Chiral Magnetic Effect and Chiral Phase Transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Wei-Jie; LIU Yu-Xin; WU Yue-Liang
2011-01-01
We study the influence of the chiral phase transition on the chiral magnetic effect.The azimuthal chargeparticle correlations as functions of the temperature are calculated.It is found that there is a pronounced cusp in the correlations as the temperature reaches its critical value for the QCD phase transition.It is predicted that there will be a drastic suppression of the charge-particle correlations as the collision energy in RHIC decreases to below a critical value.We show then the azimuthal charge-particle correlations can be the signal to identify the occurrence of the QCD phase transitions in RHIC energy scan experiments.
The chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamical approach
Sadofyev, A. V.; Isachenkov, M. V.
2010-01-01
In quark-gluon plasma nonzero chirality can be induced by the chiral anomaly. When a magnetic field is applied to a system with nonzero chirality an electromagnetic current is induced along the magnetic field. This phenomenon is called the chiral magnetic effect. In this paper appearance of the chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamical approximation is shown. We consider a hydrodynamical model for chiral liquid with two independent currents of left and right handed particles in the presence of...
Chiral magnetic effect in the PNJL model
Fukushima, Kenji; Gatto, Raoul
2010-01-01
We study the two-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop (PNJL model) in the presence of a strong magnetic field and a chiral chemical potential $\\mu_5$ which mimics the effect of imbalanced chirality due to QCD instanton and/or sphaleron transitions. Firstly we focus on the properties of chiral symmetry breaking and deconfinement crossover under the strong magnetic field. Then we discuss the role of $\\mu_5$ on the phase structure. Finally the chirality charge, electric current, and their susceptibility, which are relevant to the Chiral Magnetic Effect, are computed in the model.
Chiral magnetic effect and holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is a highly discussed effect in heavy-ion collisions stating that, in the presence of a magnetic field B, an electric current is generated in the background of topologically nontrivial gluon fields. We present a holographic (AdS/CFT) description of the CME in terms of a fluid-gravity model which is dual to a strongly-coupled plasma with multiple anomalous U(1) currents. In the case of two U(1) charges, one axial and one vector, the CME formally appears as a first-order transport coefficient in the vector current. We will holographically compute this coefficient at strong coupling and compare it with the hydrodynamic result. Finally, we will discuss an anisotropic variant of the model and study a possible dependence of the CME on the elliptic flow coefficient ν2.
Chiral magnetic effect and holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirsch, Ingo; Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-01-15
The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is a highly discussed effect in heavy-ion collisions stating that, in the presence of a magnetic field B, an electric current is generated in the background of topologically nontrivial gluon fields. We present a holographic (AdS/CFT) description of the CME in terms of a fluid-gravity model which is dual to a strongly-coupled plasma with multiple anomalous U(1) currents. In the case of two U(1) charges, one axial and one vector, the CME formally appears as a first-order transport coefficient in the vector current. We will holographically compute this coefficient at strong coupling and compare it with the hydrodynamic result. Finally, we will discuss an anisotropic variant of the model and study a possible dependence of the CME on the elliptic flow coefficient {nu}{sub 2}.
Chiral Magnetic Effect in Hydrodynamic Approximation
Zakharov, Valentin I
2012-01-01
We review derivations of the chiral magnetic effect (ChME) in hydrodynamic approximation. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the effect. The main challenge now is to account for the strong interactions between the constituents of the fluid. The main result is that the ChME is not renormalized: in the hydrodynamic approximation it remains the same as for non-interacting chiral fermions moving in an external magnetic field. The key ingredients in the proof are general laws of thermodynamics and the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the chiral anomaly in external electromagnetic fields. The chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamics represents a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum phenomenon (chiral anomaly). Moreover, one can argue that the current induced by the magnetic field is dissipation free and talk about a kind of "chiral superconductivity". More precise description is a ballistic transport along magnetic field taking place in equilibrium and in absence of a driving force. The basic limitat...
Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions
Liao, Jinfeng
2016-01-01
The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. It is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields $|\\vec{\\bf B}|\\sim m_\\pi^2$ are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. In this contribution we give a brief overview on the status of such efforts.
Absence of equilibrium chiral magnetic effect
Zubkov, M A
2016-01-01
We analyse the $3+1$ D equilibrium chiral magnetic effect (CME). We apply derivative expansion to the Wigner transform of the two - point Green function. This technique allows us to express the response of electric current to external electromagnetic field strength through the momentum space topological invariant. We consider the wide class of the lattice regularizations of quantum field theory (that includes, in particular, the regularization with Wilson fermions) and also certain lattice models of solid state physics (including those of Dirac semimetals). It appears, that in these models the mentioned topological invariant vanishes identically at nonzero chiral chemical potential. That means, that the bulk equilibrium CME is absent in those systems.
Chiral Magnetic Effect Task Force Report
Skokov, Vladimir; Koch, Volker; Schlichting, Soeren; Thomas, Jim; Voloshin, Sergei; Wang, Gang; Yee, Ho-Ung
2016-01-01
In this report, we briefly examine the current status of the study of the chiral magnetic effect including theory and experimental progress. We recommend future strategies for resolving uncertainties in interpretation including recommendations for theoretical work, recommendations for measurements based on data collected in the past five years, and recommendations for beam use in the coming years of RHIC. We have specifically investigated the case for colliding nuclear isobars (nuclei with the same mass but different charge) and find the case compelling. We recommend that a program of nuclear isobar collisions to isolate the chiral magnetic effect from background sources be placed as a high priority item in the strategy for completing the RHIC mission.
Chiral magnetic effect by synthetic gauge fields
Hayata, Tomoya
2016-01-01
We study the dynamical generation of the chiral chemical potential in a Weyl metal constructed from a three-dimensional optical lattice and subject to synthetic gauge fields. By numerically solving the Boltzmann equation with the Berry curvature in the presence of parallel synthetic electric and magnetic fields, we find that the spectral flow and the ensuing chiral magnetic current emerge. We show that the spectral flow and the chiral chemical potential can be probed by time-of-flight imaging.
The Chiral Magnetic Effect and Anomaly-Induced Transport
Kharzeev, Dmitri E
2013-01-01
The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is the phenomenon of electric charge separation along the external magnetic field that is induced by the chirality imbalance. The CME is a macroscopic quantum effect - it is a manifestation of the chiral anomaly creating a collective motion in Dirac sea. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interactions. As a result, the CME and related quantum phenomena affect the hydrodynamical and transport behavior of systems possessing chiral fermions, from the quark-gluon plasma to chiral materials. The goal of the present review is to provide an elementary introduction into the main ideas underlying the physics of CME, a historical perspective, and a guide to the rapidly growing literature on this topic.
Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5
Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Zhang, Cheng; Huang, Yuan; Pletikosić, I.; Fedorov, A. V.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Gu, G. D.; Valla, T.
2016-06-01
The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of an electric current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of a magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions (massless spin 1/2 particles with a definite projection of spin on momentum)--a remarkable phenomenon arising from a collective motion of particles and antiparticles in the Dirac sea. The recent discovery of Dirac semimetals with chiral quasiparticles opens a fascinating possibility to study this phenomenon in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the measurement of magnetotransport in zirconium pentatelluride, ZrTe5, that provides strong evidence for the chiral magnetic effect. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments show that this material’s electronic structure is consistent with a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal. We observe a large negative magnetoresistance when the magnetic field is parallel with the current. The measured quadratic field dependence of the magnetoconductance is a clear indication of the chiral magnetic effect. The observed phenomenon stems from the effective transmutation of a Dirac semimetal into a Weyl semimetal induced by parallel electric and magnetic fields that represent a topologically non-trivial gauge field background. We expect that the chiral magnetic effect may emerge in a wide class of materials that are near the transition between the trivial and topological insulators.
Electromagnetic Response of the Chiral Magnetic Effect in Weyl Semimetals
Barnes, Edwin; Minic, Djordje
2016-01-01
Weyl semimetals are predicted to realize the three-dimensional axial anomaly first discussed in particle physics. The anomaly leads to unusual transport phenomena such as the chiral magnetic effect in which an applied magnetic field induces a current parallel to the field. Here we investigate diagnostics of the axial anomaly based on the fundamental equations of axion electrodynamics. We find that materials with Weyl nodes of opposite chirality and finite energy separation immersed in a uniform magnetic field exhibit an anomaly-induced oscillatory magnetic field with a period set by the chemical potential difference of the nodes. In the case where a chemical potential imbalance is created by applying parallel electric and magnetic fields, we find a suppression of the magnetic field component parallel to the electric field inside the material for rectangular samples, suggesting that the chiral magnetic current opposes this imbalance. For cylindrical geometries, we instead find an enhancement of this magnetic f...
Axial anomaly, Dirac sea, and the chiral magnetic effect
Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2010-01-01
Gribov viewed the axial anomaly as a manifestation of the collective motion of charged fermions with arbitrarily high momenta in the vacuum. In the presence of an external magnetic field and a chirality imbalance, this collective motion becomes directly observable in the form of the electric current - this is the chiral magnetic effect (CME). I give an elementary introduction into the physics of CME, and discuss some recent developments.
Electromagnetic Response of the Chiral Magnetic Effect in Weyl Semimetals
Barnes, Edwin; Heremans, J. J.; Minic, Djordje
2016-01-01
Weyl semimetals are predicted to realize the three-dimensional axial anomaly first discussed in particle physics. The anomaly leads to unusual transport phenomena such as the chiral magnetic effect in which an applied magnetic field induces a current parallel to the field. Here we investigate diagnostics of the axial anomaly based on the fundamental equations of axion electrodynamics. We find that materials with Weyl nodes of opposite chirality and finite energy separation immersed in a unifo...
Test the chiral magnetic effect with isobaric collisions
Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang; Ma, Guo-Liang; Wang, Gang
2016-01-01
The quark-gluon matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may contain local domains in which P and CP symmetries are not preserved. When coupled with an external magnetic field, such P- and CP-odd domains will generate electric currents along the magnetic field --- a phenomenon called the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Recently, the STAR Collaboration at RHIC and the ALICE Collaboration at the LHC released data of charge-dependent azimuthal-angle correlators with features consistent...
Chiral Magnetic "Superfluidity"
Sadofyev, Andrey V
2015-01-01
We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for superfluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will {\\it not} contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit the behavior of 'superfluidity" -- the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analog to the case of a superfluid. However, this "superfluidity" exists even for chiral media at finite temperature and only in the directional longitudinal with the magnetic field, in contrast to the ordinary superfluid. We will call this novel phenomenon as the Chiral Magnetic "Superfluidity". We demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion ...
Photovoltaic chiral magnetic effect in Weyl semimetals
Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Imaeda, Tatsushi; Sato, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Yukio
2016-05-01
We theoretically predict current generation in Weyl semimetals when circularly polarized light is applied. The electric field of the light can drive an effective magnetic field on the order of 10 T. For lower-frequency light, a nonequilibrium spin distribution is formed near the Fermi surface. Spin-momentum locking induces a giant electric current proportional to the effective magnetic field. In contrast, higher-frequency light realizes a quasistatic Floquet state with no induced electric current. We discuss the relevant materials and estimate the order of magnitude of the induced current.
Effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, S. P.; Kwon, H. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Shim, J. H.; Won, C. [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-28
We numerically investigated the effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures, such as a helical/cycloidal spin structure and magnetic skyrmion crystal (SkX), which are produced in a magnetic system involving the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We report the existence of a phase transition where the length scale of magnetic structure discontinuously changes, and that there can be a novel magnetic structure around the phase boundary that exhibits double-ordering lengths of magnetic structure. Therefore, the system has multiple ground phases determined by the ratio of interlayer exchange coupling strength and DMI strength. Furthermore, we investigated the critical condition of the external perpendicular field required for the SkX. The critical field is significantly reduced under the effect of interlayer exchange coupling, which can stabilize the SkX without the external field.
The pseudo chiral magnetic effect in QED3
Mizher, A J; Villavicencio, C
2016-01-01
Chiral magnetic effect (CME) has been suggested to take place during peripheral relativistic heavy ion collisions. However, signals of its realization are not yet independent of ambiguities and thus probing the non-trivial topological vacua of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is still an open issue. Weyl materials, particularly graphene, on the other hand, are effectively described at low energies by the degrees of freedom of quantum electrodynamics in two spatial dimensions, QED3. This theory shares with QCD some interesting features, like confinement and chiral symmetry breaking and also possesses a non-trivial vacuum structure. In this regard, an analog of the CME is proposed to take place in graphene under the influence of an in-plane magnetic field in which the pseudo-spin or flavor label of charge carriers is participant of the effect, rather than the actual spin. In this contribution, we review the parallelisms and differences between the CME and the so-called pseudo chiral magnetic effect, PCME.
Strain induced Chiral Magnetic Effect in Weyl semimetals
Cortijo, Alberto; Landsteiner, Karl; Vozmediano, María A H
2016-01-01
We argue that strain applied to a time-reversal and inversion breaking Weyl semi-metal in a magnetic field can induce an electric current via the chiral magnetic effect. A tight binding model is used to show that strain generically changes the locations in the Brillouin zone but also the energies of the band touching points (tips of the Weyl cones). Since axial charge in a Weyl semi-metal can relax via inter-valley scattering processes the induced current will decay with a timescale given by the lifetime of a chiral quasiparticle. We estimate the strength and lifetime of the current for typical material parameters and find that it should be experimentally observable.
Wess-Zumino-Witten action and photons from the Chiral Magnetic Effect
Fukushima, Kenji; Mameda, Kazuya
2012-01-01
We revisit the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) using the chiral Lagrangian. We demonstrate that the electric-current formula of the CME is derived immediately from the contact part of the Wess-Zumino-Witten action. This implies that the CME could be, if observed, a signature for the local parity violation, but a direct evidence for neither quark deconfinement nor chiral restoration. We also discuss the reverse Chiral Magnetic Primakoff Effect, i.e. the real photon production through the vertex a...
Effects of chiral imbalance and magnetic field on pion superfluidity and color superconductivity
Cao, Gaoqing; Zhuang, Pengfei
2015-01-01
The effects of chiral imbalance and external magnetic field on pion superfluidity and color superconductivity are investigated in extended Nambu--Jona-Lasinio models. We take Schwinger approach to treat the interaction between charged pion condensate and magnetic field at finite isospin density and include simultaneously the chiral imbalance and magnetic field at finite baryon density. For the superfluidity, the chiral imbalance and magnetic field lead to catalysis and inverse catalysis effec...
Chiral Transition Within Effective Quark Models under Strong Magnetic Fields
Garcia, Andre Felipe
2013-01-01
In the recently years it has been argued that spectators in heavy ion collisions are responsible for creating a strong magnetic field that could play an important role in the QCD phase transition. In this work we use the SU(2) Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in order to study the chiral transition in quark matter subject to a strong magnetic field. We show some results involving the breaking of chiral symmetry and its restoration at finite temperature and density.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics, holography and the chiral magnetic effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss a possible dependence of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) on the elliptic flow coefficient υ2. We first study this in a hydrodynamic model for a static anisotropic plasma with multiple anomalous U(1) currents. In the case of two charges, one axial and one vector, the CME formally appears as a first-order transport coefficient in the vector current. We compute this transport coefficient and show its dependence on υ2. We also determine the CME-coefficient from first-order corrections to the dual AdS background using the fluid-gravity duality. For small anisotropies, we find numerical agreement with the hydrodynamic result. (orig.)
Test the chiral magnetic effect with isobaric collisions
Deng, Wei-Tian; Ma, Guo-Liang; Wang, Gang
2016-01-01
The quark-gluon matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may contain local domains in which P and CP symmetries are not preserved. When coupled with an external magnetic field, such P- and CP-odd domains will generate electric currents along the magnetic field --- a phenomenon called the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Recently, the STAR Collaboration at RHIC and the ALICE Collaboration at the LHC released data of charge-dependent azimuthal-angle correlators with features consistent with the CME expectation. However, the experimental observable is contaminated with significant background contributions from elliptic-flow-driven effects, which makes the interpretation of the data ambiguous. In this Letter, we show that the collisions of isobaric nuclei, $^{96}_{44}$Ru + $^{96}_{44}$Ru and $^{96}_{40}$Zr + $^{96}_{40}$Zr, provide an ideal tool to disentangle the CME signal from the background effects. Our simulation demonstrates that the two collision types at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=200$ GeV have more than...
Anisotropic hydrodynamics, holography and the chiral magnetic effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gahramanov, Ilmar; Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik
2012-03-15
We discuss a possible dependence of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) on the elliptic flow coefficient {upsilon}{sub 2}. We first study this in a hydrodynamic model for a static anisotropic plasma with multiple anomalous U(1) currents. In the case of two charges, one axial and one vector, the CME formally appears as a first-order transport coefficient in the vector current. We compute this transport coefficient and show its dependence on {upsilon}{sub 2}. We also determine the CME-coefficient from first-order corrections to the dual AdS background using the fluid-gravity duality. For small anisotropies, we find numerical agreement with the hydrodynamic result. (orig.)
Deuteron Magnetic Quadrupole Moment From Chiral Effective Field Theory
Liu, C -P; Mereghetti, E; Timmermans, R G E; van Kolck, U
2012-01-01
We calculate the magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM) of the deuteron at leading order in the systematic expansion provided by chiral effective field theory. We take into account parity and time-reversal violation which, at the quark-gluon level, results from the QCD vacuum angle and dimension-six operators that originate from physics beyond the Standard Model. We show that the deuteron MQM can be expressed in terms of five low-energy constants that appear in the parity- and time-reversal-violating nuclear potential and electromagnetic current, four of which also contribute to the electric dipole moments of light nuclei. We conclude that the deuteron MQM has an enhanced sensitivity to the QCD vacuum angle and that its measurement would be complementary to the proposed measurements of light-nuclear EDMs.
Ruggieri, M
2016-01-01
In this article we study spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for quark matter in the background of an electric-magnetic flux tube with static, homogeneous and parallel electric field $\\bm E$ and magnetic field $\\bm B$. We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a local kernel interaction to compute the relevant quantities to describe chiral symmetry breaking at finite temperature for a wide range of $E$ and $B$. We study the effect of the flux tube background on inverse catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking for $E$ and $B$ of the same order of magnitude. We then focus on the effect of equilibration of chiral density, $n_5$, produced dynamically by axial anomaly on the critical temperature. The equilibration of $n_5$, a consequence of chirality flipping processes in the thermal bath, allows for the introduction of the chiral chemical potential, $\\mu_5$, which is computed self-consistently as a function of temperature and field strength by coupling the number equation to the gap equation. We find that even if chir...
Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases
Xu-Guang Huang
2016-01-01
The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects---quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma---have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud alon...
Quantized chiral magnetic current from reconnections of magnetic flux
Hirono, Yuji; Yin, Yi
2016-01-01
We introduce a new mechanism for the chiral magnetic effect that does not require an initial chirality imbalance. The chiral magnetic current is generated by reconnections of magnetic flux that change magnetic helicity of the system. The resulting current is entirely determined by the change of magnetic helicity, and is therefore quantized.
Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases.
Huang, Xu-Guang
2016-01-01
The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects-quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma-have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud along the rotation axis which may be tested in future experiments. Our results suggest that the spin-orbit coupled atomic gases are potential simulators of the chiral magnetic and separation effects. PMID:26868084
Nucleon magnetic form factors with non-local chiral effective Lagrangian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiral perturbation theory is a useful method to investigate the hadron properties. We apply the non-local chiral effective Lagrangian to study the nucleon magnetic form factors. The octet and decuplet intermediate states are included in the one-loop calculation. With the modified propagators and non-local interaction, the loop integral is convergent. The obtained proton and neutron magnetic form factors are both reasonable up to relatively large Q2. (orig.)
Chiral Magnetic Effect in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions --- A Status Report
Kharzeev, D E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, G
2015-01-01
The interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity results in a variety of novel non-dissipative transport phenomena in systems with chiral fermions, including the quark-gluon plasma. Among them is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) -- the generation of electric current along an external magnetic field induced by chirality imbalance. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interactions. As a result, the CME and related quantum phenomena affect the hydrodynamical and transport behavior of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, and can be studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions where strong magnetic fields are created by the colliding ions. Evidence for the CME and related phenomena has been reported by the STAR Collaboration at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, and by the ALICE Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The goal of the ...
Chiral magnetic effect and anomalous transport from real-time lattice simulations
Mueller, Niklas; Sharma, Sayantan
2016-01-01
We present a first-principle study of anomaly induced transport phenomena by performing real-time lattice simulations with dynamical fermions coupled simultaneously to non-Abelian $SU(N_c)$ and Abelian $U(1)$ gauge fields. Investigating the behavior of vector and axial currents during a sphaleron transition in the presence of an external magnetic field, we demonstrate how the interplay of the Chiral magnetic (CME) and Chiral separation effect (CSE) lead to the formation of a propagating wave. We further analyze the dependence of the magnitude of the induced vector current and the propagation of the wave on the amount of explicit chiral symmetry breaking due to finite quark mass.
Wess-Zumino-Witten action and photons from the Chiral Magnetic Effect
Fukushima, Kenji
2012-01-01
We revisit the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) using the chiral Lagrangian. We demonstrate that the electric-current formula of the CME is derived immediately from the contact part of the Wess-Zumino-Witten action. This implies that the CME could be, if observed, a signature for the local parity violation, but a direct evidence for neither quark deconfinement nor chiral restoration. We also discuss the reverse Chiral Magnetic Primakoff Effect, i.e. the real photon production through the vertex associated with the CME, which is kinematically possible for space-time inhomogeneous magnetic field and the strong theta angle. We make a semi-quantitative estimate for the photon yield to find that it could be on the observable level as compared to the thermal photon.
Dynamical evolution of the chiral magnetic effect: applications to the quark-gluon plasma
Manuel, Cristina
2015-01-01
We study the dynamical evolution of the so-called chiral magnetic effect in an electromagnetic conductor. To this end, we consider the coupled set of corresponding Maxwell and chiral anomaly equations, and we prove that these can be derived from chiral kinetic theory. After integrating the chiral anomaly equation over space in a closed volume, it leads to a quantum conservation law of the total helicity of the system. A change in the magnetic helicity density comes together with a modification of the chiral fermion density. We study in Fourier space the coupled set of anomalous equations and we obtain the dynamical evolution of the magnetic fields, magnetic helicity density, and chiral fermion imbalance. Depending on the initial conditions we observe how the helicity might be transferred from the fermions to the magnetic fields, or vice versa, and find that the rate of this transfer also depends on the scale of wavelengths of the gauge fields in consideration. We then focus our attention on the quark-gluon pl...
Holographic Chiral Magnetic Spiral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the ground state of baryonic/axial matter at zero temperature chiral-symmetry broken phase under a large magnetic field, in the framework of holographic QCD by Sakai-Sugimoto. Our study is motivated by a recent proposal of chiral magnetic spiral phase that has been argued to be favored against previously studied phase of homogeneous distribution of axial/baryonic currents in terms of meson super-currents dictated by triangle anomalies in QCD. Our results provide an existence proof of chiral magnetic spiral in strong coupling regime via holography, at least for large axial chemical potentials, whereas we don't find the phenomenon in the case of purely baryonic chemical potential. (author)
Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in high-energy nuclear collisions-A status report
Kharzeev, D. E.; Liao, J.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wang, G.
2016-05-01
The interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity results in a variety of novel non-dissipative transport phenomena in systems with chiral fermions, including the quark-gluon plasma. Among them is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME)-the generation of electric current along an external magnetic field induced by chirality imbalance. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interactions. As a result, the CME and related quantum phenomena affect the hydrodynamical and transport behavior of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, and can be studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions where strong magnetic fields are created by the colliding ions. Evidence for the CME and related phenomena has been reported by the STAR Collaboration at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, and by the ALICE Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The goal of the present review is to provide an elementary introduction into the physics of anomalous chiral effects, to describe the current status of experimental studies in heavy ion physics, and to outline the future work, both in experiment and theory, needed to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.
Anomalies and the chiral magnetic effect in the Sakai-Sugimoto model
Rebhan, Anton; Schmitt, Andreas; Stricker, Stefan A.
2009-01-01
In the chiral magnetic effect an imbalance in the number of left- and right-handed quarks gives rise to an electromagnetic current parallel to the magnetic field produced in noncentral heavy-ion collisions. The chiral imbalance may be induced by topologically nontrivial gluon configurations via the QCD axial anomaly, while the resulting electromagnetic current itself is a consequence of the QED anomaly. In the Sakai-Sugimoto model, which in a certain limit is dual to large-N_c QCD, we discuss...
Separation of flow from chiral magnetic effect in U+U collisions using spectator asymmetry
Chatterjee, Sandeep
2014-01-01
We demonstrate that the prolate shape of the Uranium nucleus generates anti-correlation between spectator asymmetry and initial state ellipticity of the collision zone, providing a way to constrain the initial event shape in U+U collisions. As an application, we show that this can be used to separate the background contribution due to flow from the signals of chiral magnetic effect.
The Subtleties of the Wigner Function Formulation of the Chiral Magnetic Effect
Wu, Yan; Ren, Hai-cang
2016-01-01
We assess the applicability of the Wigner function formulation for the chiral Magnetic Effect and noted some issues regarding the conservation and the consistency of the electric current in the presence of a inhomogeneous and transient axial chemical potential. The problems are rooted in the ultraviolet divergence of the underlying field theory associated with axial anomaly.
A Chiral Magnetic Effect from AdS/CFT with Flavor
Hoyos, Carlos; O'Bannon, Andy
2011-01-01
For (3+1)-dimensional fermions, a net axial charge and external magnetic field can lead to a current parallel to the magnetic field. This is the chiral magnetic effect. We use gauge-gravity duality to study the chiral magnetic effect in large-Nc, strongly-coupled N=4 supersymmetric SU(Nc) Yang-Mills theory coupled to a number Nf << Nc of N=2 hypermultiplets in the Nc representation of SU(Nc), i.e. flavor fields. Specifically, we introduce an external magnetic field and a time-dependent phase for the mass of the flavor fields, which is equivalent to an axial chemical potential for the flavor fermions, and we compute holographically the resulting chiral magnetic current. For massless flavors we find that the current takes the value determined by the axial anomaly. For massive flavors the current appears only in the presence of a condensate of pseudo-scalar mesons, and has a smaller value than for massless flavors, dropping to zero for sufficiently large mass or magnetic field. The axial symmetry in our sy...
Field induced spin chirality and chirality switching in magnetic multilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physical origin of the field-induced spin chirality experimentally observed in rare earth multilayers is determined. It is shown that the effect is possible due to the interplay between solid-state exchange interactions (the Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida and the Dsyaloshinsky–Moriya interactions), the external magnetic field and a special confinement of magnetic constituents. The presented model describes a certain temperature dependence of the chirality factor in agreement with experimental data and opens a new way to design nanostructured objects with predicted handedness. - Highlights: • Field-induced spin chirality in magnetic multilayers is explained. • The roles of the RKKY, the DM and the Zeeman interactions are clarified. • Theoretical analysis of the chirality factor is in agreement with experimental data
Anomalous transport model study of chiral magnetic effects in heavy ion collisions
Sun, Yifeng; Li, Feng
2016-01-01
Using an anomalous transport model for massless quarks, we study the effect of magnetic field on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions. With initial conditions from a blast wave model and assuming that the strong magnetic field produced in non-central heavy ion collisions can last for a sufficiently long time, we obtain an appreciable electric quadrupole moment in the transverse plane of a heavy ion collision, which subsequently leads to a splitting between the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks as expected from the chiral magnetic wave formed in the produced QGP and observed in experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).
Huang, Xu-Guang; Liao, Jinfeng
2015-01-01
We report our recent progress on the search of Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) by developing new measurements as well as by hydrodynamic simulations of CME and background effects, with both approaches addressing the pressing issue of separating flow-driven background contributions and possible CME signal in current heavy ion collision measurements.
Chiral transition with magnetic fields
Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia; Rojas, Juan Cristobal; Villavicencio, Cristian
2014-01-01
We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses, taken as functions of the order parameter, can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling const...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In microwaves, a TE-polarized rectangular-waveguide resonator with an inserted thin ferrite disk gives an example of a nonintegrable system. The interplay of reflection and transmission at the disk interfaces together with the material gyrotropy effect gives rise to whirlpool-like electromagnetic vortices in the proximity of the ferromagnetic resonance. Based on numerical simulation, we show that a character of microwave vortices in a cavity can be analyzed by means of consideration of equivalent magnetic currents. Maxwell equations allows introduction of a magnetic current as a source of the electromagnetic field. Specifically, we found that in such nonintegrable structures, magnetic gyrotropy and geometrical factors leads to the effect of symmetry breaking resulting in effective chiral magnetic currents and topological magnetic charges. As an intriguing fact, one can observe precessing behavior of the electric-dipole polarization inside a ferrite disk
Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets
Akosa, Collins Ashu
2016-06-21
A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.
D0 magnetism in Ca doped narrow carbon nanotubes: First principle chirality effect study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curvature has always had crucial effects on the physical properties of narrow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and here spin-polarized density functional calculations were employed to study electronic and magnetic properties of calcium-decorated narrow (5,5) and (9,0)CNTs with close diameters (∼7 Å) and different chiralities. Our results showed that chirality had great impact on the electronic structure and magnetization of the doped CNTs. In addition, internally or externally doping of the calcium atoms was studied comparatively and although for the (9,0)CNT the internal doping was the most stable configuration, which involves a novel kind of spin-polarization originated from Ca-4s electrons, but for the (5,5)tube the external doping was the most stable one without any spin-polarization. On the other hand, calcium doping in the center of the (5,5)CNT was an endothermic process and led to the spin-polarization of unoccupied Ca-3d orbitals via direct exchange interaction between adjacent Ca atoms. In the considered systems, the existence of magnetization in the absence of any transition-metal elements was an example of valuable d0 magnetism title.
Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets
Akosa, C. A.; Miron, I. M.; Gaudin, G.; Manchon, A.
2015-01-01
A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry breaking. We show that the magnetic damping tensor adopts a general form that accounts for a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which spin pumping in the presence of anomalous Hall effect and an effective "$s$-$d$" Dzyaloshinsk...
Mo, Yu-Jun; Shi, Ya-Fei
2013-01-01
The formation of the QCD vacuum with nonzero winding number $Q_w$ during relativistic heavy-ion collisions breaks the parity and charge-parity symmetry. A new kind of field configuration can separate charge in the presence of a background magnetic field-the "chiral magnetic effect". The strong magnetic field and the QCD vacuum can both completely be produced in the noncentral nuclear-nuclear collision. Basing on the theory of Kharzeev,Mclerran and Warringa, we use the Wood-Saxon nucleon distribution to replace that of the uniform distribution to improve the magnetic field calculation method of the noncentral collision. The chiral magnetic field distribution at LHC(Large Hadron Collider) energy regions are predicted. We also consider the contributions to the magnetic field of the total charge given by the produced quarks.
Challenges in flow background removal in search for the chiral magnetic effect
Wang, Fuqiang
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of resonance decays on the three-particle correlator charge separation observable in search for the chiral magnetic effect, using a simple simulation with realistic inputs. We find that resonance decays can largely account for the measured signal. We suppress the elliptic flow ($v_2$) background by using zero event-by-event $v_2$ (or via the mixed-event technique). We find that the background is suppressed, but not eliminated as naively anticipated. We identify the reason to be the non-identicalness of the resonance and final-state particle's $v_2$ and the induced correlation between the transverse momentum dependent resonance $v_2$ and decay angle. We make predictions for the charge separation signal due to resonance decays in 200~GeV Au+Au collisions.
Fermion self-energy in magnetized chirally asymmetric QED matter
Rybalka, D O
2016-01-01
The fermion self-energy is calculated for a cold QED plasma with chiral chemical potential in a magnetic field. It is found that a momentum shift parameter dynamically generated in such a plasma leads to a modification of the chiral magnetic effect current. It is argued that the momentum shift parameter can be relevant for the evolution of magnetic field in the chirally asymmetric primordial plasma in the early Universe.
Abu-Shady, M
2015-01-01
The chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of external magnetic field is studied in the framework of logarithmic quark-sigma model. The effective logarithmic mesonic potential is employed and is numerically solved in the mean-field approximation. We find that the chiral symmetry breaking enhances in comparison with the original sigma model. Two sets of parameterization are investigated in the present model. We find that increasing coupling constant enhances the breaking symmetry while increasing sigma mass inhibits enhancing chiral broken vacuum state. A comparison with the Numbu-Jona-Lasinio model and the Schwinger-Dyson equation is discussed. We conclude that the logarithmic sigma model enhances the magnetic catalysis in comparison with the original sigma model and other models.
Electromagnetic currents and magnetic moments in chiral effective field theory (χEFT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory (χEFT) at, respectively, Q2 (or N2LO) and eQ (or N3LO), where Q generically denotes the low-momentum scale and e is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole (M1) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. This decomposition is also carried out for the M1 operator arising from contact currents, in which the unique term is determined by the contact potential. Finally, the low-energy constants entering the N2LO potential are fixed by fits to the np S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV laboratory energies.
Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)
Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field
Abuki, H
2016-01-01
We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it totally washes the tricritical point out of the phase diagram, bringing the continent for the chiral spiral. This is the case no matter how small is the intensity of the magnetic field. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.
Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls
Jué, Emilie
2015-12-21
Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).
Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls.
Jué, Emilie; Safeer, C K; Drouard, Marc; Lopez, Alexandre; Balint, Paul; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Boulle, Olivier; Auffret, Stephane; Schuhl, Alain; Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles
2016-03-01
Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics, current-induced spin-orbit torques and some topological magnetic structures. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. ). PMID:26689141
Magnetic test of chiral dynamics in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strong magnetic fields in the range eB≫mπ2 effectively probe internal quark structure of chiral mesons and test basic parameters of the chiral theory, such as 〈q-barq〉,fπ. We argue on general grounds that 〈q-barq〉 should grow linearly with eB when charged quark degrees of freedom come into play. To make explicit estimates we extend the previously formulated chiral theory, including quark degrees of freedom, to the case of strong magnetic fields and show that the quark condensate |〈q-barq〉|u,d grows quadratically with eB for eB<0.2 GeV2 and linearly for higher field values. These results agree quantitatively with recent lattice data and differ from χPT predictions
Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe
Sidorenko, Maxim; Shtanov, Yuri
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending...
Chiral magnetism and spontaneous spin Hall effect of interacting Bose superfluids.
Li, Xiaopeng; Natu, Stefan S; Paramekanti, Arun; Das Sarma, S
2014-01-01
Recent experiments on ultracold atoms in optical lattices have synthesized a variety of tunable bands with degenerate double-well structures in momentum space. Such degeneracies in the single-particle spectrum strongly enhance quantum fluctuations, and often lead to exotic many-body ground states. Here we consider weakly interacting spinor Bose gases in such bands, and discover a universal quantum 'order by disorder' phenomenon which selects a novel superfluid with chiral spin order displaying remarkable properties such as spontaneous spin Hall effect and momentum space antiferromagnetism. For bosons in the excited Dirac band of a hexagonal lattice, such a state supports staggered spin loop currents in real space. We show that Bloch oscillations provide a powerful dynamical route to quantum state preparation of such a chiral spin superfluid. Our predictions can be readily tested in spin-resolved time-of-flight experiments. PMID:25300774
Magnetic properties in the inhomogeneous chiral phase
Yoshiike, Ryo; Tatsumi, Toshitaka
2016-01-01
We investigate the magnetic properties of quark matter in the inhomogeneous chiral phase, where both scalar and pseudoscalar condensates spatially modulate. The energy spectrum of the lowest Landau level becomes asymmetric about zero in the external magnetic field, and gives rise to the remarkably magnetic properties: quark matter has a spontaneous magnetization, while the magnetic susceptibility does not diverge on the critical point.
Chiral medium produced by parallel electric and magnetic fields
Ruggieri, Marco; Chernodub, Maxim
2016-01-01
We compute (pseudo)critical temperature, $T_c$, of chiral symmetry restoration for quark matter in the background of parallel electric and magnetic fields. This field configuration leads to the production of a chiral medium on a time scale $\\tau$, characterized by a nonvanishing value of the chiral density that equilibrates due to microscopic processes in the thermal bath. We estimate the relaxation time $\\tau$ to be about $\\approx 0.1-1$ fm/c around the chiral crossover; then we compute the effect of the fields and of the chiral medium on~$T_c$. We find $T_c$ to be lowered by the external fields in the chiral medium.
Anomalous Hall effect for semiclassical chiral fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Pengming, E-mail: zhpm@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Horváthy, P.A., E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et de Physique Théorique, Université de Tours (France)
2015-03-06
Semiclassical chiral fermions manifest the anomalous spin-Hall effect: when put into a pure electric field they suffer a side jump, analogous to what happens to their massive counterparts in non-commutative mechanics. The transverse shift is consistent with the conservation of the angular momentum. In a pure magnetic field, instead, spiraling motion is found. Motion in Hall-type perpendicular electric and magnetic fields is also studied. - Highlights: • Chiral fermions exhibit an anomalous spin-Hall effect. • Transverse shift appears in a pure electric field. • In a pure magnetic field spiraling motion is found.
Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: new excitation modes in chiral fluids
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2016-01-01
In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in a external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density, the chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves. We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the excitation reduces to a charge diffusion mode or is completely absent. We also correct the dispersion relation for the chiral magnetic wave.
Anomalous Hall Effect for chiral fermions
Zhang, P -M
2014-01-01
Semiclassical chiral fermions manifest the anomalous spin-Hall effect: when put into a pure electric field, they suffer a side jump, analogous to what happens to their massive counterparts in non-commutative mechanics. The transverse shift is consistent with the conservation of the angular momentum. In a pure magnetic field a cork-screw-like, spiraling motion is found.
Liu, Yating; Tian, Ailin; Wang, Xiong; Qi, Jing; Wang, Fengkang; Ma, Ying; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun
2015-06-26
As the rapid development of nanotechnology, the magnetic nanospheres modified with special chiral selective ligands show a great potentiality in enantiomeric separation. In this study, magnetic nanospheres modified with task-specific chiral ionic liquid were designed for the separation of chiral amino acids. These modified magnetic nanospheres were effective in a direct chiral separation of five racemic amino acids (D- and L-cysteine, D- and L-arginine, D- and L-leucine, D- and L-glutamine and D- and L-tryptophan). Furthermore, a new online method for complete separation of the enantiomers via the magnetic nanospheres was established with centrifugal chiral chromatography using a spiral tube assembly mounted on a type-J coil planet centrifuge. One kind of chiral compounds, D- and L-tryptophan was resolved well using this method. These results demonstrated that the modified nanospheres display a good chiral recognition ability, and can be used as a potential material for chiral separation of various racemates. PMID:25976126
About chiral models of dense matter and its magnetic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chiral models of dense nucleon matter are discussed. The quark matter with broken chiral symmetry is described. The magnetic properties of dense matter are presented and conclusions are given. 37 refs. (A.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present evidence for a new form of quantum Hall effect (QHE) in organic molecular metals, in which the chemical potential is pinned to quasi-one-dimensional states between sharp quasi-two-dimensional Landau levels over finite regions of magnetic field. A dramatic change in the behaviour of the resistivity component ρzz occurs when the QHE is observed, suggesting the presence of a chiral Fermi liquid at the sample edges
Tian, Ailin; Qi, Jing; Liu, Yating; Wang, Fengkang; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun
2013-01-01
Separation of enantiomers still remains a challenge due to their identical physical and chemical properties in a chiral environment, and the research on specific chiral selector along with separation techniques continues to be conducted to resolve individual enantiomers. In our laboratory the promising magnetic chiral microspheres Fe3O4@SiO2@cellulose-2, 3-bis (3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) have been developed to facilitate the resolution using both its magnetic property and chiral recognitio...
Theory of Magnetic Edge States in Chiral Graphene Nanoribbons
Capaz, Rodrigo; Yazyev, Oleg; Louie, Steven
2011-03-01
Using a model Hamiltonian approach including electron Coulomb interactions, we systematically investigate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of chiral graphene nanoribbons. We show that the presence of magnetic edge states is an intrinsic feature of any smooth graphene nanoribbons with chiral edges, and discover a number of structure-property relations. Specifically, we describe how the edge-state energy gap, zone-boundary edge-state energy splitting, and magnetic moment per edge length depend on the nanoribbon width and chiral angle. The role of environmental screening effects is also studied. Our results address a recent experimental observation of signatures of magnetic ordering at smooth edges of chiral graphene nanoribbons and provide an avenue towards tuning their properties via the structural and environmental degrees of freedom. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR10-1006184, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the ONR MURI program. RBC acknowledges financial support from Brazilian agencies CNPq, FAPERJ and INCT-Nanomateriais de Carbono.
Energetic molding of chiral magnetic bubbles
Lau, Derek; Sundar, Vignesh; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Sokalski, Vincent
2016-08-01
Topologically protected magnetic structures such as skyrmions and domain walls (DWs) have drawn a great deal of attention recently due to their thermal stability and potential for manipulation by spin current, which is the result of chiral magnetic configurations induced by the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Designing devices that incorporate DMI necessitates a thorough understanding of how the interaction presents and can be measured. One approach is to measure growth asymmetry of chiral bubble domains in perpendicularly magnetized thin films, which has been described elsewhere by thermally activated DW motion. Here, we demonstrate that the anisotropic angular dependence of DW energy originating from the DMI is critical to understanding this behavior. Domains in Co/Ni multilayers are observed to preferentially grow into nonelliptical teardrop shapes, which vary with the magnitude of an applied in-plane field. We model the domain profile using energetic calculations of equilibrium shape via the Wulff construction, which serves as a new paradigm for describing chiral domains that explains both the teardrop shape and the reversal of growth symmetry at large fields.
On a possible observation of the chiral magnetic effect in the RHIC BES experiments
Toneev, V D; Bratkovskaya, E L; Cassing, W; Konchakovski, V P; Voloshin, S A
2011-01-01
In terms of the hadron-string-dynamics (HSD) approach we investigate the correlation function in the azimuthal angle $\\psi$ of charged hadrons that is expected to be sensitive to a signal of local strong parity violation. Our analysis of Au+Au collisions is based on the recent STAR data within the RHIC Beam-Energy-Scan (BES) program. The HSD model reasonably reproduces STAR data for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$7.7 GeV, while there are some deviations from the experiment at the collision energy of 11.5 GeV and an increase of deviations between theory and experiment at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$39 GeV. For reference, the results for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV are given as well. The role of the retarded electromagnetic field is discussed and a compensation effect for the action of its electric and magnetic components is pointed out. We conclude that the recent RHIC BES data at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$7.7 and 11.5 GeV can be understood on the hadronic level without involving the idea of a strong parity violation; however, at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}\\sim$...
Liu, Zhaosen; Ian, Hou
2016-04-01
We employed a quantum simulation approach to investigate the magnetic properties of monolayer square nanodisks with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction. The computational program converged very quickly, and generated chiral spin structures on the disk planes with good symmetry. When the DM interaction is sufficiently strong, multi-domain structures appears, their sizes or average distance between each pair of domains can be approximately described by a modified grid theory. We further found that the external magnetic field and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy both normal to the disk plane lead to reductions of the total free energy and total energy of the nanosystems, thus are able to stabilize and/or induce the vortical structures, however, the chirality of the vortex is still determined by the sign of the DM interaction parameter. Moreover, the geometric shape of the nanodisk affects the spin configuration on the disk plane as well.
