Chiral geometry in multiple chiral doublet bands
Zhang, Hao
2015-01-01
The chiral geometry of the multiple chiral doublet bands with identical configuration is discussed for different triaxial deformation parameters $\\gamma$ in the particle rotor model with $\\pi h_{11/2}\\otimes \
Chiral geometry in multiple chiral doublet bands
Zhang, Hao; Chen, Qibo
2016-02-01
The chiral geometry of multiple chiral doublet bands with identical configuration is discussed for different triaxial deformation parameters γ in the particle rotor model with . The energy spectra, electromagnetic transition probabilities B(M1) and B(E2), angular momenta, and K-distributions are studied. It is demonstrated that the chirality still remains not only in the yrast and yrare bands, but also in the two higher excited bands when γ deviates from 30°. The chiral geometry relies significantly on γ, and the chiral geometry of the two higher excited partner bands is not as good as that of the yrast and yrare doublet bands. Supported by Plan Project of Beijing College Students’ Scientific Research and Entrepreneurial Action, Major State 973 Program of China (2013CB834400), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175002, 11335002, 11375015, 11461141002), National Fund for Fostering Talents of Basic Science (NFFTBS) (J1103206), Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20110001110087) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M580007)
Band Interaction between Chiral Doublet Bands
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI Bin; ZHANG Shuang-Quan; WANG Shou-Yu; MENG Jie
2010-01-01
@@ Band interaction between the chiral doublet bands based on πh11/2(×) vh-111/2 configuration is investigated in the particle rotor model with different triaxial deformation γ. The variation of chiral partner states with γvalues is understood qualitatively based on the basic picture of two interaction levels, which is confirmed further by the calculated overlap integral of wave functions at different γ values. It is found that the interaction strengths ofchiral partner states are obvionsly different for odd spins and even ones.
Chiral doublet bands and energy-level crossing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI Bin; MENG Jie; ZHANG Shuang-Quan; WANG Shou-Yu; PENG Jing
2009-01-01
Different definitions for chiral doublet bands based on excitation energies, B(E2) and B(M1) respectively are discussed in the triaxial particle rotor model. For the ideal chiral geometry, the selection rules of the electromagnetic transitions in different band definitions are illustrated. It is also shown that the energy-level crossings between chiral doublet bands may occur.
Electromagnetic transitions in multiple chiral doublet bands
Jia, Hui; Wang, Shou-Yu; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Chen
2016-01-01
Multiple chiral doublet bands (M$\\chi$D) in the $80$, 130 and $190$ mass regions are studied by the model of $\\gamma$=90$^{\\circ}$ triaxial rotor coupled with identical symmetric proton-neutron configurations. By selecting the suitable basis, the calculated wave functions are explicitly exhibited to be symmetric under the operator $\\hat{A}$, which is defined as rotation by $90^{\\circ}$ about 3-axis with the exchange of valance proton and neutron. We found that both $M1$ and $E2$ transitions are allowed between the levels with different values of $A$, while are forbidden between the levels with same values of $A$. Such a selection rule holds true for M$\\chi$D in different mass regions.
The possible mass region for shears bands and chiral doublets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, J. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Frauendorf, S.
1998-03-01
The Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) theory is reviewed. The recent progress of TAC for triaxial deformed nuclei is reported. More emphasis has been paid to the new discovered phenomena - chiral doublets and their explanation. The possible mass region for the shears bands and chiral doublets and their experimental signature are discussed. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
亓斌; 王守宇; 赵兴言; 祝笑颖; 孙大鹏; 刘晨; 徐长江
2012-01-01
The chiral doublet bands with three-quasiparticle configuration （πg9/2）-1 （vh11/2）2 are studied by the fully quantal triaxial particle rotor model. The energy spectra and B（M1）/B（E2） ratios of the doublet bands with different triaxiality parameter γ are systematically analyzed. It is found that γ is a sensitive parameter for the properties of these doublet bands.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhat, G.H.; Ali, R.N. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Sheikh, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Palit, R. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 400 005 (India)
2014-02-15
Doublet bands observed in {sup 124,126,130,132}Cs isotopes are studied using the recently developed multi-quasiparticle microscopic triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. It is shown that TPSM results for energies and transition probabilities are in good agreement with known energies and the recently measured extensive data on transition probabilities for the bands in {sup 126}Cs. In particular, it is demonstrated that characteristics transition probabilities expected for the doublet bands to originate from the chiral symmetry breaking are well reproduced in the present work. The calculated energies for {sup 124,130,132}Cs are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. Furthermore, a complete set of the calculated transition probabilities is provided for the doublet bands in {sup 124,130,132}Cs isotopes.
