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Sample records for chiral nematic phases

  1. Low symmetry tetrahedral nematic liquid crystal phases: Ambidextrous chirality and ambidextrous helicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the symmetry properties as well as the dynamic behavior of various non-polar nematic liquid crystal phases with tetrahedral order. We concentrate on systems that show biaxial nematic order coexisting with octupolar (tetrahedral) order. Non-polar examples are phases with D2 and S4 symmetries, which can be characterized as biaxial nematics lacking inversion symmetry. It is this combination that allows for new features in the statics and dynamics of these phases. The D2-symmetric phase is chiral, even for achiral molecules, and shows ambidextrous chirality in all three preferred directions. The achiral S4-symmetric phase allows for ambidextrous helicity, similar to the higher-symmetric D2d-symmetric phase. Such phases are candidates for nematic phases made from banana-shaped molecules.

  2. The helical phase of chiral nematic liquid crystals as the Bianchi VII(0) group manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, G W

    2011-01-01

    We show that the optical structure of the helical phase of a chiral nematic is naturally associated with the Bianchi VII(0) group manifold. The Joets-Ribotta metric governing propagation of the extraordinary rays is invariant under the simply transitive action of the universal cover of the three dimensional Euclidean group of two dimensions. Thus extraordinary light rays are geodesics of a left-invariant metric on this Bianchi type VII(0) group. We are able to solve by separation of variables both the wave equation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this metric. The former reduces to Mathieu's equation and the later to the quadrantal pendulum equation. We further discuss Maxwell's equations for uniaxial optical materials where the configuration is invariant under a group action. The material is not assumed to be impedance matched, thus going beyond the usual scope of transformation optics. We show that for a chiral nematic in its helical phase Maxwell's equations reduce to a generalised Mathieu equation. Ou...

  3. From the double-stranded helix to the chiral nematic phase of B-DNA: a molecular model

    CERN Document Server

    Tombolato, F

    2004-01-01

    B-DNA solutions of suitable concentration form left-handed chiral nematic phases (cholesterics). Such phases have also been observed in solutions of other stiff or semiflexible chiral polymers; magnitude and handedness of the cholesteric pitch are uniquely related to the molecular features. In this work we present a theoretical method and a numerical procedure which, starting from the structure of polyelectrolytes, lead to the prediction of the cholesteric pitch. Molecular expressions for the free energy of the system are obtained on the basis of steric and electrostatic interactions between polymers; the former are described in terms of excluded volume, while a mean field approximation is used for the latter. Calculations have been performed for 130 bp fragments of B-DNA. The theoretical predictions provide an explanation for the experimental behavior, by showing the counteracting role played by shape and charge chirality of the molecule.

  4. Modulated nematic structures induced by chirality and steric polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longa, Lech; PajÄ k, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    What kind of one-dimensional modulated nematic structures (ODMNS) can form nonchiral and chiral bent-core and dimeric materials? Here, using the Landau-de Gennes theory of nematics, extended to account for molecular steric polarization, we study a possibility of formation of ODMNS, both in nonchiral and intrinsically chiral liquid crystalline materials. Besides nematic and cholesteric phases, we find four bulk ODMNS for nonchiral materials, two of which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported so far. These two structures are longitudinal (NLP) and transverse (NTP) periodic waves where the polarization field being periodic in one dimension stays parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the wave vector. The other two phases are the twist-bend nematic phase (NTB) and the splay-bend nematic phase (NSB), but their fine structure appears more complex than that considered so far. The presence of molecular chirality converts nonchiral NTP and NSB into new NTB phases. Surprisingly, the nonchiral NLP phase can stay stable even in the presence of intrinsic chirality.

  5. Molecular orientation behavior of chiral nematic liquid crystals based on the presence of blue phases using polarized microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Masanori; Katayama, Norihisa

    2016-07-01

    Study on molecular orientation behavior of highly twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals (N∗LCs) expressing blue phases (BPs) is important for developing new devices. This study examines the change of molecular orientation of N∗LCs due to the presence of BPs. Polarized microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy was used to study the in- and out-of-plane molecular orientations of N∗LCs that undergo a phase transition involving BPs. The band intensity ratio of CN to CH2 stretching modes (CN/CH2) in the IR spectra was used to determine the orientation of N∗LC molecules. The measured spectra indicated that the helical axis of N∗LC molecules was perpendicular to the substrate before heating and inclined on the substrate after cooling the sample which has phase transition from BP I to chiral nematic (N∗). The N∗LC molecule in the cell of rubbed orientation film exhibited the in-plane anisotropy after a heating-cooling ramp only in samples that passed through BP I. These results indicate that the changes of molecular orientation of N∗LC by phase transition are affected by BP I.

  6. Observation of blue phase in chiral nematic liquid crystal and its stabilization by silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arshdeep; Malik, Praveen; Jayoti, Divya

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we report the blue phase (BP) in a binary mixture of cholesteryl nonanoate (CN) and N-(4-ethoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (EBBA). The mixture exhibits BP over a temperature range of 2.3 K at optimum composition (50:50) of liquid crystals (LCs). The effect of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) doping on thermal stability of BPs has also been demonstrated and nearly 6 K wide BP temperature range was achieved at 0.5 wt.% of SNPs. A porous type texture was also observed during the BP formation process in the doped samples.

  7. Preparation and thermo-optical characteristics of a smart polymer-stabilized liquid crystal thin film based on smectic A–chiral nematic phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A smart polymer stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) thin film with temperature-controllable light transmittance was prepared based on a smectic-A (SmA)–chiral nematic (N*) phase transition, and then the effect of the composition and the preparation condition of the PSLC film on its thermo-optical (T-O) characteristics has been investigated in detail. Within the temperature range of the SmA phase, the PSLC shows a strong opaque state due to the focal conic alignment of liquid crystal (LC) molecules, while the film exhibits a transparent state result from the parallel alignment of N* phase LC molecules at a higher temperature. Importantly, the PSLC films with different temperature of phase transition and contrast ratio can be prepared by changing the composition of photo-polymerizable monomer/LC/chiral dopant. According to the competition between the polymerization of the curable monomers and the diffusion of LC molecules, the ultraviolet (UV) curing surrounding temperature and the intensity of UV irradiation play a critical role in tuning the size of the polymer network meshes, which in turn influence the contrast ratio and the switching speed of the film. Our observations are expected to pave the way for preparing smart PSLC thin films for applications in areas of smart windows, thermo-detectors and other information recording devices. (paper)

  8. Sensing and tuning microfiber chirality with nematic chirogyral effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čopar, Simon; Seč, David; Aguirre, Luis E.; Almeida, Pedro L.; Dazza, Mallory; Ravnik, Miha; Godinho, Maria H.; Pieranski, Pawel; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-03-01

    Microfibers with their elongated shape and translation symmetry can act as important components in various soft materials, notably for their mechanics on the microscopic level. Here we demonstrate the mechanical response of a micro-object to imposed chirality, in this case, the tilt of disclination rings in an achiral nematic medium caused by the chiral surface anchoring on an immersed microfiber. This coupling between chirality and mechanical response, used to demonstrate sensing of chirality of electrospun cellulose microfibers, is revealed in the optical micrographs due to anisotropy in the elastic response of the host medium. We provide an analytical explanation of the chirogyral effect supported with numerical simulations and perform an experiment to test the effect of the cell confinement and fiber size. We controllably twist the microfibers and demonstrate the response of the nematic medium. More generally the demonstrated study provides means for experimental discrimination of surface properties and allows mechanical control over the shape of disclination rings.

  9. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mithun; K Porsezian

    2014-02-01

    We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic field triggers the modulational instability and demonstrate that irrespective of the magnetic field effect the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases show modulational instability.

  10. Vitrified chiral-nematic liquid crystalline films for selective reflection and circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsis, D.; Chen, P.H.M.; Mastrangelo, J.C.; Chen, S.H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Blanton, T.N. [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Nematic and left-handed chiral-nematic liquid crystals comprising methoxybiphenylbenzoate and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine pendants to a cyclohexane core were synthesized and characterized. Although pristine samples were found to be polycrystalline, thermal quenching following heating to and annealing at elevated temperatures permitted the molecular orders characteristic of liquid crystalline mesomorphism to be frozen in the glassy state. Left at room temperature for 6 months, the vitrified liquid crystalline films showed no evidence of recrystallization. An orientational order parameter of 0.65 was determined with linear dichroism of a vitrified nematic film doped with Exalite 428 at a mole fraction of 0.0025. Birefringence dispersion of a blank vitrified nematic film was determined using a phase-difference method complemented by Abbe refractometry. A series of vitrified chiral-nematic films were prepared to demonstrate selective reflection and circular polarization with a spectral region tunable from blue to the infrared region by varying the chemical composition. The experimentally measured circular polarization spectra were found to agree with the Good-Karali theory in which all four system parameters were determined a priori: optical birefringence, average refractive index, selective reflection wavelength, and film thickness.

  11. Localised polymer networks in chiral nematic liquid crystals for high speed photonic switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartan, Chloe C.; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J.

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembled periodic structures based upon chiral liquid crystalline materials have significant potential in the field of photonics ranging from fast-switching optoelectronic devices to low-threshold lasers. The flexoelectro-optic effect, which is observed in chiral nematic liquid crystals (LCs) when an electric field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, has significant potential as it exhibits analogue switching in 10-100 μs. However, the major technological barrier that prohibits the commercial realisation of this electro-optic effect is the requirement of a uniform, in-plane alignment of the helix axis between glass substrates. Here, it is shown that periodic polymer structures engineered in the nematic phase of a chiral nematic LC device using direct laser writing can result in the spontaneous formation of the necessary uniform lying helix (ULH) state. Specifically, two-photon polymerization is used in conjunction with a spatial light modulator so as to correct for aberrations introduced by the bounding glass substrates enabling the polymer structures to be fabricated directly into the device. The ULH state appears to be stable in the absence of an externally applied electric field, and the optimum contrast between the bright and dark states is obtained using polymer structures that have periodicities of the order of the device thickness.

  12. Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schoen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules.

  13. Microsecond linear optical response in the unusual nematic phase of achiral bimesogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, V. P.; Balachandran, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Vij, J. K.; Tamba, M. G.; Kohlmeier, A.; Mehl, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Some hydrocarbon linked mesogenic dimers are known to exhibit an additional nematic phase (Nx) below a conventional uniaxial nematic (Nu) phase. Although composed of non-chiral molecules, the Nx phase is found to exhibit linear (polar) switching under applied electric field. This switching has remarkably low response time of the order of a few microseconds. Two chiral domains with opposite handedness and consequently opposite responses are found in planar cells. Uniformly lying helix, electroclinic, and flexoelectric effects are given as possible causes for this intriguing phenomenon.

  14. Modeling Textural Processes during Self-Assembly of Plant-Based Chiral-Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K. Murugesan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological liquid crystalline polymers are found in cellulosic, chitin, and DNA based natural materials. Chiral nematic liquid crystalline orientational order is observed frozen-in in the solid state in plant cell walls and is known as a liquid crystal analogue characterized by a helicoidal plywood architecture. The emergence of the plywood architecture by directed chiral nematic liquid crystalline self assembly has been postulated as the mechanism that leads to optimal cellulose fibril organization. In natural systems, tissue growth and development takes place in the presence of inclusions and secondary phases leaving behind characteristic defects and textures, which provide a unique testing ground for the validity of the liquid crystal self-assembly postulate. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, is used to simulate defect textures arising in the domain of self assembly, due to presence of secondary phases representing plant cells, lumens and pit canals. It is shown that the obtained defect patterns observed in some plant cell walls are those expected from a truly liquid crystalline phase. The analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the viscoelastic material parameters that lead to observed patterns in plant-based helicoids through directed self-assembly. In addition, the results provide new guidance to develop biomimetic plywoods for structural and functional applications.

  15. Electrolyte effects on the chiral induction and on its temperature dependence in a chiral nematic lyotropic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawin, Ute C; Osipov, Mikhail A; Giesselmann, Frank

    2010-08-19

    We present a study on the effect of added CsCl and of temperature variation on the chiral induction in a chiral nematic lyotropic liquid crystal (LC) composed of the surfactant cesium perfluorooctanoate (CsPFO), water, and the chiral dopant d-Leucine (d-Leu). The chiral induction was measured as the helical pitch P. The role of the additives CsCl and d-Leu on the phase behavior is investigated and discussed. The thermal stabilization effect of CsCl is shown to lead to an apparent salt effect on the pitch when the pitch is compared at a constant temperature. This apparent effect is removed by comparing the pitch measured for different salt concentrations at a temperature relative to the phase-transition temperatures; thus, the real salt effect on the pitch is described. High salt concentrations are shown to increase the pitch, that is, hinder the chiral induction. The effect is discussed in terms of a decreased solubilization of the amphiphilic chiral solute d-Leu in the micelles due to the salt-induced screening of the surfactant head groups and the consequential denser packing of the surfactants. The temperature variation of the pitch is investigated for all CsCl concentrations and is found to be essentially independent of the salt concentration. The temperature variation is analyzed and discussed in the context of a theoretical model taking into account specific properties of lyotropic liquid crystals. A hyperbolic decrease of the pitch is found with increasing temperature, which is known, from thermotropic liquid crystals, to stem from pretransitional critical fluctuations close to the lamellar phase. However, the experimental data confirmed the theoretical prediction that, at high temperature, that is, far away from the transition into the lamellar phase, the pitch is characterized by a linear temperature dependence which is determined by a combination of steric and dispersion chiral interactions. The parameters of the theoretical expression for the pitch have

  16. Electrolyte effects on the chiral induction and on its temperature dependence in a chiral nematic lyotropic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawin, Ute C; Osipov, Mikhail A; Giesselmann, Frank

    2010-08-19

    We present a study on the effect of added CsCl and of temperature variation on the chiral induction in a chiral nematic lyotropic liquid crystal (LC) composed of the surfactant cesium perfluorooctanoate (CsPFO), water, and the chiral dopant d-Leucine (d-Leu). The chiral induction was measured as the helical pitch P. The role of the additives CsCl and d-Leu on the phase behavior is investigated and discussed. The thermal stabilization effect of CsCl is shown to lead to an apparent salt effect on the pitch when the pitch is compared at a constant temperature. This apparent effect is removed by comparing the pitch measured for different salt concentrations at a temperature relative to the phase-transition temperatures; thus, the real salt effect on the pitch is described. High salt concentrations are shown to increase the pitch, that is, hinder the chiral induction. The effect is discussed in terms of a decreased solubilization of the amphiphilic chiral solute d-Leu in the micelles due to the salt-induced screening of the surfactant head groups and the consequential denser packing of the surfactants. The temperature variation of the pitch is investigated for all CsCl concentrations and is found to be essentially independent of the salt concentration. The temperature variation is analyzed and discussed in the context of a theoretical model taking into account specific properties of lyotropic liquid crystals. A hyperbolic decrease of the pitch is found with increasing temperature, which is known, from thermotropic liquid crystals, to stem from pretransitional critical fluctuations close to the lamellar phase. However, the experimental data confirmed the theoretical prediction that, at high temperature, that is, far away from the transition into the lamellar phase, the pitch is characterized by a linear temperature dependence which is determined by a combination of steric and dispersion chiral interactions. The parameters of the theoretical expression for the pitch have

  17. Chiral Nematic Structure of Cellulose Nanocrystal Suspensions and Films; Polarized Light and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Gray

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic liquid crystalline solutions and suspensions form chiral nematic phases that show a rich variety of optical textures in the liquid crystalline state. These ordered structures may be preserved in solid films prepared by evaporation of solvent or suspending medium. Film formation from aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC was investigated by polarized light microscopy, optical profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM. An attempt is made to interpret qualitatively the observed textures in terms of the orientation of the cellulose nanocrystals in the suspensions and films, and the changes in orientation caused by the evaporative process. Mass transfer within the evaporating droplet resulted in the formation of raised rings whose magnitude depended on the degree of pinning of the receding contact line. AFM of dry films at short length scales showed a radial orientation of the CNC at the free surface of the film, along with a radial height variation with a period of approximately P/2, ascribed to the anisotropic shrinkage of the chiral nematic structure.

  18. Polymer and Mesoporous Silica Microspheres with Chiral Nematic Order from Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Xi; Hamad, Wadood Y; MacLachlan, Mark J

    2016-09-26

    Polymer microspheres with chiral nematic order were obtained from an emulsion polymerization technique using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as the template. The growth of the liquid crystals from tiny tactoids to droplets with spherical symmetry was captured and investigated by both optical and electron microscopy for the first time. The size of the microspheres could be tuned between tens and hundreds of micrometers; to obtain single, integrated chiral nematic kernels, the size of water droplets in the emulsion should be similar to that of CNC tactoids. Through a double-matrix templating method, novel silica microspheres with chiral nematic order were fabricated, which showed a high surface area and mesoporosity. The methods developed here may help to reveal the evolution of other self-assembling systems, and these materials have potential applications in optical devices and chiral separations. PMID:27581056

  19. Chiral Magnetic Effect and Chiral Phase Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Wei-Jie; LIU Yu-Xin; WU Yue-Liang

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of the chiral phase transition on the chiral magnetic effect.The azimuthal chargeparticle correlations as functions of the temperature are calculated.It is found that there is a pronounced cusp in the correlations as the temperature reaches its critical value for the QCD phase transition.It is predicted that there will be a drastic suppression of the charge-particle correlations as the collision energy in RHIC decreases to below a critical value.We show then the azimuthal charge-particle correlations can be the signal to identify the occurrence of the QCD phase transitions in RHIC energy scan experiments.

  20. Holographic RG flows with nematic IR phases

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonini, Sera; Rong, Junchen; Sun, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We construct zero-temperature geometries that interpolate between a Lifshitz fixed point in the UV and an IR phase that breaks spatial rotations but preserves translations. We work with a simple holographic model describing two massive gauge fields coupled to gravity and a neutral scalar. Our construction can be used to describe RG flows in non-relativistic, strongly coupled quantum systems with nematic order in the IR. In particular, when the dynamical critical exponent of the UV fixed point is z=2 and the IR scaling exponents are chosen appropriately, our model realizes holographically the scaling properties of the bosonic modes of the quadratic band crossing model.

  1. Anomalous diffusion in the nematic phase of thin disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, A.; Frenkel, D.

    1992-01-01

    We report molecular-dynamics simulations of the anisotropic diffusion of infinitely thin platelets in the nematic phase. Our simulations are used to distinguish between the predictions of two different theories. The first theory, based on a mapping of the nematic phase of ellipsoidal particles on th

  2. Microsecond-range optical shutter for unpolarized light with chiral nematic liquid crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A fast electro-optic shutter is fabricated and demonstrated. The device works independently of the polarization state of the incoming light beam. Modulation between 3% transmission and 60% transmission is obtained within a wavelength range of 50 nm with a response time of 20 μs. The device consists of two partly polymerized chiral nematic liquid crystal layers separated by a half wave plate. The transmission modulation is due to a 50 nm wavelength shift of the photonic band gap of the chiral liquid crystal realized by applying an electric field over a mixture of photo-polymerized LC and non-reactive nematic LC containing a chiral dopant. The shutter features high reflectivity in the photonic band gap. We investigate the influence of the amplitude of the applied voltage on the width and the depth of the reflection band.

  3. Towards the biaxial nematic phase via specific intermolecular interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Omnes, L

    2001-01-01

    The work described in this thesis has been focussed on the search of an elusive liquid crystal phase, known as the biaxial nematic phase. Indeed, despite nearly thirty years of intense research, no-one has been able to characterise unambiguously a biaxial nematic phase in a low-molar-mass thermotropic system. Our research is based on the concept of molecular biaxiality as distinct from shape biaxiality. Thus, we are seeking to design palladium complexes where specific intermolecular interactions could exist. Therefore, a few original synthetic strategies were developed to tackle the challenge of discovering the biaxial nematic phase

  4. Topological Insulators and Nematic Phases from Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K.

    2010-05-26

    We investigate the stability of a quadratic band-crossing point (QBCP) in 2D fermionic systems. At the non-interacting level, we show that a QBCP exists and is topologically stable for a Berry flux {-+}2{pi}, if the point symmetry group has either fourfold or sixfold rotational symmetries. This putative topologically stable free-fermion QBCP is marginally unstable to arbitrarily weak shortrange repulsive interactions. We consider both spinless and spin-1/2 fermions. Four possible ordered states result: a quantum anomalous Hall phase, a quantum spin Hall phase, a nematic phase, and a nematic-spin-nematic phase.

  5. Patterning-induced surface chirality and modulation of director twist in a nematic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonseuk; Atherton, Timothy; Ferjani, Sameh; Petschek, Rolfe G; Rosenblatt, Charles

    2009-12-01

    A substrate coated with a polyimide alignment layer is scribed bidirectionally with the stylus of an atomic force microscope to create an easy axis for liquid-crystal orientation. The resulting noncentrosymmetric topography breaks two-dimensional inversion symmetry and results in a spatial amplitude modulation of an imposed twisted nematic state. This is observed optically as spatially periodic light and dark stripes. When the alignment layer is scribed unidirectionally the centrosymmetric topography maintains inversion symmetry, and no stripes are observed. The appearance of the twist modulation is consistent with a chiral term in the free energy. PMID:20365110

  6. Three-dimensional control of the helical axis of a chiral nematic liquid crystal by light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yannian; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Wang, Ling; Bunning, Timothy J.; Li, Quan

    2016-03-01

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals—otherwise referred to as cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs)—are self-organized helical superstructures that find practical application in, for example, thermography, reflective displays, tuneable colour filters and mirrorless lasing. Dynamic, remote and three-dimensional control over the helical axis of CLCs is desirable, but challenging. For example, the orientation of the helical axis relative to the substrate can be changed from perpendicular to parallel by applying an alternating-current electric field, by changing the anchoring conditions of the substrate, or by altering the topography of the substrate’s surface; separately, in-plane rotation of the helical axis parallel to the substrate can be driven by a direct-current field. Here we report three-dimensional manipulation of the helical axis of a CLC, together with inversion of its handedness, achieved solely with a light stimulus. We use this technique to carry out light-activated, wide-area, reversible two-dimensional beam steering—previously accomplished using complex integrated systems and optical phased arrays. During the three-dimensional manipulation by light, the helical axis undergoes, in sequence, a reversible transition from perpendicular to parallel, followed by in-plane rotation on the substrate surface. Such reversible manipulation depends on experimental parameters such as cell thickness, surface anchoring condition, and pitch length. Because there is no thermal relaxation, the system can be driven either forwards or backwards from any light-activated intermediate state. We also describe reversible photocontrol between a two-dimensional diffraction state, a one-dimensional diffraction state and a diffraction ‘off’ state in a bilayer cell.

  7. Thermal switching of the reflection in chiral nematic mesoporous organosilica films infiltrated with liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Michael; De Witt, Joanna C; Shopsowitz, Kevin E; Manning, Alan P; Dong, Ronald Y; Michal, Carl A; Hamad, Wadood Y; MacLachlan, Mark J

    2013-08-14

    Materials that undergo stimulus-induced optical changes are important for many new technologies. In this paper, we describe a new free-standing silica-based composite film that exhibits reversible thermochromic reflection, induced by a liquid crystalline guest in the pores of iridescent mesoporous films. We demonstrate that selective reflection from the novel mesoporous organosilica material with chiral nematic organization can be reversibly switched by thermal cycling of the 8CB guest between its isotropic and liquid crystalline states, which was proven by solid-state NMR experiments. The switching of the optical properties of the chiral solid-state host by stimulus-induced transitions of the guest opens the possibility of applications for these novel materials in sensors and displays. PMID:23859140

  8. Electronic nematic phase transition in the presence of anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamase, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    We study the phase diagram of electronic nematic instability in the presence of xy anisotropy. While a second order transition cannot occur in this case, mean-field theory predicts that a first order transition occurs near van Hove filling and its phase boundary forms a wing structure, which we term a Griffiths wing, referring to his original work of He3-He4 mixtures. When crossing the wing, the anisotropy of the electronic system exhibits a discontinuous change, leading to a meta-nematic tra...

  9. Neutrino Oscillation Induced by Chiral Phase Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Cheng-Fu; SUN Gao-Feng; ZHUANG Peng-Fei

    2009-01-01

    Electric charge neutrality provides a relationship between chiral dynamics and neutrino propagation in compact stars.Due to the sudden drop of the electron density at the first-order chiral phase transition,the oscillation for low energy neutrinos is significant and can be regarded as a signature of chiral symmetry restoration in the core of compact stars.

  10. Isotropic-nematic phase separation in suspensions of polydisperse colloidal platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Kooij, F.M. van der; Beek, David van der; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2001-01-01

    We are studying the phase behavior of a suspension of platelike colloids which has a very broad size distribution, particularly in thickness. This suspension exhibits an isotropic-nematic phase separation over a notably wide range of particle concentrations, displaying a remarkable phenomenon. In part of the coexistence region, phase separation yields a nematic upper phase in coexistence with an isotropic bottom phase. If the nematic phase is isolated and diluted, the reverse situation is obs...

  11. Thermodynamic and transport anomalies near isotropic-nematic phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jose, Prasanth P.; Bagchi, Biman

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical study of the variation of thermodynamic and transport properties of calamitic liquid crystals across the isotropic-nematic phase transition is carried out by calculating the {\\it wavenumber (k) and time (t)} dependent intermediate scattering function of the liquid, via computer simulations of model nematogens. The objective is to understand the experimentally observed anomalies and sharp variation in many thermodynamic and transport properties, namely specific heat $C$, sound at...

  12. Transparent nematic phase in a liquid-crystal-based microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, J; Tanaka, H

    2001-01-18

    Complex fluids are usually produced by mixing together several distinct components, the interactions between which can give rise to unusual optical and rheological properties of the system as a whole. For example, the properties of microemulsions (composed of water, oil and surfactants) are determined by the microscopic structural organization of the fluid that occurs owing to phase separation of the component elements. Here we investigate the effect of introducing an additional organizing factor into such a fluid system, by replacing the oil component of a conventional water-in-oil microemulsion with an intrinsically anisotropic fluid--a nematic liquid crystal. As with the conventional case, the fluid phase-separates into an emulsion of water microdroplets (stabilized by the surfactant as inverse micelles) dispersed in the 'oil' phase. But the properties are further influenced by a significant directional coupling between the liquid-crystal molecules and the surfactant tails that emerge (essentially radially) from the micelles. The result is a modified bulk-liquid crystal that is an ordered nematic at the mesoscopic level, but which does not exhibit the strong light scattering generally associated with bulk nematic order: the bulk material here is essentially isotropic and thus transparent.

  13. Helical twisting properties of new chiral dopants with double (S)-1,2-propanediol units for nematic liquid crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel series of chiral dopants synthesized from(S)-1,2-propanediol and mesogenic carboxylic acids were characterized by FT-IR,~1H NMR,elemental analysis and their helical twisting properties were investigated by doping the chiral dopants into a nematic liquid crystal host(SLC-1717).The results show that,the helical pitch of N~*-LC mixture exhibited a terminal alkyl chain length dependence and the molecular twisting power β also exhibited a temperature dependence(increasing β with increasing temperature...

  14. Berry phase of light Bragg-reflected by chiral liquid crystal media

    CERN Document Server

    Barboza, Raouf; Residori, Stefania; Clerc, Marcel G

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase is revealed for circularly polarized light when it is Bragg-reflected by a chiral liquid crystal medium of the same handedness. By using a chiral nematic layer we demonstrate that if the input plane of the layer is rotated with respect to a fixed reference frame, then, a geometric phase effect occurs for the circularly polarized light reflected by the periodic helical structure of the medium. Theory and numerical simulations are supported by an experimental observation, disclosing novel applications in the field of optical manipulation and fundamental optical phenomena.

  15. Berry Phase of Light under Bragg Reflection by Chiral Liquid-Crystal Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Raouf; Bortolozzo, Umberto; Clerc, Marcel G; Residori, Stefania

    2016-07-29

    A Berry phase is revealed for circularly polarized light when it is Bragg reflected by a chiral liquid-crystal medium of the same handedness. By using a chiral nematic layer we demonstrate that if the input plane of the layer is rotated with respect to a fixed reference frame, a geometric phase effect occurs for the circularly polarized light reflected by the periodic helical structure of the medium. Theory and numerical simulations are supported by an experimental observation, disclosing novel applications in the field of optical manipulation and fundamental optical phenomena. PMID:27517773

  16. Insights on some chiral smectic phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Pansu

    2003-08-01

    Combining layered positional order as smectic order and chirality can generate complex architectures since twist parallel to the layers is not allowed. This paper will review some new experimental results on different phases resulting from the competition between smectic positional order and twist orientational order. It concerns the TGBA and the NL*, that is the liquid line phase as well as the SmQ phase. Chiral effects in the isotropic phase will also be discussed.

  17. Simple theory of transitions between smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanenko, A. V.; Khokhlov, A. R.

    2015-05-01

    The transitions between smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases are investigated in the framework of a unified molecular-statistical approach. The new translational order parameter is different from the one introduced in K. Kobayashi [Phys. Lett. A 31, 125 (1970)] and W. L. McMillan [Phys. Rev. A 4, 1238 (1971)]. The variance of the square sine of intermolecular shift angle along the director is introduced to take self-consistently into account the most probable location of the molecules with respect to each other, which is unique for every liquid crystal (LC) material and is mainly responsible for the order parameters and phase sequences. The mean molecular field was treated in terms of only two parameters specific to any intermolecular potential of elongated molecules: (1) its global minimum position with respect to the shift of two interacting molecules along the director and (2) its inhomogeneity/anisotropy ratio. A simple molecular model is also introduced, where the global minimum position is determined by the linking groups elongation Δ/d, while the inhomogeneity/anisotropy ratio Gβ/Gγ is determined by the ratio of electrostatic and dispersion contributions. All possible phase sequences, including abrupt/continuous transformation between the smectic and nematic states and the direct smectic-isotropic phase transition, are predicted. The theoretical prediction is in a good agreement with experimental data for some simple materials correlating with our molecular model, but it is expected to be valid for any LC material.

  18. Dynamics of phase ordering of nematics in a pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the kinetics of phase ordering of a nematic liquid crystal, modeled by a spin-rotor Hamiltonian, confined within a parallel piped pore. The dynamics of the rotor obeys the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. We study the generation and evolution of a variety of defect structures, and the growth of domains, with different anchoring conditions at the pore surface. Unlike in binary fluids, mere confinement with no anchoring field, does not result in slow dynamics. Homeotropic anchoring, however, leads to slow logarithmic growth. Interestingly, homogeneous anchoring dynamically generates wall defects, resulting in an Ising like structure factor at late times. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs

  19. Asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating in nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chang-Yu; Shi, Hong-Xin; Ai, Yan-Bao; Yin, Xiang-Bao; Wang, Feng; Ding, Hong-Wei

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme for recording a dynamic phase grating with an asymmetric profile in C60-doped homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) was presented. An oblique incidence beam was used to record the thin asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating. The diffraction efficiency we achieved is more than 40%, exceeding the theoretical limit for symmetric profile gratings. Both facts can be explained by assuming that a grating with an asymmetric saw-tooth profile is formed in the NLC. Finally, physical mechanism and mathematical model for characterizing the asymmetric phase holographic grating were presented, based on the photo-refractive-like (PR-like) effect. Project supported by the Science and Technology Programs of the Educational Committee of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. 12541730) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405057).

  20. Interplay between chiral and deconfinement phase transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee T.K.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available By using the dressed Polyakov loop or dual chiral condensate as an equivalent order parameter of the deconfinement phase transition, we investigate the relation between the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions at finite temperature and density in the framework of three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL model. It is found that in the chiral limit, the critical temperature for chiral phase transition coincides with that of the dressed Polyakov loop in the whole (T,µ plane. In the case of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, it is found that the phase transitions are flavor dependent. For each flavor, the transition temperature for chiral restoration $T^{mathcal{X}}_c$ is smaller than that of the dressed Polyakov loop $T^{mathcal{D}}_c$ in the low baryon density region where the transition is a crossover, and, the two critical temperatures coincide in the high baryon density region where the phase transition is of first order. Therefore, there are two critical end points, i.e, $T^{u,d}_{CEP}$ and $T^{s}_{CEP}$ at finite density. We also explain the feature of $T^{mathcal{X}}_c$ = $T^{mathcal{D}}_c$ in the case of 1st and 2nd order phase transitions, and $T^{mathcal{X}}_c$ < $T^{mathcal{D}}_c$ in the case of crossover, and expect this feature is general and can be extended to full QCD theory.

  1. Phase separation and disorder in doped nematic elastomers

    KAUST Repository

    Köpf, M. H.

    2013-10-01

    We formulate and analyse a model describing the combined effect of mechanical deformation, dynamics of the nematic order parameter, and concentration inhomogeneities in an elastomeric mixture of a mesogenic and an isotropic component. The uniform nematic state may exhibit a long-wave instability corresponding to nematic-isotropic demixing. Numerical simulations starting from either a perfectly ordered nematic state or a quenched isotropic state show that coupling between the mesogen concentration and the nematic order parameter influences the shape and orientation of the domains formed during the demixing process. © EDP Sciences/ Società Italiana di Fisica/ Springer-Verlag 2013.

  2. Interplay between chiral and deconfinement phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Fukun; Chen, Huan; Huang, Mei

    2011-01-01

    By using the dressed Polyakov loop or dual chiral condensate as an equivalent order parameter of the deconfinement phase transition, we investigate the relation between the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions at finite temperature and density in the framework of three-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. It is found that in the chiral limit, the critical temperature for chiral phase transition coincides with that of the dressed Polyakov loop in the whole $(T,\\mu)$ plane. In the case of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, it is found that the phase transitions are flavor dependent. For each flavor, the transition temperature for chiral restoration $T_c^{\\chi}$ is smaller than that of the dressed Polyakov loop $T_c^{{\\cal D}}$ in the low baryon density region where the transition is a crossover, and, the two critical temperatures coincide in the high baryon density region where the phase transition is of first order. Therefore, there are two critical end points, i.e, $T_{CEP}^{u,d}$ and $T_{CEP}^{s}$ a...

  3. Isotropic-nematic phase transition in aqueous sepiolite suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolston, Phillip; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous suspensions of sepiolite clay rods in water tend to form gels on increase of concentration. Here it is shown how addition of a small amount (0.1% of the clay mass) of a common stabiliser for clay suspensions, sodium polyacrylate, can allow the observation of an isotropic-nematic liquid crystal phase transition. This transition was found to move to higher clay concentrations upon adding NaCl, with samples containing 10(-3) M salt or above only displaying a gel phase. Even samples that initially formed liquid crystals had a tendency to form gels after several weeks, possibly due to Mg(2+) ions leaching from the clay mineral. PMID:25313468

  4. Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ji-Liang; Ni, Shui-Bin; Ping Chen, Chao; Lu, Jian-Gang, E-mail: lujg@sjtu.edu.cn; Su, Yikai [National Engineering Lab for TFT-LCD Materials and Technologies, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, Dong-Qing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Song, Xiao-Long; Chen, Chao-Yuan [The Jiangsu Hecheng Display Technology Co., Ltd., Nanjing 211300 (China); Shieh, Han-Ping D. [National Engineering Lab for TFT-LCD Materials and Technologies, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Photonics and Display Institute, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-03

    A fluid self-assembly sphere phase (SP) of liquid crystal induced by chiral dopant is observed in a narrow temperature range between isotropic and blue phase or between isotropic and chiral nematic phase. The SP consists of three-dimensional twist spheres (3-DTSs) and disclinations among 3-DTSs. The temperature range of the SP has been broadened to more than 85 °C by stabilizing the disclinations with amorphous polymer chains. The electro-optical switching time of the polymer-stabilized SP is demonstrated in sub-millisecond with a low switching electric field of 4.4 V μm{sup −1}, which is of promising applications in displays, 3-D tunable photonic crystals, and phase modulators.

  5. Chromonic nematic phase and scalar order parameter of indanthrone derivative with ionic additives

    OpenAIRE

    Boiko O.P.; Vasyuta R.M.; Semenyshyn O.M.; Nastishin Yu.A.; Nazarenko V.G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate influence of different ionic additives on the phase behaviour and scalar order parameter of lyotropic chromonic nematic liquid crystals formed by the molecules representing derivatives of indanthrone. KI, (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl salts increase biphasic nematic region on the temperature-concentration phase diagram, whereas the scalar orientational order parameter is hardly sensitive to their presence. We suggest that these changes are attributed to increase in the ag-gregate length a...

  6. Magnetic properties in the inhomogeneous chiral phase

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshiike, Ryo; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of quark matter in the inhomogeneous chiral phase, where both scalar and pseudoscalar condensates spatially modulate. The energy spectrum of the lowest Landau level becomes asymmetric about zero in the external magnetic field, and gives rise to the remarkably magnetic properties: quark matter has a spontaneous magnetization, while the magnetic susceptibility does not diverge on the critical point.

  7. Nematic phase of the two-dimensional electron gas in a magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Kivelson, Steven A.; Manousakis, Efstratios; Nho, Kwangsik

    1999-01-01

    The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in moderate magnetic fields in ultra-clean AlAs-GaAs heterojunctions exhibits transport anomalies suggestive of a compressible, anisotropic metallic state. Using scaling arguments and Monte Carlo simulations, we develop an order parameter theory of an electron nematic phase. The observed temperature dependence of the resistivity anisotropy behaves like the orientational order parameter if the transition to the nematic state occurs at a finite temperatur...

  8. The elusive thermotropic biaxial nematic phase in rigid bent-core molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat R Acharya; Andrew Primak; Theo J Dingemans; Edward T Samulski; Satyendra Kumar

    2003-08-01

    The biaxial nematic liquid crystalline phase was predicted several decades ago. Several vigorous attempts to find it in various systems resulted in mis-identifications. The results of X-ray diffraction and optical texture studies of the phases exhibited by rigid bent-core molecules derived from 2,5-bis-(-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole reveal that the biaxial nematic phase is formed by three compounds of this type. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the nematic phase of these compounds has the achiral symmetry D2h, in which the overall long axes of the molecules are oriented parallel to each other to define the major axis of the biaxial phase. The apex of the bent-cores defines the minor axis of this phase along which the planes containing the bent-cores of neighboring molecules are oriented parallel to each other.

  9. Magnetic and nematic phases in a Weyl type spin–orbit-coupled spin-1 Bose gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanjun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Yunbo

    2016-06-01

    We present a variational study of the spin-1 Bose gases in a harmonic trap with three-dimensional spin–orbit (SO) coupling of Weyl type. For weak SO coupling, we treat the single-particle ground states as the form of perturbational harmonic oscillator states in the lowest total angular momentum manifold with j = 1, m j = 1, 0, ‑1. When the two-body interaction is considered, we set the trail order parameter as the superposition of three degenerate single-particle ground-states and the weight coefficients are determined by minimizing the energy functional. Two ground state phases, namely the magnetic and the nematic phases, are identified depending on the spin-independent and the spin-dependent interactions. Unlike the non-SO-coupled spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensate for which the phase boundary between the magnetic and the nematic phase lies exactly at zero spin-dependent interaction, the boundary is modified by the SO-coupling. We find the magnetic phase is featured with phase-separated density distributions, 3D skyrmion-like spin textures and competing magnetic and biaxial nematic orders, while the nematic phase is featured with miscible density distributions, zero magnetization and spatially modulated uniaxial nematic order. The emergence of higher spin order creates new opportunities for exploring spin-tensor-related physics in SO coupled superfluid.

  10. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of 3D Nematic Liquid Crystal near Phase Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; TAO Rui-Bao

    2002-01-01

    Phase transition between nematic and isotropic liquid crystal is a very weak first order phase transition.We avoid to use the normal Landau-de Gennes's free energy that reduces a strong first order transition, and set up adata base of free energy calculated by means of Tao-Sheng Lin's extended molecular field theory that can explain theexperiments of the equilibrium properties of nematic liquid crystal very well. Then we use the free energy method oflattice Boltzmann developed by Oxford group to study the phase decomposition, pattern formation in the flow of theliquid crystal near transition temperature.

  11. Electro-optic switching in phase-discontinuity complementary metasurface twisted nematic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y U; Kim, J; Woo, J H; Bang, L H; Choi, E Y; Kim, E S; Wu, J W

    2014-08-25

    Electro-optic switching of refraction is experimentally demonstrated in a phase-discontinuity complementary metasurface twisted nematic cell. The phase-discontinuity complementary metasurface is fabricated by focused-ion-beam milling, and a twisted nematic cell is constructed with complementary V-shape slot antenna metasurface. By application of an external voltage, switching is achieved between ordinary refraction and extraordinary refraction satisfying the generalized Snell's law. It has a strong implication for applications in spatial light modulation and wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer in a near-IR spectral range. PMID:25321285

  12. Dielectric Properties of 4-methoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl (1 OCB) in the Supercooled Isotropic and Nematic Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Stanisław; Gestblom, Bo; Pawlus, Sebastian

    2003-06-01

    Dielectric studies of 4-methoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl (1 OCB) in the supercooled isotropic and nematic phases were performed with the aid of three set-ups covering the frequency range 10 kHz - 5 GHz. In the static measurements the nematic phase could be supercooled down to 25 K below the clearing point, whereas in the dynamic studies a 12 K range was covered in a single run. The relaxation times and activation enthalpies characterising the molecular rotations around the principal inertia moment axes were determined. The predictions of theories based on the assumption of the rod-like molecules are well applicable to the dielectric data obtained.

  13. Effects of added silica nanoparticles on the nematic liquid crystal phase formation in beidellite suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Jasper; Paineau, Erwan; Davidson, Patrick; Bihannic, Isabelle; Michot, Laurent J; Philippe, Adrian-Marie; Petukhov, Andrei V; Lekkerkerker, Henk N W

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we present a study of the liquid crystal phase behavior of mixed suspensions of the natural smectite clay mineral beidellite and nonadsorbing colloidal silica particles. While virtually all smectite clays dispersed in water form gels at very low concentrations, beidellite displays a first order isotropic-nematic phase transition before gel formation (J. Phys. Chem. B, 2009, 113, 15858-15869). The addition of silica nanospheres shifts the concentrations of the coexisting isotropic and nematic phases to slightly higher values while at the same time markedly accelerating the phase separation process. Furthermore, beidellite suspensions at volume fractions above the isotropic-nematic phase separation, trapped in a kinetically arrested gel state, liquefy on the addition of silica nanospheres and proceed to isotropic-nematic phase separation. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we probe the structural changes caused by the addition of the silica nanospheres, and we relate the modification of the phase transition kinetics to the change of the rheological properties. PMID:24758198

  14. Chiral phase transition from string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A

    2006-09-15

    The low energy dynamics of a certain D-brane configuration in string theory is described at weak t'Hooft coupling by a nonlocal version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We study this system at finite temperature and strong t'Hooft coupling, using the string theory dual. We show that for sufficiently low temperatures chiral symmetry is broken, while for temperatures larger then the critical value, it gets restored. We compute the latent heat and observe that the phase transition is of the first order.

  15. Macroscopic biaxiality and electric-field-induced rotation of the minor director in the nematic phase of a bent-core liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Mamatha; Merkel, K.; Vij, J. K.; Kocot, A.

    2010-09-01

    Biaxiality in the nematic phase has been investigated for the bent-core liquid-crystal para-heptylbenzoate diester, using polarised IR spectroscopy. Anisotropic fluctuations of the nematic director are discussed in terms of the self-assembly of the chiral conformers. The ordering of the minor director for the homeotropicaly aligned sample is found to depend on the rubbing of the substrates of the cell and the amplitude of in-plane electric field. On increasing the in-plane electric field, the rotation of the minor director in the plane of the substrate is observed with an angle of approximately 45°, where initially the minor director is shown to lie along the rubbing direction. It is also shown that on the average the long axis of the molecules is normal to the substrate with surface treatment, with and without rubbing. The electric in-plane field combined with rubbing is shown to induce biaxial order in the nematic phase of a material with negative dielectic anisotropy for the first time.

  16. Nematic quantum phase transition of composite Fermi liquids in half-filled Landau levels and their geometric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yizhi; Cho, Gil Young; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    We present a theory of the isotropic-nematic quantum phase transition in the composite Fermi liquid arising in half-filled Landau levels. We show that the quantum phase transition between the isotropic and the nematic phase is triggered by an attractive quadrupolar interaction between electrons, as in the case of conventional Fermi liquids. We derive the theory of the nematic state and of the phase transition. This theory is based on the flux attachment procedure, which maps an electron liquid in half-filled Landau levels into the composite Fermi liquid close to a nematic transition. We show that the local fluctuations of the nematic order parameters act as an effective dynamical metric interplaying with the underlying Chern-Simons gauge fields associated with the flux attachment. Both the fluctuations of the Chern-Simons gauge field and the nematic order parameter can destroy the composite fermion quasiparticles and drive the system into a non-Fermi liquid state. The effective-field theory for the isotropic-nematic phase transition is shown to have z =3 dynamical exponent due to the Landau damping of the dense Fermi system. We show that there is a Berry-phase-type term that governs the effective dynamics of the nematic order parameter fluctuations, which can be interpreted as a nonuniversal "Hall viscosity" of the dynamical metric. We also show that the effective-field theory of this compressible fluid has a Wen-Zee-type term. Both terms originate from the time-reversal breaking fluctuation of the Chern-Simons gauge fields. We present a perturbative (one-loop) computation of the Hall viscosity and also show that this term is also obtained by a Ward identity. We show that the topological excitation of the nematic fluid, the disclination, carries an electric charge. We show that a resonance observed in radio-frequency conductivity experiments can be interpreted as a Goldstone nematic mode gapped by lattice effects.

  17. Effect of hockey-stick-shaped molecules on the critical behavior at the nematic to isotropic and smectic-A to nematic phase transitions in octylcyanobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anish; Chakraborty, Susanta; Das, Malay Kumar

    2015-03-01

    In the field of soft matter research, the characteristic behavior of both nematic-isotropic (N -I ) and smectic-A nematic (Sm -A N ) phase transitions has gained considerable attention due to their several attractive features. In this work, a high-resolution measurement of optical birefringence (Δ n ) has been performed to probe the critical behavior at the N -I and Sm -A N phase transitions in a binary system comprising the rodlike octylcyanobiphenyl and a laterally methyl substituted hockey-stick-shaped mesogen, 4-(3-n -decyloxy-2-methyl-phenyliminomethyl)phenyl 4-n -dodecyloxycinnamate. For the investigated mixtures, the critical exponent β related to the limiting behavior of the nematic order parameter close to the N -I phase transition has come out to be in good conformity with the tricritical hypothesis. Moreover, the yielded effective critical exponents (α', β', γ') characterizing the critical fluctuation near the Sm -A N phase transition have appeared to be nonuniversal in nature. With increasing hockey-stick-shaped dopant concentration, the Sm -A N phase transition demonstrates a strong tendency to be driven towards a first-order nature. Such a behavior has been accounted for by considering a modification of the effective intermolecular interactions and hence the related coupling between the nematic and smectic order parameters, caused by the introduction of the angular mesogenic molecules.

  18. The inherent dynamics of isotropic- and nematic-phase liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Layne; Stratt, Richard M.

    2016-06-01

    The geodesic (shortest) pathways through the potential energy landscape of a liquid can be thought of as defining what its dynamics would be if thermal noise were removed, revealing what we have called the "inherent dynamics" of the liquid. We show how these inherent paths can be located for a model liquid crystal former, showing, in the process, how the molecular mechanisms of translation and reorientation compare in the isotropic and nematic phases of these systems. These mechanisms turn out to favor the preservation of local orientational order even under macroscopically isotropic conditions (a finding consistent with the experimental observation of pseudonematic domains in these cases), but disfavor the maintenance of macroscopic orientational order, even in the nematic phase. While the most efficient nematic pathways that maintain nematic order are indeed shorter than those that do not, it is apparently difficult for the system to locate these paths, suggesting that molecular motion in liquid-crystal formers is dynamically frustrated, and reinforcing the sense that there are strong analogies between liquid crystals and supercooled liquids.

  19. A twist-bend nematic to an intercalated, anticlinic, biaxial phase transition in liquid crystal bimesogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandle, Richard J; Goodby, John W

    2016-02-01

    In this article we describe for bimesogens the first observed transition from a "heliconical" twist-bend nematic liquid crystal to a novel biaxial, anticlinic, intercalated lamellar phase. The phase behaviour and structures of both polymorphs is similar to that of polymers, confirming that bimesogens can act as model systems for main chain liquid crystal polymers, and in principle are separate soft-matter branches of self-organising systems. PMID:26626825

  20. Two-Particle Cluster Theory for Biaxial Nematic Phase Based on a Recently Proposed Interaction Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Dong; ZHANG Yan-Jun; SUN Zong-Li

    2006-01-01

    @@ Two-particle cluster theory is applied to study the biaxial nematic phase formed by biaxial molecules interacting with a simplified model proposed by Sonnet et al. [Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003) 061701]. For the temperature dependences of the internal energy per particle and of the order parameters, the two-particle theory yields an improved result compared with mean field theory. Concerning the phase diagram, the two-particle theory gives the numerical result in qualitative agreement with the mean field theory.

  1. Equilibrium of nematic vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita del Salento, via per Monteroni, Edificio ' Corpo O' , 73100 Lecce (Italy); Vergori, Luigi, E-mail: gaetano.napoli@unisalento.i, E-mail: luigi.vergori@unisalento.i [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita del Salento, Strada Prov. Lecce-Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2010-11-05

    A variational scheme is proposed which allows the derivation of a concise and elegant formulation of the equilibrium equations for closed fluid membranes, endowed with a nematic microstructure. The nematic order is described by an in-plane nematic director and a degree of orientation, as customary in the theory of uniaxial nematics. The only constitutive ingredient in this scheme is a free-energy density which depends on the vesicle geometry and order parameters. The stress and the couple stress tensors related to this free-energy density are provided. As an application of the proposed scheme, a certain number of special theories are deduced: soap bubbles, lipid vesicles, chiral and achiral nematic membranes, and nematics on curved substrates.

  2. Chirality effects on 2D phase transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalas, E.; Brezesinski, G.; Möhwald, H.;

    1996-01-01

    investigated pressures. However, at both temperatures, there is a sharp phase transition from a low-pressure phase, in which the molecules are tilted towards nearest neighbours (NN) and the distortion azimuth also points towards NN, to a high-pressure phase, in which the molecules are tilted towards next......Monolayers of the racemate and pure enantiomers of 1-hexadecyl-glycerol were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GID) at 5 and 20 degrees C on compression from 0 mN m(-1) to pressures greater than 30 mN m(-1). The racemate Lattice is centred-rectangular for both temperatures at all......-nearest neighbours (NNN) and an NNN-distorted lattice is observed. At 5 degrees C, the transition pressure is 15 mN m(-1), whereas at 20 degrees C it is 18 mN m(-1). Chirality destroys this transition: the pure enantiomer always exhibits an oblique lattice with tilted molecules, and the azimuths of tilt...

  3. Chiral phases of fundamental and adjoint quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natale, A. A. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bl.II - 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-22

    We consider a QCD chiral symmetry breaking model where the gap equation contains an effective confining propagator and a dressed gluon propagator with a dynamically generated mass. This model is able to explain the ratios between the chiral transition and deconfinement temperatures in the case of fundamental and adjoint quarks. It also predicts the recovery of the chiral symmetry for a large number of quarks (n{sub f} ≈ 11 – 13) in agreement with lattice data.

  4. The Design and Investigation of the Self-Assembly of Dimers with two Nematic Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Z Ahmed; Welch, C.; Mehl, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    A series of non-symmetric dimers were synthesised containing either cyanobiphenyl or difluoroterphenyl moieties on one side and a range of long, short, bent, polar or apolar mesogens on the other side of the molecules. The dielectric anisotropy of the mesogens was varied systematically. The systems were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical polarizing microscopy (OPM) and detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, both in the nematic and the Nx phase. The results ar...

