative as promising antitumour agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bao-Li; Huang, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Wu-Shuang; Li, Dong-Dong; Lu, Yang; Gao, Wei-Lin; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Qing-Bo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the biological preference of chiral drug candidates for molecular target DNA, the synthesis and characterization of a chiral copper(II) complex (2) of a chiral ligand N,N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene) dehydroabietylamine (1) was carried out. The interactions of 1 and 2 with salmon sperm DNA were investigated by viscosity measurements, UV, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. Absorption spectral, emission spectral and viscosity analysis reveal that 1 and 2 interacted with DNA through intercalation and 2 exhibited a higher DNA binding ability. In the absence/presence of ascorbic acid, 1 and 2 cleaved supercoiled pBR322 DNA by single-strand and 2 displayed stronger DNA cleavage ability. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 against HeLa, SiHa, HepG-2 and A431 cancer cell lines study show that they exhibited effective cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines, notably, 2 showed a superior cytotoxicity than the widely used drug cisplatin under identical conditions, indicating it has the potential to act as effective anticancer drug. Flow cytometry analysis indicates 2 produced death of HeLa cancer cells through an apoptotic pathway. Cell cycle analysis demonstrates that 2 mainly arrested HeLa cells at the S phase. The study represents the first step towards understanding the mode of the promising chiral rosin-derivative based copper complexes as chemotherapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2014-07-01

    Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic test of chiral dynamics in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, Yu.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117118, Moscow, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25 (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-22

    Strong magnetic fields in the range eB≫m{sub π}{sup 2} effectively probe internal quark structure of chiral mesons and test basic parameters of the chiral theory, such as 〈q-barq〉,f{sub π}. We argue on general grounds that 〈q-barq〉 should grow linearly with eB when charged quark degrees of freedom come into play. To make explicit estimates we extend the previously formulated chiral theory, including quark degrees of freedom, to the case of strong magnetic fields and show that the quark condensate |〈q-barq〉|{sub u,d} grows quadratically with eB for eB<0.2 GeV{sup 2} and linearly for higher field values. These results agree quantitatively with recent lattice data and differ from χPT predictions.

  20. Chiral battery, scaling laws and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the generation and evolution of magnetic field in the presence of chiral imbalance and gravitational anomaly which gives an additional contribution to the vortical current. The contribution due to gravitational anomaly is proportional to T "2 which can generate seed magnetic field irrespective of plasma being chirally charged or neutral. We estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field to be 10"3"0 G at T ∼ 10"9 GeV, with a typical length scale of the order of 10"−"1"8 cm, which is much smaller than the Hubble radius at that temperature (10"−"8 cm). Moreover, such a system possess scaling symmetry. We show that the T "2 term in the vorticity current along with scaling symmetry leads to more power transfer from lower to higher length scale as compared to only chiral anomaly without scaling symmetry.

  1. Chiral Liquid Crystals: Structures, Phases, Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of chirality, i.e., the lack of mirror symmetry, has a profound effect on liquid crystals, not only on the molecular scale but also on the supermolecular scale and phase. I review these effects, which are related to the formation of supermolecular helicity, the occurrence of novel thermodynamic phases, as well as electro-optic effects which can only be observed in chiral liquid crystalline materials. In particular, I will discuss the formation of helical superstructures in cholesteric, Twist Grain Boundary and ferroelectric phases. As examples for the occurrence of novel phases the Blue Phases and Twist Grain Boundary phases are introduced. Chirality related effects are demonstrated through the occurrence of ferroelectricity in both thermotropic as well as lyotropic liquid crystals. Lack of mirror symmetry is also discussed briefly for some biopolymers such as cellulose and DNA, together with its influence on liquid crystalline behavior.

  2. Magnetic test of chiral dynamics in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    2014-01-01

    Strong magnetic fields in the range eB≫m π 2 effectively probe internal quark structure of chiral mesons and test basic parameters of the chiral theory, such as 〈q-barq〉,f π . We argue on general grounds that 〈q-barq〉 should grow linearly with eB when charged quark degrees of freedom come into play. To make explicit estimates we extend the previously formulated chiral theory, including quark degrees of freedom, to the case of strong magnetic fields and show that the quark condensate |〈q-barq〉| u,d grows quadratically with eB for eB<0.2 GeV 2 and linearly for higher field values. These results agree quantitatively with recent lattice data and differ from χPT predictions