Chiral heavy fermions in a two Higgs doublet model: 750 GeV resonance or not
Bar-Shalom, Shaouly
2016-01-01
We revisit models where a heavy chiral 4th generation doublet of fermions is embedded in a class of two Higgs doublets models (2HDM) with a discrete $Z_2$ symmetry, which couples the "heavy" scalar doublet only to the 4th generation fermions and the "light" one to the Standard Model (SM) fermions - the so-called 4G2HDM introduced by us several years ago. We study the constraints imposed on the 4G2HDM from direct searches of heavy fermions, from precision electroweak data (PEWD) and from the measured production and decay signals of the 125 GeV scalar, which in the 4G2HDM corresponds to the lightest CP-even scalar h. We then show that the recently reported excess in the $\\gamma\\gamma$ spectrum around 750 GeV can be accommodated by the heavy CP-even scalar of the 4G2HDM, H, resulting in a unique choice of parameter space: negligible mixing (sin\\alpha ~ O(0.001)) between the two CP-even scalars h,H and heavy 4th generation quark and lepton masses m_t',m_b' 900 GeV, respectively. Whether or not the 750 GeV \\gamma...
Chiral geometry of higher excited bands in triaxial nuclei with particle-hole configuration
Chen, Q. B.; Yao, J. M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Qi, B.
2010-12-01
The lowest six rotational bands have been studied in the particle-rotor model with the particle-hole configuration πh11/21⊗νh11/2-1 and different values of the triaxiality parameter γ. Both constant and spin-dependent variable moments of inertia (CMI and VMI, respectively) are introduced. The energy spectra, electromagnetic transition probabilities, angular momentum components, and K distribution are examined. It is shown that, besides bands 1 and 2, the predicted bands 3 and 4 in the calculations with both CMI and VMI for atomic nuclei with γ=30° could be interpreted as chiral doublet bands.
Microscopic study of doublet bands in odd–odd A∼100 nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dar, W.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Sheikh, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Bhat, G.H., E-mail: gwhr.bhat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Palit, R. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 400 005 (India); Ali, R.N. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Frauendorf, S. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame (United States)
2015-01-15
A systematic study of the doublet bands observed in odd–odd mass ∼100 is performed using the microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. This mass region has depicted some novel features which are not observed in other mass regions, for instance, it has been observed that doublet bands cross diabatically in {sup 106}Ag. It is demonstrated that this unique feature is due to crossing of the two 2-quasiparticle configurations having different intrinsic structures. Further, we provide a complete set of transition probabilities for all the six-isotopes studied in this work and it is shown that the predicted transitions are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Chiral U(1) flavor models and flavored Higgs doublets: the top FB asymmetry and the W jj
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ko, P.; Omura, Yuji; Yu, Chaehyun
2012-01-01
We present U(1) flavor models for leptophobic Z' with flavor dependent couplings to the right-handed up-type quarks in the Standard Model (SM), which can accommodate the recent data on the top forward-backward (FB) asymmetry and the dijet resonance associated with a W boson reported by CDF Collaboration. Such flavor-dependent leptophobic charge assignments generally require extra chiral fermions for anomaly cancellation. Also the chiral nature of U(1)' flavor symmetry calls for new U(1)'-charged Higgs doublets in order for the SM fermions to have realistic renormalizable Yukawa couplings. The stringent constraints from the top FB asymmetry at the Tevatron and the same sign top pair production at the LHC can be evaded due to contributions of the extra Higgs doublets. We also show that the extension could realize cold dark matter candidates.
Signature and parity splitting in rotational bands and chiral bands. Double minimum potential model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effects of the signature and parity splitting in nuclear spectra and the properties of the chiral bands are analyzed basing on a one-dimensional Schrödinger equation with a double-minimum potential. Rotational bands in odd axial nuclei, alternating parity bands in even-even nuclei and the chiral bands in odd-odd nuclei are considered. The results obtained are discussed.
Bhardwaj, Anil; Jain, Sonal Kumar
2013-01-01
Present study deals with the model calculations of CO Cameron band and CO2+ ultraviolet doublet emissions in the dayglow of Venus. The overhead and limb intensities of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions are calculated for low, moderate, and high solar activity conditions. Using updated cross sections, the impact of dierent e-CO cross section for Cameron band production is estimated. The electron impact on CO is the major source mechanism of Cameron band, followed by electron and ph...