Novel Lifshitz point for chiral transition in the magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toshitaka Tatsumi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Based on the generalized Ginzburg–Landau theory, chiral phase transition is discussed in the presence of magnetic field. Considering the chiral density wave we show that chiral anomaly gives rise to an inhomogeneous chiral phase for nonzero quark-number chemical potential. Novel Lifshitz point appears on the vanishing chemical potential line, which may be directly explored by the lattice QCD simulation.
Magnetic rotation and chiral symmetry breaking
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok Kumar Jain; Amita
2001-08-01
The deformed mean ﬁeld of nuclei exhibits various geometrical and dynamical symmetries which manifest themselves as various types of rotational and decay patterns. Most of the symmetry operations considered so far have been deﬁned for a situation wherein the angular momentum coincides with one of the principal axes and the principal axis cranking may be invoked. New possibilities arise with the observation of rotational features in weakly deformed nuclei and now interpreted as magnetic rotational bands. More than 120 MR bands have now been identiﬁed by ﬁltering the existing data. We present a brief overview of these bands. The total angular momentum vector in such bands is tilted away from the principal axes. Such a situation gives rise to several new possibilities including breaking of chiral symmetry as discussed recently by Frauendorf. We present the outcome of such symmetries and their possible experimental veriﬁcation. Some possible examples of chiral bands are presented.
Tailoring the chiral magnetic interaction between two individual atoms
Khajetoorians, A. A.; Steinbrecher, M.; Ternes, M.; Bouhassoune, M.; dos Santos Dias, M.; Lounis, S.; Wiebe, J.; Wiesendanger, R.
2016-01-01
Chiral magnets are a promising route towards dense magnetic storage technology due to their inherent nano-scale dimensions and energy efficient properties. Engineering chiral magnets requires atomic-level control of the magnetic exchange interactions, including the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction, which defines a rotational sense for the magnetization of two coupled magnetic moments. Here we show that the indirect conduction electron-mediated Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction between two individual magnetic atoms on a metallic surface can be manipulated by changing the interatomic distance with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope. We quantify this interaction by comparing our measurements to a quantum magnetic model and ab-initio calculations yielding a map of the chiral ground states of pairs of atoms depending on the interatomic separation. The map enables tailoring the chirality of the magnetization in dilute atomic-scale magnets. PMID:26902332
Self-similar inverse cascade of magnetic helicity driven by the chiral anomaly
Hirono, Yuji; Yin, Yi
2015-01-01
For systems with charged chiral fermions, the imbalance of chirality in the presence of magnetic field generates an electric current - this is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME). We study the dynamical real-time evolution of electromagnetic fields coupled by the anomaly to the chiral charge density and the CME current by solving the Maxwell-Chern-Simons equations. We find that the CME induces the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity towards the large distances, and that at late times this cascade becomes self-similar, with universal exponents. We also find that in terms of gauge field topology the inverse cascade represents the transition from linked electric and magnetic fields (Hopfions) to the knotted configuration of magnetic field (Chandrasekhar-Kendall states). The magnetic reconnections are accompanied by the pulses of the CME current directed along the magnetic field lines. We devise an experimental signature of these phenomena in heavy ion collisions, and speculate about implications for condensed matt...
Holographic Chiral Electric Separation Effect
Pu, Shi; Wu, Shang-Yu; Yang, Di-Lun
2014-01-01
We investigate the chiral electric separation effect, where an axial current is induced by an electric field in the presence of both vector and axial chemical potentials, in a strongly coupled plasma via the Sakai-Sugimoto model with an $U(1)_R\\times U(1)_L$ symmetry. By introducing different chemical potentials in $U(1)_R$ and $U(1)_L$ sectors, we compute the axial direct current (DC) conductivity stemming from the chiral current and the normal DC conductivity. We find that the axial conduct...
Chiral magnetic conductivity in an interacting lattice model of parity-breaking Weyl semimetal
Buividovich, P. V.; Puhr, M.; Valgushev, S. N.
2015-11-01
We report on the mean-field study of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in static magnetic fields within a simple model of parity-breaking Weyl semimetal given by the lattice Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian with constant chiral chemical potential. We consider both the mean-field renormalization of the model parameters and nontrivial corrections to the CME originating from resummed ladder diagrams with arbitrary number of loops. We find that onsite repulsive interactions affect the chiral magnetic conductivity almost exclusively through the enhancement of the renormalized chiral chemical potential. Our results suggest that nontrivial corrections to the chiral magnetic conductivity due to interfermion interactions are not relevant in practice since they only become important when the CME response is strongly suppressed by the large gap in the energy spectrum.
Chiral pumping effect induced by rotating electric fields
Ebihara, Shu; Fukushima, Kenji; Oka, Takashi
2016-04-01
We propose an experimental setup using 3D Dirac semimetals to access a novel phenomenon induced by the chiral anomaly. We show that the combination of a magnetic field and a circularly polarized laser induces a finite charge density with an accompanying axial current. This is because the circularly polarized laser breaks time-reversal symmetry and the Dirac point splits into two Weyl points, which results in an axial-vector field. We elucidate the appearance of the axial-vector field with the help of the Floquet theory by deriving an effective Hamiltonian for high-frequency electric fields. This anomalous charge density, i.e., the chiral pumping effect, is a phenomenon reminiscent of the chiral magnetic effect with a chiral chemical potential. We explicitly compute the pumped density and the axial-current expectation value. We also take account of coupling to the chiral magnetic effect to calculate a balanced distribution of charge and chirality in a material that behaves as a chiral battery.
Emergent electrodynamics of skyrmions in a chiral magnet
Schulz, T.; Ritz, R.; Bauer, A.; Halder, M.; Wagner, M.; Franz, C.; Pfleiderer, C.; Everschor, K.; Garst, M.; Rosch, A.
2012-04-01
When an electron moves in a smoothly varying non-collinear magnetic structure, its spin orientation adapts constantly, thereby inducing forces that act both on the magnetic structure and on the electron. These forces may be described by electric and magnetic fields of an emergent electrodynamics. The topologically quantized winding number of so-called skyrmions--a type of magnetic whirl discovered recently in chiral magnets--has been predicted to induce exactly one quantum of emergent magnetic flux per skyrmion. A moving skyrmion is therefore expected to induce an emergent electric field following Faraday's law of induction, which inherits this topological quantization. Here we report Hall-effect measurements that establish quantitatively the predicted emergent electrodynamics. We obtain quantitative evidence for the depinning of skyrmions from impurities (at current densities of only 106Am-2) and their subsequent motion. The combination of exceptionally small current densities and simple transport measurements offers fundamental insights into the connection between the emergent and real electrodynamics of skyrmions in chiral magnets, and might, in the long term, be important for applications.
Chiral gap effect in curved space
Flachi, Antonino
2014-01-01
We discuss a new type of QCD phenomenon induced in curved space. In the QCD vacuum a mass gap of Dirac fermions is attributed to the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. If the curvature is positive large, the chiral condensate melts but a chiral invariant mass gap can still remain, which we name the chiral gap effect in curved space. This leads to decoupling of quark deconfinement which implies a view of black holes surrounded by a first-order QCD phase transition.
Event-by-event background in estimates of the chiral magnetic effect
Toneev, V D; Voronyuk, V; Bratkovskaya, E L; Cassing, W
2012-01-01
In terms of the parton-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) approach - including the retarded electromagnetic field - we investigate the role of fluctuations of the correlation function in the azimuthal angle $\\psi$ of charged hadrons that is expected to be a sensitive signal of local strong parity violation. For the early time we consider fluctuations in the position of charged spectators resulting in electromagnetic field fluctuations as well as in the position of participant baryons defining the event plane. For partonic and hadronic phases in intermediate stages of the interaction we study the possible formation of excited matter in electric charge dipole and quadrupole form as generated by fluctuations. The role of the transverse momentum and local charge conservation laws in the observed azimuthal asymmetry is investigated, too. All these above-mentioned effects are incorporated in our analysis based on event-by-event PHSD calculations. Furthermore, the azimuthal angular correlations from Au+Au collisions obse...
Event-by-event background in estimates of the chiral magnetic effect
Toneev, V. D.; Konchakovski, V. P.; Voronyuk, V.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Cassing, W.
2012-12-01
In terms of the parton hadron string dynamics (PHSD) approach—including the retarded electromagnetic field—we investigate the role of fluctuations of the correlation function in the azimuthal angle ψ of charged hadrons that is expected to be a sensitive signal of local strong parity violation. For the early time we consider fluctuations in the position of charged spectators resulting in electromagnetic field fluctuations as well as in the position of participant baryons defining the event plane. For partonic and hadronic phases in intermediate stages of the interaction we study the possible formation of excited matter in electric charge dipole and quadrupole form as generated by fluctuations. The role of the transverse momentum and local charge conservation laws in the observed azimuthal asymmetry is investigated, too. All these above-mentioned effects are incorporated in our analysis based on event-by-event PHSD calculations. Furthermore, the azimuthal angular correlations from Au+Au collisions observed in the recent STAR measurements within the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Beam Energy Scan (BES) program are studied. It is shown that the STAR correlation data at the collision energies of sNN=7.7 and 11.5 GeV can be reasonably reproduced within the PHSD. At higher energies the model fails to describe the ψ correlation data resulting in an overestimation of the partonic scalar field involved. We conclude that an additional transverse anisotropy fluctuating source is needed which with a comparable strength acts on both in- and out-of-plane components.
Magnetic moments of charm baryons in chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnetic moments of the charm baryons of the sextet and of the 3*-plet are re-evaluated in the framework of Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory (HHCPT). NRQM and broken SU(4) unitary symmetry model are used to obtain tree-level magnetic moments. Calculations of a unitary symmetry part of one-loop contributions to magnetic moments of the charm baryons are performed in detail in terms of the SU(4) couplings of charm baryons to Goldstone bosons. The relations between the magnetic moments of the sextet 1/2 baryons with the one-loop corrections are shown to coincide with the NRQM relations. The correspondence between HHCPT results and those of NRQM and unitary symmetry model is discussed. It is shown that one-loop corrections can effectively be absorbed into the tree-level formulae for the magnetic moments of the charm baryons in the broken SU(4) unitary symmetry model and partially in the NRQM. (author)
Chiral symmety breaking in 3-flavor Nambu-Jona Lasinio model in magnetic background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chatterjee, Bhaswar; Mishra, Hiranmaya [Theory Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Mishra, Amruta [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi-110016 (India)
2011-07-15
Effect of magnetic field on chiral symmetry breaking in a 3-flavor Nambu Jona Lasinio (NJL) model at finite temperature and densities is considered here using an explicit structure of ground state in terms of quark and antiquark condensates. While at zero chemical potential and finite temperature, magnetic field enhances the condensates, at zero temperature, the critical chemical potential decreases with increasing magnetic field.
Chiral symmety breaking in 3-flavor Nambu-Jona Lasinio model in magnetic background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effect of magnetic field on chiral symmetry breaking in a 3-flavor Nambu Jona Lasinio (NJL) model at finite temperature and densities is considered here using an explicit structure of ground state in terms of quark and antiquark condensates. While at zero chemical potential and finite temperature, magnetic field enhances the condensates, at zero temperature, the critical chemical potential decreases with increasing magnetic field.
Chiral symmety breaking in 3-flavor Nambu-Jona Lasinio model in magnetic background
Chatterjee, Bhaswar; Mishra, Amruta
2011-01-01
Effect of magnetic field on chiral symmetry breaking in a 3-flavor Nambu Jona Lasinio (NJL) model at finite temperature and densities is considered here using an explicit structure of ground state in terms of quark and antiquark condensates. While at zero chemical potential and finite temperature, magnetic field enhances the condensates, at zero temperature, the critical chemical potential decreases with increasing magnetic field.
Magnetic catalysis and inverse magnetic catalysis in nonlocal chiral quark models
Pagura, V P; Noguera, S; Scoccola, N N
2016-01-01
We study the behavior of strongly interacting matter under an external constant magnetic field in the context of nonlocal chiral quark models within the mean field approximation. We find that at zero temperature the behavior of the quark condensates shows the expected magnetic catalysis effect, our predictions being in good quantitative agreement with lattice QCD results. On the other hand, in contrast to what happens in the standard local Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, when the analysis is extended to the case of finite temperature our results show that nonlocal models naturally lead to the Inverse Magnetic Catalysis effect.
Belinsky, Moisey I
2016-05-01
We consider the frustration, magnetochiral correlations, temperature and distortion dependences of the vector and scalar chiralities, magnetization, and orbital angular momentum of the Cu3 and V3 nanomagnets in the rotating magnetic field, as well as the spin chiralities and frustration in the tilted magnetic field, the joint frustrated rotation behavior of the correlated spin chiralities and magnetization. Spin chiralities and magnetization demonstrate strong frustration in the rotating and tilted magnetic fields. An increase of the temperature and trimer distortions results in the reduction of the chiralities and frustration. The equilateral and distorted clusters with large Dzialoshinsky-Moriya (DM) parameters are characterized by the large spin chirality. An increase of the strength of the tilted magnetic field Hζ leads to the inhomogeneous polar rotation of the chirality and magnetization vectors, which depends on the temperature. PMID:27070817
Tailoring the chiral magnetic interaction between two individual atoms
Wiebe, J.; Khajetoorians, A. A.; Steinbrecher, M.; Ternes, M.; Bouhassoune, M.; Dos Santos Dias, M.; Lounis, S.; Wiesendanger, R.
Chiral magnets are a promising route toward dense magnetic storage technology due to their inherent nano-scale dimensions and energy efficient properties. Engineering chiral magnets requires atomic-level control of the magnetic exchange interactions, including the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which defines a rotational sense for the magnetization of two coupled magnetic moments. Here we show that the indirect conduction electron mediated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction between two individual magnetic atoms on a metallic surface can be manipulated by changing the interatomic distance with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. We quantify this interaction by comparing our measurements to a quantum magnetic model and ab-initio calculations yielding a map of the chiral ground states of pairs of atoms depending on the interatomic separation. The map enables tailoring the chirality of the magnetization in dilute atomic-scale magnets. Acknowledgements: SFB668, GrK1286, SFB767, LO 1659 5-1, Emmy Noether Program of the DFG, FOM of NWO, VH-NG-717.
Chirality of electrodeposits grown in a magnetic field.
Mhíocháin, T R Ní; Coey, J M D
2004-06-01
Electrodeposits grown around a point cathode in a flat, horizontal electrochemical cell have fractal form. When grown in the presence of a perpendicular applied magnetic field, the deposits develop a spiral structure with chirality which reverses on switching the field direction. These structures are modeled numerically using biased variants of the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The effects of electric and magnetic fields are modeled successfully by varying the probabilities that a random walker will move in a given direction as a result of a Coulomb force and the Lorentz force-induced flow of electrolyte past the deposit surface. By contrast, a numerical model which considers only the effect of the Lorentz force on individual ions, without reference to the surface of the growing deposit, produces spiral structures with incorrect chirality. The modified DLA model is related to the differential equations for diffusion, migration, and convection. Length scales in the problem are understood by associating the step length of the random walker with the diffusion layer thickness, the lookup radius with the hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness and a point on the numerical deposit with a nucleation center for growth of a crystallite. PMID:15244565
Simulating net particle production and chiral magnetic current in a C P -odd domain
Fukushima, Kenji
2015-09-01
To address a question of whether the chiral magnetic current is a static polarization or a genuine flow of charged particles, we elucidate the numerical formulation to simulate the net production of right-handed particles and anomalous currents with C P -breaking background fields which cause an imbalance between particles and antiparticles. For a concrete demonstration we numerically impose pulsed electric and magnetic fields to confirm our answer to the question that the produced net particles flow in the dynamical chiral magnetic effect. The rate for the particle production and the chiral magnetic current generation is quantitatively consistent with the axial anomaly, while they appear with a finite response time. We emphasize the importance to quantify the response time that would suppress observable effects of the anomalous current.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chiral magnetic wave is a gapless collective excitation of quark-gluon plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field that stems from the interplay of chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects; it is composed of the waves of the electric and chiral charge densities coupled by the axial anomaly. We consider a chiral magnetic wave at finite baryon density and find that it induces the electric quadrupole moment of the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions: the 'poles' of the produced fireball (pointing outside of the reaction plane) acquire additional positive electric charge, and the 'equator' acquires additional negative charge. We point out that this electric quadrupole deformation lifts the degeneracy between the elliptic flows of positive and negative pions leading to v2(π+)2(π-), and estimate the magnitude of the effect.
Mobility inhibition of 1-phenylethanol chiral molecules in strong magnetic fields
Kozlova, Svetlana G.; Kompankov, Nikolay B.; Ryzhikov, Maxim R.; Slepkov, Vladimir A.
2015-12-01
Experimental evidences are first obtained to demonstrate the effect of external magnetic field on the mobility of 1-phenylethanol molecules characterized by conjugated ring bonds. Enantiomers of these molecules are shown to have different mobilities in chiral polarized mediums composed of these enantiomers taken in various proportions. The difference diminishes when the external magnetic field increases.
Neutral-pion reactions induced by chiral anomaly in strong magnetic fields
Hattori, Koichi; Itakura, Kazunori; Ozaki, Sho
2013-01-01
We investigate decay and production of neutral pions in strong magnetic fields. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, transition between a neutral pion and a virtual photon becomes possible through the triangle diagram relevant for the chiral anomaly. We find that the decay mode of a neutral pion into two photons cannot persist in the dominant mode in strong magnetic fields, and that decay into a dilepton instead dominates over the other modes. We also investigate the effects of magnetic...
Spontaneous magnetization of quark matter in the inhomogeneous chiral phase
Yoshiike, Ryo; Tatsumi, Tositaka
2015-01-01
Considering the density wave of scalar and pseudoscalar condensates, we study the response of quark matter to a weak external magnetic field. In an external magnetic field, the energy spectrum of the lowest Landau level becomes asymmetric about zero, which is closely related to chiral anomaly, and gives rise to the spontaneous magnetization. This mechanism may be one of candidates for the origin of the strong magnetic field in pulsars and/or magnetars.
Effective action in general chiral superfield model
Petrov, A. Yu.
2000-01-01
The effective action in general chiral superfield model with arbitrary k\\"{a}hlerian potential $K(\\bar{\\Phi},\\Phi)$ and chiral (holomorphic) potential $W(\\Phi)$ is considered. The one-loop and two-loop contributions to k\\"{a}hlerian effective potential and two-loop (first non-zero) contribution to chiral effective potential are found for arbitrary form of functions $K(\\bar{\\Phi},\\Phi)$ and $W(\\Phi)$. It is found that despite the theory is non-renormalizable in general case two-loop contributi...
Quark matter inside neutron stars in an effective chiral model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An effective chiral model which describes properties of a single baryon predicts that the quark matter relevant to neutron stars, close to the deconfinement density, is in a chirally broken phase. We find the SU(2) model that pion-condensed up and down quark matter is preferred energetically at neutron star densities. It exhibits spin ordering and can posses a permanent magnetization. The equation of state of quark matter with chiral condensate is very well approximated by bag model equation of the state with suitably chosen parameters. We study quark cores inside neutron stars in this model using realistic nucleon equations of state. The biggest quark core corresponds to the second order phase transition to quark matter. Magnetic moment of the pion-condensed quark core is calculated. (author). 19 refs, 10 refs, 1 tab
Chiral Charge Erasure via Thermal Fluctuations of Magnetic Helicity
Long, Andrew J
2016-01-01
We consider a relativistic plasma of fermions coupled to an Abelian gauge field and carrying a chiral charge asymmetry, which might arise in the early Universe through baryogenesis. It is known that on large length scales, $\\lambda \\gtrsim 1/(\\alpha \\mu_5)$, the chiral anomaly opens an instability toward the erasure of chiral charge and growth of magnetic helicity. Here the chemical potential $\\mu_{5}$ parametrizes the chiral asymmetry and $\\alpha$ is the fine-structure constant. We study the process of chiral charge erasure through the thermal fluctuations of magnetic helicity and contrast with the well-studied phenomenon of Chern-Simons number diffusion. Through the fluctuation-dissipation theorem we estimate the amplitude and time scale of helicity fluctuations on the length scale $\\lambda$, finding $\\delta \\mathcal{H} \\sim \\lambda T$ and $\\tau \\sim \\alpha \\lambda^3 T^2$ for a relativistic plasma at temperature $T$. We argue that the presence of a chiral asymmetry allows the helicity to grow diffusively fo...
Critical phenomena of emergent magnetic monopoles in a chiral magnet
Kanazawa, N.; Nii, Y.; Zhang, X.-X.; Mishchenko, A. S.; de Filippis, G.; Kagawa, F.; Iwasa, Y.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.
2016-05-01
Second-order continuous phase transitions are characterized by symmetry breaking with order parameters. Topological orders of electrons, characterized by the topological index defined in momentum space, provide a distinct perspective for phase transitions, which are categorized as quantum phase transitions not being accompanied by symmetry breaking. However, there are still limited observations of counterparts in real space. Here we show a real-space topological phase transition in a chiral magnet MnGe, hosting a periodic array of hedgehog and antihedgehog topological spin singularities. This transition is driven by the pair annihilation of the hedgehogs and antihedgehogs acting as monopoles and antimonopoles of the emergent electromagnetic field. Observed anomalies in the magnetoresistivity and phonon softening are consistent with the theoretical prediction of critical phenomena associated with enhanced fluctuations of emergent field near the transition. This finding reveals a vital role of topology of the spins in strongly correlated systems.
The properties of isolated chiral skyrmions in thin magnetic films
Leonov, A. O.; Monchesky, T. L.; Romming, N.; Kubetzka, A.; Bogdanov, A. N.; Wiesendanger, R.
2016-06-01
Axisymmetric solitonic states (chiral skyrmions) were first predicted theoretically more than two decades ago. However, until recently they have been observed in a form of skyrmionic condensates (hexagonal lattices and other mesophases). In this paper we report experimental and theoretical investigations of isolated chiral skyrmions discovered in PdFe/Ir(111) bilayers two years ago by Romming et al (2013 Science 341 636). The results of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy analyzed within the continuum and discrete models provide a consistent description of isolated skyrmions in thin layers. The existence region of chiral skyrmions is restricted by strip-out instabilities at low fields and a collapse at high fields. We demonstrate that the same equations describe axisymmetric localized states in all condensed matter systems with broken mirror symmetry, and thus our findings establish basic properties of isolated skyrmions common for chiral liquid crystals, different classes of noncentrosymmetric magnets, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics.
Chiral pions in a magnetic background
Colucci, Giuseppe; Sedrakian, Armen
2013-01-01
We investigate the modification of the pion self-energy at finite temperature due to its interaction with a low-density, isospin-symmetric nuclear medium embedded in a constant magnetic background. To one loop, for fixed temperature and density, we find that the pion effective mass increases with the magnetic field. For the $\\pi^{-}$, interestingly, this happens solely due to the trivial Landau quantization shift $\\sim |eB|$, since the real part of the self-energy is negative in this case. In a scenario in which other charged particle species are present and undergo an analogous trivial shift, the relevant behavior of the effective mass might be determined essentially by the real part of the self-energy. In this case, we find that the pion mass decreases by $\\sim 10%$ for a magnetic field $|eB|\\sim m_\\pi^2$, which favors pion condensation at high density and low temperatures.
Chiral symmetry restoration in effective Lagrangian models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The restoration is studied of chiral symmetry in dense baryon matter using effective lagrangian models of QCD, in which baryons are described as topological solitons. Starting from the breaking of scale invariance and chiral symmetry in the QCD vacuum, the foundations are discussed of effective lagrangians and their relevance for applications to dense matter. Soliton models, such a the Skyrme model, show a phase transition at high densities, whose order parameter is the average scalar field. The properties are investigated of the two phases of the effective theory and show that the phase transition corresponds to the restoration of the chiral symmetry of QCD. It is argued that it should not be understood as deconfinement. The author then considers this phase transition in the context of the Cheshire Cat principle, which provides the link to the underlying quarks of QCD. An analogue of the Cheshire Cat property of this chiral bag model for baryons is found in solitons of effective lagrangians with a scalar glueball field. The Cheshire Cat interpretation of the results of effective lagrangians provides a consistent picture of chiral symmetry restoration at high densities. To verify this interpretation explicitly, the author finally generalizes the effective lagrangian approach to dense matter to a chiral bag model description with quark degrees of freedom
Nuclear chiral and magnetic rotation in covariant density functional theory
Meng, Jie; Zhao, Pengwei
2016-05-01
Excitations of chiral rotation observed in triaxial nuclei and magnetic and/or antimagnetic rotations (AMR) seen in near-spherical nuclei have attracted a lot of attention. Unlike conventional rotation in well-deformed or superdeformed nuclei, here the rotational axis is not necessary coinciding with any principal axis of the nuclear density distribution. Thus, tilted axis cranking (TAC) is mandatory to describe these excitations self-consistently in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). We will briefly introduce the formalism of TAC–CDFT and its application for magnetic and AMR phenomena. Configuration-fixed CDFT and its predictions for nuclear chiral configurations and for favorable triaxial deformation parameters are also presented, and the discoveries of the multiple chiral doublets in 133Ce and 103Rh are discussed.
Nuclear chiral and magnetic rotation in covariant density functional theory
Meng, Jie
2016-01-01
Excitations of chiral rotation observed in triaxial nuclei and magnetic and/or antimagnetic rotations seen in near-spherical nuclei have attracted a lot of attention. Unlike conventional rotation in well-deformed or superdeformed nuclei, here the rotational axis is not necessary coinciding with any principal axis of the nuclear density distribution. Thus, tilted axis cranking is mandatory to describe these excitations self-consistently in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). We will briefly introduce the formalism of tilted axis cranking CDFT and its application for magnetic and antimagnetic rotation phenomena. Configuration-fixed CDFT and its predictions for nuclear chiral configurations and for favorable triaxial deformation parameters are also presented, and the discoveries of the multiple chiral doublets (M\\c{hi}D) in 133Ce and 103Rh are discussed.
Chiral effective model with the Polyakov loop
Fukushima, Kenji
2003-01-01
We discuss how the simultaneous crossovers of deconfinement and chiral restoration can be realized. We propose a dynamical mechanism assuming that the effective potential gives a finite value of the chiral condensate if the Polyakov loop vanishes. Using a simple model, we demonstrate that our idea works well for small quark mass, though there should be further constraints to reach the perfect locking of two phenomena.
Spontaneous Magnetization of Quark Matter in Inhomogeneous Chiral Phase
Yoshiike, Ryo; Tatsumi, Toshitaka
2015-01-01
Considering the density wave of scalar and pseudoscalar condensates, we study the response of quark matter to a weak external magnetic field. In an external magnetic field, the energy spectrum of the lowest Landau level becomes asymmetric about zero, which is closely related to chiral anomaly. This spectral asymmetry gives rise to spontaneous magnetization. This mechanism may be one of candidates for the origin of the strong magnetic field in magnetars. Furthermore, using the generalized Ginzburg-Landau(gGL) expansion, we show that magnetic susceptibility exhibits a peculiar feature
Ternary superlattice boosting interface-stabilized magnetic chirality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Gong; Schmid, Andreas K. [NCEM, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); N' Diaye, Alpha T. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wu, Yizheng [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2015-02-09
In cobalt-nickel multilayers grown on iridium surfaces, magnetic homo-chirality can be stabilized by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMI) at the interface with the substrate. When thickness of the multilayers is increased beyond threshold values, then non-chiral bulk properties exceed interface contributions and this type of chirality vanishes. Here, we use spin-polarized low energy electron microscopy to measure these thickness thresholds, and we determine estimates of the strength of the DMI from the measurements. Even though the same 5d heavy metal is used as a substrate, a remarkably large variation is found between the two 3d magnets: our results indicate that the strength of the DMI at Co/Ir interfaces is three times larger than at Ni/Ir interfaces. We show how this finding provides ways to extend interfacial-DMI stabilization of domain wall chirality to 3d/5d/3d ternary multilayers such as [Ni/Ir/Co]{sub n}. Such strategies may extend chirality-control to larger film thickness and a wider range of substrates, which may be useful for designing new spintronics devices.
Magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking and the Pauli problem
Ng, Y. Jack
1998-01-01
The non-perturbative Schwinger-Dyson equation is used to show that chiral symmetry is dynamically broken in QED at weak gauge couplings when an external uniform magnetic field is present. A complete analysis of this phenomenon may shed light on the Pauli problem, namely, why $\\alpha$ = 1/137.
On the chiral separation effect in a slab
Sitenko, Yu A
2016-01-01
We study an influence of boundaries on chiral effects in hot dense relativistic spinor matter in a strong magnetic field which is transverse to bounding planes. The most general set of boundary conditions ensuring the confinement of matter within the bounding planes is considered. We find that, in thermal equilibrium, the nondissipative axial current along the magnetic field is induced, depending on chemical potential and temperature, as well as on a choice of boundary conditions. As temperature increases from zero to large values, a stepwise behaviour of the axial current density as a function of chemical potential is changed to a smooth one; the choice of a boundary condition can facilitate either amplification or diminution of the chiral separation effect. This points at a significant role of boundaries for physical systems with hot dense magnetized relativistic spinor matter, e.g., compact stars, heavy-ion collisions, novel materials known as Dirac and Weyl semimetals.
Scaling behaviour of the effective chiral action and stability of the chiral soliton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effective chiral action is evaluated within a novel improved heat-kernel expansion, which includes gradients of the chiral field in a non-perturbative way. The exact scaling behaviour of the effective action of a localized chiral field with respect to changing its spatial size is found. From this it is proved that the radiatively induced derivative terms cannot absolutely stabilize the chiral soliton against collapsing. The collapsing of the soliton is, however, accompanied by a vanishing of the baryon charge. It is argued that the effective chiral action constrained to a fixed baryon number may still admit stable soliton configurations. (orig.)
Chiral restoration at finite T under the magnetic field with the meson-loop corrections
Nam, Seung-il
2011-01-01
We investigate the (partial) chiral restoration at finite temperature (T) under the strong external magnetic field B_0 of the SU(2) light-flavor QCD matter. To this end, we employ the instanton-liquid QCD vacuum configuration accompanied with the linear Schwinger method for inducing the magnetic field. The Harrington-Shepard caloron solution is used to modify the instanton parameters, i.e. the average instanton size (rho) and inter-instanton distance (R), as functions of T. In addition, we include the meson-loop corrections (MLC) as the large-N_c corrections because they are critical for reproducing the universal chiral restoration pattern. We present the numerical results for the constituent-quark mass as well as chiral condensate which signal the spontaneous breakdown of chiral-symmetry SBCS, as functions of T and B_0. From our results we observe that the strengths of those chiral order parameters are enhanced with respect to B_0 due to the magnetic catalysis effect. We also find that there appears a region...
Chirality selection in the vortex state of magnetic nanodisks with a screw dislocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rößler U. K.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Structural defects in magnetic crystalline materials may locally change magnetic properties and can signiﬁcantly inﬂuence the behavior of magnetic nanostructures. E.g., surface-induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions can strongly affect vortex structures in magnetic nanodisks causing a chirality selection. Near lattice defects, the spin-orbit interactions induce local antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange and cause effective anisotropies, which can result in spin canting. Broken inversion symmetry near a defect leads to locally chiral exchange. We present a phenomenological approach for dislocation-induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya couplings. As an example we investigate effects of a screw dislocation at the center of a magnetic nanodisk with a vortex state. By numerical calculations on vortex proﬁles we analyze equilibrium parameters of the vortex as functions of applied magnetic ﬁeld and the material and geometrical parameters. It is proposed that magnetic nanodisks with defects provide a suitable experimental setting to study induced chirality by spin-orbit effects.
Coïsson, Marco; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Manzin, Alessandra; Vinai, Franco; Tiberto, Paola
2016-01-01
Magnetic vortex chirality in patterned square dots has been investigated by means of a field-dependent magnetic force microscopy technique that allows to measure local hysteresis loops. The chirality affects the two loop branches independently, giving rise to curves that have different shapes and symmetries as a function of the details of the magnetisation reversal process in the square dot, that is studied both experimentally and through micromagnetic simulations. The tip-sample interaction is taken into account numerically, and exploited experimentally, to influence the side of the square where nucleation of the vortex preferably occurs, therefore providing a way to both measure and drive chirality with the present technique. PMID:27426442
Deconfinement and Chiral Symmetry Restoration in a Strong Magnetic Background
Gatto, Raoul
2010-01-01
We perform a model study of deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration in a strong magnetic background. We use a Nambu-Jona Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop, taking into account a possible dependence of the coupling on the Polyakov loop expectation value, as suggested by the recent literature. Our main result is that, within this model, the deconfinement and chiral crossovers of QCD in strong magnetic field are entangled even at the largest value of $eB$ considered here, namely $eB=30 m_\\pi^2$ (that is, $B \\approx 6\\times 10^{15}$ Tesla). The amount of split that we measure is, at this value of $eB$, of the order of 2%. We also study briefly the role of the 8-quark term on the entanglement of the two crossovers. We then compare the phase diagram of this model with previous results, as well as with available Lattice data.
Deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration in a strong magnetic background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform a model study of deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration in a strong magnetic background. We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop, taking into account a possible dependence of the coupling on the Polyakov-loop expectation value, as suggested by the recent literature. Our main result is that, within this model, the deconfinement and chiral crossovers of QCD in strong magnetic field are entangled even at the largest value of eB considered here, namely eB=30mπ2 (that is, B≅6x1015 T). The amount of split that we measure is, at this value of eB, of the order of 2%. We also study briefly the role of the 8-quark term on the entanglement of the two crossovers. We then compare the phase diagram of this model with previous results, as well as with available lattice data.
Fast chirality reversal of the magnetic vortex by electric current
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, W. L., E-mail: wlimnd@gmail.com; Liu, R. H.; Urazhdin, S., E-mail: sergei.urazhdin@emory.edu [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Tyliszczak, T. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Erokhin, S. G. [Innovent Technology Development, Pruessingstr. 27B, Jena D-07745 (Germany); Berkov, D. [General Numerics Research Lab e.V., An der Leite 3b, Jena D-07749 (Germany)
2014-12-01
The possibility of high-density information encoding in magnetic materials by topologically stable inhomogeneous magnetization configurations such as domain walls, skyrmions, and vortices has motivated intense research into mechanisms enabling their control and detection. While the uniform magnetization states can be efficiently controlled by electric current using magnetic multilayer structures, this approach has proven much more difficult to implement for inhomogeneous states. Here, we report direct observation of fast reversal of magnetic vortex by electric current in a simple planar structure based on a bilayer of spin Hall material Pt with a single microscopic ferromagnetic disk contacted by asymmetric electrodes. The reversal is enabled by a combination of the chiral Oersted field and spin current generated by the nonuniform current distribution in Pt. Our results provide a route for the efficient control of inhomogeneous magnetization configurations by electric current.
Jens O. Andersen; William R. Naylor(Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway); Anders Tranberg(Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway)
2014-01-01
We use the Polyakov loop coupled quark-meson model to approximate low energy QCD and present results for the chiral and deconfinement transitions in the presence of a constant magnetic background $B$ at finite temperature $T$ and baryon chemical potential $\\mu_B$. We investigate effects of various gluoni potentials on the deconfinement transition with and without a fermionic backreaction at finite $B$. Additionally we investigate the effect of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition,...
Chiral effective field theory and nuclear forces
Machleidt, R
2011-01-01
We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory. The presentation is accessible to the non-specialist. At the same time, we also provide considerable detailed information (mostly in appendices) for the benefit of researchers who wish to start working in this field.
Hu, Li; Fang, Yurui
2016-01-01
Plasmonic chirality exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response. Previous reports on plasmonic chirality explanations are mainly based on phase retardation and coupling. We propose a quantitative model similar to the chiral molecules for explaining the mechanism of the intrinsic plasmonic chirality quantitatively based on the interplay and mixing of electric and magnetic dipole modes, which forms a mixed electric and magnetic polarizability. The analysis method is also suitable for small chiral object down to quasi-static limit without phase delay and expected to be a universal rule.
Seiberg-Witten monopoles: Weyl semimetal coupled to chiral magnets
Yu, Yue
2016-01-01
We study a Weyl semimetal which couples to local magnets. In the continuum limit, the Hamiltonian of the system matches the Chern-Simons-Maxwell-Dirac functional and then the ground state is governed by generalized Seiberg-Witten (SW) or Freund equations in terms of the sign of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya coupling. The ground states determined by the Freund equations may either be monopolar Weyl semimetal accompanied by the ferromagnetic magnets or SW monopoles which consist of spheric Weyl fermions coupled to chiral magnets, depending on the strength of the Kondo coupling. The latter topological ground state is characterized by SW invariants. There are also the SW monopole solutions carrying an opposite SW invariant for the SW equations. They are metastable because the ground state of the system in this case is a monopolar Weyl semimetal accompanied by the ferromagnetic magnets.
Kinoshita, M; Seki, S; Sato, T J; Nambu, Y; Hong, T; Matsuda, M; Cao, H B; Ishiwata, S; Tokura, Y
2016-07-22
The correlation between magnetic and dielectric properties has been investigated for the single crystal of the chiral triangular-lattice helimagnet MnSb_{2}O_{6}. We found that the spin-spiral plane in the ground state has a considerable tilting from the (110) plane and that the sign of the spin-spiral tilting angle is coupled to the clockwise or counterclockwise manner of spin rotation and accordingly to the sign of magnetically induced electric polarization. This leads to unique magnetoelectric responses such as the magnetic-field-induced selection of a single ferroelectric domain as well as the reversal of electric polarization just by a slight tilting of the magnetic field direction, where the chiral nature of the crystal structure plays a crucial role through the coupling of the chirality between the crystal and magnetic structures. Our results demonstrate that crystallographic chirality can be an abundant source of novel magnetoelectric functions with coupled internal degrees of freedom. PMID:27494497
New type of stable particlelike states in chiral magnets.
Rybakov, Filipp N; Borisov, Aleksandr B; Blügel, Stefan; Kiselev, Nikolai S
2015-09-11
We present a new type of thermodynamically stable magnetic state at interfaces and surfaces of chiral magnets. The state is a soliton solution of micromagnetic equations localized in all three dimensions near a boundary, and it contains a singularity but nevertheless has finite energy. Both features combine to form a quasiparticle state for which we expect unusual transport and dynamical properties. It exhibits high thermal stability and thereby can be considered as a promising object for fundamental research and practical applications in spintronic devices. We identified the range of existence of such particlelike states in the thickness dependent magnetic phase diagram for helimagnet films and analyzed its stability in comparison with the isolated skyrmion within the conical phase. We provide arguments that such a state can be found in different B20-type alloys, e.g., Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Ge, Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si, Fe_{1-x}Co_{x}Si. PMID:26406851
Weber, Norbert; Stefani, Frank; Weier, Tom
2015-01-01
The Tayler instability is a kink-type, current driven instability that plays an important role in plasma physics but might also be relevant in liquid metal applications with high electrical currents. In the framework of the Tayler-Spruit dynamo model of stellar magnetic field generation, the question of spontaneous helical (chiral) symmetry breaking during the saturation of the Tayler instability has received considerable interest. Focusing on fluids with low magnetic Prandtl numbers, for which the quasistatic approximation can be applied, we utilize an integro-differential equation approach in order to investigate the saturation mechanism of the Tayler instability. Both the exponential growth phase and the saturated phase are analyzed in terms of the action of the alpha and beta effects of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics. In the exponential growth phase we always find a spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which, however, disappears in the saturated phase. For higher degrees of supercriticality, we observe h...
Transverse charge and magnetization densities in the nucleon's chiral periphery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granados, Carlos G. [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States); Weiss, Christian [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
In the light-front description of nucleon structure the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent transverse densities of charge and magnetization. Recent work has studied the transverse densities at peripheral distances b = O(M{pi}{sup -1}), where they are governed by universal chiral dynamics and can be computed in a model-independent manner. Of particular interest is the comparison of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities. We summarize (a) their interpretation as spin-independent and -dependent current matrix elements; (b) the leading-order chiral effective field theory results; (c) their mechanical interpretation in the light-front formulation; (d) the large-N_c limit of QCD and the role of {Delta} intermediate states; (e) the connection with generalized parton distributions and peripheral high-energy scattering processes.
Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John
2016-05-01
Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a chiral triplet p-wave superconductor, and UPt3, which has two low-temperature superconducting phases (in zero magnetic field), the lower of which is believed to be chiral triplet f-wave. Other systems that may exhibit chiral superconductivity are also discussed. Key signatures of chiral superconductivity are surface currents and chiral Majorana modes, Majorana states in vortex cores, and the possibility of half-flux quantum vortices in the case of triplet pairing. Experimental evidence for chiral superconductivity from μSR, NMR, strain, polar Kerr effect and Josephson tunneling experiments are discussed.
Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields
Gitman, D M
1996-01-01
The phase structure of d=3 Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the 1/N-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the gravitational field.
Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields
Gitman, D. M.; Odintsov, S. D.; Shil'nov, Yu. I.
1996-01-01
The phase structure of $d=3$ Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the $1/N$-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the ...
Magnetic form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a 2+1-flavor lattice QCD calculation of the electromagnetic Dirac and Pauli form factors of the octet baryons. The magnetic Sachs form factor is extrapolated at six fixed values of Q2 to physical pseudoscalar masses and infinite volume using a formulation based on heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization. We properly account for omitted disconnected quark contractions using a partially-quenched effective field theory formalism. The results compare well with the experimental form factors of the nucleon and the magnetic moments of the octet baryons.
Microwave Magnetochiral Dichroism in the Chiral-Lattice Magnet Cu_{2}OSeO_{3}.
Okamura, Y; Kagawa, F; Seki, S; Kubota, M; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y
2015-05-15
Through broadband microwave spectroscopy in Faraday geometry, we observe distinct absorption spectra accompanying magnetoelectric (ME) resonance for oppositely propagating microwaves, i.e., directional dichroism, in the multiferroic chiral-lattice magnet Cu_{2}OSeO_{3}. The magnitude of the directional dichroism critically depends on the magnetic-field direction. Such behavior is well accounted for by considering the relative direction of the oscillating electric polarizations induced via the ME effect with respect to microwave electric fields. Directional dichroism in a system with an arbitrary form of ME coupling can be also discussed in the same manner. PMID:26024193
Visible broadband magnetic response from Ag chiral Z-shaped nanohole array
Han, Chunrui
2015-01-01
We show that broadband magnetic response in visible range can be achieved through an Ag chiral Z-shaped nanohole array. The broadband effect is realized by incorporating multi-scaled inverted SRRs and metal/dielectric nanostrip antenna in one unit cell of only 260 nm square lattice, resulting in multiple excitations of magnetic resonances at different wavelengths. The collective modes show structure dependence and respond separately to LCP and RCP incident light. The Ag Z- and reverse-Z-shaped nanohole arrays have been experimentally realized by shadowing vapor deposition method which exhibit broadband transmission difference, in good agreement with numerical simulations.
Exotic skyrmion crystals in chiral magnets with compass anisotropy
Chen, J. P.; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, J. -M.
2016-01-01
The compass-type anisotropy appears naturally in diverse physical contexts with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) such as transition metal oxides and cold atomic gases etc, and it has been receiving substantial attention. Motivated by recent studies and particularly recent experimental observations on helimagnet MnGe, we investigate the critical roles of this compass-type anisotropy in modulating various spin textures of chiral magnets with strong SOC, by Monte Carlo simulations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and compass anisotropy. A phase diagram with emergent spin orders in the space of compass anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetic field is presented. In this phase diagram, we propose that a hybrid super-crystal structure consisting of alternating half-skyrmion and half-anti-skyrmion is the possible zero-field ground state of MnGe. The simulated evolution of the spin structure driven by magnetic field is in good accordance with experimental observations on MnGe. Therefore, this Heisenberg spin model successfully captures the main physics responsible for the magnetic structures in MnGe, and the present work may also be instructive to research on the magnetic states in other systems with strong SOC. PMID:27377149
Exotic skyrmion crystals in chiral magnets with compass anisotropy
Chen, J. P.; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, J.-M.