  3. On chiral-odd Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Paris (France); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process {gamma} + N {yields} {pi} + {rho} + N', in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. Estimated counting rates show that the experiment is feasible with real or quasi real photon beams expected at JLab at 12 GeV and in the COMPASS experiment. (Phys Letters B688,154,2010) In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral-odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented. Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral-odd GPDs to a minimal set. (author)

  4. Analysis of chiral symmetry breaking mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin-Heng, Guo [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tao, Huang [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Chuang, Wang

    1997-07-01

    The renormalization group invariant quark condensate {mu} is determinate both from the consistent equation for quark condensate in the chiral limit and from the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation improved by the intermediate range QCD force singular like {delta} (q) which is associated with the gluon condensate. The solutions of {mu} in these two equations are consistent. We also obtain the critical strong coupling constant {alpha}c above which chiral symmetry breaks in two approaches. The nonperturbative kernel of the SD equation makes {alpha}c smaller and {mu} bigger. An intuitive picture of the condensation above {alpha}c is discussed. In addition, with the help of the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward (STW) identity we derive the equations for the nonperturbative quark propagator from SD equation in the presence of the intermediate-range force is also responsible for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. (author) 32 refs., 2 figs.

  5. New chiral zwitterionic phosphorus heterocycles: synthesis, structure, properties and application as chiral solvating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshenev, Andrey E; Boltukhina, Ekaterina V; Grishina, Anastasiya A; Cisařova, Ivana; Lyapkalo, Ilya M; Hii, King Kuok Mimi

    2013-06-17

    A family of new chiral zwitterionic phosphorus-containing heterocycles (zPHC) have been derived from methylene-bridged bis(imidazolines). These structures were unambiguously determined, including single-crystal XRD analysis for two compounds. The stability, acid/base and electronic properties of these dipolar phosphorus heterocycles were subsequently investigated. zPHCs can be successfully employed as a new class of chiral solvating agents for the enantiodifferentiation of chiral carboxylic and sulfonic acids by NMR spectroscopy. The stoichiometry and binding constants for the donor-acceptor complexes formed were established by NMR titration methods. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Final Report - Few-Body Studies Using Electromagnetic Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2018-01-31

    The work discussed here is an extension of work previously funded by U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-97ER41025. Measurements of charged pion photoproduction from deuterium using the Laser Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory previously made by us, as members of the LEGS Collaboration, resulted in the most interesting result of two decades of work. By measuring the production of a charged pion (p + ) in coincidence with an emitted photon we observed structures in the residual two-nucleon system. These indicated the existence of rare, long-lived states not explicable by standard nuclear theory; they suggested a set of configurations not explicable in terms of a nucleon-nucleon pair. The existence of such “exotic” structures has formed the foundation for most of the work that has ensued. Several measurements at various laboratories have supported, but not proved, the existence of these exotic states. The rarity of these states made their existence undetectable in most previous measurements. Only by observing characteristic signatures of such states (i.e., decay photons), by using very specific kinematics which isolate certain reaction products, or by measuring polarization-dependent observables. During the period of this grant we pursued and made progress on the development of experiments to be performed at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) of the Tri Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Our understanding of photon- and electron-induced nuclear reactions depends on understanding of the basic electron and photon interaction. Recently, the issue of two-photon contributions has arisen in the context of deeply inelastic electron scattering. One way to address this is to measure asymmetries in the Bethe-Heitler ee process. We also made progress in developing the detectors required to measure these asymmetries at HIGS. During the last several years the apparent discrepancy between the size of the proton as measured using

  7. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab

  8. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmar P. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Peña, M. T. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidadede Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, J. E. [Centro de Física das Interações Fundamentais (CFIF), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora (Portugal); Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2016-01-22

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  9. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [Unibersidade de Lisboa, 104-001, Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, M. T. [Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, J. E. [Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal; Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  10. Domain wall network as QCD vacuum: confinement, chiral symmetry, hadronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelko Sergei N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to QCD vacuum as a medium describable in terms of statistical ensemble of almost everywhere homogeneous Abelian (anti-self-dual gluon fields is reviewed. These fields play the role of the confining medium for color charged fields as well as underline the mechanism of realization of chiral SUL(Nf × SUR(Nf and UA(1 symmetries. Hadronization formalism based on this ensemble leads to manifestly defined quantum effective meson action. Strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of mesons are represented in the action in terms of nonlocal n-point interaction vertices given by the quark-gluon loops averaged over the background ensemble. Systematic results for the mass spectrum and decay constants of radially excited light, heavy-light mesons and heavy quarkonia are presented. Relationship of this approach to the results of functional renormalization group and Dyson-Schwinger equations, and the picture of harmonic confinement is briefly outlined.