  5. Order parameter and its critical exponent for some binary mixtures showing induced nematic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sudipta Kumar; Das, Malay Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Refractive index measurements as a function of temperature have been performed for an induced nematic binary system by means of thin prism technique. The temperature dependence of the birefringence (Δn) has been assessed from the measured refractive index data. A direct extrapolation method has been employed to determine the orientational order parameter for the investigated mixtures and the order parameter so obtained has also been compared with the mean field values. The Haller type fitting expression results in a relatively lower value of the order parameter critical exponent (β) compared to the theoretically predicted values. Therefore, a four-parameter power law expression, consistent with the mean field theory as well as the first-order character of the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition have been used to explore the critical behavior of the order parameter near the N-I transition.

  6. One-dimensional frustrated plaquette compass model: Nematic phase and spontaneous multimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezicki, Wojciech; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional (1D) pseudospin model on a ladder where the Ising interactions along the legs and along the rungs alternate between XiXi +1 and ZiZi +1 for even/odd bond (rung). We include also the next-nearest-neighbor Ising interactions on plaquettes' diagonals that alternate in such a way that a model where only leg interactions are switched on is equivalent to the one when only the diagonal ones are present. Thus in the absence of rung interactions the model can interpolate between two 1D compass models. The model possesses local symmetries which are the parities within each 2 ×2 cell (plaquette) of the ladder. We find that for different values of the interaction it can realize ground states that differ by the patterns formed by these local parities. By exact diagonalization we derive detailed phase diagrams for small systems of L =4 , 6, and 8 plaquettes, and use next L =12 to identify generic phases that appear in larger systems as well. Among them we find a nematic phase with macroscopic degeneracy when the leg and diagonal interactions are equal and the rung interactions are larger than a critical value. By performing a perturbative expansion around this phase we find indeed a very complex competition around the nematic phase which has to do with releasing frustration in this range of parameters. The nematic phase is similar to the one found in the two-dimensional compass model. For particular parameters the low-energy sector of the present plaquette model reduces to a 1D compass model with spins S =1 which suggests that it realizes peculiar crossovers within the class of compass models. Finally, we show that the model can realize phases with broken translation invariance which can be either dimerized, trimerized, etc., or completely disordered and highly entangled in a well identified window of the phase diagram.

  7. Phases of N=1 Supersymmetric Chiral Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Nathaniel; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Essig, Rouven; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /YITP, Stony Brook /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-02-17

    We analyze the phases of supersymmetric chiral gauge theories with an antisymmetric tensor and (anti)fundamental flavors, in the presence of a classically marginal superpotential deformation. Varying the number of flavors that appear in the superpotential reveals rich infrared chiral dynamics and novel dualities. The dualities are characterized by an infinite family of magnetic duals with arbitrarily large gauge groups describing the same fixed point, correlated with arbitrarily large classical global symmetries that are truncated nonperturbatively. At the origin of moduli space, these theories exhibit a phase with confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, an interacting nonabelian Coulomb phase, and phases where an interacting sector coexists with a sector that either s-confines or is in a free magnetic phase. Properties of these intriguing 'mixed phases' are studied in detail using duality and a-maximization, and the presence of superpotential interactions provides further insights into their formation.

  8. On SU(3) effective models and chiral phase-transition

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model as an effective theory of quark dynamics to chiral symmetry has been utilized in studying the QCD phase-diagram. Also, Poyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM), in which information about the confining glue sector of the theory was included through Polyakov-loop potential. Furthermore, from quasi-particle model (QPM), the gluonic sector of QPM is integrated to LSM in order to reproduce recent lattice calculations. We review PLSM, QLSM, PNJL and HRG with respect to their descriptions for the chiral phase-transition. We analyse chiral order-parameter M(T), normalized net-strange condensate Delta_{q,s}(T) and chiral phase-diagram and compare the results with lattice QCD. We conclude that PLSM works perfectly in reproducing M(T) and Delta_{q,s}(T). HRG model reproduces Delta_{q,s}(T), while PNJL and QLSM seem to fail. These differences are present in QCD chiral phase-diagram. PLSM chiral boundary is located in upper band of lattice QCD calculations and agree we...

  9. Studies of nematic to smectic-A phase transitions using synchrotron radiation. Experimental techniques and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution X-ray diffraction on liquid crystals, with a triple-axis spectrometer, was initiated 4-5 years ago, using rotating-anode sources. The triple-axis spectrometer, built at Risoe, is permanently positioned at the DORIS storage ring. Triple-axis X-ray spectrometer work in general and especially at the synchrotron source is a new field and a description of the techniques used is given. The experiments described are studies of the nematic to smectic-A phase transition in liquid crystals. The first is a study of the monomolecular liquid crystal 8-barS5 (C8H17O-phi-COS-phi-C5H11, where phi denotes a benzene ring). The second experimental study is one of the reentrance phenomenon in the ternary mixture: 5CTsub(.09):7CBsub(.x):80CBsub(.91-x); where 5CT(C5H11-phi-phi-phi-CN) and 7CB(C7H15-phi-phi-CN) have only a nematic phase and not the smectic-A phase. The results are interpreted in terms of Landau theory. Finally, a frame is given for discussing the nature of the smectic-A phase and an experiment is proposed to explore the nature of the smectic-A phase together with detailed calculations of (001)- and (002)-lineshapes for the smectic-A phase. (Auth.)

  10. [Separation of enantiomers by supercritical fluid chromatography on polysaccharide derivative-based chiral stationary phases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongyan; Wu, Xi; Hao, Fangli; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Eleven kinds of chiral compounds have been well separated within 10 min on polysaccharide derivative-based chiral stationary phases named Chiralpak IA, IB, IC, ID, IE and IF by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The chiral recognition of these chiral compounds has demonstrated good complementary enantioselectivities of the six chiral columns, which were proved to be useful for chiral SFC. Both the elution time and enantioselectivies could be significantly affected by the modifier types and their concentrations, such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, which should be optimized during the experiments. In addition, the solvent versatility of the immobilized chiral stationary phase on the optimization of the chiral separation was helpful. PMID:27319169

  11. On SU(3 Effective Models and Chiral Phase Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser Tawfik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL model and Polyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM has been utilized in studying QCD phase-diagram. From quasi-particle model (QPM a gluonic sector is integrated into LSM. The hadron resonance gas (HRG model is used in calculating the thermal and dense dependence of quark-antiquark condensate. We review these four models with respect to their descriptions for the chiral phase transition. We analyze the chiral order parameter, normalized net-strange condensate, and chiral phase-diagram and compare the results with recent lattice calculations. We find that PLSM chiral boundary is located in upper band of the lattice QCD calculations and agree well with the freeze-out results deduced from various high-energy experiments and thermal models. Also, we find that the chiral temperature calculated from HRG is larger than that from PLSM. This is also larger than the freeze-out temperatures calculated in lattice QCD and deduced from experiments and thermal models. The corresponding temperature and chemical potential are very similar to that of PLSM. Although the results from PNJL and QLSM keep the same behavior, their chiral temperature is higher than that of PLSM and HRG. This might be interpreted due the very heavy quark masses implemented in both models.

  12. Dissipative particle dynamics study of translational diffusion of rigid-chain rodlike polymer in nematic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongyang; Wang, Xiaogong

    2013-09-01

    In this study, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method was employed to investigate the translational diffusion of rodlike polymer in its nematic phase. The polymer chain was modeled by a rigid rod composed of consecutive DPD particles and solvent was represented by independent DPD particles. To fully understand the translational motion of the rods in the anisotropic phase, four diffusion coefficients, D_{||}u, D_ bot u, D_{||}n, D_ bot n were obtained from the DPD simulation. By definition, D_{||}n and D_ bot n denote the diffusion coefficients parallel and perpendicular to the nematic director, while D_{||}u and D_ bot u denote the diffusion coefficients parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of a rigid rod u. In the simulation, the velocity auto-correlation functions were used to calculate the corresponding diffusion coefficients from the simulated velocity of the rods. Simulation results show that the variation of orientational order caused by concentration and temperature changes has substantial influences on D_{||}u and D_ bot u. In the nematic phase, the changes of concentration and temperature will result in a change of local environment of rods, which directly influence D_{||}u and D_ bot u. Both D_{||}n and D_ bot n can be represented as averages of D_{||}u and D_ bot u, and the weighted factors are functions of the orientational order parameter S2. The effect of concentration and temperature on D_{||}n and D_ bot n demonstrated by the DPD simulation can be rationally interpreted by considering their influences on D_{||}u, D_ bot u and the order parameter S2.

  13. Chiral Paramagnetic Skyrmion-like Phase in MnSi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappas, C.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Falus, P.; Bentley, P.M.; Moskvin, E.; Grigoriev, S.; Fouquet, P.; Farago, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of chiral fluctuations in the reference helimagnet MnSi by polarized neutron scattering and neutron spin echo spectroscopy, which reveals the existence of a completely left-handed and dynamically disordered phase. This phase may be identified as a spontaneous Skyrmio

  14. Chiral and Deconfining Phase Transitions from Holographic QCD Study

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhen; Li, Danning

    2015-01-01

    A first attempt to accommodate the chiral and deconfining phase transitions of QCD in the bottom-up holographic framework is given. We constrain the relation between dilaton field $\\phi$ and metric warp factor $A_e$ and get several reasonable models in the Einstein-Dilaton system. Using the potential reconstruction approach, we solve the corresponding gravity background. Then we fit the background-related parameters by comparing the equation of state with the two-flavor lattice QCD results. After that we study the temperature dependent behavior of Polyakov loop and chiral condensate under those background solutions. We find that the results are in good agreement with the two-flavor lattice results. All the studies about the equation of state, the Polyakov loop and the chiral condensate signal crossover behavior of the phase transitions, which is consistent with the current understanding on the QCD phase transitions with physical quark mass. Furthermore, the extracted transition temperatures are comparable wit...

  15. Chiral phase transition in QED$_3$ at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Wei; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Chiral phase transition in (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED$_3$) at finite temperature is investigated in the framework of truncated Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs). We go beyond the widely used instantaneous approximation and adopt a method that retains the full frequency dependence of the fermion self-energy. We also take further step to include the effects of wave-function renormalizations and introduce a minimal dressing of the bare vertex. Finally, with the more complete solutions of the truncated DSEs, we revisit the study of chiral phase transition in finite-temperature QED$_3$.

  16. Detection of a new 'nematic-like' phase in liquid crystal-amphiphile mixture by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Kaustabh, E-mail: kaustabhdan@gmail.com; Roy, Madhusudan, E-mail: kaustabhdan@gmail.com; Datta, Alokmay, E-mail: kaustabhdan@gmail.com [Surface Physics and Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar Block, Sector 1, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies on phase transitions of the pure liquid crystalline material N-4-methoxybenzylidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA) and mixtures of MBBA and the amphiphile Stearic Acid (StA) show significant changes in the behavior of mixture from pure MBBA, as regards the nematic-isotropic (N-I) transition temperature (T{sub c}) and other thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy, specific heat and activation energy with concentration of StA. In particular, the convexity of the Arrhenius plot in pure MBBA vanishes with StA concentration pointing to the formation of a new, perhaps 'nematic-like', phase in the mixtures.

  17. Peripheral Nucleon-Nucleon Phase Shifts and Chiral Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, N; Weise, W

    1997-01-01

    Within the one-loop approximation of baryon chiral perturbation theory we calculate all one-pion and two-pion exchange contributions to the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In fact we construct the elastic NN-scattering amplitude up to and including third order in small momenta. The phase shifts with orbital angular momentum $L\\geq2 $ and the mixing angles with $J\\geq2$ are given parameterfree and thus allow for a detailed test of chiral symmetry in the two-nucleon system. We find that for the D-waves the $2\\pi$-exchange corrections are too large as compared with empirical phase shifts, signaling the increasing importance of shorter range effects in lower partial waves. For higher partial waves, especially for G-waves, the model independent $2\\pi$-exchange corrections bring the chiral prediction close to empirical NN phase shifts. We propose to use the chiral NN phase shifts with $L\\geq 3$ as input in a future phase shift analysis. Furthermore, we compute the irreducible two-pion exchange NN-potentials in coordin...

  18. Geometric Phase and Chiral Anomaly in Path Integral Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    All the geometric phases, adiabatic and non-adiabatic, are formulated in a unified manner in the second quantized path integral formulation. The exact hidden local symmetry inherent in the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation defines the holonomy. All the geometric phases are shown to be topologically trivial. The geometric phases are briefly compared to the chiral anomaly which is naturally formulated in the path integral.

  19. Enantioseparation of Racemic Naproxen Esters on Cellulose Tris (4-methylbenzoate) Chiral Stationary Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several kinds of racemic naproxen ester were successfully separated on CTMB chiral stationary phase with hexane-ethanol (98:2, vol./vol.) as the mobile phase. The influence of mobile phase composition and structure of racemic naproxen ester on chiral separation was studied and the chiral recognition mechanism of CTMB was discussed.

  20. Enantioseparation of Racemic Naproxen Esters on Cellulose Tris(4—methylbenzoate) Chiral Stationary Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaoHaiSHAO; XiuZhuXU; 等

    2002-01-01

    Several kinds of racemic naproxen ester were successfully separated on CTMB chiral stationary phase with hexane-ethanol(98:2,vol./vol.) as the mobile phase. The influence of mobile phase composition and structure of racemic naproxen ester on chiral separation was studied and the chiral recognition mechanism of CTMB was discussed.

  1. Phases of (Asymptotically) Safe Chiral Theories with(out) Scalars

    CERN Document Server

    Molgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We unveil the dynamics of four dimensional chiral gauge-Yukawa theories featuring several scalar degrees of freedom transforming according to distinct representations of the underlying gauge group. We consider generalized Georgi-Glashow and Bars-Yankielowicz theories. We determine, to the maximum known order in perturbation theory, the phase diagram of these theories and further disentangle their ultraviolet asymptotic nature according to whether they are asymptotically free or safe. We therefore extend the number of theories that are known to be fundamental in the Wilsonian sense to the case of chiral gauge theories with scalars.

  2. Travelling waves in electroconvection of the nematic Phase 5 A test of the weak electrolyte model

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, M; Buka, A; Kramer, L; Treiber, Martin; Eber, Nandor; Buka, Agnes; Kramer, Lorenz

    1997-01-01

    We investigated travelling waves appearing as the primary pattern-forming instability in the nematic Phase 5 (Merck) in the planar geometry in order to test the recently developed weak electrolyte model of ac-driven electroconvection [M. Treiber and L. Kramer, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst 261, 311 (1995)]. Travelling waves are observed over the full conductive range of applied frequencies for three cells of different layer thickness d. We also measured the elastic constants, the electric conductivity, and the dielectric constant. The other parameters of Phase 5 are known, apart from the (relatively unimportant) viscosity $\\alpha_1$ and the two parameters of the weak electrolyte model that are proportional to the geometric mean of the mobilities, and the recombination rate, respectively. Assuming a sufficiently small recombination rate, the predicted dependence of the frequency of the travelling waves at onset (Hopf frequency) on d and on the applied frequency agreed quantitatively with the experiments, essentially ...

  3. Two types of nematicity in the phase diagram of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr-Choinière, O.; Grissonnanche, G.; Badoux, S.; Day, J.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, R.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Taillefer, Louis

    2015-12-01

    Nematicity has emerged as a key feature of cuprate superconductors, but its link to other fundamental properties such as superconductivity, charge order, and the pseudogap remains unclear. Here we use measurements of transport anisotropy in YBa2Cu3Oy to distinguish two types of nematicity. The first is associated with short-range charge-density-wave modulations in a doping region near p =0.12 . It is detected in the Nernst coefficient, but not in the resistivity. The second type prevails at lower doping, where there are spin modulations but no charge modulations. In this case, the onset of in-plane anisotropy—detected in both the Nernst coefficient and the resistivity—follows a line in the temperature-doping phase diagram that tracks the pseudogap energy. We discuss two possible scenarios for the latter nematicity.

  4. Mass transfer mechanism in chiral reversed phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of mass transfer in chiral chromatography was investigated using an experimental protocol already applied in RPLC and HILIC chromatography. The different contributions to the reduced height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) include the longitudinal diffusion HETP term, the solid-liquid mass transfer resistance HETP term, the short-range eddy dispersion HETP term, and the long-range eddy dispersion HETP term. Their accurate measurement permits the determination of the adsorption rate constant kads of trans-stilbene enantiomers on a column packed with Lux 5 μm Cellulose-1 particles. The experimental results demonstrate that the number of adsorption-desorption steps per unit time of chiral compounds on polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases is four orders of magnitude smaller than that of achiral compounds.

  5. The form and origin of orbital ordering in the electronic nematic phase of iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuehua; Liao, Haijun; Li, Tao

    2015-03-18

    We investigated the form of orbital ordering in the electronic nematic phase of iron-based superconductors by applying a group theoretical analysis on a realistic five-band model. We find the orbital order can be either of the inter-orbital s-wave form or intra-orbital d-waveform. From the comparison with existing ARPES measurements of band splitting, we find the orbital ordering in the 122 system is dominated by an intra-orbital d-wave component, while that of the 111 system is dominated by an inter-orbital s-wave component. We find both forms of orbital order are strongly entangled with the nematicity in the spin correlation of the system.The condensation energy of the magnetic ordered phase is found to be significantly improved (by more than 20%) when the degeneracy between the (π, 0) and (0, π) ordering pattern is lifted by the orbital order. We argue there should be a large difference in both the scattering rate and the size of the possible pseudogap on the electron pocket around the X = (π, 0) and Y = (0, π) point in the electronic nematic phase. We propose this as a possible origin for the observed nematicity in resistivity measurements. PMID:25710728

  6. The effect of the chiral chemical potential on the chiral phase transition in the NJL model with different regularization schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Lang; Huang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    We study the chiral phase transition in the presence of the chiral chemical potential $\\mu_5$ using the two-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In particular, we analyze the reason why one can obtain two opposite behaviors of the chiral critical temperature as a function of $\\mu_5$ in the framework of different regularization schemes. We compare the modifications of the chiral condensate and the critical temperature due to $\\mu_5$ in different regularization schemes, analytically and numerically. Finally, we find that, for the conventional hard-cutoff regularization scheme, the increasing dependence of the critical temperature on the chiral chemical potential is an artifact, which is caused by the fact that it does not include complete contribution from the thermal fluctuations. When the thermal contribution is fully taken into account, the chiral critical temperature should decrease with $\\mu_5$.

  7. Synthesis and mesomorphic behaviour of achiral four-ring unsymmetrical bent-core liquid crystals: Nematic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Manoj Kumar; Kalita, Gayatri; Laskar, Atiqur Rahman; Debnath, Somen; Gude, Venkatesh; Sarkar, Dipika Debnath; Mohiuddin, Golam; Varshney, Sanjay Kumar; Nandiraju Rao, V. S.

    2013-10-01

    Achiral four ring unsymmetrical bent-core liquid crystals derived from 3-amino-2-methylbenzoic acid have been designed and synthesized with an imine, ester and photochromic azo linking moieties. These hockey-stick shape resembling bent molecules possess an alkoxy chain at one end of the molecule and methyl or methoxy group at the other end. The synthesis, phase transition temperatures and characterization of phase behaviour are discussed. The molecular structure characterization is consistent with data from elemental and spectroscopic analysis. The materials thermal behaviour and phase characterization have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy. All these compounds exhibit enantiotropic nematic phase over wide temperature range. Stable supercooling of nematic phase has been observed in methoxy homologues. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain the stable molecular conformation, polarizability, dipole moment, Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and bending angle of the compound.

  8. Investigation into the temperature dependence of isotropic- nematic phase transition of Gay- Berne liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    A Avazpour; S M Hekmatzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Density functional approach was used to study the isotropic- nematic (I-N) transition and calculate the values of freezing parameters of the Gay- Berne liquid crystal model. New direct and pair correlation functions of a molecular fluid with Gay- Berne pair potential were used. These new functions were used in density functional theory as input to calculate the isotropic- nematic transition densities for elongation at various reduced temperatures. It was observed that the isotropic- nematic...

  9. The Phase Transition of Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells Bounded by Surfactant-Laden Interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ming-Ying; CUI Wei; TAN Xiao-Qin; WU Chen-Xu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Taking into account the surface-coupling strength effect, we discuss the phase transitions of a finite thickness cell bounded by surfactant-laden interfaces in a magnetic field perpendicular to the substrate and it is compared with that of a semi-infinite system.It is found that the larger the thickness, the closer the three-dimensional phase transition surfacc of the finite system to that of the semi-infinite one.The simulation also shows that when a magnetic field is applied to a nematic semi-infinite sample, an orientational phase transition first takes place close to the interface and thcn extends to the inner space as the temperature increases.%Taking into account the surface-coupling strength effect, we discuss the phase transitions of a finite thickness cell bounded by surfactant-laden interfaces in a magnetic field perpendicular to the substrate and it is compared with that of a semi-infinite system. It is found that the larger the thickness, the closer the three-dimensional phase transition surface of the finite system to that of the semi-infinite one. The simulation also shows that when a magnetic field is applied to a nernatic semi-infinite sample, an orientational phase transition first takes place close to the interface and then extends to the inner space as the temperature increases.

  10. Entropic screening preserves non-equilibrium nature of nematic phase while enthalpic screening destroys it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, K.; Roy, M.; Datta, A. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Saltlake, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India)

    2016-02-14

    The present manuscript describes the role of entropic and enthalpic forces mediated by organic non-polar (hexane) and polar (methanol) solvents on the bulk and microscopic phase transition of a well known nematic liquid crystalline material MBBA (N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline) through Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-Visible (UV–Vis), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. DSC study indicates continuous linear decreases in both nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature and enthalpy of MBBA in presence of hexane while both these parameters show a saturation after an initial decay in methanol. These distinct transitional behaviours were explained in terms of the “depletion force” model for entropic screening in hexane and “screening-self-screening” model for methanol. Heating rate dependent DSC studies find that non-Arrhenius behaviour, characteristic of pristine MBBA and a manifestation of non-equilibrium nature [Dan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 094501 (2015)], is preserved in presence of entropic screening in the hexane solution, while it changes to Arrhenius behaviour (signifying equilibrium behaviour) in presence of enthalpic screening in methanol solution. FTIR spectra show similar dependence on the solvent induced screening in the intensities of the imine (—C = N) stretch and the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings of MBBA with hexane and methanol as in DSC, further establishing our entropic and enthalpic screening models. UV–Vis spectra of the electronic transitions in MBBA as a function of temperature also exhibit different dependences of intensities on the solvent induced screening, and an exponential decrease is observed in presence of hexane while methanol completely changes the nature of interaction to follow a linear dependence.

  11. Entropic screening preserves non-equilibrium nature of nematic phase while enthalpic screening destroys it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present manuscript describes the role of entropic and enthalpic forces mediated by organic non-polar (hexane) and polar (methanol) solvents on the bulk and microscopic phase transition of a well known nematic liquid crystalline material MBBA (N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline) through Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-Visible (UV–Vis), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. DSC study indicates continuous linear decreases in both nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature and enthalpy of MBBA in presence of hexane while both these parameters show a saturation after an initial decay in methanol. These distinct transitional behaviours were explained in terms of the “depletion force” model for entropic screening in hexane and “screening-self-screening” model for methanol. Heating rate dependent DSC studies find that non-Arrhenius behaviour, characteristic of pristine MBBA and a manifestation of non-equilibrium nature [Dan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 094501 (2015)], is preserved in presence of entropic screening in the hexane solution, while it changes to Arrhenius behaviour (signifying equilibrium behaviour) in presence of enthalpic screening in methanol solution. FTIR spectra show similar dependence on the solvent induced screening in the intensities of the imine (—C = N) stretch and the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings of MBBA with hexane and methanol as in DSC, further establishing our entropic and enthalpic screening models. UV–Vis spectra of the electronic transitions in MBBA as a function of temperature also exhibit different dependences of intensities on the solvent induced screening, and an exponential decrease is observed in presence of hexane while methanol completely changes the nature of interaction to follow a linear dependence

  12. Entropic screening preserves non-equilibrium nature of nematic phase while enthalpic screening destroys it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, K.; Roy, M.; Datta, A.

    2016-02-01

    The present manuscript describes the role of entropic and enthalpic forces mediated by organic non-polar (hexane) and polar (methanol) solvents on the bulk and microscopic phase transition of a well known nematic liquid crystalline material MBBA (N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline) through Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-Visible (UV-Vis), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. DSC study indicates continuous linear decreases in both nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature and enthalpy of MBBA in presence of hexane while both these parameters show a saturation after an initial decay in methanol. These distinct transitional behaviours were explained in terms of the "depletion force" model for entropic screening in hexane and "screening-self-screening" model for methanol. Heating rate dependent DSC studies find that non-Arrhenius behaviour, characteristic of pristine MBBA and a manifestation of non-equilibrium nature [Dan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 094501 (2015)], is preserved in presence of entropic screening in the hexane solution, while it changes to Arrhenius behaviour (signifying equilibrium behaviour) in presence of enthalpic screening in methanol solution. FTIR spectra show similar dependence on the solvent induced screening in the intensities of the imine (—C = N) stretch and the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings of MBBA with hexane and methanol as in DSC, further establishing our entropic and enthalpic screening models. UV-Vis spectra of the electronic transitions in MBBA as a function of temperature also exhibit different dependences of intensities on the solvent induced screening, and an exponential decrease is observed in presence of hexane while methanol completely changes the nature of interaction to follow a linear dependence.

  13. Geometric phase and o-mode blue shift in a chiral anisotropic medium inside a Fabry-P\\'erot cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V; Sutormin, V S; Myslivets, S A; Arkhipkin, V G; Vetrov, S Ya; Lee, W; Zyryanov, V Ya

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous spectral shift of transmission peaks is observed in a Fabry--P\\'erot cavity filled with a chiral anisotropic medium. The effective refractive index value resides out of the interval between the ordinary and the extraordinary refractive indices. The spectral shift is explained by contribution of a geometric phase. The problem is solved analytically using the approximate Jones matrix method, numerically using the accurate Berreman method and geometrically using the generalized Mauguin--Poincar\\'e rolling cone method. The $o$-mode blue shift is measured for a 4-methoxybenzylidene-4'-$n$-butylaniline twisted--nematic layer inside the Fabry--P\\'erot cavity. The twist is electrically induced due to the homeoplanar--twisted configuration transition in an ionic-surfactant-doped liquid crystal layer. Experimental evidence confirms the validity of the theoretical model.

  14. Chiral Phase Transition at Finite Isospin Density in Linear Sigma Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Song; LI Jia-Rong

    2005-01-01

    Using the linear sigma model, we have introduced the pion isospin chemical potential. The chiral phase transition is studied at finite temperatures and finite isospin densities. We have studied the μ - T phase diagram for the chiral phase transition and found the transition cannot happen below a certain low temperature because of the BoseEinstein condensation in this system. Above that temperature, the chiral phase transition is studied by the isotherms of pressure versus density. We indicate that the transition, in the chiral limit, is a first-order transition from a low-density phase to a high-density phase like a gas-liquid phase transition.

  15. On the chiral phase transition in the linear sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cornwall- Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action for composite operators at finite temperature is used to investigate the chiral phase transition within the framework of the linear sigma model as the low-energy effective model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new renormalization prescription for the CJT effective action in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation is proposed. A numerical study, which incorporates both thermal and quantum effect, shows that in this approximation the phase transition is of first order. However, taking into account the higher-loop diagrams contribution the order of phase transition is unchanged. (author)

  16. Net baryon number probability distribution near the chiral phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, Kenji; Skokov, Vladimir; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the properties of the net baryon number probability distribution near the chiral phase transition to explore the effect of critical fluctuations. Our studies are performed within Landau theory, where the coefficients of the polynomial potential are parametrized, so as to reproduce the mean-field (MF), the Z(2) , and the O(4) scaling behaviors of the cumulants of the net baryon number. We show that in the critical region the structure of the probability distribution changes, dependi...

  17. Chiral rings and phases of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We solve for the expectation values of chiral operators in supersymmetric U(N) gauge theories with matter in the adjoint, fundamental and anti-fundamental representations. A simple geometric picture emerges involving a description by a meromorphic one-form on a Riemann surface. The equations of motion are equivalent to a condition on the integrality of periods of this form. The solution indicates that all semiclassical phases with the same number of U(1) factors are continuously connected. (author)

  18. [Enantioseparation behavior of chiral stationary phases AD, AS and OD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqun; Fan, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Tai; He, Jianfeng; Zhang, Weiguang

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, HPLC enantioseparation with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been widely applied in chiral analysis and preparation of new pharmaceuticals, pesticides, food, etc. Herein, enantioseparation of 20 chiral compounds have been carried out on three polysaccharide-based CSPs (EnantioPak AD, AS and OD) with normal phases by HPLC, separately. The influences of skeletal structure and the kinds of derivative groups on separation behaviors of these CSPs have been studied in detail. As results indicated, except for compound 13, the other compounds were baseline separated on EnantioPak AD, with most of resolution over 2. 0; in addition, better separation for acidic or basic compounds was achieved through adding acidic/basic additives into the mobile phase of hexane-alcohol. For four aromatic alcohols (compounds 13-16), their retention in the EnantioPak AD column showed a weakening tendency with increase of carbon number in side chain group, and the reverse trend of their resolution was observed. Furthermore, EnantioPak AD showed much better separation performance for eight compounds (13-20) than the others. In short, these results have provided some references for further investigation of separation behavior and applications of polysaccharide-based CSPs. PMID:27319174

  19. Chiral and deconfining phase transitions from holographic QCD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhen; He, Song; Li, Danning

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary quantitative study to match the lattice QCD simulation on the chiral and deconfining phase transitions of QCD in the bottom-up holographic framework is given. We constrain the relation between dilaton field ϕ and metric warp factor Ae and get several reasonable models in the Einstein-Dilaton system. Using the potential reconstruction approach, we solve the corresponding gravity background. Then we fit the background-related parameters by comparing the equation of state with the two-flavor lattice QCD results. After that we study the temperature dependent behavior of Polyakov loop and chiral condensate under those background solutions. We find that the results are in good agreement with the two-flavor lattice results. All the studies about the equation of state, the Polyakov loop and the chiral condensate signal crossover behavior of the phase transitions, which are consistent with the current understanding on the QCD phase transitions with physical quark mass. Furthermore, the extracted transition temperatures are comparable with the two-flavor lattice QCD results.

  20. Extraction of Phenylalanine Phase Systems Containing Enantiomers by Aqueous Two Combinatorial Chiral Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓青; 刘莉; 焦飞鹏; 王珍

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a better enantioselectivity of phenylalanine enantiomers and establish the optimal chiral ex- traction conditions, the distribution behavior was investigated in aqueous two-phase systems which were composed of polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate containing combinatorial chiral selector: β-cyclodextrin and HP-β-cyclodextrin. The influence of the molar concentration ratio of combinatorial chiral selectors, the total molar concentration of combinatorial chiral selectors, pH value, buffer type and its concentration were thoroughly studied, respectively. The results show that the enantioselectivity reaches 1.53 under the optimal chiral extraction conditions This extraction is a potential economical and effective way for chiral resolution.

  1. Quaternions and hybrid nematic disclinations

    OpenAIRE

    Čopar, Simon; Žumer, Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Disclination lines in nematic liquid crystals can exist in different geometric conformations, characterized by their director profile. In certain confined colloidal suspensions and even more prominently in chiral nematics, the director profile may vary along the disclination line. We construct a robust geometric decomposition of director profile in closed disclination loops and use it to apply topological classification to linked loops with arbitrary variation of the profile, generalizing the...

  2. QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-08-22

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV.

  3. The QCD phase transition with physical-mass, chiral quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H -T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions at physical values of the quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm$)^3$ and (11 fm$)^3$ and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV . Each temperature was calculated using a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of $N_t=8$. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, $\\chi_{\\rm disc}$ shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability in the region of the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD ``phase transition'' is not first order but a continuous cross-over for $m_\\pi=135$ MeV. The peak location determines a pseudo-critical temperature $T_c = 155(1)(8)$ MeV. Chiral $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous $U(1)_A$ symmetry breaking is non-zero above $T...

  4. Meson loop effect on high density chiral phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaguchi, T; Kouno, H; Yahiro, M; Sakaguchi, Tomohiko; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Kouno, Hiroaki; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2006-01-01

    We test the stability of the mean-field solution in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. For stable solutions with respect to both the \\sigma and \\pi directions, we investigate effects of the mesonic loop corrections of 1/N_c, which correspond to the next-to-leading order in the 1/N_c expansion, on the high density chiral phase transition. The corrections weaken the first order phase transition and shift the critical chemical potential to a lower value. At N_c=3, however, instability of the mean field effective potential prevents us from determining the minimum of the corrected one.

  5. Critical Behavior at the Chiral Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C W; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Jegerlehner, B; Rummukainen, K; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Wingate, M; Jegerlehner, Beat

    1998-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics with two zero mass flavors is expected to exhibit a phase transition with O(4) critical behavior. Fixing the universality class is important for phenomenology and for facilitating the extrapolation of simulation data to physical quark mass values. At Lattice '96 the Tsukuba and Bielefeld groups reported results from new simulations with dynamical staggered quarks at $N_t = 4$, which suggested a departure from the expected critical behavior. We report observations of similar deviations and discuss efforts in progress to understand this phenomenon.

  6. Enantiomeric Separation of 1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)alkylamines on Chiral Stationary Phases Based on Chiral Crown Ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soohyun; Kim, Sang Jun; Hyun, Myung Ho [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Optically active chiral amines are important as building blocks for pharmaceuticals and as scaffolds for chiral ligands and, consequently, many efforts have been devoted to the development of efficient methods for their preparation. For example, reduction of amine precursors with chiral catalysts, enzymatic kinetic resolution or dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic amines and the direct amination of ketones with transaminases have been developed as the efficient methods for the preparation of optically active chiral amines. During the process of developing or utilizing optically active chiral amines, the methods for the determination of their enantiomeric composition are essential. Among various methods, liquid chromatographic resolution of enantiomers on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been known to be one of the most accurate and economic means for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of optically active chiral compounds. Especially, CSPs based on chiral crown ethers have been successfully used for the resolution of racemic primary amines. For example, CSPs based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid (CSP 1, Figure 1) or (3,3'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl)-20-crown-6 (CSP 2 and CSP 3, Figure 1) have been known to be quite effective for the resolution of cyclic and non-cyclic amines, various fluoroquinolone antibacterials containing a primary amino group, tocainide (antiarrhythmic agent) and its analogues, aryl-a-amino ketones and 3-amino-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones.

  7. Kinetic pathways of the nematic-isotropic phase transition as studied by confocal microscopy on rod-like viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettinga, M Paul [IFF, Institut Weiche Materie, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kang, Kyongok [IFF, Institut Weiche Materie, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Imhof, Arnout [Soft Condensed Matter, Debye Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Derks, Didi [Soft Condensed Matter, Debye Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Dhont, Jan K G [IFF, Institut Weiche Materie, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2005-11-16

    We investigate the kinetics of phase separation for a mixture of rod-like viruses (fd) and polymer (dextran), which effectively constitutes a system of attractive rods. This dispersion is quenched from a flow-induced fully nematic state into the region where the nematic and the isotropic phase coexist. We show experimental evidence that the kinetic pathway depends on the overall concentration. When the quench is made at high concentrations, the system is meta-stable and we observe typical nucleation-and-growth. For quenches at low concentration the system is unstable and the system undergoes a spinodal decomposition. At intermediate concentrations we see the transition between both demixing processes, where we locate the spinodal point.

  8. Investigation into the temperature dependence of isotropic- nematic phase transition of Gay- Berne liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Avazpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Density functional approach was used to study the isotropic- nematic (I-N transition and calculate the values of freezing parameters of the Gay- Berne liquid crystal model. New direct and pair correlation functions of a molecular fluid with Gay- Berne pair potential were used. These new functions were used in density functional theory as input to calculate the isotropic- nematic transition densities for elongation at various reduced temperatures. It was observed that the isotropic- nematic transition densities increase as the temperature increases. It was found that the new direct correlation function is suitable to study the isotropic- nematic transition of Gay- Berne liquids. Comparison to other works showed qualitative agreement

  9. Electromagnetic chirality-induced negative refraction with the same amplitude and anti-phase of the two chirality coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Shun-Cai; Liu Zheng-Dong; Zheng Jun; Li Gen

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a scheme of electromagnetic chirality-induced negative refraction utilizing magneto-electric cross coupling in a four-level atomic system. The negative refraction can be achieved with the two chirality coefficients having the same amplitude but the opposite phase, without requiring the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same transition frequency.

  10. Acoustical and optical investigations of the size effect in nematic-isotropic phase transition in liquid crystal microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimochkin, G. I.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Lukin, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    The absorption of ultrasound (at a frequency of 2.7 MHz) and the depolarized light transmission and scattering (at a wavelength of 630 nm) in liquid crystal (LC) emulsions have been studied during the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition in LC droplets with radii ranging from 150 to 2300 nm. The obtained acoustical and optical data are used to determine the influence of the droplet size on characteristics of the N-I phase transition. It is shown that the acoustical and optical characteristics of LC emulsions have good prospects to be used for the investigation of phase transitions in submicron samples.

  11. Direct visualization and measurement of the extrapolation length on cooling toward the nematic-smectic-A phase transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonseuk; Rosenblatt, Charles

    2010-05-01

    A herringbone "easy axis" pattern is scribed into a polyimide alignment layer for liquid-crystal orientation using the stylus of an atomic force microscope. Owing to the liquid crystal's bend elasticity K33 , the nematic director is unable to follow the sharp turn in the scribed easy axis, but instead relaxes over an extrapolation length L=K33/W2φ, where W2φ is the quadratic azimuthal anchoring strength coefficient. By immersing a tapered optical fiber into the liquid crystal, illuminating the fiber with polarized light, and scanning the fiber close to the substrate, a visualization and direct measurement of L are obtained on approaching the nematic-smectic- A phase transition temperature T NA from above. L is found to exhibit a sharp pretransitional increase near T NA, consistent with a diverging bend elastic constant. PMID:20866248

  12. NN Scattering Phase Shifts in a Chiral Constituent Quark Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bartz, D.; Stancu, Fl

    2000-01-01

    We study the nucleon-nucleon interaction within a chiral constituent quark model which reproduces succesfully the baryon spectra. We calculate the 3S1 and 1S0 phase shifts by using the resonating group method. They clearly indicate the presence of a strong repulsive interaction at short distance, due to the spin-flavor symmetry of the quark-quark interaction and of the quark interchange between the two interacting nucleons. A sigma-exchange quark-quark interaction, providing a medium-range at...

  13. Non-equilibrium physics at a holographic chiral phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D3/D7 system holographically describes an N=2 gauge theory which spontaneously breaks a chiral symmetry by the formation of a quark condensate in the presence of a magnetic field. At finite temperature it displays a first order phase transition. We study out of equilibrium dynamics associated with this transition by placing probe D7 branes in a geometry describing a boost-invariant expanding or contracting plasma. We use an adiabatic approximation to track the evolution of the quark condensate in a heated system and reproduce the phase structure expected from equilibrium dynamics. We then study solutions of the full partial differential equation that describes the evolution of out of equilibrium configurations to provide a complete description of the phase transition including describing aspects of bubble formation. (orig.)

  14. Predictability of enantiomeric chromatographic behavior on various chiral stationary phases using typical reversed phase modeling software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagdy, Hebatallah A; Hanafi, Rasha S; El-Nashar, Rasha M; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-09-01

    Pharmaceutical companies worldwide tend to apply chiral chromatographic separation techniques in their mass production strategy rather than asymmetric synthesis. The present work aims to investigate the predictability of chromatographic behavior of enantiomers using DryLab HPLC method development software, which is typically used to predict the effect of changing various chromatographic parameters on resolution in the reversed phase mode. Three different types of chiral stationary phases were tested for predictability: macrocyclic antibiotics-based columns (Chirobiotic V and T), polysaccharide-based chiral column (Chiralpak AD-RH), and protein-based chiral column (Ultron ES-OVM). Preliminary basic runs were implemented, then exported to DryLab after peak tracking was accomplished. Prediction of the effect of % organic mobile phase on separation was possible for separations on Chirobiotic V for several probes: racemic propranolol with 97.80% accuracy; mixture of racemates of propranolol and terbutaline sulphate, as well as, racemates of propranolol and salbutamol sulphate with average 90.46% accuracy for the effect of percent organic mobile phase and average 98.39% for the effect of pH; and racemic warfarin with 93.45% accuracy for the effect of percent organic mobile phase and average 99.64% for the effect of pH. It can be concluded that Chirobiotic V reversed phase retention mechanism follows the solvophobic theory. PMID:23775938

  15. Topological String in Quantum-Chromodynamical Chiral Phase Transitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-De

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is pointed out that if in heavy ion collision processes, the quark-gluon plasma SU(2) chiral phase transition really takes place and the phase transition is a second order. Then the topological string, i.e., the π string, will be formed. The main effect of this phenomenon is that there will be a number of pions produced by decay of the π string in the final state. The pions from the decay of the π string lead to the same effect of decreasing the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss peak in two-pion spectra which is just as that of the long-lived hadronic resonances.At relativistic heavy-ion collision and large hadron collision energies, it is expected that the factors are about α~ 0.7 - 0.9 and α~ 0.6 - 0.85, respectively.

  16. Finite-Temperature Phase Structure in the Chiral σ-ω Model with Dilatons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Bing ZHANG Xiao-Bing; LI Xue-Qian; NING Ping-Zhi

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the finite-temperature phase structure in a scaled chiral model which includes the dilaton (glueball) field. It is shown that hot nuclear matter undergoes a discontinuous transition in the mean field of scalar mesons as well as the Lee-Wick abnormal transition. The corresponding behavior of the gluon condensate during the chiral phase transition is also studied.

  17. 信息动态%Preparation of Polysaccharide Derivatives-based Composite Chiral Stationary Phases and Their Chiral Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Two coated-type composite chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were prepared based on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CDMPC) and amylose tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)(ADMPC) by coating the corresponding derivatives onto 3-aminopropyl silica gel separately and then mixing or by coating the mixed derivatives onto silica gel. The CSPs containing only CDMPC or ADMPC were also prepared for comparison. The mixing method does not significantly influence the enantioselectivities. The composite CSPs generally show chiral recognition abilities intermediate between those of the two individual phases, while some racemates were poorer and at the same time one was better resolved on the composite CSPs.

  18. Biaxial nematic liquid crystals theory, simulation and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Luckhurst, Geoffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Liquid Crystals are a state of matter that have properties between those of conventional liquid and those of a solid crystal. Thermotropic liquid crystals react to changes in temperature or, in some cases, pressure. The reaction of lyotropic liquid crystals, which are used in the manufacture of soaps and detergents, depends on the type of solvent they are mixed with. Since the accidental discovery of the chiral nematic (ordered) phase in 1888 many liquid crystal phases have been found, sometimes by chance and sometimes by design. The existence of one such phase was predicted by Freiser in 197

  19. Spherical microparticles with Saturn ring defects and their self-assembly across the nematic to smectic-A phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhail, K. P.; Čopar, S.; Muševič, I.; Dhara, Surajit

    2015-11-01

    We report experimental studies on the Saturn ring defect associated with a spherical microparticle across the nematic (N ) to smectic-A (Sm A ) phase transition. We observe that the director distortion around the microparticle changes rapidly with temperature. The equilibrium interparticle separation and the angle between two quadrupolar particles in the N phase are larger than those of the Sm A phase. They are almost independent of the temperature in both phases, except for a discontinuous jump at the transition. We assembled a few particles using a laser tweezer to form a two-dimensional colloidal crystal in the N phase. The lattice structure of the crystal dissolves irreversibly across the N -Sm A phase transition. The results on the pretransitional behavior of the defect are supported by the Landau-de Gennes Q -tensor modeling.

  20. Enantioseparation of Timolol on a Novel β-Cyclodextrin Derivative Chiral Stationary Phase in HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Sun, Fang; Du, Qiuzheng; Zhao, Suzhen; Pei, Wenjuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chiral stationary phase was prepared by bonding a novel β-cyclodextrin derivative on silica gel, and it was used for the separation of timolol in high efficiency liquid phase. In the reverse mode, the factors such as the proportion of chiral additives, flow rate, column temperature, repeatability and stability were investigated. The optimum chromatographic conditions are as follows: column temperature was 25°C, flow rate was 0.6 mL min(-1) and mobile phase was methanol-25 mM KH2PO4 (80/20, v/v). The chiral column has good reproducibility (Rs = 4.49, 4.51 and 4.40, respectively) and a certain degree of stability (Rs = 4.49, 3.01 and 0.72, respectively). This chiral stationary phase presented good chiral recognition performance toward timolol with good resolution (Rs = 4.49).

  1. Singular values, nematic disclinations, and emergent biaxiality

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Mark R.; Žumer, Slobodan; Kamien, Randall D.; Čopar, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Both uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals are defined by orientational ordering of their building blocks. While uniaxial nematics only orient the long molecular axis, biaxial order implies local order along three axes. As the natural degree of biaxiality and the associated frame that can be extracted from the tensorial description of the nematic order vanishes in the uniaxial phase, we extend the nematic director to a full biaxial frame by making use of a singular value decomposition ...

  2. Preparation and evaluation of novel chiral stationary phases based on quinine derivatives comprising crown ether moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqiang; Zhao, Jianchao; Wu, Haixia; Wu, Haibo; Cai, Jianfeng; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-01-01

    The C9-position of quinine was modified by meta- or para-substituted benzo-18-crown-6, and immobilized on 3-mercaptopropyl-modified silica gel through the radical thiol-ene addition reaction. These two chiral stationary phases were evaluated by chiral acids, amino acids, and chiral primary amines. The crown ether moiety on the quinine anion exchanger provided a ligand-exchange site for primary amino groups, which played an important role in the retention and enantioselectivity for chiral compounds containing primary amine groups. These two stationary phases showed good selectivity for some amino acids. The complex interaction between crown ether and protonated primary amino group was investigated by the addition of inorganic salts such as LiCl, NH4Cl, NaCl, and KCl to the mobile phase. The resolution results showed that the simultaneous interactions between two function moieties (quinine and crown ether) and amino acids were important for the chiral separation.

  3. Fluctuations and the Phase Transition in a Chiral Model with Polyakov Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, C.; Friman, B.; Redlich, K.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the NJL model with Polyakov loops for a system of three colors and two flavors within the mean-field approximation, where both chiral symmetry and confinement are taken into account. We focus on the phase structure of the model and study the chiral and Polyakov loop susceptibilities.

  4. Non-uniform chiral phase studied within the Polyakov NJL model

    OpenAIRE

    Partyka, Tomasz L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider how does the introduction of a Polyakov loop affects the spatially inhomogeneous quark condensate. The primary result of our work is that the existence of the spatially non-uniform chiral phase is confirmed within the Polyakov NJL model in a chiral limit. These findings are obtained both in a 3d-cutoff and in a Schwinger (proper time) regularization schemes.

  5. Fractional quantum Hall and nematic liquid crystal phases in a variable density two-dimensional electron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsen, S.; Pollanen, J.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfieffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2015-03-01

    At high magnetic field, Coulomb interactions in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) lead to a wide variety of collective phases, including the fractional quantum Hall fluids and the nematic liquid crystals found at high Landau level occupancy. In order to examine the density dependence of these quantum states, we have developed a new sample architecture consisting of a highly doped, yet transparent, conducting cap layer grown atop a conventional modulation-doped heterojunction where the 2DES resides. Separate contacts to the 2DES and the cap layer allow the latter to function as a gate for tuning the 2DES density both before and after low temperature illumination. After illustrating the basic functioning of this structure, we will report results on the density dependence of various quantum Hall and nematic liquid crystal phases of the 2DES. This work was supported by the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF1250.

  6. Electrostatics and depletion determine competition between 2D nematic and 3D bundled phases of rod-like DNA nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Young; Fygenson, Deborah K; Saleh, Omar A

    2016-06-21

    Rod-like particles form solutions of technological and biological importance. In particular, biofilaments such as actin and microtubules are known to form a variety of phases, both in vivo and in vitro, whose appearance can be controlled by depletion, confinement, and electrostatic interactions. Here, we utilize DNA nanotubes to undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of those interactions on two particular rod-like phases: a 2D nematic phase consisting of aligned rods pressed against a glass surface, and a 3D bundled network phase. We experimentally measure the stability of these two phases over a range of depletant concentrations and ionic strengths, finding that the 2D phase is slightly more stable than the 3D phase. We formulate a quantitative model of phase stability based on consideration of pairwise rod-rod and rod-surface interactions; notably, we include a careful accounting of solution electrostatics interactions using an effective-charge strategy. The model is relatively simple and contains no free parameters, yet predicts phase boundaries in good agreement with the experiment. Our results indicate that electrostatic interactions, rather than depletion, are largely responsible for the enhanced stability of the 2D phase. This work provides insight into the polymorphism of rod-like solutions, indicating why certain phases appear, and providing a means (and a predictive model) for controlling those phases. PMID:27126684

  7. Phase Behavior of Mixtures of Low Molecular Weight Nematic Liquid Crystals and Photochemically Crosslinked Polyacrylates

    OpenAIRE

    BEDJAOUI, Lamia; N. BERRIAH; K. BOUDRAA; Bouchaour, T.; MASCHKE, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The present work deals with theoretical and experimental studies to explore some physical properties of composite materials made of crosslinked poly(nbutylacrylate) networks and low molecular weight nematic liquid crystals (LCs). The chemically crosslinked polymers were obtained by exposure to UV radiation of initial solutions composed of a reactive monomer, n-butylacrylate, a small amount of a crosslinking agent, hexanedioldiacrylate, and a photoinitiator. To obtain different ...

  8. Liquid Crystal Phases of Molecular Bananas: Polarity and Chirality as Broken Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noel

    2006-03-01

    The study of the interplay of chirality and polarity has been a particularly rich theme of soft matter science since Meyer's seminal discovery that tilted smectics of chiral molecules are macroscopically polar. This event, and the subsequent realization of polar domains and high-speed electro-optic switching in chiral smectics, engaged the liquid crystal community in a worldwide pursuit of novel smectics for applications, featured by the synthesis of more than 50,000 new liquid crystal compounds, and by a consequent broad diversification of the palette of liquid crystal phases and possibilities for supermolecular ordering. A current important activity in this scenario is the study of polar order in synthetically achiral molecules, for example, in molecular bananas, which, as their shape suggests, might be expected to organize in a polar way. Indeed they do, but beyond this, almost everything learned about them has been surprising, including their persistent tendency to exhibit chirality as a spontaneously broken symmetry. I will discuss some of these new phases and phenomena, including the discovery of fluid conglomerates (Pasteur's experiment in a fluid), triclinic fluid order, chiral twist grain boundary phases of achiral molecules, chirality flipping and field-induced deracemization, ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases with supermolecular- scale polarization modulation, and chiral thermotropic sponge phases.

  9. Metal Complexes:Novel Chiral Dopants with High Helical Twisting Power in Liquid Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manfred; Braun; R.Fleischer; A.Hahn; M.Engelmann; S.Schlecht

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction A particularly efficient and elegant route to chiral mesophases is based on the addition of small amounts of an enantiomerically pure dopant to a nematic phase so that the latter is converted into a cholesteric phase(See Fig.1).Fig.1 A nematic phase is converted into a cholesteric phase Fig.2 Bis-chelated imine-alkoxy-titanium complexes2 ExperimetalBis-chelated imine-alkoxy-titanium complexes like 1 and 2 (Fig.2) have been synthesizedstarting from triphenyl-substituted aminoethanols, T...