2016-07-01
The compass-type anisotropy appears naturally in diverse physical contexts with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) such as transition metal oxides and cold atomic gases etc, and it has been receiving substantial attention. Motivated by recent studies and particularly recent experimental observations on helimagnet MnGe, we investigate the critical roles of this compass-type anisotropy in modulating various spin textures of chiral magnets with strong SOC, by Monte Carlo simulations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and compass anisotropy. A phase diagram with emergent spin orders in the space of compass anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetic field is presented. In this phase diagram, we propose that a hybrid super-crystal structure consisting of alternating half-skyrmion and half-anti-skyrmion is the possible zero-field ground state of MnGe. The simulated evolution of the spin structure driven by magnetic field is in good accordance with experimental observations on MnGe. Therefore, this Heisenberg spin model successfully captures the main physics responsible for the magnetic structures in MnGe, and the present work may also be instructive to research on the magnetic states in other systems with strong SOC.
Neutral-pion reactions induced by chiral anomaly in strong magnetic fields
Hattori, Koichi; Ozaki, Sho
2013-01-01
We investigate decay and production of neutral pions in strong magnetic fields. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, transition between a neutral pion and a virtual photon becomes possible through the triangle diagram relevant for the chiral anomaly. We find that the decay mode of a neutral pion into two photons cannot persist in the dominant mode in strong magnetic fields, and that decay into a dilepton instead dominates over the other modes. We also investigate the effects of magnetic fields on prompt virtual photons created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. There is no anisotropy in the spectrum at the stage of creation of prompt virtual photons, but after traversing the strong magnetic field that is induced perpendicularly to the reaction plane, virtual photons turn into neutral pions, leading to an anisotropic spectrum of dileptons as a feasible signature in the measurement.
Nonequilibrium Chiral Dynamics and Effective Lagrangians
Nicola, A G
2001-01-01
We review our recent work on Chiral Lagrangians out of thermal equilibrium, which are introduced to analyse the pion gas formed after a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision. Chiral Perturbation Theory is extended by letting $\\fpi$ be time dependent and allows to describe explosive production of pions in parametric resonance. This mechanism could be relevant if hadronization occurs at the chiral phase transition.
Li, Hao-Song; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Lin
2016-01-01
We have systematically investigated the magnetic moments and magnetic form factors of the decuplet baryons to the next-to-next-leading order in the framework of the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. Our calculation includes the contributions from both the intermediate decuplet and octet baryon states in the loops. We also calculate the charge and magnetic dipole form factors of the decuplet baryons. Our results may be useful to the chiral extrapolation of the lattice simulations of the decuplet electromagnetic properties.
Ph.D. Thesis: Chiral Effective Field Theory Beyond the Power-Counting Regime
Hall, Jonathan M M
2011-01-01
Novel techniques are presented, which identify the power-counting regime (PCR) of chiral effective field theory, and allow the use of lattice quantum chromodynamics results that extend outside the PCR. By analyzing the renormalization of low-energy coefficients of the chiral expansion of the nucleon mass, the existence of an optimal regularization scale is realized. The techniques developed for the nucleon mass renormalization are then applied to a test case: performing a chiral extrapolation without prior phenomenological bias. The robustness of the procedure for obtaining an optimal regularization scale and performing a reliable chiral extrapolation is confirmed. The procedure developed is then applied to the magnetic moment and the electric charge radius of the nucleon. The consistency of the results for the value of the optimal regularization scale provides strong evidence for the existence of an intrinsic energy scale in the nucleon-pion interaction.
Origination of electron magnetic chiral dichroism in cobalt-doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Electron magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) relates the microstructure of a single nanostructure with the magnetic property, indicating that the ferromagnetism observed in cobalt-doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor is intrinsic. First-principles calculations were carried out and the electronic states contributing to the spin imbalance are identified. An exact model is developed, allowing one to visualize the origination of dichroism to be the difference of transition intensity from spin-polarized 2p states to Co-3d states in cobalt-doped ZnO nanostructures.
Park, Suk-Young; Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun
2013-03-01
Recent theoretical study of the chiral graphene nanoribbons(CGNR) has demonstrated the magnetic ordering of the edge states below a certain chiral angle1. Based on the Hubbard model for the CGNR, we study the static properties of the magnetic edge states such as the intra-edge and inter-edge spin stiffness, which are the two crucial parameters to control the thermodynamics of the effective magnetic hamiltonian. For the systematic study of the anti-ferromagnetic inter-edge spin correlations, we calculate the inter-edge spin stiffness as a function of ribbon width and transverse electric field. We also attempt to calculate the electronic and magnetic properties for the other edge geometries such as a reconstructed edge geometry, which has been experimentally confirmed as an edge shape other than zigzag or armchair nanoribbon2 1. Oleg V. Yazyev, Rodrigo B. Capaz, and Steven G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115406 (2011). 2. Pekka Koskinen, Sami Malola, and Hannu Hakkinen, Phys. Rev. B 80, 073401 (2009). This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(2012R1A1A2006927).
Microstructure effects for Casimir forces in chiral metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine a recent prediction for the chirality dependence of the Casimir force in chiral metamaterials by numerical computation of the forces between the exact microstructures, rather than homogeneous approximations. Although repulsion in the metamaterial regime is rigorously impossible, it is unknown whether a reduction in the attractive force can be achieved through suitable material engineering. We compute the exact force for a chiral bent-cross pattern, as well as forces for an idealized ''omega''-particle medium in the dilute approximation and identify the effects of structural inhomogeneity (i.e., proximity forces and anisotropy). We find that these microstructure effects dominate the force for separations where chirality was predicted to have a strong influence. At separations where the homogeneous approximation is valid, in even the most ideal circumstances the effects of chirality are less than 10-4 of the total force, making them virtually undetectable in experiments.
Imaging and Tailoring the Chirality of Domain Walls in Magnetic Films.
Chen, Gong; Schmid, Andreas K
2015-10-14
Electric-current-induced magnetization switching is a keystone concept in the development of spintronics devices. In the last few years this field has experienced a significant boost with the discovery of ultrafast domain wall motions and very low threshold currents in structures designed to stabilize chiral spin textures. Imaging domain-wall spin textures in situ, while fabricating magnetic multilayer structures, is a powerful way to investigate the forces stabilizing this type of chirality, and informs strategies to engineer structures with controlled spin textures. Here, recent results applying spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy to image chiral domain walls in magnetic multilayer films are summarized. Providing a way to measure the strength of the asymmetric exchange interaction that causes the chirality, this approach can be used to tailor the texture and handedness of magnetic domain walls by interface engineering. These results advance understanding of the underlying physics and offer new insights toward the design of spintronic devices. PMID:26032892
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2014-01-01
We argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma formed at LHC and RHIC can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The "normal" component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the "superfluid" part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use the bosonization procedure with a finite cut-off and obtain a dynamical axion-like field out of the chiral fermionic modes. Then we use relativistic hydrodynamics for macroscopic description of the effective theory obtained after the bosonization. Finally, solving the hydrodynamic equations in gradient expansion, we find that in the presence of external electromagnetic fields or rotation the motion of the "superfluid" component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, chiral vortical, chiral electric and dipole wave effects. Latter two effects are specific for a two-component fluid, which provides us with crucial experimental tests of the model.
Chiral and magnetic rotation in atomic nuclei studied within self-consistent mean-field methods
Olbratowski, P.
2004-07-01
Currently, one application of the mean-field methods in nuclear physics is the investigation of exotic nuclear symmetries. This is related, in particular, to the study of nuclear rotation about an axis tilted with respect to the principal axes of the mass distribution in the Tilted-Axis Cranking (TAC) model. The present work presents one of the first TAC calculations performed within fully self-consistent methods. The Hartree-Fock method with the Skyrme effective two-body interaction has been used. A computer code has been developed that allows for the breaking of all spatial symmetries of the solution. As a first application, calculations for the magnetic bands in 142Gd and for the chiral bands in 130Cs, 132La, 134Pr, and 136Pm have been carried out. The appearance of those bands is due to a new mechanism of breaking the spherical symmetry and to the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry, respectively. The self-consistent solutions for 142Gd confirm the important role of the shears mechanism in generating the total angular momentum. However, the agreement with experimental data is not satisfactory, probably due to the lack of the pairing correlations in the calculations or to the possibly overestimated deformation. The results obtained for 132La constitute the first fully self-consistent proof that the nuclear rotation can attain a chiral character. It has been shown that the chiral rotation can only exist above a certain critical angular frequency. It has also been checked that the terms of the Skyrme mean field odd under the time reversal have no qualitative influence on the results.
Proton-Proton Weak Capture in Chiral Effective Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcucci, Laura Elisa [Pisa U., INFN-Pisa; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB; Viviani, MIchele [INFN-Pisa
2013-05-01
The astrophysical $S$-factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0--100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the $A=3$ binding energies and magnetic moments, and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium $\\beta$ decay. Contributions from $S$ and $P$ partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The $S$-factor at zero energy is found to be $S(0)=(4.030 \\pm 0.006)\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$, with a $P$-wave contribution of $0.020\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$. The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the LEC's and to the cutoff dependence. It is shown that polynomial fits to parametrize the energy dependence of the $S$-factor are inherently unstable.
Hadronic interactions from effective chiral Lagrangians of quarks and gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the combined used of the techniques of effective chiral field theory and the field theoretic method known as Fock-Tani representation to derive effective hadron interactions. The Fock-Tani method is based on a change of representation by means of a unitary transformation such that the composite hadrons are redescribed by elementary-particle field operators. Application of the unitary transformation on the microscopic quark-quark interaction derived from a chiral effective Lagrangian leads to chiral effective interactions describing all possible processes involving hadrons and their constituents. The formalism is illustrated by deriving the one-pion-exchange potential between the nucleons using the quark-gluon effective chiral Lagrangian of Manohar and Georgi. We also present the results of a study of the saturation properties of the nuclear matter using this formalism. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs
McCord, J; Henry, Y; Hauet, Thomas; Montaigne, F.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Mangin, S.
2008-01-01
International audience The mechanism of chirality reversal for a planar interface domain wall in a hard/soft magnetic bilayer has been identified by combining magnetoresistance measurements, modeling, and direct magnetic domain observations. The reversal occurs through IDW nucleation and lateral domain wall propagation. Over an unpredicted wide range of applied magnetic fields, the chirality transition takes place by an unwinding followed by a rewinding of the IDW. The chirality transition...
Is SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory an Effective Field Theory?
Holstein, Barry R.
1998-01-01
We argue that the difficulties associated with the convergence properties of conventional SU(3) chiral perturbation theory can be ameliorated by use of a cutoff, which suppresses the model-dependent short distance effects in such calculations.
pi K scattering in effective chiral theory of mesons
Li, Bing An; Gao, Dao-Neng; Yan, Mu-Lin
1998-01-01
In the framework of an effective chiral theory of mesons, pi K scattering is stydied. The scattering lengths, phase shifts, and cross sections are calculated. Theoretical results agree well with data. There is no new parameter in this study.
Nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory: a primer
Epelbaum, Evgeny
2010-01-01
This paper is a write-up of introductory lectures on the modern approach to the nuclear force problem based on chiral effective field theory given at the 2009 Joliot-Curie School, Lacanau, France, 27 September - 3 October 2009.
Hu, Shao-Qiang; Chen, Yong-Lei; Zhu, Hua-Dong; Shi, Hai-Jun; Yan, Na; Chen, Xing-Guo
2010-08-20
Eight l-tartrates and a d-tartrate with different alcohol moieties were used as chiral oils to prepare chiral microemulsions, which were utilized in conjunction with borate buffer to separate the enantiomers of beta-blockers or structurally related compounds by the chiral microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method. Among them, six were found to have a relatively good chiral separation performance and their chiral recognition effect in terms of both enantioselectivity and resolution increases linearly with the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group of alcohol moiety. The tartrates containing alkyl groups of different structures but the same number of carbon atoms, i.e. one of straight chain and one of branched chain, provide similar enantioseparations. The trend was elucidated according to the changes in the difference of the steric matching between the molecules of two enantiomers and chiral selector. Furthermore, it was demonstrated for the first time that a water insoluble solid compound, di-i-butyl l-tartrate (mp. 73.5 degrees C), can be used as an oil to prepare a stable microemulsion to be used in the chiral MEEKC successfully. And a critical effect of the microemulsion for chiral separation, which has never been reported before, was found in this experiment, namely providing a hydrophobic environment to strengthen the interactions between the chiral selector and enantiomers. PMID:20638068
Mesoscopic Hall effect driven by chiral spin order
Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Ohtsuki, Tomi; Kramer, Bernhard
2006-01-01
A Hall effect due to spin chirality in mesoscopic systems is predicted. We consider a 4-terminal Hall system including local spins with geometry of a vortex domain wall, where strong spin chirality appears near the center of vortex. The Fermi energy of the conduction electrons is assumed to be comparable to the exchange coupling energy where the adiabatic approximation ceases to be valid. Our results show a Hall effect where a voltage drop and a spin current arise in the transverse direction....
On the temperature dependence of the chiral vortical effects
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2014-01-01
We discuss the origins of temperature dependence of the axial vortical effect (AVE), i.e. generation of an axial current in a rotating chiral medium along the rotation axis. We show that the corresponding transport coefficient depends on the number of light weakly interacting degrees of freedom, rather than on the gravitational anomaly. We also comment on the role of low-dimensional defects in the rotating medium, and appearance of the chiral vortical effect due to them.
Examining a possible cascade effect in chiral symmetry breaking
Fariborz, Amir H
2016-01-01
We examine a toy model and a cascade effect for confinement and chiral symmetry breaking which consists in several phase transitions corresponding to the formation of bound states and chiral condensates with different number of fermions for a strong group. We analyze two examples: regular QCD where we calculate the "four quark" vacuum condensate and a preon composite model based on QCD at higher scales. In this context we also determine the number of flavors at which the second chiral and confinement phase transitions occur and discuss the consequences.
Simulating net particle production and chiral magnetic current in a CP-odd domain
Fukushima, Kenji
2015-01-01
We elucidate the numerical formulation to simulate net production of particles and anomalous currents with CP-breaking background fields which cause an imbalance of particles over anti-particles. For a concrete demonstration we numerically impose pulsed electric and magnetic fields to observe that the dynamical chiral magnetic current follows together with the net particle production. The produced particle density is quantitatively consistent with the axial anomaly, while the chiral magnetic current is suppressed by a delay before the the onset of the current generation.
Sensing and tuning microfiber chirality with nematic chirogyral effect
Čopar, Simon; Seč, David; Aguirre, Luis E.; Almeida, Pedro L.; Dazza, Mallory; Ravnik, Miha; Godinho, Maria H.; Pieranski, Pawel; Žumer, Slobodan
2016-03-01
Microfibers with their elongated shape and translation symmetry can act as important components in various soft materials, notably for their mechanics on the microscopic level. Here we demonstrate the mechanical response of a micro-object to imposed chirality, in this case, the tilt of disclination rings in an achiral nematic medium caused by the chiral surface anchoring on an immersed microfiber. This coupling between chirality and mechanical response, used to demonstrate sensing of chirality of electrospun cellulose microfibers, is revealed in the optical micrographs due to anisotropy in the elastic response of the host medium. We provide an analytical explanation of the chirogyral effect supported with numerical simulations and perform an experiment to test the effect of the cell confinement and fiber size. We controllably twist the microfibers and demonstrate the response of the nematic medium. More generally the demonstrated study provides means for experimental discrimination of surface properties and allows mechanical control over the shape of disclination rings.
Study of axial magnetic effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T2 behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction
Chiral Anomaly in Euclidean (2+1)-DIMENSIONAL Space and AN Application to the Quantum Hall Effect
Bracken, Paul
The chiral anomaly in (2+1)-dimensions and its relationship to the zero mode of the Dirac equation in the massless case is studied. Solutions are obtained for the Dirac equation under a vector potential which generates a constant magnetic field. It is shown that there is an anomaly term associated with the corresponding chiral transformation. It can be calculated by using the regularization procedure of Fujikawa. The results are applied to the quantum Hall effect.
Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yee, Ho-Ung
2012-01-01
We consider the properties of electric circuits involving Weyl semimetals. The existence of the anomaly-induced chiral magnetic current in a Weyl semimetal subjected to magnetic field causes an interesting and unusual behavior of such circuits. We consider two explicit examples: i) a circuit involving the "chiral battery" and ii) a circuit that can be used as a "quantum amplifier" of magnetic field. The unique properties of these circuits stem from the chiral anomaly and may be utilized for c...
Effective action for supersymmetrical chiral anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is proved that the consistency conditions of the type of Wess-Zumino conditions are necessary and sufficient for local integrability of supersymmetrical chiral anomaly. The global integrability condition implies discreteness of the coefficient in anomalous action. Explicit formulas for consistent anomalies and corresponding functional depending on superfields of various types are obtained
Ruggieri, M; Peng, G X
2016-01-01
We study the influence of external electric, $E$, and magnetic, $B$, fields parallel to each other, and of a chiral chemical potential, $\\mu_5$, on the chiral phase transition of Quantum Chromodynamics. Our theoretical framework is a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a contact interaction. Within this model we compute the critical temperature of chiral symmetry restoration, $T_c$, as a function of the chiral chemical potential and field strengths. We find that the fields inhibit and $\\mu_5$ enhances chiral symmetry breaking, in agreement with previous studies.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The neutron-matter equation of state connects several physical systems over a wide density range, from cold atomic gases in the unitary limit at low densities, to neutron-rich nuclei at intermediate densities, up to neutron stars which reach supranuclear densities in their core. An accurate description of the neutron-matter equation of state is therefore crucial to describe these systems. To calculate the neutron-matter equation of state reliably, precise many-body methods in combination with a systematic theory for nuclear forces are needed. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) is such a theory. It provides a systematic framework for the description of low-energy hadronic interactions and enables calculations with controlled theoretical uncertainties. Chiral EFT makes use of a momentum-space expansion of nuclear forces based on the symmetries of Quantum Chromodynamics, which is the fundamental theory of strong interactions. In chiral EFT, the description of nuclear forces can be systematically improved by going to higher orders in the chiral expansion. On the other hand, continuum Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are among the most precise many-body methods available to study strongly interacting systems at finite densities. They treat the Schroedinger equation as a diffusion equation in imaginary time and project out the ground-state wave function of the system starting from a trial wave function by propagating the system in imaginary time. To perform this propagation, continuum QMC methods require as input local interactions. However, chiral EFT, which is naturally formulated in momentum space, contains several sources of nonlocality. In this Thesis, we show how to construct local chiral two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions and discuss results of first QMC calculations for pure neutron systems. We have performed systematic auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations for neutron matter using local chiral NN interactions. By
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tews, Ingo
2015-10-12
The neutron-matter equation of state connects several physical systems over a wide density range, from cold atomic gases in the unitary limit at low densities, to neutron-rich nuclei at intermediate densities, up to neutron stars which reach supranuclear densities in their core. An accurate description of the neutron-matter equation of state is therefore crucial to describe these systems. To calculate the neutron-matter equation of state reliably, precise many-body methods in combination with a systematic theory for nuclear forces are needed. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) is such a theory. It provides a systematic framework for the description of low-energy hadronic interactions and enables calculations with controlled theoretical uncertainties. Chiral EFT makes use of a momentum-space expansion of nuclear forces based on the symmetries of Quantum Chromodynamics, which is the fundamental theory of strong interactions. In chiral EFT, the description of nuclear forces can be systematically improved by going to higher orders in the chiral expansion. On the other hand, continuum Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are among the most precise many-body methods available to study strongly interacting systems at finite densities. They treat the Schroedinger equation as a diffusion equation in imaginary time and project out the ground-state wave function of the system starting from a trial wave function by propagating the system in imaginary time. To perform this propagation, continuum QMC methods require as input local interactions. However, chiral EFT, which is naturally formulated in momentum space, contains several sources of nonlocality. In this Thesis, we show how to construct local chiral two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions and discuss results of first QMC calculations for pure neutron systems. We have performed systematic auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations for neutron matter using local chiral NN interactions. By
On SU(3) effective models and chiral phase-transition
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser
2015-01-01
The sensitivity of Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model as an effective theory of quark dynamics to chiral symmetry has been utilized in studying the QCD phase-diagram. Also, Poyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM), in which information about the confining glue sector of the theory was included through Polyakov-loop potential. Furthermore, from quasi-particle model (QPM), the gluonic sector of QPM is integrated to LSM in order to reproduce recent lattice calculations. We review PLSM, QLSM, PNJL and HRG with respect to their descriptions for the chiral phase-transition. We analyse chiral order-parameter M(T), normalized net-strange condensate Delta_{q,s}(T) and chiral phase-diagram and compare the results with lattice QCD. We conclude that PLSM works perfectly in reproducing M(T) and Delta_{q,s}(T). HRG model reproduces Delta_{q,s}(T), while PNJL and QLSM seem to fail. These differences are present in QCD chiral phase-diagram. PLSM chiral boundary is located in upper band of lattice QCD calculations and agree we...
Anomalous dimension, chiral phase transition and inverse magnetic catalysis in soft-wall AdS/QCD
Fang, Zhen
2016-07-01
A modified soft-wall AdS/QCD model with a z-dependent bulk scalar mass is proposed. We argue for the necessity of a modified bulk scalar mass from the quark mass anomalous dimension and carefully constrain the form of bulk mass by the corresponding UV and IR asymptotics. After fixing the form of bulk scalar mass, we calculate the mass spectra of (axial-)vector and pseudoscalar mesons, which have a good agreement with the experimental data. The behavior of chiral phase transition is also investigated, and the results are consistent with the standard scenario and lattice simulations. Finally, the issue of chiral magnetic effects is addressed. We find that the inverse magnetic catalysis emerges naturally from the modified soft-wall model, which is consistent with the recent lattice simulations.
A new class of chiral materials hosting magnetic skyrmions beyond room temperature.
Tokunaga, Y; Yu, X Z; White, J S; Rønnow, H M; Morikawa, D; Taguchi, Y; Tokura, Y
2015-01-01
Skyrmions, topologically protected vortex-like nanometric spin textures in magnets, have been attracting increasing attention for emergent electromagnetic responses and possible technological applications for spintronics. In particular, metallic magnets with chiral and cubic/tetragonal crystal structure may have high potential to host skyrmions that can be driven by low electrical current excitation. However, experimental observations of skyrmions have been limited to below room temperature for the metallic chiral magnets, specifically for the MnSi-type B20 compounds. Towards technological applications, transcending this limitation is crucial. Here we demonstrate the formation of skyrmions with unique spin helicity both at and above room temperature in a family of cubic chiral magnets: β-Mn-type Co-Zn-Mn alloys with a different chiral space group from that of B20 compounds. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, magnetization and small-angle neutron scattering measurements unambiguously reveal formation of a skyrmion crystal under application of a magnetic field in both thin-plate and bulk forms. PMID:26134284
Scaling violation and the magnetic equation of state in chiral models
Almasi, Gabor Andras; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof
2016-01-01
The critical behavior of the order parameter at the chiral phase transition of strongly interacting matter and the corresponding magnetic equation of state is studied within effective models. We explore universal and non-universal structures near the critical point. These include the scaling functions, the leading corrections to scaling and the corresponding size of the critical region as well as their dependence on an external symmetry breaking field. We consider two models in the mean-field approximation, the quark-meson (QM) and the Polyakov loop extended quark-meson (PQM) models, and compare their critical properties with a purely bosonic theory, the $O(N)$ linear sigma (LS) model in the $N\\to\\infty$ limit. In these models the order parameter scaling function is found analytically using the high temperature expansion of the thermodynamic potential. The effects of a gluonic background on the non-universal scaling parameters are quantified within the PQM model.
Chiral and magnetic rotation in atomic nuclei studied within self-consistent mean-field methods
Olbratowski, P
2004-01-01
Currently, one application of the mean-field methods in nuclear physics is the investigation of exotic nuclear symmetries. This is related, in particular, to the study of nuclear rotation about an axis tilted with respect to the principal axes of the mass distribution in the Tilted-Axis Cranking (TAC) model. The present work presents one of the first TAC calculations performed within fully self-consistent methods. The Hartree-Fock method with the Skyrme effective two-body interaction has been used. A computer code has been developed that allows for the breaking of all spatial symmetries of the solution. As a first application, calculations for the magnetic bands in 142Gd and for the chiral bands in 130Cs, 132La, 134Pr, and 136Pm have been carried out. The appearance of those bands is due to a new mechanism of breaking the spherical symmetry and to the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry, respectively. The self-consistent solutions for 142Gd confirm the important role of the shears mechanism in generat...
Magnetic Catalysis of Chiral Symmetry Breaking. A Holographic Prospective
Filev, Veselin G; 10.1155/2010/473206
2010-01-01
We review a recent investigation of the effect of magnetic catalysis of mass generation in holographic Yang-Mills theories. We aim at a self-contained and pedagogical form of the review. We provide a brief field theory background and review the basics of holographic flavordynamics. The main part of the review investigates the influence of external magnetic field on holographic gauge theories dual to the D3/D5-- and D3/D7-- brane intersections. Among the observed phenomena are the spontaneous breaking of a global internal symmetry, Zeeman splitting of the energy levels and the existence of pseudo Goldstone modes. An analytic derivation of the Gell-Mann--Oaks--Renner relation for the D3/D7 set up is reviewed. In the D3/D5 case the pseudo Goldstone modes satisfy non-relativistic dispersion relation. The studies reviewed confirm the universal nature of the magnetic catalysis of mass generation.
Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Provasi, Patricio F.; Pagola, Gabriel I.; Ferraro, Marta B.
2011-09-01
The set of 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of XOOX' (X, X' = H, CH3) with lithium cation has been studied to determine if they are suitable candidates for chiral discrimination in an isotropic medium via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance is unable to distinguish between enantiomers in the absence of a chiral solvent. The criterion for experimental detection is valuated by the isotropic part of nuclear shielding polarisability tensors, related to a pseudoscalar of opposite sign for two enantiomers. The study includes calculations at coupled Hartree-Fock and density functional theory schemes for 17O nucleus in each compound. Additional calculations for 1H are also included for some compounds. A huge static homogeneous electric field, perpendicular to the magnetic field of the spectromer, as big as ≈1.7 × 108 V m-1 should be applied to observe a shift of ≈1 ppm for 17O magnetic shielding in the proposed set of complexes.
Random Lattice QCD and chiral effective theories
Pavlovsky, O. V.
2004-01-01
Resent developments in the Random Matrix and Random Lattice Theories give a possibility to find low-energy theorems for many physical models in the Born-Infeld form. In our approach that based on the Random Lattice regularization of QCD we try to used the similar ideas in the low-energy baryon physics for finding of the low-energy theory for the chiral fields in the strong-coupling regime.
Schwarze, T.; Waizner, J.; Garst, M.; Bauer, A.; Stasinopoulos, I.; Berger, H.; Pfleiderer, C.; Grundler, D.
2015-05-01
Nearly seven decades of research on microwave excitations of magnetic materials have led to a wide range of applications in electronics. The recent discovery of topological spin solitons in chiral magnets, so-called skyrmions, promises high-frequency devices that exploit the exceptional emergent electrodynamics of these compounds. Therefore, an accurate and unified quantitative account of their resonant response is key. Here, we report all-electrical spectroscopy of the collective spin excitations in the metallic, semiconducting and insulating chiral magnets MnSi, Fe1-xCoxSi and Cu2OSeO3, respectively, using broadband coplanar waveguides. By taking into account dipolar interactions, we achieve a precise quantitative modelling across the entire magnetic phase diagrams using two material-specific parameters that quantify the chiral and the critical field energy. The universal behaviour sets the stage for purpose-designed applications based on the resonant response of chiral magnets with tailored electric conductivity and an unprecedented freedom for an integration with electronics.
Effective chiral restoration in the hadronic spectrum and QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, Thomas D. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States)]. E-mail: cohen@physics.umd.edu
2006-08-21
Effective chiral restoration in the hadronic spectrum has been conjectured as an explanation of nearly degenerate multiplets seen in highly excited hadrons. The conjecture depends on the states being insensitive to the dynamics of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. A key question is whether this concept is well defined in QCD. This paper shows that it is by means of an explicit formal construction. This construction allows one to characterize this sensitivity for any observable calculable in QCD in Euclidean space via a functional integral. The construction depends on a generalization of the Banks-Casher theorem. It exploits the fact that all dynamics sensitive to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking observables in correlation functions arise from fermion modes of zero virtuality (in the infinite volume limit), while such modes make no contribution to any of the dynamics which preserves chiral symmetry. In principle this construction can be implemented in lattice QCD. The prospect of a practical lattice implementation yielding a direct numerical test of the concept of effective chiral restoration is discussed.
Power Counting Regime of Chiral Effective Field Theory and Beyond
Hall, J M M; Leinweber, D B
2010-01-01
Chiral effective field theory complements numerical simulations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) on a space-time lattice. It provides a model-independent formalism for connecting lattice simulation results at finite volume and a variety of quark masses to the physical world. The asymptotic nature of the chiral expansion places the focus on the first few terms of the expansion. Thus, knowledge of the power-counting regime (PCR) of chiral effective field theory, where higher-order terms of the expansion may be regarded as negligible, is as important as knowledge of the expansion itself. Through the consideration of a variety of renormalization schemes and associated parameters, techniques to identify the PCR where results are independent of the renormalization scheme are established. The nucleon mass is considered as a benchmark for illustrating this general approach. Because the PCR is small, the numerical simulation results are also examined to search for the possible presence of an intrinsic scale which may b...
Chiral shift in dense relativistic matter in a strong magnetic field1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of the ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined as a function of the temperature and the chemical potential. The dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter in the normal ground state is studied. Possible implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are briefly mentioned.
Nucleon polarizabilities and Delta-resonance magnetic moment in chiral EFT
Pascalutsa, Vladimir
2010-01-01
Recent chiral EFT calculations of nucleon polarizabilities reveal a problem in the current empirical determination of proton's electromagnetic polarizabilities. We also report on the progress in the empirical determination of the $\\Delta$(1232)-resonance magnetic moment in the process of $\\gamma p \\to p \\pi^0 \\gamma'$ measured at MAMI.
Nucleon polarizabilities and Δ-resonance magnetic moment in chiral EFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent chiral EFT calculations of nucleon polarizabilities reveal a problem in the current empirical determination of proton's electromagnetic polarizabilities. We also report on the progress in the empirical determination of the Δ(1232)-resonance magnetic moment in the process of γp→pπ0γ' measured at MAMI.
Reversible "triple-Q" elastic field structures in a chiral magnet.
Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao
2016-01-01
The analytical solution of the periodic elastic fields in chiral magnets caused by presence of periodically distributed eigenstrains is obtained. For the skyrmion phase, both the periodic displacement field and the stress field are composed of three "triple-Q" structures with different wave numbers. The periodic displacement field, obtained by combining the three "triple-Q" displacement structures, is found to have the same lattice vectors with the magnetic skyrmion lattice. We find that for increasing external magnetic field, one type of "triple-Q" displacement structure and stress structure undergo a "configurational reversal", where the initial and the final field configuration share similar pattern but with opposite direction of all the field vectors. The solution obtained is of fundamental significance for understanding the emergent mechanical properties of skyrmions in chiral magnets. PMID:27457629
Reversible “triple-Q” elastic field structures in a chiral magnet
Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao
2016-01-01
The analytical solution of the periodic elastic fields in chiral magnets caused by presence of periodically distributed eigenstrains is obtained. For the skyrmion phase, both the periodic displacement field and the stress field are composed of three “triple-Q” structures with different wave numbers. The periodic displacement field, obtained by combining the three “triple-Q” displacement structures, is found to have the same lattice vectors with the magnetic skyrmion lattice. We find that for increasing external magnetic field, one type of “triple-Q” displacement structure and stress structure undergo a “configurational reversal”, where the initial and the final field configuration share similar pattern but with opposite direction of all the field vectors. The solution obtained is of fundamental significance for understanding the emergent mechanical properties of skyrmions in chiral magnets. PMID:27457629
The effective action approach applied to nuclear chiral sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nuclear chiral sigma model of nuclear matter is considered by means of the Cornwall-Jackiw-tomboulis (CTJ) effective action. The method provides a very general framework for investigating many important problems: chiral symmetry in nuclear medium, energy density of nuclear ground state, nuclear Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations, etc. It is shown that the SD equations for sigma-omega mixing are actually not present in this formalism. For numerical computation purposes the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation for ground state energy density is also presented. (author). 26 refs
Suzuki, Katsuaki; Takemoto, Yusa; Takaoka, Shohei; Taguchi, Koji; Uchida, Yoshiaki; Mazhukin, Dmitrii G; Grigor'ev, Igor A; Tamura, Rui
2016-03-11
The liquid crystalline chiral nitroxide biradical (S,S,S,S)-3 synthesized has shown much larger 'positive magneto-LC effects' in the chiral nematic (N*) phase than the monoradical (S,S)-1. PMID:26871609
Watarai, Hitoshi; Kurahashi, Yuriko
2016-05-01
Simple chiral recognition method of 2-alkylalcohols on a silica gel plate was proposed by using the induced circular dichroism (ICD) of J-aggregates of diprotonated tetraphenylporphyrin and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectrometry. To the silica gel on a glass slide including a chiral 2-alkylalcohol and 4 M sulfuric acid, the porphyrin in toluene was added and mixed. Then, the glass slide was used for in situ MCD measurement. The observed ICD spectra could recognize well the chirality of the alcohols and the ICD intensity normalized by the MCD intensity of the J-aggregate correlated linearly to the amount of the chiral alcohols in the silica gel. PMID:27074095
Dynamics of Dirac strings and monopolelike excitations in chiral magnets under a current drive
Lin, Shi-Zeng; Saxena, Avadh
2016-02-01
Skyrmion lines in metallic chiral magnets carry an emergent magnetic field experienced by the conduction electrons. The inflow and outflow of this field across a closed surface is not necessarily equal, thus it allows for the existence of emergent monopoles. One example is a segment of skyrmion line inside a crystal, where a monopole and antimonopole pair is connected by the emergent magnetic flux line. This is a realization of Dirac stringlike excitations. Here we study the dynamics of monopoles in chiral magnets under an electric current. We show that in the process of creation of skyrmion lines, skyrmion line segments are first created via the proliferation of monopoles and antimonopoles. Then these line segments join and span the whole system through the annihilation of monopoles. The skyrmion lines are destroyed via the proliferation of monopoles and antimonopoles at high currents, resulting in a chiral liquid phase. We also propose to create the monopoles in a controlled way by applying an inhomogeneous current to a crystal. Remarkably, an electric field component in the magnetic field direction proportional to the current squared in the low current region is induced by the motion of distorted skyrmion lines, in addition to the Hall and longitudinal voltage. The existence of monopoles can be inferred from transport or imaging measurements.
Ciattoni, Alessandro
2015-01-01
We develop, from first principles, a general and compact formalism for predicting the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial with non-magnetic inclusions in the long wavelength limit, including spatial dispersion up to the second order. Specifically, by resorting to a suitable multiscale technique, we show that medium effective permittivity tensor and the first and second order tensors describing spatial dispersion can be evaluated by averaging suitable spatially rapidly-varying fields each satysifing electrostatic-like equations within the metamaterial unit cell. For metamaterials with negligible second-order spatial dispersion, we exploit the equivalence of first-order spatial dispersion and reciprocal bianisotropic electromagnetic response to deduce a simple expression for the metamaterial chirality tensor. Such an expression allows us to systematically analyze the effect of the composite spatial symmetry properties on electromagnetic chirality. We find that even if a metamaterial is geometrically achi...
Internal modes of a skyrmion in the ferromagnetic state of chiral magnets
Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D.; Saxena, Avadh
2014-01-01
A spin texture called skyrmion has been recently observed in certain chiral magnets without inversion symmetry. The observed skyrmions are extended objects with typical linear sizes of 10 to 100 nm that contain 103 to 105 spins and can be deformed in response to external perturbations. Weak deformations are characterized by internal modes, which are localized around the skyrmion center. Knowledge of internal modes is crucial to assess the stability and rigidity of these topological textures. Here, we compute the internal modes of a skyrmion in a ferromagnetic background state by numerical diagonalization of the dynamical matrix. We find several internal modes below the magnon continuum, such as the mode corresponding to the translational motion and different kinds of breathing modes. The number of internal modes is larger for lower magnetic fields. Indeed, several modes become gapless in the low-field region indicating that the single skyrmion solution becomes unstable, although a skyrmion lattice remains thermodynamically stable. On the other hand, only three internal modes exist at high fields and the skyrmion texture remains locally stable even when the ferromagnetic state becomes thermodynamically stable. We also show that the presence of out-of-plane easy-axis anisotropy stabilizes the single skyrmion solution. Finally, we discuss the effects of damping and possible experimental observations of these internal modes.
Chiral dynamics in QED and QCD in a magnetic background and nonlocal noncommutative field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the connection of the chiral dynamics in QED and QCD in a strong magnetic field with noncommutative field theories (NCFT). It is shown that these dynamics determine complicated nonlocal NCFT. In particular, although the interaction vertices for electrically neutral composites in these gauge models can be represented in the space with noncommutative spatial coordinates, there is no field transformation that could put the vertices in the conventional form considered in the literature. It is unlike the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in a magnetic field where such a field transformation can be found, with a cost of introducing an exponentially damping form factor in field propagators. The crucial distinction between these two types of models is in the characters of their interactions, being short-range in the NJL-like models and long-range in gauge theories. The relevance of the NCFT connected with the gauge models for the description of the quantum Hall effect in condensed matter systems with long-range interactions is briefly discussed
Mulas, Andrea; Willener, Yasmine; Carr-Smith, James; Joly, Kevin M; Male, Louise; Moody, Christopher J; Horswell, Sarah L; Nguyen, Huy V; Tucker, James H R
2015-04-28
A new series of chiral ureas containing one or two redox-active ferrocene units was synthesised and studied in order to investigate the effect of planar chirality and central chirality on electrochemical chiral sensing. Binding of chiral carboxylate anions in organic solvents through H-bond formation caused a negative shift in the potentials of the ferrocene/ferrocenium (Fc/Fc(+)) couples of the receptors, demonstrating their use as electrochemical sensors in solution. While the presence of two ferrocene units gave no marked improvement in the chiral sensing capabilities of these systems, the introduction of planar chirality, in addition to central chirality, switched the enantiomeric binding preference of the system and also caused an interesting change in the appearance of some voltammograms, with unusual two-wave behaviour observed upon binding a protected prolinate guest. PMID:25791522
Inertia and chiral edge modes of a skyrmion magnetic bubble
Makhfudz, Imam; Krueger, Benjamin; Tchernyshyov, Oleg
2012-01-01
The dynamics of a vortex in a thin-film ferromagnet resembles the motion of a charged massless particle in a uniform magnetic field. Similar dynamics is expected for other magnetic textures with a nonzero skyrmion number. However, recent numerical simulations revealed that skyrmion magnetic bubbles show significant deviations from this model. We show that a skyrmion bubble possesses inertia and derive its mass from the standard theory of a thin-film ferromagnet. Besides center-of-mass motion,...
Control of magnetic vortex chirality and polarization in indented and notched nanomagnetic disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnetic vortex dynamics in nanoscale structures is currently a topic of intensive research not only from a fundamental physics point of view but also for their potential use in future generation spintronics and magnetic random access memories. We propose a method, where one can independently control the magnetic vortex polarization and chirality states by a combination of fine-tuning the applied magnetic field and breaking the geometrical symmetry of the magnetic nanostructure. Numerical simulations corroborate our proposal of achieving vortex switchability for the two different geometries we investigate: the indented disk and notched disk structures. Our results suggest that the notched disk structure offers more robust vortex dynamics and better switching characteristics, which makes this geometry ideal for use as a vortex-based magnetic memory device. (paper)
The Chiral Anomaly, Dirac and Weyl Semimetals, and Force-Free Magnetic Fields
Marsh, Gerald E.
2016-01-01
The chiral anomaly is a purely quantum mechanical phenomenon that has a long history dating back to the late 1960s. Surprisingly, it has recently made a macroscopic appearance in condensed matter physics. A brief introduction to the relevant features of this anomaly is given and it is shown that its appearance in condensed matter systems must involve force-free magnetic fields, which may help explain the long current relaxation times in Dirac and Weyl semimetals.
Spin of the proton in chiral effective field theory
Li, Hongna; Wang, P.; Leinweber, D. B.; Thomas, A. W.
2016-04-01
Proton spin is investigated in chiral effective field theory through an examination of the singlet axial charge, a0, and the two nonsinglet axial charges, a3 and a8. Finite-range regularization is considered as it provides an effective model for estimating the role of disconnected sea-quark loop contributions to baryon observables. Baryon octet and decuplet intermediate states are included to enrich the spin and flavor structure of the nucleon, redistributing spin under the constraints of chiral symmetry. In this context, the proton spin puzzle is well understood with the calculation describing all three of the axial charges reasonably well. The strange quark contribution to the proton spin is negative with magnitude 0.01. With appropriate Q2 evolution, we find the singlet axial charge at the experimental scale to be â0=0 .31-0.05+0.04 , consistent with the range of current experimental values.
Chiral Colloidal Molecules And Observation of The Propeller Effect
2013-01-01
Chiral molecules play an important role in biological and chemical processes, but physical effects due to their symmetry-breaking are generally weak. Several physical chiral separation schemes which could potentially be useful, including the propeller effect, have therefore not yet been demonstrated at the molecular scale. However, it has been proposed that complex nonspherical colloidal particles could act as “colloidal molecules” in mesoscopic model systems to permit the visualization of molecular phenomena that are otherwise difficult to observe. Unfortunately, it is difficult to synthesize such colloids because surface minimization generally favors the growth of symmetric particles. Here we demonstrate the production of large numbers of complex colloids with glancing angle physical vapor deposition. We use chiral colloids to demonstrate the Baranova and Zel’dovich (BaranovaN. B.Zel’dovichB. Y.Chem. Phys. Lett.1978, 57, 435) propeller effect: the separation of a racemic mixture by application of a rotating field that couples to the dipole moment of the enantiomers and screw propels them in opposite directions. The handedness of the colloidal suspensions is monitored with circular differential light scattering. An exact solution for the colloid’s propulsion is derived, and comparisons between the colloidal system and the corresponding effect at the molecular scale are made. PMID:23883328
Owerre, S. A.
2016-06-01
We investigate an ultra-thin film of topological insulator (TI) multilayer as a model for a three-dimensional (3D) Weyl semimetal. We introduce tunneling parameters t S, {{t}\\bot} , and t D, where the former two parameters couple layers of the same thin film at small and large momenta, and the latter parameter couples neighbouring thin film layers along the z-direction. The Chern number is computed in each topological phase of the system and we find that for {{t}\\text{S}},{{t}\\text{D}}>0 , the tunneling parameter {{t}\\bot} changes from positive to negative as the system transits from Weyl semi-metallic phase to insulating phases. We further study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) of the system in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field. We compute the low-temperature dependence of the chiral magnetic conductivity and show that it captures three distinct phases of the system separated by plateaus. Furthermore, we propose and study a 3D lattice model of Porphyrin thin film, an organic material known to support topological Frenkel exciton edge states. We show that this model exhibits a 3D Weyl semi-metallic phase and also supports a 2D Weyl semi-metallic phase. We further show that this model recovers that of 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. Thus, paving the way for simulating a 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. We obtain the surface states (Fermi arcs) in the 3D model and the chiral edge states in the 2D model and analyze their topological properties.