  11. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  12. Chiral algebras in Landau-Ginzburg models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushenko, Mykola

    2018-03-01

    Chiral algebras in the cohomology of the {\\overline{Q}}+ supercharge of two-dimensional N=(0,2) theories on flat spacetime are discussed. Using the supercurrent multiplet, we show that the answer is renormalization group invariant for theories with an R-symmetry. For N=(0,2) Landau-Ginzburg models, the chiral algebra is determined by the operator equations of motion, which preserve their classical form, and quantum renormalization of composite operators. We study these theories and then specialize to the N=(2,2) models and consider some examples.

  13. Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2016-06-21

    A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.

  14. Generalized Bloch theorem and chiral transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Bloch theorem states the impossibility of persistent electric currents in the ground state of nonrelativistic fermion systems. We extend this theorem to generic systems based on the gauged particle number symmetry and study its consequences on the example of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the chiral magnetic effect can be understood as a generalization of the Bloch theorem to a nonequilibrium steady state, similarly to the integer quantum Hall effect. On the other hand, persistent axial currents are not prohibited by the Bloch theorem and they can be regarded as Pauli paramagnetism of relativistic matter. An application of the generalized Bloch theorem to quantum time crystals is also discussed.

  15. Hidden charged dark matter and chiral dark radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, P.; Nagata, Natsumi; Tang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    In the light of recent possible tensions in the Hubble constant H0 and the structure growth rate σ8 between the Planck and other measurements, we investigate a hidden-charged dark matter (DM) model where DM interacts with hidden chiral fermions, which are charged under the hidden SU(N) and U(1) gauge interactions. The symmetries in this model assure these fermions to be massless. The DM in this model, which is a Dirac fermion and singlet under the hidden SU(N), is also assumed to be charged under the U(1) gauge symmetry, through which it can interact with the chiral fermions. Below the confinement scale of SU(N), the hidden quark condensate spontaneously breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry such that there remains a discrete symmetry, which accounts for the stability of DM. This condensate also breaks a flavor symmetry in this model and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with this flavor symmetry appear below the confinement scale. The hidden U(1) gauge boson and hidden quarks/Nambu-Goldstone bosons are components of dark radiation (DR) above/below the confinement scale. These light fields increase the effective number of neutrinos by δNeff ≃ 0.59 above the confinement scale for N = 2, resolving the tension in the measurements of the Hubble constant by Planck and Hubble Space Telescope if the confinement scale is ≲1 eV. DM and DR continuously scatter with each other via the hidden U(1) gauge interaction, which suppresses the matter power spectrum and results in a smaller structure growth rate. The DM sector couples to the Standard Model sector through the exchange of a real singlet scalar mixing with the Higgs boson, which makes it possible to probe our model in DM direct detection experiments. Variants of this model are also discussed, which may offer alternative ways to investigate this scenario.

  16. Micro-flock patterns and macro-clusters in chiral active Brownian disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Demian; Liebchen, Benno

    2018-02-01

    Chiral active particles (or self-propelled circle swimmers) feature a rich collective behavior, comprising rotating macro-clusters and micro-flock patterns which consist of phase-synchronized rotating clusters with a characteristic self-limited size. These patterns emerge from the competition of alignment interactions and rotations suggesting that they might occur generically in many chiral active matter systems. However, although excluded volume interactions occur naturally among typical circle swimmers, it is not yet clear if macro-clusters and micro-flock patterns survive their presence. The present work shows that both types of pattern do survive but feature strongly enhance fluctuations regarding the size and shape of the individual clusters. Despite these fluctuations, we find that the average micro-flock size still follows the same characteristic scaling law as in the absence of excluded volume interactions, i.e. micro-flock sizes scale linearly with the single-swimmer radius.