  10. Detection of Zak phases and topological invariants in a chiral photonic quantum walk

    CERN Document Server

    Cardano, F; Dauphin, A; Maffei, M; Piccirillo, B; de Lisio, C; De Filippis, G; Cataudella, V; Santamato, E; Marrucci, L; Lewenstein, M; Massignan, P

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are fascinating states of matter exhibiting protected edge states and robust quantized features in their bulk. Here, we propose and validate experimentally a method to detect topological properties in the bulk of one-dimensional chiral systems. We first introduce the mean chiral displacement, and we show that it rapidly approaches a multiple of the Zak phase in the long time limit. Then we measure the Zak phase in a photonic quantum walk, by direct observation of the mean chiral displacement in its bulk. Next, we measure the Zak phase in an alternative, inequivalent timeframe, and combine the two windings to characterize the full phase diagram of this Floquet system. Finally, we prove the robustness of the measure by introducing dynamical disorder in the system. This detection method is extremely general, as it can be applied to all one-dimensional platforms simulating static or Floquet chiral systems.

  11. Probing the chiral phase transition of Nf=2 clover fermions with valence overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlap fermions are a powerful tool for investigating the chiral and topological structure of the vacuum and the thermal states of QCD. We study various chiral and topological aspects of the finite temperature phase transition of Nf=2 flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions, using valence overlap fermions as a probe. Particular emphasis is placed upon the analysis of the spectral density and the localisation properties of the eigenmodes as well as on the local structure of topological charge fluctuations in the vicinity of the chiral phase transition. The calculations are done on 163 x 8 lattices generated by the DIK collaboration. (orig.)

  12. The (1) H NMR spectrum of pyrazole in a nematic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provasi, Patricio; Jimeno, María Luisa; Alkorta, Ibon; Reviriego, Felipe; Elguero, José; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2016-08-01

    The experimental (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of 1H-pyrazole was recorded in thermotropic nematic liquid crystal N-(p-ethoxybenzylidene)-p-butylaniline (EBBA) within the temperature range of 299-308 K. Two of three observable dipolar DHH -couplings appeared to be equal at each temperature because of fast prototropic tautomerism. Analysis of the Saupe orientational order parameters using fixed geometry determined by computations and experimental dipolar couplings results in a situation in which the molecular orientation relative to the magnetic field (and the liquid crystal director) can be described exceptionally by a single parameter. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26947581

  13. Meson phenomenology and phase transitions in nonlocal chiral quark models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, J. P.; Gomez Dumm, D.; Pagura, V.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2015-07-01

    We study the features of nonlocal chiral quark models that include wave function renormalization. Model parameters are determined from meson phenomenology, considering different nonlocal form factor shapes. In this context we analyze the characteristics of the deconfinement and chiral restoration transitions at finite temperature and chemical potential, introducing the couplings of fermions to the Polyakov loop for different Polyakov potentials. The results for various thermodynamical quantities are compared with data obtained from lattice QCD calculations.

  14. Flexoelectric coefficient measurements in the nematic liquid crystal phase of 5CB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Castles

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of the bulk flexoelectric coefficient (e1 − e3 of 5CB (4-Cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl, in the temperature range 20–34 °C, with a relative combined standard uncertainty of 2 %. The chiral flexoelectro-optic method was used with 1 wt % high-twisting-power chiral additive. At 25 °C, (e1 − e3 = 7.10 pC/m with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.14 pC/m.

  15. Alternating twist structures formed by electroconvection in the nematic phase of an achiral bent-core molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shingo; Dhara, Surajit; Sadashiva, B K; Shimbo, Yoshio; Takanishi, Yoichi; Araoka, Fumito; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    We report an unusual electroconvection in the nematic phase of a bent-core liquid crystal. In a voltage-frequency diagram, two frequency regions exhibiting prewavy stripe patterns were found, as reported by Wiant We found that these stripes never show extinction dark when cells were rotated under crossed polarizers. Based on the color interchange in between neighboring stripes by the rotation of the cells or an analyzer, twisted molecular orientation is suggested; i.e., the directors are alternately twisted from the top to the bottom surfaces with a pretilt angle in adjacent stripes, which is an analogue of the twisted (splayed) structure observed in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells. The transmittance spectra calculated using the 4x4 matrix method from the model structure are consistent with the experimental observation.

  16. Dispersive Stabilization of Liquid Crystal-in-Water with Acrylamide Copolymer/Surfactant Mixture: Nematic Curvilinear Aligned Phase Composite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park; Lee

    1999-11-01

    The effect of nonionic surfactant, (H(OCH(2)-CH(2))(8)-OC(6)H(4)-C(9)H(19)), on the dispersion stabilization of liquid crystal (LC)-in-water with acrylamide copolymer containing the related nonylphenyl groups was studied. It was observed that the addition of nonionic surfactant increases the stability of LC dispersions and improves the electrooptical properties of the nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) composite film. On the basis of the surface tension, reduced viscosity, cloud point, and coalescence time measurements, it was proposed that formation of an integrated structure induced by interactions between hydrophobic groups in the polymer chains is probably important to fabrication of a polymer composite film made of LC and polymer matrix. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Twist viscosities and flow alignment of biaxial nematic liquid crystal phases of a soft ellipsoid-string fluid studied by molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2012-09-14

    We have calculated the twist viscosity and the alignment angle between the director and the stream lines in shear flow of a liquid crystal model system, which forms biaxial nematic liquid crystals, as functions of the density, from the Green-Kubo relations by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation and by a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics algorithm, where a torque conjugate to the director angular velocity is applied to rotate the director. The model system consists of a soft ellipsoid-string fluid where the ellipsoids interact according a repulsive version of the Gay-Berne potential. Four different length-to-width-to-breadth ratios have been studied. On compression, this system forms discotic or calamitic uniaxial nematic phases depending on the dimensions of the molecules, and on further compression a biaxial nematic phase is formed. In the uniaxial nematic phase there is one twist viscosity and one alignment angle. In the biaxial nematic phase there are three twist viscosities and three alignment angles corresponding to the rotation around the various directors and the different alignments of the directors relative to the stream lines, respectively. It is found that the smallest twist viscosity arises by rotation around the director formed by the long axes, the second smallest one arises by rotation around the director formed by the normals of the broadsides, and the largest one by rotation around the remaining director. The first twist viscosity is rather independent of the density whereas the last two ones increase strongly with density. One finds that there is one stable director alignment relative to the streamlines, namely where the director formed by the long axes is almost parallel to the stream lines and where the director formed by the normals of the broadsides is almost parallel to the shear plane. The relative magnitudes of the components of the twist viscosities span a fairly wide interval so this model should be useful for parameterisation

  18. Pharmaceutical-enantiomers resolution using immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Klerck, Katrijn; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Mangelings, Debby

    2014-02-01

    Since their introduction on the market the applicability of immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases in high-performance liquid chromatography has been thoroughly investigated. These immobilized phases have the benefit to be applicable with a wide range of modifiers, potentially extending the application range of the polysaccharide-based stationary phases. Because an increasing number of stationary phases are being introduced in the field of chiral chromatography it is important to evaluate their enantioselectivity in different techniques in order to get an idea about their applicability. In this study, three immobilized chiral polysaccharide-based stationary phases (Chiralpak IA, IB, and IC) are evaluated in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with a test set of pharmaceutical racemates. This is done in a three-fold manner: their performance is evaluated (1) using traditional modifiers, (2) using mixtures of atypical modifiers, and (3) the results were compared to those on coated stationary phases with an equivalent chiral selector. To get a visual overview of the enantioselective patterns of the different chromatographic systems (mobile and stationary phase combinations), a Principal Component Analysis is performed, which allows determining the (dis)similarity between individual systems. To assess the complementarity cumulative success rates are determined. The immobilized chiral stationary phases prove to yield high cumulative success rates. PMID:24438871

  19. Description and Evaluation of Chiral Interactive Sites on Bonded Cyclodextrin Stationary Phases for Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Thomas E.

    Development of chiral separations has been essential to the drug discovery and development process. The solubility requirements for a number of methods and/or the mobile phase requirements for application of certain detection systems have opened up many opportunities for cyclodextrin-based CSPs for liquid chromatography. Even though a few chiral stationary phases cover a wide area of enantioselectivity, they do not meet the entire needs of the industry. Cyclodextrin phases offer some unique mechanisms and opportunities to resolve chiral separation problems especially in the aqueous reversed-phase and non-aqueous polar organic modes. This chapter addresses the need to understand the chiral stationary phase structure, the mechanisms at work, and the role mobile phase composition plays in driving those mechanisms to produce enantioselectivity. In addition, the development of certain derivatives has played an essential part in expanding that basic role for certain chiral separations. What these derivatives contribute in concert with the basic structure is a critical part of the understanding to the effective use of these phases. During this study it was determined that the role of steric hindrance has been vastly underestimated, both to the extent that it has occurred and to its effectiveness for obtaining enantioselectivity. References to the entire 20-year history of the cyclodextrin phase development and application literature up to this current date have been reviewed and incorporated.

  20. Nanocellulose 3, 5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate Derivative Coated Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with high surface area and high ordered crystalline structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under the hydrolysis of sodium hypochlorite. NCC was further reacted with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate to obtain the nanocellulose derivative, and then coated successfully on the surface of silica gel to a prepared NCC-coated chiral stationary phase (CSP) as a new kind of chiral separation material. Similarly, MCC derivative-coated CSP was also prepared as contrast. The chiral separation performance of NCC-based CSP was evaluated and compared with MCC-based CSP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the effects of the alcohol modifiers, mobile phase additives, and flow rates on chiral separations were investigated in detail. The results showed that 10 chiral compounds were separated on NCC-based CSP with better peak shape and higher column efficiency than MCC-based CSP, which confirmed that NCC-based CSP was a promising packing material for the resolution of chiral compounds.Chirality 28:376-381, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26949227

  1. Nanocellulose 3, 5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate Derivative Coated Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with high surface area and high ordered crystalline structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under the hydrolysis of sodium hypochlorite. NCC was further reacted with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate to obtain the nanocellulose derivative, and then coated successfully on the surface of silica gel to a prepared NCC-coated chiral stationary phase (CSP) as a new kind of chiral separation material. Similarly, MCC derivative-coated CSP was also prepared as contrast. The chiral separation performance of NCC-based CSP was evaluated and compared with MCC-based CSP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the effects of the alcohol modifiers, mobile phase additives, and flow rates on chiral separations were investigated in detail. The results showed that 10 chiral compounds were separated on NCC-based CSP with better peak shape and higher column efficiency than MCC-based CSP, which confirmed that NCC-based CSP was a promising packing material for the resolution of chiral compounds.Chirality 28:376-381, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Amplification of Quantum Meson Modes in the Late Time of the Chiral Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, K

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of the quantum meson modes in the late time of chiral phase transition. In particular, it is shown that there exists a possible solution to the equation of motion for the quantum meson modes, which reveals a parametric resonance and/or resonance through forced oscillation induced by the small oscillation of the chiral condensate. After that, we demonstrate the unstable regions for the quantum meson modes in both the cases of a uniform and spatially expanding system.

  3. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Zhang; Litao Wang; Shuqing Dong; Xia Zhang; Qi Wu; Liang Zhao; Yanping Shi

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs) we...

  4. Preparation and chiral recognition of a novel chiral stationary phase for HPLC,based on mono(6A-N-1-(2-hydroxyl)-phenylethylimino-6A-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin and covalently bonded silica gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ping Chen; Zhi Ming Zhou; Hao Yuan; Zi Hui Meng

    2008-01-01

    A novel chiral stationary phase (CSP) was prepared by immobilizing mono(6A-N-1-(2-hydroxyl)-phenylethylimino-6A-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin onto the surface of silica gel via a longer spacer.This chiral stationary phase exhibited good enantios electivity for a variety of chiral compounds under reversed-phase conditions.

  5. Landau-Peierls instability in a Fulde-Ferrell type inhomogeneous chiral condensed phase

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tong-Gyu; Tsue, Yasuhiko; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Friman, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the stability of an inhomogeneous chiral condensed phase against low energy fluctuations about a spatially modulated order parameter. This phase corresponds to the so-called dual chiral density wave in the context of quark matter, where the chiral condensate is spatially modulated with a finite wavevector in a single direction. From the symmetry viewpoint, the phase realizes a locking of flavor and translational symmetries. Starting with a Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson effective Lagrangian, we find that the associated Nambu-Goldstone modes, whose dispersion relations are spatially anisotropic and soft in the direction normal to the wavevector of the modulation, wash out the long-range order at finite temperatures, but support algebraically decaying long-range correlations. This implies that the phase can exhibit a quasi-one-dimensional order as in liquid crystals.

  6. Effects of gauge boson mass on chiral and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Pei-Lin; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experimental observation that there is a coexisting region between the antiferromagnetic (AF) and $\\textit{d}$-wave superconducting ($\\textit{d}$SC) phases, the influences of gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ on chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$ are investigated simultaneously within a unified framework, i.e., Dyson-Schwinger equations. The results show that the chiral symmetry restoration phase transition in the presence of the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ is a typical second-order phase transition; the chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions are coincident; the critical number of fermion flavors $N^{c}_{f}$ decreases as the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ increases and there exists a boundary that separates the $N^{c}_{f}$-$m_{a}$ plane into chiral symmetry breaking/confinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) below the boundary and chiral symmetry restoration/deconfinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) above it.

  7. Screening Approach for Chiral Separation of β-Aminoketones by HPLC on Various Polysaccharide-Based Chiral Stationary Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addadi, Khadidja; Sekkoum, Khaled; Belboukhari, Nasser; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-05-01

    Nine β-aminoketones were synthesized via Mannich reaction when benzaldehyde was condensed with some primary amines and acetophenone. The purified compounds were identified by using spectroscopic methods. The enantiomeric separation of these derivatives was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using several coated and immobilized polysaccharide stationary phases, namely, Chiralcel(®) OD-H, Chiralcel(®) OD, Chiralcel(®) OJ, Chiralpak(®) AD, Chiralpak(®) IA, and Chiralpak(®) IB using different mobile phases composed of n-hexane and alcohol mixed in various ratios or pure ethanol or isopropanol. The retention behavior and selectivity of these chiral stationary phases were examined in isocratic normal phase mode. The results indicate that cellulose derivatives have higher enantioselectivity than amylose derivatives for the separation of racemic β-amino ketones. PMID:25752940

  8. The chicken or the egg; or Who ordered the chiral phase transition?

    CERN Document Server

    Kogan, I I; Tekin, B; Kogan, Ian I.; Kovner, Alex; Tekin, Bayram

    2001-01-01

    We draw an analogy between the deconfining transition in the 2+1 dimensional Georgi-Glashow model and the chiral phase transition in 3+1 dimensional QCD. Based on the detailed analysis of the former (hep-th/0010201) we suggest that the chiral symmetry restoration in QCD at high temperature is driven by the thermal ensemble of baryons and antibaryons. The chiral symmetry is restored when roughly half of the volume is occupied by the baryons. Surprisingly enough, even though baryons are rather heavy, a crude estimate for the critical temperature gives $T_c=180$ Mev. In this scenario the binding of the instantons is not the cause but rather a consequence of the chiral symmetry restoration.

  9. Chiral and deconfinement phase transition in the Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H

    2016-01-01

    The chiral and deconfinement phase transitions are investigated within the variational Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge. The temperature $\\beta^{-1}$ is introduced by compactifying a spatial dimension. Thereby the whole temperature dependence is encoded in the vacuum state on the spatial manifold $\\mathbb{R}^2 \\times S^1(\\beta)$. The chiral quark condensate and the dual quark condensate (dressed Polyakov loop) are calculated as function of the temperature. From their inflection points the pseudo-critical temperatures for the chiral and deconfinement crossover transitions are determined. Using the zero-temperature quark and gluon propagators obtained within the variational approach as input, we find 226 MeV and 262 MeV, respectively, for the chiral and deconfinement transition.

  10. Biaxial order and a rotation of the minor director in the nematic phase of an organo-siloxane tetrapode by the electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, K.; Nagaraj, M.; Kocot, A.; Kohlmeier, A.; Mehl, G. H.; Vij, J. K.

    2012-03-01

    Biaxiality in the nematic phase for a liquid crystalline tetrapode made up of organo-siloxanes mesogens is investigated using polarized infrared spectroscopy. An ordering of the minor director for the homeotropically aligned sample is found to depend on the amplitude of the in-plane electric field. On increasing the in-plane electric field, the minor director, lying initially along the rubbing direction, rotates to the direction of the applied field. The scalar order parameters of the second rank tensor are found to depend significantly on the strength of the electric field. A most significant increase is found in the nematic order parameter and in the parameter that characterizes the phase biaxiality.

  11. Recent progress in understanding deconfinement and chiral restoration phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Shuryak, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Paradigme shift in gauge topology, from instantons to their constituents -- instanton-dyons -- has recently lead to very significant advances. Like instantons, they have fermionic zero modes, and their collectivization at sufficiently high density explains the chiral symmetry breaking. Unlike instantons, these objects have electric and magnetic charges. Their back reaction on the mean value of the Polyakov line (holonomy) allows to explain the deconfinement transition. The talk summarizes recent works on the dyon ensemble, done in the mean field approximation (MFA), and also by direct numerical statistical simulation. Introduction of non-trivial quark periodicity conditions leads to drastic changes in both deconfinement and chiral transitions. In particulaly, in the so called Z(N_c)-QCD model the former gets much stronger, while the latter does not seem to occur at all.

  12. The Chirality Of Life: From Phase Transitions To Astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The search for life elsewhere in the universe is a pivotal question in modern science. However, to address whether life is common in the universe we must first understand the likelihood of abiogenesis by studying the origin of life on Earth. A key missing piece is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: permeating almost every life-form on Earth is the presence of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. In this work we discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events in a mechanism referred to as punctuated chirality. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has significant implications for the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic on average.

  13. Spontaneous magnetization of quark matter in the inhomogeneous chiral phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yoshiike

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the density wave of scalar and pseudoscalar condensates, we study the response of quark matter to a weak external magnetic field. In an external magnetic field, the energy spectrum of the lowest Landau level becomes asymmetric about zero, which is closely related to chiral anomaly, and gives rise to the spontaneous magnetization. This mechanism may be one of candidates for the origin of the strong magnetic field in pulsars and/or magnetars.

  14. Spontaneous magnetization of quark matter in the inhomogeneous chiral phase

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshiike, Ryo; Tatsumi, Tositaka

    2015-01-01

    Considering the density wave of scalar and pseudoscalar condensates, we study the response of quark matter to a weak external magnetic field. In an external magnetic field, the energy spectrum of the lowest Landau level becomes asymmetric about zero, which is closely related to chiral anomaly, and gives rise to the spontaneous magnetization. This mechanism may be one of candidates for the origin of the strong magnetic field in pulsars and/or magnetars.

  15. Generic Weyl phase in the vortex state of quasi-two-dimensional chiral superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohiro; Udagawa, Masafumi

    2016-08-01

    We study the collective behavior of Majorana modes in the vortex state of chiral p -wave superconductors. Away from the isolated vortex limit, the zero-energy Majorana states communicate with each other on a vortex lattice, and form a coherent band structure with a nontrivial topological character. We reveal that the topological nature of Majorana bands changes sensitively via quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional (2D) systems, by sweeping magnetic field or Fermi energy. Through the idea of dimensional reduction, we show the existence of a generic superconducting Weyl phase in a low magnetic field region of quasi-2D chiral superconductors.

  16. Experimental test of a fluctuation-induced first-order phase transition: The nematic-smectic-A transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. A.; Cladis, P. E.; Gorodetskii, E. E.; Huse, David A.; Podneks, V. E.; Taratuta, V. G.; van Saarloos, Wim; Voronov, V. P.

    1990-06-01

    In 1974, Halperin, Lubensky, and Ma (HLM) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 292 (1974)] predicted that the nematic-smectic-A transition of pure compounds and their mixtures should be at least weakly first order. One way to obtain such a prediction is to treat the smectic order parameter as a constant and integrate out the director fluctuations. The coupling between the director fluctuations and the smectic order parameter then generates a cubic term in the effective free energy for the nematic-smectic-A(N-Sm-A) transition, which tends to drive the transition first order. So far, however, there has not been clear experimental evidence in support of this prediction: Some materials appear to exhibit a first-order transition but others a second-order transition. In this paper we introduce two new approaches to test the predictions of HLM. First, we note that if a cubic term in the effective free energy for the smectic order parameter is present, its effect is dominant near the Landau tricritical point (LTP), where the quartic term in the free energy vanishes. In a mean-field approximation, a universal scaling form of the latent heat can then be derived close to the LTP. Its form depends sensitively on the presence of the cubic term. By reanalyzing earlier calorimetric measurements near the LTP, we find that these data yield evidence for the presence of the cubic term predicted by HLM. The second new approach to experimentally determine whether a transition is weakly first order or second order is a dynamical method. This general method is based on the observation that when a transition is (weakly) first order, the dynamics of interfaces are symmetric about Tc, so that an interface can propagate into both phases, depending on whether the sample is undercooled or overheated (corresponding to ``melting'' and ``freezing''). For a weakly first-order transition, a simple scaling relation for the interface speed can be derived. In contrast, the dynamics of propagating fronts close to a

  17. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  18. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs) were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material. PMID:27153055

  19. Reexamination of the mean-field phase diagram of biaxial nematic liquid crystals: Insights from Monte Carlo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala Latha, B.; Jose, Regina; Murthy, K. P. N.; Sastry, V. S. S.

    2015-07-01

    Investigations of the phase diagram of biaxial liquid-crystal systems through analyses of general Hamiltonian models within the simplifications of mean-field theory (MFT), as well as by computer simulations based on microscopic models, are directed toward an appreciation of the role of the underlying molecular-level interactions to facilitate its spontaneous condensation into a nematic phase with biaxial symmetry. Continuing experimental challenges in realizing such a system unambiguously, despite encouraging predictions from MFT, for example, are requiring more versatile simulational methodologies capable of providing insights into possible hindering barriers within the system, typically gleaned through its free-energy dependences on relevant observables as the system is driven through the transitions. The recent paper from this group [Kamala Latha et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 050501(R) (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.050501], summarizing the outcome of detailed Monte Carlo simulations carried out employing an entropic sampling technique, suggested a qualitative modification of the MFT phase diagram as the Hamiltonian is asymptotically driven toward the so-called partly repulsive regions. It was argued that the degree of (cross) coupling between the uniaxial and biaxial tensor components of neighboring molecules plays a crucial role in facilitating a ready condensation of the biaxial phase, suggesting that this could be a plausible factor in explaining the experimental difficulties. In this paper, we elaborate this point further, providing additional evidence from curious variations of free-energy profiles with respect to the relevant orientational order parameters, at different temperatures bracketing the phase transitions.

  20. Effect of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes on Cellulose Phenylcarbamate Chiral Stationary Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Yin-xia; REN Chao-xing; RUAN Qiong; YUAN Li-ming

    2007-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) have a high adsorption ability and nanoscale interactions. Cellulose trisphenylcarbamates possess high enantioseparation ability in high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Single-walled carbon nanotubes mixed with cellulose trisphenylcarbamate are coated on the silica gel as chiral stationary phases and higher enantioseparation factors are obtained. After a single-walled carbon nanotube is linked to the 6-position of cellulose 2,3-bisphenylcarbamate, its enantioseparation resolution increases compared to that of the cellulose trisphenylcarbamate. It is the first time that SWNTs have been applied to enantioseparation. The results indicate that the single-walled carbon nanotubes are good promoters of chiral recognition. This method can be used to improve the enantioseparation efficiency of the polysaccharide chiral stationary phases.

  1. Polyakov SU(3) extended linear $\\sigma$-model: Sixteen mesonic states in chiral phase-structure

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2014-01-01

    The derivative of the grand potential in mean field approximation, non-strange and strange condensates and deconfinement phase-transition in thermal and dense hadronic medium are verified in extended SU(3) linear sigma-model (eLSM). In determining the chiral phase-transition, the chiral condensates sigma_x and sigma_y are analysed. The chiral mesonic phase-structures in temperature- and density-dependence are taken as free parameters to be fitted. These parameters are classified corresponding to scalar meson nonets; (pseudo)-scalar and (axial)-vector. For deconfinement phase-transition, effective Polyakov loop-potentials phi and phi^* are utilized. We investigated the in-medium effects on the masses of sixteen mesonic states states. The results are presented for two different forms for the effective Polyakov loop-potential and compared with other models with and without anomalous terms. The Polyakov loop potential in LSM has considerable effects on the chiral phase-transition in meson masses so that the resto...

  2. Chiral Phase Transition and Meson Melting from AdS/QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the in-medium behavior of mesons at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential within a soft-wall model of AdS/QCD. We use a quartic scalar potential to obtain the correct form of chiral symmetry breaking. At zero quark mass the chiral phase transition is second-order, becoming a crossover at physical quark mass. At zero baryon chemical potential, we find a chiral transition temperature of 155 MeV in the chiral limit and a pseudo-transition temperature of 151 MeV at physical quark mass, consistent with lattice results. In the low-temperature limit, the second-order transition occurs at a baryon chemical potential of 566 MeV while the rapid crossover occurs at 559 MeV. A new parameterization of the dilaton profile results in improved meson spectra. Meson melting occurs at a lower temperature and chemical potential than the chiral phase transition, so the vector-axial vector mass splitting remains constant until the bound states melt.

  3. Spontaneous Magnetization of Quark Matter in Inhomogeneous Chiral Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshiike, Ryo; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Considering the density wave of scalar and pseudoscalar condensates, we study the response of quark matter to a weak external magnetic field. In an external magnetic field, the energy spectrum of the lowest Landau level becomes asymmetric about zero, which is closely related to chiral anomaly. This spectral asymmetry gives rise to spontaneous magnetization. This mechanism may be one of candidates for the origin of the strong magnetic field in magnetars. Furthermore, using the generalized Ginzburg-Landau(gGL) expansion, we show that magnetic susceptibility exhibits a peculiar feature

  4. The director and molecular dynamics of the field-induced alignment of a Gay-Berne nematic phase: An isothermal-isobaric nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhurst, Geoffrey R.; Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2010-05-01

    Isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for the generic Gay-Berne (GB) mesogen, GB(4.4, 20.0, 1, 1), to investigate director and molecular rotational motion during the field-induced alignment of a nematic. The alignment process for the director is discussed within the context of a hydrodynamic analysis based on the Ericksen-Leslie theory and this is found to predict the simulated behavior well. The dependence of the relaxation time for the alignment on the field strength is also in good accord with the theory. The rotational viscosity coefficient estimated from the simulation is smaller than that typically observed for real nematics and the possible reasons for this are discussed. However, the simulation results are found to follow not only the theory but also the experiments, at least qualitatively. No significant variation in the local and long-range structure of the nematic phase is found during the field-induced alignment process. In addition, we have explored the molecular dynamics in the nematic phase in the presence of the field using the first- and second-rank time autocorrelation functions. More importantly we are able to show that the director relaxation time is longer than that for molecular rotation. It is also possible to use the two orientational correlation times to explore the relationship between the rotational viscosity coefficient and the rotational diffusion constant. The diffusion constants determined from the orientational correlation times, based on the short-time expansion of the autocorrelation functions, are found to be significantly different. In consequence it is not possible to test, unambiguously, the relationship between the rotational viscosity coefficient and the rotational diffusion constant. However, it would seem that the second-rank rotational correlation time provides the most reliable route to the rotational viscosity coefficient.

  5. Influence of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition in the two flavor chiral quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, G.; Szép, Zs.

    2010-09-01

    The SU(2)L×SU(2)R chiral quark model consisting of the (σ,π→) meson multiplet and the constituent quarks propagating on the homogeneous background of a temporal gauge field is solved at finite temperature and quark baryon chemical potential μq using an expansion in the number of flavors Nf, both in the chiral limit and for the physical value of the pion mass. Keeping the fermion propagator at its tree level, several approximations to the pion propagator are investigated. These approximations correspond to different partial resummations of the perturbative series. Comparing their solution with a diagrammatically formulated resummation relying on a strict large-Nf expansion of the perturbative series, one concludes that only when the local part of the approximated pion propagator resums infinitely many orders in 1/Nf of fermionic contributions a sufficiently rapid crossover transition at μq=0 is achieved allowing for the existence of a tricritical point or a critical end point in the μq-T phase diagram. The renormalization and the possibility of determining the counterterms in the resummation provided by a strict large-Nf expansion are investigated.

  6. Reflective Spin-Orbit Geometric Phase from Chiral Anisotropic Optical Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Tkachenko, Georgiy; Brasselet, Etienne

    2016-06-24

    We report on highly reflective spin-orbit geometric phase optical elements based on a helicity-preserving circular Bragg-reflection phenomenon. First, we present a dynamical geometric phase experiment using a flat chiral Bragg mirror. Then, we show that shaping such a geometric phase allows the efficient spin-orbit tailoring of light fields without the need to fulfill any condition on birefringent phase retardation, in contrast to the case of transmission spin-orbit optical elements. This is illustrated by optical vortex generation from chiral liquid crystal droplets in the Bragg regime that unveils spin-orbit consequences of the droplet's curvature. Our results thus introduce a novel class of geometric phase elements-"Bragg-Berry" optical elements. PMID:27391723

  7. OPTICAL PHASE CONJUGATION RESPONSE OF PHOTOINDUCED POLYMER FILMS CONTAINING AZOBENZENE MOIETIES WITH CHIRAL GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-da Xu; Yong Zhang; Xing-he Fan; Xin-hua Wan; Qi-feng Zhou

    2002-01-01

    An optically active monomer containing azobenzene moieties with chiral group (s-2-methyl-butyl), 4-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyloxy]-4'-(s-2-methyl-1-butyloxycarbonyl) azobenzene (M1) was synthesized. Polymer (PM1) possessing optical phase conjugated response was obtained by homopolymerization of the optically active monomer (M1) using free radical polymerization. The polymer was very soluble in common solvents and good optical quality films could be easily fabricated by spin coating. The optical phase conjugated responses of the polymer PM1 were measured by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM). In comparison with polymer containing no chiral group, it was found from the preliminary measurement of photoisomeric change that optical phase conjugated response of the PM1 in the long-range order hexagonal symmetry microstructure could be easily controlled by choosing the appropriate polarization direction of the irradiating beams (514.5 nm) and the irradiating number, presumably due to the chiral group in the PM1 molecular structure. For the case of the polymer investigated here, a chiral group side chain was introduced to increase optical phase conjugated response intensity with different polarization directions of the irradiating beams, which aims originally at searching for a new photoactive material.

  8. A new insight into the isotropic-nematic phase transition in lyotropic solutions of semiflexible polymers: density-functional theory tested by molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Sergei A; Milchev, Andrey; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2016-06-14

    Semiflexible polymers in solution are studied for a wide range of both contour length L and persistence length lp as a function of monomer concentration under good solvent conditions. Both density-functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods are used, and a very good agreement between both techniques is observed for rather stiff polymers. Evidence for a new mechanism of order parameter fluctuations in the nematic phase is presented, namely collective deformations of bundles of wormlike chains twisted around each other, and the typical wavelengths and amplitudes of these modes are estimated. These long wavelength fluctuations cause a reduction of the order parameter in comparison with the DFT prediction. It is also found that DFT becomes unreliable for rather flexible polymers in predicting that the transition from the isotropic (I)-phase to the nematic (N)-phase still exists at very high monomer concentrations (which in reality does not occur). However, under conditions when DFT is accurate, it provides reliable predictions also for the width of the I-N two-phase coexistence region, which are difficult to obtain from MD in spite of the use of very large systems (up to 500 000 monomers) by means of graphics processing units (GPU). For short and not very stiff chains, a pre-transitional chain stretching is found in the isotropic phase near the I-N-transition, not predicted by theories. A comparison with theoretical predictions by Khokhlov-Semenov, Odijk, and Chen reveals that the scaled transition densities are not simply functions of L/lp only, as these theories predict, but depend on d/lp (where d is the chain diameter) as well. Chain properties in the nematically ordered phase are compared to those of chains confined in tubes, and the deflection length concept is tested. Eventually, some consequences for the interpretation of experiments are spelled out. PMID:27249320

  9. Silica-based polypeptide-monolithic stationary phase for hydrophilic chromatography and chiral separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Licong; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2016-05-13

    Glutathione (GSH)-, somatostatin acetate (ST)- and ovomucoid (OV)-functionalized silica-monolithic stationary phases were designed and synthesized for HILIC and chiral separation using capillary electrochromatography (CEC). GSH, ST and OV were covalently incorporated into the silica skeleton via the epoxy ring-opening reaction between their amino groups and the glycidyl moiety in γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) together with polycondensation and copolymerization of tetramethyloxysilane and GPTMS. Not only could the direction and electroosmotic flow magnitude on the prepared GSH-, ST- and OV-silica hybrid monolithic stationary phases be controlled by the pH of the mobile phase, but also a typical HILIC behavior was observed so that the nucleotides and HPLC peptide standard mixture could be baseline separated using an aqueous mobile phase without any acetonitrile during CEC. Moreover, the prepared monolithic columns had a chiral separation ability to separate dl-amino acids. The OV-silica hybrid monolithic column was most effective in chiral separation and could separate dl-glutamic acid (Glu) (the resolution R=1.07), dl-tyrosine (Tyr) (1.57) and dl-histidine (His) (1.06). Importantly, the chiral separation ability of the GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column could be remarkably enhanced when using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to fabricate an AuNP-mediated GSH-AuNP-GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column. The R of dl-Glu, dl-Tyr and dl-His reached 1.19, 1.60 and 2.03. This monolithic column was thus applied to separate drug enantiomers, and quantitative separation of all four R/S drug enantiomers were achieved with R ranging from 4.36 to 5.64. These peptide- and protein-silica monolithic stationary phases with typical HILIC separation behavior and chiral separation ability implied their promise for the analysis of not only the future metabolic studies, but also drug enantiomers recognition.

  10. Silica-based polypeptide-monolithic stationary phase for hydrophilic chromatography and chiral separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Licong; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2016-05-13

    Glutathione (GSH)-, somatostatin acetate (ST)- and ovomucoid (OV)-functionalized silica-monolithic stationary phases were designed and synthesized for HILIC and chiral separation using capillary electrochromatography (CEC). GSH, ST and OV were covalently incorporated into the silica skeleton via the epoxy ring-opening reaction between their amino groups and the glycidyl moiety in γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) together with polycondensation and copolymerization of tetramethyloxysilane and GPTMS. Not only could the direction and electroosmotic flow magnitude on the prepared GSH-, ST- and OV-silica hybrid monolithic stationary phases be controlled by the pH of the mobile phase, but also a typical HILIC behavior was observed so that the nucleotides and HPLC peptide standard mixture could be baseline separated using an aqueous mobile phase without any acetonitrile during CEC. Moreover, the prepared monolithic columns had a chiral separation ability to separate dl-amino acids. The OV-silica hybrid monolithic column was most effective in chiral separation and could separate dl-glutamic acid (Glu) (the resolution R=1.07), dl-tyrosine (Tyr) (1.57) and dl-histidine (His) (1.06). Importantly, the chiral separation ability of the GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column could be remarkably enhanced when using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to fabricate an AuNP-mediated GSH-AuNP-GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column. The R of dl-Glu, dl-Tyr and dl-His reached 1.19, 1.60 and 2.03. This monolithic column was thus applied to separate drug enantiomers, and quantitative separation of all four R/S drug enantiomers were achieved with R ranging from 4.36 to 5.64. These peptide- and protein-silica monolithic stationary phases with typical HILIC separation behavior and chiral separation ability implied their promise for the analysis of not only the future metabolic studies, but also drug enantiomers recognition. PMID:27083263

  11. Chiral phase transition and Schwinger mechanism in a pure electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Gaoqing

    2016-01-01

    We systematically study the chiral symmetry breaking and restoration in the presence of a pure electric field in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential. In addition, we also study the effect of the chiral phase transition on the charged pair production due to the Schwinger mechanism. For these purposes, a general formalism for parallel electric and magnetic fields is developed at finite temperature and chemical potential for the first time. In the pure electric field limit $B\\rightarrow0$, we compute the order parameter, the transverse-to-longitudinal ratio of the Goldstone mode velocities, and the Schwinger pair production rate as functions of the electric field. The inverse catalysis effect of the electric field to chiral symmetry breaking is recovered. And the Goldstone mode is find to disperse anisotropically such that the transverse velocity is always smaller than the longitudinal one, especially at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential. As exp...

  12. Chiral Phase Transition in the Soft-Wall Model of AdS/QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Chelabi, Kaddour; Huang, Mei; Li, Danning; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the chiral phase transition in the soft-wall model of AdS/QCD at zero chemical potential for two-flavor and three-flavor cases, respectively. We show that there is no spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the original soft-wall model. After detailed analysis, we find that in order to realize chiral symmetry breaking and restoration, both profiles for the scalar potential and the dilaton field are essential. The scalar potential determines the possible solution structure of the chiral condensate, except the mass term, it takes another quartic term for the two-flavor case, and for the three-flavor case, one has to take into account an extra cubic term due to the t'Hooft determinant interaction. The profile of the dilaton field reflects the gluodynamics, which is negative at a certain ultraviolet scale and approaches positive quadratic behavior at far infrared region. With this set-up, the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and its restoration at finite temperature can be realize...

  13. The Optical Resolution of Chiral Tetrahedrone-type Clusters Contai- ning SCoFeM (M=Mo or W) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Chiral Stationary Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Amylose tris (phenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase (ATPC-CSP) was prepared and used for optical resolution of clusters 1 and 2. n-Hexane/2-propanol ( 99/1; v/v) were found to be the most suitable mobile phase on ATPC-CSP.

  14. Thermodynamic phases and mesonic fluctuations in a chiral nucleon-meson model

    CERN Document Server

    Drews, Matthias; Klein, Bertram; Weise, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the QCD phase diagram must properly include nucleonic degrees of freedom and their thermodynamics in the range of baryon chemical potentials characteristic of nuclear matter. A useful framework for incorporating relevant nuclear physics constraints in this context is a chiral nucleon-meson effective Lagrangian. In the present paper, such a chiral nucleon-meson model is extended with systematic inclusion of mesonic fluctuations using the functional renormalization group approach. The resulting description of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition shows a remarkable agreement with three-loop calculations based on in-medium chiral effective field theory. No signs of a chiral first-order phase transition and its critical endpoint are found in the region of applicability of the model, at least up to twice the density of normal nuclear matter and at temperatures T<100 MeV. Fluctuations close to the critical point of the first-order liquid-gas transition are also examined with a detailed study of the ...

  15. Synthesis of novel glucose-based polymers and their applications as chiral stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyuki IKAI; Takayuki YAMADA

    2016-01-01

    Two novel polymers containing glucose units as the main-chain that only differ in terms of their regioregularity were synthesized to evaluate their chiral recognition abilities as chiral stationary phases( CSPs) for high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC). The regioregular polymer( poly-5)shows clear resolution ability for the racemate of cobalt(Ⅲ)acetylacetonate( Co( acac)3 ),whereas the corresponding regioirregular polymer(poly-3)does not show any chiral recognition for Co(acac)3. The regioregular polymer main-chain seems to play an important role not only in providing an efficient interaction with the racemate but also in expressing the chiral recognition ability as a CSP for HPLC.

  16. Susceptibilities and the Phase Structure of a Chiral Model with Polyakov Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, C.; Friman, B.; Redlich, K.

    2006-01-01

    In an extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model where the quarks interact with the temporal gluon field, represented by the Polyakov loop, we explore the relation between the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. The effect of Polyakov loop dynamics on thermodynamic quantities, on the phase structure at finite temperature and baryon density and on various susceptibilities is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the behavior and properties of the fluctuations of the (approximate) ord...

  17. UA(1) breaking and phase transition in chiral random matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, T; Ohtani, M

    2009-01-01

    We propose a chiral random matrix model which properly incorporates the flavor-number dependence of the phase transition owing to the \\UA(1) anomaly term. At finite temperature, the model shows the second-order phase transition with mean-field critical exponents for two massless flavors, while in the case of three massless flavors the transition turns out to be of the first order. The topological susceptibility satisfies the anomalous \\UA(1) Ward identity and decreases gradually with the temperature increased.

  18. Novel chiral stationary phases based on peptoid combining a quinine/quinidine moiety through a C9-position carbamate group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Wang, Dongqiang; Song, Guangjun; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    By connecting a quinine or quinidine moiety to the peptoid chain through the C9-position carbamate group, we synthesized two new chiral selectors. After immobilizing them onto 3-mercaptopropyl-modified silica gel, two novel chiral stationary phases were prepared. With neutral, acid, and basic chiral compounds as analytes, we evaluated these two stationary phases and compared their chromatographic performance with chiral columns based on quinine tert-butyl carbamate and the previous peptoid. From the resolution of neutral and basic analytes under normal-phase mode, it was found that the new stationary phases exhibited much better enantioselectivity than the quinine tert-butyl carbamate column; the peptoid moiety played an important role in enantiorecognition, which controlled the elution orders of enantiomers; the assisting role of the cinchona alkaloid moieties was observed in some separations. Under acid polar organic phase mode, it was proved that cinchona alkaloid moieties introduced excellent enantiorecognitions for chiral acid compounds; in some separations, the peptoid moiety affected enantioseparations as well. Overall, chiral moieties with specific enantioselectivity were demonstrated to improve the performance of peptoid chiral stationary phase efficiently.

  19. Phase diagram of 4D field theories with chiral anomaly from holography

    CERN Document Server

    Ammon, Martin; Macedo, Rodrigo P

    2016-01-01

    Within gauge/gravity duality, we study the class of four dimensional CFTs with chiral anomaly described by Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in five dimensions. In particular we determine the phase diagram at finite temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field. At high temperatures the solution is given by an electrically and magnetically charged AdS Reissner-Nordstroem black brane. For sufficiently large Chern-Simons coupling and at sufficiently low temperatures and small magnetic fields, we find a new phase with helical order, breaking translational invariance spontaneously. For the Chern-Simons couplings studied, the phase transition is second order with mean field exponents. Since the entropy density vanishes in the limit of zero temperature we are confident that this is the true ground state which is the holographic version of a chiral magnetic spiral.

  20. Alkylated and silylated β-cyclodextrin for gas chromatographic chiral stationary phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐课文; 易健民; 周春山

    2002-01-01

    Three new chiral stationary phases, 2,6-di-O-heptyl-3-O-trimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin(DHTBCD), 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-trimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin (DPTBCD) and 2,6-di-O-butyl-3-O-trimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin (DBTBCD), were synthesized. Chromatographic properties such as column efficiency, thermal stability and column life span, were studied. The separations of enantiomers, such as ketone, esters, alcohols and olefines, were investigated on the alkylated and silylated β-cyclodextrin stationary phases. The influence of diluent on chiral separation was studied. The experimental results indicate that the stationary phases show good chromatographic properties in separating enantiomers. It is observed that inclusion complexation and hydrogen bonding interaction hardly play a role in separating enantiomers.

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL CHIRAL SMECTIC C(Sc*) PHASE SHISH-KEBAB TYPE LIQUID CRYSTALLINE BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-jun Zheng; Zi-fa Li; Shu-yuan Zhang; Shao-kui Cao; Ming-sheng Tang; Qiu-jun Fen; Qi-feng Zhou

    1999-01-01

    A new series of chiral shish-kebab type liquid crystal block copolymers that form the smectic C(Sc*) phase was synthesized by solution polycondensation. The copolymers were characterized by GPC,DSC, TG, POM, X-ray diffraction and polarimeter. The copolymers 7 entered into liquid crystal phase when they were heated to their melting temperatures (Tm) and the copolymers 8 were in liquid crystal phase at room temperature with low viscosities. The smectic sanded texture or focal-conic texture were observed on POM.All the chiral block copolymers showed high optical activity. No racemization has happened. Temperaturevariable X-ray diffraction study together with POM and polarimetric analysis realized that they are chiral smectic C(Sc*) phase. Thus we offer in this report the first example of shish-kebab type liquid crystal block copolymers that form a chiral smectic C(Sc*) phase. The variation of melting and isotropization temperatures with molecular structure was also discussed.

  2. Effects of added silica nanoparticles on the nematic liquid crystal phase formation in beidellite suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Jasper; Paineau, Erwan; Davidson, Patrick; Bihannic, Isabelle; Michot, Laurent J.; Philippe, Adrian Marie; Petukhov, Andrei V.; Lekkerkerker, Henk N W

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a study of the liquid crystal phase behavior of mixed suspensions of the natural smectite clay mineral beidellite and nonadsorbing colloidal silica particles. While virtually all smectite clays dispersed in water form gels at very low concentrations, beidellite displays a

  3. Macroscopic dynamics of polar nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Helmut R; Pleiner, Harald; Ziebert, Falko

    2006-08-01

    We present the macroscopic equations for polar nematic liquid crystals. We consider the case where one has both, the usual nematic director, n[over ] , characterizing quadrupolar order as well as the macroscopic polarization, P , representing polar order, but where their directions coincide and are rigidly coupled. In this case one has to choose P as the independent macroscopic variable. Such equations are expected to be relevant in connection with nematic phases with unusual properties found recently in compounds composed of banana-shaped molecules. Among the effects predicted, which are absent in conventional nematic liquid crystals showing only quadrupolar order, are pyro-electricity and its analogs for density and for concentration in mixtures as well as a flow alignment behavior, which is more complex than in usual low molecular weight nematics. We also discuss the formation of defect structures expected in such systems. PMID:17025458

  4. Liquid chromatographic resolution of mexiletine and its analogs on crown ether-based chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kab Bong; Kim, Hee Eun; Hyun, Myung Ho

    2014-05-01

    Mexiletine, an effective class IB antiarrhythmic agent, and its analogs were resolved on three different crown ether-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs), one (CSP 1) of which is based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid and the other two (CSP 2 and CSP 3) are based on (3,3'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl)-20-crown-6. Mexiletine was resolved with a resolution (R(S)) of greater than 1.00 on CSP 1 and CSP 3 containing residual silanol group-protecting n-octyl groups on the silica surface, but with a resolution (R(S)) of less than 1.00 on CSP 2. The chromatographic behaviors for the resolution of mexiletine analogs containing a substituted phenyl group at the chiral center on the three CSPs were quite dependent on the phenoxy group of analytes. Namely, mexiletine analogs containing 2,6-dimethylphenoxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 3-methylphenoxy, 4-methylphenoxy, and a simple phenoxy group were resolved very well on the three CSPs even though the chiral recognition efficiencies vary with the CSPs. However, mexiletine analogs containing 2-methylphenoxy group were not resolved at all or only slightly resolved. Among the three CSPs, CSP 3 was found to show the highest chiral recognition efficiencies for the resolution of mexiletine and its analogs, especially in terms of resolution (R(S)). PMID:24677299

  5. Floquet topological phase transitions and chiral edge states in a kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Chaocheng; Zhang, Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn

    2014-09-05

    The Floquet topological phases and chiral edge states in a kagome lattice under a circularly-polarized driving field are studied. In the off-resonant case, the system exhibits the similar character as the kagome lattice model with staggered magnetic fluxes, but the total band width is damped in oscillation. In the on-resonant case, the degeneracy splitting at the Γ point does not always result in a gap. The positions of the other two gaps are influenced by the flat band. With the field intensity increased, these two gaps undergo closing-then-reopening processes, accompanied with the changing of the winding numbers. - Highlights: • A kagome lattice under a circularly-polarized driving field is studied. • The band structures and chiral edge states are studied via exact Floquet method. • Various modifications of the Floquet band structure are found. • Floquet topological phase transitions appear in both off- and on-resonant cases.

  6. The $N_f= 2$ chiral phase transition from imaginary chemical potential with Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Philipsen, Owe

    2015-01-01

    The order of the thermal transition in the chiral limit of QCD with two dynamical flavours of quarks is a long-standing issue. Still, it is not definitely known whether the transition is of first or second order in the continuum limit. Which of the two scenarios is realized has important implications for the QCD phase diagram and the existence of a critical endpoint at finite densities. Settling this issue by simulating at successively decreased pion mass was not conclusive yet. Recently, an alternative approach was proposed, extrapolating the first order phase transition found at imaginary chemical potential to zero chemical potential with known exponents, which are induced by the Roberge-Weiss symmetry. For staggered fermions on $N_t=4$ lattices, this results in a first order transition in the chiral limit. Here we report of $N_t=4$ simulations with Wilson fermions, where the first order region is found to be large.

  7. Comparative Optical Separation of Racemic Ibuprofen by Using Chiral Stationary Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalkeun; PARK; Joong; Kee; LEE; 等

    2002-01-01

    Ibprofen is widely used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and poduced as racemic mixture.Its pharmacological activity resides only is S-(+)-enantiomer,and R-(-)-enantiomer is not only inactive but also has many side effects.Thus it is necessary to separate Renantiomer from racemic ibuprofen.We studied optical separation of racemic Ibuprofen with chiral high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).,Out of three different chiral stationary phases,which were selected on the basis of structure and availability,two were found to be effective.There was optimum eluent composition for each stationary phase for good resolution in optical separation.Resolution decreased with increase of eluent flow rate,but effect of injection volume on resolution was insignificant at high eluent flow rate.

  8. A large N phase transition in the continuum two dimensional SU(N) X SU(N) principal chiral model

    OpenAIRE

    R. Narayanan; Neuberger, H.; Vicari, E.

    2008-01-01

    It is established by numerical means that the continuum large N principal chiral model in two dimensions has a phase transition in a smoothed two point function at a critical distance of the order of the correlation length.

  9. Classifying the Phases of Gauge Theories by Spectral Density of Probing Chiral Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We describe our recent proposal that distinct phases of gauge theories with fundamental quarks translate into specific types of low-energy behavior in Dirac spectral density. The resulting scenario is built around new evidence substantiating the existence of a phase characterized by bimodal (anomalous) density, and corresponding to deconfined dynamics with broken valence chiral symmetry. We argue that such anomalous phase occurs quite generically in these theories, including in "real world" QCD above the crossover temperature, and in zero-temperature systems with many light flavors.

  10. Copolymerization preparation of cationic cyclodextrin chiral stationary phases for drug enantioseparation in chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Ren-Qi Wang, Teng-Teng Ong, Ke Huang, Weihua Tang & Siu-Choon Ng ### Abstract We described a facile and effective protocol wherein radical copolymerization is employed to covalently bond cationic β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) onto silica particles with extended linkage, resulting in a chiral stationary phase (IMPCSP) that can be used for the enantioseparation of racemic drugs in both high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Start...

  11. Electrodynamic response in the electronic nematic phase of BaFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirri, C.; Dusza, A.; Bastelberger, S.; Chinotti, M.; Chu, J.-H.; Kuo, H.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Degiorgi, L.

    2016-02-01

    We perform, as a function of uniaxial stress, a temperature-dependent optical-reflectivity investigation of the parent Fe-arsenide compound BaFe2As2 over a broad spectral range, from the far infrared up to the ultraviolet, across the coincident structural tetragonal-to-orthorhombic and spin-density-wave (SDW) phase transitions at Ts ,N=135 K. Our results provide knowledge to the complete electrodynamic response of the title compound over a wide energy range as a function of both tunable variables. For temperatures below Ts ,N, varying the uniaxial stress in situ affects the twin domain population and yields hysteretic behavior of the optical properties as the stress is first increased and then decreased, whereas for temperatures above Ts ,N the stress-induced optical anisotropy is reversible, as anticipated. In particular, by analyzing the low-frequency infrared response, we obtain detailed insight to the effects determining the intrinsic anisotropy of the (metallic) charge dynamics in the orthorhombic state, and similarly the induced one due to applied uniaxial stress at higher temperatures in the tetragonal phase. The low-frequency optical conductivity thus allows establishing a link to the d c transport properties and reveals that they are determined almost exclusively by changes in the Drude weight, therefore by the anisotropy in the Fermi surface parameters. Finally, we show that the spectral weight distribution in the SDW state occurs for energies below approximately 1 eV, and therefore points towards a correlation mechanism due to Hund's coupling rather than on-site Coulomb interactions.