Owerre, S A
2016-06-15
We investigate an ultra-thin film of topological insulator (TI) multilayer as a model for a three-dimensional (3D) Weyl semimetal. We introduce tunneling parameters t S, [Formula: see text], and t D, where the former two parameters couple layers of the same thin film at small and large momenta, and the latter parameter couples neighbouring thin film layers along the z-direction. The Chern number is computed in each topological phase of the system and we find that for [Formula: see text], the tunneling parameter [Formula: see text] changes from positive to negative as the system transits from Weyl semi-metallic phase to insulating phases. We further study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) of the system in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field. We compute the low-temperature dependence of the chiral magnetic conductivity and show that it captures three distinct phases of the system separated by plateaus. Furthermore, we propose and study a 3D lattice model of Porphyrin thin film, an organic material known to support topological Frenkel exciton edge states. We show that this model exhibits a 3D Weyl semi-metallic phase and also supports a 2D Weyl semi-metallic phase. We further show that this model recovers that of 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. Thus, paving the way for simulating a 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. We obtain the surface states (Fermi arcs) in the 3D model and the chiral edge states in the 2D model and analyze their topological properties. PMID:27157544
Nuclear Axial Currents in Chiral Effective Field Theory
Baroni, A.; Girlanda, L.; Pastore, S.; Schiavilla, R.; Viviani, M
2015-01-01
Two-nucleon axial charge and current operators are derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The derivation is based on time-ordered perturbation theory, and accounts for cancellations between the contributions of irreducible diagrams and the contributions due to non-static corrections from energy denominators of reducible diagrams. Ultraviolet divergencies associated with the loop corrections are isolated in dimensional regularization. The resulting axial current is finite and...
Electroweak Interactions in a Chiral Effective Lagrangian for Nuclei
Serot, Brian D.; Zhang, Xilin(Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)
2012-01-01
We have studied electroweak (EW) interactions in quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) effective field theory (EFT). The Lorentz-covariant EFT contains nucleon, pion, $\\Delta$, isoscalar scalar ($\\sigma$) and vector ($\\omega$) fields, and isovector vector ($\\rho$) fields. The lagrangian exhibits a nonlinear realization of (approximate) $SU(2)_L \\otimes SU(2)_R$ chiral symmetry and incorporates vector meson dominance. First, we discuss the EW interactions at the quark level. Then we include EW interacti...
Orthonormalization procedure for chiral effective nuclear field theory
Krebs, H; Meißner, Ulf G; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.
2005-01-01
We show that the Q-box expansion of nuclear many-body physics can be applied in nuclear effective field theory with explicit pions and external sources. We establish the corresponding power counting and give an algorithm for the construction of a hermitean and energy-independent potential for arbitrary scattering processes on nucleons and nuclei to a given order in the chiral expansion. Various examples are discussed in some detail.
Dawin, Ute C; Osipov, Mikhail A; Giesselmann, Frank
2010-08-19
We present a study on the effect of added CsCl and of temperature variation on the chiral induction in a chiral nematic lyotropic liquid crystal (LC) composed of the surfactant cesium perfluorooctanoate (CsPFO), water, and the chiral dopant d-Leucine (d-Leu). The chiral induction was measured as the helical pitch P. The role of the additives CsCl and d-Leu on the phase behavior is investigated and discussed. The thermal stabilization effect of CsCl is shown to lead to an apparent salt effect on the pitch when the pitch is compared at a constant temperature. This apparent effect is removed by comparing the pitch measured for different salt concentrations at a temperature relative to the phase-transition temperatures; thus, the real salt effect on the pitch is described. High salt concentrations are shown to increase the pitch, that is, hinder the chiral induction. The effect is discussed in terms of a decreased solubilization of the amphiphilic chiral solute d-Leu in the micelles due to the salt-induced screening of the surfactant head groups and the consequential denser packing of the surfactants. The temperature variation of the pitch is investigated for all CsCl concentrations and is found to be essentially independent of the salt concentration. The temperature variation is analyzed and discussed in the context of a theoretical model taking into account specific properties of lyotropic liquid crystals. A hyperbolic decrease of the pitch is found with increasing temperature, which is known, from thermotropic liquid crystals, to stem from pretransitional critical fluctuations close to the lamellar phase. However, the experimental data confirmed the theoretical prediction that, at high temperature, that is, far away from the transition into the lamellar phase, the pitch is characterized by a linear temperature dependence which is determined by a combination of steric and dispersion chiral interactions. The parameters of the theoretical expression for the pitch have
LARGE-SCALE SOFT X-RAY LOOPS AND THEIR MAGNETIC CHIRALITY IN BOTH HEMISPHERES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The magnetic chirality in the solar atmosphere has been studied based on soft X-ray and magnetic field observations. It is found that some of the large-scale twisted soft X-ray loop systems occur for several months in the solar atmosphere, before the disappearance of the corresponding background large-scale magnetic field. This paper provides observational evidence of the helicity of the large-scale magnetic field in the solar atmosphere and the reverse one relative to the helicity rule in both hemispheres with solar cycles. The transfer of the magnetic helicity from the subatmosphere is consistent with the formation of large-scale twisted soft X-ray loops in both the solar hemispheres.
Pion momentum distributions in the nucleon in chiral effective theory
Burkardt, M; Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Melnitchouk, W; Thomas, A W
2012-01-01
We compute the light-cone momentum distributions of pions in the nucleon in chiral effective theory using both pseudovector and pseudoscalar pion-nucleon couplings. For the pseudovector coupling we identify \\delta-function contributions associated with end-point singularities arising from the pion-nucleon rainbow diagrams, as well as from pion tadpole diagrams which are not present in the pseudoscalar model. Gauge invariance is demonstrated, to all orders in the pion mass, with the inclusion of Weinberg-Tomozawa couplings involving operator insertions at the \\pi NN vertex. The results pave the way for phenomenological applications of pion cloud models that are manifestly consistent with the chiral symmetry properties of QCD.
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser
2015-01-01
Effects of external magnetic field on various properties of the quantum chromodynamics under extreme conditions of temperature and density have been analysed. To this end, we use SU(3) Polyakov linear sigma-model and assume that the external magnetic field eB adds some restrictions to the quarks energy due to the existence of free charges in the plasma phase. In doing this, we apply the Landau theory of quantization. This requires an additional temperature to drive the system through the chiral phase-transition. Accordingly, the dependence of the critical temperature of chiral and confinement phase-transitions on the magnetic field is characterized. Based on this, we have studied the thermal evolution of thermodynamic quantities and the first four higher-order moment of particle multiplicity. Having all these calculations, we have studied the effects of magnetic field on chiral phase-transition. We found that both critical temperature T_c and critical chemical potential increase with increasing the magnetic f...
Semiclassical description of anomalous magnetic moment and chiral anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the same term of a modified Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation which explains the first-order radiative correction to the electronic magnetic moment accounts for the helicity variation in the infinite momentum limit. (author). 6 refs
Power counting regime of chiral effective field theory and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiral effective field theory (χEFT) complements numerical simulations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) on a space-time lattice. It provides a model-independent formalism for connecting lattice simulation results at finite volume and a variety of quark masses to the physical world. The asymptotic nature of the chiral expansion places the focus on the first few terms of the expansion. Thus, knowledge of the power-counting regime (PCR) of χEFT, where higher-order terms of the expansion may be regarded as negligible, is as important as knowledge of the expansion itself. Through the consideration of a variety of renormalization schemes and associated parameters, techniques to identify the PCR where results are independent of the renormalization scheme are established. The nucleon mass is considered as a benchmark for illustrating this general approach. Because the PCR is small, the numerical simulation results are also examined to search for the possible presence of an intrinsic scale which may be used in a nonperturbative manner to describe lattice simulation results outside of the PCR. Positive results that improve on the current optimistic application of chiral perturbation theory (χPT) beyond the PCR are reported.
King, Jonathan P; Blanchard, John W
2016-01-01
Here we demonstrate that a term in the nuclear spin Hamiltonian, the antisymmetric \\textit{J}-coupling, is fundamentally connected to molecular chirality. We propose and simulate a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment to observe this interaction and differentiate between enantiomers without adding any additional chiral agent to the sample. The antisymmetric \\textit{J}-coupling may be observed in the presence of molecular orientation by an external electric field. The opposite parity of the antisymmetric coupling tensor and the molecular electric dipole moment yields a sign change of the observed coupling between enantiomers. We show how this sign change influences the phase of the NMR spectrum and may be used to discriminate between enantiomers.
Hadjistasi, Christoforos A; Stavrou, Ioannis J; Stefan-Van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P
2013-09-01
In this study, simple electrophoretic methods were developed for the chiral separation of the clinically important compounds fucose and pipecolic acid. In recent years, these analytes, and particularly their individual enantiomers, have attracted considerable attention due to their role in biological functions and disorders. The detectability and sensitivity of pipecolic acid and fucose were improved by reacting them with fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC-Cl) and 5-amino-2-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANSA), respectively. The enantioseparation conditions were optimized by initially investigating the type of the chiral selector. Different chiral selectors, such as polymeric surfactants and cyclodextrins, were used and the most effective ones were determined with regard to resolution and analysis time. A 10-mM β-cyclodextrin was able to separate the enantiomers of ANSA-DL-fucose and the polymeric surfactant poly(sodium N-undecanoyl-LL-leucine-valinate) was able to separate the enantiomers of FMOC-DL-pipecolic acid, with resolution values of 3.45 and 2.78, respectively. Additional parameters, such as the concentration and the pH of the background electrolyte (BGE), the concentration of the chiral selector, and the addition of modifiers were examined in order to optimize the separations. The addition of the chiral ionic liquid D-alanine tert-butyl ester lactate into the BGE was also investigated, for the first time, in order to improve resolution of the enantiomers. PMID:23757267
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lu, Xinpei, E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O. Box 218, Sydney, New South Wales 2070 (Australia)
2015-10-15
The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.
Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin; Lu, Xinpei; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken
2015-10-01
The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.
Chiral symmetry and finite temperature effects in quantum theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer simulation of the harmonic oscillator at finite temperature has been carried out, using the Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm. Accurate results for the energy and fluctuations have been obtained, with special attention to the manifestation of the temperature effects. Varying the degree of symmetry breaking, the finite temperature behaviour of the asymmetric linear model in a linearized mean field approximation has been studied. In a study of the effects of chiral symmetry on baryon mass splittings, reasonable agreement with experiment has been obtained in a non-relativistic harmonic oscillator model
Pion Effect of Nuclear Matter in a Chiral Sigma Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Jin-niu; Y.Ogawa; H.Toki; A.Hosaka; SHEN Hong
2009-01-01
We develop a new framework for the study of the nuclear matter based on the linear sigma model.We introduce a completely new viewpoint on the treatment of the nuclear matter with the inclusion of the pion.We extend the relativistic chiral mean field model by using the similar method in the tensor optimized shell model.We also regulate the pion-nucleon interaction by considering the form-factor and short range repulsion effects.We obtain the equation of state of nuclear matter and study the importance of the pion effect.
Magnetic monopoles in chiral magnets & frustrated magnetism on the swedenborgite lattice
Buhrandt, Stefan
2015-01-01
This thesis deals with magnetic order in condensed matter systems and is divided into three parts. The first part gives a closed and self-contained introduction to the Monte Carlo methods used within this thesis with a special emphasis on a recently introduced feedback optimized parallel tempering a
Chiral effective field theory beyond the power-counting regime
Hall, Jonathan M M; Young, Ross D
2011-01-01
Novel techniques are presented, which identify the chiral power-counting regime (PCR), and realize the existence of an intrinsic energy scale embedded in lattice QCD results that extend outside the PCR. The nucleon mass is considered as a benchmark for illustrating this new approach. Using finite-range regularization, an optimal regularization scale can be extracted from lattice simulation results by analyzing the renormalization of the low energy coefficients. The optimal scale allows a description of lattice simulation results that extend beyond the PCR by quantifying and thus handling any scheme-dependence. Preliminary results for the nucleon magnetic moment are also examined, and a consistent optimal regularization scale is obtained. This indicates the existence of an intrinsic scale corresponding to the finite size of the source of the pion cloud.
A family of layered chiral porous magnets exhibiting tunable ordering temperatures.
Atzori, Matteo; Benmansour, Samia; Mínguez Espallargas, Guillermo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Abhervé, Alexandre; Gómez-Claramunt, Patricia; Coronado, Eugenio; Artizzu, Flavia; Sessini, Elisa; Deplano, Paola; Serpe, Angela; Mercuri, Maria Laura; Gómez García, Carlos J
2013-09-01
A simple change of the substituents in the bridging ligand allows tuning of the ordering temperatures, Tc, in the new family of layered chiral magnets A[M(II)M(III)(X2An)3]·G (A = [(H3O)(phz)3](+) (phz = phenazine) or NBu4(+); X2An(2-) = C6O4X2(2-) = 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone derivative dianion, with M(III) = Cr, Fe; M(II) = Mn, Fe, Co, etc.; X = Cl, Br, I, H; G = water or acetone). Depending on the nature of X, an increase in Tc from ca. 5.5 to 6.3, 8.2, and 11.0 K (for X = Cl, Br, I, and H, respectively) is observed in the MnCr derivative. Furthermore, the presence of the chiral cation [(H3O)(phz)3](+), formed by the association of a hydronium ion with three phenazine molecules, leads to a chiral structure where the Δ-[(H3O)(phz)3](+) cations are always located below the Δ-[Cr(Cl2An)3](3-) centers, leading to a very unusual localization of both kinds of metals (Cr and Mn) and to an eclipsed disposition of the layers. This eclipsed disposition generates hexagonal channels with a void volume of ca. 20% where guest molecules (acetone and water) can be reversibly absorbed. Here we present the structural and magnetic characterization of this new family of anilato-based molecular magnets. PMID:23968133
The effective chiral Lagrangian from the theta term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct the effective chiral Lagrangian involving hadronic and electromagnetic interactions originating from the QCD θ-bar term. We impose vacuum alignment at both quark and hadronic levels, including field redefinitions to eliminate pion tadpoles. We show that leading time-reversal-violating (TV) hadronic interactions are related to isospin-violating interactions that can in principle be determined from charge-symmetry-breaking experiments. We discuss the complications that arise from TV electromagnetic interactions. Some implications of the expected sizes of various pion-nucleon TV interactions are presented, and the pion-nucleon form factor is used as an example.
Electromagnetic fields with electric and chiral magnetic conductivities in heavy ion collisions
Li, Hui; Wang, Qun
2016-01-01
We derive analytic formula for electric and magnetic fields produced by a moving charged particle in a conducting medium with the electric conductivity \\sigma and the chiral magnetic conductivity \\sigma_{\\chi}. We use the Green function method and assume that \\sigma_{\\chi} is much smaller than \\sigma. The compact algebraic expressions for electric and magnetic fields without any integrals are obtained. They recover the Lienard-Wiechert formula at vanishing conductivities. Exact numerical solutions are also found for any values of \\sigma and \\sigma_{\\chi} and are compared to analytic results. Both numerical and analytic results agree very well for the scale of high energy heavy ion collisions. The space-time profiles of electromagnetic fields in non-central Au+Au collisions have been calculated based on these analytic formula as well as exact numerical solutions.
Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene Effective Field Theory
DeTar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2016-01-01
We report on the first observation of magnetic catalysis at zero temperature in a fully nonperturbative simulation of the graphene effective field theory. Using lattice gauge theory, a nonperturbative analysis of the theory of strongly-interacting, massless, (2+1)-dimensional Dirac fermions in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. We show that in the zero-temperature limit, a nonzero value for the chiral condensate is obtained which signals the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. This result implies a nonzero value for the dynamical mass of the Dirac quasiparticle. This in turn has been posited to account for the quantum-Hall plateaus that are observed at large magnetic fields.
Phase diagram of the chiral magnet Cr1 /3NbS2 in a magnetic field
Tsuruta, K.; Mito, M.; Deguchi, H.; Kishine, J.; Kousaka, Y.; Akimitsu, J.; Inoue, K.
2016-03-01
We construct the phase diagram of the chiral magnet Cr1 /3NbS2 in a dc magnetic field (Hdc) using ac magnetic susceptibility measurements. At Hdc=0 , the ac response at the transition from the helical magnetic (HM) state to the paramagnetic (PM) state consists of a giant third-order harmonic component (M3 ω) and a first-order harmonic component (M1 ω). By applying Hdc perpendicular to the c axis, the HM state is transformed to the chiral soliton lattice (CSL) state, which is a superlattice tuned by Hdc. The above giant M3 ω is markedly suppressed at small Hdc. The CSL state is found to consist of CSL-1, with dominant helical texture and a poor ferromagnetic array, and CSL-2, with a large ferromagnetic array. The transition between CSL-1 and the PM state causes a linear magnetic response, the dominant component of which is the in-phase M1 ω. With increasing temperature, CSL-2 is transformed into the forced ferromagnetic (FFM) state, and ultimately the PM state is reached. The transition between CSL-2 and the FFM state consists of a large M3 ω and large out-of-phase M1 ω as well as in-phase M1 ω. The transition between the FMM and PM states also yields a linear magnetic response, like the CSL-1-PM-state transition. Five typical magnetic dynamics in the transitions among the HM state, CSL-1, CSL-2, FFM state, and PM state were identified according to the equivalent dynamical motion equation of a nonlinear spring model.
Chiral assembly of weakly curled hard rods: Effect of steric chirality and polarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wensink, H. H., E-mail: wensink@lps.u-psud.fr; Morales-Anda, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides–UMR 8502, Université Paris-Sud & CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France)
2015-10-14
We theoretically investigate the pitch of lyotropic cholesteric phases composed of slender rods with steric chirality transmitted via a weak helical deformation of the backbone. In this limit, the model is amenable to analytical treatment within Onsager theory and a closed expression for the pitch versus concentration and helical shape can be derived. Within the same framework, we also briefly review the possibility of alternative types of chiral order, such as twist-bend or screw-like nematic phases, finding that cholesteric order dominates for weakly helical distortions. While long-ranged or “soft” chiral forces usually lead to a pitch decreasing linearly with concentration, steric chirality leads to a much steeper decrease of quadratic nature. This reveals a subtle link between the range of chiral intermolecular interaction and the pitch sensitivity with concentration. A much richer dependence on the thermodynamic state is revealed for polar helices where parallel and anti-parallel pair alignments along the local director are no longer equivalent. It is found that weak temperature variations may lead to dramatic changes in the pitch, despite the lyotropic nature of the assembly.
Decker, Manuel
2010-01-01
Chiral metamaterials allow for obtaining very large chiral optical effects which result specifically from the interplay of electric/magnetic dipoles of the ''artificial atoms'' and the magnetic/electric component of the incident light field. We investigate double-layered chiral metamaterial designs with respect to their circular dichroism and optical rotatory power that is orders of magnitude larger than in, e.g., a solution of chiral sugar molecules.
Coriolis effect and spin Hall effect of light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium.
Zhang, Yongliang; Shi, Lina; Xie, Changqing
2016-07-01
We theoretically investigate the spin Hall effect of spinning light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium. The Hamiltonian equations of the photon are analytically obtained within eikonal approximation in the noninertial orthogonal frame. Besides the usual spin curvature coupling, the chiral parameter enters the Hamiltonian as a spin-torsion-like interaction. We reveal that both terms have parallel geometric origins as the Coriolis terms of Maxwell's equations in nontrivial frames. PMID:27367104
Govorov, Alexander O; Fan, Zhiyuan; Hernandez, Pedro; Slocik, Joseph M; Naik, Rajesh R
2010-04-14
Our calculations show that a nonchiral nanocrystal is able to dramatically change the circular dichroism (CD) of a chiral molecule when the nanocrystal and molecule form a complex and couple via dipole and multipole Coulomb interactions. Plasmon resonances of metal nanocrystals in the nanocrystal-molecule complex result in both the resonant enhancement of CD signals of molecules and the appearance of new spectral structures. Two mechanisms, in which a nanocrystal can influence the CD effect, have been identified. The first mechanism is the plasmon-induced change in the electromagnetic field inside the chiral molecule. The second is the optical absorption of the nanocrystal-molecule complex due to the chiral currents inside the metal nanocrystal induced by the dipole of the chiral molecule. The first mechanism creates a change in the angle between the effective electric and magnetic dipoles of the molecule. This mechanism can lead to symmetry breaking and to a plasmon-induced CD signal of the nonchiral molecule. Both mechanisms create interesting Fano-like shapes in the CD spectra. Importantly, the second mechanism gives the main contribution to the CD signal at the plasmon frequency when the absorption band of the chiral molecule is far from the plasmon resonance. This may happen in many cases since many biomolecules are optically active in the UV range, whereas plasmon resonances in commonly used nanometals are found at longer wavelengths. As concrete examples, the paper describes alpha-helix and calixarene ligand molecules coupled with metal nanocrystals. The above results are also applied to complexes incorporating semiconductor nanocrystals. The results obtained here can be used to design a variety of hybrid nanostructures with enhanced and tailored optical chirality in the visible wavelength range. PMID:20184381
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonner, W.A. [Department of Chemistry Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
1996-07-01
The indispensable role played by homochirality and chiral homogeneity in the self-replication of crucial biomolecules is stressed, with the conclusion that life could neither exist nor originate without these chiral molecular attributes. Hypotheses historically proposed for the origin of chiral molecules on Earth are reviewed, including biogenic theories as well as abiotic theories embracing both indeterminate and determinate mechanisms. Indeterminate mechanisms, including autocatalytic symmetry breaking, asymmetric adsorption on quartz and clay minerals, and asymmetric syntheses in chiral crystals, are discussed and evaluated in the context of the prebiotic environment. Abiotic determinate mechanisms based on electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, on circularly polarized light (CPL), and on parity violation effects are summarized, with the emphasis that only CPL has proved practicable experimentally, but that it would be implausible on the primitive Earth. Mechanisms for the amplification of small, indigenous enantiomeric excesses are discussed, with one involving the partial polymerization of amino acids and the partial hydrolysis of polypeptides suggested as potentially viable prebiotically. Aspects of the turbulent, chirality-destructive primeval environment are described, with the conclusion that all of the above mechanisms for the {ital terrestrial} prebiotic origin of chirality would be non-viable, and that an alternative extraterrestrial source for the accumulation of chiral molecules on primitive Earth must have been operative. A scenario for this is outlined, in which we postulate that asymmetric photolysis of the organic mantles on interstellar grains in molecular clouds by circularly polarized ultraviolet synchrotron radiation from the neutron star remnants of supernovae produces chiral molecules in the grain mantles. (Abstract Truncated)
A molecular propeller effect for chiral separation and analysis
Clemens, Jonathon B.; Kibar, Osman; Chachisvilis, Mirianas
2015-01-01
Enantiomers share nearly identical physical properties but have different chiral geometries, making their identification and separation difficult. Here we show that when exposed to a rotating electric field, the left- and right-handed chiral molecules rotate with the field and act as microscopic propellers; moreover, owing to their opposite handedness, they propel along the axis of field rotation in opposite directions. We introduce a new molecular parameter called hydrodynamic chirality to c...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Claims that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in Q.C.D. is mediated by the U(1) axial anomaly are examined from the viewpoint of effective chiral lagrangians. The proofs are seen to arise from a use of effective chiral lagrangians in which the U(1) axial symmetry is explicitly broken by effects of the anomaly. A U(1) axial invariant chiral lagrangian (to be presented) offers no such proof. (author)
Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Roy, Partha; Kim, Dokyun; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Hagai; Naaman, Ron
2016-04-13
The combination of photonics and spintronics opens new ways to transfer and process information. It is shown here that in systems in which organic molecules and semiconductor nanoparticles are combined, matching these technologies results in interesting new phenomena. We report on light induced and spin-dependent charge transfer process through helical oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles' (NPs) architectures deposited on ferromagnetic substrates with small coercive force (∼100-200 Oe). The spin control is achieved by the application of the chirality-induced spin-dependent electron transfer effect and is probed by two different methods: spin-controlled electrochemichemistry and photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. The injected spin could be controlled by excitation of the nanoparticles. By switching the direction of the magnetic field of the substrate, the PL intensity could be alternated. PMID:27027885
2016-01-01
The combination of photonics and spintronics opens new ways to transfer and process information. It is shown here that in systems in which organic molecules and semiconductor nanoparticles are combined, matching these technologies results in interesting new phenomena. We report on light induced and spin-dependent charge transfer process through helical oligopeptide–CdSe nanoparticles’ (NPs) architectures deposited on ferromagnetic substrates with small coercive force (∼100–200 Oe). The spin control is achieved by the application of the chirality-induced spin-dependent electron transfer effect and is probed by two different methods: spin-controlled electrochemichemistry and photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. The injected spin could be controlled by excitation of the nanoparticles. By switching the direction of the magnetic field of the substrate, the PL intensity could be alternated. PMID:27027885
Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Bairathi,; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, W; Li, Z M; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, Y G; Ma, R; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Smirnov, D; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A N; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Q H; Xu, N; Xu, H; Xu, Z; Xu, Y F; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, S; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I -K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M
2015-01-01
We present measurements of $\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^+$ elliptic flow, $v_2$, at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}} =$ 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5 and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, $A_{ch}$, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that $\\pi^-$ ($\\pi^+$) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}} = \\text{27 GeV}$ and higher. At $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}} = \\text{200 GeV}$, the slope of the difference of $v_2$ between $\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^+$ as a function of $A_{ch}$ exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.
Anomalous Maxwell equations for inhomogeneous chiral plasma
Gorbar, E V; Vilchinskii, S; Rudenok, I; Boyarsky, A; Ruchayskiy, O
2016-01-01
Using the chiral kinetic theory we derive the electric and chiral current densities in inhomogeneous relativistic plasma. We also derive equations for the electric and chiral charge chemical potentials that close the Maxwell equations in such a plasma. The analysis is done in the regimes with and without a drift of the plasma as a whole. In addition to the currents present in the homogeneous plasma (Hall current, chiral magnetic, chiral separation, and chiral electric separation effects, as well as Ohm's current) we derive several new terms associated with inhomogeneities of the plasma. Apart from various diffusion-like terms, we find also new dissipation-less terms that are independent of relaxation time. Their origin can be traced to the Berry curvature modifications of the kinetic theory.
Anomalous Hall Effect in Geometrically Frustrated Magnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Boldrin
2012-01-01
space mechanism based on spin chirality that was originally applied to the pyrochlore Nd2Mo2O7 appears unsatisfactory. Recently, an orbital description based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect has been proposed and applied to both the ferromagnetic pyrochlores Nd2Mo2O7 and Pr2Ir2O7; the first of which features long-ranged magnetic order while the latter is a chiral spin liquid. Two further examples of geometrically frustrated conducting magnets are presented in this paper—the kagome-like Fe3Sn2 and the triangular PdCrO2. These possess very different electronic structures to the 3-dimensional heavy-metal pyrochlores and provide new opportunities to explore the different origins of the AHE. This paper summarises the experimental findings in these materials in an attempt to unite the conflicting theoretical arguments.
Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory
Long, Bingwei
2016-01-01
The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.
Chiral symmetry effect on the pion-nucleon coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we study the effects of chiral symmetry in the pion-nucleon coupling constant in the context of the linear σ- model. First, we introduce the linear σ-model and we discuss the phenomenological hypothesis of CVC and PCAC. Next, we calculate the coupling constant g+πNN(q2) and the nucleon pionic mean square radius considering the contribution of all the diagrams up to one-loop in the framework of the linear σ-model for different values of the mass of the sigma meson and we compare them with the phenomenological form factors. Finally we make an extension of the linear σ-model that consists of taking into account the mass differences of ions and nucleons into the Lagrangian of the model, to study the change dependence of gπnn (q2) and of the mean square radius. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hilt, Marius
2011-12-13
This thesis is concerned with pion photoproduction (PPP) and pion electroproduction (PEP) in the framework of manifestly Lorentz-invariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. For that purpose two different approaches are used. Firstly, a one-loop-order calculation up to chiral order O(q{sup 4}) including pions and nucleons as degrees of freedom, is performed to describe the energy dependence of the reactions over a large range. To improve the dependence on the virtuality of the photon in PEP, in a second approach vector mesons are included as explicit degrees of freedom. The latter calculation includes one-loop contributions up to chiral order O(q{sup 3}). Only three of the four physical processes of PPP and PEP can be accessed experimentally. These reactions are measured at several different facilities, e.g. Mainz, Bonn, or Saskatoon. The data obtained there are used to explore the limits of chiral perturbation theory. This thesis is the first complete manifestly Lorentz-invariant calculation up to order O(q{sup 4}) for PPP and PEP, and the first calculation ever for these processes including vector mesons explicitly. Beside the calculation of physical observables, a partial wave decomposition is performed and the most important multipoles are analyzed. They may be extracted from the calculated amplitudes and allow one to examine the nucleon and {delta} resonances. The number of diagrams one has to calculate is very large. In order to handle these expressions, several routines were developed for the computer algebra system Mathematica. For the multipole decomposition, two different programs are used. On the one hand, a modified version of the so-called {chi}MAID has been employed. On the other hand, similar routines were developed for Mathematica. In the end, the different calculations are compared with respect to their applicability to PPP and PEP.
Two-loop effective potentials in general N=2, d=3 chiral superfield model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study local superspace contributions to the low-energy effective action in general chiral three-dimensional superfield model. The effective Kähler and chiral potentials are computed in an explicit form up to the two-loop order. In accordance with the non-renormalization theorem, the ultraviolet divergences appear only in the full superspace while the effective chiral potential receives only finite quantum contributions in the massless case. As an application, the two-loop effective scalar potential is found for the three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric Wess-Zumino model.
Magnetic anisotropy and chirality of frustrated Cr nanostructures on Au(1 1 1)
Balogh, L.; Udvardi, L.; Szunyogh, L.
2014-10-01
By using a fully relativistic embedded cluster Green's function technique we investigated the magnetic anisotropy properties of four different compact Cr trimers (equilateral triangles) and Cr mono-layers deposited on the Au(1 1 1) surface in both fcc and hcp stackings. For all trimers the magnetic ground state was found to be a frustrated 120° Néel configuration. Applying global spin rotations to the magnetic ground state, predictions of an appropriate second order spin Hamiltonian were reproduced with high accuracy by first principles calculations. For the Cr trimers with adjacent Au atoms in similar geometry, we obtained similar values for the in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy parameters, however, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions appeared to differ remarkably. For two kinds of trimers we found an unconventional magnetic ground state showing 90° in-the-plane rotation with respect to the high symmetry directions. Due to higher symmetry, the in-plane anisotropy term was missing for the mono-layers and distinctly different DM interactions were obtained for the different stackings. The chiral degeneracy of the Néel configurations was lifted by an energy less than 2 meV for the trimers, while this value increased up to about 15 meV per 3 Cr atoms for the hcp packed mono-layer.
Kao, Chung Wen
2011-01-01
We investigate the chiral restoration at finite temperature $(T)$ under the strong external magnetic field $\\vec{B}=B_{0}\\hat{z}$ of the SU(2) light-flavor QCD matter. We employ the instanton-liquid QCD vacuum configuration accompanied with the linear Schwinger method for inducing the magnetic field. The Harrington-Shepard caloron solution is used to modify the instanton parameters, i.e. the average instanton size $(\\bar{\\rho})$ and inter-instanton distance $(\\bar{R})$, as functions of $T$. In addition, we include the meson-loop corrections (MLC) as the large-$N_{c}$ corrections because they are critical for reproducing the universal chiral restoration pattern. We present the numerical results for the constituent-quark mass as well as chiral condensate which signal the spontaneous breakdown of chiral-symmetry (SB$\\chi$S), as functions of $T$ and $B$. Besides we find that the changes for the $F_\\pi$ and $m_\\pi$ due to the magnetic field is relatively small, in comparison to those caused by the finite $T$ effec...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Liu; JIN Shunzi; ZHANG Shufan; QI Zongneng; WANG Fosong
1996-01-01
Magnetic field-induced orientation of a chiral side chain liquid crystalline polyacrylate (P-11) was studied by using IR dichroism. For the investigated P-11, it has been shown that the magnetic alignment takes place over the entire temperature range between its melting point and clearing point and the orientation level is strongly temperature-dependent, the development with time of the magnetic orientation follows an exponential-type relation,and the smectic phase state influences the thermal relaxation process in the absence of the magnetic field.
Chiral effective field theory predictions for muon capture on deuteron and $^3$He
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laura E. Marcucci, A. Kievsky, S. Rosati, R. Schiavilla, M. Viviani
2012-01-01
The muon-capture reactions {sup 2}H({mu}{sup -}, {nu}{sub {mu}})nn and {sup 3}He({mu}{sup -},{nu}{sub {mu}}){sup 3}H are studied with nuclear strong-interaction potentials and charge-changing weak currents, derived in chiral effective field theory. The low-energy constants (LEC's) c{sub D} and c{sub E}, present in the three-nucleon potential and (c{sub D}) axial-vector current, are constrained to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and the triton Gamow-Teller matrix element. The vector weak current is related to the isovector component of the electromagnetic current via the conserved-vector-current constraint, and the two LEC's entering the contact terms in the latter are constrained to reproduce the A=3 magnetic moments. The muon capture rates on deuteron and {sup 3}He are predicted to be 399 {+-} 3 sec{sup -1} and 1494 {+-} 21 sec{sup -1}, respectively, where the spread accounts for the cutoff sensitivity as well as uncertainties in the LEC's and electroweak radiative corrections. By comparing the calculated and precisely measured rates on {sup 3}He, a value for the induced pseudoscalar form factor is obtained in good agreement with the chiral perturbation theory prediction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janoschek, Marc
2008-09-05
We investigated two different magnetic compounds that display magnetic chirality within the framework of this thesis, namely the multiferroic compound NdFe{sub 3}({sup 11}BO{sub 3}){sub 4} and the itinerant helimagnet MnSi. We investigated the magnetic structure of NdFe{sub 3}({sup 11}BO{sub 3}){sub 4} by unpolarised and polarised neutron scattering. As a result of this investigation we identified that NdFe{sub 3}({sup 11}BO{sub 3}){sub 4} orders antiferromagnetically below T{sub N}=31 K. By combined magnetic symmetry analysis and Rietvield fits of the powder diffraction data we identified two magnetic models for the commensurate magnetic phase that fitted our data equally well. By the use of spherical neutron polarimetry we finally revealed that for the correct magnetic model the magnetic moments of both Fe{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+} are oriented parallel to the basal hexagonal plane and couple antiferromagnetically along the hexagonal c-axis. Additionally the polarised neutron data yields that in the incommensurate magnetic phase below T{sub ICM} the magnetic structure is transformed into a long-period antiferromagnetic spiral that propagates parallel to the c-direction with a pitch of approximately 1140 A. Hence, our investigation clearly showed for the first time that NdFe{sub 3}({sup 11}BO{sub 3}){sub 4} is also a chiral magnet. Furthermore, a high resolution neutron diffraction experiment showed the presence of third order harmonics of the propagation vector in the incommensurate magnetic phase and suggests the evolution of a magnetic soliton lattice below the commensurate to incommensurate phase transition without the application of external forces like magnetic fields or pressure. Further we report our work on the cubic itinerant helimagnet MnSi. We carried out extensive unpolarised and polarised elastic neutron scattering experiments in the temperature regime where the sphere of magnetic intensity is observed in order to clarify the issue of a possible
Investigation of the chiral magnets NdFe3(11BO3)4 and MnSi by means of neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigated two different magnetic compounds that display magnetic chirality within the framework of this thesis, namely the multiferroic compound NdFe3(11BO3)4 and the itinerant helimagnet MnSi. We investigated the magnetic structure of NdFe3(11BO3)4 by unpolarised and polarised neutron scattering. As a result of this investigation we identified that NdFe3(11BO3)4 orders antiferromagnetically below TN=31 K. By combined magnetic symmetry analysis and Rietvield fits of the powder diffraction data we identified two magnetic models for the commensurate magnetic phase that fitted our data equally well. By the use of spherical neutron polarimetry we finally revealed that for the correct magnetic model the magnetic moments of both Fe3+ and Nd3+ are oriented parallel to the basal hexagonal plane and couple antiferromagnetically along the hexagonal c-axis. Additionally the polarised neutron data yields that in the incommensurate magnetic phase below TICM the magnetic structure is transformed into a long-period antiferromagnetic spiral that propagates parallel to the c-direction with a pitch of approximately 1140 A. Hence, our investigation clearly showed for the first time that NdFe3(11BO3)4 is also a chiral magnet. Furthermore, a high resolution neutron diffraction experiment showed the presence of third order harmonics of the propagation vector in the incommensurate magnetic phase and suggests the evolution of a magnetic soliton lattice below the commensurate to incommensurate phase transition without the application of external forces like magnetic fields or pressure. Further we report our work on the cubic itinerant helimagnet MnSi. We carried out extensive unpolarised and polarised elastic neutron scattering experiments in the temperature regime where the sphere of magnetic intensity is observed in order to clarify the issue of a possible intermediate phase. Our data suggests that the cubic anisotropy energy that locks the direction of the helix decreases
Giant Anomalous Hall Effect in the Chiral Antiferromagnet Mn3Ge
Kiyohara, Naoki; Tomita, Takahiro; Nakatsuji, Satoru
2016-06-01
The external field control of antiferromagnetism is a significant subject both for basic science and technological applications. As a useful macroscopic response to detect magnetic states, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is known for ferromagnets, but it has never been observed in antiferromagnets until the recent discovery in Mn3Sn . Here we report another example of the AHE in a related antiferromagnet, namely, in the hexagonal chiral antiferromagnet Mn3Ge . Our single-crystal study reveals that Mn3Ge exhibits a giant anomalous Hall conductivity |σx z|˜60 Ω-1 cm-1 at room temperature and approximately 380 Ω-1 cm-1 at 5 K in zero field, reaching nearly half of the value expected for the quantum Hall effect per atomic layer with Chern number of unity. Our detailed analyses on the anisotropic Hall conductivity indicate that in comparison with the in-plane-field components |σx z| and |σz y|, which are very large and nearly comparable in size, we find |σy x| obtained in the field along the c axis to be much smaller. The anomalous Hall effect shows a sign reversal with the rotation of a small magnetic field less than 0.1 T. The soft response of the AHE to magnetic field should be useful for applications, for example, to develop switching and memory devices based on antiferromagnets.
Nahrwold, Sophie; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
2014-01-01
Density functional theory within the two-component quasi-relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) is used to predict parity violation shifts in 183W nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors of chiral, tetrahedrally bonded tungsten complexes of the form NWXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br or I). The calculations reveal that sub-mHz accuracy is required to detect such tiny effects in this class of compounds, and that parity violation effects are very sensitive to the choice of ligands.
Nucleon electromagnetic form factors on the lattice and in chiral effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We compute the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon in quenched lattice QCD, using non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions, and compare the results with phenomenology and chiral effective field theory. (orig.)
Nucleon electromagnetic form factors on the lattice and in chiral effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We compute the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon in quenched lattice QCD, using nonperturbatively improved Wilson fermions, and compare the results with phenomenology and chiral effective field theory
Hebeler, K.; Schwenk, A.
2014-01-01
We discuss neutron matter calculations based on chiral effective field theory interactions and their predictions for the symmetry energy, the neutron skin of 208 Pb, and for the radius of neutron stars.
Magnetic Catalysis vs Magnetic Inhibition
Fukushima, Kenji
2012-01-01
We discuss the fate of chiral symmetry in an extremely strong magnetic field B. We investigate not only quark fluctuations but also neutral meson effects. The former would enhance the chiral-symmetry breaking at finite B according to the Magnetic Catalysis, while the latter would suppress the chiral condensate once B exceeds the scale of the hadron structure. Using a chiral model we demonstrate how neutral mesons are subject to the dimensional reduction and the low dimensionality favors the chiral-symmetric phase. We point out that this effect, the Magnetic Inhibition, can be a feasible explanation for recent lattice-QCD data indicating the decreasing behavior of the chiral-restoration temperature with increasing B.
Plasmon mode as a detection of the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals
Zhou, Jianhui; Chang, Hao-Ran; Xiao, Di
2014-01-01
Weyl semimetals are one kind of three-dimensional gapless semimetal with nontrivial topology in the momentum space. The chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals manifests as a charge imbalance between the Weyl nodes of opposite chiralities induced by parallel electric and magnetic fields. We investigate the chiral anomaly effect on the plasmon mode in both intrinsic and doped Weyl semimetals within the random phase approximation. We prove that the chiral anomaly gives rise to a different plasmon mod...
Manifestation of chiral symmetry and the effective potential in a strong color-electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the manifestation of chiral symmetry and the effective potential in an external color-electromagnetic field, using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We derive the effective potential, the dynamical quark mass and the q-anti q pair creation rate for the covariantly-constant color-electromagnetic field. In the flux-tube picture, chiral symmetry restoration would occur inside mesons and at the early stage of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)
Polarization-sensitive effects of solgel materials containing various chiral media.
Tao, Wei-dong; Bai, Gui-ru; Lu, Zu-kang
2004-04-15
The polarization-sensitive effects of solgel materials containing various chiral media were measured experimentally. The results show that the solgel material displays optical activity when it contains organic chiral molecules and manifests depolarization when it contains inorganic chiral microcrystals with a particle size of 70 microm. Solgel material containing glass powder that also has a particle size of 70 microm displays a polarization held characteristic (i.e., the polarization of the output light is the same as that of the input light). PMID:15119408
Hyun, Chang Ho; Lee, Hee-Jung
2016-01-01
We investigate the parity-violating pion-nucleon-nucleon coupling constant $h^1_{\\pi NN}$, based on the chiral quark-soliton model. We employ an effective weak Hamiltonian that takes into account the next-to-leading order corrections from QCD to the weak interactions at the quark level. Using the gradient expansion, we derive the leading-order effective weak chiral Lagrangian with the low-energy constants determined. The effective weak chiral Lagrangian is incorporated in the chiral quark-soliton model to calculate the parity-violating $\\pi NN$ constant $h^1_{\\pi NN}$. We obtain a value of about $10^{-7}$ at the leading order. The corrections from the next-to-leading order reduce the leading order result by about 20~\\%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spin-chiral domain structures near a cleaved crystal face of a magnetoelectric helimagnet, Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22, were examined after various magnetic and electric field-cooling procedures by means of the scanning resonant X-ray microdiffraction technique using circularly polarized X-rays. We have found that the application of a magnetic field (1–2 k Oe) during the field-cooling procedure stabilizes one of the handedness among the two spin-chiral states (left- or right-handed screw structure) and makes nearly a single spin-chiral domain in the vicinity of the cleaved crystal face. However, it makes the degree of the spin chirality spatially inhomogeneous even within a domain. We discuss the observed field-cooling effect in terms of possible formation of spin-chiral domains with “stripe-type” domain walls accompanied by randomly-distributed ferromagnetic islands. - Highlights: • Spin-chiral domain structures in a magnetoelectric helimagnet, Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22, were considerably affected by the field-cooling procedure. • The field-cooling with a small magnetic field stabilizes either a left- or right-handed spin-chiral state near a cleaved crystal face perpendicular to the helical axis
Holographic Schwinger Effect and Chiral condensate in SYM Theory
Ghoroku, Kazuo
2016-01-01
We study the instability, for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theories, caused by the external electric field through the imaginary part of the action of the D7 probe brane, which is embedded in the background of type IIB theory. This instability is related to the Schwinger effect, namely to the quark pair production due to the external electric field, for the $SU(N_c)$ SYM theories. In this holographic approach, it is possible to calculate the Schwinger effect for various phases of the theories. Here we give the calculation for ${\\cal N}=2$ SYM theory and the analysis is extended to the finite temperature deconfinement and the zero temperature confinement phases of the Yang-Mills (YM) theory. By comparing the obtained production rates with the one of the supersymmetric case, the dynamical quark mass is estimated and we find how it varies with the chiral condensate. Based on this analysis, we give a speculation on the extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to the finite temperature YM theory, and four ...