Sheikh, J A; Dar, W A; Jehangir, S; Ganai, P A
2015-01-01
A systematic investigation of the nuclear observables related to the triaxial degree of freedom is presented using the multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. These properties correspond to the observation of $\\gamma$-bands, chiral doublet bands and the wobbling mode. In the TPSM approach, $\\gamma$-bands are built on each quasiparticle configuration and it is demonstrated that some observations in high-spin spectroscopy that have remained unresolved for quite some time could be explained by considering $\\gamma$-bands based on two-quasiparticle configurations. It is shown in some Ce-, Nd- and Ge-isotopes that the two observed aligned or s-bands originate from the same intrinsic configuration with one of them as the $\\gamma$-band based on a two-quasiparticle configuration. In the present work, we have also performed a detailed study of $\\gamma$-bands observed up to the highest spin in Dysposium, Hafnium, Mercury and Uranium isotopes. Furthermore, several measurements related to chira...
Bhardwaj, Anil
2013-01-01
Present study deals with the model calculations of CO Cameron band and CO2+ ultraviolet doublet emissions in the dayglow of Venus. The overhead and limb intensities of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions are calculated for low, moderate, and high solar activity conditions. Using updated cross sections, the impact of dierent e-CO cross section for Cameron band production is estimated. The electron impact on CO is the major source mechanism of Cameron band, followed by electron and photon impact dissociation of CO2. The overhead intensities of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions are about a factor of 2 higher in solar maximum than those in solar minimum condition. The effect of solar EUV flux models on the emission intensity is ~30-40% in solar minimum condition and ~2-10% in solar maximum condition. At the altitude of emission peak (135 km), the model predicted limb intensity of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions in moderate (F10.7 = 130) solar activity condition is about 2400 an...
Impact of solar EUV flux on CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions in the dayglow of Mars
Jain, Sonal Kumar
2011-01-01
This study is aimed at making a calculation about the impact of the two most commonly used solar EUV flux models -- SOLAR2000 (S2K) of \\cite{Tobiska04} and EUVAC model of \\cite{Richards94} -- on photoelectron fluxes, volume emission rates, ion densities and CO Cameron and CO$_2^+$ UV doublet band dayglow emissions on Mars in three solar activity conditions: minimum, moderate, and maximum. Calculated limb intensities profiles are compared with SPICAM/Mars Express and Mariner observations. Analytical yield spectrum (AYS) approach has been used to calculate photoelectron fluxes in Martian upper atmosphere. Densities of prominent ions and CO molecule in excited triplet a$^3\\Pi$ state are calculated using major ion-neutral reactions. Volume emission rates of CO Cameron and CO$_2^+$ UV doublet bands have been calculated for dif{}ferent observations (Viking condition, Mariner and Mars Express SPICAM observations) on Mars. For the low solar activity condition, dayglow intensities calculated using the S2K model are $\\...
Staggering of the B(M1) value as a fingerprint of specific chiral bands structure
Grodner, Ernest
2011-01-01
Nuclear chirality has been intensively studdied for the last several years in the context of experimental as well as theoretical approach. Characteristic gamma selection rules have been predicted for the strong chiral symmetry breaking limit that has been observed in Cs isotopes. The presented analysis shows that the gamma selection rules cannot be attributed only to chiral symmetry breaking. The selection rules relate to structural composition of the chiral rotational bands, i.e. to odd particle configuration and the deformation of the core.
Dincer, Furkan; Akgol, Oguzhan; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Unal, Emin; Demirel, Ekrem; Sabah, Cumali
2016-02-01
There are many studies in literature on chiral metamaterials (MTMs) to obtain large chiralities with dynamic optical activities. With this regard, this new generation planar chiral MTM study focuses on a small, non-dispersive (constant/flat) chirality admittance over an indicated frequency band which has not been investigated so far in literature. This new generation planar chiral MTM provides a small and a constant/fixed chirality which is mostly ignored by the scientists. This study numerically and experimentally investigates and examines these new generation MTMs based on circular split ring resonators (SRRs) with an increased capacitance in details. Obtained results show that the suggested structure can provide a small and constant/flat chirality admittance over a certain frequency band and hence it can be used to design myriad novel electromagnetic (EM) devices such as transmission and antireflection filters, polarization rotators for any desired frequency regions.