  17. Low-Energy Collisions of Protonated Enantiopure Amino Acids with Chiral Target Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyk, K.; Rebrov, O.; Ryding, M.; Thomas, R. D.; Uggerud, E.; Larsson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Here we report on the gas-phase interactions between protonated enantiopure amino acids ( l- and d-enantiomers of Met, Phe, and Trp) and chiral target gases [( R)- and ( S)-2-butanol, and ( S)-1-phenylethanol] in 0.1-10.0 eV low-energy collisions. Two major processes are seen to occur over this collision energy regime, collision-induced dissociation and ion-molecule complex formation. Both processes were found to be independent of the stereo-chemical composition of the interacting ions and targets. These data shed light on the currently debated mechanisms of gas-phase chiral selectivity by demonstrating the inapplicability of the three-point model to these interactions, at least under single collision conditions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Chiral transfer in coordination complexes: towards molecular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassous, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    In this critical review we present examples of coordination complexes with efficient chiral transfer determining stereochemistry at the metal centre and throughout the overall molecular assembly. The general features controlling the transmission of chirality are presented. The transfer of chirality are considered here with the special purpose of obtaining a molecular material displaying a particular property or function. Coordination complexes in fields as diverse as chiral luminescent materials, homochiral MOFs, chiral liquid crystals, enantioselective sensors, chiroptical switches, and magnetochiral compounds are presented (162 references).

  19. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Marcello

    2017-06-01

    The microscopic theory of Nuclear Matter has been approached along the years by different many-body methods and different nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions. The realistic NN interactions can be classified mainly into two categories. One relies on the meson-nucleon coupling scheme, within relativistic or non-relativistic framework. The so-called chiral interactions are based on the assumption that, once the pion exchange contribution has been explicitly isolated, it is possible to expand the NN interaction in a series of point interaction terms which respect the underlying QCD chiral symmetry. In both schemes three-body (TBF) or higher forces can be constructed, which can have different degrees of phenomenological character. The TBF are essential to get the Nuclear Matter saturation point close to the phenomenological one. However the QCD quark degrees of freedom are not explicitly introduced. It will be shown that a realistic NN interaction that is constructed from the quark degrees of freedom can produce the correct saturation point without the need of TBF. The corresponding Equation of State is compatible with all the phenomenological constraints, including the Neutron Star maximum mass limit. Taking this result literally, one can say that quarks have been revealed in Nuclear Matter. Another conclusion is that the effect of TBF is model dependent.

  20. HPLC SEPARATION OF CHIRAL ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were obtained on polysaccharide chiral HPLC columns using an alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, dyfonate, fenamiphos, ...

  1. Unified theory of magnetoelastic effects in B20 chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao

    2017-12-01

    A magnetic skyrmion is a spin whirl with topological protection and high mobility to electric current. Intrinsic magnetoelastic coupling in chiral magnets permits the manipulation of magnetic skyrmions and their lattice using mechanical loads, which is essential for developing future spintronics devices. It is found in experiments that the stability and deformation of skyrmions are sensitive to stresses, while the appearance of magnetic skyrmions in turn has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. However, a theory which explains these related phenomena within a unified framework is not seen. Here, we construct a thermodynamic model for B20 helimagnets incorporating a magnetoelastic functional with necessary higher-order interactions derived by group theory. Within the model, we establish the methodology to calculate the phase diagram and equilibrium properties of helimagnets under a coupled temperature-magnetoelastic field. Applying the model to bulk MnSi, we calculate the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram under stress-free condition and its variation when uniaxial compression is applied. We also calculate the variation of all the elastic constants with the magnetic field. The results obtained agree quantitatively with corresponding experiments. Our model provides a reliable basis for further theoretical studies concerning any magnetoelastic related phenomena in chiral magnets.

  2. Chiral symmetry breaking and the pion quark structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, V.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in hadronic matter is first studied in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model on one hand and its generalisation to finite hadron size on the other hand. The analysis uses a variational procedure modelled after the BCS superconductor. Our study indicates for example, a great sensitivity of various quantities characterizing the breaking of symmetry to the shape of the interaction. Also the mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry is essentially related to the mechanism of confinement. When a symmetry is spontaneously broken, there exists a Goldstone particle of zero mass. This is true in our model. This particle, the pion, is obtained as solution of a Bethe Salpeter equation for a qantiq bound state. This enables us to establish a connection between the pion as a Goldstone boson related to spontaneous symmetry breaking and the quark-antiquark structure of the pion. The finite mass of the physical pion is obtained with non zero current quark mass. Various properties of this particle are then studied in the RPA formalism. One important point of our model is the highly collective character of the pion. 85 refs [fr