Chiral Magnetism in an Itinerant Helical Magnet, MnSi - An Extended 29Si NMR Study
Yasuoka, Hiroshi; Motoya, Kiyoichiro; Majumder, Mayukh; Witt, Sebastian; Krellner, Cornelius; Baenitz, Michael
2016-07-01
The microscopic magnetism in the helical, conical and ferromagnetically polarized phases in an itinerant helical magnet, MnSi, has been studied by an extended 29Si NMR at zero field and under external magnetic fields. The temperature dependence of the staggered moment, MQ(T), determined by the 29Si NMR frequency, ν(T), and the nuclear relaxation rate, 1/T1(T), at zero field is in general accord with the SCR theory for weak itinerant ferromagnetic metals and its extension to helical magnets. The external field dependence of resonance frequency, ν(H), follows a vector sum of the contributions from the atomic hyperfine and macroscopic fields with a field induced moment characteristic to itinerant magnets. A discontinuous jump of the resonance frequency at the critical field, Hc, between the conical and the polarized phases has also been found, which suggests a first order like change of the electronic states at Hc.
Tritium $\\beta$-decay in chiral effective field theory
Baroni, A; Kievsky, A; Marcucci, L E; Schiavilla, R; Viviani, M
2016-01-01
We evaluate the Fermi and Gamow-Teller (GT) matrix elements in tritium \\beta-decay by including in the charge-changing weak current the corrections up to one loop recently derived in nuclear chiral effective field theory (\\chi EFT). The trinucleon wave functions are obtained from hyperspherical-harmonics solutions of the Schrodinger equation with two- and three-nucleon potentials corresponding to either \\chi EFT (the N3LO/N2LO combination) or meson-exchange phenomenology (the AV18/UIX combination). We find that contributions due to loop corrections in the axial current are, in relative terms, as large as (and in some cases, dominate) those from one-pion exchange, which nominally occur at lower order in the power counting. We also provide values for the low-energy constants multiplying the contact axial current and three-nucleon potential, required to reproduce the experimental GT matrix element and trinucleon binding energies in the N3LO/N2LO and AV18/UIX calculations.
Chiral effective theory with a light scalar and lattice QCD
Soto, J; Tarrús, J
2011-01-01
We extend the usual chiral perturbation theory framework ($\\chi$PT) to allow the inclusion of a light dynamical isosinglet scalar. Using lattice QCD results, and a few phenomenological inputs, we explore the parameter space of the effective theory. The extended theory collects already at LO the ball park contribution to the pion mass and decay constant, thus achieving an accuracy that is comparable to the one of the standard $\\chi$PT at NLO results. We check explicitly that radiative corrections do not spoil this behavior and keep the theory stable under mild variations of the parameters. The parameter sets that are compatible with the current mass and width of the sigma resonance turn out to reproduce the experimental values of the S-wave pion-pion scattering lengths very accurately. We also extract the average value of the two light quark--masses and evaluate the impact of the dynamical singlet field in the low--energy constants $\\bar{l}_3$ and $\\bar{l}_4$ of $\\chi$PT. We emphasize that more accurate lattic...
Effects of chiral restoration on the behaviour of the Polyakov loop at strong coupling
Fukushima, Kenji
2002-01-01
We discuss the relation between the Polyakov loop and the chiral order parameter at finite temperature. For that purpose we analyse an effective model proposed by Gocksch and Ogilvie, which is constructed by the double expansion of strong coupling and large dimensionality. We make improvements in dealing with the model and then obtain plausible results for the behaviours of both the Polyakov loop and the chiral scalar condensate. The pseudo-critical temperature read from the Polyakov loop tur...
Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter
Holt, Jeremy W; Weise, Wolfram
2014-01-01
Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970's for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early germinal idea, conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era, has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: "it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme." Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-12-01
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We present the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. We discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.
Magnetic field induced polarization in the Ba3NbFe3Si2O14 crystal with a chiral spin structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hudl, Matthias [RIKEN, Adv. Sci. Inst., CERG and CMRG, Wako, Saitama, 3510198 (Japan); Uppsala University, Dept. Engn. Sci., SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Tokunaga, Yusuke [ERATO JST, Multiferroics Project, Tokyo 1138656 (Japan); Taguchi, Yasujiro [RIKEN, Adv. Sci. Inst., CERG and CMRG, Wako, Saitama, 3510198 (Japan); Mathieu, Roland [Uppsala University, Dept. Engn. Sci., SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Tokura, Yoshinori [RIKEN, Adv. Sci. Inst., CERG and CMRG, Wako, Saitama, 3510198 (Japan); ERATO JST, Multiferroics Project, Tokyo 1138656 (Japan); University of Tokyo, Dept. Appl. Phys., Tokyo 1138656 (Japan)
2011-07-01
Single crystals of langasite Ba3NbFe3Si2O14 with a chiral magnetic structure have been synthesized by floating zone method. In this system, the magnetic ions (Fe3+) are arranged in the ab-plane forming planar triangular lattices of triangle units. Below T = 27 K, three spins within a single triangle order uniformly in a 120 spin structure in the ab-plane. This structure is helically modulated from plane to plane along the c-axis. The complex magnetic structure suggests magnetic-field-induced electrical polarization and magnetoelectric effects. We have investigated the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the single crystals by magnetization and electrical polarization measurements. While no polarization is induced along the c-axis of the structure for any orientation of the magnetic field, we have observed a field-induced electric polarization along the a-axis direction for applied magnetic fields in the ab-plane up to 14 T.
Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo
2015-05-01
We develop, from first principles, a general and compact formalism for predicting the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial with nonmagnetic inclusions in the long-wavelength limit, including spatial dispersion up to the second order. Specifically, by resorting to a suitable multiscale technique, we show that the effective medium permittivity tensor and the first- and second-order tensors describing spatial dispersion can be evaluated by averaging suitable spatially rapidly varying fields, each satisfying electrostatic-like equations within the metamaterial unit cell. For metamaterials with negligible second-order spatial dispersion, we exploit the equivalence of first-order spatial dispersion and reciprocal bianisotropic electromagnetic response to deduce a simple expression for the metamaterial chirality tensor. Such an expression allows us to systematically analyze the effect of the composite spatial symmetry properties on electromagnetic chirality. We find that even if a metamaterial is geometrically achiral, i.e., it is indistinguishable from its mirror image, it shows pseudo-chiral-omega electromagnetic chirality if the rotation needed to restore the dielectric profile after the reflection is either a 0∘ or 90∘ rotation around an axis orthogonal to the reflection plane. These two symmetric situations encompass two-dimensional and one-dimensional metamaterials with chiral response. As an example admitting full analytical description, we discuss one-dimensional metamaterials whose single chirality parameter is shown to be directly related to the metamaterial dielectric profile by quadratures.
Mechanical separation of chiral dipoles by chiral light
Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W
2013-01-01
Optical forces take on a specific form when involving chiral light fields interacting with chiral objects. We show that optical chirality density and flow can have mechanical effects through reactive and dissipative components of chiral forces exerted on chiral dipoles. Remarkably, these force components are directly related to standard observables: optical rotation and circular dichroism, respectively. As a consequence, resulting forces and torques are dependent on the enantiomeric form of the chiral dipole. This leads to promising strategies for the mechanical separation of chiral objects using chiral light forces.
Yu, Lang; Huang, Mei
2015-01-01
We study the chiral phase transition in the presence of the chiral chemical potential $\\mu_5$ using the two-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In particular, we analyze the reason why one can obtain two opposite behaviors of the chiral critical temperature as a function of $\\mu_5$ in the framework of different regularization schemes. We compare the modifications of the chiral condensate and the critical temperature due to $\\mu_5$ in different regularization schemes, analytically and numerically. Finally, we find that, for the conventional hard-cutoff regularization scheme, the increasing dependence of the critical temperature on the chiral chemical potential is an artifact, which is caused by the fact that it does not include complete contribution from the thermal fluctuations. When the thermal contribution is fully taken into account, the chiral critical temperature should decrease with $\\mu_5$.
Chiral Effective Lagrangian Description of Nuclear Matter with in-Medium Pion Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张小兵; 宁平治
2003-01-01
By including the in-medium pion effect, we study the description of nuclear matter based on the non-linear chiral Lagrangian at the leading order. An in-medium effective Lagrangian is constructed without the necessity of introducing the phenomenological scalar-isoscalar field. At the mean-field level, the in-medium Lagrangian description of nuclear matter is shown to be compatible with that obtained from the Brown-Rho scaled model.
Chiral dynamics in a magnetic field from the functional renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the quark-meson model in a magnetic field using the functional renormalization group equation beyond the local-potential approximation. Our truncation of the effective action involves anisotropic wave function renormalization for mesons, which allows us to investigate how the magnetic field distorts the propagation of neutral mesons. Solving the flow equation numerically, we find that the transverse velocity of mesons decreases with the magnetic field at all temperatures, which is most prominent at zero temperature. The meson screening masses and the pion decay constants are also computed. The constituent quark mass is found to increase with magnetic field at all temperatures, resulting in the crossover temperature that increases monotonically with the magnetic field. This tendency is consistent with most model calculations but not with the lattice simulation performed at the physical point. Our work suggests that the strong anisotropy of meson propagation may not be the fundamental origin of the inverse magnetic catalysis
Magnetic effects on thermocouples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermometers in laboratory environment and industrial applications are often subject to extraneous, usually unwanted and uncontrolled magnetic fields. Magnetic field influence can be minimized, but cannot be fully cancelled out. Even more, in most cases, there is no awareness of the existence of magnetic fields, let alone their effect on measurement instrumentation. In the past, sensitivity to high dc magnetic fields has been investigated in cryogenics and at high temperatures. More recently, the magnetic effect on weak dc magnetic fields was presented. The goal of this paper was to analyse and empirically and experimentally prove the magnetic sensitivity of thermocouples exposed to low magnetic fields: both dc and ac. Precision and uniform alternating and direct magnetic flux densities were generated by means of permanent magnets and power amplifiers with air-cored coils. The magnetic effect on ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic thermocouples at liquid-nitrogen-boiling point (−196 °C), ice point (0 °C), in water (17 °C) and at melting point of gallium fixed point cell (29.7646 °C) was investigated. Magnetic-field-dependent temperature errors of up to 700 mK (at 5.3 mT: dc) and up to 1 °C (at 10 mT: ac 50 Hz magnetic fields) were detected. From the results, it can be concluded that, ideally for temperature measurements of the highest accuracy in the above-cryogenic temperature range, magnetic sensitivity should be estimated and taken into account either as the correction of an error and/or as an additional source of measurement uncertainty. Special consideration should be given to thermocouple orientation relative to the magnetic field direction, influence of metal enclosures and magnetization effects on ferromagnetic components of thermocouples. (paper)
Anomalous Chiral Superfluidity
Lublinsky, Michael(Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel); Zahed, Ismail
2009-01-01
We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavour anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is ...
Introduction to chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Five chiral Cd(II) complexes with dual chiral components have been synthesized by using a series of (1R,2R)–N1,N2-bis(pyridinylmethyl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine ligands with different N-positions of pyridyl rings and Cd(NO3)2. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra and second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements confirmed that they are of structural chirality in the bulk samples. The luminescent properties indicated that they may have potential applications as optical materials. The formation of discrete mononuclear and binuclear complexes, and one-dimensional chains may be attributed to positional isomerism of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: Five chiral Cd(II) complexes with dual chiral components have been synthesized by using a series of chiral ligands with different N-positions of pyridyl rings. - Highlights: • Five chiral Cd(II) complexes with dual chiral components have been synthesized. • CD spectra and SHG efficiency of the bulk samples have been measured. • The complexes display luminescent properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Lin, E-mail: lcheng@seu.edu.cn [Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-medical Research, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Wang, Jun; Yu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiu-Ying [Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Gou, Shao-Hua, E-mail: sgou@seu.edu.cn [Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-medical Research, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Fang, Lei [Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-medical Research, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)
2015-01-15
Five chiral Cd(II) complexes with dual chiral components have been synthesized by using a series of (1R,2R)–N{sup 1},N{sup 2}-bis(pyridinylmethyl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine ligands with different N-positions of pyridyl rings and Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra and second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements confirmed that they are of structural chirality in the bulk samples. The luminescent properties indicated that they may have potential applications as optical materials. The formation of discrete mononuclear and binuclear complexes, and one-dimensional chains may be attributed to positional isomerism of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: Five chiral Cd(II) complexes with dual chiral components have been synthesized by using a series of chiral ligands with different N-positions of pyridyl rings. - Highlights: • Five chiral Cd(II) complexes with dual chiral components have been synthesized. • CD spectra and SHG efficiency of the bulk samples have been measured. • The complexes display luminescent properties.
Cutoff regulators in chiral nuclear effective field theory
Long, Bingwei
2016-01-01
Three-dimensional cutoff regulators are frequently employed in multi-nucleon calculations, but they violate chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance. A cutoff regularization scheme is proposed to compensate systematically at subleading orders for these symmetry violations caused by regulator artifacts. This is especially helpful when a soft momentum cutoff has to be used for technical reasons. It is also shown that dimensional regularization can still be used for some Feynman (sub)diagrams while cutoff regulators are used for the rest.
CHIRAL MULTIPHOTON ABSORPTION AND INVERSE SKIN EFFECT IN WLAN SYSTEMS
Héctor Torres Silva; Mario Zamorano Lucero
2005-01-01
A model formed by chiral bioplasma with a set of macromolecules of DNA, which represents the human head inner structure, makes possible to analyze its behavior, when it is radiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones and WLAN's at frequencies of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz is presented. The finite difference time domain, FDTD, numeric technique is used under multiphoton regime deduced from Maxwell equations. The numerical results of the Specific Absorption Rate, SAR, show the SAR be...
Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Navratil, Petr
2012-01-01
We solve the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) in the complete Nmax = 8 basis for A = 7 and A = 8 nuclei with two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived within chiral effective field theory (EFT). We find that including the chiral EFT three-nucleon interaction in the Hamiltonian improves overall good agreement with experimental binding energies, excitation spectra, transitions and electromagnetic moments. We predict states that exhibit sensitivity to including the chiral EFT three-...
Neutron in a Strong Magnetic Field: Finite Volume Effects
Tiburzi, Brian C
2014-01-01
We investigate the neutron's response to magnetic fields on a torus with the aid of chiral perturbation theory, and expose effects from non-vanishing holonomies. The determination of such effects necessitates non-perturbative treatment of the magnetic field; and, to this end, a strong-field power counting is employed. Using a novel coordinate-space method, we find the neutron propagates in a coordinate-dependent effective potential that we obtain by integrating out charged pions winding around the torus. Knowledge of these finite volume effects will aid in the extraction of neutron properties from lattice QCD computations in external magnetic fields. In particular, we obtain finite volume corrections to the neutron magnetic moment and magnetic polarizability. These quantities have not been computed correctly in the literature. In addition to effects from non-vanishing holonomies, finite volume corrections depend on the magnetic flux quantum through an Aharonov-Bohm effect. We make a number of observations tha...
Role of structural factors in formation of chiral magnetic soliton lattice in Cr1/3NbS2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The sign and strength of magnetic interactions not only between nearest neighbors, but also for longer-range neighbors in the Cr1/3NbS2 intercalation compound have been calculated on the basis of structural data. It has been found that left-handed spin helices in Cr1/3NbS2 are formed from strength-dominant at low temperatures antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions between triangular planes of Cr3+ ions through the plane of just one of two crystallographically equivalent diagonals of side faces of embedded into each other trigonal prisms building up the crystal lattice of magnetic Cr3+ ions. These helices are oriented along the c axis and packed into two-dimensional triangular lattices in planes perpendicular to these helices directions and lay one upon each other with a displacement. The competition of the above AFM helices with weaker inter-helix AFM interactions could promote the emergence of a long-period helical spin structure. One can assume that in this case, the role of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction consists of final ordering and stabilization of chiral spin helices into a chiral magnetic soliton lattice. The possibility of emergence of solitons in M1/3NbX2 and M1/3TaX2 (M = Cr, V, Ti, Rh, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn; X = S and Se) intercalate compounds has been examined. Two important factors caused by the crystal structure (predominant chiral magnetic helices and their competition with weaker inter-helix interactions not destructing the system quasi-one-dimensional character) can be used for the crystal chemistry search of solitons.
Enhanced Electromagnetic Chirality by Locally Excited Surface Plasmon Polaritons
Alizadeh, M H
2015-01-01
The possibility to enhance chiral light-matter interactions through plasmonic nanostructures provides entirely new opportunities for greatly improving the detection limits of chiroptical spectroscopies down to the single molecule level. The most pronounced of these chiral interactions occur in the ultraviolet (UV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is difficult to access with conventional localized plasmon resonance based sensors. Although Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) on noble metal films can sustain resonances in the desired spectral range, their transverse magnetic nature has been an obstacle for enhancing chiroptical effects. Here we demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that SPPs excited by near-field sources can exhibit rich and non-trivial chiral characteristics. In particular, we show that the excitation of SPPs by a chiral source not only results in a locally enhanced optical chirality but also achieves manifold enhancement of net optical chirality. Our finding that SPPs facil...
Hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petschauer, S.; Kaiser, N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Haidenbauer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Weise, W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Villa Tambosi, ECT, Villazzano (Trento) (Italy)
2016-01-15
Brueckner theory is used to investigate the properties of hyperons in nuclear matter. The hyperon-nucleon interaction is taken from chiral effective field theory at next-to-leading order with SU(3) symmetric low-energy constants. Furthermore, the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction is also derived within chiral effective field theory. We present the single-particle potentials of Λ and Σ hyperons in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter computed with the continuous choice for intermediate spectra. The results are in good agreement with the empirical information. In particular, our calculation gives a repulsive Σ-nuclear potential and a weak Λ-nuclear spin-orbit force. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: •We theoretically study an impurity scattering effect on the vortex core structure in a chiral p-wave superconductor. •A low-temperature vortex core shrinkage (or Kramer–Pesch effect) is investigated. •The robustness of the Kramer–Pesch effect against an impurity scattering in the Born limit is lost in the unitary limit. -- Abstract: We theoretically investigate a non-magnetic impurity effect on the temperature dependence of the vortex core shrinkage (Kramer–Pesch effect) in a chiral p-wave superconductor. The Born limit and the unitary limit scattering are compared within the framework of the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity. We find that the robustness of the Kramer–Pesch effect against the impurity scattering in the Born limit is lost in the unitary limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: n-hayashi@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [NanoSquare Research Center (N2RC), Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Kurosawa, Noriyuki [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Arahata, Emiko [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kato, Yusuke [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Tanuma, Yasunari [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Yukio [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Golubov, Alexander A. [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enshede (Netherlands)
2013-11-15
Highlights: •We theoretically study an impurity scattering effect on the vortex core structure in a chiral p-wave superconductor. •A low-temperature vortex core shrinkage (or Kramer–Pesch effect) is investigated. •The robustness of the Kramer–Pesch effect against an impurity scattering in the Born limit is lost in the unitary limit. -- Abstract: We theoretically investigate a non-magnetic impurity effect on the temperature dependence of the vortex core shrinkage (Kramer–Pesch effect) in a chiral p-wave superconductor. The Born limit and the unitary limit scattering are compared within the framework of the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity. We find that the robustness of the Kramer–Pesch effect against the impurity scattering in the Born limit is lost in the unitary limit.
Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel; Walker, Sara Imari
2008-12-01
Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively L-amino acids, while only D-sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high intensity and long duration events may drive achiral initial conditions towards chirality. We argue that life’s homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events, thus extending the theory of punctuated equilibrium to the prebiotic realm. Applying our arguments to other potentially life-bearing planetary platforms, we predict that a statistically representative sampling will be racemic on average.
Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari
2008-01-01
Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively levorotatory (L) amino acids, while only dextrorotatory (R) sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high intensity and long duration events may drive achiral initial conditions towards chirality. We argue that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events, thus extending the theory of punctuated equilibrium to the prebiotic realm. Applying our arguments to other potentially life-bearing planetary platforms, we predict that a statistically representative sampling will be racemic on average.
Brechet, Sylvain D.; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2015-09-01
The thermodynamics of irreversible processes in continuous media predicts the existence of a magnetic Nernst effect that results from a magnetic analog to the Seebeck effect in a ferromagnet and magnetophoresis occurring in a paramagnetic electrode in contact with the ferromagnet. Thus, a voltage that has DC and AC components is expected across a Pt electrode as a response to the inhomogeneous magnetic induction field generated by magnetostatic waves of an adjacent YIG slab subject to a temperature gradient. The voltage frequency and dependence on the orientation of the applied magnetic induction field are quite distinct from that of spin pumping.
Vector form factor of the pion in chiral effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The vector form factor of the pion is calculated in the framework of chiral effective field theory with vector mesons included as dynamical degrees of freedom. To construct an effective field theory with a consistent power counting, the complex-mass scheme is applied
Vector form factor of the pion in chiral effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Djukanovic, D. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Gegelia, J., E-mail: jgegelia@hotmail.com [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Tbilisi State University, 0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Keller, A.; Scherer, S.; Tiator, L. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)
2015-03-06
The vector form factor of the pion is calculated in the framework of chiral effective field theory with vector mesons included as dynamical degrees of freedom. To construct an effective field theory with a consistent power counting, the complex-mass scheme is applied.
Explicit and Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Bresking in an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宗红石; 吴小华; 侯丰尧; 赵恩广
2004-01-01
A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator from an effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach both the explicit and dynamical chiral symmetry breakings are analysed. A comparison with the previous results is given.
Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pumsa-ard, K.
2006-07-01
In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints
Analysis of ferroelectric and magnetic chiral order in MnWO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spin spiral systems form a particularly interesting subgroup of magnetoelectric multiferroics since violation of inversion symmetry by long-wavelength magnetic order is responsible for the spontaneous electric polarisation. Such intrinsic coupling of magnetism and ferroelectricity is not only promising with respect to future spintronic applications. It also enables fascinating physical effects like the magnetic-field-induced polarisation flop in TbMnO3 or MnWO4. In our studies we focus on MnWO4, which is a remarkable example of a spin-spiral multiferroic because a single transition-metal ion is responsible for the coexistence of magnetic and electric order. We present a spectral analysis of its multiferroic phase by means of optical second harmonic generation (SHG). With respect to symmetry dependent selection rules we distinguish between crystallographic, antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferroelectric (FE) SHG contributions of different multipole order. Characteristic temperature dependencies of the associated FE and AFM order parameters further support the attribution.
Chiral Heat Wave and wave mixing in chiral media
Chernodub, M N
2016-01-01
We show that a hot rotating fluid of relativistic chiral fermions possesses a new gapless collective excitation associated with coherent propagation of energy density and chiral density waves along the axis of rotation. This excitation, which we call the Chiral Heat Wave, emerges due to a mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. At finite density the Chiral Heat Wave couples to the Chiral Vortical Wave while in the presence of an external magnetic field it mixes with the Chiral Magnetic Wave. We find that the coupled waves - which are coherent fluctuations of the vector, axial and energy currents - have generally different velocities compared to the velocities of the individual waves. We also demonstrate that rotating chiral systems subjected to external magnetic field possess non-propagating metastable thermal excitations, the Dense Hot Spots.
Links between the quantum Hall effect, chiral boson theories and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiral boson theory is introduced and its relevance to the quantum Hall effect is explained. It is shown that the chiral boson theory admits mode expansions which are essentially those which appear and are made use of in bosonic string theories. This immediately leads to a way of quantizing the theory. Restrictions on various parameters appearing in the model can be imposed in a natural way. Finally, it is suggested that some of these ideas have important applications to other geometries which could give rise to new types of physical behavior. (author)
Liu, Keh-Fei
2016-01-01
The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of $\\pi N \\sigma$ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral $U(1)$ anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.
Chiral String-Soliton Model for the light chiral baryons
Pavlovsky, Oleg
2010-01-01
The Chiral String-Soliton Model is a joining of the two notions about the light chiral baryons: the chiral soliton models (like the Skyrme model) and the Quark-Gluon String models. The ChSS model is based on the Effective Chiral Lagrangian which was proposed in [arXiv:hep-ph/0306216]. We have studied the physical properties of the light chiral baryon within the framework of this ChSS model.
Low-dimensional chiral physics. Gross-Neveu universality and magnetic catalysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scherer, Daniel David
2012-09-27
In this thesis, we investigate the 3-dimensional, chirally symmetric Gross-Neveu model with functional renormalization group methods. This low-dimensional quantum field theory describes the continuum limit of the low-energy sector in certain lattice systems. The functional renormalization group allows to study in a nonperturbative way the physical properties of many-body systems and quantum field theories. The starting point is a formally exact flow equation with 1-loop structure for the generating functional of 1-particle irreducible vertices. Within a gradient expansion - tailor-made for extracting the infrared asymptotics of the momentum and frequency dependent vertices of the theory - we study the strong-coupling fixed point of the Gross-Neveu model even beyond the formal limit of infinite flavor number. This fixed point controls a 2nd order quantum phase transition from a massless phase to a phase with massive Dirac fermions. After a first analysis of the purely fermionic theory, a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is used to partially bosonize the theory. Within this bosonized description, we find universal critical exponents that are in excellent quantitative agreement with available results from 1/N{sub f}-expansions and Monte Carlo simulations and are expected to improve upon earlier results. The renormalization group flow allows us to gain insights into the global and local structure of the critical manifold within given truncations and better understanding of the relevant directions in the space of couplings, which in general do not coincide with the Gaussian classification. Within the framework of the so-called ''asymptotic safety''-scenario relevant for the construction of proper field theories, the fixed-point theory could be determined exactly in the limit of infinite flavor number. Here, the Gross-Neveu model yields a simple and intuitive example for how to define a nonperturbatively renormalizable quantum field theory. Going
Low-dimensional chiral physics. Gross-Neveu universality and magnetic catalysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis, we investigate the 3-dimensional, chirally symmetric Gross-Neveu model with functional renormalization group methods. This low-dimensional quantum field theory describes the continuum limit of the low-energy sector in certain lattice systems. The functional renormalization group allows to study in a nonperturbative way the physical properties of many-body systems and quantum field theories. The starting point is a formally exact flow equation with 1-loop structure for the generating functional of 1-particle irreducible vertices. Within a gradient expansion - tailor-made for extracting the infrared asymptotics of the momentum and frequency dependent vertices of the theory - we study the strong-coupling fixed point of the Gross-Neveu model even beyond the formal limit of infinite flavor number. This fixed point controls a 2nd order quantum phase transition from a massless phase to a phase with massive Dirac fermions. After a first analysis of the purely fermionic theory, a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is used to partially bosonize the theory. Within this bosonized description, we find universal critical exponents that are in excellent quantitative agreement with available results from 1/Nf-expansions and Monte Carlo simulations and are expected to improve upon earlier results. The renormalization group flow allows us to gain insights into the global and local structure of the critical manifold within given truncations and better understanding of the relevant directions in the space of couplings, which in general do not coincide with the Gaussian classification. Within the framework of the so-called ''asymptotic safety''-scenario relevant for the construction of proper field theories, the fixed-point theory could be determined exactly in the limit of infinite flavor number. Here, the Gross-Neveu model yields a simple and intuitive example for how to define a nonperturbatively renormalizable quantum field theory. Going beyond the determination of
Hu, Li; Tian, Xiaorui; Huang, Yingzhou; Fang, Liang; Fang, Yurui
2016-02-14
Plasmonic chirality has drawn much attention because of tunable circular dichroism (CD) and the enhancement for chiral molecule signals. Although various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the plasmonic CD, a quantitative explanation like the ab initio mechanism for chiral molecules, is still unavailable. In this study, a mechanism similar to the mechanisms associated with chiral molecules was analyzed. The giant extrinsic circular dichroism of a plasmonic splitting rectangle ring was quantitatively investigated from a theoretical standpoint. The interplay of the electric and magnetic modes of the meta-structure is proposed to explain the giant CD. We analyzed the interplay using both an analytical coupled electric-magnetic dipole model and a finite element method model. The surface charge distributions showed that the circular current yielded by the splitting rectangle ring causes the ring to behave like a magneton at some resonant modes, which then interact with the electric modes, resulting in a mixing of the two types of modes. The strong interplay of the two mode types is primarily responsible for the giant CD. The analysis of the chiral near-field of the structure shows potential applications for chiral molecule sensing. PMID:26814829
Effective magnetic Hamiltonians
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Drchal, Václav; Kudrnovský, Josef; Turek, I.
2013-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 1997-2000. ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0775 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : effective magnetic Hamiltonian * ab initio * magnetic structure Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013
Electromagnetic propulsion and separation by chirality of nanoparticles in liquids
Kirkinis, E.; Andreev, A. V.; Spivak, B.
2012-01-01
We introduce a new mechanism for the propulsion and separation by chirality of small ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid. Under the action of a uniform dc magnetic field H and an ac electric field E isomers with opposite chirality move in opposite directions. Such a mechanism could have a significant impact on a wide range of emerging technologies. The component of the chiral velocity that is odd in H is found to be proportional to the intrinsic orbital and spin angular momentum of the magnetized electrons. This effect arises because a ferromagnetic particle responds to the applied torque as a small gyroscope.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Origins of the Polar Kerr Effect in a Chiral p-WAVE Superconductor
Goryo, Jun
Recently, the measurement of the polar Kerr effect (PKE) in the quasi two-dimensional superconductor Sr2RuO4, which is motivated to observe the chirality of px + ipy-wave pairing, has been reported. We clarify that the PKE has intrinsic and extrinsic (disorder-induced) origins. The extrinsic contribution would be dominant in the PKE experiment.
CHIRAL MULTIPHOTON ABSORPTION AND INVERSE SKIN EFFECT IN WLAN SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Héctor Torres Silva
2005-12-01
Full Text Available A model formed by chiral bioplasma with a set of macromolecules of DNA, which represents the human head inner structure, makes possible to analyze its behavior, when it is radiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones and WLAN's at frequencies of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz is presented. The finite difference time domain, FDTD, numeric technique is used under multiphoton regime deduced from Maxwell equations. The numerical results of the Specific Absorption Rate, SAR, show the SAR behavior in function of input power and the chirality factor. The main conclusions of our work are: a the microwave absorption from cellular phones or WLAN's is enhanced, compared with classical models, when values of the normalized chiral factor are of order of one which appear under multiphoton regime ; b a phenomena like an “inverse skin effect” in 5.2 GHz, with respect to a 2.4 GHz source, was observed. c In the metamaterial region we show that the absorption rate always is positive.Un modelo formado por bioplasma quiral con un conjunto de macromoléculas de ADN, que representa la estructura interna de la cabeza humana, hace posible analizar su comportamiento, cuando es irradiada por campos electromagnéticos de microondas de teléfonos celulares o sistemas WLAN a frecuencias de 2.4 y 5.2 GHz. El método de diferencias finitas en el dominio del tiempo, FDTD, en régimen de multifotones deducido de las ecuaciones de Maxwell es usado. Los resultados numéricos de la taza de absorción específica SAR, muestran el comportamiento de la SAR en función de la potencia de entrada y del factor quiral. Las principales conclusiones de nuestro trabajo son: a la absorción de microondas es aumentada comparada con modelos clásicos, cuando valores del factor quiral normalizado son del orden de la unidad, que aparecen bajo régimen multifotónico; b Un fenómeno de efecto pelicular inverso en 5.2 GHz con respecto a una fuente de 2.4 GHz fue observado; c En la regi
Haupert, Levi M.; Simpson, Garth J.
2009-05-01
The past decade has witnessed the emergence of new measurement approaches and applications for chiral thin films and materials enabled by the observations of the high sensitivity of second-order nonlinear optical measurements to chirality. In thin films, the chiral response to second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation (SFG) from a single molecular monolayer is often comparable with the achiral response. The chiral specificity also allows for symmetry-allowed SFG in isotropic chiral media, confirming predictions made ˜50 years ago. With these experimental demonstrations in hand, an important challenge is the construction of intuitive predictive models that allow the measured chiral response to be meaningfully related back to molecular and macromolecular structure. This review defines and considers three distinct mechanisms for chiral effects in uniaxially oriented assemblies: orientational chirality, intrinsic chirality, and isotropic chirality. The role of each is discussed in experimental and computational studies of bacteriorhodopsin films, binaphthol, and collagen. Collectively, these three model systems support a remarkably simple framework for quantitatively recovering the measured chiral-specific activity.
Lin, Shuang-Yan; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Tang, Jinkui
2015-01-01
Three pairs of homochiral mononuclear lanthanide complexes, with the general formula [LnH4LRRRRRR/SSSSSS(SCN)2](SCN)2·xCH3OH·yH2O(Ln = Dy (R/S-Dy1), Ho (R/S-Ho1) and Er (R/S-Er1)), have been obtained via self-assembly between chiral macrocyclic ligands and the respective thiocyanates, all of which show a saddle-type conformation with seven-coordinated metal ions. Magnetic measurements revealed that the Dy complex shows field-induced single-ion magnet behaviour, which is rarely reported in a seven-coordinated lanthanide-based SIM encapsulated in a macrocyclic ligand. The absolute configuration of all enantiomers was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography and confirmed by electronic CD and VCD spectra. PMID:25369972
Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.
The vector manifestation and effective degrees of freedom at chiral restoration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of effective degrees of freedom on the vector and axial-vector susceptibilities and the pion velocity at chiral restoration is analyzed. We consider two possible scenarios, one in which pions are considered to be the only low-lying degrees of freedom - that we shall refer to as 'standard' - and the other in which pions, vector mesons and constituent quarks (or quasiquarks in short) are the relevant low-lying degrees of freedom - that we shall refer to as 'vector manifestation (VM)'. We show at one-loop order in chiral perturbation theory with hidden local symmetry Lagrangian that while in the standard scenario, the pion velocity vanishes at the chiral transition, it instead approaches unity in the VM scenario. If the VM is realized in nature, the chiral phase structure of hadronic matter can be much richer than that in the standard one and the phase transition will be a smooth crossover: Sharp vector and scalar excitations are expected in the vicinity of the critical point. Some indirect indications that lend support to the VM scenario, and in consequence to BR scaling, are discussed. (author)
Landi, Brian J; Raffaelle, Ryne P
2007-03-01
We report on the utility of modifying the carrier gas dynamics during laser vaporization synthesis to alter the single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) chiral distribution. SWNTs produced from an Alexandrite laser using conventional Ni/Co catalysts demonstrate marked differences in chiral distributions due to effects of helium gas and reactor chamber pressure, in comparison to conventional subambient pressures and argon gas. Optical absorption and Raman spectroscopies confirm that the SWNT diameter distribution decreases under higher pressure and with helium gas as opposed to argon. Fluorescence mapping of the raw soots in sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS)-D2O was used to estimate the relative (n, m)-SWNT content of the semiconducting types. A predominance of type II structures for each synthesis condition was observed. The distribution of SWNT chiral angles was observed to shift away from near-armchair configurations under higher pressure and with helium gas. These results illustrate the importance of gas type and pressure on the condensation/cooling rate, which allows for synthesis of specific SWNT chiral distributions. PMID:17450850
Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter
Buballa, Michael
2015-01-01
An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color-superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking...
Chiral current generation in QED by longitudinal photons
Avalo, J L Acosta
2016-01-01
We report the generation of a pseudovector electric current having imbalanced chirality in an electron-positron strongly magnetized gas in QED. It propagates along the external applied magnetic field B as a chiral magnetic effect in QED. It is triggered by a perturbative electric field parallel to B, associated to a pseudovector longitudinal mode propagating along B. An electromagnetic chemical potential was introduced, but our results remain valid even for vanishing chemical potential. A nonzero fermion mass was assumed, which is usually considered vanishing in the literature. In the quantum field theory formalism at finite temperature and density, an anomaly relation for the axial current was found for a medium of massive fermions. It bears some analogy to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly. From the expression for the chiral current in terms of the photon self-energy tensor in a medium, it is obtained that electrons and positrons scattered by longitudinal photons (inside the light cone) contribute to the chiral...
Catalysis of Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking by Chiral Chemical Potential
Braguta, V V
2016-01-01
In this paper we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parameterized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus the chiral chemical potential plays a role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.
Influence of damping on the vanishing of the electro-optic effect in chiral isotropic media
Agarwal, G. S.; Boyd, Robert W.
2002-01-01
Using first principles, it is demonstrated that radiative damping alone cannot lead to a nonvanishing electro-optic effect in a chiral isotropic medium. This conclusion is in contrast with that obtained by a calculation in which damping effects are included using the standard phenomenological model. We show that these predictions differ because the phenomenological damping equations are valid only in regions where the frequencies of the applied electromagnetic fields are nearly resonant with ...
Foundations of Strangeness Nuclear Physics derived from chiral Effective Field Theory
Meißner, Ulf-G
2016-01-01
Dense compact objects like neutron stars or black holes have always been one of Gerry Brown's favorite research topics. This is closely related to the effects of strangeness in nuclear physics. Here, we review the chiral Effective Field Theory approach to interactions involving nucleons and hyperons, the possible existence of strange dibaryons, the fate of hyperons in nuclear matter and the present status of three-body forces involving hyperons and nucleons.
Gámiz, Beatriz; Facenda, Gracia; Celis, Rafael
2016-06-01
Although enantioselective sorption to soil particles has been proposed as a mechanism that can potentially influence the availability of individual chiral pesticide enantiomers in the environment, environmental fate studies generally overlook this possibility and assume that only biotic processes can be enantioselective, whereas abiotic processes, such as sorption, are non-enantioselective. In this work, we present direct evidence for the effect of the enantioselective sorption of a chiral pesticide in a natural soil on the availability of the single pesticide enantiomers for transport. Batch sorption experiments, with direct determination of the sorbed amounts, combined with column leaching tests confirmed previous observations that from non-racemic aqueous solutions the sorption of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl on the soil appeared to be enantioselective, and further demonstrated that the enantiomer that was sorbed to a greater extent (R-metalaxyl, Kd = 1.73 L/kg) exhibited retarded leaching compared to its optical isomer (S-metalaxyl, Kd = 1.15 L/kg). Interconversion and degradation of the pesticide enantiomers, which are potential experimental artifacts that can lead to erroneous estimates of sorption and its enantioselectivity, were discarded as possible causes of the observed enantioselective behavior. The results presented here may have very important implications for a correct assessment of the environmental fate of chiral pesticides that are incorporated into the environment as non-racemic mixtures, and also of aged chiral pesticide residues that have been transformed from racemic to non-racemic by biologically-mediated processes. PMID:27060281
FINE MAGNETIC FEATURES AND CHIRALITY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we present fine magnetic features near the magnetic inversion line in the solar active region NOAA 10930. The high-resolution vector magnetograms obtained by Hinode allow detailed analyses around magnetic fibrils in the active region. The analyses are based on the fact that the electric current density can be divided into two components: the shear component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity and the twist component caused by the magnetic field twist. The relationships between magnetic field, electric current density, and its two components are examined. It is found that the individual magnetic fibrils are dominated by the current density component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity, while the large-scale magnetic region is generally dominated by the electric current component associated with the magnetic twist. The microstructure of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere is far from the force-free field. The current mainly flows around the magnetic flux fibrils in the active regions.
Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel; Walker, Sara Imari
2008-01-01
Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively levorotatory (L) amino acids, while only dextrorotatory (R) sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high int...
Quantum-mechanical picture of peripheral chiral dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granados, Carlos [Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2015-08-28
The nucleon's peripheral transverse charge and magnetization densities are computed in chiral effective field theory. The densities are represented in first-quantized form, as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions describing the transition of the nucleon to soft pion-nucleon intermediate states. The orbital motion of the pion causes a large left-right asymmetry in a transversely polarized nucleon. As a result, the effect attests to the relativistic nature of chiral dynamics [pion momenta k = O(M_{π})] and could be observed in form factor measurements at low momentum transfer.
Strangeness $S=-1$ hyperon-nucleon scattering in covariant chiral effective field theory
Li, Kai-Wen; Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bing-Wei
2016-01-01
Motivated by the successes of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory in one-baryon systems and in heavy-light systems, we study relevance of relativistic effects in hyperon-nucleon interactions with strangeness $S=-1$. In this exploratory work, we follow the covariant framework developed by Epelbaum and Gegelia to calculate the $YN$ scattering amplitude at leading order. By fitting the five low-energy constants to the experimental data, we find that the cutoff dependence is mitigated, co...
Chiral extrapolation of nucleon axial charge $g_A$ in effective field theory
Li, Hongna
2016-01-01
The extrapolation of nucleon axial charge $g_A$ is investigated within the framework of heavy baryon chiral effective field theory. The intermediate octet and decuplet baryons are included in the one loop calculation. Finite range regularization is applied to improve the convergence in the quark-mass expansion. The lattice data from three different groups are used for the extrapolation. At physical pion mass, the extrapolated $g_A$ are all smaller than the experimental value.
The effective chiral Lagrangian from dimension-six parity and time-reversal violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We classify the parity- and time-reversal-violating operators involving quark and gluon fields that have effective dimension six: the quark electric dipole moment, the quark and gluon chromo-electric dipole moments, and four four-quark operators. We construct the effective chiral Lagrangian with hadronic and electromagnetic interactions that originate from them, which serves as the basis for calculations of low-energy observables. The form of the effective interactions depends on the chiral properties of these operators. We develop a power-counting scheme and calculate within this scheme, as an example, the parity- and time-reversal-violating pion–nucleon form factor. We also discuss the electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei. -- Highlights: •Classification of T-odd dimension-six sources based on impact on observables. •Building of the chiral Lagrangian for each dimension-six source. •Calculation of the PT-odd pion–nucleon form factor for each source. •Discussion of hadronic EDMs for each source and comparison with the theta term
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Héctor Torres-Silva
2008-11-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a physical chiral asymmetrical regauging to increase the coefficient of performance of an electric motor. A review of gauge theory and a consideration of the disposal of the Lorentz condition to achieve the chiral regauging are presented. The coefficient of performance terminology is introduced. A magnetic motor is discussed under a chiral approach which gives a Beltrami process.Este trabajo introduce un recalibre físico quiral asimétrico usado para aumentar el coficiente de rendimiento de un motor eléctrico. Se presenta una revisión de la teoría de calibres y se examina el descarte de la condición de Lorentz para obtener el recalibrado quiral. Se introduce el coeficiente de rendimiento y se analiza un motor magnético bajo el enfoque quiral que permite un proceso Beltrami.
Complete next-to-next-to-leading order calculation of NN → NNπ in chiral effective field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filin A. A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present the results of the pion production operator calculated up-to-and-including next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO in chiral effective field theory. We include explicit Delta degrees of freedom and demonstrate that they provide essential contribution required to understand neutral pion production data. Analysis of chiral loops at NNLO reveals new mechanisms which are important, but haven’t been considered in phenomenological studies so far.