A Composite Chiral Pair of Rotational Bands in the odd-A Nucleus 135Nd
Zhu, S; Nayak, B K; Ghugre, S S; Pattabiraman, N S; Fossan, D B; Koike, T; Starosta, K; Vaman, C; Janssens, R V F; Chakravarthy, R S; Whitehead, M; Macchiavelli, A O; Frauendorf, S
2003-01-01
High-spin states in 135Nd were populated with the 110Pd(30Si,5n)135Nd reaction at a 30Si bombarding energy of 133 MeV. Two Delta(I)=1 bands with close excitation energies and the same parity were observed. These bands are directly linked by Delta(I)=1 and Delta(I)=2 transitions. The chiral nature of these two bands is confirmed by comparison with three-dimensional tilted axis cranking calculations. This is the first observation of a three-quasiparticle chiral structure and established the primarily geometric nature of this phenomenon.
Specific features and symmetries for magnetic and chiral bands in nuclei
Raduta, A. A.
2016-09-01
Magnetic and chiral bands have been a hot subject for more than twenty years. Therefore, quite large volumes of experimental data as well as theoretical descriptions have been accumulated. Although some of the formalisms are not so easy to handle, the results agree impressively well with the data. The objective of this paper is to review the actual status of both experimental and theoretical investigations. Aiming at making this material accessible to a large variety of readers, including young students and researchers, I gave some details on the schematic models which are able to unveil the main features of chirality in nuclei. Also, since most formalisms use a rigid triaxial rotor for the nuclear system's core, I devoted some space to the semi-classical description of the rigid triaxial as well as of the tilted triaxial rotor. In order to answer the question whether the chiral phenomenon is spread over the whole nuclear chart and whether it is specific only to a certain type of nuclei, odd-odd, odd-even or even-even, the current results in the mass regions of A ∼ 60 , 80 , 100 , 130 , 180 , 200 are briefly described for all kinds of odd/even-odd/even systems. The chiral geometry is a sufficient condition for a system of proton-particle, neutron-hole and a triaxial rotor to have the electromagnetic properties of chiral bands. In order to prove that such geometry is not unique for generating magnetic bands with chiral features, I presented a mechanism for a new type of chiral bands. One tries to underline the fact that this rapidly developing field is very successful in pushing forward nuclear structure studies.
Fragile surface zero-energy flat bands in three-dimensional chiral superconductors
Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi
2015-12-01
We study surface zero-energy flat bands in three-dimensional chiral superconductors with pz(px+i py) ν -wave pairing symmetry (ν is a nonzero integer), based on topological arguments and tunneling conductance. It is shown that the surface flat bands are fragile against (i) the surface misorientation and (ii) the surface Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The fragility of (i) is specific to chiral SCs, whereas that of (ii) happens for general odd-parity SCs. We demonstrate that these flat-band instabilities vanish or suppress a zero-bias conductance peak in a normal/insulator/superconductor junction, which behavior is clearly different from high-Tc cuprates and noncentrosymmetric superconductors. By calculating the angle-resolved conductance, we also discuss a topological surface state associated with the coexistence of line and point nodes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chirality has recently been proposed as a novel feature of rotating nuclei [1]. Because the chiral symmetry is dichotomic, its spontaneous breaking by the axial angular momentum vector leads to doublets of closely lying rotational bands of the same parity. To investigate nuclear chirality, next to establish the existence of almost degenerate rotational bands, it is necessary to measure also other observables and compare them to the model predictions. The crucial test for the suggested nuclei as candidates to express chirality is based on precise lifetime measurements. Two lifetime experiments and theoretical approaches for the description of the experimental results will be presented. Lifetimes of exited states in 134Pr were measured [2,3] by means of the recoil distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation techniques. The branching ratios and the electric or magnetic character of the transitions were also investigated [3]. The experiments were performed at IReS, Strasbourg, using the EUROBALL IV spectrometer, in conjunction with the inner bismuth germanate ball and the Cologne coincidence plunger apparatus. Exited states in 134Pr were populated in the fusion-evaporation reaction 119Sn(19F, 4n)134Pr. The possible chiral interpretation of twin bands was investigated in the two-quasiparticle triaxial rotor [1] and interacting boson-fermion-fermion models [4]. Both theoretical approaches can describe the level-scheme of 134Pr. The analysis of the wave functions has shown that the possibility for the angular momenta of the proton, neutron, and core to find themselves in the favorable, almost orthogonal geometry, is present but is far from being dominant [3,5]. The structure is characterized by large β and γ fluctuations. The existence of doublets of bands in 134Pr can be attributed to weak chirality dominated by shape fluctuations. In a second experiment branching ratios and lifetimes in 136Pm were measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler-shift and
Tunable multi-band chiral metamaterials based on double-layered asymmetric split ring resonators
Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou; Meng, Qingxin; Zhou, Zhongxiang
2016-07-01
We have numerically demonstrated chiral metamaterials based on double-layered asymmetric Au film with hollow out design of split ring resonators on either side of the polyimide. Multiple electric dipoles and magnetic dipoles resulted from parallel and antiparallel currents between the eight split ring resonators. Multi-band circular dichroism is found in the visible frequency regime by studying the transmission properties. Huge optical activity and the induced multi-band negative refractive index are obtained at resonance by calculating the optical activity and ellipticity of the transmitted E-fields. Chirality parameter and effective refractive index are retrieved to illustrate the tunable optical properties of the metamaterials. The underlying mechanisms for the observed circular dichroism are analyzed. These metamaterials would offer flexible electromagnetic applications in the infrared and visible regime.