  12. Determination Enantiomer Excess (e.e. %) of Chiral Sharpless Epoxides with β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Chiral Stationary Phases of Capillary Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using four β-cyclodextrin derivatives, 2,6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanonyl-β-CD, 2,6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-octanonyl-β-CD, 2,3-di-O-benzyl-6-O-heptanonyl-β-CD, and 2,3-di-O-benzy1-6-O-octanonyl-β-CD, as chiral stationary phases of capillary gas chromatography (CGC), the enantiomers of Sharpless epoxides were well separated. The enantiomer excess values (e.e.%) of some chiral Sharpless epoxides were also determined successfully using these CDs.

  13. Exploring the nature of chiral phase transition in two-flavor QCD using extra heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Ejiri, Shinji; Yamada, Norikazu

    2015-01-01

    Chiral phase transition of two flavor QCD at finite quark masses is known to be crossover except near the chiral limit, but it can turn to a first order transition when adding many extra flavors. This property is used to explore the nature of the phase transition of massless two flavor QCD using lattice numerical simulations. The extra heavy flavors being incorporated in the form of the hopping parameter expansion through the reweighting, the number of the extra flavors and their masses appear only in a single parameter, defined by $h$. We determine the critical value of the parameter, at which the first order and the crossover regions are separated, and examine its dependence on the two flavor mass. The lattice calculations are carried out at $N_t$=4, and show that the critical value does not depend on the two flavor mass in the range we have studied ($0.46 \\le m_\\pi/m_\\rho \\le 0.66$) and appears to remain finite and positive in the chiral limit, suggesting that the phase transition of massless two flavor QC...

  14. Resolution of α-cyclohexyl-mandelic acid enantiomers by two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new chiral separation technology: two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction. Distribution behavior of α-cyclohexyl-mandelic acid enantiomers was studied in the extraction system with D(L)-isobutyl tartrate in 1,2-dichloroethane organic phase and β-CD derivatives in aqueous phase, and the influence of the kind and concentration of extractant and pH on extraction performance was investigated. The experimental results indicate that two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction is of strong chiral separation ability. HP-β-CD, HE-β-CD and Me-β-CD have higher recognition ability for S-CHMA than that for R-CHMA, among which HP-β-CD has the strongest ability; whereas, D-isobutyl tartrate has reversed recognition ability for them. In the extraction system containing HP-β-CD and D-isobutyl tartrate, e.e.% of S-CHMA in aqueous phase reached 27.6% by one stage extraction, and the distribution ratio for R-CHMA(kR) and for S-CHMA(kS) and separation factor (α) are 2.44, 0.89 and 2.49, respectively. Meanwhile, pH and concentration of extractant have great effects on chiral separation ability. Two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction has great significance for preparative separation of racemic compounds.

  15. Quark matter in a parallel electric and magnetic field background: Chiral phase transition and equilibration of chiral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, M.; Peng, G. X.

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for quark matter in the background of static and homogeneous parallel electric field E and magnetic field B . We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a local kernel interaction to compute the relevant quantities to describe chiral symmetry breaking at a finite temperature for a wide range of E and B . We study the effect of this background on the inverse catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking for E and B of the same order of magnitude. We then focus on the effect of the equilibration of chiral density n5 , produced dynamically by an axial anomaly on the critical temperature. The equilibration of n5 , a consequence of chirality-flipping processes in the thermal bath, allows for the introduction of the chiral chemical potential μ5, which is computed self-consistently as a function of the temperature and field strength by coupling the number equation to the gap equation and solving the two within an expansion in E /T2 , B /T2 , and μ52/T2 . We find that even if chirality is produced and equilibrates within a relaxation time τM , it does not change drastically the thermodynamics, with particular reference to the inverse catalysis induced by the external fields, as long as the average μ5 at equilibrium is not too large.

  16. Oriented circular dichroism analysis of chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks grown by liquid-phase epitaxy and upon loading with chiral guest compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Zhigang

    2014-06-17

    Oriented circular dichroism (OCD) is explored and successfully applied to investigate chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs) based on camphoric acid (D- and Lcam) with the composition [Cu2(Dcam) 2x(Lcam)2-2x(dabco)]n (dabco=1,4-diazabicyclo- [2.2.2]-octane). The three-dimensional chiral SURMOFs with high-quality orientation were grown on quartz glass plates by using a layer-by-layer liquid-phase epitaxy method. The growth orientation, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), could be switched between the [001] and [110] direction by using either OH- or COOH-terminated substrates. These SURMOFs were characterized by using OCD, which confirmed the ratio as well as the orientation of the enantiomeric linker molecules. Theoretical computations demonstrate that the OCD band intensities of the enantiopure [Cu2(Dcam)2(dabco)] n grown in different orientations are a direct result of the anisotropic nature of the chiral SURMOFs. Finally, the enantiopure [Cu 2(Dcam)2(dabco)]n and [Cu2(Lcam) 2(dabco)]n SURMOFs were loaded with the two chiral forms of ethyl lactate [(+)-ethyl-D-lactate and (-)-ethyl-L-lactate)]. An enantioselective enrichment of >60 % was observed by OCD when the chiral host scaffold was loaded from the racemic mixture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Chiral assembly of weakly curled hard rods: Effect of steric chirality and polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensink, H. H., E-mail: wensink@lps.u-psud.fr; Morales-Anda, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides–UMR 8502, Université Paris-Sud & CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-10-14

    We theoretically investigate the pitch of lyotropic cholesteric phases composed of slender rods with steric chirality transmitted via a weak helical deformation of the backbone. In this limit, the model is amenable to analytical treatment within Onsager theory and a closed expression for the pitch versus concentration and helical shape can be derived. Within the same framework, we also briefly review the possibility of alternative types of chiral order, such as twist-bend or screw-like nematic phases, finding that cholesteric order dominates for weakly helical distortions. While long-ranged or “soft” chiral forces usually lead to a pitch decreasing linearly with concentration, steric chirality leads to a much steeper decrease of quadratic nature. This reveals a subtle link between the range of chiral intermolecular interaction and the pitch sensitivity with concentration. A much richer dependence on the thermodynamic state is revealed for polar helices where parallel and anti-parallel pair alignments along the local director are no longer equivalent. It is found that weak temperature variations may lead to dramatic changes in the pitch, despite the lyotropic nature of the assembly.

  18. Chiral symmetry breaking by spatial confinement in tactoidal droplets of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Luana; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2011-03-29

    In many colloidal systems, an orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase emerges from the isotropic (I) melt in the form of spindle-like birefringent tactoids. In cases studied so far, the tactoids always reveal a mirror-symmetric nonchiral structure, sometimes even when the building units are chiral. We report on chiral symmetry breaking in the nematic tactoids formed in molecularly nonchiral polymer-crowded aqueous solutions of low-molecular weight disodium cromoglycate. The parity is broken by twisted packing of self-assembled molecular aggregates within the tactoids as manifested by the observed optical activity. Fluorescent confocal microscopy reveals that the chiral N tactoids are located at the boundaries of cells. We explain the chirality induction as a replacement of energetically costly splay packing of the aggregates within the curved bipolar tactoidal shape with twisted packing. The effect represents a simple pathway of macroscopic chirality induction in an organic system with no molecular chirality, as the only requirements are orientational order and curved shape of confinement.

  19. Chiral stationary phases based on chitosan bis(methylphenylcarbamate)-(isobutyrylamide) for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sheng; Bin, Qin; Chen, Wei; Bai, Zheng-Wu; Huang, Shao-Hua

    2016-04-01

    A series of chitosan bis(methylphenylcarbamate)-(isobutyrylamide) derivatives were synthesized by carbamylating chitosan isobutyrylamide with different methylphenyl isocyanates. Then the prepared chitosan derivatives were coated onto 3-aminopropyl silica particles, resulting in a series of new chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography. It was observed that the chiral recognition abilities of these coated-type CSPs depended very much on the substituents on the phenyl moieties of the chitosan derivatives, the eluent composition, as well as the structure of racemates. As a typical example, the eluent tolerance of the prepared CSP with the best enantioseparation ability was investigated in detail, and the results revealed that the CSP exhibited extraordinary solvent tolerance and could still work without significant loss in enantioseparation capability after being flushed with chloroform (100%), ethyl acetate (100%) and even THF/n-hexane (70/30, v/v), while the traditional coated-type CSPs based on the cellulose and amylose derivatives, such as cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CDMPC) and amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (ADMPC), might be dissolved or highly swollen in these eluents. Therefore, the application of the resultant CSPs could address the problem of the dissolution and high swelling of traditional coated-type CSPs in some unusual eluents, broadening the possibility of eluent choice. In addition, a comparison of the prepared CSPs with the well known CDMPC- and ADMPC- based CSPs concerning the chiral recognition ability was also made. Separation performances achieved on the as-prepared CSPs in different eluents were found to be even superior to CDMPC- and ADMPC-based CSPs for the tested chiral compounds. In summary, we could safely draw the conclusion that the CSPs derived from chitosan isobutyrylamide derivatives were capable of excellent chiral recognition ability, and meanwhile possessed satisfactory

  20. Synthesis of chiral polyaniline films via chemical vapor phase polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, J.; Winther-Jensen, B.; Pornputtkul, Y.;

    2006-01-01

    Electrically and optically active polyaniline films doped with (1)-(-)-10- camphorsulfonic acid were successfully deposited on nonconductive substrates via chemical vapor phase polymerization. The above polyaniline/ R- camphorsulfonate films were characterized by electrochemical and physical...... and Raman spectrum, but also exhibited optical activity corresponding to the polymer chains as observed by circular dichroism spectra. (c) 2005 The Electrochemical Society....

  1. Calculation of the nematic entropy using digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, F M C; Kimura, N M; Luders, D D; Palangana, A J; Simões, M

    2013-12-01

    In this work we will use digital images to compute the entropy dependence on temperature of a nematic lyotropic sample. The set of images comprehend the entire temperature range between a reentrant nematic isotropic phase transition, at a low temperature, and a usual nematic isotropic phase transition at a higher temperature. We will show that, inside the nematic phase, the image entropy profile agrees accurately with the entropy given by the Maier-Saupe model. As far as we know, this is the first time that the entropy of a lyotropic nematic phase is evaluated by this method, which introduces a way to measure their macroscopic variables. Namely, being that the entropy is a thermodynamical potential, this result implies that digital images can be used to compute mean values of nematic random variables. PMID:24483590

  2. The phase structure of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model. Numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagram of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model is explored by means of numerical simulations. The results revealing a rich phase structure are compared to analytical large Nf calculations which we performed earlier. The analytical and numerical results are in excellent agreement at large values of Nf. In the opposite case the large Nf computation still gives a good qualitative description of the phase diagram. In particular we find numerical evidence for the predicted ferrimagnetic phase at intermediate values of the Yukawa coupling constant and for the symmetric phase at strong Yukawa couplings. Emphasis is put on the finite size effects which can hide the existence of the latter symmetric phase. (orig.)

  3. Chiral separation of cathinone and amphetamine derivatives by HPLC/UV using sulfated ß-cyclodextrin as chiral mobile phase additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschwer, Magdalena; Seidl, Yvonne; Mohr, Stefan; Schmid, Martin G

    2014-08-01

    In the last years the identification of new legal and illegal highs has become a huge challenge for the police and prosecution authorities. In an analytical context, only a few analytical methods are available to identify these new substances. Moreover, many of these recreational drugs are chiral and it is supposed that the enantiomers differ in their pharmacological potency. Since nonenantioselective synthesis is easier and cheaper, they are mainly sold as racemic mixtures. The goal of this research work was to develop an inexpensive method for the chiral separation of cathinones and amphetamines. This should help to discover if the substances are sold as racemic mixtures and give further information about their quality as well as their origin. Chiral separation of a set of 6 amphetamine and 25 cathinone derivatives, mainly purchased from various Internet shops, is presented. A LiChrospher 100 RP-18e, 250 x 4 mm, 5 µm served as the stationary phase. The chiral mobile phase consisted of methanol, water, and sulfated ß-cyclodextrin. Measurements were performed under isocratic conditions in reversed phase mode using UV detection. Four model compounds of the two substance classes were used to optimize the mobile phase. Under final conditions (methanol:water 2.5:97.5 + 2% sulfated ß-cyclodextrin) enantiomers of amphetamine and five derivatives were baseline separated within 23 min. In all, 17 cathinones were completely or partially chirally separated. However, as only 3 of 25 cathinones were baseline resolved, the application of this method is limited for cathinone analogs. Additionally, the results were compared with an RP-8e column.

  4. Nf=2 QCD chiral phase transition with Wilson fermions at zero and imaginary chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Owe; Pinke, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The order of the thermal phase transition in the chiral limit of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with two dynamical flavors of quarks is a long-standing issue and still not known in the continuum limit. Whether the transition is first or second order has important implications for the QCD phase diagram and the existence of a critical end point at finite densities. We follow a recently proposed approach to explicitly determine the region of first order chiral transitions at imaginary chemical potential, where it is large enough to be simulated, and extrapolate it to zero chemical potential with known critical exponents. Using unimproved Wilson fermions on coarse Nt=4 lattices, the first order region turns out to be so large that no extrapolation is necessary. The critical pion mass mπc≈560 MeV is by nearly a factor 10 larger than the corresponding one using staggered fermions. Our results are in line with investigations of three-flavor QCD using improved Wilson fermions and indicate that the systematic error on the two-flavor chiral transition is still of order 100%.

  5. Pulse and quench induced dynamical phase transition in a chiral multiferroic spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, M.; Sekania, M.; Mishra, S. K.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Berakdar, J.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dynamics of magnetic order in a chiral multiferroic chain is studied. We consider two different scenarios: ultrashort terahertz excitations or a sudden electric field quench. Performing analytical and numerical exact diagonalization calculations, we trace the pulse induced spin dynamics and extract quantities that are relevant to quantum information processing. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of the system chirality, the von Neumann entropy, and the pairwise and many-body entanglement. If the characteristic frequencies of the generated states are noncommensurate, then a partial loss of pair concurrence occurs. Increasing the system size, this effect becomes even more pronounced. Many-particle entanglement and chirality are robust and persist in the incommensurate phase. To analyze the dynamical quantum transitions for the quenched and pulsed dynamics we combined the Weierstrass factorization technique for entire functions and the Lanczos exact diagonalization method. For a small system we obtained analytical results including the rate function of the Loschmidt echo. Exact numerical calculations for a system up to 40 spins confirm phase transition. Quench-induced dynamical transitions have been extensively studied recently. Here we show that related dynamical transitions can be achieved and controlled by appropriate electric field pulses.

  6. The chiral phase transition in QCD critical phenomena and long wavelength pion oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, K

    1995-01-01

    In QCD with two massless quarks, the chiral phase transition is plausibly in the same universality class as the classical O(4) magnet. To test this hypothesis, critical exponents characterizing the behaviour of universal quantities near the 2nd order critical point can be calculated and compared to results from lattice simulations. Present simulations already allow many qualitative tests; quantitative tests await future simulations with longer correlation lengths. In a heavy ion collision, a long correlation length would lead to large fluctuations in the number ratio of neutral to charged pions. Unfortunately, no equilibrium correlation length gets long enough for this to occur. Modelling the dynamics of the chiral order parameter in a far from equilibrium transition by quenching in the linear sigma model suggests that long wavelength modes of the pion field can be amplified. This could have dramatic phenomenological consequences. Theoretical advances include attempts to relax the quench approximation and to ...

  7. The effect of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szép Zs.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Polyakov loop is included in the S U(2L × S U(2R chiral quark-meson model by considering the propagation of the constituent quarks, coupled to the (σ, π meson multiplet, on the homogeneous background of a temporal gauge field, diagonal in color space. The model is solved at finite temperature and quark baryon chemical potential both in the chiral limit and for the physical value of the pion mass by using an expansion in the number of flavors Nf. Keeping the fermion propagator at its tree-level, a resummation on the pion propagator is constructed which resums infinitely many orders in 1/Nf, where O(1/Nf represents the order at which the fermions start to contribute in the pion propagator. The influence of the Polyakov loop on the tricritical or the critical point in the µq – T phase diagram is studied for various forms of the Polyakov loop potential.

  8. The effect of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, G.; Szép, Zs.

    2011-04-01

    The Polyakov loop is included in the S U(2)L × S U(2)R chiral quark-meson model by considering the propagation of the constituent quarks, coupled to the (σ, π) meson multiplet, on the homogeneous background of a temporal gauge field, diagonal in color space. The model is solved at finite temperature and quark baryon chemical potential both in the chiral limit and for the physical value of the pion mass by using an expansion in the number of flavors Nf. Keeping the fermion propagator at its tree-level, a resummation on the pion propagator is constructed which resums infinitely many orders in 1/Nf, where O(1/Nf) represents the order at which the fermions start to contribute in the pion propagator. The influence of the Polyakov loop on the tricritical or the critical point in the µq - T phase diagram is studied for various forms of the Polyakov loop potential.

  9. Engineering Cyclodextrin Clicked Chiral Stationary Phase for High-Efficiency Enantiomer Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Zhang, Shapopeng; Lin, Yuzhou; Zhou, Jie; Pang, Limin; Nie, Xuemei; Zhou, Baojing; Tang, Weihua

    2015-08-01

    The separation of racemic molecules is of crucial significance not only for fundamental research but also for technical application. Enantiomers remain challenging to be separated owing to their identical physical and chemical properties in achiral environments. Chromatographic techniques employing chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been developed as powerful tools for the chiral analysis and preparation of pure enantiomers, most of which are of biological and pharmaceutical interests. Here we report our efforts in developing high-performance phenylcarbamated cyclodextrin (CD) clicked CSPs. Insights on the impact of CD functionalities in structure design are provided. High-efficiency enantioseparation of a range of aryl alcohols and flavanoids with resolution values (Rs) over 10 were demonstrated by per(3-chloro-4-methyl)phenylcarbamated CD clicked CSP. Comparison study and molecular simulations suggest the improved enantioselectivity was attributed to higher interactions energy difference between the complexes of enantiomers and CSPs with phenylcarbamated CD bearing 3-chloro and 4-methyl functionalities.

  10. Quark Matter in a Parallel Electric and Magnetic Field Background: Equilibrated Chiral Density Effect on Chiral Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggieri, M

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for quark matter in the background of an electric-magnetic flux tube with static, homogeneous and parallel electric field $\\bm E$ and magnetic field $\\bm B$. We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a local kernel interaction to compute the relevant quantities to describe chiral symmetry breaking at finite temperature for a wide range of $E$ and $B$. We study the effect of the flux tube background on inverse catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking for $E$ and $B$ of the same order of magnitude. We then focus on the effect of equilibration of chiral density, $n_5$, produced dynamically by axial anomaly on the critical temperature. The equilibration of $n_5$, a consequence of chirality flipping processes in the thermal bath, allows for the introduction of the chiral chemical potential, $\\mu_5$, which is computed self-consistently as a function of temperature and field strength by coupling the number equation to the gap equation. We find that even if chir...

  11. A review of recent advances in mass spectrometric methods for gas-phase chiral analysis of pharmaceutical and biological compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lianming; Vogt, Frederick G

    2012-10-01

    Chirality has been of great interest in pharmaceutical and biological sciences. The capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS) for rapid analysis of complex mixtures have encouraged its exploration for gas-phase chiral differentiation. Although particular instances of successful discrimination between enantiomers have been reported over the past three decades, a general method of quantitative chiral analysis by MS has only been demonstrated recently. This review describes the current state of the chiral MS methods without chiral chromatographic separation, which fall into five main categories: (1) the kinetic method, (2) host-guest (H-G) diastereomeric adduct formation, (3) ion/molecule (equilibrium) reactions, (4) collision-induced dissociation (CID) of diastereomeric adducts, and (5) the emerging technique for gas-phase separation using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). It emphasizes tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which provides several unique analytical advantages for quantitative chiral analysis. These include intrinsically high sensitivity, molecular specificity, and tolerance to impurities as well as the simplicity and speed of the mass spectrometric measurements. Practical prospects and current challenges in quantitative chiral MS techniques for QbD (quality-by-design)-based pharmaceutical applications are also discussed. PMID:22579598

  12. Origin of the Resistive Anisotropy in the Electronic Nematic Phase of BaFe2 As2 Revealed by Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirri, C.; Dusza, A.; Bastelberger, S.; Chinotti, M.; Degiorgi, L.; Chu, J.-H.; Kuo, H.-H.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-01

    We perform, as a function of uniaxial stress, an optical-reflectivity investigation of the representative "parent" ferropnictide BaFe2 As2 in a broad spectral range, across the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition and the onset of the long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. The infrared response reveals that the dc transport anisotropy in the orthorhombic AFM state is determined by the interplay between the Drude spectral weight and the scattering rate, but that the dominant effect is clearly associated with the metallic spectral weight. In the paramagnetic tetragonal phase, though, the dc resistivity anisotropy of strained samples is almost exclusively due to stress-induced changes in the Drude weight rather than in the scattering rate, definitively establishing the anisotropy of the Fermi surface parameters as the primary effect driving the dc transport properties in the electronic nematic state.

  13. Structure of the proton skeleton of nitrobenzene, determined by /sup 1/H NMR in the nematic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhatuni, A.G.; Panosyan, G.A.; Chertkov, V.A.; Sergeev, N.M.

    1987-09-01

    As a structural method NMR spectroscopy in LC solvents in primarily intended for determination of the geometry of the proton skeleton of the molecule and makes it possible to refine the data from other structural methods by the introduction of information on the proton coordinates. The authors determined the structure of the proton skeleton of nitrobenzene in two thermotropic nematic liquid crystals. These data, together with published data, make it possible to take account of the effect of the solvent and to calculate the supposed geometry of the proton skeleton of nitrobenzene in a hypothetical solvent.

  14. Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2014-07-01

    Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study.

  15. Progress in vacuum susceptibilities and their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The QCD vacuum condensates and various vacuum susceptibilities are all important parameters which characterize the nonperturbative properties of the QCD vacuum. In the QCD sum rules external field formula, various QCD vacuum susceptibilities play important roles in determining the properties of hadrons. In this paper, we review the recent progress in studies of vacuum susceptibilities together with their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD. The results of the tensor, the vector, the axial–vector, the scalar, and the pseudo-scalar vacuum susceptibilities are shown in detail in the framework of Dyson–Schwinger equations

  16. Progress in vacuum susceptibilities and their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Zhu-Fang; Shi, Yuan-Mei; Wang, Yong-Long; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-01-01

    The QCD vacuum condensates and various vacuum susceptibilities are all important parameters which characterize the nonperturbative properties of the QCD vacuum. In the QCD sum rules external field formula, various QCD vacuum susceptibilities play important roles in determining the properties of hadrons. In this paper, we review the recent progress in studies of vacuum susceptibilities together with their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD. The results of the tensor, the vector, the axial-vector, the scalar, and the pseudo-scalar vacuum susceptibilities are shown in detail in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations.

  17. Chiral phase transition in a lattice fermion-gauge-scalar model with U(1) gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chiral phase transition induced by a charged scalar field is investigated numerically in a lattice fermion-gauge-scalar model with U(1) gauge symmetry, proposed recently as a model for dynamical fermion mass generation. For very strong gauge coupling the transition is of second order and its scaling properties are very similar to those of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. However, in the vicinity of the tricritical point at somewhat weaker coupling, where the transition changes the order, the scaling behavior is different. Therefore it is worthwhile to investigate the continuum limit of the model at this point. (orig.)

  18. Chiral phase transition in an extended linear sigma model: initial results

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Gy; Szép, Zs

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the scalar meson mass dependence on the chiral phase transition in the framework of an SU(3), (axial)vector meson extended linear sigma model with additional constituent quarks and Polyakov loops. We determine the parameters of the Lagrangian at zero temperature in a hybrid approach, where we treat the mesons at tree-level, while the constituent quarks at 1-loop level. We assume two nonzero scalar condensates and together with the Polyakov-loop variables we determine their temperature dependence according to the 1-loop level field equations.

  19. Effects of (axialvector mesons on the chiral phase transition: initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of (axialvector mesons on the chiral phase transition in the framework of an SU(3, (axialvector meson extended linear sigma model with additional constituent quarks and Polyakov loops. We determine the parameters of the Lagrangian at zero temperature in a hybrid approach, where we treat the mesons at tree-level, while the constituent quarks at 1-loop level. We assume two nonzero scalar condensates and together with the Polyakov-loop variables we determine their temperature dependence according to the 1-loop level field equations.

  20. HPLC Enantioseparation of Phenylcarbamic Acid Derivatives by Using Macrocyclic Chiral Stationary Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hroboňová Katarína

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The HPLC by using chiral stationary phases based on macrocyclic antibiotics, dimethylphenyl carbamate cyklofructan 7 and β-cyclodextrin in terms of polar-organic separation mode (mobile phase methanol/acetonitrile/acetic acid/triethylamine were used for enantioseparation of alkoxy derivatives of phenylcarbamic acid. The effect of the analyte structures on the efficiency of enantioseparation was investigated. The most suitable stationary phase was teicoplanin aglycone, where the separations of the enantiomers were obtained (the resolution value from 0.65 to 2.90, depending on the structure of the analyte. Significant effect on the resolution of the enantiomers has position of alkoxy substituent in the hydrophobic part of the molecule. The enantiorecognition was achieved for 3-alkoxysubstituted derivatives.

  1. Chiral phase transition scenarios from the vector meson extended Polyakov quark meson model

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Chiral phase transition is investigated in an $SU(3)_L \\times SU(3)_R$ symmetric vector meson extended linear sigma model with additional constituent quarks and Polyakov loops (extended Polyakov quark meson model). The parameterization of the Lagrangian is done at zero temperature in a hybrid approach, where the mesons are treated at tree-level, while the constituent quarks at 1-loop level. The temperature and baryochemical potential dependence of the two assumed scalar condensates are calculated from the hybrid 1-loop level equations of states. The order of the phase transition along the $T=0$ and $\\mu_B=0$ axes are determined for various parameterization scenarios. We find that in order to have a first order phase transition at $T=0$ as a function of $\\mu_B$ a light isoscalar particle is needed.

  2. [Preparation of 1 µm non-porous C18 silica gel stationary phase for chiral-pressurized capillary electrochromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangfang; Wang, Hui; Wang, Guiming; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Yan, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Non-porous C18 silica gel stationary phase (1 µm) was prepared and applied to chiral separation in pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) for the enantioseparation of various basic compounds. The non-porous silica particles (1 µm) were synthesized using modified St6ber method. C18 stationary phase (1 µm) was prepared by immobilization of chloro-dimethyl-octadecylsilane. Using carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) as the chiral additive, the pCEC conditions including the content of acetonitrile (ACN), concentration of buffer, pH, the concentration of chiral additive and flow rate as well as applied voltage were investigated to obtain the optimal pCEC conditions for the separation of four basic chiral compounds. The column provided an efficiency of up to 190,000 plates/m. Bupropion hydrochloride, clenbuterol hydrochloride, metoprolol tartrate, and esmolol hydrochloride were baseline separated under the conditions of 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer at pH 4. 0 with 20% (v/ v) acetonitrile, and 15 mmol/L CM-β-CD as the chiral additive. The applied voltage was 2 kV and flow rate was 0.03 mL/min with splitting ratio of 300:1. The resolution were 1.55, 2.82, 1. 69, 1. 70 for bupropion hydrochloride, clenbuterol hydrochloride, metoprolol tartrate, esmolol hydrochloride, respectively. The C18 coverage was improved by repeating silylation method. The synthesized 1 µm C18 packings have better mechanical strength and longer service life because of the special, non-porous structure. The column used in pCEC mode showed better separation of the racemates and a higher rate compared with those used in the capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) mode. This study provided an alternative way for the method of pCEC enantioseparation with chiral additives in the mobile phase and demonstrated the feasibility of micron particle stationary phase in chiral separation. PMID:26182460

  3. Deuteron and proton NMR study of D2, p-dichlorobenzene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene in bimesogenic liquid crystals with two nematic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, E. E.; Ahmed, Z.; Welch, C.; Mehl, G. H.; Dong, R. Y.

    2016-08-01

    The solutes dideuterium, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and p-dichlorobenzene (pdcb) are co-dissolved in a 61/39 wt% mixture of CBC9CB/5CB, a bimesogenic liquid crystal with two nematic phases. NMR spectra are collected for each solute. The local electric field gradient (FZZ) is obtained from the dideuterium spectrum. A double Maier-Saupe potential (MSMS) is used to rationalize the order parameters of pdcb. The liquid-crystal fields G1 and G2 are taken to be due to size and shape interactions and interactions between the solute molecular quadrupole and the mean FZZ of the medium. The FZZ 's obtained from D2 and G2 (from pdcb) are compared and discussed.

  4. Influence of Mobile Phase Composition on the Enantioseparation of Methoxyl Flavanones with Self-prepared CDMPC Column and Chiral Recognition Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The influence of different alcohol modifiers in mobile phase on the chiral separation of 4`-methoxyl flavanone, 5-methoxyl flavanone and 6-methoxyl flavanone on cellulose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CDMPC) column was studied and the chiral recognition mechanism was discussed. Using hexane-tert-butanol (1.31 mol L-1) as the mobile phase, those three methoxyl flavanones were excellently separated on CDMPC chiral column.

  5. [Separation mechanism of chiral stationary phase based on quinine and crown ether for the direct stereoselective separation of amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haixia; Wang, Dongqiang; Zhao, Jianchao; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-01-01

    A novel chiral stationary phase combining quinine and crown ether (QN-CR CSP) was developed to separate amino acid enantiomers. This CSP showed good enantioselectivity for some amino acids. Since the synergistic effect of ion exchange and complexation in chiral recognition of amino acids, a new adsorption isotherm was built. Using the method of frontal analysis by characteristic point (FACP), the adsorption isotherms of tryptophan (Trp) under different mobile phase conditions were determined and fitted the proposed adsorption isotherm model well. With the increase of the competition between metal cationic and amino to crown ether, the equilibrium constant of complexing adsorption was found increased. The chiral separation ability was decreased. The adsorption isotherm improved the understanding of the retention behavior of amino acids on QN-CR CSP, which was also benefit to optimize the structure of the stationary phase.

  6. A resolution approach of racemic phenylalanine with aqueous two-phase systems of chiral tropine ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Yao, Shun; Qian, Guofei; Yao, Tian; Song, Hang

    2015-10-30

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on tropine type chiral ionic liquids and inorganic salt solution were designed and prepared for the enantiomeric separation of racemic phenylalanine. The phase behavior of IL-based ATPS was comprehensive investigated, and phase equilibrium data were correlated by Merchuk equation. Various factors were also systematically investigated for their influence on separation efficiency. Under the appropriate conditions (0.13g/g [C8Tropine]pro, 35mg/g Cu(Ac)2, 20mg/g d,l-phenylalanine, 0.51g/g H2O and 0.30g/g K2HPO4), the enantiomeric excess value of phenylalanine in solid phase (mainly containing l-enantiomer) was 65%. Finally, the interaction mechanism was studied via 1D and 2D NMR. The results indicate that d-enantiomer of phenylalanine interacts more strongly with chiral ILs and Cu(2+) based on the chiral ion-pairs space coordination mechanism, which makes it tend to remain in the top IL-rich phase. By contrast, l-enantiomer is transferred into the solid phase. Above chiral ionic liquids aqueous two-phase systems have demonstrated obvious resolution to racemic phenylalanine and could be promising alterative resolution approach for racemic amino acids in aqueous circumstance.

  7. Chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of rotenoid racemates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatograhic (HPLC) behavior of parent rotenoids (type I) and the hydroxyl-analogues (type II) on three different chiral stationary phases (CSPs) was studied. Separations of optical isomers were achieved in various degrees depending largely upon the rotenoidal structures and the CSP types employed. Enantiomers of all but elliptone compounds were separable on β-cyclodextrin-bonded silica (CDS). Without exception, the 12a-hydroxyrotenoid antipodes were resolved on Pirkle's phenylglycine-bonded silica (PGS) despite unsuccessful attenmpts to resolve the type I rotenoidal racemates. Conversely, optical resolution of the latter rotenoids was accomplished by using a helical polytriphenylmethylacrylate-coated silica (TPS) column and the observed separation factors (α values) ranged from 1.14 to 1.90. The results from HPLC of type II rotenoids on TPS (α = 1.00–1.63) suggested that variations in E-ring structures had profound influence on the resolution outcome. Conjugated double bonds on the E-ring and the desisopropylation of the five-membered E-ring ot type II rotenoids appeared to be important structural features for chiral recognition involving the TPS substrate. In both reversed-phase (CDS) and normal-pahse (PGS and TPS) HPLC modes, the less polar enantiomers were the 6aβ,12aβ-rotenoids as observed in most cases, though this relationship was reversed in the cases of deguelin and hydroxyelliptone probably due to conformational effects of rotenoidal ring systems.

  8. Chiral phase transition at finite temperature and conformal dynamics in large Nf QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Kohtaroh

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the chiral phase transition at finite temperature (T) in colour SU(Nc=3) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with six species of fermions (Nf=6) in the fundamental representation by using lattice QCD with improved staggered fermions. By considering lattices with several temporal extensions Nt, we observe asymptotic scaling for Nt > 4. We then extract the dimensionless ratio Tc/Lambda_L (Lambda_L = Lattice Lambda-parameter) for Nf = 6 and Nf = 8, the latter relying on our earlier results. Further, we collect the critical couplings beta^c for the chiral phase transition at Nf = 0 (quenched), and Nf = 4 at a fixed Nt = 6. The results are consistent with enhanced fermionic screening at larger Nf. The Tc/Lambda_L depends very mildly on Nf in the Nf = 0 - 4 region, starts increasing at Nf = 6, and becomes significantly larger at Nf = 8, close to the edge of the conformal window. We discuss interpretations of these results as well as their possible interrelation with preconformal dynamics in the light of a f...

  9. Net baryon number fluctuations across the chiral phase transition at finite density in the strong coupling lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ichihara, Terukazu; Ohnishi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the net-baryon number fluctuations across the chiral phase transition at finite density in the strong coupling and chiral limit. Mesonic field fluctuations are taken into account by using the auxiliary field Monte-Carlo method. We find that the higher-order cumulant ratios, $S\\sigma$ and $\\kappa\\sigma^2$, show oscillatory behavior around the phase boundary at $\\mu/T\\gtrsim 0.2$, and there exists the region where the higher-order cumulant ratios are negative. The negative region of $\\kappa\\sigma^2$ is found to shrink with increasing lattice size. This behavior agrees with the expectations from the scaling analysis.

  10. Preparation and Evaluation of a Novel Cellulose Tris(N-3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) Chiral Stationary Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE,Jin; ZHAO,Liang; SHI,Yan-Ping

    2008-01-01

    A novel cellulose tris(N-3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CDMPC) chiral stationary phase (CSP) was prepared by coating CDMPC on TiO2/SiO2, which was prepared by coating titania nanoparticles on silica through a self-assemble technique. At first, 2-hydroxyl-phenyl acetonitrile and α-phenylethanol were separated on this new CSP to evaluate the chiral separation ability. Then, two pesticides, matalaxyl and diclofop-methyl were separated.The influence of the mobile phase composition on the enantioselectivity was discussed, and the repeatability and stability of the CSP were studied too.

  11. Consequences of simultaneous chiral symmetry breaking and deconfinement for the isospin symmetric phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Kl\\"ahn and Fischer (2015) (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D$\\chi$SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium.

  12. Kagome Chiral Spin Liquid as a Gauged U (1 ) Symmetry Protected Topological Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin-Chen; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank; Moessner, R.

    2015-12-01

    While the existence of a chiral spin liquid (CSL) on a class of spin-1 /2 kagome antiferromagnets is by now well established numerically, a controlled theoretical path from the lattice model leading to a low-energy topological field theory is still lacking. This we provide via an explicit construction starting from reformulating a microscopic model for a CSL as a lattice gauge theory and deriving the low-energy form of its continuum limit. A crucial ingredient is the realization that the bosonic spinons of the gauge theory exhibit a U (1 ) symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase, which upon promoting its U (1 ) global symmetry to a local gauge structure ("gauging"), yields the CSL. We suggest that such an explicit lattice-based construction involving gauging of a SPT phase can be applied more generally to understand topological spin liquids.

  13. Effect of vacuum polarization in system of two three-phase chiral bags

    CERN Document Server

    Malakhov, I Y

    2002-01-01

    The self-consistent solutions describing the system of two interacting bags are obtained for the model of the three-phase chiral quark bags in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. Special attention thereby is paid to studying the role of the fermions vacuum polarization inside the bags in the system dynamics and the boson field connecting (interpolating) the bags is accounted for only at the single-boson exchange level. The renormalized complete energy of the system is studied as the function of the parameters characterizing the geometry of the problem and the bags additional characteristics originating in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. It is shown that the vacuum polarization in the system of two three-phase bags leads to origination of strong nonlinear interaction at small distances whereby in dependence on the bags characteristics this may be both repulsion and attraction

  14. Many flavor approach to study the nature of chiral phase transition of two-flavor QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Norikazu; Iwami, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    We perform lattice numerical simulations to study the phase transition of QCD at finite temperature to clarify the nature of the transition of massless two flavor QCD. We investigate QCD with two light and Nf heavy quarks instead of two-flavor QCD, and focus on the light quark mass dependence of the critical heavy mass, below which the transition is of first order. The heavy quarks are incorporated into two flavor configurations in the form of the hopping parameter expansion through the reweighting technique. The nature of the transition is identified by the shape of the constraint effective potential at the critical temperature. Our result indicates that the critical heavy mass remains finite in the chiral limit of the two flavors, suggesting the phase transition of massless two-flavor QCD is of second order.

  15. Preparation of new hybrid organic/inorganic polymeric chiral stationary phases for ligand-exchange chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three new hybrid organic/inorganic polymeric ligand-exchange chiral stationary phases were developed by radical chain transfer reaction and surface grafting on silica gel, and successfully used for the enantioseparations of DL-amino acids and DL-hydroxyl acids. The resolutions were achieved by using water containing 2.0 × 10-4 mol/L of CuAc2 as a mobile phase, column temperature of 40 ℃, flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at UV 254 mn. The elution order of D-isomer before L-isomer was observed for all DL-amino acids resolved except DL-Pro.

  16. Topology in the SU(Nf) chiral symmetry restored phase of unquenched QCD and axion cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azcoiti, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the topological properties of unquenched QCD on the basis of numerical results of simulations at fixed topological charge, recently reported by Borsanyi et al., and analytical predictions of the dilute instanton gas approximation. We demonstrate that the mean value of the chiral condensate at fixed topological charge is, in both cases, inconsistent with the analytical prediction of the large volume expansion around the saddle point, and argue that the most plausible explanation for the failure of the saddle point expansion is a vacuum energy density theta-independent at high temperatures, but surprisingly not too high (T\\sim 2T_c), a result which would imply a vanishing topological susceptibility, and the absence of all physical effects of the U(1) axial anomaly at these temperatures. We also show that under a general assumption concerning the high temperature phase of QCD, where the SU(Nf)_A symmetry is restored, the analytical prediction for the chiral condensate at fixed topological charge i...

  17. Correlation between hydrophobic and molecular shape descriptors and retention data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reversed-phase chromatography on non-liquid-crystalline, nematic, and smectic stationary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritti, F. [E.N.S.C.P.B. Universite Bordeaux, Pessac (France); C.R.P.P., CNRS, Universite Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Sourigues, S.; Felix, G. [E.N.S.C.P.B. Universite Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Achard, M.F.; Hardouin, F. [C.R.P.P., CNRS, Universite Bordeaux, Pessac (France)

    2002-07-01

    The local anisotropic ordering of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymer (SCLCP) stationary phases has been revealed statistically. For this purpose the RP HPLC separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on silica coated with three classes (non-liquid-crystalline, nematic, and smectic) of side-chain polymer (SCP) has been compared. The logarithm of the capacity factor (log k) was correlated with three PAH descriptors - the connectivity index ({chi}) or the hydrophobic fragmental constant (log P), the length-to-breadth ratio (L/B), and a non-planarity term (N{sub p}). Statistical results revealed good correlation between the model and experimental data, enabling the different stationary phases to be compared. Recognition of solute size seems similar for each class of polymer but solute non-planarity recognition grows continuously as ordering of the liquid-crystal polymer increases. Recognition of solute lengthening is non-existent for non-liquid-crystalline polymers and suddenly appears with liquid crystalline polymers. Shape recognition is better for smectic than for nematic SCP. The predictive ability of this model was tested on highly condensed aromatic compounds. The connectivity index {chi} did not seem appropriate for such systems. Its replacement by Rekker's hydrophobic fragmental constant, log P, was necessary for fitting the retention of these solutes on liquid-crystalline stationary phases. (orig.)

  18. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous silicas modified with chiral selectors as stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Sierra, Isabel

    2014-01-15

    New hybrid materials were prepared as novel chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pure mesoporous silica (SM) and ethylene-bridged periodic mesostructured organosilica (PMO) were functionalized, by a post-synthesis method, with derivates of erythromycin and vancomycin. N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, XRD, FT-IR, MAS NMR, SEM, TEM and elemental analysis were used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of these mesostructured materials, before and after the modification process. The synthesized particles had non-symmetrical 3-D wormhole-like mesostructure, spherical morphology, and a mean pore diameter between 53 and 59 Å. CSPs prepared were tested for the separation of four chiral β-blockers (atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol and propranolol) in normal phase (NP) and polar organic phase (PO) elution modes. Much stronger chiral interaction was observed in vancomycin-modified silicas. Results obtained in these preliminary studies will permit in future works to improve the synthesis route in order to design mesoporous materials with better performance as a chiral stationary phase for HPLC. PMID:24231079

  19. Improved Procedure for Preparation of Covalently Bonded Cellulose Tris-phenylcarbamate Chiral Stationary Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦峰; 陈小明; 刘月启; 邹汉法; 王俊德

    2005-01-01

    The classical method for preparation of covalently boned cellulose derivative chiral stationary phases (CSP) with diisocyanate as spacer was improved. Diisocyanate was firstly allowed to react with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and the resulting product was then applied as the spacer reagent to immobilize cellulose derivatives onto silica gel. Influences of the amount and the length of the spacer on the optical resolution ability of the CSP were investigated. Comparing improved procedure to classical diisocyanate method, the cross-linking between the glucose units of the cellulose derivatives was avoided to the most extent. With the improved procedure, regio-nonselective ways could be adooted to prepare covalently bonded CSP, which showed an advantage for the rapid preparation.

  20. Chiral phase transition in the vector meson extended linear sigma model

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, Péter; Wolf, György

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of an SU(3) (axial)vector meson extended linear sigma model with additional constituent quarks and Polyakov loops, we investigate the effects of (axial)vector mesons on the chiral phase transition. The parameters of the Lagrangian are set at zero temperature and we use a hybrid approach where in the effective potential the constituent quarks are treated at one-loop level and all the mesons at tree-level. We have four order parameters, two scalar condensates and two Polyakov loop variables and their temperature and baryochemical potential dependence are determined from the corresponding field equations. We also investigate the changes of the tree-level scalar meson masses in the hot and dense medium.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Liquid Crystals: Nematic Droplets and Coarsening Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behabtu, Natnael; Senyuk, Bohdan; Smalyukh, Ivan; Pasquali, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    On a fundamental basis, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a new model molecule to explore the dynamics and phases of rigid rods and test theories. Their large aspect ratio (100 to 100,000) and persistence length (˜ 100 microns) allow exploring the physics of nematic phases with high Frank elastic constant. Moreover, understanding of CNT liquid crystals is key to their rational processing into ordered materials such as fibers. Here we report the formation of elongated nematic droplets of CNTs in chlorosulfonic acid. In nematic droplets, a continuous transition from a homogeneous to bipolar nematic director field is expected theoretically, as a function of droplet volume; yet, experimental determination of such transition has been elusive. We show that CNT nematic droplets display such transition. We study the coarsening dynamics of positive and negative nematic droplets and observe that two or more droplets merge by matching their nematic director. Merging scenarios that lead to defect formation are not observed. Negative tactoids (isotropic phase in liquid crystalline continuum) merge through attractive forces induced by the nematic director distortion with quadrupolar symmetry.

  2. Enantioselective and diastereoselective separation of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides on a novel chiral stationary phase by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xulin; Hou, Shicong; Wang, Min

    2007-07-01

    A novel chiral packing material for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was prepared by connecting (R)-1-phenyl-2-(4-methylphenyl) ethylamine (PTE) amide derivative of (S)-isoleucine to aminopropyl silica gel through 2-amino-3,5-dinitro-1-carboxamido-benzene unit. This chiral stationary phase was applied to the enantioselective and diastereoselective separation of five pyrethroid insecticides by HPLC under normal phase condition. To achieve satisfactory baseline separation an optimization of the variables of mobile phase composition was required. The two enantiomers of fenpropathrin and four stereoisomers of fenvalerate were baseline separated using hexane-1,2-dichloroethane-2-propanol as mobile phase. The results show that the enantioselectivity of CSP is better than Pirkle type 1-A column for these compounds. Only partial separations for the cypermethrin and cyfluthrin stereoisomers were observed. Seven peaks and eight peaks were observed for cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, respectively. The elution orders were assigned by using different stereoisomer-enriched products.

  3. Brownian motion of particles in nematic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuxia; Nayani, Karthik; Park, Jung; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2011-03-01

    We studied the brownian motion of both charged and neutral polystyrene particles in two nematic fluids, a thermotropic liquid crystal, E7, and a lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal, Sunset Yellow FCF (SSY). Homogeneous planar alignment of E7 was easliy achieved by using rubbed polyimide film coated on the glass. For SSY planar mondomain, we used the capillary method recently developed in our lab. By tracking a single particle, the direction dependent diffussion coefficients and Stokes drag were measured in the nematic phase and isotropic phase for both systems.

  4. Quinine-Based Zwitterionic Chiral Stationary Phase as a Complementary Tool for Peptide Analysis: Mobile Phase Effects on Enantio- and Stereoselectivity of Underivatized Oligopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Federica; Sardella, Roccaldo; Carotti, Andrea; Natalini, Benedetto; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Peptide stereoisomer analysis is of importance for quality control of therapeutic peptides, the analysis of stereochemical integrity of bioactive peptides in food, and the elucidation of the stereochemistry of peptides from a natural chiral pool which often contains one or more D-amino acid residues. In this work, a series of model peptide stereoisomers (enantiomers and diastereomers) were analyzed on a zwitterionic ion-exchanger chiral stationary phase (Chiralpak ZWIX(+) 5 µm), in order to investigate the retention and separation performance for such compounds on this chiral stationary phase and elucidate its utility for this purpose. The goal of the study focused on 1) investigations of the effects of the sample matrix used to dissolve the peptide samples; 2) optimization of the mobile phase (enabling deriving information on factors of relevance for retention and separation); and 3) derivation of structure-selectivity relationships. It turned out that small di- and tripeptides can be well resolved under optimized conditions, typically with resolutions larger than 1.5. The optimized mobile phase often consisted of methanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (49:49:2; v/v/v) with 25 mM formic acid and 12.5 mM diethylamine. This work proposes some guidance on which mobile phases can be most efficiently used for peptide stereoisomer separations on Chiralpak ZWIX. Chirality 28:5-16, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Understanding the twist-bend nematic phase: the characterisation of 1-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yloxy)-6-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl)hexane (CB6OCB) and comparison with CB7CB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Daniel A; Gao, Min; Kim, Young-Ki; Jamali, Afsoon; Finley, Kirsten L; Robles-Hernández, Beatriz; Diez-Berart, Sergio; Salud, Josep; de la Fuente, M Rosario; Timimi, Bakir A; Zimmermann, Herbert; Greco, Cristina; Ferrarini, Alberta; Storey, John M D; López, David O; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Luckhurst, Geoffrey R; Imrie, Corrie T

    2016-08-10

    The synthesis and characterisation of the nonsymmetric liquid crystal dimer, 1-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yloxy)-6-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl)hexane (CB6OCB) is reported. An enantiotropic nematic (N)-twist-bend nematic (NTB) phase transition is observed at 109 °C and a nematic-isotropic phase transition at 153 °C. The NTB phase assignment has been confirmed using polarised light microscopy, freeze fracture transmission electron microscopy (FFTEM), (2)H-NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The effective molecular length in both the NTB and N phases indicates a locally intercalated arrangement of the molecules, and the helicoidal pitch length in the NTB phase is estimated to be 8.9 nm. The surface anchoring properties of CB6OCB on a number of aligning layers is reported. A Landau model is applied to describe high-resolution heat capacity measurements in the vicinity of the NTB-N phase transition. Both the theory and heat capacity measurements agree with a very weak first-order phase transition. A complementary extended molecular field theory was found to be in suggestive accord with the (2)H-NMR studies of CB6OCB-d2, and those already known for CB7CB-d4. These include the reduced transition temperature, TNTBN/TNI, the order parameter of the mesogenic arms in the N phase close to the NTB-N transition, and the order parameter with respect to the helix axis which is related to the conical angle for the NTB phase. PMID:27447288

  6. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of eight drugs collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 on amylose ramification chiral stationary phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The enantiomers separation of eight pharmaceutical racemates collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 (Ch.P2010, including nitrendipine, felodipine, omeprazole, praziquantel, sulpiride, clenbuterol hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and chlorphenamine maleate, was performed on chiral stationary phase of amylose ramification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on Chiralpak AD-H column and Chiralpak AS-H column with the mobile phase consisted of isopropanol and n-hexane. The detection wavelength and the flow rate were set at 254 nm and 0.7 mL/min, respectively. The effects of proportion of organic additives, alcohol displacer and temperature on the separation were investigated. The results indicated that eight chiral drugs were separated on chiral stationary phase of amylase ramification in normal phase chromatographic system. The chromatographic retention and resolution of enantiomers were adjusted by factors, including the changes of the concentration of alcohol displacer in mobile phase, organic alkaline modifier and column temperature. It was shown that the resolution was improved with reducing concentration of alcohol displacer. When the concentration of organic alkaline modifier was 0.2%, the resolution and the peak shape were fairly good. Most racemates mentioned above had the best resolution at column temperature of 25 °C. The best temperature should be kept unchanged in the process of separation so as to obtain stable separation results.

  7. Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David

    Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.

  8. Isotropic-nematic transition and dynamics of rigid charged molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatrantos, Argyrios

    2016-03-01

    Using molecular dynamics, an isotropic-nematic transition was found in bulk salt-free solutions of charged rods with their counterions in the semidilute regime. This phase transition is driven primarily by electrostatics, rather than by excluded volume. The counterion condensation effect, which is controlled by the Manning parameter, leads to liquid crystalline phases of rods. For elevated values of the Manning parameter, an attraction is obtained between the rods, and the nematic phase appears. For small values of the Manning parameter the counterions de-condense, and the nematic phase disappears. Instead, in a neutral system of rods and spheres there is no appearance of nematic phase. The diffusivity of both rods and counterions is reduced with the Manning parameter.

  9. Molecular engineering of discotic nematic liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2003-08-01

    Connecting two columnar phase forming discotic mesogens via a short rigid spacer leads to the formation of a -conjugated discotic dimer showing discotic nematic (D) phase. Attaching branched-alkyl chains directly to the core in hexaalkynylbenzene resulted in the stabilisation of D phase at ambient temperature. Pentalkynylbenzene derivatives possessing a combination of normal-and branched-alkoxy chains display a very broad D phase which is stable well below and above the room temperature.