Construction of Chiral Metamaterial with U-Shaped Resonator Assembly
Xiong, Xiang; Bao, Yong-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Sun, Cheng; Lu, Xiang; Shao, Jun; Li, Zhi-Feng; Ming, Nai-Ben
2009-01-01
Chiral structure can be applied to construct metamaterial with negative refractive index (NRI). In an assembly of double-layered metallic U-shaped resonators with two resonant frequencies wH and wL, the effective induced electric and magnetic dipoles, which are contributed by the specific surface current distributions, are collinear at the same frequency. Consequently, for left circularly polarized light, NRI occurs at wH, whereas for right circularly polarized light it occurs at wL. Our design provides a new example to apply chiral structures to tune electromagnetic properties, and could be enlightening in exploring chiral metamaterials.
Effective meson lagrangian with chiral and heavy quark symmetries from quark flavor dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By bosonization of an extended NJL model we derive an effective meson theory which describes the interplay between chiral symmetry and heavy quark dynamics. This effective theory is worked out in the low-energy regime using the gradient expansion. The resulting effective lagrangian describes strong and weak interactions of heavy B and D mesons with pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons and light vector and axial-vector mesons. Heavy meson weak decay constants, coupling constants and the Isgur-Wise function are predicted in terms of the model parameters partially fixed from the light quark sector. Explicit SU(3)F symmetry breaking effects are estimated and, if possible, confronted with experiment. ((orig.))
Magnetization of laser-produced plasma in a chiral hollow target
Korneev, Ph; d'Humières, E
2016-01-01
It is demonstrated that targets with a broken rotational symmetry may facilitate generation of a strong axial (poloidal) magnetic field. An intense laser beam irradiating such a target creates intense electron currents carrying vorticity and producing strong spontaneous magnetic fields. Combined with a laser electron acceleration, such targets may be used for generation and guiding of magnetized, collimated particle or plasma beams.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the framework of this thesis, the interrelation between the two characteristic phenomena of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), i.e., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement, is investigated. To this end, we apply lattice gauge field theory techniques and adopt a method to artificially restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. The low-mode part of the Dirac eigenspectrum is tied to the dynamical breaking of the chiral symmetry according to the Banks--Casher relation. Utilizing two-flavor dynamical lattice gauge field configurations, we construct valence quark propagators that exclude a variable sized part of the low-mode Dirac spectrum, with the aim of using these as an input for meson and baryon interpolating fields. Subsequently, we explore the behavior of ground and excited states of the low-mode truncated hadrons using the variational analysis method. We look for the existence of confined hadron states and extract effective masses where applicable. Moreover, we explore the evolution of the quark wavefunction renormalization function and the renormalization point invariant mass function of the quark propagator under Dirac low-mode truncation in a gauge fixed setting. Motivated by the necessity of fixing the gauge in the aforementioned study of the quark propagator, we also developed a flexible high performance code for lattice gauge fixing, accelerated by graphic processing units (GPUs) using NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). Lastly, more related but unpublished work on the topic is presented. This includes a study of the locality violation of low-mode truncated Dirac operators, a discussion of the possible extension of the low-mode truncation method to the sea quark sector based on a reweighting scheme, as well as the presentation of an alternative way to restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. (author)
Chiral Electroweak Currents in Nuclei
Riska, D O
2016-01-01
The development of the chiral dynamics based description of nuclear electroweak currents is reviewed. Gerald E. (Gerry) Brown's role in basing theoretical nuclear physics on chiral Lagrangians is emphasized. Illustrative examples of the successful description of electroweak observables of light nuclei obtained from chiral effective field theory are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Rudraiah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear oberbeck convection in a chiral incompressible Boussinesq fluid flowing through a vertical channel bounded by rigid permeable isothermal boundaries kept at different temperatures is investigated in this paper in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field, under the influence of viscous dissipation. The nonlinear-coupled momentum and energy equations are solved analytically using a regular perturbation method valid for small values of buoyancy parameter N. To validate the results obtained from the analytical solutions of the non-linear equations, which are also solved numerically using a finite difference method supplemented with the successive over recreation (SOR technique. The velocity, temperature, skin friction, mass flow rate and the rate of heat transfer are computed for various values of electromagnetic thermal number Wemt, buoyancy parameter N, and suction Reynolds Number Re. The results obtained are represented graphically and found that an increase in Wemt, increases the velocity and temperature. Physically, we attributes this to setting up of small scale turbulence by magnetic filed. The effect of perturbation parameter N is shown to increases the skin friction, heat transfer and the mass flow rate.
Zarycz, Natalia; Provasi, Patricio F; Pagola, Gabriel I; Ferraro, Marta B; Pelloni, Stefano; Lazzeretti, Paolo
2016-06-30
In the presence of a static, nonhomogeneous magnetic field, represented by the axial vector B at the origin of the coordinate system and by the polar vector C=∇×B, assumed to be spatially uniform, the chiral molecules investigated in this paper carry an orbital electronic anapole, described by the polar vector A. The electronic interaction energy of these molecules in nonordered media is a cross term, coupling B and C via a¯, one third of the trace of the anapole magnetizability aαβ tensor, that is, WBC=-a¯B·C. Both A and W(BC) have opposite sign in the two enantiomeric forms, a fact quite remarkable from the conceptual point of view. The magnitude of a¯ predicted in the present computational investigation for five chiral molecules is very small and significantly biased by electron correlation contributions, estimated at the density functional level via three different functionals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27010603
Chiral Effective Theory Methods and their Application to the Structure of Hadrons from Lattice QCD
Shanahan, P E
2016-01-01
For many years chiral effective theory (ChEFT) has enabled and supported lattice QCD calculations of hadron observables by allowing systematic effects from unphysical lattice parameters to be controlled. In the modern era of precision lattice simulations approaching the physical point, ChEFT techniques remain valuable tools. In this review we discuss the modern uses of ChEFT applied to lattice studies of hadron structure in the context of recent determinations of important and topical quantities. We consider muon g-2, strangeness in the nucleon, the proton radius, nucleon polarizabilities, and sigma terms relevant to the prediction of dark-matter-hadron interaction cross-sections, among others.
Virtual decuplet effects on octet baryon masses in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory
Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Lisheng; Meng, Jie; Toki, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
We extend a previous analysis of the lowest-lying octet baryon masses in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) by explicitly taking into account the contribution of the virtual decuplet baryons. Up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^3$LO), the effects of these heavier degrees of freedom are systematically studied. Their effects on the light-quark mass dependence of the octet baryon masses are shown to be relatively small and can be absorbed by the available low-energy c...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard;
2014-01-01
" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...... molecules down to 3%. The microscopic mechanism for the observed chiral induction is suggested to involve nucleation of the intrinsically chiral seeds, allowing for effective transfer and amplification of chirality to large numbers of soldier target molecules....
Brazovskii-Dyugaev effect on the inhomogeneous chiral transition in quark matter
Karasawa, Shintaro; Lee, Tong-Gyu; Tatsumi, Toshitaka
2016-04-01
We investigate the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations on the phase boundary between the inhomogeneous chiral phase and the chiral-restored phase in the phase diagram in the plane of temperature and chemical potential. Introducing the composite fields made of quark bilinear fields, we construct an effective action for them in quark matter by way of the correlation function method. Utilizing this effective action, we discuss the effects of the quark-antiquark and particle-hole pair fluctuations to find possible modifications of the vertex functions of the order parameter included in the thermodynamic potential. We find that the most important effect of the pair fluctuations is to change the sign of the fourth-order vertex function to make the phase transition always the first, rather than the second, order (we call it the Brazovskii-Dyugaev effect). Another important effect manifests in the second-order vertex function: it exhibits a singular behavior near the critical point, which prohibits the second-order phase transition. It, together with the fourth-order vertex function, alters the location of the phase boundary.
Chiral superfluidity for the heavy ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalaydzhyan, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2013-02-15
We argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma formed at LHC and RHIC can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The ''normal'' component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the ''superfluid'' part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use the bosonization procedure with a finite cut-off and obtain a dynamical axion-like field out of the chiral fermionic modes. Then we use relativistic hydrodynamics for macroscopic description of the effective theory obtained after the bosonization. Finally, solving the hydrodynamic equations in gradient expansion, we find that in the presence of external electromagnetic fields the motion of the ''superfluid'' component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, chiral electric and dipole wave effects. Latter two effects are specific for a two-component fluid, which provides us with crucial experimental tests of the model. By considering probe quarks one can show that the fermionic spectrum at the intermediate temperatures (T{sub c}
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a theoretical study on the magnetic properties of monolayer nanodisks with both Heisenberg exchange and Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya (DM) interactions. In particular, we survey the magnetic effects caused by anisotropy, external magnetic field, and disk size when DM interaction is present by means of a new quantum simulation method facilitated by a self-consistent algorithm based on mean field theory. This computational approach finds that uniaxial anisotropy and transversal magnetic field enhance the net magnetization as well as increase the transition temperature of the vortical phase while preserving the chiralities of the swirly magnetic structures, whereas when the strength of DM interaction is sufficiently strong for a given disk size, magnetic domains appear within the circularly bounded region, which vanish and give in to a single vortex when a transversal magnetic field is applied. The latter confirms the magnetic skyrmions induced by the magnetic field as observed in the experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Zhaosen, E-mail: liuzhsnj@yahoo.com [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (China); Ian, Hou, E-mail: houian@umac.mo [University of Macau, Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, FST (China)
2016-01-15
We give a theoretical study on the magnetic properties of monolayer nanodisks with both Heisenberg exchange and Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya (DM) interactions. In particular, we survey the magnetic effects caused by anisotropy, external magnetic field, and disk size when DM interaction is present by means of a new quantum simulation method facilitated by a self-consistent algorithm based on mean field theory. This computational approach finds that uniaxial anisotropy and transversal magnetic field enhance the net magnetization as well as increase the transition temperature of the vortical phase while preserving the chiralities of the swirly magnetic structures, whereas when the strength of DM interaction is sufficiently strong for a given disk size, magnetic domains appear within the circularly bounded region, which vanish and give in to a single vortex when a transversal magnetic field is applied. The latter confirms the magnetic skyrmions induced by the magnetic field as observed in the experiments.
Effects of (axialvector mesons on the chiral phase transition: initial results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kovács P.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the effects of (axialvector mesons on the chiral phase transition in the framework of an SU(3, (axialvector meson extended linear sigma model with additional constituent quarks and Polyakov loops. We determine the parameters of the Lagrangian at zero temperature in a hybrid approach, where we treat the mesons at tree-level, while the constituent quarks at 1-loop level. We assume two nonzero scalar condensates and together with the Polyakov-loop variables we determine their temperature dependence according to the 1-loop level field equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in a modified version of Weinberg's chiral effective field theory approach to the two-nucleon system. We derive renormalizable integral equations for the deuteron without partial wave decomposition. Deuteron form factors are extracted by applying the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formalism to the three-point correlation function of deuteron interpolating fields and the electromagnetic current operator. Numerical results of a leading-order calculation with removed cutoff regularization agree well with experimental data. (orig.)
Finite-volume effects on octet-baryon masses in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory
Geng, Li-Sheng; Ren, Xiu-Lei; Martin-Camalich, J.; Weise, W.
2011-01-01
We study finite-volume effects on the masses of the ground-state octet baryons using covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) up to next-to-leading order by analyzing the latest $n_f=2+1$ lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics (LQCD) results from the NPLQCD collaboration. Contributions of virtual decuplet baryons are taken into account using the "consistent" coupling scheme. We compare our results with those obtained from heavy baryon ChPT and show that, although both approaches can describ...
$\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salamu, Yusupujiang [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Ji, Chueng -Ryong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Melnitchouk, W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing (China)
2015-03-25
We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and Δ degrees of freedom, within both relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we estimate the correction to the integrated asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. In conclusion, we find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.
Novel Topological Effects in Dense QCD in a Magnetic Field
Ferrer, E J
2015-01-01
We show that in dense QCD an axion field can be dynamically generated as the phase of the dual chiral density wave condensate that forms in the presence of a magnetic field. The coupling of the axion with the external magnetic field leads to several macroscopically observable effects. They are the generation of an anomalous uniform electric charge proportional to the magnetic field, the induction of a nondissipative anomalous Hall current, a linear magnetoelectric effect, and the formation of an axion polariton due to the fluctuations of the axion field at finite temperature. Connection to topological insulators, as well as possible observable signatures in heavy-ion collisions and neutron stars are all highlighted.
Kopp, Victor I.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Sheng; Genack, Azriel Z.; Neugroschl, Dan
2009-02-01
We propose an in-fiber chiral optical isolator based on chiral fiber polarizer technology and calculate its performance by incorporating the magnetic field into the scattering matrix. The design will be implemented in a special preform, which is passed through a miniature heat zone as it is drawn and twisted. The birefringence of the fiber is controlled by adjusted the diameter of a dual-core optical fiber. By adjusting the twist, the fiber can convert linear to circular polarization and reject one component of circular polarization. In the novel central portion of the isolator, the fiber diameter is large. The effective birefringence of the circular central core with high Verdet constant embedded in an outer core of slightly smaller index of refraction is small. The central potion is a non-reciprocal polarization converter which passes forward traveling left circularly polarized (LCP) light as LCP, while converting backward propagating LCP to right circularly polarized (RCP) light. Both polarizations of light traveling backwards are scattered out of the isolator. Since it is an all-glass structure, we anticipate that the isolator will be able to handle several watts of power and will be environmentally robust.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saori Pastore, S.C. Pieper, Rocco Schiavilla, Robert Wiringa
2013-03-01
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic moments and transitions are reported for A{<=}9 nuclei. The realistic Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon and Illinois-7 three-nucleon potentials are used to generate the nuclear wave functions. Contributions of two-body meson-exchange current (MEC) operators are included for magnetic moments and M1 transitions. The MEC operators have been derived in both a standard nuclear physics approach and a chiral effective field theory formulation with pions and nucleons including up to one-loop corrections. The two-body MEC contributions provide significant corrections and lead to very good agreement with experiment. Their effect is particularly pronounced in the A=9, T=3/2 systems, in which they provide up to ~20% (~40%) of the total predicted value for the {sup 9}Li ({sup 9}C) magnetic moment.
Effects of β-cyclodextrins on the enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral dichlorprop methyl ester
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN Yue-zhong; ZHOU Shan-shan; FANG Zhao-hua; LIU Wei-ping
2005-01-01
The effect of β-cyclodextrins(β-CDs) on the enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral dichlorprop methyl ester (DCPPM) was studied.Four kinds of β-cyclodextrins(β-cyclodextrin, Partly methylated-CD( PM-β-CD), hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrin(HP-β-CD) and carboxymethylcyclodextrin(CM-β-CD) ) were used. Compared with 100% DCPPM in the absence of β-cyclodextrins, the activity of lipase decreased with the increase of β-cyclodextrin and PM-β-cyclodextrin. However, CM-β-cyclodextrin stimulated the lipase activity. The inhibition effect of β-cyclodextrin and PM-β-cyclodextrin on the hydrolysis of DCPPM is affected by many factors other than degree of the methylation blocking the active site of lipase. UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy studies of the complexation of aqueous DCPPM with β-CDs provide fresh insight into the molecular structure of the complex and explain the effects of β-CDs on enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral DCPPM. Data showed that inclusion complexes had formed by complexation of the CM-β-CD with DCPPM and the solubility of DCPPM was increased in water, which leaded to the increased lipase activity.
In-medium effective chiral lagrangians and the pion mass in nuclear matter
Wirzba, A; Wirzba, Andreas; Thorsson, Vesteinn
1995-01-01
We argue that the effective pion mass in nuclear matter obtained from chiral effective lagrangians is unique and does not depend on off-mass-shell extensions of the pion fields as e.g. the PCAC choice. The effective pion mass in isospin symmetric nuclear matter is predicted to increase slightly with increasing nuclear density, whereas the effective time-like pion decay constant and the magnitude of the density-dependent quark condensate decrease appreciably. The in-medium Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation as well as other in-medium identities are studied in addition. Finally, several constraints on effective lagrangians for the description of the pion propagation in isospin symmetric, isotropic and homogenous nuclear matter are discussed. (Talk presented at the workshop ``Hirschegg '95: Hadrons in Nuclear Matter'', Hirschegg, Kleinwalsertal, Austria, January 16-21, 1995)
In-medium effective chiral lagrangians and the pion mass in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We argue that the effective pion mass in nuclear matter obtained from chiral effective lagrangians is unique and does not depend on off-mass-shell extensions of the pion fields as e.g. the PCAC choice. The effective pion mass in isospin symmetric nuclear matter is predicted to increase slightly with increasing nuclear density, whereas the effective time-like pion decay constant and the magnitude of the density-dependent quark condensate decrease appreciably. The in-medium Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation as well as other in-medium identities are studied in addition. Finally, several constraints on effective lagrangians for the description of the pion propagation in isospin symmetric, isotropic and homogeneous nuclear matter are discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We explicitly calculate the one-loop effective potential for a higher-derivative four-dimensional chiral superfield theory with a nonconventional kinetic term. We consider the cases of minimal and nonminimal general Lagrangians. In particular, we find that in the minimal case the divergent part of the one-loop effective potential vanishes by reason of the chirality.
Ballistic rectification of vortex domain wall chirality at nanowire corners
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omari, K.; Bradley, R. C.; Broomhall, T. J.; Hodges, M. P. P.; Hayward, T. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Rosamond, M. C.; Linfield, E. H. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Im, M.-Y. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Fischer, P. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 94056 (United States)
2015-11-30
The interactions of vortex domain walls with corners in planar magnetic nanowires are probed using magnetic soft X-ray transmission microscopy. We show that when the domain walls are propagated into sharp corners using applied magnetic fields above a critical value, their chiralities are rectified to either clockwise or anticlockwise circulation depending on whether the corners turn left or right. Single-shot focused magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements are then used to demonstrate how, when combined with modes of domain propagation that conserve vortex chirality, this allows us to dramatically reduce the stochasticity of domain pinning at artificial defect sites. Our results provide a tool for controlling domain wall chirality and pinning behavior both in further experimental studies and in future domain wall-based memory, logic and sensor technologies.
Ballistic rectification of vortex domain wall chirality at nanowire corners
Omari, K.; Bradley, R. C.; Broomhall, T. J.; Hodges, M. P. P.; Rosamond, M. C.; Linfield, E. H.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.; Hayward, T. J.
2015-11-01
The interactions of vortex domain walls with corners in planar magnetic nanowires are probed using magnetic soft X-ray transmission microscopy. We show that when the domain walls are propagated into sharp corners using applied magnetic fields above a critical value, their chiralities are rectified to either clockwise or anticlockwise circulation depending on whether the corners turn left or right. Single-shot focused magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements are then used to demonstrate how, when combined with modes of domain propagation that conserve vortex chirality, this allows us to dramatically reduce the stochasticity of domain pinning at artificial defect sites. Our results provide a tool for controlling domain wall chirality and pinning behavior both in further experimental studies and in future domain wall-based memory, logic and sensor technologies.
Lattice Study of Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene Effective Field Theory
Winterowd, Christopher; Detar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2016-03-01
The discovery of graphene ranks as one of the most important developments in condensed matter physics in recent years. As a strongly interacting system whose low-energy excitations are described by the Dirac equation, graphene has many similarities with other strongly interacting field theories, particularly quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Graphene, along with other relativistic field theories, have been predicted to exhibit spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) when an external magnetic field is present. Using nonperturbative methods developed to study QCD, we study the low-energy effective field theory (EFT) of graphene subject to an external magnetic field. We find strong evidence supporting the existence of SSB at zero-temperature and characterize the dependence of the chiral condensate on the external magnetic field. We also present results for the mass of the Nambu-Goldstone boson and the dynamically generated quasiparticle mass that result from the SSB.
Inoue, Yoshihisa
2004-01-01
Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S
Magnetoelectric fields for microwave chirality discrimination in enantiomeric liquids
Hollander, E; Shavit, R
2016-01-01
Chirality discrimination is of a fundamental interest in biology, chemistry, and metamaterial studies. In optics, near-field plasmon-resonance spectroscopy with superchiral probing fields is effectively applicable for analyses of large biomolecules with chiral properties. We show possibility for microwave near-field chirality discrimination analysis based on magnon-resonance spectroscopy. Newly developed capabilities in microwave sensing using magnetoelectric (ME) probing fields originated from multiresonance magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations in quasi-2D yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) disks, provide a potential for unprecedented measurements of chemical and biological objects. We report on microwave near-field chirality discrimination for aqueous D- and L-glucose solutions. The shown ME-field sensing is addressed to microwave biomedical diagnostics and pathogen detection and to deepening our understanding of microwave-biosystem interactions. It can be also important for an analysis and design of microwave c...
A chiral D=4, N=1 string vacuum with a finite low energy effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Supersymmetric N=1, D=4 string vacua are known to be finite in perturbation theory. However, the effective low energy D=4, N=1 field theory lagrangian does not yield in general finite theories. In this note we present the first (to our knowledge) such an example. It may be constructed in three dual ways: i) as a Z3, SO(32) heterotic orbifold; ii) as a Type -IIB, Z3 orientifold with only ninebranes and a Wilson line or iii) as a Type-IIB, Z6 orientifold with only fivebranes. The gauge group is SU(4)3 with three chiral generations. Although chiral, a subsector of the model is continuously connected to a model with global N=4 supersymmetry. From the Z6, Type IIB orientifold point of view the above connection may be understood as a transition of four dynamical fivebranes from a fixed point to the bulk. The N=1 model is thus also expected to be S-dual. We also remark that, using the untwisted dilaton and moduli fields of these constructions as spurion fields, yields soft SUSY-breaking terms which preserve finiteness even for N=0. (author)
A multiscale approach for estimating the chirality effects in carbon nanotube reinforced composites
Joshi, Unnati A.; Sharma, Satish C.; Harsha, S. P.
2012-08-01
In this paper, the multiscale representative volume element approach is proposed for modeling the elastic behavior of carbon nanotubes reinforced composites. The representative volume element incorporates the continuum approach, while carbon nanotube characterizes the atomistic approach. Space frame structure similar to three dimensional beams and point masses are employed to simulate the discrete geometrical constitution of the single walled carbon nanotube. The covalent bonds between carbon atoms found in the hexagonal lattices are assigned elastic properties using beam elements. The point masses applied on each node are coinciding with the carbon atoms work as mass of beam elements. The matrix phase is modeled as a continuum medium using solid elements. These two regions are interconnected by interfacial zone using beam elements. Analysis of nanocomposites having single walled carbon nanotube with different chiralities is performed, using an atomistic finite element model based on a molecular structural mechanics approach. Using the proposed multi scale model, the deformations obtained from the simulations are used to predict the elastic and shear moduli of the nanocomposites. A significant enhancement in the stiffness of the nanocomposites is observed. The effects of interfacial shear strength, stiffness, tensile strength, chirality, length of carbon nanotube, material of matrix, types of representative volume elements and types of loading conditions on the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites are estimated. The finite element results are compared with the rule of mixtures using formulae. It is found that the results offered by proposed model, are in close proximity with those obtained by the rule of mixtures.
Rodríguez Fernández, Ángel
2014-01-01
In the last decades, the interesting features behind the exotic orderings of materials have attracted the attention of many scientists. This new physics can be related to the magnetic and charge multipoles defined by a few electrons around the atomic core in the valence states. The uses of x-rays and neutrons techniques, due to the huge development of large facilities as synchrotrons and spallation sources, have revealed many of these behaviours. In the case of synchrotron sources, photon...
Electric/magnetic duality for chiral gauge theories with anomaly cancellation
De Rydt, Jan; Schmidt, Torsten T.; Trigiante, Mario; Proeyen, Antoine; Zagermann, Marco
2008-01-01
We show that 4D gauge theories with Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation and possible generalized Chern-Simons terms admit a formulation that is manifestly covariant with respect to electric/magnetic duality transformations. This generalizes previous work on the symplectically covariant formulation of anomaly-free gauge theories as they typically occur in extended supergravity, and now also includes general theories with (pseudo-)anomalous gauge interactions as they may occur in global or local...
Stability and chirality effect on twist formation of collapsed double wall carbon nanotubes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Jian-liang; LIU Bin; HUANG Yong-gang; HWANG Ke-zhi; YU Min-feng
2006-01-01
This study is to reveal the effect of interlayer lattice registry on the formation of collapsed double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). It is found that collapsed carbon nanotubes can be energetically unstable,metastable or stable,depending mainly on the diameter of the CNT. A fully collapsed DWCNT can adopt different structural morphologies,such as a straight ribbon,a warping ribbon or a twisted ribbon,depending on the chirality of the CNT,which is similar to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Different from SWCNTs,this study also shows some unique phenomena in the formation of collapsed DWCNTs. A fully collapsed DWCNT can have different combinations of the interlayer lattice registry effect within the inner and outer tube,thus the outer tube can influence the formation of the collapsed CNT via lattice registry effect,sometimes even dominates the twist of the CNT.
Saleh, Nidal; Roisnel, Thierry; Guy, Laure; Bast, Radovan; Saue, Trond; Darquié, Benoît; Crassous, Jeanne
2015-01-01
With their rich electronic, vibrational, rotational and hyperfine structure, molecular systems have the potential to play a decisive role in precision tests of fundamental physics. For example, electroweak nuclear interactions should cause small energy differences between the two enantiomers of chiral molecules, a signature of parity symmetry breaking. Enantioenriched oxorhenium(VII) complexes S-(-)- and R-(+)-3 bearing a chiral 2-methyl-1-thio-propanol ligand have been prepared as potential candidates for probing molecular parity violation effects via high resolution laser spectroscopy of the Re=O stretching. Although the rhenium atom is not a stereogenic centre in itself, experimental vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra revealed a surrounding chiral environment, evidenced by the Re=O bond stretching mode signal. The calculated VCD spectrum of the R enantiomer confirmed the position of the sulfur atom cis to the methyl, as observed in the solid-state X-ray crystallographic structure, and showed the ...
Lynn, J E
2015-01-01
I discuss our recent work on Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^2$LO). I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N) forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N$^2$LO and present some results for light nuclei.
Lynn, J. E.
2016-03-01
I discuss our recent work on Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO). I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N) forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N2LO and present some results for light nuclei.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lynn J. E.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available I discuss our recent work on Green’s function Monte Carlo (GFMC calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO. I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N2LO and present some results for light nuclei.
An Effective Chiral Meson Lagrangian at O(p6) from the NJL Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we present a strong chiral meson Lagrangian up to and including O(p6) in the momentum expansion. It is derived from the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model using the heat-kernel method. Identities related to the properties of covariant derivatives of the chiral matrix U as well as field transformations have been used to predict the chiral coefficients of a minimal set of linearly independent terms. 16 refs
Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, S. Y. [Department of Physics, Chonbuk National University, 561-756, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N. D. [Department of Physics, Illinois State University, 61790, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X., E-mail: xiw77@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2015-10-06
We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -}→(ℓ{sup +}D{sup 0})(ℓ{sup -}D{sup -bar0}) at high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (non-chiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.
Role of structural factors in formation of chiral magnetic soliton lattice in Cr{sub 1/3}NbS₂
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volkova, L. M.; Marinin, D. V. [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 690022 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)
2014-10-07
The sign and strength of magnetic interactions not only between nearest neighbors, but also for longer-range neighbors in the Cr{sub 1/3}NbS₂ intercalation compound have been calculated on the basis of structural data. It has been found that left-handed spin helices in Cr{sub 1/3}NbS₂ are formed from strength-dominant at low temperatures antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions between triangular planes of Cr³⁺ ions through the plane of just one of two crystallographically equivalent diagonals of side faces of embedded into each other trigonal prisms building up the crystal lattice of magnetic Cr³⁺ ions. These helices are oriented along the c axis and packed into two-dimensional triangular lattices in planes perpendicular to these helices directions and lay one upon each other with a displacement. The competition of the above AFM helices with weaker inter-helix AFM interactions could promote the emergence of a long-period helical spin structure. One can assume that in this case, the role of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction consists of final ordering and stabilization of chiral spin helices into a chiral magnetic soliton lattice. The possibility of emergence of solitons in M{sub 1/3}NbX{sub 2} and M{sub 1/3}TaX₂ (M = Cr, V, Ti, Rh, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn; X = S and Se) intercalate compounds has been examined. Two important factors caused by the crystal structure (predominant chiral magnetic helices and their competition with weaker inter-helix interactions not destructing the system quasi-one-dimensional character) can be used for the crystal chemistry search of solitons.
Phenomenological analysis of ε'/ε within an effective chiral Lagrangian approach at O(p6)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have combined a new systematic calculation of mesonic matrix elements at O(p6) from an effective chiral Lagrangian approach with Wilson coefficients from [1], derived in the framework of perturbative QCD, and restricted partly by experimental data. We derive complete expressions for K → 2π amplitudes and compare the results for ε'/ε with experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive the leading two-pion-exchange contributions to the two-nucleon electromagnetic current operator in the framework of chiral effective field theory using the method of unitary transformation. Explicit results for the current and charge densities are given in momentum and coordinate space.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Xu; WANG Yan; YU Zhi-Ping
2006-01-01
@@ Current-voltage characteristics of ballistic carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors are characterized with an it-erative simulation program. The influence of carbon-nanotube chirality and diameter on the output current is considered. An analytical current-voltage expression under the quantum capacitance limit and low-voltage application is derived. Our simulation results are compared with actual measurement data.
Yamamoto, Naoki
2015-01-01
Chirality of neutrinos modifies the conventional kinetic theory and hydrodynamics, and leads to unusual chiral transport related to quantum anomalies in field theory. We argue that these corrections lead to new phenomenological consequences for hot and dense neutrino gases, especially in core-collapse supernovae. We find that the neutrino density can be converted to the fluid helicity through the chiral vortical effect. This fluid helicity effectively acts as a chiral chemical potential for other charged particles via the momentum exchange with neutrinos, and it induces a "helical plasma instability" that generates a strong helical magnetic field. This provides a new mechanism for converting the gravitational energy released by the core collapse to the electromagnetic energy, and potentially explains the origin of magnetars. The other possible applications of the neutrino chiral transport theory are also discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN
2006-01-01
Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin ＞rac-doxazosin ＞S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.
Chiral symmetry breaking from two-loop effective potential of the holographic non-local NJL model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the two-loop effective potential of the non-local Nambu–Jona–Lasinio (NJL) model derived from the Sakai–Sugimoto model in string theory. In contrast to the conventional NJL with 4-fermion contact interaction, the chiral symmetry was previously found to be dynamically broken for an arbitrary weak coupling at the one-loop level. As a confirmation, the approximate numerical solutions to the gap equation at the one-loop level are explicitly demonstrated for weak couplings. We then calculate the one- and two-loop contributions to the effective potential of the non-local NJL model and found that the two-loop contribution is negative. The two-loop potential for the chiral-symmetric vacuum is also negative but larger than the combined effective potential of the chiral broken vacuum at the two-loop level. The chiral symmetry breaking thus persists for the arbitrary weak coupling at the two-loop level. (paper)
Scaling laws in chiral hydrodynamic turbulence
Yamamoto, Naoki
2016-01-01
We study the turbulent regime of chiral (magneto)hydrodynamics for charged and neutral matter with chirality imbalance. We find that the chiral magnetohydrodynamics for charged plasmas possesses a unique scaling symmetry only without fluid helicity under the local charge neutrality. We also find a different type of unique scaling symmetry in the chiral hydrodynamics for neutral matter with fluid helicity in the inertial range. We show that these symmetries dictate the self-similar inverse cascade of the magnetic and kinetic energies. Our results imply the possible inverse energy cascade in core-collapse supernovae due to the chiral transport of neutrinos.
Scaling laws in chiral hydrodynamic turbulence
Yamamoto, Naoki
2016-06-01
We study the turbulent regime of chiral (magneto)hydrodynamics for charged and neutral matter with chirality imbalance. We find that the chiral magnetohydrodynamics for charged plasmas possesses a unique scaling symmetry, only without fluid helicity under the local charge neutrality. We also find a different type of unique scaling symmetry in the chiral hydrodynamics for neutral matter with fluid helicity in the inertial range. We show that these symmetries dictate the self-similar inverse cascade of the magnetic and kinetic energies. Our results imply the possible inverse energy cascade in core-collapse supernovae due to the chiral transport of neutrinos.
${{\\bar{d}} - {\\bar{u}}}$ Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salamu, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing, 100049, China; Ji, Cheung-Ryong [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; Melnitchouk, Wally [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Wang, P. [Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing, 100049, China
2015-09-01
The ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. The calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. The x dependence of ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell–Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of ${\\bar d-\\bar u}$ .
The effective chiral Lagrangian for a light dynamical “Higgs particle”
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We generalize the basis of CP-even chiral effective operators describing a dynamical Higgs sector, to the case in which the Higgs-like particle is light. Gauge and gauge-Higgs operators are considered up to mass dimension five. This analysis completes the tool needed to explore at leading order the connection between linear realizations of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism — whose extreme case is the Standard Model — and non-linear realizations with a light Higgs-like particle present. It may also provide a model-independent guideline to explore which exotic gauge-Higgs couplings may be expected, and their relative strength to Higgsless observable amplitudes. With respect to fermions, the analysis is reduced by nature to the consideration of those flavor-conserving operators that can be written in terms of pure-gauge or gauge-Higgs ones via the equations of motion, but for the standard Yukawa-type couplings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Rudraiah
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of Oberbeck convection of a chiral fluid in the presence of the transverse magnetic field, viscous dissipation and variable viscosity are investigated. The coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the problem are solved both analytically and numerically. The analytical solutions are obtained using a regular perturbation and numerical solutions obtained using finite difference method. The solution is valid for small values of Buoyancy parameter N and variable viscosity parameter R1. The analytical results are compared with the numerical results and found good agreement.The role of temperature dependent viscosity and viscous dissipation on velocity, temperature, skin friction and the rate of heat transfer are determined. The results are depicted graphically, from these graphs it is noticed that the velocity is parabolic in nature and increases with an increase in magnetochiral number M . Physically this is attributed to the fact that magnetochiral number introduces small scale turbulences.
Finite-volume effects in the muon anomalous magnetic moment on the lattice
Aubin, Christopher; Blum, Thomas; Chau, Peter; Golterman, Maarten; Peris, Santiago; Tu, Cheng
2016-03-01
We investigate finite-volume effects in the hadronic vacuum polarization, with an eye toward the corresponding systematic error in the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We consider both recent lattice data as well as lowest-order, finite-volume chiral perturbation theory, in order to get a quantitative understanding. Even though leading-order chiral perturbation theory does not provide a good description of the hadronic vacuum polarization, it turns out that it gives a good representation of finite-volume effects. We find that finite-volume effects cannot be ignored when the aim is a few percent level accuracy for the leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment, even when using ensembles with mπL ≳4 and mπ˜200 MeV .
Finite-volume effects in the muon anomalous magnetic moment on the lattice
Aubin, Christopher; Chau, Peter; Golterman, Maarten; Peris, Santiago; Tu, Cheng
2015-01-01
We investigate finite-volume effects in the hadronic vacuum polarization, with an eye toward the corresponding systematic error in the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We consider both recent lattice data as well as lowest-order, finite-volume chiral perturbation theory, in order to get a quantitative understanding. Even though leading-order chiral perturbation theory does not provide a good description of the hadronic vacuum polarization, it turns out that it gives a reasonably good representation of finite-volume effects. We find that finite-volume effects cannot be ignored when the aim is a few percent level accuracy for the leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment, even when using ensembles with $m_\\pi L> 4$ and $m_\\pi \\sim 200$ MeV.
Chiral Dynamics of Baryons from String Theory
Hong, D K; Yee, H U; Yi, P; Hong, Deog Ki; Rho, Mannque; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yi, Piljin
2007-01-01
We study baryons in an AdS/CFT model of QCD by Sakai and Sugimoto, realized as small instantons with fundamental string hairs. We introduce an effective field theory of the baryons in the five-dimensional setting, and show that the instanton interpretation implies a particular magnetic coupling. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions reproduces the usual chiral effective action, and in particular we estimate the axial coupling $g_A$ between baryons and pions and the magnetic dipole moments, both of which are proportional to $N_c$. We extrapolate to finite $N_c$ and discuss subleading corrections.
Light-front representation of chiral dynamics in peripheral transverse densities
Granados, C
2015-01-01
The nucleon's electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of the transverse densities of charge and magnetization at fixed light-front time. At peripheral transverse distances $b = O(M_\\pi^{-1})$ the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). We represent the leading-order chiral EFT results for the peripheral transverse densities as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions, describing the transition of the initial nucleon to soft pion-nucleon intermediate states and back. The new representation (a) explains the parametric order of the peripheral transverse densities; (b) establishes an inequality between the spin-independent and -dependent densities; (c) exposes the role of pion orbital angular momentum in chiral dynamics; (d) reveals a large left-right asymmetry of the current in a transversely polarized nucleon and suggests a simple interpretation. The light-front representation enables a first-quantiz...
Sensitivities and correlations of nuclear structure observables emerging from chiral interactions
Calci, Angelo
2016-01-01
Starting from a set of different two- and three-nucleon interactions from chiral effective field theory, we use the importance-truncated no-core shell model for ab initio calculations of excitation energies as well as electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic dipole (M1) moments and transition strengths for selected p-shell nuclei. We explore the sensitivity of the excitation energies to the chiral interactions as a first step towards and systematic uncertainty propagation from chiral inputs to nuclear structure observables. The uncertainty band spanned by the different chiral interactions is typically in agreement with experimental excitation energies, but we also identify observables with notable discrepancies beyond the theoretical uncertainty that reveal insufficiencies in the chiral interactions. For electromagnetic observables we identify correlations among pairs of E2 or M1 observables based on the ab initio calculations for the different interactions. We find extremely robust correlations for E2 observabl...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chirality has recently been proposed as a novel feature of rotating nuclei [1]. Because the chiral symmetry is dichotomic, its spontaneous breaking by the axial angular momentum vector leads to doublets of closely lying rotational bands of the same parity. To investigate nuclear chirality, next to establish the existence of almost degenerate rotational bands, it is necessary to measure also other observables and compare them to the model predictions. The crucial test for the suggested nuclei as candidates to express chirality is based on precise lifetime measurements. Two lifetime experiments and theoretical approaches for the description of the experimental results will be presented. Lifetimes of exited states in 134Pr were measured [2,3] by means of the recoil distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation techniques. The branching ratios and the electric or magnetic character of the transitions were also investigated [3]. The experiments were performed at IReS, Strasbourg, using the EUROBALL IV spectrometer, in conjunction with the inner bismuth germanate ball and the Cologne coincidence plunger apparatus. Exited states in 134Pr were populated in the fusion-evaporation reaction 119Sn(19F, 4n)134Pr. The possible chiral interpretation of twin bands was investigated in the two-quasiparticle triaxial rotor [1] and interacting boson-fermion-fermion models [4]. Both theoretical approaches can describe the level-scheme of 134Pr. The analysis of the wave functions has shown that the possibility for the angular momenta of the proton, neutron, and core to find themselves in the favorable, almost orthogonal geometry, is present but is far from being dominant [3,5]. The structure is characterized by large β and γ fluctuations. The existence of doublets of bands in 134Pr can be attributed to weak chirality dominated by shape fluctuations. In a second experiment branching ratios and lifetimes in 136Pm were measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler-shift and
Wang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Lin; Liu, Cai-Ming; Du, Zi-Yi; Chen, Li-Li; Liu, Qing-Yan
2016-05-01
Organizing magnetically isolated 3d transition metal ions, which behave as single-ion magnet (SIM) units, in a coordination network is a promising approach to design novel single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Herein 3D chiral and 2D achiral cobalt(ii) coordination compounds based on single metal nodes with a 4-(benzimidazole-1-yl)benzoic acid (Hbmzbc) ligand, namely, [Co(bmzbc)2(1,2-etdio)]n () (1,2-etdio = 1,2-ethanediol) and [Co(bmzbc)2(Hbmzbc)]n (), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The 3D chiral structure with 2-fold interpenetrating qtz topological nets consisting of totally achiral components was obtained via spontaneous resolution, while the achiral structure is a 2D (4,4) net. In both structures, individual cobalt(ii) ions are spatially well separated by the long organic ligands in the well-defined networks. Magnetic measurements on and showed field-induced slow magnetic relaxation resulting from single-ion anisotropy of the individual Co(ii) ions. Analysis of the dynamic ac susceptibilities with the Arrhenius law afforded an anisotropy energy barrier of 16.8(3) and 31.3(2) K under a 2 kOe static magnetic field for and , respectively. The distinct coordination environments of the Co(ii) ions in and lead to the different anisotropic energy barriers. PMID:27054774
Chiral separation and twin-beam photonics
Bradshaw, David S.; Andrews, David L.
2016-03-01
It is well-known that, in a homogeneous fluid medium, most optical means that afford discrimination between molecules of opposite handedness are intrinsically weak effects. The reason is simple: the wide variety of origins for differential response commonly feature real or virtual electronic transitions that break a parity condition. Despite being electric dipole allowed, they manifest the chirality of the material in which they occur by breaking a selection rule that would otherwise preclude the simultaneous involvement of magnetic dipole or electric quadrupole forms of coupling. Although the latter are typically weaker than electric dipole effects by several orders of magnitude, it is the involvement of these weak forms of interaction that are responsible for chiral sensitivity. There have been a number of attempts to cleverly exploit novel optical configurations to enhance the relative magnitude - and hence potentially the efficiency - of chiral discrimination. The prospect of success in any such venture is enticing, because of the huge impact that such an advance might be expected to have in the health, food and medical sectors. Some of these proposals have utilized mirror reflection, and others surface plasmon coupling, or optical binding methods. Several recent works in the literature have drawn attention to a further possibility: the deployment of optical beam interference as a means to achieve chiral separations of sizeable extent. In this paper the underlying theory is fully developed to identify the true scope and limitations of such an approach.
Ng, Chew Hee; Chan, Cheang Wei; Lai, Jing Wei; Ooi, Ing Hong; Chong, Kok Vei; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Seng, Hoi Ling
2016-07-01
Like chiral organic drugs, the chemical and biological properties of metal complexes can be dependent on chirality. Two pairs of [Cu(phen)(ala)(H2O)]X·xH2O (phen=1.10-phenanthroline: X=NO3(-); ala: l-alanine (l-ala), 1 and d-alanine (d-ala) 2; and (X=Cl(-); ala: l-ala, 3 and d-ala, 4) complex salts (x=number of lattice water molecules) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of 3 has been determined. The same pair of enantiomeric species, viz. [Cu(phen)(l-ala)(H2O)](+) and [Cu(phen)(d-ala)(H2O)](+), have been identified to be present in the aqueous solutions of both 1 and 3, and in those of both 2 and 4 respectively. Both 3 and 4 bind more strongly to ds(AT)6 than ds(CG)6. There is no or insignificant effect of the chirality of 3 and 4 on the production of hydroxyl radicals, binding to deoxyribonucleic acid from calf thymus (CT-DNA), ds(CG)6, G-quadruplex and 17-base pair duplex, and inhibition of both topoisomerase I and proteasome. Among the three proteasome proteolytic sites, the trypsin-like site is inhibited most strongly by these complexes. However, the chirality of 3 and 4 does affect the number of restriction enzymes inhibited, and their binding constants towards ds(AT)6 and serum albumin. PMID:27105312
Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, S.Y. [Chonbuk National University, Department of Physics, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N.D. [Illinois State University, Department of Physics, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2015-10-15
We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} → (l{sup +}D{sup 0})(l{sup +} anti D{sup 0}) at highenergy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (nonchiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. (orig.)