  3. Enantiomeric-Enriched Ferrocenes: Synthesis, Chiral Resolution, and Mathematic Evaluation of CD-chiral Selector Energies with Ferrocene-Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegur, Lubov V; Borisov, Yurii A; Kuzmenko, Yuliya V; Davankov, Vadim A; Ilyin, Mikhail M; Ilyin, Mikhail M; Arhipov, Dmitry E; Korlyukov, Alexander A; Kiselev, Sergey S; Simenel, Alexander A

    2017-08-25

    Enantiomeric-enriched ferrocene-modified pyrazoles were synthesized via the reaction of the ferrocene alcohol, ( S )-FcCH(OH)CH₃ (Fc = ferrocenyl), with various pyrazoles in acidic conditions at room temperature within several minutes. X-ray structural data for racemic ( R , S )-1 N -(3,5-dimethyl pyrazolyl)ethyl ferrocene ( 1 ) and its ( S )-enantiomer ( S )- 1 were determined. A series of racemic pyrazolylalkyl ferrocenes was separated into enantiomers by analytical HPLC on β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CD) chiral stationary phases. The quantum chemical calculations of interaction energies of β-CD were carried out for both ( R )- and ( S )-enantiomers. A high correlation between experimental HPLC data and calculated interaction energies values was obtained.

  4. Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuki Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a “continent” of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.

  5. Synthesis of Chiral Building Blocks for Use in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustum S. Boyce

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a significant growth in the sales of pharmaceutical drugs worldwide, but more importantly there has been a dramatic growth in the sales of single enantiomer drugs. The pharmaceutical industry has a rising demand for chiral intermediates and research reagents because of the continuing imperative to improve drug efficacy. This in turn impacts on researchers involved in preclinical discovery work. Besides traditional chiral pool and resolution of racemates as sources of chiral building blocks, many new synthetic methods including a great variety of catalytic reactions have been developed which facilitate the production of complex chiral drug candidates for clinical trials. The most ambitious technique is to synthesise homochiral compounds from non-chiral starting materials using chiral metal catalysts and related chemistry. Examples of the synthesis of chiral building blocks from achiral materials utilizing asymmetric hydrogenation and asymmetric epoxidation are presented.

  6. Chiral anomaly, Berry phase, and chiral kinetic theory from worldlines in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Niklas; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-03-01

    In previous work, we outlined a worldline framework that can be used for systematic computations of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Towards this end, we first expressed the real part of the fermion determinant in the QCD effective action as a supersymmetric worldline action of spinning, colored, Grassmanian point particles in background gauge fields, with equations of motion that are covariant generalizations of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi and Wong equations. The chiral anomaly, in contrast, arises from the phase of the fermion determinant. Remarkably, the latter too can be expressed as a point particle worldline path integral, which can be employed to derive the anomalous axial vector current. We will show here how Berry's phase can be obtained in a consistent nonrelativistic adiabatic limit of the real part of the fermion determinant. Our work provides a general first principles demonstration that the topology of Berry's phase is distinct from that of the chiral anomaly confirming prior arguments by Fujikawa in specific contexts. This suggests that chiral kinetic treatments of the CME in heavy-ion collisions that include Berry's phase alone are incomplete. We outline the elements of a worldline covariant relativistic chiral kinetic theory that captures the physics of how the chiral current is modified by many-body scattering and topological fluctuations.

  7. Chiral High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography: Future Strategies for Chiral Selector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    In conventional high-performance liquid chromatography, chiral separations are performed by chiral column with a chiral selector (CS) chemically boned to the solid support. In contrast, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) performs chiral separations by dissolving CS in the liquid stationary phase. During the past two decades, several CSs were developed to successfully carry out chiral HSCCC which include N-dodecanoyl-L-proline-3,5-dimethylanilide, β-cyclodextrin derivatives, vancomycin, cinchona alkaloid derivatives, cellulose and amylose derivatives, tartaric acid derivatives, etc. Compared to HPLC which uses over hundred different kinds of CSs, the number of CSs effectively used in HSCCC is limited to several compounds. This may be due to the violent molecular movement of CS dissolved in the liquid stationary phase which reduces chiral selectivity based on steric affinity. Future development strategy of CS for HSCC proposed here is to suppress the molecular movement of the CS in the liquid stationary phase by the following three ways: 1) using viscous stationary phase such as aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system; 2) attaching a long hydrophobic chain to the asymmetric carbon, or 3) chemically bonding CS onto hydrophobic small particles such as carbon nanotubes, gold colloidal particles, and submicron silica particles. PMID:24611132

  8. Role of keto–enol tautomerization in a chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed asymmetric thiocarboxylysis of meso-epoxide: a DFT study

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John

    2015-09-15

    The mechanism of a chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed thiocarboxylysis of meso-epoxide was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations (M06-2X). The nucleophilic ring opening of epoxide by thiobenzoic acid was found to proceed via a concerted termolecular transition state with a simultaneous dual proton transfer to yield the β-hydroxy thioester product. Electrostatic interactions together with the steric environment inside the chiral catalyst play an important role in determining the enantioselectivity of the reaction.