  10. Application of cyanuric chloride-based six new chiral derivatizing reagents having amino acids and amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries for enantioresolution of proteinogenic amino acids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Ravi; Dixit, Shuchi

    2012-04-01

    Six dichloro-s-triazine (DCT) reagents having L-Leu, D-Phg, L-Val, L-Met, L-Ala and L-Met-NH(2) as chiral auxiliaries in cyanuric chloride were introduced for enantioseparation of 13 proteinogenic amino acids. Four other DCTs and six monochloro-s-triazine (MCT) reagents having amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries were also synthesized. These 16 chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs) were used for synthesis of diastereomers of all the 13 analytes using microwave irradiation, which were resolved by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using C18 column and gradient eluting mixture of aqueous TFA and acetonitrile with UV detection at 230 nm. It required only 60-90 s for derivatization using microwave irradiation. Better resolution and lower retention times were observed for the diastereomers prepared with CDRs having amino acids as chiral auxiliaries as compared to counterparts prepared with reagents having amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries. As the best resolution of all the 13 analytes was observed for their diastereomers prepared using the DCT reagent having L-Leu as chiral auxiliary, this CDR was further employed for derivatization of Lys, Tyr, His and Arg followed by RP-HPLC analysis of resulting diastereomers. The results are discussed in light of acid and amide groups of chiral auxiliaries constituting CDRs, electronegativities of the atoms of achiral moieties constituting CDRs and hydrophobicities of side chains of amino acids constituting CDRs and analytes.

  11. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

  12. Enantiomeric separation of volatile organics by gas chromatography for the in situ analysis of extraterrestrial materials: kinetics and thermodynamics investigation of various chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freissinet, C; Buch, A; Szopa, C; Sternberg, R

    2013-09-01

    The performances of several commercial chiral capillary columns have been evaluated with the aim of determining the one most suitable for enantiomeric separation in a gas chromatograph onboard a space probe. We compared the GC-MS response of three capillary columns coated with different chiral stationary phases (CSP) using volatile chiral organic molecules which are potential markers of a prebiotic organic chemistry. The three different chiral capillary columns are Chirasil-Val, with an amino acid derivative CSP, ChiralDex-β-PM, with a CSP composed of dissolved permethylated β-cyclodextrins in polysiloxane, and Chirasil-Dex, with a CSP made of modified cyclodextrins chemically bonded to the polysiloxane backbone. Both kinetics and thermodynamics studies have been carried out to evaluate the chiral recognition potential in these different types of columns. The thermodynamic parameters also allow a better understanding of the driving forces affecting the retention and separation of the enantiomers. The Chirasil-Dex-CSP displays the best characteristics for an optimal resolution of the chiral compounds, without preliminary derivatization. This CSP had been chosen to be the only chiral column in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the current Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, and is also part of the Mars Organic Molecules Analyzer (MOMA) gas chromatograph onboard the next Martian mission ExoMars. The use of this column could also be extended to all space missions aimed at studying chirality in space.

  13. Enantiomer Separation of α-Dimethyl Dicarboxylate Biphenyl and Related Biphenyl Compounds by Normal Phase HPLC on Polysaccharide Based Chiral Stationary Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Yue-Qi(刘月启); HAN,Xiao-Qian(韩小茜); Qi,Bang-Feng(齐邦峰); LIU,Chun-Hui(柳春辉); LI,Yong-Min(李永民); CHEN,Li-Ren(陈立仁)

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose tris(4-methylphenylcarbamate), amylose tris(3,5-dimethylpphenylcarbamate) and amylose tris (phenylcarbamate)were prepared by the method reported by Okamoto and were coated onto an aminopropylated mesoporous spherical silica gel. These final products were used as chiral stationary phases of high performance liquid chromatography for the eighteen structurally related biphenyl conmpounds. The resolution was made using normal-phase methodology with a mobile phase consisting of n-hexane-alcohol (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol or 1-butanol). The effects of various aliphatic alcohols in the mobile phase were studied. The structural features of the solutes that influence their k'were discussed. A dominant effect of trifluoroaetic acid on chiral separation of aacidicdic solutes was noted.

  14. Theory of solvation in polar nematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapko, V; Kapko, Vitaly; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a linear response theory of solvation of ionic and dipolar solutes in anisotropic, axially symmetric polar solvents. The theory is applied to solvation in polar nematic liquid crystals. The formal theory constructs the solvation response function from projections of the solvent dipolar susceptibility on rotational invariants. These projections are obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of a fluid of dipolar spherocylinders which can exist both in the isotropic and nematic phase. Based on the properties of the solvent susceptibility from simulations and the formal solution, we have obtained a formula for the solvation free energy which incorporates experimentally available properties of nematics and the length of correlation between the dipoles in the liquid crystal. Illustrative calculations are presented for the Stokes shift and Stokes shift correlation function of coumarin-153 in 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) and 4,4-n-heptyl-cyanopiphenyl (7CB) solvents as a function of temperature in both th...

  15. Evidence for a jacketed nematic polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, F.; Mery, S.; Achard, M.; Noirez, L.; Keller, P.

    1991-01-01

    The evidence for a “jacketed” structure at the scale of the chain dimensions in the nematic phase of a “side-on fixed” liquid crystal polysiloxane is reported by using small angle neutron scattering. We relate this anisotropy of chain conformation to the first measurements of the rotational viscosity coefficient in this new type of liquid crystal side-chain polymer.

  16. Separation mechanism of chiral impurities, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, found in amphetamine-type substances using achiral modifiers in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, Howard K; Jamal, Adeel; Mebel, Alexander; Almirall, José R

    2012-11-01

    A new mechanism is proposed that describes the gas-phase separation of chiral molecules found in amphetamine-type substances (ATS) by the use of high-resolution ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Straight-chain achiral alcohols of increasing carbon chain length, from methanol to n-octanol, are used as drift gas modifiers in IMS to highlight the mechanism proposed for gas-phase separations of these chiral molecules. The results suggest the possibility of using these achiral modifiers to separate the chiral molecules (R,S) and (S,R)-ephedrine and (S,S) and (R,R)-pseudoephedrine which contain an internal hydroxyl group at the first chiral center and an amino group at the other chiral center. Ionization was achieved with an electrospray source, the ions were introduced into an IMS with a resolving power of 80, and the resulting ion clusters were characterized with a coupled quadrupole mass spectrometer detector. A complementary computational study conducted at the density functional B3LYP/6-31g level of theory for the electronic structure of the analyte-modifier clusters was also performed, and showed either "bridged" or "independent" binding. The combined experimental and simulation data support the proposed mechanism for gas-phase chiral separations using achiral modifiers in the gas phase, thus enhancing the potential to conduct fast chiral separations with relative ease and efficiency.

  17. Helicity-selective phase-matching and quasi-phase matching of circularly polarized high-order harmonics: towards chiral attosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfir, Ofer; Grychtol, Patrik; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Fleischer, Avner; Bordo, Eliyahu; Fan, Tingting; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren

    2016-06-01

    Phase matching of circularly polarized high-order harmonics driven by counter-rotating bi-chromatic lasers was recently predicted theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. In that work, phase matching was analyzed by assuming that the total energy, spin angular momentum and linear momentum of the photons participating in the process are conserved. Here we propose a new perspective on phase matching of circularly polarized high harmonics. We derive an extended phase matching condition by requiring a new propagation matching condition between the classical vectorial bi-chromatic laser pump and harmonics fields. This allows us to include the influence of the laser pulse envelopes on phase matching. We find that the helicity dependent phase matching facilitates generation of high harmonics beams with a high degree of chirality. Indeed, we present an experimentally measured chiral spectrum that can support a train of attosecond pulses with a high degree of circular polarization. Moreover, while the degree of circularity of the most intense pulse approaches unity, all other pulses exhibit reduced circularity. This feature suggests the possibility of using a train of attosecond pulses as an isolated attosecond probe for chiral-sensitive experiments.

  18. Chiral phase transitions in the linear sigma model in the Tsallis nonextensive statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masamichi

    2016-01-01

    We studied chiral phase transitions in the Tsallis nonextensive statistics which has two parameters, the temperature $T$ and entropic parameter $q$. The linear sigma model was used in this study. The critical temperature, condensate, masses, and energy density were calculated under the massless free particle approximation. The critical temperature decreases as $q$ increases. The condensate at $q>1$ is smaller than that at $q=1$. The sigma mass at $q>1$ is heavier than the mass at $q=1$ at high temperature, while the sigma mass at $q>1$ is lighter than the mass at $q=1$ at low temperature. The pion mass at $q>1$ is heavier than the mass at $q=1$. The energy density increases remarkably as $q$ increases. The $q$ dependence in the case of the $q$-expectation value is weaker than that in the case of the conventional expectation value with a Tsallis distribution. The parameter $q$ should be smaller than $4/3$ from energetic point of view. The validity of the Tsallis statistics can be determined by the difference i...

  19. Global Currents, Phase Transitions, and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Large N_c Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Albash, T; Johnson, C V; Kundu, A; Albash, Tameem; Filev, Veselin; Johnson, Clifford V.; Kundu, Arnab

    2006-01-01

    We study the finite temperature dynamics of SU(N_c) gauge theory for large N_c, with fundamental quark flavours in a quenched approximation, in the presence of a fixed charge under a global current. We observe several notable phenomena. There is a first order phase transition where the quark condensate jumps discontinuously at finite quark mass, generalizing similar transitions seen at zero charge. We find a non-zero condensate at zero quark mass above a critical value of the charge, corresponding to an analogue of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at finite number density. We find that the spectrum of mesons contains the expected associated Goldstone (``pion'') degrees of freedom with a mass dependence on the quark mass that is consistent with the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation. Our tool in these studies is holography, the string dual of the gauge theory being the geometry of $N_c$ spinning D3-branes at finite temperature, probed by a D7-brane.

  20. Synthetic-gauge-field stabilization of the chiral-spin-liquid phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Rey, Ana Maria; Hermele, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We explore the phase diagram of the SU (N ) Hubbard models describing fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms in a square optical lattice with, on average, one atom per site, using a slave rotor mean-field approach. We find that the chiral spin liquid (CSL) predicted for N ≥5 and large interactions passes through a fractionalized state with a spinon Fermi surface as interactions are decreased before transitioning to a weakly interacting metal. We show that by adding a uniform artificial gauge field with 2 π /N flux per plaquette, the CSL becomes the ground state for all N ≥3 at intermediate interactions, persists to weaker interactions, and exhibits a larger spin gap. For N ≥5 we find the CSL is the ground state everywhere the system is a Mott insulator. The gauge field stabilization of the CSL at lower interactions, and thus at weaker lattice depths, together with the increased spin gap, can relax the temperature constraints required for its experimental realization in ultracold atom systems.

  1. Mirror Symmetry Breaking by Chirality Synchronisation in Liquids and Liquid Crystals of Achiral Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschierske, Carsten; Ungar, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking is an efficient way to obtain homogeneously chiral agents, pharmaceutical ingredients and materials. It is also in the focus of the discussion around the emergence of uniform chirality in biological systems. Tremendous progress has been made by symmetry breaking during crystallisation from supercooled melts or supersaturates solutions and by self-assembly on solid surfaces and in other highly ordered structures. However, recent observations of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in liquids and liquid crystals indicate that it is not limited to the well-ordered solid state. Herein, progress in the understanding of a new dynamic mode of symmetry breaking, based on chirality synchronisation of transiently chiral molecules in isotropic liquids and in bicontinuous cubic, columnar, smectic and nematic liquid crystalline phases is discussed. This process leads to spontaneous deracemisation in the liquid state under thermodynamic control, giving rise to long-term stable symmetry-broken fluids, even at high temperatures. These fluids form conglomerates that are capable of extraordinary strong chirality amplification, eventually leading to homochirality and providing a new view on the discussion of emergence of uniform chirality in prebiotic systems. PMID:26416335

  2. Direct enantioseparation of underivatized aliphatic 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids with a quinine-based zwitterionic chiral stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Federica; Pataj, Zoltán; Gross, Harald; Sardella, Roccaldo; Natalini, Benedetto; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2014-10-10

    While aliphatic 2-hydroxyalkanoic acids have been more or less successfully enantioseparated with various chiral stationary phases by HPLC and GC, analogous applications on underivatized aliphatic 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids are completely absent in the scientific literature. With the aim of closing this gap, the enantioseparation of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 3-hydroxydecanoic acid and 3-hydroxymyristic acid has been performed with two ion-exchange type chiral stationary phases (CSPs): one containing the anion-exchange type tert-butyl carbamoyl quinine chiral selector motif (Chiralpak QN-AX), and the other carrying the new zwitterionic variant based on trans-(S,S)-2-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid-derivatized quinine carbamate (Chiralpak ZWIX(+)) as the chiral selector and enantiodiscriminating element, respectively. The zwitterionic enantiorecognition material provided better results in terms of enantioselectivity and resolution compared to the anion-exchanger CSP at reduced retention times due to the intramolecular counterion effect imposed by the sulfonic acid moiety and its competition with the 3-hydroxyalkanoic acid analyte for ionic interaction at the quininium-anion exchanger site. It is thus recommended as the CSP of first choice for enantioseparations of the class of aliphatic 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids. With use of polar organic eluent composed of ACN/MeOH/AcOH - 95/5/0.05 (v/v/v), a good compromise in terms of analysis time and enantioresolution quality was accomplished. The major experimental variables have been investigated for optimization of the resolution and allowed to derive information on the enantiorecognition mechanism. Corresponding Chiralpak ZWIX(-), based on pseudo-enantiomeric selector derived from quinidine and trans-(R,R)-2-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid with opposite configurations provided reversed enantiomer elution orders. It has further to be stressed that these separations can be obtained with mass spectrometry compatible mobile phases.

  3. Asymmetric Dimers of Chiral Azobenzene Dopants Exhibiting Unusual Helical Twisting Power upon Photoswitching in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuna; Tamaoki, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we synthesized asymmetric dimeric chiral molecules as photon-mode chiral switches for reversible tuning of self-assembled helical superstructures. The chiral switches bearing two mesogen units-cholesterol and azobenzene moieties connected through flexible alkylenedioxy bridges-were doped into nematic liquid crystals, resulting in a chiral nematic (cholesteric) phase. Under irradiation with UV light, photoisomerization of the azobenzene units led to unprecedented switching of the cholesteric pitch and helical twisting power (HTP, β), with a higher HTP found in the cis-rich state (bent-form) than in the trans-state (rod-form). We attribute this behavior to the elongated cybotactic smectic clusters disrupting the helical orientation of the molecules in the cholesteric liquid crystals; their reversible decay and reassembly was evidenced upon sequential irradiation with UV and visible light, respectively. In addition to the photoisomerization of the azobenzene units, the odd/even parity of the alkylenedioxy linkers of the dimeric dopants also had a dramatic effect on the transitions of the cybotactic smectic domains. On the basis of the large rotational reorganization of the cholesteric helix and HTP switching (Δβ/βini of up to 50%), we could control the macroscopic rotational motion of microsized glass rods upon irradiating the surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal film featuring a polygonal fingerprint texture using UV and visible light. PMID:26815738

  4. Hexatic and blue phases in a chiral liquid crystal: optical polarizing microscopy, synchrotron radiation and dielectric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase behavior, structure and molecular dynamics of a chiral liquid crystalline compound, which exhibits SmG*, SmJ*, SmF*, SmI*, SmC*, SmA*, N* and BP*, have been investigated. Observed optical textures, synchrotron radiation diffraction data and frequency dependent dielectric spectroscopic study clearly depict the temperature evolution of the different hexatic smectic phases along with cholesteric and blue phase in a single compound. In hexatic phases dielectric absorption spectra show one low frequency relaxation process, related to the phase fluctuation of the bond orientational order, and one high frequency process related to amplitude fluctuation of the bond orientational order coupled with the polarization and tilt of the molecules. Goldstone and soft mode relaxation processes are detected, respectively, in SmC* and SmA* phases. (paper)

  5. Analytical and semipreparative chiral separation of cis-itraconazole on cellulose stationary phases by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, Ondřej; Kučera, Lukáš; Bednář, Petr

    2016-07-01

    cis-Itraconazole is a chiral antifungal drug administered as a racemate. The knowledge of properties of individual cis-itraconazole stereoisomers is vital information for medicine and biosciences as different stereoisomers of cis-itraconazole may possess different affinity to certain biological pathways in the human body. For this purpose, either chiral synthesis of enantiomers or chiral separation of racemate can be used. This paper presents a two-step high-performance liquid chromatography approach for the semipreparative isolation of four stereoisomers (two enantiomeric pairs) of itraconazole using polysaccharide stationary phases and volatile organic mobile phases without additives in isocratic mode. The approach used involves the separation of the racemate into three fractions (i.e. two pure stereoisomers and one mixed fraction containing the remaining two stereoisomers) in the first run and consequent separation of the collected mixed fraction in the second one. For this purpose, combination of cellulose tris-(4-methylbenzoate) and cellulose tris-(3,5-dimehylphenylcarbamate) columns with complementary selectivity for cis-itraconazole provided full separation of all four stereoisomers (with purity of each isomer > 97%). The stereoisomers were collected, their optical rotation determined and their identity confirmed based on the results of a previously published study. Pure separated stereoisomers are subjected to further biological studies. PMID:27240968

  6. Anomalous dimension, chiral phase transition and inverse magnetic catalysis in soft-wall AdS/QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    A modified soft-wall AdS/QCD model with a z-dependent bulk scalar mass is proposed. We argue for the necessity of a modified bulk scalar mass from the quark mass anomalous dimension and carefully constrain the form of bulk mass by the corresponding UV and IR asymptotics. After fixing the form of bulk scalar mass, we calculate the mass spectra of (axial-)vector and pseudoscalar mesons, which have a good agreement with the experimental data. The behavior of chiral phase transition is also investigated, and the results are consistent with the standard scenario and lattice simulations. Finally, the issue of chiral magnetic effects is addressed. We find that the inverse magnetic catalysis emerges naturally from the modified soft-wall model, which is consistent with the recent lattice simulations.

  7. Multi-particle collision dynamics algorithm for nematic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendruk, Tyler N; Yeomans, Julia M

    2015-07-01

    Research on transport, self-assembly and defect dynamics within confined, flowing liquid crystals requires versatile and computationally efficient mesoscopic algorithms to account for fluctuating nematohydrodynamic interactions. We present a multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) based algorithm to simulate liquid-crystal hydrodynamic and director fields in two and three dimensions. The nematic-MPCD method is shown to successfully reproduce the features of a nematic liquid crystal, including a nematic-isotropic phase transition with hysteresis in 3D, defect dynamics, isotropic Frank elastic coefficients, tumbling and shear alignment regimes and boundary condition-dependent order parameter fields. PMID:26035731

  8. Structural and dynamical properties of the chiral smectic C phase of ferroelectric liquid crystals showing high spontaneous polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemine, J. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Hassan II, F.S.T. Mohammedia BP 146 (Morocco)]. E-mail: hemine1@yahoo.fr; Daoudi, A. [Laboratoire de Thermophysique de la Matiere, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59 140 Dunkerque, France. (France); Legrand, C. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Materiaux et des Composants pour l' Electronique, EA 2601, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale BP 717, Calais (France); Isaert, N. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structures des Materiaux Moleculaires, URA No 801, Universite de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); El kaaouachi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ibnou Zohr, BP 28/S 80000, Agadir (Morocco); Nguyen, H.T. [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2007-10-01

    Electro-optical and dielectric investigations of a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) exhibiting the chiral smectic C phase (SmC*) have been carried out as a function of temperature. These experimental studies have been applied to a new FLC having high spontaneous polarization and relaxation frequency. The Goldstone relaxation mode was studied from the dielectric response of FLC cells without DC bias voltage. The rotational viscosity corresponding to molecular motion in the SmC* phase was also determined from both electro-optical and dielectric measurements. An Arrhenius-type behaviour of the rotational viscosity was obtained and the corresponding activation energies were evaluated.

  9. Chiral symmetry breaking, color superconductivity and quark matter phase diagram: a variational approach 12.38.Gc

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, H

    2001-01-01

    We discuss in this note simultaneous existence of chiral symmetry breaking and color superconductivity at finite temperature and density in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type model. The methodology involves an explicit construction of a variational ground state and minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. There exist nontrivial solutions to the gap equations at finite densities with both quark-antiquark as well as diquark condensates for the 'ground' state. However, such a phase is thermodynamically unstable with the pressure being negative in this region. We also compute the equation of state, and obtain the structure of the phase diagram in the model.

  10. Surface Modification of Plate-Like Nanoparticles and Their Assembly into Nematic Organogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Bani; Raghavan, Srinivasa

    2006-03-01

    Plate-like clay nanoparticles (e.g., laponite) form gels in water at sufficiently high concentration. A remarkable feature of these gels is the appearance of birefringent textures characteristic of nematic liquid crystals. Here we report the counterpart of this phenomenon in organic solvents, i.e., the formation of nematic textures by adding organically modified clay nanoparticles into non-polar liquids such as toluene and chloroform. We present the phase diagram (isotropic/nematic phases) for these gels. The viscoleastic properties of the resulting gels are characterized by use of rheological methods. The quality of the dispersions and the birefringent textures are evaluated using optical microscopy and x-ray scattering techniques. The finding that organoclays self assemble into a nematic phase in non-polar mediums may well provide a route for in-situ formation of nematic polymer nanocomposites. We also describe preliminary efforts towards achieving nematic ordering of particles in polymers.

  11. Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...

  12. Tailoring the interfaces between nematic liquid crystal emulsions and aqueous phases via layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjipto, Elvira; Cadwell, Katie D; Quinn, John F; Johnston, Angus P R; Abbott, Nicholas L; Caruso, Frank

    2006-10-01

    We report the assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films at the interfaces of thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) droplets dispersed in an aqueous phase. Exposure of PEM-coated droplets to surfactant slowed the bipolar-to-radial ordering transition of the LCs by 2 orders of magnitude relative to naked droplets. This shows that PEMs can be used to influence the interactions of analytes with the LC cores of the droplets, allowing tuning of the LC emulsion sensing properties.

  13. Relevance of saddle-splay elasticity in complex nematic geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Žiga; Ravnik, Miha

    2016-01-28

    We demonstrate the relevance of saddle-splay elasticity in nematic liquid crystalline fluids in the context of complex surface anchoring conditions and the complex geometrical confinement. Specifically, nematic cells with patterns of surface anchoring and colloidal knots are shown as examples where saddle-splay free energy contribution can have a notable role which originates from nonhomogeneous surface anchoring and the varying surface curvature. Patterned nematic cells are shown to exhibit various (meta)stable configurations of nematic field, with relative (meta)stability depending on the saddle-splay. We show that for high enough values of saddle-splay elastic constant K24 a previously unstable conformation can be stabilised, more generally indicating that the saddle-splay can reverse or change the (meta)stability of various nematic structures affecting their phase diagrams. Furthermore, we investigate saddle-splay elasticity in the geometry of highly curved boundaries - the colloidal particle knots in nematic - where the local curvature of the particles induces complex spatial variations of the saddle-splay contributions. Finally, a nematic order parameter tensor based saddle-splay invariant is shown, which allows for the direct calculation of saddle-splay free energy from the Q-tensor, a possibility very relevant for multiple mesoscopic modelling approaches, such as Landau-de Gennes free energy modelling.

  14. The synthesis and characterization of novel brush-type chiral stationary phase based on terpenoid selector for resolution of chiral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dao-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the chiral resolution mechanism and structures of brush-type CSP, a new chiral selector 4′-carboxyl-1′-ursolic methyl ester-3β-yl-benzoate has been prepared. Then the terpenoid chiral selector was covalently linked to 3-aminopropyl silica gel. Its structure identification data are provided by 1H NMR, MS and elementary analysis. The enantiodiscriminating capability of the brush-type CSP was evaluated by static adsorption experiment with methyl mandelate, aniline derivative of mandelic acid, benzoin and ibuprofen. Experimental results demonstrated that the chiral selector has selectivity, and the enantiomers of methyl mandelate and ibuprofen could be separated on the CSP, which indicated that the novel brush-type CSP possess a bright prospects for chiral separation potentially.

  15. Diastereomeric resolution directed towards chirality determination focussing on gas-phase energetics of coordinated sodium dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanie, Osamu; Shioiri, Yuki; Ogata, Koji; Uchida, Waka; Daikoku, Shusaku; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ito, Yukishige

    2016-01-01

    Defining chiral centres is addressed by introducing a pair of chiral auxiliary groups. Ions of diastereomeric pairs of molecules could be distinguished utilising energy-resolved mass spectrometry, and the applicability of the method to a series of compounds carrying amine, carboxylic acid, alcohol, and all the amino acids was verified. The method was further strengthened by distinguishing diastereomeric ions that did not undergo fragmentation. Mass spectrometric evaluation of the dissociation process of adducted sodium cations from the diastereomeric precursors agreed with the theoretical calculations, indicating the potential usefulness of the method for the determination of absolute configurations. PMID:27040078

  16. The effect of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Szép Zs.; Markó G.

    2010-01-01

    The Polyakov loop is included in the SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R chiral quark-meson model by considering the propagation of the constituent quarks, coupled to the (sigma,pi) meson multiplet, on the homogeneous background of a temporal gauge field, diagonal in color space. The model is solved at finite temperature and quark baryon chemical potential both in the chiral limit and for the physical value of the pion mass by using an expansion in the number of flavors N_f. Keeping the fermion propagator at i...

  17. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yangfeng; He, Quan Sophia; Cai, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT) was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5.0 um). A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25°C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12 mM SBE-β-CD), methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21 : 3 : 1 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%), linearity (regression coefficients close to 1), limit of detection (0.070 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.076 µg/mL for (S)-CIT), and limit of quantitation (0.235 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.254 µg/mL for (S)-CIT). PMID:26880921

  18. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfeng Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC with sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5.0 um. A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25°C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12 mM SBE-β-CD, methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21 : 3 : 1 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%, linearity (regression coefficients close to 1, limit of detection (0.070 µg/mL for (R-CIT and 0.076 µg/mL for (S-CIT, and limit of quantitation (0.235 µg/mL for (R-CIT and 0.254 µg/mL for (S-CIT.

  19. Gas phase synthesis of non-bundled, small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes with near-armchair chiralities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, K.; Laiho, P.; Kaskela, A.; Zhu, Z.; Reynaud, O.; Houbenov, N.; Tian, Y.; Jiang, H.; Kauppinen, E. I., E-mail: esko.kauppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Susi, T. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nasibulin, A. G. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Nobel str. 3, 143026 (Russian Federation); Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Polytechniheskaya st., St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-06

    We present a floating catalyst synthesis route for individual, i.e., non-bundled, small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a narrow chiral angle distribution peaking at high chiralities near the armchair species. An ex situ spark discharge generator was used to form iron particles with geometric number mean diameters of 3–4 nm and fed into a laminar flow chemical vapour deposition reactor for the continuous synthesis of long and high-quality SWCNTs from ambient pressure carbon monoxide. The intensity ratio of G/D peaks in Raman spectra up to 48 and mean tube lengths up to 4 μm were observed. The chiral distributions, as directly determined by electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope, clustered around the (n,m) indices (7,6), (8,6), (8,7), and (9,6), with up to 70% of tubes having chiral angles over 20°. The mean diameter of SWCNTs was reduced from 1.10 to 1.04 nm by decreasing the growth temperature from 880 to 750 °C, which simultaneously increased the fraction of semiconducting tubes from 67% to 80%. Limiting the nanotube gas phase number concentration to ∼10{sup 5 }cm{sup −3} prevented nanotube bundle formation that is due to collisions induced by Brownian diffusion. Up to 80% of 500 as-deposited tubes observed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy were individual. Transparent conducting films deposited from these SWCNTs exhibited record low sheet resistances of 63 Ω/□ at 90% transparency for 550 nm light.

  20. Elastic Properties of Nematic Liquid Crystals Formed by Living and Migrating Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kemkemer, R; Kaufmann, D; Gruler, H; Kemkemer, Ralf; Kling, Dieter; Kaufmann, Dieter; Gruler, Hans

    1998-01-01

    In culture migrating and interacting amoeboid cells can form nematic liquid crystal phases. A polar nematic liquid crystal is formed if the interaction has a polar symmetry. One type of white blood cells (granulocytes) form clusters where the cells are oriented towards the center. The core of such an orientational defect (disclination) is either a granulocyte forced to be in an isotropic state or another cell type like a monocyte. An apolar nematic liquid crystal is formed if the interaction has an apolar symmetry. Different cell types like human melanocytes (=pigment cells of the skin), human fibroblasts (=connective tissue cells), human osteoblasts (=bone cells), human adipocytes (= fat cells) etc., form an apolar nematic liquid crystal. The orientational elastic energy is derived and the orientational defects (disclination) of nematic liquid crystals are investigated. The existence of half-numbered disclinations show that the nematic phase has an apolar symmetry. The density- and order parameter dependence...

  1. Application of an eremomycin-chiral stationary phase for the separation of DL-methionine using simulated moving bed technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Gedicke, K; Kuznetsov, M A; Staroverov, S M; Seidel-Morgenstern, A

    2007-08-24

    Recently a new chiral stationary phase (CSP) was introduced, based on the immobilization of the macrocyclic glycopeptide eremomycin to epoxy-activated silica. The application of this new CSP to preparative enantioseparation using simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography will be presented. MeOH-H(2)O (0.1M NaH(2)PO(4))=20/80 (v/v) was used as the mobile phase to separate the enantiomers of methionine. Successful separation was realized providing productivities around 15 g(product)/l(stat)/h for both l and d-methionine under nonlinear conditions. In such delicate continuous chromatographic separation processes, besides productivity, the long-term stability of the applied stationary phases is of importance. Column to column fluctuations were negligible and long-term stability of the preparative stationary phase was satisfactory according to the results of perturbation experiments performed before and after long-term SMB runs. PMID:17482626

  2. Herzberg Circuit and Berry's Phase in Chirality-based Coded Qubit in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Rene, Alexandre; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical proposal for the Herzberg circuit and controlled accumulation of Berry's phase in a chirality-based coded qubit in a triangular triple quantum dot molecule with one electron spin each. The qubit is encoded in the two degenerate states of a three spin complex with total spin $S=1/2$. Using a Hubbard and Heisenberg model the Herzberg circuit encircling the degeneracy point is realized by adiabatically tuning the successive on-site energies of quantum dots and tunnel cou...

  3. Enantiomeric separation of amlodipine and its two chiral impurities by nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography using a chiral stationary phase based on cellulose tris(4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditore, Roberta; Santagati, Natale A; Aturki, Zeineb; Fanali, Salvatore

    2013-09-01

    In this work, a novel polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase, cellulose tris(4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate), also called Sepapak 4 has been evaluated for the chiral separation of amlodipine (AML) and its two impurities. AML is a powerful vasodilatator drug used for the treatment of hypertension. Capillary columns of 100 μm id packed with the chiral stationary phase were used for both nano-LC and CEC experiments. The optimization of the mobile phase composed of ACN/water, (90:10, v/v) containing 15 mM ammonium borate pH 10.0 in nano-LC allowed the chiral separation of AML and the two impurities, but not in a single run. With the purpose to obtain the separation of the three pairs of enantiomers simultaneously, CEC analyses were performed in the same conditions achieving better enantioresolution and higher separation efficiencies for each compound. To fully resolve the mixture of six enantiomers, parameters such as buffer pH and concentration sample injection have been then investigated. A mixture of ACN/water (90:10, v/v) containing 5 mM ammonium borate buffer pH 9.0 enabled the complete separation of the three couples of enantiomers in less than 30 min. The optimized CEC method was therefore validated and applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation declared to contain only AML racemate. PMID:23775281

  4. The synthesis and characterization of novel brush-type chiral stationary phase based on terpenoid selector for resolution of chiral drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Dao-Cai; Luo Jia; Yao Shun; Song Hang

    2016-01-01

    In the light of the chiral resolution mechanism and structures of brush-type CSP, a new chiral selector 4′-carboxyl-1′-ursolic methyl ester-3β-yl-benzoate has been prepared. Then the terpenoid chiral selector was covalently linked to 3-aminopropyl silica gel. Its structure identification data are provided by 1H NMR, MS and elementary analysis. The enantiodiscriminating capability of the brush-type CSP was evaluated by static adsorption experiment with methyl mandelate, aniline derivative of m...

  5. Asymmetric fluorination of α-branched cyclohexanones enabled by a combination of chiral anion phase-transfer catalysis and enamine catalysis using protected amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Phipps, Robert J; Toste, F Dean

    2014-04-01

    We report a study involving the successful merger of two separate chiral catalytic cycles: a chiral anion phase-transfer catalysis cycle to activate Selectfluor and an enamine activation cycle, using a protected amino acid as organocatalyst. We have demonstrated the viability of this approach with the direct asymmetric fluorination of α-substituted cyclohexanones to generate quaternary fluorine-containing stereocenters. With these two chiral catalytic cycles operating together in a matched sense, high enantioselectivites can be achieved, and we envisage that this dual catalysis method has the potential to be more broadly applicable, given the breadth of enamine catalysis. It also represents a rare example of chiral enamine catalysis operating successfully on α-branched ketones, substrates commonly inert to this activation mode.

  6. Strong-coupling approach to nematicity in the cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Peter Philipp; Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Schmalian, Joerg; Fernandes, Rafael

    The underdoped cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ is known to exhibit an electronic nematic phase in proximity to antiferromagnetism. While nematicity sets in at large temperatures of T ~ 150 K, static spin density wave order only emerges at much lower temperatures. The magnetic response shows a strong in-plane anisotropy, displaying incommensurate Bragg peaks along one of the crystalline directions and a commensurate peak along the other one. Such an anisotropy persists even in the absence of long-range magnetic order at higher temperatures, marking the onset of nematic order. Here we theoretically investigate this situation using a strong-coupling method that takes into account both the localized Cu spins and the holes doped into the oxygen orbitals. We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian and show that charge fluctuations promote an enhancement of the nematic susceptibility near the antiferromagnetic transition temperature.

  7. Impact of the nature and composition of the mobile phase on the mass transfer mechanism in chiral reversed phase liquid chromatography. Application to the minimization of the solvent cost in chiral separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-01-31

    The mechanism of mass transfer was studied on a cellulose-based chiral stationary phase (CSP, Lux Cellulose-1) using aqueous mixtures of acetonitrile (50/50-90/10, v/v) or methanol (90/10 and 100/0, v/v) as the mobile phase. An experimental protocol validated in RPLC and HILIC chromatography and recently extended to chiral RPLC was applied. The five mass-transfer contributions (longitudinal diffusion, short-range and long-range eddy dispersion, solid-liquid mass transfer resistances due to finite intra-particle diffusivity and slow adsorption-desorption) to the reduced height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) were measured. The experimental results show that the adsorption rate constants kads of trans-stilbene enantiomers onto the CSP are three times larger with acetonitrile than with methanol as the organic modifier. This is correlated to the decrease of enantioselectivity from 1.4 (in methanol) to only 1.1 (in acetonitrile). The amount of solvent needed to achieve a separation factor of exactly 2.0 was determined. This showed that analysis cost could be reduced seven times by selecting pure methanol as the eluent for a 5cm long column rather than an acetonitrile-water mixture for a longer (20-45cm) column.

  8. Phenomenological dynamics: From Navier–Stokes to chiral granular gases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T C Lubensky

    2005-05-01

    This paper reviews the derivation of equations for slow dynamical processes in a variety of systems, including rotating rigid rotors, crystalline solids, isotropic and nematic elastomers, gels in an isotropic fluid background, and nematic liquid crystals. It presents a recent derivation of the Leslie–Ericksen equations for the dynamics of nematic liquid crystals that clarifies the nature of the nonhydrodynamic modes in these equations. As a final example of the phenomenological approach to slow dynamical processes, it discusses the dynamics of a driven nonequilibrium system: a two-dimensional gas of chiral `rattlebacks' on a vibrating substrate.

  9. Dielectrophoretic manipulation of the mixture of isotropic and nematic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Dong; Lee, Bomi; Kang, Shin-Woong; Song, Jang-Kun

    2015-08-01

    In various applications involving liquid crystals, the manipulation of the nanoscale molecular assembly and microscale director alignment is highly useful. Here we show that a nematic-isotropic mixture, a unique bi-liquid system, has potential for the fabrication of microstructures having an ordered phase within a disordered phase, or vice versa. The volume expansion and shrinkage, migration, splitting, mergence and elongation of one phase within the other are easily accomplished via thermal treatment and dielectrophoretic manipulation. This is particularly achievable when one phase is suspended in the middle. In that case, a highly biased ordered-phase preference of surfaces, that is, the nematic-philic nature of a polyimide layer and the nematic-phobic nature of a self-assembled monolayer of chlorosilane derivatives, is used. Further, by combining this approach with photopolymerization, the patterned microstructure is solidified as a patterned polymer film having both isotropic and anisotropic molecular arrangements simultaneously, or as a template with a morphological variation.

  10. Long-range nematic order and anomalous fluctuations in suspensions of swimming filamentous bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Nishiguchi, Daiki; Chaté, Hugues; Sano, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We study the collective dynamics of long, filamentous, non-tumbling bacteria swimming in a very thin fluid layer. The strong confinement induces nematic alignment upon collision, which, for large enough density of cells, gives rise to global nematic order. We show that this homogeneous but fluctuating phase, observed on the largest experimentally-accessible scale of millimeters, exhibits the same properties as the Vicsek-style model of polar particles with nematic alignment: true long-range nematic order and non-trivial giant number fluctuations

  11. The CGC enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters by using β-cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Liu, Feipeng; Mao, Jianyou

    2016-03-17

    Chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters are important intermediates in preparation of enantioenriched 2-arylpropionic acids type Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters is crucial for evaluation of the asymmetric synthesis efficiency and the enantiomer excess of chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid derivatives. The capillary gas chromatography (CGC) enantiomer separation of 17 pairs of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters enantiomers was conducted by using seven different β-cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral stationary phases. It was found that for the 7 pairs of 2-phenylpropionates enantiomers, CDs with both alkyl and acyl substituents especially 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin exhibited better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs examined. For the 7 pairs of 2-(4-substituted phenyl)propionates enantiomers, 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin possessed better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs. Among the 3 pairs of 2-phenylbutyrates enantiomers examined, only methyl 2-phenylbutyrate enantiomers could be separated by three CDs among the 7 CDs tested, while enantiomers of ethyl 2-phenylbutyrate and isopropyl 2-phenylbutyrate couldn't be separated by any of the 7 CDs tested. Besides the structures of CDs, the structures of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters including different ester moieties, substituents of phenyl, and different carboxylic acids moieties in 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters also affected the enantiomer separation results greatly. The CGC enantiomer separation results of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters on different CDs are useful for solving the enantiomer separation problem of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters. PMID:26920785

  12. Phase diagram of the chiral magnet Cr1 /3NbS2 in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, K.; Mito, M.; Deguchi, H.; Kishine, J.; Kousaka, Y.; Akimitsu, J.; Inoue, K.

    2016-03-01

    We construct the phase diagram of the chiral magnet Cr1 /3NbS2 in a dc magnetic field (Hdc) using ac magnetic susceptibility measurements. At Hdc=0 , the ac response at the transition from the helical magnetic (HM) state to the paramagnetic (PM) state consists of a giant third-order harmonic component (M3 ω) and a first-order harmonic component (M1 ω). By applying Hdc perpendicular to the c axis, the HM state is transformed to the chiral soliton lattice (CSL) state, which is a superlattice tuned by Hdc. The above giant M3 ω is markedly suppressed at small Hdc. The CSL state is found to consist of CSL-1, with dominant helical texture and a poor ferromagnetic array, and CSL-2, with a large ferromagnetic array. The transition between CSL-1 and the PM state causes a linear magnetic response, the dominant component of which is the in-phase M1 ω. With increasing temperature, CSL-2 is transformed into the forced ferromagnetic (FFM) state, and ultimately the PM state is reached. The transition between CSL-2 and the FFM state consists of a large M3 ω and large out-of-phase M1 ω as well as in-phase M1 ω. The transition between the FMM and PM states also yields a linear magnetic response, like the CSL-1-PM-state transition. Five typical magnetic dynamics in the transitions among the HM state, CSL-1, CSL-2, FFM state, and PM state were identified according to the equivalent dynamical motion equation of a nonlinear spring model.

  13. Extendability of Equilibria of Nematic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the extendability of equilibrium states of rodlike nematic polymers with the Maier-Saupe intermolecular potential. We formulate equilibrium states as solutions of a nonlinear system and calculate the determinant of the Jacobian matrix of the nonlinear system. It is found that the Jacobian matrix is nonsingular everywhere except at two equilibrium states. These two special equilibrium states correspond to two points in the phase diagram. One point is the folding point where the stable prolate branch folds into the unstable prolate branch; the other point is the intersection point of the nematic branch and the isotropic branch where the unstable prolate state becomes the unstable oblate state. Our result establishes the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium states in the presence of small perturbations away from these two special equilibrium states.

  14. Non-symmetric chiral liquid crystal dimers. Preparation and characterisation of the (S)-(benzylidene-4‧-substitutedaniline)-2″-methylbutyl-4‴-(4″″-phenyloxy)-benzoateoxy)hexanoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Guan-Yeow; Osman, Faridah; Imrie, Corrie T.

    2016-05-01

    The properties of six chiral non-symmetric dimers belonging to the family of (S)-(benzylidene-4‧-substitutedaniline)-2″-methylbutyl-4‴-(4″″-phenyloxy)benzoate-oxy)hexanoates are described. The terminal substituents on the 4-benzylidene-4‧-substituted fragment are H, Cl, Br, I, CH3 and C2H5. All six dimers exhibit an enantiotropic chiral nematic phase. The relationship between the chiral nematic-isotropic transition temperature and the terminal substituent is discussed in terms of the size of the substituent and its effect of the molecular shape, and its ability to interact with mesogenic group to which it is attached. The C2H5-substituted dimer also shows an enantiotropic monolayer chiral smectic C phase, the formation of which is attributed to the enhanced molecular inhomogeneity arising from the longer alkyl chain. The weak smectic tendencies seen for the halogen-substituted dimers are attributed to potentially repulsive interactions between the ester links that would occur in an intercalated smectic arrangement which would be expected for dimers of this type.

  15. A Dual Modulated Homochiral Helical Nanofilament Phase with Local Columnar Ordering Formed by Bent Core Liquid Crystals: Effects of Molecular Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Salamonczyk, Miroslaw; Jákli, Antal; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-08-01

    Helical nanofilament (HNF) phases form as a result of an intralayer mismatch between top and bottom molecular halves in bent-core liquid crystals (BC-LCs) that is relieved by local saddle-splay geometry. HNFs are immensely attractive for photovoltaic and chiral separation applications and as templates for the chiral spatial assembly of guest molecules. Here, the synthesis and characterization of two unichiral BC-LCs and one racemic mixture with tris-biphenyl-diester cores featuring chiral (R,R) and (S,S) or racemic 2-octyloxy aliphatic side chains are presented. In comparison to the achiral compound with linear side chains forming an intralayer modulated HNF phase (HNFmod ), synchrotron small angle X-ray diffraction indicates that the unichiral derivatives form a dual modulated HNF phase with intra- as well as interlayer modulations (HNFmod2 ) suggesting a columnar local structure of the nanofilaments. Transmission electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectropolarimetry confirm that the unichiral materials exclusively form homochiral HNFs with a twist sense-matching secondary twist. A contact preparation provides the first example of two identical chiral liquid crystal phases only differing in their handedness that do not mix and form an achiral liquid crystal phase with an entirely different structure in the contact zone. PMID:27334846

  16. Studies of a pyridino-crown ether-based chiral stationary phase on the enantioseparation of biogenic chiral aralkylamines and α-amino acid esters by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévai, Sándor; Németh, Tamás; Fődi, Tamás; Kupai, József; Tóth, Tünde; Huszthy, Péter; Balogh, György Tibor

    2015-11-10

    This paper reports the enantioseparation ability of a pyridino-18-crown-6 ether-based chiral stationary phase [(S,S)-CSP-1]. The enantiomeric discrimination of chiral stationary phase (S,S)-CSP-1 was evaluated by HPLC using the mixtures of enantiomers of various protonated primary aralkylamines [1-phenylethylamine hydrogen perchlorate (PEA), 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine (1-aminoindan), 2,2'-(1,2-diaminoethane-1,2-diyl) diphenol (HPEN)] and perchlorate salts of α-amino acid esters [alanine benzyl ester (Ala-OBn), phenylalanine benzyl ester (Phe-OBn), phenylalanine methyl ester (Phe-OMe), phenylglycine methyl ester (PhGly-OMe), glutamic acid dibenzyl ester (Glu-diOBn), and valine benzyl ester (Val-OBn)]. The best enantioseparation was achieved in the case of PEA. The high enantioselectivity was rationalized by the strong π-π interaction of the extended π system of the aryl-substituted pyridine unit. PMID:26218505

  17. Spontaneous Periodic Deformations in Nonchiral Planar-Aligned Bimesogens with a Nematic-Nematic Transition and a Negative Elastic Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, V. P.; Nagaraj, M.; Vij, J. K.; Panarin, Yu. P.; Kohlmeier, A.; Tamba, M. G.; Lewis, R. A.; Mehl, G. H.

    2010-10-01

    Hydrocarbon linked mesogenic dimers are found to exhibit an additional nematic phase below the conventional uniaxial nematic phase as confirmed by x-ray diffraction. The phase produces unusual periodic stripe domains in planar cells. The stripes are found to be parallel to the rubbing direction (in rubbed cells) with a well-defined period equal to double the cell gap. The stripes appear without external electromagnetic field, temperature or thickness gradients, rubbing or hybrid alignment treatments. Simple modeling proposes a negative sign for at least one of the two elastic constants: splay and twist, as a necessary condition for the observed pattern.

  18. In-depth characterization of six cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Syame; Zhang, Yingru; West, Caroline

    2013-08-16

    Since the expiration of the patent protection of Chiralcel OD, similar chiral stationary phases (CSPs), all based on the same chiral selector, have been introduced on the market with the promise to reproduce or improve the performance of the original cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) CSP. We report here-in an in-depth evaluation of four generic versions of Chiralcel OD (CelluCoat, RegisCell, Lux Cellulose-1, Reprosil-OM) and the immobilized version (Chiralpak IB) in comparison to the original Chiralcel OD in terms of retention and enantioselectivity, with the help of chemometrics. First of all, the CSPs are compared based on the retentions of 230 achiral compounds. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering and quantitative structure-retention relationships based on a modified version of the solvation parameter model are used to assess the differences in non-enantioselective interactions contributing to retention. Secondly, the CSPs are compared based on the separation factors measured for 130 racemates. Discriminant analysis is then used to unravel the structural features contributing to the successful enantioselective separations. Chiralcel OD is shown to be the most versatile of the six tested CSPs, and involves a unique and unequalled mechanism to achieve enantioseparation. PMID:23838300

  19. Chiral Separation of Novel a-Aminophosphonates Containing a Benzothiazole Moiety by Liquid Chromatography Using an Amylose Stationary Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ping; ZHANG Yu-Ping; SONG Bao-An; YANG Song; BHADURY Shankar Pinaki; HU De-Yu; XUE Wei; CHEN Zhuo; JIN Lin-Hong

    2008-01-01

    The present report describes a chiral HPLC method for the enantiomeric separation of a-aminophosphonate derivatives using two new coated and immobilized amylose-based chiral stationary phases (CSP,Chiralpak IA and Chiralpak AD-H).The chromatographic parameters such as retention factor (k),separation factor (a),and resolution (Rs) of the solutes were investigated on these two CSPs.Reasonably good baseline separation for these compounds was achieved using Chiralpak IA column.The influences of temperature,content of ethanol modifier and the structure of analyte were also studied.THF,EtOAc and CH2Cl2 were used as ehients on analytical and semi-preparative columns.Highly enriched enantiomers with purities of up to 96.4%--100% (ee) and yields of 90.2%--95.5% were obtained,respectively.The proposed methods were found to be suitable and accurate for rapid separation and semi-preparation of enantiomeric a-aminophosphonate derivatives available.

  20. Thin film phase and local chirality of surface-bound MOP4 nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Röthel, Christian; Rubahn, Horst-Günter;

    2016-01-01

    epitaxially (point-on-line coincidence) along two directions on a single muscovite domain. The crystal structure of the fibers was induced by the substrate. Molecular packing was calculated by molecular dynamics simulations. A wetting layer from the lying molecules was observed using low-energy electron...... diffraction (LEED) that had a crystal structure different from that of the fibers. Transfer of the sample from a vacuum to ambient conditions led to dewetting and the formation of clusters from the lying molecules. The samples aged via Ostwald ripening due to the presence of water vapor, which was monitored...... by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The fibers represent chiral organization into single-handed aggregates of both handednesses, which is not affected by aging. On a global level, the sample remained achiral....

  1. Separation of mandelic acid and its derivatives with new immobilized cellulose chiral stationary phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Qian LIU; Guang-jun FU; Zhen-zhong ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the chiral separation of the enantiomers of mandelic acid and their derivatives 2-chloromandelic acid,4-hydroxymandelic acid,4-methoxymandelic acid,and 3,4,5-trismethoxymandelic acid.The enantiomers were separated by a CHIRALPAK(R) IC (250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm).Mandelic acid,4-methoxymandelic acid,and 3,4,5-trismethoxymandelic acid were baseline resolved (resolution factor (Rs)=2.21,Rs=2.14,and Rs=3.70,respectively).In contrast,the enantioselectivities between CHIRALPAK(R) IC and 2-chloromandelic acid and 4-hydroxymandelic acid investigated were low.By comparing the chromatographs of mandelic acid enantiomers and mandelic acid spiked with (R)-mandelic acid,it was determined that the first effluent was (R)-mandelic acid.

  2. Nematic Ordering of Rigid Rods in a Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Baulin, V A; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    1999-01-01

    The isotropic-to-nematic transition in an athermal solution of long rigid rods subject to a gravitational (or centrifugal) field is theoretically considered in the Onsager approximation. The new feature emerging in the presence of gravity is a concentration gradient which coupled with the nematic ordering. For rodlike molecules this effect becomes noticeable at centrifugal acceleration g ~ 10^3--10^4 m/s^2, while for biological rodlike objects, such as tobacco mosaic virus, TMV, the effect is important even for normal gravitational acceleration conditions. Rods are concentrated near the bottom of the vessel which sometimes leads to gravity induced nematic ordering. The concentration range corresponding to phase separation increases with increasing g. In the region of phase separation the local rod concentration, as well as the order parameter, follow a step function with height.

  3. Mechanically generated surface chirality at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjani, Sameh; Choi, Yoonseuk; Pendery, Joel; Petschek, Rolfe G; Rosenblatt, Charles

    2010-06-25

    A substrate coated with an achiral polyimide alignment layer was scribed bidirectionally with the stylus of an atomic force microscope to create an easy axis for liquid crystal orientation. The resulting noncentrosymmetric topography resulted in a chiral surface that manifests itself at the molecular level. To show this unambiguously, a planar-aligned negative dielectric aniostropy achiral nematic liquid crystal was placed in contact with the surface and subjected to an electric field E. The nematic director was found to undergo an azimuthal rotation approximately linear in E. This so-called "surface electroclinic effect" is a signature of surface chirality and was not observed when the polyimide was treated for a centrosymmetric topography, and therefore was nonchiral. PMID:20867414

  4. Fluctuations and the Phase Transition in a Chiral Model with Polyakov Loops%引入Polyakov环路的手征模型中的涨落与相变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We explore the NJL model with Polyakov loops for a system of three colors and two flavors within the mean-field approximation, where both chiral symmetry and confinement are taken into account. We focus on the phase structure of the model and study the chiral and Polyakov loop susceptibilities.