Chiral heat wave and mixed waves in kinetic theory
Frenklakh, D
2016-01-01
We study collective excitations in hot rotating chiral media in presence of magnetic field in kinetic theory, namely Chiral Heat Wave and its' mixings with Chiral Vortical Wave and Chiral Magnetic Wave. Our results for velocities of these waves have slight alterations from those obtained earlier. We explain the origin of these alterations and also give the most general expressions for the velocities of all these waves in hydrodynamic approach.
Zhang, Daopeng; Zhuo, Shuping; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Jianzhuang
2015-03-14
Two pairs of cyanide-bridged Fe(III)–Mn(III)/Cu(II) chiral enantiomer coordination polymers {[Mn(S,S/R,R-Salcy)(CH3OH)2]{[Mn(S,S/R,R-Salcy)][Fe(bbp)(CN)3]}}2n (1,2) (bbp = bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine dianion) and {[Cu(S,S/R,R-Chxn)2]2[Fe2(tbbp)(CN)6]}n (3,4) (tbbp = tetra(3-benzimidazolyl)-4,4′-bipyridine tetraanion) have been successfully prepared by employing mer-tricyanometallate [PPh4]2[Fe(bbp)(CN)3] or the newly bimetallic mer-cyanideiron(III) precursor K4[Fe2(tbbp)(CN)6] as building blocks and with chiral manganese(III)/copper(II) compounds as assemble segments. The four complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra. Single X-ray diffraction reveals that complexes 1 and 2 possess a single anionic chain structure consisting of the asymmetric chiral {[Mn(S,S/R,R-Salcy)][Fe(bbp)(CN)3]}2(2−) unit with free [Mn(S,S/R,R-Salcy)](+) as balanced cations. The cyanide-bridged Fe(III)–Cu(II) complexes 3 and 4 can be structurally characterized as neutral ladder-like double chains composed of the alternating cyanide-bridged Fe–Cu units. Our investigation of magnetic susceptibilities reveals the antiferromagnetic coupling between the cyanide-bridged Fe(III) and Mn(III)/Cu(II) ions for complexes 1–4. These results have been further confirmed by theoretical simulation through numerical matrix diagonalization techniques using a Fortran program or a uniform chain model, leading to the coupling constants J = −7.36 cm(−1), D = −1.52 cm(−1) (1) and J = −4.35 cm(−1) (3), respectively. PMID:25661782
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
1994-12-01
This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that, when magnetic ordering occurs in layered iron-containing langasites (sp. gr. P321), one of the reasons for spin chiralities of different signs is the presence of structural chirality (the existence of inversion twins), which, in turn, is due to the nonsymmetricity of these crystals. Spin helicoids arise in these multiferroics at split sites of Fe3+ ions below the Néel point. The direction of electric polarization vectors coincides with the direction of the magnetic helicoid axes because of the piezoelectric properties of these materials. Due to the magnetostriction effects, structural chirality wave vector kz exceeds the magnetic helicoid wave vector by a factor of 2: kz = 2qz. The temperatures of transitions to the chiral structural and chiral magnetic states may differ. In particular, if the structural transition initial temperature exceeds the magnetic transition temperature (ΤU> ΤM), structural displacements may arise in the absence of magnetism at ΤM < Τ < ΤU. In noncentrosymmetric Fe1–xCoxSi crystals (sp. gr. P213), which are not multiferroics, magnetic chirality is due to the Dzyaloshinski–Moriya interaction. The dependence of the moduli of incommensurate wave number of the corresponding helicoid on the atomic composition of the crystals under consideration is nonmonotonic
Magnetic Topological Insulators and Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect
Kou, Xufeng
The engineering of topological surface states is a key to realize applicable devices based on topological insulators (TIs). Among various proposals, introducing magnetic impurities into TIs has been proven to be an effective way to open a surface gap and integrate additional ferromagnetism with the original topological order. In this Dissertation, we study both the intrinsic electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic TI thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By doping transition element Cr into the host tetradymite-type V-VI semiconductors, we achieve robust ferromagnetic order with a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. With additional top-gating capability, we realize the electric-field-controlled ferromagnetism in the magnetic TI systems, and demonstrate such magneto-electric effects can be effectively manipulated, depending on the interplays between the band topology, magnetic exchange coupling, and structural engineering. Most significantly, we report the observation of quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the Cr-doped (BiSb)2Te3 samples where dissipationless chiral edge conduction is realized in the macroscopic millimeter-size devices without the presence of any external magnetic field, and the stability of the quantized Hall conductance of e2/h is well-maintained as the film thickness varies across the 2D hybridization limit. With additional quantum confinement, we discover the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE states, and reveal the universal QAHE phase diagram in the thin magnetic TI samples. In addition to the uniform magnetic TIs, we further investigate the TI/Cr-doped TI bilayer structures prepared by the modulation-doped growth method. By controlling the magnetic interaction profile, we observe the Dirac hole-mediated ferromagnetism and develop an effective way to manipulate its strength. Besides, the giant spin-orbit torque in such magnetic TI-based heterostructures enables us to demonstrate the current
Chiral effective field theory analysis of hadronic parity violation in few-nucleon systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viviani, Michele [INFN; Baroni, Alessandro [ODU; Girlanda, Luca [Lecce U.; Kievsky, Alejandro [Pisa U,; Marcucci, Laura E. [Pisa U,; Schiavilla, Rocco [ODU, JLAB
2014-06-01
Background: Weak interactions between quarks induce a parity-violating (PV) component in the nucleonnucleon potential, whose effects are currently being studied in a number of experiments involving few-nucleon systems. In the present work, we reconsider the derivation of this PV component within a chiral effective field theory (chiEFT) framework. Purpose: The objectives of the present work are twofold. The first is to perform a detailed analysis of the PV nucleon-nucleon potential up to next-to-next-to-leading (N2LO) order in the chiral expansion, in particular, by determining the number of independent low-energy constants (LECs) at N2LO. The second objective is to investigate PV effects in a number of few-nucleon observables, including the p-p longitudinal asymmetry, the neutron spin rotation in n-p and n-d scattering, and the longitudinal asymmetry in the {sup 3}He( {vector n},p){sup 3}H chargeexchange reaction. Methods: The chiEFT PV potential includes one-pion-exchange, two-pion-exchange, and contact terms as well as 1/M (M being the nucleon mass) nonstatic corrections. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize pion loops. The wave functions for the A = 2-4 nuclei are obtained by using strong two- and three-body potentials also derived, for consistency, from chiEFT. In the case of the A = 3-4 systems, the wave functions are computed by expanding on a hyperspherical harmonics functions basis. Results: We find that the PV potential at N2LO depends on six LECs: the pion-nucleon PV coupling constant h^1_pi and five parameters multiplying contact interactions. An estimate for the range of values of the various LECs is provided by using available experimental data, and these values are used to obtain predictions for the other PV observables. Conclusions: The chiEFT approach provides a very satisfactory framework to analyze PV effects in few-nucleon systems.
Costa, Pedro
2016-06-01
The location of the critical end point (CEP) and the isentropic trajectories in the QCD phase diagram are investigated. We use the (2 +1 ) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop coupling for different scenarios, namely by imposing zero strange quark density, which is the case in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, and β equilibrium. The influence of strong magnetic fields and of the vector interaction on the isentropic trajectories around the CEP is discussed. It is shown that the vector interaction and the magnetic field, having opposite effects on the first-order transition, affect the isentropic trajectories differently: as the vector interaction increases, the first-order transition becomes weaker and the isentropes become smoother; when a strong magnetic field is considered, the first-order transition is strengthened and the isentropes are pushed to higher temperatures. No focusing of isentropes in region towards the CEP is seen.
The meson-baryon effective chiral Lagrangians at order $p^4$
Jiang, Shao-Zhou
2016-01-01
We construct the three-flavor Lorentz-invariant meson-baryon chiral Lagrangians at the order $p^4$. There exist 540 terms. The minimal numbers of mesons and photons related to these terms are also given.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YIYAN－LI; LIUXIAO－YI
1995-01-01
A study on the effect of applied magnetic field was performed with six types of soils collected from northeastern China.Magnetic field was found to cause changes of soil physico-chemical properties and soil enzyme activities.An appropriate applied magnetic field could cut down soil zeta-potential,soil specific surface,soil water potential and soil swelling capacity;raise the charge density on soil colloids and the activities of invertase,hydrogen peroxidase and amylase in the soils;enhance soil aggregation and improve soil structural status and soil water-releasing capability.
Density-dependent effective baryon-baryon interaction from chiral three-baryon forces
Petschauer, Stefan; Kaiser, Norbert; Meißner, Ulf-G; Weise, Wolfram
2016-01-01
A density-dependent effective potential for the baryon-baryon interaction in the presence of the (hyper)nuclear medium is constructed, based on the leading (irreducible) three-baryon forces derived within SU(3) chiral effective field theory. We evaluate the contributions from three classes: contact terms, one-pion exchange and two-pion exchange. In the strangeness-zero sector we recover the known result for the in-medium nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explicit expressions for the Lambda-nucleon in-medium potential in (asymmetric) nuclear matter are presented. Our results are suitable for implementation into calculations of (hyper)nuclear matter. In order to estimate the low-energy constants of the leading three-baryon forces we introduce the decuplet baryons as explicit degrees of freedom and construct the relevant terms in the minimal non-relativistic Lagrangian. With these, the constants are estimated through decuplet saturation. Utilizing this approximation we provide numerical results for the effect of the ...
Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Benacek, Pavel; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Sozzi, Federica; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym
2016-01-01
We report on measurements of a charge-dependent flow using a novel three-particle correlator with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC, and discuss the implications for observation of local parity violation and the Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) in heavy-ion collisions. Charge-dependent flow is reported for different collision centralities as a function of the event charge asymmetry. While our results are in qualitative agreement with expectations based on the CMW, the nonzero signal observed in higher harmonics correlations indicates a possible significant background contribution. We also present results on a differential correlator, where the flow of positive and negative charges is reported as a function of the mean charge of the particles and their pseudorapidity separation. We argue that this differential correlator is better suited to distinguish the differences in positive and negative charges expected due to the CMW and the background effects, such as local charge conservation coupled with strong radial...
Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Benacek, Pavel; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; 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Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Sozzi, Federica; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym
2015-01-01
We report on measurements of a charge-dependent flow using a novel three-particle correlator with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC, and discuss the implications for observation of local parity violation and the Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) in heavy-ion collisions. Charge-dependent flow is reported for different collision centralities as a function of the event charge asymmetry. While our results are in qualitative agreement with expectations based on the CMW, the nonzero signal observed in higher harmonics correlations indicates a possible significant background contribution. We also present results on a differential correlator, where the flow of positive and negative charges is reported as a function of the mean charge of the particles and their pseudorapidity separation. We argue that this differential correlator is better suited to distinguish the differences in positive and negative charges expected due to the CMW and the background effects, such as local charge conservation coupled with strong radial...
Wu, Chao; Huang, Mei
2016-01-01
By using the boundary derivative expansion formalism of fluid/gravity correspondence, we study the chiral vortical separation effect in a strongly coupled nonconformal relativistic fluid in the background of D0-D4 Sakai-Sugimoto model. The relativistic fluid of this model is nonconformal with a conserved axial vector current, and the presence of the chiral vortical separation effect is induced by the addition of a Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. Except the non-dissipative anomalous viscous coefficient and the sound speed, all other thermal and hydrodynamical quantities of first order depend on the temperature and the axial chemical potential. Stability analysis shows that this anomalous relativistic fluid is stable and the doping of smeared D0-brane will slow down the sound speed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Electrochemical synthesis in liquid crystal (LC) affords conducting polymers having LC molecular order and electro-activity. The polymerisation method can be referred to as structure organising polymerisation (SOP). The optical textures of the polymers thus prepared appear very similar to that of the LC electrolyte solution used for the polymerisation. Especially, polymers prepared in cholesteric LC (chiral LC) having structural chirality show doping-dedoping (redox) driven change in chiroptical activity (controllable circular dichroism and optical rotation), as electro-chiroptical effect. The polymer films exhibit interference colour and electrochemically driven refractive index modulations. The chiroptical activity of the polymer prepared in cholesteric LC comes from axial chirality of the helical structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
After a general introduction to the structure of effective field theories, the main ingredients of chiral perturbation theory are reviewed. Applications include the light quark mass ratios and pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy. In the pion-nucleon system, the linear σ model is contrasted with chiral perturbation theory. The heavy-nucleon expansion is used to construct the effective pion-nucleon Lagrangian to third order in the low-energy expansion, with applications to nucleon Compton scattering. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is concerned with modelling electromagnetic and hadronic processes in the low-energy regime, employing a manifestly lorentz-invariant chiral effective field theory with dynamical vector mesons. This effective theory serves as an approximation of the more fundamental quantum chromodynamics at low energies. Focusing on power counting and renormalization, a consistent description of different processes up to approximately 1GeV is possible. The key ingredient of the power counting is a large-Nc argument, which implies an equivalent treatment of Goldstone bosons (pions) and resonances (rho and omega mesons). A suitable renormalization scheme is the complex-mass scheme (a generalization of the extended on-mass-shell scheme) which - combined with the BPHZ renormalization method (named after Bogoliubov, Parasiuk, Hepp, and Zimmermann) - yields a powerful framework for the computation of quantum corrections in chiral effective theories. All calculations contain contributions up to and including fourth chiral order at the one-loop level. Analyzed quantities are, besides others, the vector form factor of the pion in the timelike region and real Compton scattering (respectively photon fusion) in the neutral and charged channels. In addition, virtual Compton scattering off the pion, embedded into electron-positron annihilation, is discussed. Furthermore, experimental data of various observables are used to extract the values of all contributing low-energy coupling constants. The developed methods - especially the technical implementations - are of very general nature and, therefore, straightforward to adapt to additional problems in low-energy quantum chromodynamics.
Quark Matter in a Strong Magnetic Background
Gatto, Raoul
2012-01-01
In this chapter, we discuss several aspects of the theory of strong interactions in presence of a strong magnetic background. In particular, we summarize our results on the effect of the magnetic background on chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement at finite temperature. Moreover, we compute the magnetic susceptibility of the chiral condensate and the quark polarization at zero temperature. Our theoretical framework is given by chiral models: the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL), the Polyakov improved NJL (or PNJL) and the Quark-Meson (QM) models. We also compare our results with the ones obtained by other groups.
Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-05-04
In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.
Sigma(770) Resonance and the Breaking of Scale and Chiral Symmetry in Effective QCD
Svec, M
2002-01-01
CERN measurements of pi(-)p->pi(-)pi(+)n on polarized target at 17.2 GeV/c enable experimental determination of partial wave production amplitudes below 1080 MeV. The measured S-wave transversity amplitudes provide evidence for a narrow scalar resonance sigma(770). The assumption of analyticity of production amplitudes in dipion mass allows to determine S-wave helicity amplitudes S_0 and S_1. The amplitude S_1 is related to pi(-)pi(+)->pi(-)pi(+) scattering. There are four "down" solutions (1, 1bar), (2, 1bar), (1, 2bar) and (2, 2bar) selected by unitarity in pipi scattering. Ellis-Lanik relation between the mass m_sigma and partial width Gamma(sigma->pi(-)pi(+)) derived from an effective QCD theory with broken scale and chiral symmetry selects solutions (1, 1bar) and (1, 2bar) and imparts the sigma(770) resonance with a dilaton-gluonium interpretation. Weinberg's mended symmetry selects solutions (1, 1bar) and (2, 1bar). The combin ed solution (1, 1bar) has m_sigma=769 +/- 13 MeV and Gamma_sigma=154 +/- 22 M...
Parity violation in proton-proton scattering from chiral effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a calculation of the parity-violating longitudinal asymmetry in proton-proton scattering. The calculation is performed in the framework of chiral effective field theory which is applied systematically to both the parity-conserving and parity-violating interactions. The asymmetry is calculated up to next-to-leading order in the parity-odd nucleon-nucleon potential. At this order the asymmetry depends on two parity-violating low-energy constants: the weak pion-nucleon coupling constant hπ and one four-nucleon contact coupling. By comparison with the existing data, we obtain a rather large range for hπ=(1.1±2).10-6. This range is consistent with theoretical estimations and experimental limits, but more data are needed to pin down a better constrained value. We conclude that an additional measurement of the asymmetry around 125MeV lab energy would be beneficial to achieve this goal. (orig.)
Uncertainty quantification for proton-proton fusion in chiral effective field theory
Acharya, B.; Carlsson, B. D.; Ekström, A.; Forssén, C.; Platter, L.
2016-09-01
We compute the S-factor of the proton-proton (pp) fusion reaction using chiral effective field theory (χEFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and perform a rigorous uncertainty analysis of the results. We quantify the uncertainties due to (i) the computational method used to compute the pp cross section in momentum space, (ii) the statistical uncertainties in the low-energy coupling constants of χEFT, (iii) the systematic uncertainty due to the χEFT cutoff, and (iv) systematic variations in the database used to calibrate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We also examine the robustness of the polynomial extrapolation procedure, which is commonly used to extract the threshold S-factor and its energy-derivatives. By performing a statistical analysis of the polynomial fit of the energy-dependent S-factor at several different energy intervals, we eliminate a systematic uncertainty that can arise from the choice of the fit interval in our calculations. In addition, we explore the statistical correlations between the S-factor and few-nucleon observables such as the binding energies and point-proton radii of 2,3H and 3He as well as the D-state probability and quadrupole moment of 2H, and the β-decay of 3H. We find that, with the state-of-the-art optimization of the nuclear Hamiltonian, the statistical uncertainty in the threshold S-factor cannot be reduced beyond 0.7%.
Uncertainty quantification for proton-proton fusion in chiral effective field theory
Acharya, B; Ekström, A; Forssén, C; Platter, L
2016-01-01
We compute the $S$-factor of the proton-proton ($pp$) fusion reaction using chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and perform a rigorous uncertainty analysis of the results. We quantify the uncertainties due to (i) the computational method used to compute the $pp$ cross section in momentum space, (ii) the statistical uncertainties in the low-energy coupling constants of $\\chi$EFT, (iii) the systematic uncertainty due to the $\\chi$EFT cutoff, and (iv) systematic variations in the database used to calibrate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We also examine the robustness of the polynomial extrapolation procedure, which is commonly used to extract the threshold $S$-factor and its energy-derivatives. By performing a statistical analysis of the polynomial fit of the energy-dependent $S$-factor at several different energy intervals, we eliminate a systematic uncertainty that can arise from the choice of the fit interval in our calculations. In addition, we explore the s...
Damping effects of magnetic fluids of various saturation magnetization (abstract)
Chagnon, Mark
1990-05-01
Magnetic fluids have been widely accepted for use in loudspeaker voice coil gaps as viscous dampers and liquid coolants. When applied properly to a voice coil in manufacturing of the loudspeaker, dramatic improvement in frequency response and power handling is observed. Over the past decade, a great deal of study has been given to the effects of damping as a function of fluid viscosity. It is known that the apparent viscosity of a magnetic fluid increases as a function of applied magnetic field, and that the viscosity versus field relationship approximate that of the magnetization versus applied field. At applied magnetic field strength sufficient to cause magnetic saturation of the fluid, no further increase in viscosity with increased magnetic field is observed. In order to provide a better understanding of the second order magnetoviscous damping effects in magnetic fluids used in voice coils and to provide a better loudspeaker design criterion using magnetic fluids, we have studied the effect on damping of several magnetic fluids of the same O field viscosity and of varying saturation magnetization. Magnetic fluids with saturation magnetization ranging from 50 to 450 G and 100 cps viscosity at O applied field were injected into the voice coil gap of a standard midrange loudspeaker. The frequency response over the entire dynamic range of the speaker was measured. The changes in frequency response versus fluid magnetization are reported.
Arias, Sandra; Bergueiro, Julián; Freire, Félix; Quiñoá, Emilio; Riguera, Ricardo
2016-01-13
Poly(phenylacetylene) (PPA) copolymers containing (R)- or (S)-MPA as minor chiral pendant can be forced to selectively adopt the right- o left-handed helix, in the presence of small amounts of Na(+) or Ag(+) ("Sergeants and Soldiers Effect") by addition of a donor cosolvent. The helical sense depends exclusively on the chiral monomer/donor cosolvent ratio, and this allows a perfect on/off tuning of the helicity of the copolymer. When the amount of the donor cosolvent is low, the metal ion complex is stabilized by a cation-π interaction, which is selectively cleaved when the amount of cosolvent is higher. Macroscopically chiral nanospheres and nanotubes composed by helical copolymers with P or M helical sense are also described. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain the two enantiomeric helical structures (P and M helicities) and the corresponding nanospheres and nanotubes from a single helical copolymer, by controlled activation/deactivation of the Sergeant and Soldiers Effect with a donor cosolvent. PMID:26578292
Effects of gauge boson mass on chiral and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$
Yin, Pei-Lin; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-01-01
Based on the experimental observation that there is a coexisting region between the antiferromagnetic (AF) and $\\textit{d}$-wave superconducting ($\\textit{d}$SC) phases, the influences of gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ on chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$ are investigated simultaneously within a unified framework, i.e., Dyson-Schwinger equations. The results show that the chiral symmetry restoration phase transition in the presence of the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ is a typical second-order phase transition; the chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions are coincident; the critical number of fermion flavors $N^{c}_{f}$ decreases as the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ increases and there exists a boundary that separates the $N^{c}_{f}$-$m_{a}$ plane into chiral symmetry breaking/confinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) below the boundary and chiral symmetry restoration/deconfinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) above it.
Chang, N P
1994-01-01
Chiral symmetry undergoes a metamorphosis at T.sub(c). For T < T.sub(c), the usual Noether charge, \\Qa, is dynamically broken by the vacuum. Above T.sub(c), chiral symmetry undergoes a subtle change, and the Noether charge \\underline{{\\em morphs}} into \\Qbeta, with the thermal vacuum now becoming invariant under \\Qbeta. This vacuum is however not invariant under the old \\Qa transformations. As a result, the pion remains strictly massless at high T. The pion propagates in the early universe with a halo. New order parameters are proposed to probe the structure of the new thermal vacuum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Color transparency is the vanishing of initial and final state interactions, predicted by QCD to occur in high momentum transfer quasielastic nuclear reactions. For specific reactions involving nucleons, the initial and final state interactions are expected to be dominated by exchanges of pions. We argue that these interactions are also suppressed in high momentum transfer nuclear quasielastic reactions; this is open-quotes chiral transparency.close quotes We show that studies of the e3He→e'Δ++nn reaction could reveal the influence of chiral transparency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Chiral superfluidity of the quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2012-08-15
In this paper we argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The ''normal'' component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the ''superfluid'' part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use several nonperturbative techniques to demonstrate that. First, we analyze the fermionic spectrum in the deconfinement phase (T{sub c}
Dynamical quark mass generation in a strong external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the effect of a strong magnetic field on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in quenched and unquenched QCD. To this end we apply the Ritus formalism to the coupled set of (truncated) Dyson-Schwinger equations for the quark and gluon propagator under the presence of an external constant Abelian magnetic field. We discuss the effect of the magnetic field onto the quark condensate and extract the chiral susceptibility.
Anomalous transport effects and possible environmental symmetry 'violation' in heavy-ion collisions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jinfeng Liao
2015-05-01
The heavy-ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a sense allow environmental symmetry 'violation' phenomena. For example, certain anomalous transport processes, forbidden in usual medium, become possible in such domains. We briefly review recent progress in both the theoretical understanding and experimental search of various anomalous transport effects (such as the chiral magnetic effect, chiral separation effect, chiral electric separation effect, chiral electric/magnetic waves, etc.) in the hot QCD fluid formed by such collisions.
Anomalous transport effects and possible environmental symmetry violation in heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The heavy-ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a sense allow environmental symmetry 'violation' phenomena. For example, certain anomalous transport processes, forbidden in usual medium, become possible in such domains. We briefly review recent progress in both the theoretical understanding and experimental search of various anomalous transport effects (such as the chiral magnetic effect, chiral separation effect, chiral electric separation effect, chiral electric/magnetic waves, etc.) in the hot QCD fluid formed by such collisions. (author)
Generalized electromagnetic fields in a chiral medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bisht, P S [Department of Physics, Kumaun University, Soban Singh Jeena Campus, Almora-263601 (Uttarakhand) (India); Singh, Jivan [Department of Physics, Govt. Post Graduate College, Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand) (India); Negi, O P S [Department of Physics, Kumaun University, Soban Singh Jeena Campus, Almora-263601 (Uttarakhand) (India)
2007-09-14
The time-dependent Dirac-Maxwell's equations in the presence of electric and magnetic sources are reformulated in a chiral medium, and the solutions for the classical problem are obtained in a unique, simple and consistent manner. The quaternion reformulation of generalized electromagnetic fields in the chiral medium has also been discussed in a compact, simple and consistent manner.
Chiral Anomaly in Toroidal Carbon Nanotubes
Sasaki, K.
2001-01-01
It is pointed out that the chiral anomaly in 1+1 dimensions should be observed in toroidal carbon nanotubes on a planar geometry with varying magnetic field. We show that the chiral anomaly is closely connected with the persistent current in a one-dimensional metallic ring.
Baryon chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We provide a short introduction to the one-nucleon sector of chiral perturbation theory and address the issue of power counting and renormalization. We discuss the infrared regularization and the extended on-mass-shell scheme. Both allow for the inclusion of further degrees of freedom beyond pions and nucleons and the application to higher-loop calculations. As applications we consider the chiral expansion of the nucleon mass to order O(q6) and the inclusion of vector and axial-vector mesons in the calculation of nucleon form factors. Finally, we address the complex-mass scheme for describing unstable particles in effective field theory.
Baryon chiral perturbation theory
Scherer, Stefan
2011-01-01
We provide a short introduction to the one-nucleon sector of chiral perturbation theory and address the issue of power counting and renormalization. We discuss the infrared regularization and the extended on-mass-shell scheme. Both allow for the inclusion of further degrees of freedom beyond pions and nucleons and the application to higher-loop calculations. As applications we consider the chiral expansion of the nucleon mass to order ${\\cal O}(q^6)$ and the inclusion of vector and axial-vector mesons in the calculation of nucleon form factors. Finally, we address the complex-mass scheme for describing unstable particles in effective field theory.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
H Weigel
2003-11-01
In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark ﬂavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully regularizes the effective action but also leads the scaling laws for structure functions. For the nucleon structure functions the present approach serves to determine the regularization prescription for structure functions whose leading moments are not given by matrix elements of local operators. Some numerical results are presented for the spin structure functions.
Baryon chiral perturbation theory
Scherer, S.
2012-03-01
We provide a short introduction to the one-nucleon sector of chiral perturbation theory and address the issue of power counting and renormalization. We discuss the infrared regularization and the extended on-mass-shell scheme. Both allow for the inclusion of further degrees of freedom beyond pions and nucleons and the application to higher-loop calculations. As applications we consider the chiral expansion of the nucleon mass to order Script O(q6) and the inclusion of vector and axial-vector mesons in the calculation of nucleon form factors. Finally, we address the complex-mass scheme for describing unstable particles in effective field theory.
Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Dibyendu S. Bag; T.C. Shami; K.U. Bhasker Rao
2008-01-01
The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology describes the nanoscale appr...
Thielemann, Dominique T; Wagner, Anna T; Lan, Yanhua; Anson, Christopher E; Gamer, Michael T; Powell, Annie K; Roesky, Peter W
2013-10-01
The synthesis and characterization of three chiral and one achiral amino acid anion ligated dysprosium hydroxo clusters [Dy5(OH)5(α-AA)4(Ph2acac)6] (α-AA = d-PhGly, l-Pro, l-Trp, Ph2Gly; Ph2acac = dibenzoylmethanide) are reported. The solid state structures were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction and show that five Dy(iii) ions are arranged in a square-based pyramidal geometry with NO7-donor-sets for the basal and O8-donor-sets for the apical Dy atom. Both static (dc) and dynamic (ac) magnetic properties were investigated for all four compounds and show a slow relaxation of magnetization, indicative of single molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour below 10 K in all cases. The similar SMM behaviour observed for all four compounds suggests that the very similar coordination geometries seen for the dysprosium atoms in all members of this family, which are independent of the amino acid ligand used, play a decisive role in steering the contribution of the single ion anisotropies to the observed magnetic relaxation. PMID:23986134
Effect of diameter and chirality on the structure and electronic properties of BC{sub 2}N nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhavan, Mojdeh, E-mail: m.akhavan@ipm.ir [Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalili, Seifollah [Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P. O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Schofield, Jeremy [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)
2015-07-09
Highlights: • BC{sub 2}N nanotubes with different diameters and four chirality types are studied. • Two lowest-diameter zigzag BC{sub 2}N tubes are metallic and others are semiconducting. • Band gap of zigzag tubes is more sensitive to diameter compared to armchair tubes. • Even–odd oscillation is observed for the band gap of one kind of zigzag tubes. • The energy and band gap for large-diameter tubes converge to BC{sub 2}N sheet values. - Abstract: Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate a series of BC{sub 2}N nanotubes with a wide range of diameters. Two types of zigzag and two types of armchair nanotubes are studied to survey the effect of diameter and chirality on energetics and electronic properties of nanotubes. Two nanotubes are found to be metallic and others show semiconducting behavior. The diameter is shown to have a greater impact on the band gap of zigzag nanotubes than those of armchair tubes. (n, 0) zigzag nanotubes show an even–odd band gap oscillation, which can be explained by the electron density distribution of the lowest unoccupied crystalline orbital. The stability of the nanotubes is also assessed using strain energies and it is shown that the strain energy does not depend on nanotube type and chirality. In the limit of large diameters, the geometry and band gap of all nanotubes converge to BC{sub 2}N sheet data.
The effect of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition
Szép Zs.; Markó G.
2010-01-01
The Polyakov loop is included in the SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R chiral quark-meson model by considering the propagation of the constituent quarks, coupled to the (sigma,pi) meson multiplet, on the homogeneous background of a temporal gauge field, diagonal in color space. The model is solved at finite temperature and quark baryon chemical potential both in the chiral limit and for the physical value of the pion mass by using an expansion in the number of flavors N_f. Keeping the fermion propagator at i...
Thermoelectric effects in magnetic nanostructures
Hatami, M.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Zhang, Q.; Kelly, P.J.
2009-01-01
We model and evaluate the Peltier and Seebeck effects in magnetic multilayer nanostructures by a finite-element theory of thermoelectric properties. We present analytical expressions for the thermopower and the current-induced temperature changes due to Peltier cooling/heating. The thermopower of a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present many varied chiral symmetry models at the quark level which consistently describe strong interaction hadron dynamics. The pattern that emerges is a nonstrange current quark mass scale mcur ≅ (34-69) MeV and a current quark mass ratio (ms/m)cur ≅ 5-6 along with no strange quark content in nucleons. (orig./WL)
Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buballa, Michael; Carignano, Stefano [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Theoriezentrum, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-03-15
An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in the core of compact stars, considering the cases of mass-radius relations and neutrino emissivity explicitly. (orig.)
Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in the core of compact stars, considering the cases of mass-radius relations and neutrino emissivity explicitly. (orig.)
Hydrodynamics with chiral anomaly and charge separation in relativistic heavy ion collisions
Yin, Yi
2015-01-01
Matter with chiral fermions is microscopically described by theory with quantum anomaly and macroscopically described (at low energy) by anomalous hydrodynamics. For such systems in the presence of external magnetic field and chirality imbalance, a charge current is generated along the magnetic field direction --- a phenomenon known as the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME). The quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides an (approximate) example, for which the CME predicts a charge separation perpendicular to the collisional reaction plane. Charge correlation measurements designed for the search of such signal have been done at RHIC and the LHC for which the interpretations, however, remain unclear due to contamination by background effects that are collective flow driven, theoretically poorly constrained, and experimentally hard to separate. Using anomalous (and viscous) hydrodynamic simulations, we make a first attempt at quantifying contributions to observed charge correlations from...
Chiral current generation in QED by longitudinal photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.L. Acosta Avalo
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We report the generation of a pseudovector electric current having imbalanced chirality in an electron–positron strongly magnetized gas in QED. It propagates along the external applied magnetic field B as a chiral magnetic effect in QED. It is triggered by a perturbative electric field parallel to B, associated to a pseudovector longitudinal mode propagating along B. An electromagnetic chemical potential was introduced, but our results remain valid even when it vanishes. A nonzero fermion mass was assumed, which is usually considered vanishing in the literature. In the quantum field theory formalism at finite temperature and density, an anomaly relation for the axial current was found for a medium of massive fermions. It bears some analogy to the Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly. From the expression for the chiral current in terms of the photon self-energy tensor in a medium, it is obtained that electrons and positrons scattered by longitudinal photons (inside the light cone contribute to the chiral current, as well as the to pair creation due to longitudinal photons (out of light cone. In the static limit, an electric pseudovector current is obtained in the lowest Landau level.
Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Matter in Chiral Effective Field Theory
Wlazłowski, G; Moroz, S; Bulgac, A; Roche, K J
2014-01-01
We present variational Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron matter equation of state using chiral nuclear interactions. The ground-state wavefunction of neutron matter, containing non-perturbative many-body correlations, is obtained from auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo simulations of up to about 340 neutrons interacting on a 10^3 discretized lattice. The evolution Hamiltonian is chosen to be attractive and spin-independent in order to avoid the fermion sign problem and is constructed to best reproduce broad features of chiral nuclear forces. This is facilitated by choosing a lattice spacing of 1.5 fm, corresponding to a momentum-space cutoff of 414 MeV/c, a resolution scale at which strongly repulsive features of nuclear two-body forces are suppressed. Differences between the evolution potential and the full chiral nuclear interaction are then treated perturbatively. Our results for the equation of state are compared to previous quantum Monte Carlo simulations which employed chiral two-body forces at n...
Dynamical quarks effects on the gluon propagation and chiral symmetry restoration
Bashir, A; Rodríguez-Quintero, J
2014-01-01
We exploit the recent lattice results for the infrared gluon propagator with light dynamical quarks and solve the gap equation for the quark propagator. Chiral symmetry breaking and confinement (intimately tied with the analytic properties of QCD Schwinger functions) order parameters are then studied.
Braun, Jens; Mian, Walid Ahmed; Rechenberger, Stefan
2016-04-01
We study the effect of an external magnetic field on the chiral phase transition in the theory of the strong interaction by means of a renormalization-group (RG) fixed-point analysis, relying on only one physical input parameter, the strong coupling at a given large momentum scale. To be specific, we consider the interplay of the RG flow of four-quark interactions and the running gauge coupling. Depending on the temperature and the strength of the magnetic field, the gauge coupling can drive the quark sector to criticality, resulting in chiral symmetry breaking. In accordance with lattice Monte-Carlo simulations, we find that the chiral phase transition temperature decreases for small values of the external magnetic field. For large magnetic field strengths, however, our fixed-point study predicts that the phase transition temperature increases monotonically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pikin, S. A., E-mail: pikin@ns.crys.ras.ru; Lyubutin, I. S.; Dudka, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)
2015-09-15
It is shown that, when magnetic ordering occurs in layered iron-containing langasites (sp. gr. P321), one of the reasons for spin chiralities of different signs is the presence of structural chirality (the existence of inversion twins), which, in turn, is due to the nonsymmetricity of these crystals. Spin helicoids arise in these multiferroics at split sites of Fe{sup 3+} ions below the Néel point. The direction of electric polarization vectors coincides with the direction of the magnetic helicoid axes because of the piezoelectric properties of these materials. Due to the magnetostriction effects, structural chirality wave vector k{sub z} exceeds the magnetic helicoid wave vector by a factor of 2: k{sub z} = 2q{sub z}. The temperatures of transitions to the chiral structural and chiral magnetic states may differ. In particular, if the structural transition initial temperature exceeds the magnetic transition temperature (Τ{sub U}> Τ{sub M}), structural displacements may arise in the absence of magnetism at Τ{sub M} < Τ < Τ{sub U}. In noncentrosymmetric Fe{sub 1–x}Co{sub x}Si crystals (sp. gr. P2{sub 1}3), which are not multiferroics, magnetic chirality is due to the Dzyaloshinski–Moriya interaction. The dependence of the moduli of incommensurate wave number of the corresponding helicoid on the atomic composition of the crystals under consideration is nonmonotonic.
Shah, Syed Touseef Hussain; Syed, Aqeel A; Naqvi, Qaisar Abbas
2013-01-01
Focusing of electromagnetic plane wave from a large size paraboloidal reflector, composed of layers of chiral and/or chiral nihility metamaterials, has been studied us- ing Maslov's method. First, the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic plane wave from two parallel layers of chiral and/or chiral nihility metamaterials are cal- culated using transfer matrix method. The effects of change of angle of incidence, chirality parameters and impedances of layers are noted and discussed. Special cases by taking very large and small values of permittivity of second layer, while assuming value of corresponding chirality equal to zero, are also treated. These special cases are equivalent to reflection from a perfect electric conductor backed chiral layer and nihility backed chiral layer, respectively. Results of reflection from parallel layers have been utilized to study focusing from a large size paraboloidal reflector. The present study, on focusing from a paraboloidal re{\\deg}ector, not only unifies several ...
Magnetic Refrigeration and the Magnetocaloric Effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Thomas Frank; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders;
2006-01-01
Magnetic refrigeration at room temperature is an emerging technology for refrigeration, which promises low energy consumption and is environmentalle friendly. Magnetic refrigeration is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which manifests itself as a reversibel increase in temperature when magnetic...... material are plased in a magnetic field. This paper introduces and describes magnetic refrigeration cycles and the magnetocaloric effect, and shows how magnetic refrigeration can be an alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration,. A review of the Danish research on magnetic refrigeration at Risø...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combining linear polarization excitation and magnetic-field breaking of chiral symmetry of optical transitions in Group-III-V semiconductors, we use resonant degenerate four-wave mixing to observe effects beyond the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory that are not seen by other techniques. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Gebremariam, B.; Bogner, S. K.; Duguet, T.
2010-01-01
The density matrix expansion (DME) of Negele and Vautherin is a convenient tool to map finite-range physics associated with vacuum two- and three-nucleon interactions into the form of a Skyme-like energy density functional (EDF) with density-dependent couplings. In this work, we apply the improved formulation of the DME proposed recently in arXiv:0910.4979 by Gebremariam {\\it et al.} to the non-local Fock energy obtained from chiral effective field theory (EFT) two-nucleon (NN) interactions a...
Light-front representation of chiral dynamics in peripheral transverse densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nucleon's electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of the transverse densities of charge and magnetization at fixed light-front time. At peripheral transverse distances b = O(Mπ–1 the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). We represent the leading-order chiral EFT results for the peripheral transverse densities as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions, describing the transition of the initial nucleon to soft pion-nucleon intermediate states and back. The new representation (a) explains the parametric order of the peripheral transverse densities; (b) establishes an inequality between the spin-independent and -dependent densities; (c) exposes the role of pion orbital angular momentum in chiral dynamics; (d) reveals a large left-right asymmetry of the current in a transversely polarized nucleon and suggests a simple interpretation. The light-front representation enables a first-quantized, quantum-mechanical view of chiral dynamics that is fully relativistic and exactly equivalent to the second-quantized, field-theoretical formulation. It relates the charge and magnetization densities measured in low-energy elastic scattering to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes. The method can be applied to nucleon form factors of other operators, e.g. the energy-momentum tensor
The long and winding road from chiral effective Lagrangians to nuclear structure
Meißner, Ulf-G
2015-01-01
I review the chiral dynamics of nuclear physics. In the first part, I discuss the new developments in the construction of the forces between two, three and four nucleons which have been partly carried out to fifth order in the chiral expansion. It is also shown that based on these forces in conjunction with the estimation of the corresponding theoretical uncertainties, the need for three-nucleon forces in few nucleon systems can be unambiguously established. I also introduce the lattice formulation of these forces, which allow for truly ab initio calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. I present some pertinent results of the nuclear lattice approach. Finally, I discuss how few-nucleon systems and nuclei can be used to explore symmetries and physics within and beyond the Standard Model.
The long and winding road from chiral effective Lagrangians to nuclear structure
Meißner, Ulf-G.
2016-03-01
I review the chiral dynamics of nuclear physics. In the first part, I discuss the new developments in the construction of the forces between two, three and four nucleons which have been partly carried out to fifth order in the chiral expansion. It is also shown that based on these forces in conjunction with the estimation of the corresponding theoretical uncertainties, the need for three-nucleon forces in few nucleon systems can be unambiguously established. I also introduce the lattice formulation of these forces, which allow for truly ab initio calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. I present some pertinent results of the nuclear lattice approach. Finally, I discuss how few-nucleon systems and nuclei can be used to explore symmetries and physics within and beyond the standard model.
Three-flavor chiral effective model with four baryonic multiplets within the mirror assignment
Olbrich, L; Giacosa, F
2016-01-01
We study three-flavor octet baryons by using the so-called extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM). Within a quark-diquark picture, the requirement of a mirror assignment naturally leads to the consideration of four spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ baryon multiplets. A reduction of the Lagrangian to the two-flavor case leaves four doublets of nucleonic states which mix to form the experimentally observed states $N(939)$, $N(1440)$, $N(1535)$ and $N(1650)$. We determine the parameters of the nucleonic part of the Lagrangian from a fit to masses and decay properties of the aforementioned states. By tracing their masses when chiral symmetry is restored, we conclude that the pairs $N(939)$, $N(1535)$ and $N(1440)$, $N(1650)$ form chiral partners.
The effect of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szép Zs.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The Polyakov loop is included in the S U(2L × S U(2R chiral quark-meson model by considering the propagation of the constituent quarks, coupled to the (σ, π meson multiplet, on the homogeneous background of a temporal gauge field, diagonal in color space. The model is solved at finite temperature and quark baryon chemical potential both in the chiral limit and for the physical value of the pion mass by using an expansion in the number of flavors Nf. Keeping the fermion propagator at its tree-level, a resummation on the pion propagator is constructed which resums infinitely many orders in 1/Nf, where O(1/Nf represents the order at which the fermions start to contribute in the pion propagator. The influence of the Polyakov loop on the tricritical or the critical point in the µq – T phase diagram is studied for various forms of the Polyakov loop potential.
The Life Story of Hydrogen Peroxide III: Chirality and Physical Effects at the Dawn of Life
Ball, Rowena; Brindley, John
2016-03-01
It is a remarkable observed fact that all life on Earth is homochiral, its biology using exclusively the D-enantiomer of ribose, the sugar moiety of the ribonucleic acids, and the L-enantiomers of the chiral amino acids. Motivated by concurrent work that elaborates further the role of hydrogen peroxide in providing an oscillatory drive for the RNA world (Ball & Brindley 2015a, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150366, and Ball & Brindley 2015b, this journal, in press), we reappraise the structure and physical properties of this small molecule within this context. Hydrogen peroxide is the smallest, simplest molecule to exist as a pair of non-superimposable mirror images, or enantiomers, a fact which leads us to develop the hypothesis that its enantiospecific interactions with ribonucleic acids led to enantioselective outcomes. We propose a mechanism by which these chiral interactions may have led to amplification of D-ribonucleic acids and extinction of L-ribonucleic acids.