  9. Optimization of enantioselective production of chiral epichlorohydrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of enantioselective production of chiral epichlorohydrin catalyzed by a novel epoxide hydrolase from domestic duck liver by response surface methodology. ... Enantiopure epichlorohydrin is a valuable epoxide intermediate for preparing optically active pharmaceuticals. In the present study, a novel epoxide ...

  10. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12], computation of quark matter equation of state [13] etc. It may be noted here that, because of the chiral invariance which is incorporated in the model, one can generate the coupling between Θ baryon and NK system in a natural way and one.

  11. Dirac quantization of the chiral superfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos-Neto, J.; Das, A.; Scherer, W.

    1986-08-15

    We extend the method of Dirac quantization in superspace to the case of chiral superfields. We obtain quantization conditions in superspace which are consistent with the conditions for the component fields. Furthermore, we show that with these modified Dirac brackets and the modified Hamiltonian the correct Heisenberg equations of motion are obtained.

  12. Chiral bosons with Green-Schwarz supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos-Neto, J. (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica); Srivastava, P.P. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1991-05-02

    The supersymmetric extension of the formulation of Floreanini and Jackiw for the chiral boson is constructed adapting the Green-Schwarz procedure as applied to the strong theory. Dirac brackets which implement the two-second class constraints are also constructed. (orig.).

  13. From Ostwald Ripening to Single Chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, Wim L.; Vlieg, Elias; Kellogg, Richard M.; Kaptein, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A century ago Wilhelm Ostwald received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Although Ostwald was never significantly involved with the phenomenon of chirality, one of his discoveries, Ostwald ripening, is thought to be involved in a recently discovered method in which grinding-induced attrition is used to

  14. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAMANA c Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 57, Nos 2 & 3. — journal of. Aug. & Sept. 2001 physics pp. 417–431. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems. E OSET ... Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China. 3. Departamento ...... [57] D B Kaplan and A E Nelson, Phys. Lett. B175, 57 ...

  15. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Viscoelastic properties of liquid crystals are very important for applications like display technology. However, there are not many direct techniques to study them. In this review, we describe our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes ...

  16. ISOSPIN BREAKING AND THE CHIRAL CONDENSATE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ, M.

    2005-07-25

    With two degenerate quarks, the chiral condensate exhibits a jump as the quark masses pass through zero. I discuss how this single transition splits into two Ising like transitions when the quarks are made non-degenerate. The order parameter is the expectation of the neutral pion field. The transitions represent long distance coherent phenomena occurring without the Dirac operator having vanishingly small eigenvalues.

  17. Quantization of massive chiral electrodynamics reexamined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, C.; Montemayor, R. (Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina))

    1993-05-15

    We show that the models considered by Andrianov [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1554 (1989); and Phys. Rev. D 44, 2602 (1991)] are equivalent to other models where it is easily proved that the anomaly decouples and consequently the value of the chiral triangles amplitude is irrelvant for the unitarity of the [ital S] matrix.

  18. Optimization of enantioselective production of chiral epichlorohydrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Shimizu S, Kataoka M (1999). Production of chiral C3- and C4-units by microbial enzymes. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 63: 109-123. Spelberg JHL, Tang LX, Kellogg RM, Janssen DB (2004). Enzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of epihalohydrins. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, 15:1095-1102. Spelberg JHL ...

  19. Chiral discrimination in biomimetic systems: Phenylalanine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral discrimination and recognition is important in peptide biosynthesis, amino acid synthesis and drug designing. Detailed structural information is available about the peptide synthesis in ribosome. However, no detailed study is available about the discrimination in peptide synthesis. We study the conformational energy ...

  20. Insights on some chiral smectic phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Keywords. Liquid crystals; smectics; chirality; frustrated phases; twist grain boundary phases. ... This paper will review some new experimental results on different phases resulting from the competition between smectic positional order and twist orientational order. It concerns the TGBA and the NL*, that is ...