  5. Analytical Enantioseparation of β-Substituted-2-Phenylpropionic Acids by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin as Chiral Mobile Phase Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Yan, Jizhong

    2016-04-01

    Analytical enantioseparation of five β-substituted-2-phenylpropionic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as chiral mobile phase additive was established in this paper, and chromatographic retention mechanism was studied. The effects of various factors such as the organic modifier, different ODS C18 columns and concentration of HP-β-CD were investigated. The chiral mobile phase was composed of methanol or acetonitrile and 0.5% triethylamine acetate buffer at pH 3.0 added with 25 mmol L(-1) of HP-β-CD, and baseline separations could be reached for all racemates. As for chromatographic retention mechanism, it was found that there was a negative correlation between the concentration of HP-β-CD in mobile phase and the retention factor under constant pH value and column temperature. PMID:26755500

  6. Elementary statistical models for nematic transitions in liquid-crystalline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarte, Danilo B.; Salinas, Silvio R.

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a simple Maier-Saupe-Zwanzig (MSZ) model to describe the well-known first-order nematic-isotropic transition in liquid-crystalline systems. We then use the MSZ model, with the addition of disorder degrees of freedom, to investigate the stability of a biaxial nematic phase in a mixture of rods and disks. There is a biaxial nematic structure if we consider a fixed distribution of rods and disks. For a thermalized distribution of shapes, however, this biaxial structure becomes thermodynamically unstable. We then resort to a formalism that accounts for two sets of relaxation times, and show that a small departure from complete thermalization is enough to recover a stable biaxial structure. As another application of the MSZ model, we report an investigation of some properties of nematic elastomers. We point out the possibility of continuous nematic transitions, and reproduce a characteristic stress-strain response, with a plateau that indicates a polydomain-monodomain transition.

  7. Enantioseparation of Racemic Flurbiprofen by Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction With Binary Chiral Selectors of L-dioctyl Tartrate and L-tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liping; Fan, Huajun; Wan, Qiang; Wu, Xuehao; Tang, Xunyou; Tang, James Z

    2015-09-01

    A novel method for chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers was developed using aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) coupled with biphasic recognition chiral extraction (BRCE). An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was used as an extracting solvent which was composed of ethanol (35.0% w/w) and ammonium sulfate (18.0% w/w). The chiral selectors in ATPS for BRCE consideration were L-dioctyl tartrate and L-tryptophan, which were screened from amino acids, β-cyclodextrin derivatives, and L-tartrate esters. Factors such as the amounts of L-dioctyl tartrate and L-tryptophan, pH, flurbiprofen concentration, and the operation temperature were investigated in terms of chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers. The optimum conditions were as follows: L-dioctyl tartrate, 80 mg; L-tryptophan, 40 mg; pH, 4.0; flurbiprofen concentration, 0.10 mmol/L; and temperature, 25 °C. The maximum separation factor α for flurbiprofen enantiomers could reach 2.34. The mechanism of chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers is discussed and studied. The results showed that synergistic extraction has been established by L-dioctyl tartrate and L-tryptophan, which enantioselectively recognized R- and S-enantiomers in top and bottom phases, respectively. Compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction, ATPE coupled with BRCE possessed higher separation efficiency and enantioselectivity without the use of any other organic solvents. The proposed method is a potential and powerful alternative to conventional extraction for separation of various enantiomers.

  8. Effect of cell surfaces on the stability of chiral smectic- C phases

    OpenAIRE

    VIJ, JAGDISH; Manna, Uttam; Song, Jang-Kun

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED The effect of surfaces on the stability of smectic-C* (SmC*) variant phases is investigated. The results obtained using dielectric spectroscopy by varying the cell thickness show that the temperature ranges of SmCalpha*, SmCA*(1/2), and SmCA*(1/3) phases decrease with decreasing cell thickness, and the SmCA*(1/3) phase is more stable than the SmCA*(1/2) phase. The relative stability of any phase is found to be due to its large polar anchoring strength and low free energy compared...

  9. Dielectric and magnetic anisotropy of a nematic ytterbium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sign and the magnitude of the dielectric anisotropy of an ytterbium-based paramagnetic nematic liquid crystal complex, namely, tris[1-(4-(4-propylcyclohexyl)phenyl)octane-1,3-dione]-[5,5'-di (heptadecile)-2,2'-bipyridine]ytterbium, are determined. The temperature dependence of the permittivity components of the complex is obtained in the temperature range of a nematic phase. The sign of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of this compound is experimentally determined

  10. Dielectric and magnetic anisotropy of a nematic ytterbium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrun, L. A., E-mail: l.dobrun@spbu.ru; Sakhatskii, A. S.; Kovshik, A. P.; Ryumtsev, E. I.; Kolomiets, I. P. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Knyazev, A. A.; Galyametdinov, Yu. G. [Kazan National Research Technological University (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    The sign and the magnitude of the dielectric anisotropy of an ytterbium-based paramagnetic nematic liquid crystal complex, namely, tris[1-(4-(4-propylcyclohexyl)phenyl)octane-1,3-dione]-[5,5'-di (heptadecile)-2,2'-bipyridine]ytterbium, are determined. The temperature dependence of the permittivity components of the complex is obtained in the temperature range of a nematic phase. The sign of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of this compound is experimentally determined.

  11. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  12. Director Field in a Bipolar Configured Nematic Droplet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zi-qiang; YANG Wen-jun; ZHOU Xiao-jun

    2004-01-01

    Director field in a bipolar configured nematic droplet is analyzed numerically. Results of the calculation are expressed as the tilted angle of the director in the droplet, which balance between torque by elastic energy and the torque by external electrical field. The tilted angle is expressed as the function depending on latitude angle and relative radius r / R in the spherical droplet. The result shows that the maximum difference of the tilted angle happens at 0.87R, where the tilted angle varies 12℃before applying external field (0 V/μm.) and after applying electrical field (0.62 V/μm). If nematic droplet would be applied as a micro lens, its focus would vary because the refractive index changes due to the change of tilted angle. According to the calculation, maximum modification of refractive index is 0.036, if E7 would be adapted as the nematic phase in the droplet.

  13. Applications of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  14. SU(3) Polyakov Linear $\\sigma$-Model in Magnetic Field: Thermodynamics, Higher-Order Moments, Chiral Phase Structure and Meson Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Effects of external magnetic field on various properties of the quantum chromodynamics under extreme conditions of temperature and density have been analysed. To this end, we use SU(3) Polyakov linear sigma-model and assume that the external magnetic field eB adds some restrictions to the quarks energy due to the existence of free charges in the plasma phase. In doing this, we apply the Landau theory of quantization. This requires an additional temperature to drive the system through the chiral phase-transition. Accordingly, the dependence of the critical temperature of chiral and confinement phase-transitions on the magnetic field is characterized. Based on this, we have studied the thermal evolution of thermodynamic quantities and the first four higher-order moment of particle multiplicity. Having all these calculations, we have studied the effects of magnetic field on chiral phase-transition. We found that both critical temperature T_c and critical chemical potential increase with increasing the magnetic f...

  15. Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry enantioseparation of pomalidomide on cyclodextrin-bonded chiral stationary phases and the elucidation of the chiral recognition mechanisms by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zoltán-István; Szőcs, Levente; Horváth, Péter; Komjáti, Balázs; Nagy, József; Jánoska, Ádám; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Noszál, Béla; Tóth, Gergő

    2016-08-01

    A sensitive and validated liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed for the enantioseparation of the racemic mixture of pomalidomide, a novel, second-generation immunomodulatory drug, using β-cyclodextrin-bonded stationary phases. Four cyclodextrin columns (β-, hydroxypropyl-β-, carboxymethyl-β-, and sulfobutyl-β-cyclodextrin) were screened and the effects of eluent composition, flow rate, temperature, and organic modifier on enantioseparation were studied. Optimized parameters, offering baseline separation (resolution = 2.70 ± 0.02) were the following: β-cyclodextrin stationary phase, thermostatted at 15°C, and mobile phase consisting of methanol/0.1% acetic acid 10:90 v/v, delivered with 0.8 mL/min flow rate. For the optimized parameter at multiple reaction monitoring mode 274.1-201.0 transition with 20 eV collision energy and 100 V fragmentor voltage the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.75 and 2.00 ng/mL, respectively. Since enantiopure standards were not available, elution order was determined upon comparison of the circular dichroism signals of the separated pomalidomide enantiomers with that of enantiopure thalidomide. The mechanisms underlying the chiral discrimination between the enantiomers were also investigated. Pomalidomide-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The thermodynamic aspects of chiral separation were also studied. PMID:27279456

  16. Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry enantioseparation of pomalidomide on cyclodextrin-bonded chiral stationary phases and the elucidation of the chiral recognition mechanisms by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zoltán-István; Szőcs, Levente; Horváth, Péter; Komjáti, Balázs; Nagy, József; Jánoska, Ádám; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Noszál, Béla; Tóth, Gergő

    2016-08-01

    A sensitive and validated liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed for the enantioseparation of the racemic mixture of pomalidomide, a novel, second-generation immunomodulatory drug, using β-cyclodextrin-bonded stationary phases. Four cyclodextrin columns (β-, hydroxypropyl-β-, carboxymethyl-β-, and sulfobutyl-β-cyclodextrin) were screened and the effects of eluent composition, flow rate, temperature, and organic modifier on enantioseparation were studied. Optimized parameters, offering baseline separation (resolution = 2.70 ± 0.02) were the following: β-cyclodextrin stationary phase, thermostatted at 15°C, and mobile phase consisting of methanol/0.1% acetic acid 10:90 v/v, delivered with 0.8 mL/min flow rate. For the optimized parameter at multiple reaction monitoring mode 274.1-201.0 transition with 20 eV collision energy and 100 V fragmentor voltage the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.75 and 2.00 ng/mL, respectively. Since enantiopure standards were not available, elution order was determined upon comparison of the circular dichroism signals of the separated pomalidomide enantiomers with that of enantiopure thalidomide. The mechanisms underlying the chiral discrimination between the enantiomers were also investigated. Pomalidomide-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The thermodynamic aspects of chiral separation were also studied.

  17. Chiral separation of neonicotinoid insecticides by polysaccharide-type stationary phases using high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Jin, Lixia; Zhou, Shanshan; Zhang, Yifan; Feng, Shuoli; Zhou, Qinyan

    2011-03-01

    The enantiomeric separations of three neonicotinoid insecticides (identified as compounds 1, 2, and 3) were performed on three polysaccharide-type chiral columns, that is, Chiralcel OD-H, Chiralpak AD-H, and Chiralpak IB, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Effects of the modifier percentage and column temperature on chiral recognitions of chiral stationary phases were also studied. Both 1 and 2 could be resolved on all three columns selected, with the highest R(s) values obtained on Chiralpak AD-H and Chiralcel OD-H, respectively. However, satisfactory separation of the four stereoisomers of 3 was only achieved on Chiralcel OD-H. Considering the effects of ethanol on the values of k, α, and R(s), we concluded that hydrogen bonding, π-π, and/or dipole-dipole interactions might be all responsible for the chiral separation. In comparison to HPLC, a shorter run time was achieved for 1 and 2 by SFC. However, 3 could not be stereoselectively resolved using SFC. On the basis of the calculated thermodynamic parameters, we found that the separation processes of enantiomers of 1 and 2 were entropy controlled and enthalpy controlled, respectively.

  18. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of thirteen drugs collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010(Ch.P2010) on cellulose ramification chiral stationary phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The enantiomers separation of thirteen drugs collected in Ch.P2010 was performed on chiral stationary phase of cellulose ramification (chiralpak OD and chiralpak OJ) by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods, which included ibuprofen (C1), ketoprofen (C2), nitrendipine (C3), nimodipine (C4), felodipine (C5), omeprazole (C6), praziquantel (C7), propranolol hydrochloride (C8), atenolol (C9), sulpiride (C10), clenbuterol hydrochloride (C11), verapamil hydrochloride (C12), and chlorphenamine mal...

  19. Chiral phase transitions in quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature: Hard-thermal-loop resummed Dyson–Schwinger equation in the real time formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hisao Nakkagawa; Hiroshi Yokota; Koji Yoshida; Yuko Fueki

    2003-05-01

    Chiral phase transition in thermal QCD is studied by using the Dyson–Schwinger (DS) equation in the real time hard thermal loop approximation. Our results on the critical temperature and the critical coupling are significantly different from those in the preceding analyses in the ladder DS equation, showing the importance of properly taking into account the essential thermal effects, namely the Landau damping and the unstable nature of thermal quasiparticles.

  20. L—PROLINE—FUNCTIONALIZED POLYSTYRENE WITH 1—METHYLDECYLENE SPACER AS A CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASE FOR LIGAND—EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESOLUTION OF AMINO ACID RECEMATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaJianbiao; ChenLi; 等

    1995-01-01

    The L-proline-functionalized polystyrene with 1-methyldecylene spacer was synthesized from 2% divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene gel via 10-bromo-1-methyldecyl polystyrene intermediate.After complexed with copper(Ⅱ) ion,the polymer with L-proline ligand was used as the chiral stationary phase (CSP) for ligand exchange chromatography of amino acid racemates.The results showed that the CSP possessed powerful enantioselectivity and all racemates of the fifteen tried amino acids were completely separated.

  1. Chiral and deconfinement phase transitions in N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1 quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecker, Jan

    2013-07-15

    In this thesis, we investigate the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs). The aim is to study the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions at finite chemical potential. To this end, we employ and test a novel truncation scheme for the quark and gluon Dyson-Schwinger equations. We develop our truncation in three steps. To begin with, we use a quenched gluon propagator from lattice Yang-Mills theory. To account for unquenching, we then add the quark loop in the gluon DSE, firstly with bare quarks and in the final version of our truncation with fully dressed quarks. In the last step it is also possible to take into account the coupling of light and strange quarks. In effective models, fermionic fluctuations have been shown to move the critical end-point to large densities. We confirm this finding within our truncation for the unquenched gluon. However, this effect is suppressed once the full non-perturbative quark in the quark loop is taken into account. For the confinement/deconfinement transition we investigate three order parameters that are accessible from the quark and gluon propagators. These are the dressed Polyakov loop, the Polyakov-loop potential and positivity violations in the quark propagator. From both Polyakov-loop related order parameters, we find that the deconfinement transition can always be found in vicinity of the chiral transition. Especially at the critical end-point the phase transitions coincide. We also find that signals of positivity violations in the quark propagator vanish at the chiral transition for the two-flavour case. However, with 2+1 flavours, we find a region at large density where chiral symmetry is restored but positivity is violated. This requires further investigations. Finally, we improve our truncation by considering the back-reaction of pions in a model that has been developed in previous work. Within this model we find only a small impact on the phase

  2. High enantioselective Novozym 435-catalyzed esterification of (R,S)-flurbiprofen monitored with a chiral stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siódmiak, Tomasz; Mangelings, Debby; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Ziegler-Borowska, Marta; Marszałł, Michał Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Lipases form Candida rugosa and Candida antarctica were tested for their application in the enzymatic kinetic resolution of (R,S)-flurbiprofen by enantioselective esterification. Successful chromatographic separation with well-resolved peaks of (R)- and (S)-flurbiprofen and their esters was achieved in one run on chiral stationary phases by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this study screening of enzymes was performed, and Novozym 435 was selected as an optimal catalyst for obtaining products with high enantiopurity. Additionally, the influence of organic solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, dichloropropane, and methyl tert-butyl ether), primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol), reaction time, and temperature on the enantiomeric ratio and conversion was tested. The high values of enantiomeric ratio (E in the range of 51.3-90.5) of the esterification of (R,S)-flurbiprofen were obtained for all tested alcohols using Novozym 435, which have a great significance in the field of biotechnological synthesis of drugs. The optimal temperature range for the performed reactions was from 37 to 45 °C. As a result of the optimization, (R)-flurbiprofen methyl ester was obtained with a high optical purity, eep = 96.3 %, after 96 h of incubation. The enantiomeric ratio of the reaction was E = 90.5 and conversion was C = 35.7 %.

  3. Theoretical study of the asymmetric phase-transfer mediated epoxidation of chalcone catalyzed by chiral crown ethers derived from monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makó, Attila; Menyhárd, Dóra K.; Bakó, Péter; Keglevich, György; Tőke, László

    2008-12-01

    The synthesis of a novel, optically active crown ether derived from α- D-altropyranoside is described. A significantly different asymmetric induction was generated by the α- D-glucopyranoside-, α- D-mannopyranoside- and α- D-altropyranoside-based chiral crown catalysts in the epoxidation of trans-chalcone with tert-butyl hydroperoxide under phase-transfer catalytic conditions. It was shown that absolute configuration of the crown-ring fused carbon atoms of the monosaccharides has a great impact on the enantioselectivity. The asymmetric induction could be well explained by considering the possible mechanistic pathway. Molecular modeling (MCMM) and subsequent DFT calculations - in accordance with the experimental results - indicate that the use of glucopyranoside-based catalyst 1 and that of mannopyranoside-based crown ether 2 results in the preferred formation of the opposite antipodes (2 R,3 S and 2 S,3 R, respectively) of the corresponding epoxyketone. At the same time, practically no asymmetric induction was proved if altropyranoside-based crown 3 is applied as the catalyst. The computational results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Analysis of stereochemistry and biosynthesis of epicatechin in tea plants by chiral phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yumei; Zhao, Xianqian; Zhao, Lei; Cui, Lilan; Liu, Li; Jiang, Xiaolan; Liu, Yajun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is rich in flavan-3-ols (catechins), especially epicatechin (EC), which is the predominant extension unit of polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAs). However, studies assessing EC's stereochemistry are scarce. Here, a high performance liquid chromatography column using amylose tris-(3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) immobilized on silica-gel as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) was applied to explore its stereochemistry and biosynthetic pathway in tea plants. The results revealed (-)-epicatechin [(-)-EC] was the predominant di-hyroxy-non-galloylated-catechins, while (+)-epicatechin [(+)-EC] was not detected. Interestingly, (-)-EC was the only product obtained from cyanidin using the partially purified native C. sinensis anthocyanidin reductase (CsANR) in the presence of reduction nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH); meanwhile, (+)-EC was the main product using recombinant CsANR in the same conditions. In addition, (-)-EC could be obtained from (+)-catechin [(+)-C] using recombinant CsANR, which displayed C3-epimerase activity in the presence of oxidation nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)). But the partially purified native CsANR did not possess this function. Finally, (-)-EC could result from the de-gallate acid reaction of epicatechin gallate (ECG) catalyzed by a novel partially purified native galloylated catechins hydrolase (GCH) from tea leaves. In summary, (-)-EC is likely the product of native protein from the tea plants, and (+)-EC is only produced in a reaction catalyzed by recombinant CsANR in vitro.

  5. Self-assembled cyclodextrin-modified gold nanoparticles on silica beads as stationary phase for chiral liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Manman; Chen, Tong; Zhu, Nan; Ma, Yulong

    2016-11-01

    A facile strategy based on self-assembly of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) (60±10nm in size) on the surfaces of amino-functionalized porous silica spheres under mild conditions was proposed. The resulting material possessed a core-shell structure in which AuNPs were the shell and silica spheres were the core. Then, thiolated-β-cyclodextrin (SH-β-CD) was covalently attached onto the AuNPs as chiral selector for the enantioseparation. The resultant packing material was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separations of nine pairs of enantiomers were achieved by using the new chiral stationary phase (CSP) in the reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mode, respectively. The results showed the new CSP have more sufficient interaction with the analytes due to the existence of AuNPs on silica surfaces, resulting in faster mass transfer rate, compared with β-CD modified silica column. The result shed light on potential usage of chemical modified NPs as chiral selector for enantioseparation based on HPLC. In addition, the new phase was also used in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) to separate polar compounds and highly hydrophilic compounds. PMID:27591589

  6. Mechanistic considerations of enantiorecognition on novel Cinchona alkaloid-based zwitterionic chiral stationary phases from the aspect of the separation of trans-paroxetine enantiomers as model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecsó, Nóra; Kohout, Michal; Carotti, Andrea; Sardella, Roccaldo; Natalini, Benedetto; Fülöp, Ferenc; Lindner, Wolfgang; Péter, Antal; Ilisz, István

    2016-05-30

    The enantiomers of trans-paroxetine were separated on four chiral stationary phases (CSPs) based on chiral zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloids fused with (R,R)- or (S,S)-trans-2-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid. The enantioseparations were carried out in polar-ionic or in hydro-organic mobile phases with MeOH/THF, MeCN/THF, MeCN/THF/H2O and MeOH/MeCN/THF containing organic acid and base additives, in the temperature range 0-50°C. The effects of the mobile phase composition, the natures and concentrations of the additives and temperature on the separations were investigated. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from plots of ln α vs 1/T. Δ(ΔH°) ranged between -3.0 and +1.5 kJ mol(-1), and Δ(ΔS°) between -8.8 and +5.9 J mol(-1)K(-1). The enantioseparation was generally enthalpically controlled, the retention factor and separation factor decreasing with increasing temperature, but entropically controlled separation was also observed. The elution sequences of the paroxetine enantiomers on the two pairs of pseudo-enantiomeric CSPs were investigated, and an attempt was made to explain the observed anomalies in silico in order to gain an insight into the underlying molecular recognition events between the four chiral selectors and the analyte enantiomers. PMID:26955754

  7. Exact thermodynamics and phase diagram of integrable t-J model with chiral interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, T. S.; Ribeiro, G. A. P.

    2016-09-01

    We study the phase diagram and finite temperature properties of an integrable generalization of the one-dimensional super-symmetric t-J model containing interactions explicitly breaking parity-time reversal (PT) symmetries. To this purpose, we apply the quantum transfer matrix method which results in a finite set of non-linear integral equations. We obtain numerical solutions to these equations leading to results for thermodynamic quantities as a function of temperature, magnetic field, particle density and staggering parameter. Studying the maxima lines of entropy at low but non zero temperature reveals the phase diagram of the model. There are ten different phases which we may classify in terms of the qualitative behaviour of auxiliary functions, closely related to the dressed energy functions.

  8. Dynamic-Mechanical Analysis of Monodomain Nematic Liquid Crystalline Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Atsushi; Terentjev, Eugene

    2003-03-01

    Dynamic-mechanical analysis was performed in the glassy, nematic and isotropic states of several monodomain nematic liquid crystalline elastomers (LCE) which differ in their degrees of anisotropy and internal microstructure. It was found that the type of network crosslinker makes a significant difference in the equilibrium properties of these elastomers, in particular, in their effective anisotropy. In spite of these differences, the observed dynamic-mechanical behaviour was very similar. The fact that there is a consistently high and wide loss over the whole nematic region, where storage modulus G' behaves non-monotonically, is most likely an indicator of the fact that the dynamic-mechanical response is not linear. Master curves have been built between the glassy state and the nematic-isotropic phase transition, where the modulus reaches a low-level soft plateau. Above the nematic-isotropic transition temperature Tni, the modulus rises substantially, since internal relaxation is no longer able to reduce the elastic response - and further time-temperature superposition fails. The dynamics of these elastomers are dominated by power laws, which was confirmed by the successful procedure of the master curve inversion (time-frequency inversion) to describe the static stress relaxation. Interestingly, it was found that mechanical properties characterized by power laws (in time) of stress relaxation match very well with the dynamic properties, where power laws (in frequency) were also observed in the dynamic modulus in the appropriate range of temperatures. The work demonstrates the potential for the use of nematic liquid crystalline elastomers in many acoustic and vibration damping applications.

  9. Holographic Chiral Magnetic Spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the ground state of baryonic/axial matter at zero temperature chiral-symmetry broken phase under a large magnetic field, in the framework of holographic QCD by Sakai-Sugimoto. Our study is motivated by a recent proposal of chiral magnetic spiral phase that has been argued to be favored against previously studied phase of homogeneous distribution of axial/baryonic currents in terms of meson super-currents dictated by triangle anomalies in QCD. Our results provide an existence proof of chiral magnetic spiral in strong coupling regime via holography, at least for large axial chemical potentials, whereas we don't find the phenomenon in the case of purely baryonic chemical potential. (author)

  10. Field-driven dynamics of nematic microcapillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyatzadeh, Pouya; Fu, Fred; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2015-12-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) composites long have been a focus of study for their unique electro-optical properties which have resulted in various applications such as switchable (transparent or translucent) windows. These composites are manufactured using desirable "bottom-up" techniques, such as phase separation of a liquid-crystal-polymer mixture, which enable production of PDLC films at very large scales. LC domains within PDLCs are typically spheroidal, as opposed to rectangular for an LCD panel, and thus exhibit substantially different behavior in the presence of an external field. The fundamental difference between spheroidal and rectangular nematic domains is that the former results in the presence of nanoscale orientational defects in LC order while the latter does not. Progress in the development and optimization of PDLC electro-optical properties has progressed at a relatively slow pace due to this increased complexity. In this work, continuum simulations are performed in order to capture the complex formation and electric field-driven switching dynamics of approximations of PDLC domains. Using a simplified elliptic cylinder (microcapillary) geometry as an approximation of spheroidal PDLC domains, the effects of geometry (aspect ratio), surface anchoring, and external field strength are studied through the use of the Landau-de Gennes model of the nematic LC phase.

  11. Field-driven dynamics of nematic microcapillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyatzadeh, Pouya; Fu, Fred; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2015-12-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) composites long have been a focus of study for their unique electro-optical properties which have resulted in various applications such as switchable (transparent or translucent) windows. These composites are manufactured using desirable "bottom-up" techniques, such as phase separation of a liquid-crystal-polymer mixture, which enable production of PDLC films at very large scales. LC domains within PDLCs are typically spheroidal, as opposed to rectangular for an LCD panel, and thus exhibit substantially different behavior in the presence of an external field. The fundamental difference between spheroidal and rectangular nematic domains is that the former results in the presence of nanoscale orientational defects in LC order while the latter does not. Progress in the development and optimization of PDLC electro-optical properties has progressed at a relatively slow pace due to this increased complexity. In this work, continuum simulations are performed in order to capture the complex formation and electric field-driven switching dynamics of approximations of PDLC domains. Using a simplified elliptic cylinder (microcapillary) geometry as an approximation of spheroidal PDLC domains, the effects of geometry (aspect ratio), surface anchoring, and external field strength are studied through the use of the Landau-de Gennes model of the nematic LC phase. PMID:26764713

  12. Chiral Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2012-01-01

    We consider the properties of electric circuits involving Weyl semimetals. The existence of the anomaly-induced chiral magnetic current in a Weyl semimetal subjected to magnetic field causes an interesting and unusual behavior of such circuits. We consider two explicit examples: i) a circuit involving the "chiral battery" and ii) a circuit that can be used as a "quantum amplifier" of magnetic field. The unique properties of these circuits stem from the chiral anomaly and may be utilized for c...

  13. Chiral photochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2004-01-01

    Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S

  14. Rheology of a Twist-bend Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salili, Seyyed Muhammad; Kim, Chanjoong; Sprunt, Samuel; Gleeson, James; Parri, Owain; Jakli, Antal; Kim Lab Team; Merck Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    First detailed flow shear alignment studies and rheological measurements in the twist-bend nematic (Ntb) liquid crystalline phase of odd numbered flexible dimer molecules is presented. It is found that the Ntb phase is strongly shear-thinning. At shear stresses below 1 Pa the apparent viscosity of the Ntb phase is 1000 times larger than in the nematic phase. At stresses above 10 Pa the Ntb viscosity drops by two orders of magnitude and the material exhibits Newtonian fluid behavior. The results are consistent with the behavior of a system with pseudo-layer structure with layer spacing determined by the heliconical pitch. From the measurements of dynamic modulus we estimate the compression modulus of the pseudo-layers to be B ~ 2 kPa this value is discussed within the context of a simple theoretical model based upon a coarse-grained elastic free energy. www.jakligroup.com.

  15. On the strength of the $U_A(1)$ anomaly at the chiral phase transition in $N_f=2$ QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B; Meyer, Harvey B; Philipsen, Owe; Robaina, Daniel; Wittig, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermal transition of QCD with two degenerate light flavours by lattice simulations using $O(a)$-improved Wilson quarks. Temperature scans are performed at a fixed value of $N_t = (aT)^{-1}=16$, where $a$ is the lattice spacing and $T$ the temperature, at three fixed zero-temperature pion masses between 200 MeV and 540 MeV. In this range we find that the transition is consistent with a broad crossover. As a probe of the restoration of chiral symmetry, we study the static screening spectrum. We observe a degeneracy between the transverse isovector vector and axial-vector channels starting from the transition temperature. Particularly striking is the strong reduction of the splitting between isovector scalar and pseudoscalar screening masses around the chiral phase transition by at least a factor of three compared to its value at zero temperature. In fact, the splitting is consistent with zero within our uncertainties. This disfavours a chiral phase transition in the $O(4)$ universality class.

  16. Pirkle-type chiral stationary phase on core-shell and fully porous particles: Are superficially porous particles always the better choice toward ultrafast high-performance enantioseparations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Omar H; Pasti, Luisa; Ciogli, Alessia; Villani, Claudio; Kocergin, Jelena; Anderson, Scott; Gasparrini, Francesco; Cavazzini, Alberto; Catani, Martina

    2016-09-30

    Pirkle-type Whelk-O1 chiral stationary phase (CSP) was prepared on 2.6μm superficially porous particles (SPPs). The chromatographic behavior of columns packed with this new CSP was compared with that of columns packed respectively with 1.8 and 2.5μm Whelk-O1 fully porous particles (FPPs). In the comparison, both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects were considered. Contrary to initial expectations, chiral columns packed with 2.6μm SPPs were quasi-comparable to those packed with 2.5μm FPPs, apparently due to larger contributions to band broadening from both eddy dispersion and, especially for the second eluted enantiomer, adsorption-desorption kinetics. These findings raise the question if SPPs, in spite of the undeniable advantages of their morphology to speed up mass transfer, are always the best choice for high-efficient ultrafast chiral separations. The last part of the work focuses on the use of short columns (10mm long) and very high flow rates to realize the separation of the enantiomers of trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) in normal phase mode in less than 1s.

  17. Chiral gap effect in curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Flachi, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a new type of QCD phenomenon induced in curved space. In the QCD vacuum a mass gap of Dirac fermions is attributed to the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. If the curvature is positive large, the chiral condensate melts but a chiral invariant mass gap can still remain, which we name the chiral gap effect in curved space. This leads to decoupling of quark deconfinement which implies a view of black holes surrounded by a first-order QCD phase transition.

  18. Direct high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the enantiomers of an aromatic amine and four aminoalcohols using polysaccharide chiral stationary phases and acidic additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamese, Salvatore; Bianca, Salvatore; Carter, Guy T

    2007-08-01

    The HPLC enantiomeric separation of N-benzyl-alpha-methyl-benzylamine, phenylalaninol, tryptophanol, 2 (diphenylhydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine, and isoproterenol was accomplished in the normal-phase mode using two polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and various n-hexane/2-propanol mobile phases with acidic (TFA) or basic (DEA) additive. The compounds were separated without any derivatization and separation factor range between 2.09 and 1.09 with resolution factor 3.4 and 0.4, respectively. The best separation of the enantiomers of the amine was achieved on amylose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) CSP with TFA additive in the mobile phase; in acidic conditions, instead, the best enantioseparation of the aminoalcohols was achieved on cellulose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenilcarbamate). A long equilibration time of the CSP when switching from an undoped mobile phase to a doped one is required to obtain reproducible results. PMID:17568428

  19. Temperature-induced inversion of elution order in the chromatographic enantioseparation of 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol on an immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bixia; Zhan, Fengping; Yu, Guangyan; Chen, Zhifen; Fan, Wenjing; Zeng, Xiongping; Zeng, Qingle; Weng, Wen

    2009-07-10

    In this work, the enantioseparations of 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) and its three derivatives were performed on an immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase, Chiralpak IA, under normal-phase mode. The effects of the content of polar modifier in the mobile phase and the column temperature on the retention and enantioseparation were investigated in detail. Temperature-induced inversion of elution order for BINOL was observed directly when n-hexane/2-propanol (92/8, v/v) was used as mobile phase. The isoenantioselective temperature (T(iso)) was calculated to be 31.4 degrees C. When n-hexane/2-propanol/THF (93/2/5, v/v/v) was used as mobile phase, the T(iso) value decreased to -8.2 degrees C. Entropically driven enantioseparation which had practical application was obtained successfully (separation factor being 1.189 and 1.332 at 25 degrees C and 50 degrees C, respectively). The corresponding thermodynamic parameters for other three binaphthyl compounds were compared with that for BINOL. Some inferences about chiral recognition mechanism were stressed.

  20. New validated HPLC methodology for the determination of (-)-trans-paroxetine and its enantiomer in pharmaceutical formulations with use of ovomucoid chiral stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowska-Kuźmicz, Małgorzata; Kantor-Boruta, Małgorzata; Jończyk, Anna; Jarończyk, Małgorzata; Ocios-Bębenek, Agnieszka; Mazurek, Aleksander P; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Jarosz, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    A new chromatographic method for the enantioseparation and the determination of (-)-trans-paroxetine and (+)-trans-paroxetine has been developed with the aid of amylose ovomucoid-based chiral stationary phase. The method is faster and five times more sensitive than procedures recommended previously: limit of detection and limit of quantification are 5 and 16 ng/mL, respectively [modified (Ferretti et al. in J Chromatogr B 710:157-164, 1998): 20 and 60 ng/mL]. It was carefully validated and applied for the determination of (-)-trans-paroxetine and (+)-trans-paroxetine in Parogen (Mc Dermott Laboratories Ltd.) and Xetanor (Actavis) coated tablets. PMID:24408298

  1. Interfacial motion in flexo- and order-electric switching between nematic filled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a nematic liquid crystal, in coexistence with its isotropic phase, in contact with a substrate patterned with rectangular grooves. In such a system the nematic phase may fill the grooves without the occurrence of complete wetting. There may exist multiple (meta)stable filled states, each characterized by the type of distortion (bend or splay) in each corner of the groove and by the shape of the nematic–isotropic interface, and additionally the plateaux that separate the grooves may be either dry or wet with a thin layer of nematic. Using numerical simulations, we analyse the dynamical response of the system to an externally-applied electric field, with the aim of identifying switching transitions between these filled states. We find that order-electric coupling between the fluid and the field provides a means of switching between states where the plateaux between grooves are dry and states where they are wetted by a nematic layer, without affecting the configuration of the nematic within the groove. We find that flexoelectric coupling may change the nematic texture in the groove, provided that the flexoelectric coupling differentiates between the types of distortion at the corners of the substrate. We identify intermediate stages of the transitions, and the role played by the motion of the nematic–isotropic interface. We determine quantitatively the field magnitudes and orientations required to effect each type of transition. (paper)

  2. Self-assembled structures of Gaussian nematic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoubashman, Arash; Likos, Christos N [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Heinrich Heine University of Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-03-17

    We investigate the stable crystalline configurations of a nematic liquid crystal made of soft parallel ellipsoidal particles interacting via a repulsive, anisotropic Gaussian potential. For this purpose, we use genetic algorithms (GA) in order to predict all relevant and possible solid phase candidates into which this fluid can freeze. Subsequently we present and discuss the emerging novel structures and the resulting zero-temperature phase diagram of this system. The latter features a variety of crystalline arrangements, in which the elongated Gaussian particles in general do not align with any one of the high-symmetry crystallographic directions, a compromise arising from the interplay and competition between anisotropic repulsions and crystal ordering. Only at very strong degrees of elongation does a tendency of the Gaussian nematics to align with the longest axis of the elementary unit cell emerge.

  3. Transitions through critical temperatures in nematic liquid crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2013-08-06

    We obtain estimates for critical nematic liquid crystal (LC) temperatures under the action of a slowly varying temperature-dependent control variable. We show that biaxiality has a negligible effect within our model and that these delay estimates are well described by a purely uniaxial model. The static theory predicts two critical temperatures: the supercooling temperature below which the isotropic phase loses stability and the superheating temperature above which the ordered nematic states do not exist. In contrast to the static problem, the isotropic phase exhibits a memory effect below the supercooling temperature in the dynamic framework. This delayed loss of stability is independent of the rate of change of temperature and depends purely on the initial value of the temperature. We also show how our results can be used to improve estimates for LC material constants. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  4. Chiral separation of cathinone derivatives used as recreational drugs by HPLC-UV using a CHIRALPAK® AS-H column as stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Stefan; Taschwer, Magdalena; Schmid, Martin G

    2012-06-01

    Cathinone derivatives gained high popularity on the recreational drugs market during the past 10 years. All these compounds are chiral, and the pharmacological potency of the enantiomers of these stimulants is supposed to differ. The goal of this research was to develop a reliable and easy-to-perform high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet method for the chiral separation of a set of 24 cathinone derivatives. A commercially available CHIRALPAK® AS-H column consisting of amylose tris [(S)-α-methylbenzylcarbamate] coated on 5-µm silica gel was found to be suitable to resolve a majority of the tested compounds. High-performance liquid chromatography measurements were performed in normal phase mode under isocratic conditions with a mobile phase consisting of hexane, isopropanol, and triethylamine at a flowrate of 1 ml/min. The ratio between hexane and isopropanol was optimized by means of three model substances. Under final conditions with a mobile phase of hexane, isopropanol, and triethylamine (97:3:0.1), 19 out of 24 compounds were successfully resolved into their enantiomers and detected at a wavelength of 254 nm. A correlation between the substituents of the nitrogen atom and the separation results are shown. Furthermore, enantiomer separation results of four cathinone derivatives were compared with the results of their amphetamine analogs. PMID:22544697

  5. Chiral magnetic effect in the PNJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji; Gatto, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    We study the two-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop (PNJL model) in the presence of a strong magnetic field and a chiral chemical potential $\\mu_5$ which mimics the effect of imbalanced chirality due to QCD instanton and/or sphaleron transitions. Firstly we focus on the properties of chiral symmetry breaking and deconfinement crossover under the strong magnetic field. Then we discuss the role of $\\mu_5$ on the phase structure. Finally the chirality charge, electric current, and their susceptibility, which are relevant to the Chiral Magnetic Effect, are computed in the model.

  6. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  7. Chiral Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a c...

  8. Dynamical numerical model for nematic order reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, G.; Ayeb, H.; Barberi, R.

    2008-05-01

    In highly frustrated calamitic nematic liquid crystals, a strong elastic distortion can be confined on a few nanometers. The classical elastic theory fails to describe such systems and a more complete description based on the tensor order parameter Q is required. A finite element method is used to implement the Q dynamics by a variational principle and it is shown that a uniaxial nematic configuration can evolve passing through transient biaxial states. This solution, which connects two competing uniaxial nematic textures, is known as “nematic order reconstruction.”

  9. Enantioselective Collision-Activated Dissociation of Gas-Phase Tryptophan Induced by Chiral Recognition of Protonated uc(l)-Alanine Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Tajiri, Michiko; Wada, Yoshinao; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2016-06-01

    Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of uc(l)-alanine peptides (uc(l)-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) and homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n. The H2O-elimination product was observed in CAD spectra of both heterochiral and homochiral complexes for n = 2 and 4, and in homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), indicating that the proton is attached to the uc(l)-alanine peptide, and H2O loss occurs from H+(uc(l)-Ala n ) in the noncovalent complexes. H2O loss did not occur in heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), where NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss were the primary dissociation pathways. In heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), the protonation site is the amino group of uc(d)-Trp, and NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss occur from H+(uc(d)-Trp). uc(l)-Ala peptides recognize uc(d)-Trp through protonation of the amino group for peptide size n = 3. NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss from H+(uc(d)-Trp) proceeds via enantioselective CAD in gas-phase heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3) at room temperature, whereas uc(l)-Trp dissociation was not observed in homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3). These results suggest that enantioselective dissociation induced by chiral recognition of uc(l)-Ala peptides through protonation could play an important role in enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes of amino acids.

  10. Sensing surface morphology of biofibers by decorating spider silk and cellulosic filaments with nematic microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis E; de Oliveira, Alexandre; Seč, David; Čopar, Simon; Almeida, Pedro L; Ravnik, Miha; Godinho, Maria Helena; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-02-01

    Probing the surface morphology of microthin fibers such as naturally occurring biofibers is essential for understanding their structural properties, biological function, and mechanical performance. The state-of-the-art methods for studying the surfaces of biofibers are atomic force microscopy imaging and scanning electron microscopy, which well characterize surface geometry of the fibers but provide little information on the local interaction potential of the fibers with the surrounding material. In contrast, complex nematic fluids respond very well to external fields and change their optical properties upon such stimuli. Here we demonstrate that liquid crystal droplets deposited on microthin biofibers--including spider silk and cellulosic fibers--reveal characteristics of the fibers' surface, performing as simple but sensitive surface sensors. By combining experiments and numerical modeling, different types of fibers are identified through the fiber-to-nematic droplet interactions, including perpendicular and axial or helicoidal planar molecular alignment. Spider silks align nematic molecules parallel to fibers or perpendicular to them, whereas cellulose aligns the molecules unidirectionally or helicoidally along the fibers, indicating notably different surface interactions. The nematic droplets as sensors thus directly reveal chirality of cellulosic fibers. Different fiber entanglements can be identified by depositing droplets exactly at the fiber crossings. More generally, the presented method can be used as a simple but powerful approach for probing the surface properties of small-size bioobjects, opening a route to their precise characterization. PMID:26768844

  11. Sensing surface morphology of biofibers by decorating spider silk and cellulosic filaments with nematic microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis E; de Oliveira, Alexandre; Seč, David; Čopar, Simon; Almeida, Pedro L; Ravnik, Miha; Godinho, Maria Helena; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-02-01

    Probing the surface morphology of microthin fibers such as naturally occurring biofibers is essential for understanding their structural properties, biological function, and mechanical performance. The state-of-the-art methods for studying the surfaces of biofibers are atomic force microscopy imaging and scanning electron microscopy, which well characterize surface geometry of the fibers but provide little information on the local interaction potential of the fibers with the surrounding material. In contrast, complex nematic fluids respond very well to external fields and change their optical properties upon such stimuli. Here we demonstrate that liquid crystal droplets deposited on microthin biofibers--including spider silk and cellulosic fibers--reveal characteristics of the fibers' surface, performing as simple but sensitive surface sensors. By combining experiments and numerical modeling, different types of fibers are identified through the fiber-to-nematic droplet interactions, including perpendicular and axial or helicoidal planar molecular alignment. Spider silks align nematic molecules parallel to fibers or perpendicular to them, whereas cellulose aligns the molecules unidirectionally or helicoidally along the fibers, indicating notably different surface interactions. The nematic droplets as sensors thus directly reveal chirality of cellulosic fibers. Different fiber entanglements can be identified by depositing droplets exactly at the fiber crossings. More generally, the presented method can be used as a simple but powerful approach for probing the surface properties of small-size bioobjects, opening a route to their precise characterization.

  12. Two-parameter scaling theory of the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in a Weyl metal phase: Chiral anomaly, weak disorder, and finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Shin, Dongwoo; Sasaki, M.; Kim, Heon-Jung; Kim, Jeehoon; Kim, Ki-Seok

    2016-08-01

    It is at the heart of modern condensed matter physics to investigate the role of a topological structure in anomalous transport phenomena. In particular, chiral anomaly turns out to be the underlying mechanism for the negative longitudinal magnetoresistivity in a Weyl metal phase. The existence of a dissipationless current channel causes enhancement of electric currents along the direction of a pair of Weyl points or applied magnetic fields (B ). However, temperature (T ) dependence of the negative longitudinal magnetoresistivity has not been understood yet in the presence of disorder scattering since it is not clear at all how to introduce effects of disorder scattering into the topological-in-origin transport coefficient at finite temperatures. The calculation based on the Kubo formula of the current-current correlation function is simply not known for this anomalous transport coefficient. Combining the renormalization group analysis with the Boltzmann transport theory to encode the chiral anomaly, we reveal how disorder scattering renormalizes the distance between a pair of Weyl points and such a renormalization effect modifies the topological-in-origin transport coefficient at finite temperatures. As a result, we find breakdown of B /T scaling, given by B /T1 +η with 0 <η <1 . This breakdown may be regarded to be a fingerprint of the interplay between disorder scattering and topological structure in a Weyl metal phase.

  13. Chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, G

    1999-01-01

    Broken chiral symmetry has become the basis for a unified treatment of hadronic interactions at low energies. After reviewing mechanisms for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, I outline the construction of the low--energy effective field theory of the Standard Model called chiral perturbation theory. The loop expansion and the renormalization procedure for this nonrenormalizable quantum field theory are developed. Evidence for the standard scenario with a large quark condensate is presented, in particular from high--statistics lattice calculations of the meson mass spectrum. Elastic pion--pion scattering is discussed as an example of a complete calculation to O(p^6) in the low--energy expansion. The meson--baryon system is the subject of the last lecture. After a short summary of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, a recent analysis of pion--nucleon scattering to O(p^3) is reviewed. Finally, I describe some very recent progress in the chiral approach to the nucleon--nucleon interaction.

  14. An Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zong-Ye; YU You-Wen; WANG Ping; DAI Lian-Rong

    2003-01-01

    The chiral SU(3) quark model is extended by including the vector meson exchanges to describe the short range interactions. The phase shifts of NN scattering are studied in this model. Compared with the results of the chiral SU(3) quark model in which only the pseudo-scalar and scalar chiralfields are considered, the phase shifts of 1 So wave are obviously improved.

  15. Two-Dimensional Skyrmion Lattice Formation in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Consisting of Highly Bent Banana Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sungmin; Lee, Eun-Woo; Li, Tianqi; Liang, Xiaobin; Tokita, Masatoshi; Nakajima, Ken; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-09-12

    We synthesized a novel banana-shaped molecule based on a 1,7-naphthalene central core that exhibits a distinct mesomorphism of the nematic-to-nematic phase transition. Both the X-ray profile and direct imaging of atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations clearly indicates the formation of an anomalous nematic phase possessing a two-dimensional (2D) tetragonal lattice with a large edge (ca. 59 Å) directed perpendicular to the director in the low-temperature nematic phase. One plausible model is proposed by an analogy of skyrmion lattice in which two types of cylinders formed from left- and right-handed twist-bend helices stack into a 2D tetragonal lattice, diminishing the inversion domain wall. PMID:27511324

  16. Punctuated Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-12-01

    Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively L-amino acids, while only D-sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high intensity and long duration events may drive achiral initial conditions towards chirality. We argue that life’s homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events, thus extending the theory of punctuated equilibrium to the prebiotic realm. Applying our arguments to other potentially life-bearing planetary platforms, we predict that a statistically representative sampling will be racemic on average.

  17. Punctuated Chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-01-01

    Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively levorotatory (L) amino acids, while only dextrorotatory (R) sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high intensity and long duration events may drive achiral initial conditions towards chirality. We argue that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events, thus extending the theory of punctuated equilibrium to the prebiotic realm. Applying our arguments to other potentially life-bearing planetary platforms, we predict that a statistically representative sampling will be racemic on average.

  18. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  19. Micellar structures in lyotropic liquid crystals and phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, A.; Xu, S. Y.; Plumley, Sulakshana; Zhu, Y. K.; Photinos, P.

    1991-05-01

    The formation of micellar nematics is discussed with emphasis on the transitions between nematic phases and nematic-smectic transitions. Phase diagrams for MTAB/l-decanol/D,O systems show a direct transition between uniaxial nematics. Electrical conductivity and birefringence measurements on a mixture of sodium decylsulfate. 1-decanol, D,O demonstrate, on the other hand, the existence of a biaxial nemantic range that separates the Uniaxial nematics. On a mixture of cesium perflouroctanoate and H 2O the electrical conductivity and rotational viscosity are used to discuss the relevant features of nematic-lamellar-smectic transitions. The formation of elongated ribbon-like micelles at the nematic-smectic transition is suggested. Transitions between different nematic phases in the MTAB system may be connected with a structural change from long micelles with a fairly circular cross section to similar micelles with a more elliptical cross section.

  20. Rheological properties of a reentrant nematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthaiah, J; Rajeswari, M; Sastry, V S S; Dabrowski, R; Dhara, Surajit

    2012-07-01

    We report experimental studies on small angle light scattering (SALS), and rheodielectric and electrorheological properties of a binary mixture of octyloxy cyanobiphenyl and hexyloxy cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals. The mixture exhibits nematic (N) to smectic-A (SmA) phase transitions, and then again to a reentrant nematic (N(R)) phase transition. Rapid shear thinning in the quenched samples in the low shear rate region in the N and SmA phases observed from SALS experiments is attributed to the realignment of the director within the domains. The domains are elongated along the shear direction at higher shear rates. The temperature variation of the effective viscosity and static dielectric constant reveals the changes in the director orientation across N-SmA-N(R) phase transitions. At a steady shear rate the effective viscosity increases with the electric field in all the phases and saturates at much higher fields. It also exhibits two anomalous peaks across N-SmA-N(R) phase transitions beyond a particular field. The shear modulus of the SmA phase in an intermediate field is significantly larger than that measured at both low and high fields. This enhanced viscoelasticity of the SmA phase is argued to originate from the increased dislocation density. PMID:23005440

  1. Rheological properties of a reentrant nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthaiah, J.; Rajeswari, M.; Sastry, V. S. S.; Dabrowski, R.; Dhara, Surajit

    2012-07-01

    We report experimental studies on small angle light scattering (SALS), and rheodielectric and electrorheological properties of a binary mixture of octyloxy cyanobiphenyl and hexyloxy cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals. The mixture exhibits nematic (N) to smectic-A (SmA) phase transitions, and then again to a reentrant nematic (NR) phase transition. Rapid shear thinning in the quenched samples in the low shear rate region in the N and SmA phases observed from SALS experiments is attributed to the realignment of the director within the domains. The domains are elongated along the shear direction at higher shear rates. The temperature variation of the effective viscosity and static dielectric constant reveals the changes in the director orientation across N-SmA-NR phase transitions. At a steady shear rate the effective viscosity increases with the electric field in all the phases and saturates at much higher fields. It also exhibits two anomalous peaks across N-SmA-NR phase transitions beyond a particular field. The shear modulus of the SmA phase in an intermediate field is significantly larger than that measured at both low and high fields. This enhanced viscoelasticity of the SmA phase is argued to originate from the increased dislocation density.

  2. Two-color QCD with chiral chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguta, V. V.; Goy, V. A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Molochkov, A. V.; Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B.; Schreiber, A.

    2016-01-01

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with a chiral chemical potential is studied on the lattice. The focus is on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulations are carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependence of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented.

  3. Novel Lifshitz point for chiral transition in the magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Tatsumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the generalized Ginzburg–Landau theory, chiral phase transition is discussed in the presence of magnetic field. Considering the chiral density wave we show that chiral anomaly gives rise to an inhomogeneous chiral phase for nonzero quark-number chemical potential. Novel Lifshitz point appears on the vanishing chemical potential line, which may be directly explored by the lattice QCD simulation.

  4. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyendu S. Bag; T.C. Shami; K.U. Bhasker Rao

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale appr...