Savaloni, Hadi; Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Abbas-Rohollahi, Abbas
2015-06-01
Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4-, and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were employed to obtain the nanostructure and morphology of the films. Their antibacterial, electrical, and hydrophobic properties were investigated. Antibacterial properties were investigated against a range of microorganisms including Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 , Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Candida albicans PTCC 5027. Electrical conductivity of these films relative to that of bulk sample is reduced by a factor of about 103 due to porosity, surface roughness, and anisotropic structure of these films. Hydrophobicity results show dependence on the symmetry of these chiral nano-flowers.
The effect of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition
Markó, G.; Szép, Zs.
2011-04-01
The Polyakov loop is included in the S U(2)L × S U(2)R chiral quark-meson model by considering the propagation of the constituent quarks, coupled to the (σ, π) meson multiplet, on the homogeneous background of a temporal gauge field, diagonal in color space. The model is solved at finite temperature and quark baryon chemical potential both in the chiral limit and for the physical value of the pion mass by using an expansion in the number of flavors Nf. Keeping the fermion propagator at its tree-level, a resummation on the pion propagator is constructed which resums infinitely many orders in 1/Nf, where O(1/Nf) represents the order at which the fermions start to contribute in the pion propagator. The influence of the Polyakov loop on the tricritical or the critical point in the µq - T phase diagram is studied for various forms of the Polyakov loop potential.
Magnetic circuit for hall effect plasma accelerator
Manzella, David H. (Inventor); Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Jankovsky, Robert S. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard (Inventor); Peterson, Peter (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A Hall effect plasma accelerator includes inner and outer electromagnets, circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a thruster centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer magnetic conductors, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner magnetic conductor having a mostly circular shape and the outer magnetic conductor having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber, located between the inner and outer magnetic conductors, a magnetically conducting back plate, in magnetic contact with the inner and outer magnetic conductors, and a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at a bottom portion of the discharge chamber. The inner and outer electromagnets, the inner and outer magnetic conductors and the magnetically conducting back plate form a magnetic circuit that produces a magnetic field that is largely axial and radially symmetric with respect to the thruster centerline.
Synthesis of chiral phosphonoacetamides and their toxic effects on paramecium sp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samia Guezane Lakoud
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Three chiral phosphonoacetamides were prepared by an alternative method . For this purpose, 2-(diethoxyphosphorylacetic acid was prepared from ethyl 2-bromoacetate by treatment of P(OEt 3 followed by saponification of the ester with K 2CO 3. BOP activated amidation of the 2-(diethoxyphosphorylacetic acid with (S-amino acids gave the corresponding phosphonoaceteamides. Growth inhibition of two phosphonoacetamides on Paramecium sp. were studied.
In-Medium Effective Pion Mass from Heavy-Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory
Park, T S; Min, D P; Park, Tae-Sun; Jung, Hong; Min, Dong-Pil
2002-01-01
Using heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, we have calculated all the diagrams up to two-loop order which contribute to the S-wave pion self-energy in symmetric nuclear matter. Some subtleties related to the definition of pion fields are discussed. The in-medium pion mass is turned out to be increased by only (6 - 7) per cents in normal nuclear matter density, without any off-shell ambiguity.
Magnetic effects in cellular and molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brief discussions are presented of six aspects of the phenomenon. Individual topics discussed include: (1) mechanisms of magnetic field interactions with retinal rods; (2) orientation of biological membranes and cells in magnetic fields; (3) enzyme-substrate reactions in high magnetic fields; (4) effects on cell function resulting from exposure to strong magnetic fields at 40K; (5) effects of a transverse magnetic field on the dose distribution of high energy electrons and in the responses of mammalian cells in vitro to x rays; and (6) effect of magnetic fields on the drug-induced contractility of the ciliate Spirostomum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wet phase inversion method was used to prepare L-Phenylalanine (L-Phe) and D-Phenylalanine (D-Phe) imprinted poly ((acrylonitrile)-co-(acrylic acid)) membranes for chiral separation. Ultrafiltration experiments were conducted to evaluate the chiral separation ability of the prepared membrane towards racemate aqueous solution of Phenylalanine. The continuous permselectivity was observed by novel membrane. The chiral resolution ability of L-Phe imprinted membrane was much better than that of D-Phe. It was observed that both membranes simultaneously, selectively reject, selectively adsorbed and selectively permeate solute. The achieved adsorption selectivities of L-Phe imprinted membrane (AlphaAds)L and D-Phe imprinted membrane (AlphaAds)D were 2.6 and 2.40 respectively. Permselectivity of L-Phe imprinted membrane (AlphaPerm)L was 2.56 while D-Phe imprinted membrane permselectivity (AlphaPerm)D was 2.03. The rejection selectivities of L-Phe and D-Phe imprinted membranes were (AlphaRej)L=0.32 and (AlphaRej)D =0.28 respectively. (author)
Electric dipole moments of light nuclei in chiral effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Electric dipole moments (EDMs) break parity (P) and time-reversal (T) symmetry and thus, by the CPT theorem, CP-symmetry. Once measured, they will be unambiguous signs of new physics since CP violation from the complex phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix in the Standard Model predicts EDMs that are experimentally inaccessible in the foreseeable future. The θ-term of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and extensions of the Standard Model such as supersymmetry and multi-Higgs scenarios comprise P- and T-violating interactions which are capable of inducing significantly larger EDMs. The extensions of the Standard Model give rise to a set of effective non-renormalizable operators of canonical dimension six at energies Λhad >or similar 1 GeV when the heavy degrees of freedom are integrated out. The effective dimension-six operators are known as the quark EDM, the quark-chromo EDM, four-quark left-right operator, the gluon-chromo EDM and the four-quark operator. Starting from the QCD θ-term and this set of P- and T-violating effective dimension-six operators, we present a scheme to derive the induced effective Lagrangians at energies below ΛQCD ∝ 200 MeV within the framework of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) for two quark flavors in the formulation of Gasser and Leutwyler. The differences among the sources of P and T violation manifest themselves at energies below ΛQCD in specific hierarchies of coupling constants of P- and T-violating vertices. We compute the relevant coupling constants of P- and T-violating hadronic vertices which are induced by the QCD θ-term with well-defined uncertainties as functions of the parameter anti θ. The relevant coupling constants induced by the effective dimension-six operators are given as functions of yet unknown Low Energy Constants (LECs) which can not be determined within the framework of ChPT itself. Since the required supplementary input from e.g. Lattice QCD is not yet available, we present Naive Dimensional
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mito, M., E-mail: mitoh@mns.kyutech.ac.jp; Tsuruta, K.; Deguchi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Tajiri, T. [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Kishine, J. [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The Open University of Japan, Chiba 261-8586 (Japan); Inoue, K. [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Center for Chiral Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kousaka, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Center for Chiral Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nakao, Y. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara 229-8558 (Japan); Akimitsu, J. [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Center for Chiral Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara 229-8558 (Japan)
2015-05-14
We perform structural analysis experiments on the chiral magnet Cr{sub 1∕3}NbS{sub 2}, in which Cr{sup 3+} ions are inserted between hexagonal NbS{sub 2} layers. The noncentrosymmetrical nature of the inserted Cr{sup 3+} appears as a distorted CrS{sub 6} octahedron. Under the application of hydrostatic pressure, the lattice shrinks significantly along the c-axis rather than the a-axis. However, at a pressure P of approximately 3–4 GPa, a kink in the rate of decrease in the lattice parameters is observed, and the slight movement of a Nb atom along the c-axis brings about a decrease in the distortion of the CrS{sub 6} octahedron. This structural change qualitatively suggests a decrease in the strength of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (D-M) interaction. Under hydrostatic pressure, the magnetic ordering temperature T{sub C} decreases, and dT{sub C}/dP exhibits a slight change at around 3 GPa. A series of experiments indicates that the change in the structural symmetry of the CrS{sub 6} octahedron influences the exchange network between Cr{sup 3+} ions as well as the D-M interaction.
Coherent neutrinoproduction of photons and pions in a chiral effective field theory for nuclei
Zhang, Xilin; Serot, Brian D.
2012-09-01
Background: The neutrinoproduction of photons and pions from nucleons and nuclei is relevant to the background analysis in neutrino-oscillation experiments [for example, the MiniBooNE; MiniBooNE Collaboration, A. A. Aquilar-Arevalo , Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.032301 100, 032301 (2008)]. The production from nucleons and incoherent production with Eν⩽0.5GeV have been studied in B. D. Serot and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.86.015501 86, 015501 (2012); and X. Zhang and B. D. Serot, Phys. Rev. C1110-865710.1103/PhysRevC.86.035502 86, 035502 (2012).Purpose: Study coherent productions with Eν⩽0.5GeV. Also address the contributions of two contact terms in neutral current (NC) photon production that are partially related to the proposed anomalous ω(ρ), Z boson, and photon interactions.Methods: We work in the framework of a Lorentz-covariant effective field theory (EFT), which contains nucleons, pions, the Δ (1232) (Δs), isoscalar scalar (σ) and vector (ω) fields, and isovector vector (ρ) fields, and incorporates a nonlinear realization of (approximate) SU(2)L⊗SU(2)R chiral symmetry. A revised version of the so-called “optimal approximation” is applied, where one-nucleon interaction amplitude is factorized out and the medium-modifications and pion wave function distortion are included. The calculation is tested against the coherent pion photoproduction data.Results: The computation shows an agreement with the pion photoproduction data, although precisely determining the Δ modification is entangled with one mentioned contact term. The uncertainty in the Δ modification leads to uncertainties in both pion and photon neutrinoproductions. In addition, the contact term plays a significant role in NC photon production.Conclusions: First, the contact term increases NC photon production by ˜10% assuming a reasonable range of the contact coupling, which however seems not significant enough to explain the Mini
Chiral geometry in multiple chiral doublet bands
Zhang, Hao
2015-01-01
The chiral geometry of the multiple chiral doublet bands with identical configuration is discussed for different triaxial deformation parameters $\\gamma$ in the particle rotor model with $\\pi h_{11/2}\\otimes \
SU(2) low energy quark effective couplings in weak external magnetic field
Braghin, Fabio L
2016-01-01
In this work corrections to the usual flavor SU(2) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio coupling due to a weak external magnetic field are calculated by considering polarization in a one (dressed) gluon exchange mechanism for quark interactions. The quark field is splitted into two components, one that condenses and another one is a background field for interacting quarks, being that the former is integrated out. The resulting determinant is expanded for relatively large quark mass and small magnetic field, $(eB_0/{M^*}^2)<1$ by resolving magnetic field dependent low energy quark effective interactions. Besides corrections to the NJL and vector NJL effective couplings, different $B_0-$dependent effective couplings that break isospin and chiral symmetry emerge.
Srivatsan, Avinash; Pera, Paula; Joshi, Penny; Wang, Yanfang; Missert, Joseph R; Tracy, Erin C; Tabaczynski, Walter A; Yao, Rutao; Sajjad, Munawwar; Baumann, Heinz; Pandey, Ravindra K
2015-07-01
We have previously shown that the (124)I-analog of methyl 3-(1'-m-iodobenzyloxy) ethyl-3-devinyl-pyropheophorbide-a derived as racemic mixture from chlorophyll-a can be used for PET (positron emission tomography)-imaging in animal tumor models. On the other hand, as a non-radioactive analog, it showed excellent fluorescence and photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Thus, a single agent in a mixture of radioactive ((124)I-) and non-radioactive ((127)I) material can be used for both dual-imaging and PDT of cancer. Before advancing to Phase I human clinical trials, we evaluated the activity of the individual isomers as well as the impact of a chiral center at position-3(1) in directing in vitro/in vivo cellular uptake, intracellular localization, epithelial tumor cell-specific retention, fluorescence/PET imaging, and photosensitizing ability. The results indicate that both isomers (racemates), either as methyl ester or carboxylic acid, were equally effective. However, the methyl ester analogs, due to subcellular deposition into vesicular structures, were preferentially retained. All derivatives containing carboxylic acid at the position-17(2) were noted to be substrate for the ABCG2 (a member of the ATP binding cassette transporters) protein explaining their low retention in lung tumor cells expressing this transporter. The compounds in which the chirality at position-3 has been substituted by a non-chiral functionality showed reduced cellular uptake, retention and lower PDT efficacy in mice bearing murine Colon26 tumors. PMID:25936263
The η′N interaction from a chiral effective model and η′-N bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The η′ mass reduction in the nuclear medium is expected owing to the degeneracy of the pseudoscalar-singlet and octet mesons in the restoration of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In this study, we investigate the η′N 2body interaction, which is the fundamental interaction of the in-medium η′ properties, using the linear sigma model as a chiral effective model. The η′N interaction in the linear sigma model comes from the scalar meson exchange with U A(1) symmetry effect and is found to be fairly strong attraction. The transition amplitude of η′N to the ηN channel is relatively small compared to that of elastic channel. From the analysis of the η′N 2body system, we find a η′N bound state with the binding energy 12.3-3.3iMeV. We expect that this strongly attractive two body interaction leads to a deep and attractive optical potential
Energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism study of epitaxial MnAs film on GaAs(001)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of MnAs/GaAs(001) thin film has been locally explored by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). We first differentiated hexagonal α-MnAs and quasi-hexagonal β-MnAs which are very similar in atomic structure by electron diffraction. Local magnetic moment information of the identified α-MnAs was extracted from manganese-L2,3 edges using Energy-loss Magnetic Circular Dichroism technique and the ratio of orbital to spin magnetic moment was measured. In this experiment, atomic structure identification, chemical analysis, and magnetic moment measurement were simultaneously achieved at high spatial resolution in TEM, thus providing a potential method for in-situ study of local properties of multiphase magnetic materials
Mackay, D. H.; Gaizauskas, V.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.
2000-12-01
We investigate the origin of the hemispheric pattern of filaments and filament channels by comparing theoretical predictions with observations of the chirality of filament channels within a dispersing activity complex. Our aim is to determine how the chirality of each specific channel arises so that general principles underlying the hemispheric pattern can be recognized. We simulate the field lines representing the filaments in the activity complex by applying a model of global flux transport to an initial magnetic configuration. The model combines the surface effects of differential rotation, meridional flows, and supergranular diffusion along with a magnetofrictional relaxation method in the overlying corona. The simulations are run with and without injecting axial magnetic fields at polarity inversion lines in the dispersing activity complex for four successive solar rotations. When the initial magnetic configuration, based on synoptic magnetic maps, is set to a potential field at the beginning of each rotation, the simulations poorly predict the chirality of the filament channels and filaments. The cases that predict the correct chirality correspond to an initial polarity inversion line, which is north-south the wrong chirality arises when the initial polarity inversion lines lie east-west. Results improve when field-line connectivities at low latitudes are retained and allowed to propagate to higher latitudes without resetting the field to a potential configuration between each rotation. When axial flux emergence exceeding 1×1019 Mx day-1 is included at the location of each filament, an excellent agreement is obtained between the theory and observations. In additon to predicting the correct chirality in all cases, axial flux emergence allows more readily the production of inverse-polarity dipped field lines needed to support filamentary mass. An origin for the hemispheric pattern as a result of the combined effects of flux transport, axial flux emergence, and
Life's chirality from prebiotic environments
Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari
2012-10-01
A key open question in the study of life is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: almost every life-form on Earth has exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. Will the same handedness be preferred if life is found elsewhere? We review some of the pertinent literature and discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events. In one scenario, autocatalytic prebiotic reactions undergo stochastic fluctuations due to environmental disturbances, in a mechanism reminiscent of evolutionary punctuated equilibrium: short-lived destructive events may lead to long-term enantiomeric excess. In another, chiral-selective polymerization reaction rates influenced by environmental effects lead to substantial chiral excess even in the absence of autocatalysis. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has implications to the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic (chirally neutral) on average.
Chiral interaction and biomolecular evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent developments in the concept of chiral interaction open now new options and dynamical possibilities for biomolecules which have so far been overlooked. A few of these possibilities are mentioned, such as the control mechanism of enzymatic activity and the role played by non-ergodicity in evolutionary processes. It is shown that chiral interaction, being a surface phenomenon, does not obey Barron's symmetry constraints, which are suitable for force fields present in bulk interactions. In particular, the situation at the ocean-air surface in the prebiotic era is described, as well as the possible role played by chiral interaction in conjunction with the terrestrial magnetic field normal to the ocean surface, which could have lead to a process of deracernization at the ocean-air interface. (author)
Beljonne, D; Hennebicq, E; Daniel, C; Herz, L M; Silva, C; Scholes, G D; Hoeben, F J M; Jonkheijm, P; Schenning, A P H J; Meskers, S C J; Phillips, R T; Friend, R H; Meijer, E W
2005-06-01
Atomistic models based on quantum-chemical calculations are combined with time-resolved spectroscopic investigations to explore the migration of electronic excitations along oligophenylenevinylene-based chiral stacks. It is found that the usual Pauli master equation (PME) approach relying on uncoherent transport between individual chromophores underestimates the excitation diffusion dynamics, monitored here by the time decay of the transient polarization anisotropy. A better agreement to experiment is achieved when accounting for excitation delocalization among acceptor molecules, as implemented in a modified version of the PME model. The same models are applied to study light harvesting and trapping in guest-host systems built from oligomers of different lengths. PMID:16852286
Chiral Seismic Attenuation with Acoustic Metamaterials
Hector Torres-Silva; Diego Torres Cabezas
2013-01-01
We study the analogy between the linear elasticity theory equations and classical Maxwell equation with chiral effects and we propose a new method of an earthquake-resistant design to support conventional aseismic designs using acoustic metamaterials. We suggest a simple and practical method to reduce the amplitude of a seismic wave exponentially. Our device is like an attenuator of a chiral seismic wave. Constructing a cylindrical shell-type waveguide that creates a stop-band for the chiral...
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed
Thermo-magnetic effects in quark matter: Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model constrained by lattice QCD
Farias, R L S; Avancini, S S; Pinto, M B; Krein, G
2016-01-01
The phenomenon of inverse magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry in QCD predicted by lattice simulations can be reproduced within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model if the coupling G of the model decreases with the strength B of the magnetic field and temperature T. The thermo-magnetic dependence of G(B,T) is obtained by fitting recent lattice QCD predictions for the chiral transition order parameter. Different thermodynamic quantities of magnetized quark matter evaluated with a G(B, T) are compared with the ones obtained at constant coupling G. The model with a G(B,T) predicts a more dramatic chiral transition as the field intensity increases. In addition, the pressure and magnetization always increase with B for a given temperature. Being parametrized by four magnetic field dependent coefficients and having a rather simple exponential thermal dependence our accurate ansatz for the running coupling can be easily implemented to improve typical model applications to magnetized quark matter.
Magas, V K; Ramos, A
2013-01-01
The meson-baryon interactions in s-wave in the strangeness S=-1 sector are studied using a chiral unitarity approach based on the next-to-leading order chiral SU(3) Lagrangian. The model is fitted to the large set of experimental data in different two-body channels. Particular attention is paid to the $\\Xi$ hyperon production reaction, $\\bar{K} N \\rightarrow K \\Xi$, where the effect of the next-to-leading order terms in the Lagrangian play a crucial role, since the cross section of this reaction at tree level is zero.
Cortes, Santiago; Morales, John
2016-01-01
In this work, we review how the mass and the width of the $f_{0}(500)$ pole behave in a regime where temperature is below the critical chiral transition value. This is attained by considering a large-$N$ $O(N + 1)/O(N)$ invariant Non-Linear Sigma Model (NLSM) such that we can study the dynamical generation of a $f_{0}(500)$ resonance. Introducing thermal effects via the imaginary time formalism allows us to study the behavior of the pole and relate it to chiral restoration.
Sammarruca, Francesca
2016-01-01
We present predictions of the binding energy per nucleon and the neutron skin thickness in highly neutron-rich isotopes of Oxygen, Magnesium, and Aluminum. The calculations are carried out at and below the neutron drip line. The nuclear properties are obtained via an energy functional whose input is the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric in?finite matter. The latter is based on a microscopic derivation applying chiral few-nucleon forces. We highlight the impact of the equation of state at diff?erent orders of chiral effective fi?eld theory and discuss the role of three-neutron forces.
Berry curvature and four-dimensional monopoles in the relativistic chiral kinetic equation.
Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian
2013-06-28
We derive a relativistic chiral kinetic equation with manifest Lorentz covariance from Wigner functions of spin-1/2 massless fermions in a constant background electromagnetic field. It contains vorticity terms and a four-dimensional Euclidean Berry monopole which gives an axial anomaly. By integrating out the zeroth component of the 4-momentum p, we reproduce the previous three-dimensional results derived from the Hamiltonian approach, together with the newly derived vorticity terms. The phase space continuity equation has an anomalous source term proportional to the product of electric and magnetic fields (FσρF[over ˜]σρ∼EσBσ). This provides a unified interpretation of the chiral magnetic and vortical effects, chiral anomaly, Berry curvature, and the Berry monopole in the framework of Wigner functions. PMID:23848865
Magnetic effect on dancing bees
Lindauer, M.; Martin, H.
1972-01-01
Bee sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field is studied. Data cover sensitivity range and the use of magnetoreception for orientation purposes. Experimental results indicate bee orientation is aided by gravity fields when the magnetic field is compensated.
Adam, J; Tater, M; Truhlik, E; Epelbaum, E; Machleidt, R; Ricci, P
2011-01-01
The doublet capture rate of the negative muon capture in deuterium is calculated employing the nuclear wave functions generated from accurate nucleon-nucleon potentials constructed at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory and the weak meson exchange current operator derived within the same formalism. All but one of the low-energy constants that enter the calculation were fixed from pion-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon scattering data. The low-energy constant d^R (c_D), which cannot be determined from the purely two-nucleon data, was extracted recently from the triton beta-decay and the binding energies of the three-nucleon systems. The calculated values of the doublet capture rates show a rather large spread for the used values of the d^R. Precise measurement of the doublet capture rate in the future will not only help to constrain the value of d^R, but also provide a highly nontrivial test of the nuclear chiral EFT framework. Besides, the precise knowledge of the consta...
Form factors, medium effects and vector mesons in the projected chiral soliton model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main goal of the present work has been the evaluation of baryonic form factors by means of the projected chiralquark-meson soliton model and various generalizations of it. In first place we have studied the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the Hartree approximation for classical non-strange scalar and pseudoscalar couplings in the vacuum sector. In doing so, we have first bosonized the Lagrangian and applied three regularization schemes in order to render the theory finite. We have found that at least two physical quantities as the quark mass and the quark condensate are very sensitive to the actual scheme used. The procedures which allow to reproduce best the experimental values are both sharp cut-off methods. We have also shown that the chiral soliton model with explicit valence quarks can be considered as an approximation to the Hartree solution of the Nambu-Jona-lasinio model for quarks. In the framework of the linear chiral sigma model with quarks, sigma-, and pi-mesons we have discussed several nucleon form factors such as electromagnetic, axial and that for the pion-nucleon interaction. (orig./HSI)
On finite volume effects in the chiral extrapolation of baryon masses
Lutz, M F M; Kobdaj, C; Schwarz, K
2014-01-01
We perform an analysis of the QCD lattice data on the baryon octet and decuplet masses based on the relativistic chiral Lagrangian. The baryon self energies are computed in a finite volume at next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N^3LO), where the dependence on the physical meson and baryon masses is kept. The number of free parameters is reduced significantly down to 12 by relying on large-N_c sum rules. Altogether we describe accurately more than 220 data points from six different lattice groups, BMW, PACS-CS, HSC, LHPC, QCDSF-UKQCD and NPLQCD. Precise values for all counter terms relevant at N^3LO are predicted. In particular we extract a pion-nucleon sigma term of (39 +- 1) MeV and a strangeness sigma term of the nucleon of sigma_{sN} simeq (4 +- 1) MeV. The flavour SU(3) chiral limit of the baryon octet and decuplet masses is determined with ( 802 +- 4 ) MeV and (1103 +- 6) MeV. Detailed predictions for the baryon masses as currently evaluated by the ETM lattice QCD group are made.
A Three-Flavor Chiral Effective Model with Four Baryonic Multiplets within the Mirror Assignment
Olbrich, Lisa; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H
2015-01-01
In the case of three quark flavors, (pseudo)scalar diquarks transform as antiquarks under chiral transformations. We construct four spin-1/2 baryonic multiplets from left- and right-handed quarks as well as left- and right-handed diquarks. The fact that two of these multiplets transform in a "mirror" way allows for chirally invariant mass terms. We then embed these baryonic multiplets into the Lagrangian of the so-called extended Linear Sigma Model, which features (pseudo)scalar and (axial-)vector mesons, as well as glueballs. Reducing the Lagrangian to the two-flavor case, we obtain four doublets of nucleonic states. These mix to produce four experimentally observed states with definite parity: the positive-parity nucleon $N(939)$ and Roper resonance $N(1440)$, as well as the negative-parity resonances $N(1535)$ and $N(1650)$. We determine the parameters of the nucleonic part of the Lagrangian from a fit to masses and decay properties of the aforementioned states. Studying the limit of vanishing quark conden...
Chirally-modified metal surfaces: energetics of interaction with chiral molecules.
Dementyev, Petr; Peter, Matthias; Adamovsky, Sergey; Schauermann, Swetlana
2015-09-21
Imparting chirality to non-chiral metal surfaces by adsorption of chiral modifiers is a highly promising route to create effective heterogeneously catalyzed processes for the production of enantiopure pharmaceuticals. One of the major current challenges in heterogeneous chiral catalysis is the fundamental-level understanding of how such chirally-modified surfaces interact with chiral and prochiral molecules to induce their enantioselective transformations. Herein we report the first direct calorimetric measurement of the adsorption energy of chiral molecules onto well-defined chirally-modified surfaces. Two model modifiers 1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine and 2-methylbutanoic acid were used to impart chirality to Pt(111) and their interaction with propylene oxide was investigated by means of single-crystal adsorption calorimetry. Differential adsorption energies and absolute surface uptakes were obtained for the R- and S-enantiomers of propylene oxide under clean ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Two types of adsorption behavior were observed for different chiral modifiers, pointing to different mechanisms of imparting chirality to metal surfaces. The results are analyzed and discussed in view of previously reported stereoselectivity of adsorption processes. PMID:26256836
Developing a Practical Chiral Toolbox for Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG; XuMu
2001-01-01
Chiral Quest's Toolbox Approach: During the last several decades, chemists have made major progress in discovering man-made catalysts to perform challenging asymmetric transformations. However, there is no universal chiral ligand or catalyst for solving problems in enantioselective transformations. The focus of Chiral Quest's research is to develop a useful chiral toolbox for strategically important asymmetric catalytic reactions by inventing a diverse set of novel chiral ligands and combining them with transition metals as effective enantioselective catalysts. The toolbox approach addresses significant problems in organic stereochemistry and has resulted in practical methods for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals ……
Developing a Practical Chiral Toolbox for Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG XuMu
2001-01-01
@@ Chiral Quest's Toolbox Approach: During the last several decades, chemists have made major progress in discovering man-made catalysts to perform challenging asymmetric transformations. However, there is no universal chiral ligand or catalyst for solving problems in enantioselective transformations. The focus of Chiral Quest's research is to develop a useful chiral toolbox for strategically important asymmetric catalytic reactions by inventing a diverse set of novel chiral ligands and combining them with transition metals as effective enantioselective catalysts. The toolbox approach addresses significant problems in organic stereochemistry and has resulted in practical methods for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals
The Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia
Liangruksa, Monrudee; Kappiyoor, Ravi; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar
2010-11-01
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a cancer treatment in which biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles are dispersed into a tumor and heated by an external AC magnetic field. Over a period of time, the tumor cells are locally heated, leading to hyperthermia which damages and kills the tumor cells with minimal damage to the surrounding normal tissue. The applied magnetic field must be high enough to induce hyperthermia for a specified magnetic particle concentration in the tumor but also lies within the safe limit for human exposure. Six materials, barium ferrite, cobalt ferrite, iron-cobalt, iron-platinum, magnetite and maghemite, are considered as candidates for MFH use. We find that fcc iron-platinum, magnetite and maghemite generate useful treatment temperatures and, when included in a ferrofluid, can produce sufficient and effective MFH for which optimal conditions are explored.
Di Salvo, Florencia; Tsang, Min Ying; Teixidor, Francesc; Viñas, Clara; Planas, José Giner; Crassous, Jeanne; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria; Ruiz, Eliseo; Coquerel, Gerard; Clevers, Simon; Dupray, Valerie; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Light, Mark E; Hursthouse, Michael B
2014-01-20
The design of molecule-based systems combining magnetic, chiroptical and second-order optical nonlinear properties is still very rare. We report an unusually unsymmetric diiron(III) complex 1, in which three bulky chiral carboranylpyridinealkoxide ligands (oCBhmp(-)) bridge both metal ions and the complex shows the above-mentioned properties. The introduction of o-carborane into the 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine (hmpH) architecture significantly alters the coordination of the simple or aryl-substituted 2-hmpH. The unusual architecture observed in 1 seems to be triggered by the poor nucleophilicity of our alkoxide ligand (oCBhmp(-)). A very rare case of spontaneous resolution takes place on precipitation or exposure to solvent vapor for the bulk compound, as confirmed by a combination of single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, second-harmonic generation, and circular dichroism. The corresponding enantiopure complexes (+)1 and (-)1 have also been synthesized and fully characterized. This research provides a new building block with unique geometry and electronics to construct coordination complexes with multifunctional properties. PMID:24338928
Biological Effect of Magnetic Field in Mice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao-Wei ZENG
2005-01-01
Objective: To study the biological effect of magnetic field in mice bodies. Method: With a piece of permanent magnet embeded in mice bodies beside the femoral artery and vein to measure the electrophoretic velocity(um/s). Result: The magnetic field in mice bodies on the experiment group that the electrophoretic velocity is faster more than control and free group.Conclusion:The magnetic field in animal's body can raise the negative electric charges on the surface of erythrocyte to improve the microcirculation, this is the biological effect of magnetic field.
Two-nucleon electromagnetic charge operator in chiral effective field theory (χEFT) up to one loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory (χEFT) up to order e Q[or next-to-next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N4LO)], where Q denotes the low-momentum scale and e is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the nonstatic terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the nonuniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani,S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani
2011-08-01
The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to order $e\\, Q$ (or N4LO), where $Q$ denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the non-static terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the non-uniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plum, Eric, E-mail: erp@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I., E-mail: niz@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); The Photonics Institute and Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637378 (Singapore)
2015-06-01
Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.
Magnetic field screening effect in electroweak model
Bakry, A; Zhang, P M; Zou, L P
2014-01-01
It is shown that in the Weinberg-Salam model a magnetic field screening effect for static magnetic solutions takes place. The origin of that phenomenon is conditioned by features of the electro-weak interaction, namely, there is mutual cancellation of Abelian magnetic fields created by the SU(2) gauge fields and Higgs boson. The effect implies monopole charge screening in finite energy system of monopoles and antimonopoles. We consider another manifestation of the screening effect which leads to an essential energy decrease of magnetic solutions. Applying variational method we have found a magnetic field configuration with a topological azimuthal magnetic flux which minimizes the energy functional and possesses a total energy of order 1 TeV. We suppose that corresponding magnetic bound state exists in the electroweak theory and can be detected in experiment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The superfield method is applied to the effective potential calculation in supersymmetric models. The Weinberg and Jackiw methods are discussed in the context of supersymmetric field theories, highlighting the greater simplicity obtained when the Feynman super diagrams are used. The chiral superfield propagators are derived and their relations with components field are commented. (L.C.J.A.)
Topological state engineering by potential impurities on chiral superconductors
Kaladzhyan, Vardan; Röntynen, Joel; Simon, Pascal; Ojanen, Teemu
2016-08-01
In this work we consider the influence of potential impurities deposited on top of two-dimensional chiral superconductors. As discovered recently, magnetic impurity lattices on an s -wave superconductor may give rise to a rich topological phase diagram. We show that a similar mechanism takes place in chiral superconductors decorated by nonmagnetic impurities, thus avoiding the delicate issue of magnetic ordering of adatoms. We illustrate the method by presenting the theory of potential impurity lattices embedded on chiral p -wave superconductors. While a prerequisite for the topological state engineering is a chiral superconductor, the proposed procedure results in vistas of nontrivial descendant phases with different Chern numbers.
Effects of Magnet Size and Geometry on Magnetic Levitation Force
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. K. Alqadi; H. M. Al-khateeb; F. Y. Alzoubi; N. Y. Ayoub
2007-01-01
We obtain analytical relations for the levitation force as a function of dimensions of the superconductor-magnet system. The force has been calculated on the basis of the dipole-dipole interaction model.The effect of thickness of the superconductor on the levitation force is investigated. The results show that the influence of geometry and thickness of the magnet becomes significantly large at small levitation distances. Furthermore, approximating the permanent magnet as a point dipole results in an inaccurate estimation of the levitation force.
Effect of magnetic field in malaria diagnosis using magnetic nanoparticles
Liu, Quan; Yuen, Clement
2011-07-01
The current gold standard method of Malaria diagnosis relies on the blood smears examination. The method is laborintensive, time consuming and requires the expertise for data interpretation. In contrast, Raman scattering from a metabolic byproduct of the malaria parasite (Hemozoin) shows the possibility of rapid and objective diagnosis of malaria. However, hemozoin concentration is usually extremely low especially at the early stage of malaria infection, rendering weak Raman signal. In this work, we propose the sensitive detection of enriched β-hematin, whose spectroscopic properties are equivalent to hemozoin, based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by using magnetic nanoparticles. A few orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal of β-hematin can be achieved using magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field on SERS enhancement is investigated. Our result demonstrates the potential of SERS using magnetic nanoparticles in the effective detection of hemozoin for malaria diagnosis.
Magnetohydrodynamics of Chiral Relativistic Fluids
Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg
2015-01-01
We study the dynamics of a plasma of charged relativistic fermions at very high temperature $T\\gg m$, where $m$ is the fermion mass, coupled to the electromagnetic field. In particular, we derive a magneto-hydrodynamical description of the evolution of such a plasma. We show that, as compared to conventional MHD for a plasma of non-relativistic particles, the hydrodynamical description of the relativistic plasma involves new degrees of freedom described by a pseudo-scalar field originating in a local asymmetry in the densities of left-handed and right-handed fermions. This field can be interpreted as an effective axion field. Taking into account the chiral anomaly we present dynamical equations for the evolution of this field, as well as of other fields appearing in the MHD description of the plasma. Due to its non-linear coupling to helical magnetic fields, the axion field significantly affects the dynamics of a magnetized plasma and can give rise to a novel type of inverse cascade.
Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Benacek, P.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McDonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Papcun, P.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Sarma, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Sozzi, F.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasar, C.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.; Alice Collaboration
2016-04-01
We report on measurements of a charge-dependent flow using a novel three-particle correlator with ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and discuss the implications for observation of local parity violation and the chiral magnetic wave (CMW) in heavy-ion collisions. Charge-dependent flow is reported for different collision centralities as a function of the event charge asymmetry. While our results are in qualitative agreement with expectations based on the CMW, the nonzero signal observed in higher harmonics correlations indicates a possible significant background contribution. We also present results on a differential correlator, where the flow of positive and negative charges is reported as a function of the mean charge of the particles and their pseudorapidity separation. We argue that this differential correlator is better suited to distinguish the differences in positive and negative charges expected due to the CMW and the background effects, such as local charge conservation coupled with strong radial and anisotropic flow.
Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites
Hoover, Richard B.
2010-01-01
The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwiecinska, Joanna I; Cieplak, Marek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)
2005-05-11
There are several simple criteria of folding to a native state in model proteins. One of them involves crossing of a threshold value of the root mean square deviation distance away from the native state. Another checks whether all native contacts are established, i.e. whether the interacting amino acids come closer than some characteristic distance. We use Go-like models of proteins and show that such simple criteria may prompt one to declare folding even though fragments of the resulting conformations have a wrong sense of chirality. We propose that a better condition of folding should augment the simple criteria with the requirement that most of the local values of the chirality should be nearly native. The kinetic discrepancy between the simple and compound criteria can be substantially reduced in the Go-like models by providing the Hamiltonian with a term which favours native values of the local chirality. We study the effects of this term as a function of its amplitude and compare it to other models such as ones with side groups and ones with angle-dependent potentials.
Kwiecinska, Joanna I.; Cieplak, Marek
2005-05-01
There are several simple criteria of folding to a native state in model proteins. One of them involves crossing of a threshold value of the root mean square deviation distance away from the native state. Another checks whether all native contacts are established, i.e. whether the interacting amino acids come closer than some characteristic distance. We use Go-like models of proteins and show that such simple criteria may prompt one to declare folding even though fragments of the resulting conformations have a wrong sense of chirality. We propose that a better condition of folding should augment the simple criteria with the requirement that most of the local values of the chirality should be nearly native. The kinetic discrepancy between the simple and compound criteria can be substantially reduced in the Go-like models by providing the Hamiltonian with a term which favours native values of the local chirality. We study the effects of this term as a function of its amplitude and compare it to other models such as ones with side groups and ones with angle-dependent potentials.
Effect of vacuum polarization in system of two three-phase chiral bags
Malakhov, I Y
2002-01-01
The self-consistent solutions describing the system of two interacting bags are obtained for the model of the three-phase chiral quark bags in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. Special attention thereby is paid to studying the role of the fermions vacuum polarization inside the bags in the system dynamics and the boson field connecting (interpolating) the bags is accounted for only at the single-boson exchange level. The renormalized complete energy of the system is studied as the function of the parameters characterizing the geometry of the problem and the bags additional characteristics originating in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. It is shown that the vacuum polarization in the system of two three-phase bags leads to origination of strong nonlinear interaction at small distances whereby in dependence on the bags characteristics this may be both repulsion and attraction
Microscopic optical potential for exotic isotopes from chiral effective field theory
Holt, J. W.; Kaiser, N.; Miller, G. A.
2016-06-01
We compute the isospin-asymmetry dependence of microscopic optical model potentials from realistic chiral two- and three-body interactions over a range of resolution scales Λ ≃400 -500 MeV. We show that at moderate projectile energies, E =110 -200 MeV, the real isovector part of the optical potential changes sign, a phenomenon referred to as isospin inversion. We also extract the strength and energy dependence of the imaginary isovector optical potential and find no evidence for an analogous phenomenon over the range of energies, E ≤200 MeV, considered in the present work. Finally, we compute for the first time the leading (quadratic) corrections to the Lane parametrization for the isospin-asymmetry dependence of the optical potential and observe an enhanced importance at low scattering energies.
Chiral restoration effects on the shear viscosity of a pion gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the shear viscosity of a pion gas in relativistic kinetic theory, using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to construct the pion mass and the ππ-interaction at finite temperature. Whereas at low temperatures the scattering properties and, hence, the viscosity are in agreement with lowest-order chiral perturbation theory, we find strong medium modifications in the crossover region. Here the system is strongly coupled and the scattering lengths diverge, similarly as for ultra-cold Fermi gases at a Feshbach resonance. As a consequence, the ratio η/s is found to be strongly reduced as compared to calculations without medium-modified masses and scattering amplitudes. However, the quantitative results are very sensitive to the details of the applied approximations. (orig.)
Chiral effects on helicity studied via the energy landscape of short (d, l)-alanine peptides
Neelamraju, Sridhar; Oakley, Mark T.; Johnston, Roy L.
2015-10-01
The homochirality of natural amino acids facilitates the formation of regular secondary structures such as α-helices and β-sheets. Here, we study the relationship between chirality and backbone structure for the example of hexa-alanine. The most stable stereoisomers are identified through global optimisation. Further, the energy landscape, a database of connected low-energy local minima and transition points, is constructed for various neutral and zwitterionic stereoisomers of hexa-alanine. Three order parameters for partial helicity are applied and metric disconnectivity graphs are presented with partial helicity as a metric. We also apply the Zimm-Bragg model to derive average partial helicities for Ace-(l-Ala)6-NHMe, Ace-(d-Ala-l-Ala)3-NHMe, and Ace-(l-Ala)3-(d-Ala)3-NHMe from the database of local minima and compare with previous studies.
Effect of vacuum polarization in system of two three-phase chiral bags
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The self-consistent solutions describing the system of two interacting bags are obtained for the model of the three-phase chiral quark bags in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. Special attention thereby is paid to studying the role of the fermions vacuum polarization inside the bags in the system dynamics and the boson field connecting (interpolating) the bags is accounted for only at the single-boson exchange level. The renormalized complete energy of the system is studied as the function of the parameters characterizing the geometry of the problem and the bags additional characteristics originating in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. It is shown that the vacuum polarization in the system of two three-phase bags leads to origination of strong nonlinear interaction at small distances whereby in dependence on the bags characteristics this may be both repulsion and attraction
d¯ − u¯ Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The d¯ − u¯ flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. The calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. The x dependence of d¯ − u¯ extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell–Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of d¯ − u¯. (author)
Gámiz, Beatriz; Celis, Rafael; Hermosín, M Carmen; Cornejo, Juan
2013-10-15
Certain soil management practices can affect the enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticide enantiomers in agricultural soils. In this work, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of olive-mill waste (OMW) addition to a Mediterranean agricultural soil on the enantioselectivity of sorption, degradation, and leaching processes of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl. Sorption-desorption isotherms indicated that the sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers by unamended and OMW-amended soil (2% w/w) was non-enantioselective and that OMW addition had little effect on the extent of sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers by the soil. Soil incubation experiments revealed that the degradation of metalaxyl in unamended soil was highly enantioselective, with R-metalaxyl being degraded faster (t1/2 = 12 days) than S-metalaxyl (t1/2 = 39 days). OMW addition to the soil increased the half-life of the biologically-active R-metalaxyl enantiomer from 12 to 28 days, and decreased the half-life of the non-active S-metalaxyl enantiomer from 39 to 33 days. Consequently, the enantioselectivity of metalaxyl degradation in the soil was greatly reduced upon OMW addition. Column leaching data were consistent with batch sorption and incubation results, showing similar retardation of S- and R-metalaxyl in unamended and OMW-amended soil and enantioselective leaching of the fungicide only in unamended soil. The results have important implications regarding the biological efficacy and environmental impact of the fungicide when applied as a mixture of enantiomers or racemate to OMW-treated soils. PMID:23722178
Chiral Gravitational Waves from Chiral Fermions
Anber, Mohamed M
2016-01-01
We report on a new mechanism that leads to the generation of primordial chiral gravitational waves, and hence, the violation of the parity symmetry in the Universe. We show that nonperturbative production of fermions with a definite helicity is accompanied by the generation of chiral gravitational waves. This is a generic and model-independent phenomenon that can occur during inflation, reheating and radiation eras, and can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background polarization and may be observed in future ground- and space-based interferometers. We also discuss a specific model where chiral gravitational waves are generated via the production of light chiral fermions during pseudoscalar inflation.
Chiral anomaly and longitudinal magnetotransport in type-II Weyl semimetals
Sharma, Girish; Tewari, Sumanta
2016-01-01
In the presence of parallel electric and magnetic fields, the violation of separate number conservation laws for the three dimensional left and right handed Weyl fermions is known as the chiral anomaly. The recent discovery of Weyl and Dirac semimetals has paved the way for experimentally testing the effects of chiral anomaly via longitudinal magneto-transport measurements. More recently, a type-II Weyl semimetal (WSM) phase has been proposed, where the nodal points possess a finite density of states due to the touching between electron- and hole- pockets. It has been suggested that the main difference between the two types of WSMs (type-I and type-II) is that in the latter, chiral anomaly and the associated longitudinal magneto-resistance are strongly anisotropic, vanishing when the applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of tilt of Weyl fermion cones in a type-II WSM. We analyze chiral anomaly in a type-II WSM in quasiclassical Boltzmann framework, and find that the chiral anomaly induced p...