  5. Enantioseparation of α-Hydroxyallylphosphonates and Phosphonoallylic Carbonate Derivatives on Chiral Stationary Phases Using Sequential UV, Polarimetric, and Refractive Index Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamper, Bruce C; Mannino, Michael P; Mueller, Melissa E; Harrison, Liam T; Spilling, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Chromatographic separation of the enantiomers of parent compounds dimethyl α-hydroxyallyl phosphonate and 1-(dimethoxyphosphoryl) allyl methyl carbonate was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using Chiralpak AS-H and ad-H chiral stationary phases (CSP), respectively, using a combination of UV, polarimetric, and refractive index detectors. A comparison was made of the separation efficiency and elution order of enantiomeric α-hydroxyallyl phosphonates and their carbonate derivatives on commercially available polysaccharide AS, ad, OD, IC-3, and Whelk-O 1 CSPs. In general, the α-hydroxyallyl phosphonates were resolved on the AS-H CSP, whereas the carbonate derivatives and were preferentially resolved on the ad-H CSP. The impact of aryl substitution on the resolution of analytes and was evaluated. Thermodynamic parameters determined for enantioselective adsorption hydroxyphosphonates and on the AS-H CSP and carbonate on the ad-H CSP demonstrated enthalpic control for separation of the enantiomers. Chirality 28:656-662, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27516372

  6. Proposed chiral texture of the magnetic moments of unit-cell loop currents in the pseudogap phase of cuprate superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershoguba, Sergey S; Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn; Yakovenko, Victor M

    2013-07-26

    We propose a novel chiral order parameter to explain the unusual polar Kerr effect in underdoped cuprates. It is based on the loop-current model by Varma, which is characterized by the in-plane anapole moment N and exhibits the magnetoelectric effect. We propose a helical structure where the vector N(n) in the layer n is twisted by the angle π/2 relative to N(n-1), thus breaking inversion symmetry. We show that coupling between magnetoelectric terms in the neighboring layers for this structure produces optical gyrotropy, which results in circular dichroism and the polar Kerr effect.

  7. Report on twisted nematic and supertwisted nematic device characterization program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In this study we measured the optical characteristics of normally white twisted nematic (NWTN) and super twisted nematic (STN ) cells. Though no dynamic computer model was available, the static observations were compared with computer simulated behavior. The measurements were taken as a function of both viewing angle and applied voltage and included in the static case not only luminance but also contrast ratio and chromaticity . We employed the computer model Twist Cell Optics, developed at Kent State in conjunction with this study, and whose optical modeling foundation, Iike the ViDEOS program, is the 4 x 4 matrix method of Berreman. In order to resolve discrepancies between the experimental and modeled data the optical parameters of the individual cell components, where not known, were determined using refractometry, profilometry, and various forms of ellipsometry. The resulting agreement between experiment and model is quite good due primarily to a better understanding of the structure and optics of dichroic sheet polarizers. A description of the model and test cells employed are given in section 2. Section 3 contains the experimental data gathered and section 4 gives examples of the fit between model and experiment. Also included with this report are a pair of papers which resulted from the research and which detail the polarizer properties and some of the cell characterization methods.

  8. Chiral Relaxation Time at the Chiral Crossover of Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggieri, M; Chernodub, M

    2016-01-01

    We study microscopic processes responsible for chirality flips in the thermal bath of Quantum Chromodynamics at finite temperature and zero baryon chemical potential. We focus on the temperature range where the crossover from chirally broken phase to quark-gluon plasma takes place, namely $T \\simeq (150, 200)$ MeV. The processes we consider are quark-quark scatterings mediated by collective excitations with the quantum number of pions and $\\sigma$-meson, hence we refer to these processes simply as \\sugg{to} one-pion (one-$\\sigma$) exchange\\sugg{s}. We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to compute equilibrium properties of the thermal bath, as well as the relevant scattering kernel to be used in the collision integral to estimate the chiral relaxation time $\\tau$. We find $\\tau\\simeq 0.1 \\div 1$ fm/c around the chiral crossover.

  9. On Chiral Space Groups and Chiral Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This note explains the relationship (as well as the absence of a relationship) between chiral space groups and chiral molecules (which have absolute configurations). For a chiral molecule, which must crystallize in a chiral space group, the outcome of the absolute configuration determination must be linked to some other properties of the chiral crystal such as its optical activity for the observation to the relevant.

  10. Evidence of Broken Reciprocity in Chiral Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Michele; Venkataraman, Nithya; Taheri, Bahman; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Reciprocity in light scattering is predicated on bounded scattering media with symmetric and linear permittivity, conductivity and permeability. Due to their anisotropy and chirality, cholesteric liquid crystal form periodic dielectric structures. If the periodicity is comparable to the wavelength of light, these phases are self-assembled photonic band gap structures. There appear in the permittivity odd powers of the wave vector resulting from nonlocality and broken inversion symmetry. Evidence of non-reciprocity has been found in optically active crystals by Bennett [1] and in stacks of cholesteric and nematic liquid crystal cells by Takezoe [2]. We present experimental data showing broken reciprocity in transmittance and reflectance in cholesteric cells with different pitches having overlapping but distinct reflection bands. We explain our results in terms of simple analytic descriptions of material properties and propagating modes. [1] P.J. Bennett, S. Dhanjal, Yu. P. Svirko and N. I. Zheludev, Opt. Lett. 21, 1955 (1996) [2] J. Hwang; M.H. Song; B. Park; S. Nishimura; T. Toyooka; J.W. Wu; Y. Takanishi; K. Ishikawa; H. Takezoe, Nat. Mat. 4, 383 (2005).

  11. Tunable circular dichroism due to the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals

    OpenAIRE

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Weyl semimetals are a three dimensional gapless topological phase in which bands intersect at arbitrary points -- the Weyl nodes -- in the Brillouin zone. These points carry a topological quantum number known as the \\emph{chirality} and always appear in pairs of opposite chiralities. The notion of chirality leads to anomalous non-conservation of chiral charge, known as the \\emph{chiral anomaly}, according to which charge can be pumped between Weyl nodes of opposite chiralities by an electroma...

  12. Effects of polymers on the rotational viscosities of nematic liquid crystals and dynamics of field alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the important physical phenomena exhibited by the nematic phase, such as its unusual flow properties and its responses to the electric and the magnetic fields, can be discussed regarding it as a continous medium. The Leslie-Erickson dynamic theory has the six dissipative coefficients from continuum model of liquid crystal. Parodi showed that only five of them are independent, when Onsagar's reciprocal relations are used. One of these, which has no counterpart in the isotropic liquids, is the rotational viscosity co-efficient, γ1. The main objective of this project is to study the rotational viscosities of selected micellar nematic systems and the effect of dissolved polymers in micellar and thermotropic liqud crystals. We used rotating magnetic field method which allows one to determine γ1 and the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, χa. For the ionic surfactant liquid crystals of SDS and KL systems used in this study, the rotational viscosity exhibited an extraordinary drop after reaching the highest values γ1 as the temperature was lowered. This behavior is not observed in normal liquid crystals. But this phenomena can be attributed to the existence of nematic biaxial phase below the rod-like nematic Nc phase. The pretransitional increase in γ1 near the disk-like nematic to smectic-A phase transition of the pure CsPFO/H2O systems are better understood with the help of mean-field models of W.L. McMillan. He predicted a critical exponent ν = 1/2 for the divergence of γ1. The polymer (PEO, molecular weight = 105) dissolved in CsPFO/H2O system (which has 0.6% critical polymer concentration), suppressed the nematic to lamellar smectic phase transition in concentrated polymer solutions (0.75% and higher). In dilute polymer solutions with lower than 0.3% polyethylene-oxide, a linear increase of γ1 is observed, which agrees with Brochard theory

  13. Dispersive shock waves in nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Noel F.

    2016-10-01

    The propagation of coherent light with an initial step intensity profile in a nematic liquid crystal is studied using modulation theory. The propagation of light in a nematic liquid crystal is governed by a coupled system consisting of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the light beam and an elliptic equation for the medium response. In general, the intensity step breaks up into a dispersive shock wave, or undular bore, and an expansion fan. In the experimental parameter regime for which the nematic response is highly nonlocal, this nematic bore is found to differ substantially from the standard defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation structure due to the effect of the nonlocality of the nematic medium. It is found that the undular bore is of Korteweg-de Vries equation-type, consisting of bright waves, rather than of nonlinear Schrödinger equation-type, consisting of dark waves. In addition, ahead of this Korteweg-de Vries bore there can be a uniform wavetrain with a short front which brings the solution down to the initial level ahead. It is found that this uniform wavetrain does not exist if the initial jump is below a critical value. Analytical solutions for the various parts of the nematic bore are found, with emphasis on the role of the nonlocality of the nematic medium in shaping this structure. Excellent agreement between full numerical solutions of the governing nematicon equations and these analytical solutions is found.

  14. Domain Walls and Anchoring Transitions Mimicking Nematic Biaxiality in the Oxadiazole Bent-Core Liquid Crystal C7

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Ki; Cukrov, Greta; Xiang, Jie; Shin, Sung-Tae; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the origin of secondary disclinations that were recently described as a new evidence of a biaxial nematic phase in an oxadiazole bent-core thermotropic liquid crystal C7. With an assortment of optical techniques such as polarizing optical microscopy, LC PolScope, and fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary disclinations represent non-singular domain walls formed in an uniaxial nematic during the surface anchoring transition, in which surfa...

  15. Regular and chaotic states in a local map description of sheared nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil, S M; Sinha, Sudeshna; Menon, Gautam I

    2008-07-01

    We propose and study a local map capable of describing the full variety of dynamical states, ranging from regular to chaotic, obtained when a nematic liquid crystal is subjected to a steady shear flow. The map is formulated in terms of a quaternion parametrization of rotations of the local frame described by the axes of the nematic director, subdirector, and the joint normal to these, with two additional scalars describing the strength of ordering. Our model yields kayaking, wagging, tumbling, aligned, and coexistence states, accommodated in a phase diagram which closely resembles phase diagrams obtained using representations of the dynamics which are based on ordinary differential equations. We also study the behavior of the map under periodic perturbations of the shear rate. Such a map can serve as a building block for the construction of lattice models of the complex spatiotemporal states predicted for sheared nematics. PMID:18763972

  16. Fast switching from isotropic liquids to nematic liquid crystals: rotaxanes as smart fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Sevick, Edith M; Williams, David R M

    2015-11-28

    We examine a solution of rod-like piston-rotaxanes, which can switch their length by external excitation (for example optically) from a short state of length L to a long state of length qL. We show that this solution can exhibit a number of different behaviours. In particular it can rapidly switch from an isotropic to a nematic liquid crystalline state. There is a minimum ratio q* = 1.13 for which transitions from a pure isotropic state to a pure nematic state are possible. We present a phase-switching diagram, which gives the six possible behaviours for this system. It turns out that a large fraction of the phase switching diagram is occupied by the transition from a pure isotropic to a pure nematic state. PMID:26419821

  17. A chiral study of the $a_0(980)$ resonance and $\\pi\\eta$ scattering phase shifts in light of a recent lattice simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhi-Hui; Meißner, Ulf-G; Oller, J A; Rusetsky, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the $a_0(980)$ resonance within chiral effective field theory through a three-coupled-channel analysis, namely $\\pi\\eta$, $K\\bar{K}$ and $\\pi\\eta'$. A global fit to recent lattice finite-volume energy levels from $\\pi\\eta$ scattering and relevant experimental data on a $\\pi\\eta$ event distribution and the $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\pi\\eta$ cross section is performed. Both the leading and next-to-leading order analyses lead to quite similar and successful descriptions of the finite-volume energy levels and the experimental data. However, these two different analyses yield different $\\pi\\eta$ scattering phase shifts after taking the physical masses for the $\\pi, K, \\eta$ and $\\eta'$ mesons. The inelasticities, the pole positions in the complex energy plane and their residues are calculated both for unphysical and physical meson masses.

  18. A new chiral derivatizing agent for the HPLC separation of α-amino acids on a standard reverse-phase column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, A F; Altenbach, H-J

    2011-02-01

    A new chiral derivatizing agent for α-amino acids is described which leads to diastereomers that can be separated by reverse-phase HPLC with direct detection by a diode array detector. The main advantage of the presented procedure is the fact that an excess of the derivatizing reagent can be employed as the product exhibits an absorption maximum at 360 nm, while the reagent has its absorption maximum at 260 nm. Therefore, it is possible to suppress the reagent signal by a detection wavelength of 400 nm leading to an easy and general method for the enantioseparation of a mixture of DL-amino acids and the determination of the enantiomeric purity of α-amino acid as exemplified by 16 different α-amino acids.

  19. Electro-osmosis in nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, O. M.; Calderer, M. Carme; Golovaty, Dmitry; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Walkington, Noel J.

    2016-07-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a nematic electrolyte based on a variational formulation of nematodynamics. We verify the model by comparing its predictions to the results of the experiments on the substrate-controlled liquid-crystal-enabled electrokinetics. In the experiments, a nematic liquid crystal confined to a thin planar cell with surface-patterned anchoring conditions exhibits electro-osmotic flows along the "guiding rails" imposed by the spatially varying director. Extending our previous work, we consider a general setup which incorporates dielectric anisotropy of the liquid-crystalline matrix and the full set of nematic viscosities.

  20. Tactoids of chiral liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Betancur, Viviana; Villada-Gil, Stiven; Zhou, Ye; Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; de Pablo, Juan José; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan Pablo

    The phase diagram of chiral liquid crystals confined in ellipsoids is obtained, by following a theoretically informed Monte Carlo relaxation of the tensor alignment field Q. The free energy of the system is described by a functional in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. This study also includes the effect of anchoring strength, curvature, and chirality of the system. In the low chirality region of the phase diagram we found the twist bipolar (BS) phase and some cholesteric phases such as the radial spherical structure (RSS), twist cylinder (TC) and double twist cylinder (DTC) whose axis of rotation is not necessarily aligned with the major axis of the geometry. For high chirality scenarios, the disclination lines are twisted or bent near the surface preventing the formation of symmetric networks of defects, although an hexagonal pattern is formed on the surface which might serve as open sites for collocation of colloids. By analyzing the free energies of isochoric systems, prolate geometries tend to be more favorable for high chirality and low anchoring conditions. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Ph.D. grant and COLCIENCIAS under the Contract No. 110-165-843-748. CONACYT for Postdoctoral Fellowships Nos. 186166 and 203840.

  1. Evidence for a jacketed nematic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, F.; Mery, S.; Achard, M. F.; Noirez, L.; Keller, P.

    1991-05-01

    The evidence for a “jacketed” structure at the scale of the chain dimensions in the nematic phase of a “side-on fixed” liquid crystal polysiloxane is reported by using small angle neutron scattering. We relate this anisotropy of chain conformation to the first measurements of the rotational viscosity coefficient in this new type of liquid crystal side-chain polymer. Par des mesures de diffusion des neutrons aux petits angles nous montrons l'existence, pour un polysiloxane “ en haltère ”, d'une structure “ chemisée ” à l'échelle de l'organisation global d'une chaîne en phase nématique. On constate que cette anisotropie de forme du polymère a des conséquences sur l'évolution du coefficient de viscosité de torsion mesuré pour la première fois dans ce nouveau type de polymère à chaînes latérales.

  2. Possible transient liquid crystal phase during the laying out of connective tissues: {alpha}-chitin and collagen as models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belamie, E; Mosser, G; Gobeaux, F; Giraud-Guille, M M [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, UMR 7574 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 12 rue Cuvier, Paris, 75005 (France)

    2006-04-05

    Morphogenesis of extracellular matrices can be considered from different perspectives. One is that of ontogenesis, i.e., an organism's development, which is mostly concerned with the spatiotemporal regulation of genes, cell differentiation and migration. Complementary to this purely biological point of view, a physico-chemical approach can help in understanding complex mechanisms by highlighting specific events that do not require direct cellular control. Because of a structural similarity between some biological systems and liquid crystals, it was supposed that similar mechanisms could be involved. In this respect, it is important to determine the intrinsic self-assembly properties driving the ordering of biological macromolecules. Here we review in vitro studies of the condensed state of major biological macromolecules from extracellular matrices and related theories describing a mesophase transition in suspensions of rodlike particles. Dilute suspensions of collagen or chitin are isotropic, i.e., the macromolecules can take on any orientation in the fluid. Beyond a critical concentration, an ordered nematic phase appears with a higher volume fraction. The two-phase coexistence can be seen between crossed polarizers since the nematic phase is strongly birefringent and appears bright, whereas the isotropic phase remains dark. A widespread property of these structural macromolecular scaffolds is their chirality. Although the origin of chirality in colloidal suspensions is still a subject of debate, the helical nature of the cholesteric phase can be quantified. Small angle x-ray scattering performed on shear-aligned samples can help demonstrate the cholesteric nature of the anisotropic phase, inferred from optical observations. Liquid-like positional local order is revealed by the presence of broad interference peaks at low angle. The azimuthal profiles of these patterns are fitted to determine the value of the nematic order parameter at the transition. A few

  3. Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity.

  4. Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity. PMID:27562028

  5. Punctuated Chirality

    OpenAIRE

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-01-01

    Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively levorotatory (L) amino acids, while only dextrorotatory (R) sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high int...

  6. Chiral streamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lu, Xinpei, E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O. Box 218, Sydney, New South Wales 2070 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.

  7. Chiral streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin; Lu, Xinpei; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.

  8. Effect of the water content on the retention and enantioselectivity of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides using amylose-based chiral stationary phases in organic-aqueous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materazzo, Sabrina; Carradori, Simone; Ferretti, Rosella; Gallinella, Bruno; Secci, Daniela; Cirilli, Roberto

    2014-01-31

    Four commercially available immobilized amylose-derived CSPs (Chiralpak IA-3, Chiralpak ID-3, Chiralpak IE-3 and Chiralpak IF-3) were used in the HPLC analysis of the chiral sulfoxides albendazole (ABZ-SO) and fenbendazole (FBZ-SO) and their in vivo sulfide precursor (ABZ and FBZ) and sulfone metabolite (ABZ-SO2 and FBZ-SO2) under organic-aqueous mode. U-shape retention maps, established by varying the water content in the acetonitrile- and ethanol-water mobile phases, were indicative of two retention mechanisms operating on the same CSP. The dual retention behavior of polysaccharide-based CSPs was exploited to design greener enantioselective and chemoselective separations in a short time frame. The enantiomers of ABZ-SO and FBZ-SO were baseline resolved with water-rich mobile phases (with the main component usually being 50-65% water in acetonitrile) on the IF-3 CSP and ethanol-water 100:5 mixture on the IA-3 and IE-3 CSPs. A simultaneous separation of ABZ (or FBZ), enantiomers of the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone was achieved on the IA-3 using ethanol-water 100:60 (acetonitrile-water 100:100 for FBZ) as a mobile phase.

  9. Ferromagnetic nanoparticles suspensions in twisted nematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cîrtoaje, Cristina; Petrescu, Emil; Stan, Cristina; Creangă, Dorina

    2016-05-01

    Ferromagnetic nanoparticles insertions in nematic liquid crystals (NLC) in twisted configuration are studied and a theoretical model is proposed to explain the results. Experimental observation revealed that nanoparticles tend to overcrowd in long strings parallel to the rubbing direction of the alignment substrate of the LC cell. Their behavior under external field was studied and their interaction with their nematic host is described using elastic continuum theory.

  10. Inhomogeneous Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Hayata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the spatial inhomogeneity of the Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates. We formulate an effective model of gluons on the background fields of chiral condensates, and perform its lattice simulation. On the background of inhomogeneous chiral condensates, the Polyakov loop exhibits an in-phase spatial oscillation with the chiral condensates. We also analyze the heavy quark potential and show that the inhomogeneous Polyakov loop indicates the inhomogeneous confinement of heavy quarks.

  11. Inhomogeneous Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayata, Tomoya, E-mail: hayata@riken.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Arata [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-05-11

    We study the spatial inhomogeneity of the Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates. We formulate an effective model of gluons on the background fields of chiral condensates, and perform its lattice simulation. On the background of inhomogeneous chiral condensates, the Polyakov loop exhibits an in-phase spatial oscillation with the chiral condensates. We also analyze the heavy quark potential and show that the inhomogeneous Polyakov loop indicates the inhomogeneous confinement of heavy quarks.

  12. Inhomogeneous Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Arata

    2015-05-01

    We study the spatial inhomogeneity of the Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates. We formulate an effective model of gluons on the background fields of chiral condensates, and perform its lattice simulation. On the background of inhomogeneous chiral condensates, the Polyakov loop exhibits an in-phase spatial oscillation with the chiral condensates. We also analyze the heavy quark potential and show that the inhomogeneous Polyakov loop indicates the inhomogeneous confinement of heavy quarks.

  13. Inhomogeneous Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoya Hayata; Arata Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    We study the spatial inhomogeneity of the Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates. We formulate an effective model of gluons on the background fields of chiral condensates, and perform its lattice simulation. On the background of inhomogeneous chiral condensates, the Polyakov loop exhibits an in-phase spatial oscillation with the chiral condensates. We also analyze the heavy quark potential and show that the inhomogeneous Polyakov loop indicates the inhomogeneous confinement...

  14. Chiral mobile phase in ligand-exchange chromatography of amino acids: exploring the copper(II) salt anion effect with a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Roccaldo; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Carotti, Andrea; Ianni, Federica; Rubiño, Maria Eugenia García; Natalini, Benedetto

    2012-12-21

    With the use of a chiral ligand-exchange chromatography (CLEC) system operating with the O-benzyl-(S)-serine [(S)-OBS] [1,2] as the chiral mobile phase (CMP) additive to the eluent, the effect of the copper(II) anion type on retention (k) and separation (α) factors was evaluated, by rationally changing the following experimental conditions: salt concentration and temperature. The CLEC-CMP analysis was carried out on ten amino acidic racemates and with nine different cupric salts. While the group of analytes comprised both aliphatic (leucine, isoleucine, nor-leucine, proline, valine, nor-valine, and α-methyl-valine) and aromatic (1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, phenylglycine, and tyrosine) species, representative organic (formate, methanesulfonate, and trifluoroacetate) and inorganic (bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, perchlorate, and sulfate) Cu(II) salts were selected as the metal source into the eluent. This route of investigation was pursued with the aim of identifying analogies among the employed Cu(II) salts, by observing the variation profile of the selected chromatographic parameters, upon a change of the above experimental conditions. All the data were collected and analyzed through a statistical approach (PCA and k-means clustering) that revealed the presence of two behavioral classes of cupric salts, sharing the same variation profile for k and α values. Interestingly, this clustering can be explained in terms of ESP (electrostatic surface potential) balance (ESP(bal)) values, obtained by an ab initio calculation operated on the cupric salts. The results of this appraisal could aid the rational choice of the most suitable eluent system, to succeed in the enantioseparation of difficult-to-resolve compounds, along with the eventual scale-up to a semi-preparative level. PMID:22926052

  15. Patterns and Defects in Nematic Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fangfu; Lubensky, Tom

    2006-03-01

    Nematic elastomers are materials that combine the orientational properties of nematic liquid crystals with the elastic properties of rubber. Ideal nematic elastomers, formed via a spontaneous symmetry breaking transition from the isotropic rubber state, exhibit soft elasticity in which one of the five elastic moduli of a uniaxial elastic medium vanishes. Monodomain samples crosslinked under imposed strain exhibit semi-soft elasticity in which that elastic modulus is small but nonzero. Applying linear stability analysis to the semi-soft elastic energy, we investigate two phenomena observed in experiments on nematic elastomers: (1) the formation, in experiments by Bob Meyer at Brandeis, of periodic modulations of the nematic director and elastic displacement (stripes) in cells subjected to a normal electric field in which the direction of stripe normals is at an oblique angle to the original nematic director and (2) the formation of +1 disclination defects at the surface of nanotube gel films [Islam, M. F., Nobili, M., Ye, Fangfu , Lubensky, T. C. and Yodh, A. G. , Phys. Rev. Lett . 95, 148301/1-4 (2005)].

  16. Chiral geometry in multiple chiral doublet bands

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The chiral geometry of the multiple chiral doublet bands with identical configuration is discussed for different triaxial deformation parameters $\\gamma$ in the particle rotor model with $\\pi h_{11/2}\\otimes \

  17. Influence of heavy hadronic states on the QCD phase diagram and on the freeze-out within a hadronic chiral model; Einfluss schwerer hadronischer Zustaende auf das QCD-Phasendiagramm und die Ausfrierbedingungen in einem hadronischen chiralen Modell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeeb, G.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis the thermodynamical properties of strongly interacting hadronic matter and the microscopic in-medium properties of hadrons are investigated at high temperatures and high baryonic densities within a chiral flavor-SU(3) model. The applied model is a generalized {sigma}-{omega} model in mean-field approximation with baryons and mesons as effective degrees of freedom. It is built on spontaneously broken chiral symmetry and scale invariance. The phase transition behavior is systematically analyzed and is thus shown to depend significantly on the couplings of additional heavier hadronic degrees of freedom. A phase diagram in qualitative agreement with current lattice QCD (lQCD) calculations can result from an according coupling of the lowest lying baryonic decuplet to the model. Alternatively, the coupling of a heavy baryonic test-resonance is investigated, which effectively represents the spectrum of the heavy hadronic states. For a certain range of parameters one can even obtain a phase diagram in quantitative agreement with the lQCD calculations and, simultaneously, a successful description of the ground state properties of nuclear matter. It is shown that (within the model assumptions) the phase transition region is experimentally accessible for the CBM experiment at the upcoming FAIR facility at GSI Darmstadt. The chiral model is further applied to particle yield ratios measured in heavy-ion collisions from AGS, SPS and RHIC. For these investigations parameter sets with strongly differing phase diagrams due to different couplings of the baryon decuplet are used and in addition an ideal hadron gas. At the lower and mid collision energies the chiral parameter sets show an improved description as compared to the ideal hadron gas, especially for parameter sets with phase diagrams similar to the lQCD predictions. The interaction within the chiral model leads to in-medium modifications of the chemical potentials and the hadron masses. Therefore the

  18. Thermal and optical study of semiconducting CNTs-doped nematic liquid crystalline material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, T.; Singh, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Pandey, S.; Agrahari, K.; Manohar, R.

    2016-06-01

    We report the thermal and spectroscopic analysis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC) material. The CNTs have been oriented in the p-ethoxybenzylidene p-butylaniline NLC. The thermal study of the CNTs doped nematic mixtures shows a significant decrease in the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature. However higher doping concentration of CNTs has led to the further increase in transition temperature. The UV-Visible spectroscopy has been attempted on the CNTs/NLC mixtures at room temperature. The investigated NLC present one absorption band corresponding to π-π* electronic transition. A red shift of λmax with the increasing concentration of CNTs in the mixture has been observed. The band gap of NLC has been found to decrease after the doping of CNTs. The absorbance was measured for the UV light, polarized parallel and perpendicular to the LC director in the planar aligned cell.

  19. Dynamics of ordered colloidal particle monolayers at nematic liquid crystal interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei-Shao; Gharbi, Mohamed Amine; Lohr, Matthew A; Still, Tim; Gratale, Matthew D; Lubensky, T C; Stebe, Kathleen J; Yodh, A G

    2016-05-25

    We prepare two-dimensional crystalline packings of colloidal particles on surfaces of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) 5CB, and we investigate the diffusion and vibrational phonon modes of these particles using video microscopy. Short-time particle diffusion at the air-NLC interface is well described by a Stokes-Einstein model with viscosity similar to that of 5CB. Crystal phonon modes, measured by particle displacement covariance techniques, are demonstrated to depend on the elastic constants of 5CB through interparticle forces produced by LC defects that extend from the interface into the underlying bulk material. The displacement correlations permit characterization of transverse and longitudinal sound velocities of the crystal packings, as well as the particle interactions produced by the LC defects. All behaviors are studied in the nematic phase as a function of increasing temperature up to the nematic-isotropic transition. PMID:27109759

  20. Effective Field Theory of Fractional Quantized Hall Nematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Michael; /MIT, LNS; Nayak, Chetan; /Station Q, UCSB; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    We present a Landau-Ginzburg theory for a fractional quantized Hall nematic state and the transition to it from an isotropic fractional quantum Hall state. This justifies Lifshitz-Chern-Simons theory - which is shown to be its dual - on a more microscopic basis and enables us to compute a ground state wave function in the symmetry-broken phase. In such a state of matter, the Hall resistance remains quantized while the longitudinal DC resistivity due to thermally-excited quasiparticles is anisotropic. We interpret recent experiments at Landau level filling factor {nu} = 7/3 in terms of our theory.

  1. Chiral nuclear thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorilla, Salvatore; Weise, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the equation of state of nuclear matter for arbitrary isospin-asymmetry up to three loop order in the free energy density in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory. In our approach 1\\pi- and 2\\pi-exchange dynamics with the inclusion of the \\Delta-isobar excitation as an explicit degree of freedom, corresponding to the long- and intermediate-range correlations, are treated explicitly. Few contact terms fixed to reproduce selected known properties of nuclear matter encode the short-distance physics. Two-body as well as three-body forces are systematically included. We find a critical temperature of about 15 MeV for symmetric nuclear matter. We investigate the dependence of the liquid-gas first-order phase transition on isospin-asymmetry. In the same chiral framework we calculate the chiral condensate of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures. The contribution of the \\Delta-isobar excitation is essential for stabilizing the condensate. As a result, we find no indicati...

  2. Origin of Electronic Nematicity in the Iron Pnictide NaFe1-xCoxAs Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsmolle, Verner; Zhang, Wei-Lu; Zhang, Chenglin; Carr, Scott; Dai, Pengcheng; Blumberg, Girsh

    2014-03-01

    Doped iron pnictides present a complex phase diagram with superconductivity in close proximity to antiferromagnetic and structural transitions (ST). In addition to these phases, an electronic nematic phase has been suggested to be associated with the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition at TS. Electronic nematicity breaks C4 rotational symmetry and is believed to be the driving force behind the ST. However, at present, the main interaction behind electronic nematicity and nematic fluctuations remain unexplained. Using electronic Raman spectroscopy we show nematic charge fluctuations in the XY symmetry channel to follow a Curie-Weiss-like temperature dependence extending over a ~200 K range above TS and in the entire phase diagram including the superconducting phase in NaFe1-xCoxAs (0 law two-level system corresponding to the dxz and dyz Fe-orbitals. VKT and GB acknowledge support by NSF DMR-1104884 and by U.S. DOE, BES, Award DE-SC0005463. CZ, SVC and PD acknowledge support by U.S. DOE, BES, Contract DE-FG02-05ER46202.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of cyclic β-aminohydroxamic acids on zwitterionic chiral stationary phases based on Cinchona alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajkó, Gyula; Orosz, Tímea; Grecsó, Nóra; Fekete, Beáta; Palkó, Márta; Fülöp, Ferenc; Lindner, Wolfgang; Péter, Antal; Ilisz, István

    2016-05-19

    Cyclic β-aminohydroxamic acid enantiomer pairs were stereoselectively separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on the recently developed Cinchona alkaloid-based zwitterionic chiral stationary phases Chiralpak ZWIX(+)™, ZWIX(-)™, ZWIX(+A) and ZWIX(-A). The results of variation of the applied chromatographic conditions, such as the bulk solvent composition, the concentrations and ratio of the acid and base additives, the presence of water as mobile phase additive and the counter-ion concentration furnished a better understanding of the retention mechanism. A thermodynamic study in the temperature range 5-50 °C revealed enthalpy-controlled enantiodiscrimination in all cases. The structure-selectivity relationships clearly indicated the importance of the strereochemistry of the functional groups. From an enantiorecognition aspect, the diexo position of the functional groups always proved more favorable than the diendo position. The elution sequence was determined in all cases and was found to reversed when ZWIX(+)™ was changed to ZWIX(-)™ or ZWIX(+A) to ZWIX(-A).

  4. Orbital nematic order and interplay with magnetism in the two-orbital Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on FeSe and iron pnictide families of iron-based superconductors, we have studied the orbital nematic order and its interplay with antiferromagnetism within the two-orbital Hubbard model. We used random phase approximation (RPA) to calculate the dependence of the orbital and magnetic susceptibilities on the strength of interactions and electron density (doping). To account for strong electron correlations not captured by RPA, we further employed non-perturbative variational cluster approximation (VCA) capable of capturing symmetry broken magnetic and orbitally ordered phases. Both approaches show that the electron and hole doping affect the two orders differently. While hole doping tends to suppress both magnetism and orbital ordering, the electron doping suppresses magnetism faster. Crucially, we find a realistic parameter regime for moderate electron doping that stabilizes orbital nematicity in the absence of long-range antiferromagnetic order. This is reminiscent of the non-magnetic orbital nematic phase observed recently in FeSe and a number of iron pnictide materials and raises the possibility that at least in some cases, the observed electronic nematicity may be primarily due to orbital rather than magnetic fluctuations. (paper)

  5. Simulation of electrically controlled nematic liquid crystal Rochon prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowska, M.; Derfel, G.

    2016-09-01

    Operation of an electrically controlled beam steering device based on Rochon prism made by use of nematic liquid crystal is modelled numerically. Deflection angles and angular distribution of light intensity in the deflected beam are calculated. Dynamics of the device is studied. Advantage of application of dual frequency nematic liquid crystal is demonstrated. Role of flexoelectric properties of the nematic is analyzed.

  6. Sorption and selective chromatographic properties of isomer-selective composite sorbent based on a eutectic mixture of nematic liquid crystals and perbenzoylated β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuchak, L. A.; Kapralova, T. S.; Kuraeva, Yu. G.; Belousova, Z. P.; Stepanova, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mesomorphic, sorption, and selective properties of a three-component sorbent based on a mixture of nematic ( N) liquid crystals of 4-methoxy-4'-ethoxyazoxybenzene (MEAB) and 4,4'-diethoxyazoxybenzene (azoxyphenetol, AOP) of an eutectic composition and heptakis-(2,3,6-tri- O-benzoyl)-β-cyclodextrin (Bz-β-CD) are studied. For 30 organic compounds of different classes with linear and cyclic molecular structures, including optical isomers of limonene, pinene, camphene, and butanediol-2,3, thermodynamic functions are determined for their gas-phase sorption using a three-component MEAB-AOP-Bz-β- CD sorbent (62: 28: 10 wt %). It is found that the investigated sorbent possesses high structural selectivity (αp/m = 1.128-1.059, 100-130°C, N) and moderate enantioselectivity (1.07-1.02) within a broad temperature range (95-170°C) including both mesomorphic and isotropic phases of the sorbent. It is shown that the enantioselectivity of the sorbent is apparent under conditions of both increasing retention when a chiral Bz-β-CD additive is introduced into the MEAB-AOP system (limonenes, pinenes, camphenes) and decreasing retention (butanediols-2,3).

  7. Comparative Optical Separation of Racemic Ibuprofen by Using Chiral Stationary Phase%运用手性固定相研究外消旋布洛芬的光学分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ibuprofen is widely used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and produced as racemic mixture. Its pharmacological activity resides only in S-(+)-enantiomer, and R-(-)-enantiomer is not only inactive but also has many side effects. Thus it is necessary to separate Renanfiomer from racemic ibuprofen. We studied optical separation of racemic Ibuprofen with chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Out of three different chiral stationary phases, which were selected on the basis of structure and availability, two were found to be effective. There was optimum eluent composition for each stationary phase for good resolution in optical separation. Resolution decreased with increase of eluent flow rate, but effect of injection volume on resolution was insignificant at high eluent flow rate.

  8. Chiral symmetry in rotating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2015-08-01

    The triaxial rotating system at critical angular momentum I ≥Iband exhibits two enatiomeric (the left- and right-handed) forms. These enatiomers are related to each other through dynamical chiral symmetry. The chiral symmetry in rotating system is defined by an operator χ ˆ =Rˆy (π) T ˆ, which involves the product of two distinct symmetries, namely, continuous and discrete. Therefore, new guidelines are required for testing its commutation with the system Hamiltonian. One of the primary objectives of this study is to lay down these guidelines. Further, the possible impact of chiral symmetry on the geometrical arrangement of angular momentum vectors and investigation of observables unique to nuclear chiral-twins is carried out. In our model, the angular momentum components (J1, J2, J3) occupy three mutually perpendicular axes of triaxial shape and represent a non-planar configuration. At certain threshold energy, the equation of motion in angular momentum develops a second order phase transition and as a result two distinct frames (i.e., the left- and right-handed) are formed. These left- and right-handed states correspond to a double well system and are related to each other through chiral operator. At this critical angular momentum, the centrifugal and Coriolis interactions lower the barrier in the double well system. The tunneling through the double well starts, which subsequently lifts the degeneracy among the rotational states. A detailed analysis of the behavior of rotational energies, spin-staggering, and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the resulting twin-rotational bands is presented. The ensuing model results exhibit similarities with many observed features of the chiral-twins. An advantage of our formalism is that it is quite simple and it allows us to pinpoint the understanding of physical phenomenon which lead to chiral-twins in rotating systems.

  9. Is the chiral U(1) theory trivial?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chiral U(1) theory differs from the corresponding vector theory by an imaginary contribution to the effective action which amounts to a phase factor in the partition function. The vector theory, i.e. QED, is known to be trivial in the continuum limit. It is argued that the presence of the phase factor will not alter this result and the chiral theory is non-interacting as well. (orig.)

  10. Multiple alignment modes for nematic liquid crystals doped with alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Hegmann, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    The ability of alkylthiol capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to tune, alter, and reverse the alignment of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) has been investigated in detail. Adjusting the concentration of the suspended Au NPs in the nematic LC host, optimizing the sample preparation protocol, or providing different sample substrates (untreated glass slides, rubbed polyimide-coated LC test cell, or ITO-coated glass slides) results in several LC alignment scenarios (modes) including vertical alignment, planar alignment, and a thermally controlled alignment switch between these two alignment modes. The latter thermal switch between planar and homeotropic alignment was observed particularly for lower concentrations (i.e., around 1 to 2 wt %) of suspended NPs in the size regime of 1.5-2 nm and was found to be concentration-dependent and thermally reversible. Different scenarios are discussed that could explain these induced alignment modes. In one scenario, the NP-induced alignment is related to the temperature-dependent change of the order parameter, S, of the nematic phase (ordering in the bulk). In the second scenario, a change of the ordering of the nematic molecules around the NPs that reside at the interfaces is described. We also started to test spin coating as an alternative way of preparing nematic thin films with well-separated Au NPs on the substrate and found this to be a possible method for manufacturing of future NP-doped LC devices, as this method produced evenly distributed NPs on glass substrates. Together the presented findings continue to pave the way for LC display-related applications of Au NP-doped nematic LCs and provide insights for N-LC sensor applications. PMID:20355789

  11. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko, E-mail: matuyama@bio.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kawazu 680-4, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.

  12. Chiral mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plum, Eric, E-mail: erp@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I., E-mail: niz@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); The Photonics Institute and Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637378 (Singapore)

    2015-06-01

    Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.

  13. Development of a Validated LC Method for Separation of Process-Related Impurities Including the R-Enantiomer of S-Pramipexole on Polysaccharide Chiral Stationary Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao; Kuntamukkala, Ramakrishna; Arnipalli, Manikanta Swamy

    2015-07-01

    Despite the availability of a few methods for individual separation of S-pramipexole from its process-related impurities, no common liquid chromatography (LC) method is reported so far in the literature. The present article describes the development of a single-run LC method for simultaneous determination of S-pramipexole and its enantiomeric and process-related impurities on a Chiralpak AD-H (150 x 4.6 mm, 5μm) column using n-hexane/ethanol/n-butylamine (75:25:0.1 v/v/v) as a mobile phase in an isocratic mode of elution at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min at 30°C. The chromatographic eluents were monitored at a wavelength of 260 nm using a photodiode array detector. Excellent enantioseparation with good resolutions (Rs ≥ 2.88) and peak shapes (As ≤ 1.21) for all analytes was achieved. The proposed method was validated according to International Conference Harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and linearity. Limits of quantification of impurities (0.25-0.55 μg/ml) indicate the highest sensitivity achievable by the proposed method. The method has an advantage of selectivity and suitability for routine determination of not only chiral impurity but also all possible related substances in active pharmaceutical ingredients of S-pramipexole.

  14. Temperature-dependent study of isotropic-nematic transition for a Gay-Berne fluid using density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the density-functional theory to study the effect of varying temperature on the isotropic-nematic transition of a fluid of molecules interacting via the Gay-Berne intermolecular potential. The nematic phase is found to be stable with respect to isotropic phase in the temperature range 0.80≤T*≤1.25. Pair correlation functions needed as input information in density-functional theory is calculated using the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory. We find that the density-functional theory is good for studying the isotropic-nematic transition in molecular fluids if the values of the pair-correlation functions in the isotropic phase are known accurately. We have also compared our results with computer simulation results wherever they are available

  15. Chiral Thirring–Wess model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Anisur, E-mail: anisur.rahman@saha.ac.in

    2015-10-15

    The vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model was replaced by the chiral type and a new model was presented which was termed as chiral Thirring–Wess model in Rahaman (2015). The model was studied there with a Faddeevian class of regularization. Few ambiguity parameters were allowed there with the apprehension that unitarity might be threatened like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. In the present work it has been shown that no counter term containing the regularization ambiguity is needed for this model to be physically sensible. So the chiral Thirring–Wess model is studied here without the presence of any ambiguity parameter and it has been found that the model not only remains exactly solvable but also does not lose the unitarity like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this new model have been determined in the present scenario. The theoretical spectrum is found to contain a massive boson with ambiguity free mass and a massless boson.

  16. Nematic antiferromagnetic states in bulk FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Xiang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    The existence of nematic order, which breaks the lattice rotational symmetry with nonequivalent a and b axes in iron-based superconductors, is a well-established experimental fact. An antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition is accompanying this order, observed in nearly all parent compounds, except bulk FeSe. The absence of the AFM order in FeSe casts doubt on the magnetic mechanism of iron-based superconductivity, since the nematic order is believed to be driven by the same interaction that is responsible for the superconducting pairing in these materials. Here we show, through systematic first-principles electronic structure calculations, that the ground state of FeSe is in fact strongly AFM correlated but without developing a magnetic long-range order. Actually, there are a series of staggered n -mer AFM states with corresponding energies below that of the single stripe AFM state, which is the ground state for the parent compounds of most iron-based superconductors. Here, the staggered n -mer (n any integer >1 ) means a set of n adjacent parallel spins on a line along the b axis with antiparallel spins between n -mers along both a and b axes. Moreover, different n -mers can antiparallelly mix with each other to coexist. Among all the states, we find that the lowest energy states formed by the staggered dimer, staggered trimer, and their random antiparallel aligned spin states along the b axis are quasidegenerate. The thermal average of these states does not show any magnetic long-range order, but it does possess a hidden one-dimensional AFM order along the a axis, which can be detected by elastic neutron scattering measurements. Our finding gives a natural account for the absence of long-range magnetic order and suggests that the nematicity is driven predominantly by spin fluctuations even in bulk FeSe, providing a unified description on the phase diagram of iron-based superconductors.

  17. Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Abuki, H

    2016-01-01

    We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it totally washes the tricritical point out of the phase diagram, bringing the continent for the chiral spiral. This is the case no matter how small is the intensity of the magnetic field. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.

  18. Non-covalent modification of reduced graphene oxide by a chiral liquid crystalline surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pengcheng; Cong, Yuehua; Sun, Cong; Zhang, Baoyan

    2016-01-01

    In order to effectively disperse reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in functional materials and take full advantage of its exceptional physical and chemical properties, a novel and effective approach for non-covalent modification of RGO by a chiral liquid crystalline surfactant (CLCS) consisting of chiral mesogenic units, nematic mesogenic units with carboxyl groups and non-mesogenic units with a polycyclic conjugated structure is firstly established. The polycyclic conjugated structure can anchor onto the RGO surface via π-π interactions, the chiral mesogenic units possess affinity for chiral materials by joining the helical matrix of chiral material and the carboxyl groups in nematic mesogenic units are supposed to form coordination bonds with nano zinc oxide (ZnO) to fabricate functional nano hybrids. The transmittances of CLCS-RGO hybrids exhibit S-shaped nonlinear increase with the increase of wavelength, but the total transmittances from 220 nm to 800 nm show a linear decreasing trend with the increase of RGO content in the CLCS-RGO hybrid. Due to the superior thermal properties of RGO and the interactions between RGO and CLCS, the dispersed RGO can improve the glass transition and increase the thermal stability and decomposition activation energy of CLCS. The intercalation of RGO can decrease the thermochromism temperature and improve the pitch uniformity of CLCS. Furthermore, CLCS can promote the dispersion of RGO in chiral nematic liquid crystals (CNLCs), and the CNLC-RGO-CLCS hybrids present decreased driving voltage and accelerated electro-optical response. The CLCS non-covalently modified RGO can strengthen the photocatalytic degradation of ZnO by suppressing the aggregation of ZnO and RGO.In order to effectively disperse reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in functional materials and take full advantage of its exceptional physical and chemical properties, a novel and effective approach for non-covalent modification of RGO by a chiral liquid crystalline surfactant

  19. Geodesic defect anchoring on nematic shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirantsev, Leonid V; Sonnet, André M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2012-08-01

    Nematic shells are colloidal particles coated with nematic liquid crystal molecules, which may freely glide and rotate on the colloid's surface while keeping their long axis on the local tangent plane. Molecular dynamics simulations on a nanoscopic spherical shell indicate that under appropriate adhesion conditions for the molecules on the equator, the equilibrium nematic texture exhibits at each pole a pair of +1/2 defects so close to one another to be treated as one +1 defect. Spirals connect the polar defects, though the continuum limit of the interaction potential would not feature any elastic anisotropy. A molecular averaging justifies an anchoring defect energy that feels the geodesics emanating from the defect. All our observations are explained by such a geodesic anchoring, which vanishes on flat manifolds. PMID:23005713

  20. Janus Nematic Colloids with Designable Valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Čopar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Janus nematic colloids based on various morphologies of particle surface patches imposing homeotropic and planar surface anchoring are demonstrated. By using mesoscopic numerical modeling, multiple types of Janus particles are explored, demonstrating a variety of novel complex colloidal structures. We also show binding of Janus particles to a fixed Janus post in the nematic cell, which acts as a seed and a micro-anchor for the colloidal structure. Janus colloidal structures reveal diverse topological defect configurations, which are effectively combinations of surface boojum and bulk defects. Topological analysis is applied to defects, importantly showing that topological charge is not a well determined topological invariant in such patchy nematic Janus colloids. Finally, this work demonstrates colloidal structures with designable valence, which could allow for targeted and valence-conditioned self-assembly at micro- and nano-scale.

  1. Quasiparticle scattering interference in iron pnictides: A probe of the origin of nematicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Yang; Li, Jian-Xin

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quasiparticle scattering interference (QPI) in the nematic phase of iron pnictides, based on the magnetic and orbital scenarios of nematicity, respectively. In the spin density wave (SDW) state, the QPI pattern exhibits a dimer structure in the energy region of the SDW gap, with its orientation along the ferromagnetic direction of the SDW order. When the energy is increased to be near the Fermi level, it exhibits two sets of dimers along the same direction. The dimer structure of the QPI patterns persists in the magnetically driven nematic phase, although the two dimers tend to merge together with energies closing to the Fermi level. While in the orbital scenario, the QPI patterns exhibit a dimer structure in a wide energy region. It undergoes a π /2 rotation with the increasing of energy, which is associated with the inequivalent energies of the two Dirac nodes induced by the orbital order. These distinct features may be used to probe or distinguish two kinds of scenarios of the nematicity.

  2. Direct and inverted nematic dispersions for soft matter photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muševič, I; Skarabot, M; Humar, M

    2011-07-20

    General properties and recent developments in the field of nematic colloids and emulsions are discussed. The origin and nature of pair colloidal interactions in the nematic colloids are explained and an overview of the stable colloidal 2D crystalline structures and superstructures discovered so far is given. The nature and role of topological defects in the nematic colloids is discussed, with an emphasis on recently discovered entangled colloidal structures. Applications of inverted nematic emulsions and binding force mechanisms in nematic colloids for soft matter photonic devices are discussed.

  3. Direct and inverted nematic dispersions for soft matter photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musevic, I; Skarabot, M; Humar, M, E-mail: igor.musevic@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-07-20

    General properties and recent developments in the field of nematic colloids and emulsions are discussed. The origin and nature of pair colloidal interactions in the nematic colloids are explained and an overview of the stable colloidal 2D crystalline structures and superstructures discovered so far is given. The nature and role of topological defects in the nematic colloids is discussed, with an emphasis on recently discovered entangled colloidal structures. Applications of inverted nematic emulsions and binding force mechanisms in nematic colloids for soft matter photonic devices are discussed. (topical review)

  4. Non-covalent modification of reduced graphene oxide by a chiral liquid crystalline surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pengcheng; Cong, Yuehua; Sun, Cong; Zhang, Baoyan

    2016-01-28

    In order to effectively disperse reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in functional materials and take full advantage of its exceptional physical and chemical properties, a novel and effective approach for non-covalent modification of RGO by a chiral liquid crystalline surfactant (CLCS) consisting of chiral mesogenic units, nematic mesogenic units with carboxyl groups and non-mesogenic units with a polycyclic conjugated structure is firstly established. The polycyclic conjugated structure can anchor onto the RGO surface via π-π interactions, the chiral mesogenic units possess affinity for chiral materials by joining the helical matrix of chiral material and the carboxyl groups in nematic mesogenic units are supposed to form coordination bonds with nano zinc oxide (ZnO) to fabricate functional nano hybrids. The transmittances of CLCS-RGO hybrids exhibit S-shaped nonlinear increase with the increase of wavelength, but the total transmittances from 220 nm to 800 nm show a linear decreasing trend with the increase of RGO content in the CLCS-RGO hybrid. Due to the superior thermal properties of RGO and the interactions between RGO and CLCS, the dispersed RGO can improve the glass transition and increase the thermal stability and decomposition activation energy of CLCS. The intercalation of RGO can decrease the thermochromism temperature and improve the pitch uniformity of CLCS. Furthermore, CLCS can promote the dispersion of RGO in chiral nematic liquid crystals (CNLCs), and the CNLC-RGO-CLCS hybrids present decreased driving voltage and accelerated electro-optical response. The CLCS non-covalently modified RGO can strengthen the photocatalytic degradation of ZnO by suppressing the aggregation of ZnO and RGO. PMID:26754831

  5. Experimental study of high-temperature smectic- C FI2 phase in chiral smectic liquid crystals that exhibit phase-sequence reversal

    OpenAIRE

    VIJ, JAGDISH; Song, Jang-Kun; PANARIN, YURI

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED We report the results of an experimental study of a recently observed phase sequence reversal of smectic-CFI2* [SmC*(qT=1/2); a four layer antiferroelectric] phase appearing in the temperature range above the smectic-C* (SmC*) phase from the results of optical birefringence, spontaneous polarization, selective reflection, conoscopy, and dielectric spectroscopy. The SmCFI2* phase is observed in an antiferroelectric liquid crystalline compound, 10OHF, in a temperature range above t...

  6. Nematic world crystal model of gravity explaining absence of torsion in spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, H.; Zaanen, J

    2004-04-26

    We attribute the gravitational interaction between sources of curvature to the world being a crystal which has undergone a quantum phase transition to a nematic phase by a condensation of dislocations. The model explains why spacetime has no observable torsion and predicts the existence of curvature sources in the form of world sheets, albeit with different high-energy properties than those of string models.

  7. Chiral Gravitational Waves from Chiral Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Anber, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    We report on a new mechanism that leads to the generation of primordial chiral gravitational waves, and hence, the violation of the parity symmetry in the Universe. We show that nonperturbative production of fermions with a definite helicity is accompanied by the generation of chiral gravitational waves. This is a generic and model-independent phenomenon that can occur during inflation, reheating and radiation eras, and can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background polarization and may be observed in future ground- and space-based interferometers. We also discuss a specific model where chiral gravitational waves are generated via the production of light chiral fermions during pseudoscalar inflation.

  8. Enantiomeric Separation of Saklmererol by HPLC Using a-Acid Glycoprotein Chiral Atationary Phase%α1-酸性糖蛋白柱拆分沙美特罗对映体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永健; 侯美琴

    2001-01-01

    To develop an enantionmeric sepatration mentod of salmeterol by HPLC using -acid glycopratein (a1-AGP )chiral stationary phase Method :Indluences of the pH value of the mobile phase organic modifiers,ans floe rate on the enantionmetric sparation of salmerterol using a1-AGP chiral straruionary phase were investigared Resulte :Salmeeterol enanhtiometric were separated on an a1-AGP chiral statonary phase colunmn with a moblie phase constsed of to mmol.l-1 NaAc(pH4.0)-isopropanol (98:2) at a flow rate of 0.9 ml.min-1 Conclustion :The pH value of the mobile phase and teh organic modifier concentration were vwery imporation parameteers when optimzing the enantomene sep-aration of thew cationic racem,metes Higher column efficiency was obtainde with lower flow rates%目的:建立沙美特罗对映体拆分方法。方法:以α1-酸性糖蛋白(α1-AGP)为固定相,考察了流动相pH、有机改性剂及流速对分离的影响。结果:以10 mmol.L-1醋酸钠(pH 4.0)-异丙醇(98∶2)为流动相,流速为0.9 mL.min-1,在α1-AGP柱上拆分了沙美特罗。结论:流动相pH和有机改性剂的量是优化分离带正电荷对映体的分离的重要因素。同时可以在一定的流速范围内通过调节流速来提高柱效、改善分离。

  9. New theories for smectic and nematic liquid crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of results from new statistical-physics theories for both backbone and side-chain liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) and for mixtures with LCPs is presented. Thermodynamic and molecular ordering properties (including odd-even effects) have been calculated as a function of pressure, density, temperature, and molecule chemical structures (including degree of polymerization and the following properties of the chemical structures of the repeat units: lengths and shapes, intra-chain rotation energies, dipole moments, site-site polarizabilities and Lennard-Jones potentials, etc.) in nematic and multiple smectic-A LC phases and in the isotropic liquid phase. These theories can also be applied to combined LCPs. Since these theories have no ad hoc or arbitrarily adjustable parameters, these theories have been used to design new LCPs and new solvents and to predict and explain properties

  10. Structure and properties of "nematically ordered" aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadchikov, V. E.; Askhadullin, R. Sh.; Volkov, V. V.; Dmitriev, V. V.; Kitaeva, N. K.; Martynov, P. N.; Osipov, A. A.; Senin, A. A.; Soldatov, A. A.; Chekrygina, D. I.; Yudin, A. N.

    2015-04-01

    The microstructure, specific area, and mechanical properties of various samples of "nematically ordered" aerogels whose strands are almost parallel to each other at macroscopic distances have been studied. The strong anisotropy of such aerogels distinguishes them from standard aerogels, which are synthesized by solgel technology, and opens new possibilities for physical experiments.

  11. Topology and geometry of nematic braids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čopar, Simon, E-mail: simon.copar@fmf.uni-lj.si

    2014-05-01

    Topological analysis of disclinations in nematic liquid crystals is an interesting and diverse topic that goes from strict mathematical theorems to applications in elaborate systems found in experiments and numerical simulations. The theory of nematic disclinations is shown from both the geometric and topological perspectives. Entangled disclination line networks are analyzed based on their shape and the behavior of their cross section. Methods of differential geometry are applied to derive topological results from reduced geometric information. For nematic braids, systems of −1/2 disclination loops, created by inclusion of homeotropic colloidal particles, a formalism of rewiring is constructed, allowing comparison and construction of an entire set of different conformations. The disclination lines are described as ribbons and a new topological invariant, the self-linking number, is introduced. The analysis is generalized from a constant −1/2 profile to general profile variations, while retaining the geometric treatment. The workings of presented topological statements are demonstrated on simple models of entangled nematic colloids, estimating the margins of theoretical assumptions made in the formal derivations, and reviewing the behavior of the disclinations not only under topological, but also under free-energy driven constraints.

  12. Near-infrared dichroism of a mesogenic transition metal complex and its solubility in nematic hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transition metal complex possessing the nematic phase, bis (p-n-butylstyryl-1, 2-dithiolato) nickel, was synthesized and its optical properties and solubility in the nematic hosts K15 and MBBA were investigated. The metal complex displayed a high solubility in both host materials (up to 10% wt/wt) and a strong near-infrared absorption band centered at 860 nm. A blocking extinction of greater than OD = 3 was obtained with a 100 micron pathlength of a 0.5% wt/wt mixture of the nematic metal complex in K15, suggesting its usefulness for passive blocking of near infrared radiation. A 24 micron thick, homogeneously aligned guest-host cell containing a 1% wt/wt mixture of the metal complex in K15 possessed a contrast ratio of nearly 5:1 and a blocking extinction of OD = 3.5 at 860 nm, demonstrating for the first time the existence of near-infrared dichroism in this class of materials. The solubility and blocking extinction of the mesogenic metal complex in K15 was considerably superior to the non-mesogenic near ir laser dye bis(dimethylaminodithiobenzil) nickel in the same host. An interaction of the nematic metal complex in mixtures with MBBA which resulted in the creation of a new absorption band at 1050 nm was also observed. 21 refs., 9 figs

  13. Molecular theory of nematic liquid crystals viewed as effect of collective excitation in ferromagnetic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian-Jun; Shen Man; Liu Xiao-Jing; Yang Guo-Chen

    2006-01-01

    We develop a microscopic theory of the nematic phase with consideration of the effect of the collective excitation on properties of nematic liquid crystals. The model is based on the Heisenberg's exchange model of the ferromagnetic materials. Since the orientation of the molecular long axis and the angular momentum of the molecule rotating around its long axis have the same direction, operators can be introduced to research the nematic liquid crystals. Using the lattice model and the Holstein-Primakoff transformation, the Hamiltonian of the system can be obtained, which has the same form as that of the ferromagnetic substance. The relation between the order parameter and reduced temperature can be gotten. It is in good agreement with the experimental results in the low temperature region, the accordance is better than that of the molecular field theory and the computer simulation. In high temperature region close to the transition point, by considering the effect of the higher-order terms in the Hamiltonian, theoretical prediction is in better agreement with the experiment. That indicates the many-body effect is important to nematic liquid crystals.

  14. Two-Color QCD with Non-zero Chiral Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Braguta, V V; Ilgenfritz, E -M; Kotov, A Yu; Molochkov, A V; Muller-Preussker, M; Petersson, B

    2015-01-01

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.

  15. Two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguta, V. V.; Goy, V. A.; Ilgenfritz, E. M.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Molochkov, A. V.; Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B.

    2015-06-01

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.

  16. Anomalous Chiral Superfluidity

    OpenAIRE

    Lublinsky, Michael(Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel); Zahed, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavour anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is ...

  17. 冠醚固定相的制备及手性拆分%Crown ether stationary phase for chiral separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍鹏; 汤波; 路振宇; 孔娇; 袁黎明

    2015-01-01

    以 R‐联萘酚为原料合成了 R‐(1,1′‐二萘基)‐20‐冠‐6,并将其涂敷于 C18硅胶(平均粒径5μm ,孔径120 nm)上制成了可用于高效液相色谱手性拆分的 R‐(1,1′‐二萘基)‐20‐冠‐6冠醚固定相(CSP).在以 pH =2的高氯酸溶液为流动相,流速为0.1 mL ・min‐1,柱温为25℃的条件下,研究了 CSP 对9种α‐氨基酸对映体的拆分能力.实验结果表明,有5种手性氨基酸(缬氨酸、苯甘氨酸、对羟基苯甘氨酸、谷氨酸、色氨酸)得到不同程度的拆分,说明 CSP 能对手性氨基酸进行一定的拆分.%In this paper ,R‐(1 ,1′‐ binaphthyl)‐20‐crown‐6 was synthesized and coated on C18 silica gel ,which was used as the chiral stationary phase with pH = 2 perchloric acid solution as mobile phase in high performance liquid chromatography .Five α‐amino acid enantiomers (valine ,phenylglycine ,hydroxyphenylglycine ,glutamate and tryptophan) had been separated . The results showed that the R‐(1 ,1′‐ binaphthyl)‐20‐crown‐6 crown ether stationary phase (CSP) possesses a good enantioselectivity for α‐ amino acid enantiomers .

  18. Topological state engineering by potential impurities on chiral superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladzhyan, Vardan; Röntynen, Joel; Simon, Pascal; Ojanen, Teemu

    2016-08-01

    In this work we consider the influence of potential impurities deposited on top of two-dimensional chiral superconductors. As discovered recently, magnetic impurity lattices on an s -wave superconductor may give rise to a rich topological phase diagram. We show that a similar mechanism takes place in chiral superconductors decorated by nonmagnetic impurities, thus avoiding the delicate issue of magnetic ordering of adatoms. We illustrate the method by presenting the theory of potential impurity lattices embedded on chiral p -wave superconductors. While a prerequisite for the topological state engineering is a chiral superconductor, the proposed procedure results in vistas of nontrivial descendant phases with different Chern numbers.

  19. Chiral Separation of Basic Compounds on Sulfated β-Cyclodextrin-Coated Zirconia Monolith by Capillary Electrochromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jongseong; Park, Jung Hag [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Sulfated β-cyclodextrin (SCD)-coated zirconia monolith was used as the chiral stationary phase in capillary electrochromatography for enantiomeric separation of basic chiral compounds. SCD adsorbed on the zirconia surface provided a stable chiral stationary phase in reversed-phase eluent. Retention, chiral selectivity and resolution of a set of six basic chiral compounds were measured in eluent of varying pH, composition of methanol and buffer. Optimum mobile phase condition for the separation of the compounds was found to be methanol content of 30%, buffer concentration of 30 mM and pH of 4.0.

  20. Baryons and Chiral Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of $\\pi N \\sigma$ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral $U(1)$ anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.

  1. Generation of chiral spin state by quantum simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamoto, Tetsufumi

    2016-06-01

    Chirality of materials in nature appears when there are asymmetries in their lattice structures or interactions in a certain environment. Recent development of quantum simulation technology has enabled the manipulation of qubits. Accordingly, chirality can be realized intentionally rather than passively observed. Here we theoretically provide simple methods to create a chiral spin state in a spin-1/2 qubit system on a square lattice. First, we show that switching on and off the Heisenberg and X Y interactions produces the chiral interaction directly in the effective Hamiltonian without controlling local fields. Moreover, when initial states of spin qubits are appropriately prepared, we prove that the chirality with desirable phase is dynamically obtained. Finally, even for the case where switching on and off the interactions is infeasible and the interactions are always on, we show that, by preparing an asymmetric initial qubit state, the chirality whose phase is π /2 is dynamically generated.

  2. Emergence of Chirality from Isotropic Interactions of Three Length Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhonta, S. K.; Elder, K. R.; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Chirality is known to play a pivotal role in determining material properties and functionalities. However, it remains a great challenge to understand and control the emergence of chirality and the related enantioselective process particularly when the building components of the system are achiral. Here we explore the generic mechanisms driving the formation of two-dimensional chiral structures in systems characterized by isotropic interactions and three competing length scales. We demonstrate that starting from isotropic and rotationally invariant interactions, a variety of chiral ordered patterns and superlattices with anisotropic but achiral units can self-assemble. The mechanisms for selecting specific states are related to the length-scale coupling and the selection of resonant density wave vectors. Sample phase diagrams and chiral elastic properties are identified. These findings provide a viable route for predicting chiral phases and selecting the desired handedness.

  3. Atroposelective Synthesis of Axially Chiral Thiohydantoin Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigul, Sevgi; Dogan, Ilknur

    2016-07-15

    Nonracemic axially chiral thiohydantoins were synthesized atroposelectively by the reaction of o-aryl isothiocyanates with amino acid ester salts in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). The synthesis of the nonaxially chiral derivatives, however, gave thiohydantoins racemized at C-5 of the heterocyclic ring. The micropreparatively resolved enantiomers of the nonaxially chiral derivatives from the racemic products were found to be optically stable under neutral conditions. On formation of the 5-methyl-3-arylthiohydantoin ring, bulky o-aryl substituents at N3 were found to suppress the C-5 racemization and in this way enabled the transfer of chirality from the α-amino acid to the products. The corresponding 5-isopropylthiohydantoins turned out to be more prone to racemization at C-5 during the ring formation. The isomer compositions of the synthesized axially chiral thiohydantoins have been determined through HPLC analyses with chiral stationary phases. In most cases a high prevalence of the P isomers over the M isomers has been obtained. The barriers to rotation determined around the Nsp(2)-Caryl chiral axis were found to be dependent upon the size of the o-halo aryl substituents. PMID:27322739

  4. Chirality in Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupert, Levi M.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2009-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed the emergence of new measurement approaches and applications for chiral thin films and materials enabled by the observations of the high sensitivity of second-order nonlinear optical measurements to chirality. In thin films, the chiral response to second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation (SFG) from a single molecular monolayer is often comparable with the achiral response. The chiral specificity also allows for symmetry-allowed SFG in isotropic chiral media, confirming predictions made ˜50 years ago. With these experimental demonstrations in hand, an important challenge is the construction of intuitive predictive models that allow the measured chiral response to be meaningfully related back to molecular and macromolecular structure. This review defines and considers three distinct mechanisms for chiral effects in uniaxially oriented assemblies: orientational chirality, intrinsic chirality, and isotropic chirality. The role of each is discussed in experimental and computational studies of bacteriorhodopsin films, binaphthol, and collagen. Collectively, these three model systems support a remarkably simple framework for quantitatively recovering the measured chiral-specific activity.

  5. Instability of a Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystal Formed by Homeotropic Anchoring on Surface Grooves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Dong; XUAN Li

    2011-01-01

    A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition.Employing some approximations for the elastic constants,we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves,with a period of π/2.This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable.Our theoretical study explains why the homeotropic alignment method developed for uniaxial liquid crystals loses efficacy for biaxial nematics.In most liquid crystal devices,the liquid crystals are sandwiched between two substrates coated with alignment layers.In the absence of externally applied fields,the orientation of the liquid crystal in the cell is determined by the anchoring condition of the alignment layer.[1-3] One usually distinguishes three main types of liquid crystalline director alignment near solid walls:homeotropic,homogeneous (or planar) and tilted orientations.Here we study the first of these and consider the biaxial nematic phase,which was observed in lyotropic systems as early as 1980[4] and has been confirmed by deuterium NMR spectroscopy.%A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition. Employing some approximations for the elastic constants, we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves, with a period of π/2. This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable. Our

  6. Chiral Rotational Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Robert P; Barnett, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy: a new technique that enables the determination of the individual optical activity polarisability components $G_{XX}'$, $G_{YY}'$, $G_{ZZ}'$, $A_{X,YZ}$, $A_{Y,ZX}$ and $A_{Z,XY}$ of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample whilst yielding an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centres. The principles that underpin chiral rotational spectroscopy can also be exploited in the search for molecular chirality in space, which, if found, may add weight to hypotheses that biological homochirality and indeed life itself are of cosmic origin.

  7. On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica

    2011-07-01

    In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)

  8. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  9. Pseudo-molecular approach for the elastic constants of nematic liquid crystals interacting via anisotropic dispersion forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonário, P.S., E-mail: simonario@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná (Brazil); Freire, F.C.M.; Evangelista, L.R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná (Brazil); Teixeira-Souza, R.T. [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – Câmpus Apucarana, Rua Marcílio Dias, 635, 86812-460 Apucarana, Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-01-17

    The bulk and the surface-like elastic constants of a nematic liquid crystal are calculated for an ensemble of particles interacting via anisotropic dispersion forces using the pseudo-molecular method. The geometrical anisotropy of the molecules is also taken into account in the calculations by choosing a molecular volume of ellipsoidal shape. Analytical expressions for the elastic constants are obtained as a function of the eccentricity in the molecular volume shape. The method allows one to explore the dependence on the molecular orientation with respect to the intermolecular vector by analyzing the magnitude and the behaviour of macroscopic elastic parameters defining the nematic phase.

  10. Vortex and disclination structures in a nematic-superconductor state

    OpenAIRE

    Barci, Daniel G.; Clarim, Rafael V.; Júnior, Nei L. Silva

    2016-01-01

    The nematic-superconductor state, an example of a quantum liquid crystal that breaks gauge as well as rotation invariance, was conjecture to exist in the pseudogap regime of the cuprates high $T_c$ superconductors. We present a detailed study of the structure of topological defects supported by the nematic-superconductor state. By means of a Ginzburg-Landau approach, we study the main relevant imprints on the superconductor order parameter caused by nematicity. Due to a geometrical coupling, ...

  11. 用液晶与聚合物混合材料的各向异性相分离制备快速响应液晶盒%Fast Switching Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell Fabricated by Anisotropic Phase-separation From a Liquid Crystal and Polymer Composite Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆兵

    2004-01-01

    展示一种新型含有超薄液晶层( 小于1 μm) 的快速响应液晶盒, 总的响应时间( τon+τoff) 可以达到1.3 ms.这种液晶器件可以通过对一种液晶和聚合物混合材料的各向异性相分离制备获得. 偏光显微镜和扫描电子显微镜的观测结果确认了一种液晶/聚合物的双层膜机构的形成. 实验结果表明液晶层的厚度可以简单地通过改变液晶在混合材料中的含量来精确调节.这种制备方法可以用来制作含有超薄液晶层的快速显示液晶器件用于视频显示方面的应用.%It is demonstrated that a nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell containing a very thin (《1 μm) LC film can perform very fast switching, with a total response time as fast as 1.3 ms. Such type of LC devices can be prepared by a photo-induced anisotropic phase-separation from a nematic LC and polymer composite material. The formation of the LC/polymer bi-layer structure in the cell after the anisotropic phase-separation was confirmed by employing polarized light microscope and scanning electron microscope. It is also found that LC layer thickness can be fine tuned by adjusting the LC concentration in the composite mixture. Such a technique can be used to fabricate LC devices containing very thin LC film and performing fast switching for TV and Video applications where fast response time is required.

  12. Hard Spherocylinders of Two Different Lengths as a Model System of a Nematic Liquid Crystal on an Anisotropic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Tomonori; Hyodo, Yosuke; Momoi, Yuichi; Kwak, Musun; Kang, Dongwoo; Choi, Youngseok; Nishioka, Akihiro; Haba, Osamu; Yonetake, Koichiro

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we describe the effects of an anisotropic substrate on the alignment of a nematic liquid crystal. We examine how the substrate affects the alignment of a nematic liquid crystal by Monte Carlo simulation. The liquid crystal on a substrate was described by the phase separation of liquid crystal molecules and substrate molecules, both of which were modeled by hard particles. We used hard rods to represent both the liquid crystal and the substrate. The length of the hard rods representing the substrate was adjusted to represent the degree of substrate anisotropy. The results show that the nematic alignment could either be reinforced or weakened, depending on the length of the substrate rods. Mean field theory is used to analyze the simulation results. We confirmed that the distance over which the substrate affects the bulk liquid crystal is about 3 nm for the present hard-rod-based model.

  13. Ultra-fast high-efficiency enantioseparations by means of a teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase made on sub-2 μm totally porous silica particles of narrow size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Omar H; Ciogli, Alessia; Villani, Claudio; De Martino, Michela; Pierini, Marco; Cavazzini, Alberto; Bell, David S; Gasparrini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A new ultra-high performance teicoplanin-based stationary phase was prepared starting from sub-2 μm totally porous silica particles of narrow size distribution. Columns of different lengths were packed at high pressure and a deep and systematic evaluation of kinetic performance, in terms of van Deemter analysis, was performed under different elution conditions (HILIC, POM, RP and NP) by using both achiral and chiral probes. For the achiral probes, the efficiency of the columns at the minimum of the van Deemter curves were very high leading to some 278,000, 270,000, 262,000 and 232,000 plates/m in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), polar organic mode (POM), normal phase (NP) and reversed phase (RP) respectively. The lowest plate height, Hmin=3.59 μm (h(/)=1.89), was obtained under HILIC conditions at a flow rate of 1.4 mL/min. Efficiency as high as 200,000-250,000 plates/m (at the optimum flow rate) was obtained in the separation of the enantiomers of chiral probes under HILIC/POM conditions. N-protected amino acids, α-aryloxy acids, herbicides, anti-inflammatory agents were baseline separated on short (2-cm) and ultra-short (1-cm) columns, with analysis time in the order of 1 min. The enantiomers of N-BOC-d,l-methionine were successfully baseline separated in only 11s in HILIC mode. Several examples of fast and efficient resolutions in sub/supercritical fluid chromatography were also obtained for a range of chiral carboxylic acids. PMID:26687167

  14. Ultra-fast high-efficiency enantioseparations by means of a teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase made on sub-2 μm totally porous silica particles of narrow size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Omar H; Ciogli, Alessia; Villani, Claudio; De Martino, Michela; Pierini, Marco; Cavazzini, Alberto; Bell, David S; Gasparrini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A new ultra-high performance teicoplanin-based stationary phase was prepared starting from sub-2 μm totally porous silica particles of narrow size distribution. Columns of different lengths were packed at high pressure and a deep and systematic evaluation of kinetic performance, in terms of van Deemter analysis, was performed under different elution conditions (HILIC, POM, RP and NP) by using both achiral and chiral probes. For the achiral probes, the efficiency of the columns at the minimum of the van Deemter curves were very high leading to some 278,000, 270,000, 262,000 and 232,000 plates/m in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), polar organic mode (POM), normal phase (NP) and reversed phase (RP) respectively. The lowest plate height, Hmin=3.59 μm (h(/)=1.89), was obtained under HILIC conditions at a flow rate of 1.4 mL/min. Efficiency as high as 200,000-250,000 plates/m (at the optimum flow rate) was obtained in the separation of the enantiomers of chiral probes under HILIC/POM conditions. N-protected amino acids, α-aryloxy acids, herbicides, anti-inflammatory agents were baseline separated on short (2-cm) and ultra-short (1-cm) columns, with analysis time in the order of 1 min. The enantiomers of N-BOC-d,l-methionine were successfully baseline separated in only 11s in HILIC mode. Several examples of fast and efficient resolutions in sub/supercritical fluid chromatography were also obtained for a range of chiral carboxylic acids.

  15. Nematic-like organization of magnetic mesogen-hybridized nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demortière, Arnaud; Buathong, Saïwan; Pichon, Benoît P; Panissod, Pierre; Guillon, Daniel; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Donnio, Bertrand

    2010-06-21

    A fluid nematic-like phase is induced in monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.3 nm. This supramolecular arrangement is governed by the covalent functionalization of the nanoparticle surface with cyanobiphenyl-based ligands as mesogenic promoters. The design and synthesis of these hybrid materials and the study of their mesogenic properties are reported. In addition, the modifications of the magnetic properties of the hybridized nanoparticles are investigated as a function of the different grafted ligands. Owing to the rather large interparticular distances (about 7 nm), the dipolar interaction between nanoparticles is shown to play only a minor role. Conversely, the surface magnetic anisotropy of the particles is significantly affected by the surface derivatization. PMID:20486228

  16. Nematic order by elastic interactions and cellular rigidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, B. M.; Safran, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    We predict spontaneous nematic order in an ensemble of active force generators with elastic interactions as a minimal model for early nematic alignment of short stress fibers in non-motile, adhered cells. Mean-field theory is formally equivalent to Maier-Saupe theory for a nematic liquid. However, the elastic interactions are long-ranged (and thus depend on cell shape and matrix elasticity) and originate in cell activity. Depending on the density of force generators, we find two regimes of cellular rigidity sensing for which orientational, nematic order of stress fibers depends on matrix rigidity either in a step-like manner or with a maximum at an optimal rigidity.

  17. Phenomenological Theory of Isotropic-Genesis Nematic Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Ye, Fangfu; Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2012-06-01

    We consider the impact of the elastomer network on the nematic structure and fluctuations in isotropic-genesis nematic elastomers, via a phenomenological model that underscores the role of network compliance. The model contains a network-mediated nonlocal interaction as well as a new kind of random field that reflects the memory of the nematic order present at network formation and also encodes local anisotropy due to localized nematogenic polymers. This model enables us to predict regimes of short-ranged oscillatory spatial correlations (thermal and glassy) in the nematic alignment.

  18. Synthesis of dinitrophenyl-L-Pro-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and four new variants of Sanger's reagent having chiral amines and their application for enantioresolution of mexiletine using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Ravi; Tanwar, Shivani

    2009-07-24

    Four chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs) having enantiomerically pure amines and two CDRs namely, [N-succinimidyl-(S)-2-(6-methoxynaphth-2-yl)propionate], and [dinitrophenyl-L-Pro-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, DNP-L-Pro-SU] were synthesized and were used to prepare diastereomers of (R,S)-mexiletine (MEX); these were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). PMID:19552908

  19. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-01

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant

  20. Transmittance Fluctuation from Nearly Extinct Nematic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Ken

    2010-04-01

    By introducing geometrical optics approximation (GOA) solutions to a nearly extinct homogeneous nematic director, the effects of assembly misalignment and director fluctuation on light leakage transmittance are studied. Transmittance expressions including fluctuation swing are obtained for three misoriented cases: misaligned homogeneous case, misaligned analyzer case, and mistwisted nematic case. Except for the misaligned homogeneous case with second-order fluctuation, all the other expressions have a linear contribution caused by their own misorientation. From these results, the transmittance variance from fluctuation at a misaligned situation is more enhanced than that in the extinction situation. After introducing thermal average statistics, expressions for the average and variance of transmittance with fluctuation are given. A numerical estimation for these expressions shows that in the misaligned homogeneous case by 1°, the standard deviation of transmittance is 20% of its average.

  1. Shear viscosity at the Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two dimensional metals

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Aavishkar A; Sachdev, Subir

    2016-01-01

    In a strongly interacting quantum liquid without quasiparticles, general scaling arguments imply that the dimensionless ratio $(k_B /\\hbar)\\, \\eta/s$, where $\\eta$ is the shear viscosity and $s$ is the entropy density, is a universal number. We compute the shear viscosity of the Ising-nematic critical point of metals in spatial dimension $d=2$ by an expansion below $d=5/2$. The anisotropy associated with directions parallel and normal to the Fermi surface leads to a violation of the scaling expectations: $\\eta$ scales in the same manner as a chiral conductivity, and the ratio $\\eta/s$ diverges as $T^{-2/z}$, where $z$ is the dynamic critical exponent for fermionic excitations dispersing normal to the Fermi surface.

  2. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G., E-mail: geeraj88@gmail.com, E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Krishna Prasad, S., E-mail: geeraj88@gmail.com, E-mail: skpras@gmail.com [Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560013 (India); Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore (W) 721 102 (India)

    2014-10-21

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  3. 一种新型手性配体交换色谱键合固定相%A Novel Bonded Stationary Phase for Chiral Ligand Exchange-Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙远德; 王群标; 等

    2001-01-01

    A novel chiral bonded stationary phase(CBSP) for ligand exchange chromatography was prepared by bonding (S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinoline carboxylic acid prepared from L-Phe to YWG-80 silica gel via 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as a coupling agent. Chromatographic resolutions of some DL-amino acids were achieved on the CBSP by using an aqueous solution of 2 mmol/L N(C2H5)3, 2 mmol/L HAc and 0.2 mmol/L Cu(Ac)2 as the mobile phase with a flow rate 1.0 mL/min, column temperature 50 ℃ and detection at 254 nm. The enantioselectivity α of the DL-amino acids on the CBSP was found to be between 1.11 and 1.51. The elution order of D-isomer before L-isomer on the CBSP was observed for all the DL-amino acids resolved except DL-Val. For DL-Pro, DL-Val and DL-Leu the elution order through the CBSP was different from that through the chiral ligand exchange phases prepared from L-Pro or L-hydroxyl proline with a five-membered ring structure.

  4. Electrically controlled dispersion in a nematic cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Carlos I. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: cmendoza@iim.unam.mx; Olivares, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros, COMEX, Blvd. M. Avila Camacho 138, PH1 y 2, Lomas de Chapultepec 11560, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Reyes, J.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we show theoretically how the trajectories of a propagating optical beam traveling in a planar-homeotropic hybrid nematic crystal cell depend on the wavelength of the optical beam. We apply a uniform electric field perpendicular to the cell to modify these trajectories. The influence of both, the electric field intensity and the refraction index dependence on the wavelength, give rise to an electrically tuned dispersion that may be useful for practical applications.

  5. Relation Between Chiral Susceptibility and Solutions of Gap Equation in Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y; Liu, Y; Yuan, W; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-xin; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Yue

    2006-01-01

    We study the solutions of the gap equation, the thermodynamic potential and the chiral susceptibility in and beyond the chiral limit at finite chemical potential in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. We give an explicit relation between the chiral susceptibility and the thermodynamic potential in the NJL model. We find that the chiral susceptibility is a quantity being able to represent the furcation of the solutions of the gap equation and the concavo-convexity of the thermodynamic potential in NJL model. It indicates that the chiral susceptibility can identify the stable state and the possibility of the chiral phase transition in NJL model.

  6. Free surface dynamics of nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Linda; Kondic, Lou; Lam, Michael; Lin, Te-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Spreading thin films of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) are known to behave very differently to those of isotropic fluids. The polar interactions of the rod-like molecules with each other, and the interactions with the underlying substrate, can lead to intricate patterns and instabilities that are not yet fully understood. The physics of a system even as simple as a film of NLC spreading slowly over a surface (inclined or horizontal) are remarkably complex: the outcome depends strongly on the details of the NLC's behavior at both the substrate and the free surface (so-called ``anchoring'' effects). We will present a dynamic flow model that takes careful account of such nematic-substrate and nematic-free surface interactions. We will present model simulations for several different flow scenarios that indicate the variety of behavior that can emerge. Spreading over a horizontal substrate may exhibit a range of unstable behavior. Flow down an incline also exhibits intriguing instabilities: in addition to the usual transverse fingering, instabilities can be manifested behind the flowing front in a manner reminiscent of Newtonian flow down an inverted substrate. NSF DMS-1211713.

  7. Post-Tanner spreading of nematic droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasistationary spreading of a circular liquid drop on a solid substrate typically obeys the so-called Tanner law, with the instantaneous base radius R(t) growing with time as R∼t1/10-an effect of the dominant role of capillary forces for a small-sized droplet. However, for droplets of nematic liquid crystals, a faster spreading law sets in at long times, so that R∼tα with α significantly larger than the Tanner exponent 1/10. In the framework of the thin film model (or lubrication approximation), we describe this 'acceleration' as a transition to a qualitatively different spreading regime driven by a strong substrate-liquid interaction specific to nematics (antagonistic anchoring at the interfaces). The numerical solution of the thin film equation agrees well with the available experimental data for nematics, even though the non-Newtonian rheology has yet to be taken into account. Thus we complement the theory of spreading with a post-Tanner stage, noting that the spreading process can be expected to cross over from the usual capillarity-dominated stage to a regime where the whole reservoir becomes a diffusive film in the sense of Derjaguin.

  8. Chiral Superfluidity for QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma formed at LHC and RHIC can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The "normal" component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the "superfluid" part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use the bosonization procedure with a finite cut-off and obtain a dynamical axion-like field out of the chiral fermionic modes. Then we use relativistic hydrodynamics for macroscopic description of the effective theory obtained after the bosonization. Finally, solving the hydrodynamic equations in gradient expansion, we find that in the presence of external electromagnetic fields or rotation the motion of the "superfluid" component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, chiral vortical, chiral electric and dipole wave effects. Latter two effects are specific for a two-component fluid, which provides us with crucial experimental tests of the model.

  9. Chiral symmetry breaking and vacuum polarization in a bag

    CERN Document Server

    Yasui, S

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of a finite quark mass in the hedgehog configuration in the two phase chiral bag model. We discuss the chiral properties, such as the fractional baryon number and the chiral Casimir energy, by using the Debye expansion for the analytical calculation and the Strutinsky's smearing method for the numerical computation. It is shown that the fractional baryon number carried by massive quarks in the vacuum is canceled by that in the meson sector. A finite term of the chiral Casimir energy is obtained with subtraction of the logarithmic divergence term.

  10. Enantiomer-Specific State Transfer of Chiral Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Eibenberger, Sandra; Patterson, David

    2016-01-01

    State-selective enantiomeric excess is realized using microwave-driven coherent population transfer. The method selectively promotes either R- or S- molecules to a higher rotational state by phase-controlled microwave pulses that drive electric-dipole allowed rotational transitions. We demonstrate the method using a racemic mixture of 1,2-propanediol. This method of chiral enrichment can be applied to nearly any chiral molecule that can be vaporized and cooled to the point where rotationally resolved spectroscopy is possible, including molecules that rapidly racemize. The rapid chiral switching demonstrated here allows for new applications in high-precision spectroscopic searches for parity violation in chiral molecules.

  11. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of diastereomers of (R,S)-mexiletine prepared by microwave irradiation with four new chiral derivatizing reagents based on trichloro-s-triazine having amino acids as chiral auxiliaries and 10 others having amino acid amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Ravi; Dixit, Shuchi

    2010-12-01

    A new series of chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs) consisting of four dichloro-s-triazine reagents was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of one chlorine atom in trichloro-s-triazine with amino acids, namely L-Leu, D-Phg, L-Val and L-Ala as chiral auxiliaries. Two other sets of CDRs consisting of four dichloro-s-triazine (DCT) and six monochloro-s-triazine (MCT) reagents were also prepared by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine atom(s) with different amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries in trichloro-s-triazine and its 6-methoxy derivative, respectively. These 14 CDRs were used for the synthesis of diastereomers of (R,S)-mexiletine under microwave irradiation (i.e. 60s and 90 s at 85% power (of 800 W) using DCT and MCT reagents, respectively), which were resolved by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using C18 column and gradient eluting mixtures of methanol with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 230 nm. The resolution (R(s)), difference between retention times of resolved diastereomers (Δt) and retention factors (k) obtained for the three sets of diastereomers were compared among themselves and among the three groups. Explanations have been offered for longer retention times and better resolution of diastereomers prepared with DCT reagents in comparison of their MCT counterparts and, for the influence of hydrophobicity of the side chain R of the amino acid in the CDRs on retention times and resolution. The newly synthesized CDRs were observed to be superior as compared to their amide counterparts in terms of providing better resolution and cost effectiveness. The method was validated for limit of detection, linearity, accuracy and precision. PMID:21035811

  12. Mechanical separation of chiral dipoles by chiral light

    CERN Document Server

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Optical forces take on a specific form when involving chiral light fields interacting with chiral objects. We show that optical chirality density and flow can have mechanical effects through reactive and dissipative components of chiral forces exerted on chiral dipoles. Remarkably, these force components are directly related to standard observables: optical rotation and circular dichroism, respectively. As a consequence, resulting forces and torques are dependent on the enantiomeric form of the chiral dipole. This leads to promising strategies for the mechanical separation of chiral objects using chiral light forces.

  13. Detecting Chirality in Molecules by Linearly Polarized Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2016-07-01

    A new scheme for enantiomer differentiation of chiral molecules using a pair of linearly polarized intense ultrashort laser pulses with skewed mutual polarization is presented. The technique relies on the fact that the off-diagonal anisotropic contributions to the electric polarizability tensor for two enantiomers have different signs. Exploiting this property, we are able to excite a coherent unidirectional rotation of two enantiomers with a π phase difference in the molecular electric dipole moment. The approach is robust and suitable for relatively high temperatures of molecular samples, making it applicable for selective chiral analysis of mixtures, and to chiral molecules with low barriers between enantiomers. As an illustration, we present nanosecond laser-driven dynamics of a tetratomic nonrigid chiral molecule with short-lived chirality. The ultrafast time scale of the proposed technique is well suited to study parity violation in molecular systems in short-lived chiral states.

  14. Detecting chirality in molecules by linearly polarized laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yachmenev, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    A new scheme for enantiomer differentiation of chiral molecules using a pair of linearly polarized intense ultrashort laser pulses with skewed mutual polarization is presented. The technique relies on the fact that the off-diagonal anisotropic contributions to the electric polarizability tensor for two enantiomers have different signs. Exploiting this property, we are able to excite a coherent unidirectional rotation of two enantiomers with a {\\pi} phase difference in the molecular electric dipole moment. The approach is robust and suitable for relatively high temperatures of molecular samples, making it applicable for selective chiral analysis of mixtures, and to chiral molecules with low barriers between enantiomers. As an illustration, we present nanosecond laser-driven dynamics of a tetratomic non-rigid chiral molecule with short-lived chirality. The ultrafast time scale of the proposed technique is well suited to study parity violation in molecular systems in short-lived chiral states.

  15. Renormalization of NN Interaction with Relativistic Chiral Two Pion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, R; Valderrama, M Pavon; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2007-06-14

    The renormalization of the NN interaction with the Chiral Two Pion Exchange Potential computed using relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory is considered. The short distance singularity reduces the number of counter-terms to about a half as those in the heavy-baryon expansion. Phase shifts and deuteron properties are evaluated and a general overall agreement is observed.

  16. Chiral atomically thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  17. Anomalous chiral superfluidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lublinsky, Michael, E-mail: lublinsky@phys.uconn.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zahed, Ismail [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2010-02-08

    We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavor anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is briefly noted.

  18. Chiral Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Srimoyee

    2016-01-01

    We study shock waves in relativistic chiral matter. We argue that the conventional Rankine- Hugoinot relations are modified due to the presence of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the entropy discontinuity in a weak shock wave is linearly proportional to the pressure discontinuity when the effect of chiral transport becomes sufficiently large. We also show that rarefaction shock waves, which do not exist in usual nonchiral fluids, can appear in chiral matter. These features are exemplified by shock propagation in dense neutrino matter in the hydrodynamic regime.

  19. Chiral selection and frequency response of spiral waves in reaction-diffusion systems under a chiral electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Wei; Cai, Mei-Chun; Zhang, Hong; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Dierckx, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Chirality is one of the most fundamental properties of many physical, chemical, and biological systems. However, the mechanisms underlying the onset and control of chiral symmetry are largely understudied. We investigate possibility of chirality control in a chemical excitable system (the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction) by application of a chiral (rotating) electric field using the Oregonator model. We find that unlike previous findings, we can achieve the chirality control not only in the field rotation direction, but also opposite to it, depending on the field rotation frequency. To unravel the mechanism, we further develop a comprehensive theory of frequency synchronization based on the response function approach. We find that this problem can be described by the Adler equation and show phase-locking phenomena, known as the Arnold tongue. Our theoretical predictions are in good quantitative agreement with the numerical simulations and provide a solid basis for chirality control in excitable media.

  20. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...

  1. Director tumbling of nematic wormlike micelles under shear: time-resolved rheo-NMR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nematic liquid crystals show a complex flow behavior due to the coupling between orientation and flow. Some materials show a stable director orientation in steady shear flow (flow aligning), while for others no stable director orientation exists (tumbling). Director tumbling gives rise to oscillations of shear and normal stresses in rheological experiments and can be detected by optical methods, for example by microscopy or birefringence measurements. We have used deuterium NMR spectroscopy to observe shear-induced director orientations. In the lyotropic system cetylpyridinium chloride/hexanol/brine, which forms a nematic phase of wormlike micelles, time-resolved observations of the director orientation by means of deuterium NMR spectroscopy of D2O have been possible for the first time. The time-dependence of the director orientations in both shear start-up and flow-reversal experiments will be presented. (orig.)

  2. Regular and Chaotic Flow Behavior and Orientational Dynamics of Tumbling Nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.; Heidenreich, S.; Ilg, P.; Kröger, M.

    2006-05-01

    We consider liquid crystalline polymers under plane Couette flow and investigate the influence of fluctuating shear rates on the orientational dynamics. With help of phase portraits and time evolution diagrams of the alignment tensor components, we discuss the effect of fluctuations on the flow-aligned, isotropic and periodic solutions. To explore the effect of fluctuations on the chaotic behavior we calculated the greatest Lyapunov exponent for different fluctuation strengths. We found that fluctuations of the shear rate in general have little effect on the dynamics of tumbling nematics. Further we present a new amended potential modeling the isotropic-to-nematic transition. In contrast to the Landau-de Gennes potential our potential has the advantage to restrict the order parameter to physically admissible values. In the end we present some results of the orientational dynamics for a spatially inhomogeneous system.

  3. ARTICLES: Orientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Orange Dyes and Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicilar, Ahmet; Akkurt, Fatih; Kaya, Nihan

    2010-06-01

    Some properties of nematic liquid crystal E7 doped with two disperse orange dyes used together and effect of addition of carbon nanoparticles (single walled carbon nanotube or fullerene C60) on them were studied. Two dyes (disperse orange 11 and 13) having high solubility and order parameter were used as co-dopants. A notable increase in order parameter was obtained comparing to that of liquid crystal doped with single dye. When carbon nanoparticles were used as dopant, a decrease in order parameter was observed at low temperatures while it increased at high temperatures. When applied voltage changed, the order parameter abruptly increased in its threshold value and saturated in higher voltages as expected. An appreciable change in textures was not observed with addition of dopants. This addition gave rise to an increase in nematic-isotropic phase transition temperatures compared with that of pure liquid crystal.

  4. Nematic-field-driven positioning of particles in liquid crystal droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K; Wang, Xiaoguang; Mondiot, Frederic; Miller, Daniel S; Abbott, Nicholas L; de Pablo, Juan J

    2013-11-27

    Common nematic oils, such as 5CB, experience planar anchoring at aqueous interfaces. When these oils are emulsified, this anchoring preference and the resulting topological constraints lead to the formation of droplets that exhibit one or two point defects within the nematic phase. Here, we explore the interactions of adsorbed particles at the aqueous interface through a combination of experiments and coarse-grained modeling, and demonstrate that surface-active particles, driven by elastic forces in the droplet, readily localize to these defect regions in a programmable manner. When droplets include two nanoparticles, these preferentially segregate to the two poles, thereby forming highly regular dipolar structures that could serve for hierarchical assembly of functional structures. Addition of sufficient concentrations of surfactant changes the interior morphology of the droplet, but pins defects to the interface, resulting in aggregation of the two particles.

  5. Light-scattering study of a polymer nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratuta, Victor G.; Hurd, Alan J.; Meyer, Robert B.

    1985-07-01

    We study the relaxation of thermally excited orientation fluctuations in a polymer nematic liquid crystal using photon correlation spectroscopy. The material studied is poly-γ-benzyl glutamate at a concentration just above the isotropic to nematic transition point. The relaxation rates of elastic deformation modes exhibit large anisotropies. Quantitative measurements of ratios of Frank elastic constants and Leslie viscosities are described.

  6. Plasmon mode as a detection of the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianhui; Chang, Hao-Ran; Xiao, Di

    2014-01-01

    Weyl semimetals are one kind of three-dimensional gapless semimetal with nontrivial topology in the momentum space. The chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals manifests as a charge imbalance between the Weyl nodes of opposite chiralities induced by parallel electric and magnetic fields. We investigate the chiral anomaly effect on the plasmon mode in both intrinsic and doped Weyl semimetals within the random phase approximation. We prove that the chiral anomaly gives rise to a different plasmon mod...

  7. The Effect of the Chirality on the Fluctuation of Liquid Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatriansyah, Jaka Fajar; Yusuf, Yusril

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the dynamical properties of normal fluctuation modes in chiral phase liquid crystal on the basis of hydrodynamics Ericksen-Leslie theory. We examine the effect of chiral coefficient on dynamic relaxation eigenfrequencies and the scattering intensity. We find that the chiral coefficient only affects slow fluctuation modes, while it does not affect the fast fluctuation modes. This effect of chirality depends on the magnitude of the wave number vector components.

  8. Quantitatively analyzing intrinsic plasmonic chirality by tracking the interplay of electric and magnetic dipole modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Li; Fang, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic chirality exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response. Previous reports on plasmonic chirality explanations are mainly based on phase retardation and coupling. We propose a quantitative model similar to the chiral molecules for explaining the mechanism of the intrinsic plasmonic chirality quantitatively based on the interplay and mixing of electric and magnetic dipole modes, which forms a mixed electric and magnetic polarizability. The analysis method is also suitable for small chiral object down to quasi-static limit without phase delay and expected to be a universal rule.

  9. Chiral geometry in multiple chiral doublet bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Qibo

    2016-02-01

    The chiral geometry of multiple chiral doublet bands with identical configuration is discussed for different triaxial deformation parameters γ in the particle rotor model with . The energy spectra, electromagnetic transition probabilities B(M1) and B(E2), angular momenta, and K-distributions are studied. It is demonstrated that the chirality still remains not only in the yrast and yrare bands, but also in the two higher excited bands when γ deviates from 30°. The chiral geometry relies significantly on γ, and the chiral geometry of the two higher excited partner bands is not as good as that of the yrast and yrare doublet bands. Supported by Plan Project of Beijing College Students’ Scientific Research and Entrepreneurial Action, Major State 973 Program of China (2013CB834400), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175002, 11335002, 11375015, 11461141002), National Fund for Fostering Talents of Basic Science (NFFTBS) (J1103206), Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20110001110087) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M580007)

  10. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Suresh

    2003-08-01

    Viscoelastic properties of liquid crystals are very important for applications like display technology. However, there are not many direct techniques to study them. In this review, we describe our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes corresponding to the C director fluctuations in the chiral smectic C phase and the behaviour of the Goldstone-mode near the chiral smectic C–smectic A phase transition. In cholesteric liquid crystals, we consider the director fluctuations in a wavevector range comparable to the inverse pitch of the cholesteric. Here, the study of the scattered light in the vicinity of the Bragg reflection using a novel geometry will be presented.

  11. Wormholes from Chiral Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, Lorentzian wormholes with a phantom field and chiral matter fields have been obtained. In addition, it is shown that for different values of the gravitational coupling of the chiral fields, the wormhole geometry changes. Finally, the stability of the corresponding wormholes is studied and it is shown that are unstable (eg. Ellis's wormhole instability)

  12. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast to t...

  13. Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter

    CERN Document Server

    Buballa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color-superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking...

  14. Chiral Magnetic "Superfluidity"

    CERN Document Server

    Sadofyev, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for superfluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will {\\it not} contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit the behavior of 'superfluidity" -- the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analog to the case of a superfluid. However, this "superfluidity" exists even for chiral media at finite temperature and only in the directional longitudinal with the magnetic field, in contrast to the ordinary superfluid. We will call this novel phenomenon as the Chiral Magnetic "Superfluidity". We demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion ...

  15. Thermal diode made by nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Djair; Fernandes, Ivna; Moraes, Fernando; Fumeron, Sébastien; Pereira, Erms

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates how a thermal diode can be designed from a nematic liquid crystal confined inside a cylindrical capillary. In the case of homeotropic anchoring, a defect structure called escaped radial disclination arises. The asymmetry of such structure causes thermal rectification rates up to 3.5% at room temperature, comparable to thermal diodes made from carbon nanotubes. Sensitivity of the system with respect to the heat power supply, the geometry of the capillary tube and the molecular anchoring angle is also discussed.

  16. Carbon Nanoparticles in Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Eren San; Mustafa Okutan; O(g)uz K(o)ysal; Yusuf Yer-li

    2008-01-01

    Fullerene G60,C70,single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets are doped to nematic liquid crystal(LC)host in the same percentage.Planar samples of these mixtures are prepared and our measurements constitute an optimization basis for possible applications.Fullerene balls are found to be the best compatible material for optical aims and reorientation of LC molecules,while the carbon nanotubes experience some reorientation possibility in LC media and graphene layers are good barriers to preserve reorientation.

  17. Breatherlike defects and their dynamics in the one-dimensional roll structure of twisted nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaldin, O. A.; Delev, V. A.; Shikhovtseva, E. S.; Lebedev, Yu. A.; Batyrshin, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of the nonsingular defects in the periodic structures of the rolls that appear in π/2-twisted nematic liquid crystals during electroconvection is studied experimentally and theoretically. The roll structures in twisted nematics are characterized by the presence of an axial component of the hydrodynamic flow velocity with opposite directions in neighboring rolls. The critical oscillation frequency of structural defects is quantitatively estimated using a nonlinear equation of motion for roll displacements. It is found that a pair of edge dislocations with topological charges of +1 and-1 nucleates and annihilates periodically during the oscillations of a defect with a nonsingular core. Oscillating defects with a zero topological charge is shown to correspond to the solution of the sine-Gordon equation in the form of standing breathers. Asymmetry is detected in the full oscillation cycle of a breather defect, and it is related to the twist symmetry of a twist nematic. This asymmetry is taken into account as effective anisotropic friction. The behavior of a breather on a trap, namely, a classical defect (dislocation), is investigated. Dislocation motion is shown to be anisotropic in the oscillation cycle: in one direction, a dislocation moves regularly; in the second phase, the transition into the initial state proceeds via the decay of the breather into a dipole pair of dislocations of opposite signs followed by their annihilation.

  18. Breatherlike defects and their dynamics in the one-dimensional roll structure of twisted nematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of the nonsingular defects in the periodic structures of the rolls that appear in π/2-twisted nematic liquid crystals during electroconvection is studied experimentally and theoretically. The roll structures in twisted nematics are characterized by the presence of an axial component of the hydrodynamic flow velocity with opposite directions in neighboring rolls. The critical oscillation frequency of structural defects is quantitatively estimated using a nonlinear equation of motion for roll displacements. It is found that a pair of edge dislocations with topological charges of +1 and–1 nucleates and annihilates periodically during the oscillations of a defect with a nonsingular core. Oscillating defects with a zero topological charge is shown to correspond to the solution of the sine-Gordon equation in the form of standing breathers. Asymmetry is detected in the full oscillation cycle of a breather defect, and it is related to the twist symmetry of a twist nematic. This asymmetry is taken into account as effective anisotropic friction. The behavior of a breather on a trap, namely, a classical defect (dislocation), is investigated. Dislocation motion is shown to be anisotropic in the oscillation cycle: in one direction, a dislocation moves regularly; in the second phase, the transition into the initial state proceeds via the decay of the breather into a dipole pair of dislocations of opposite signs followed by their annihilation

  19. Robustness of the periodic and chaotic orientational behavior of tumbling nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Sebastian; Ilg, Patrick; Hess, Siegfried

    2006-06-01

    The dynamical behavior of molecular alignment strongly affects physical properties of nematic liquid crystals. A theoretical description can be made by a nonlinear relaxation equation of the order parameter and leads to the prediction that rather complex even chaotic orientational behavior occur. Here the influence of fluctuating shear rates on the orientational dynamics especially on chaotic solutions is discussed. With the help of phase portraits and time evolution diagrams, we investigated the influence of different fluctuation strengths on the flow aligned, isotropic, and periodic solutions. To explore the effect of fluctuations on the chaotic behavior, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent for different fluctuation strengths. We found in all cases that small fluctuations of the shear rate do not affect the basic features of the dynamics of tumbling nematics. Furthermore, we present an amended potential modeling the isotropic to nematic transition and discuss the equivalence and difference to the commonly used Landau-de Gennes potential. In contrast to the Landau-de Gennes potential, our potential has the advantage to restrict the order parameter to physically admissible values. In the case of extensional flow, we show that the amended potential leads for increasing extensional rate to a better agreement with experimental results. PMID:16906852

  20. Robustness of the periodic and chaotic orientational behavior of tumbling nematic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamical behavior of molecular alignment strongly affects physical properties of nematic liquid crystals. A theoretical description can be made by a nonlinear relaxation equation of the order parameter and leads to the prediction that rather complex even chaotic orientational behavior occur. Here the influence of fluctuating shear rates on the orientational dynamics especially on chaotic solutions is discussed. With the help of phase portraits and time evolution diagrams, we investigated the influence of different fluctuation strengths on the flow aligned, isotropic, and periodic solutions. To explore the effect of fluctuations on the chaotic behavior, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent for different fluctuation strengths. We found in all cases that small fluctuations of the shear rate do not affect the basic features of the dynamics of tumbling nematics. Furthermore, we present an amended potential modeling the isotropic to nematic transition and discuss the equivalence and difference to the commonly used Landau-de Gennes potential. In contrast to the Landau-de Gennes potential, our potential has the advantage to restrict the order parameter to physically admissible values. In the case of extensional flow, we show that the amended potential leads for increasing extensional rate to a better agreement with experimental results