Dual-band cross polarization converter in bi-layered complementary chiral metamaterial
Ma, Xiaolong; Xiao, Zhongyin; Liu, Dejun
2016-05-01
In this article, a new chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity (90°) around 225 and 285 THz has been proposed which can be acted as a dual-band cross polarization converter (CPC). During the frequency range of proposed CPC, the maximum transmission coefficient and cross polarization conversion efficiency are up to 0.55 and 0.998, respectively. Importantly, the corresponding ellipticities are almost zero at 225 and 285 THz.
Xu, Kai-kai; Xiao, Zhong-yin; Tang, Jing-yao; Liu, De-jun; Wang, Zi-hua
2016-07-01
In the paper, a novel three-layered chiral structure is proposed and investigated, which consists of a split-ring resonator sandwiched between two layers of sub-wavelength gratings. This designed structure can achieve simultaneously asymmetric transmission with an extremely broad bandwidth and high amplitude as well as multi-band 90° polarization rotator with very low dispersion. Numerical simulations adopted two kinds of softwares with different algorithms demonstrate that asymmetric parameter can reach a maximum of 0.99 and over than 0.8 from 4.6 to 16.8 GHz, which exhibit magnitude and bandwidth improvement over previous chiral metamaterials in microwave bands (S, C, X and Ku bands). Specifically, the reason of high amplitude is analyzed in detail based on the Fabry-perot like resonance. Subsequently, the highly efficient polarization conversion with very low dispersion between two orthogonal linearly polarized waves is also analyzed by the optical activity and ellipticity. Finally, the electric fields are also investigated and further demonstrate the correctness of the simulated and calculated results.
Tri-band transparent cross-polarization converters using a chiral metasurface
Shi, Hong-Yu; Li, Jian-Xing; Zhang, An-Xue; Wang, Jia-Fu; Xu, Zhuo
2014-11-01
A chiral metasurface is proposed to realize a tri-band polarization angle insensitive cross-polarization converter. The unit cell of the chiral metamaterial is composed by four twisted anisotropic structure pairs in four-fold rotation symmetry. The simulation results show that this device can work at 9.824 GHz, 11.39 GHz, and 13.37 GHz with low loss and a high polarization conversion ratio (PCR) of more than 99%. The proposed design can transmit the co-polarization wave at 14.215 GHz, like a frequency selective surface. The study of the current and electric fields distributions indicates that the cross-polarization transmission is due to electric dipole coupling.
Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective
Malik, Sham S.
2016-07-01
A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.
Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo
2016-07-01
The asymmetric transmission effect has attracted great interest due to its wide modern optical applications. In this Letter, we present the underlying theory, the design specifications, and the simulated demonstration of tunable dual-band asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized waves with a graphene planar chiral metasurface. The spectral position of the asymmetric peak is linearly dependent on the Fermi energy and can be controlled by changing the Fermi energy. The success of tunable dual-band asymmetric transmission can be attributed to the enantiomerically sensitive plasmonic excitations of the graphene metasurface. This work offers a further step in developing tunable asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves for applications in detectors and other polarization-sensitive electromagnetic devices. PMID:27367122
Redkov, V M
1999-01-01
The paper concerns a problem of the Dirac fermion doublet in the external monopole potential obtained by embedding the Abelian monopole solution in the non-Abelian scheme. In this case, the doublet-monopole Hamiltonian is invariant under operations consisting of a complex and one parametric Abelian subgroup in S0(3.C). This symmetry results in a certain freedom in choosing a discrete operator N(A) (A is a complex number) entering the complete set of quantum variables. The same complex number A represents an additional parameter at the basis functions. The generalized inversion like operator N(A) affords certain generalized N(A)-parity selection rules. All the different sets of basis functions Psi(A) determine the same Hilbert space. The functions Psi(A) decompose into linear combinations of Psi(A=0): Psi(A) = F(A) Psi(A=0). However, the bases considered turn out to be nonorthogonal ones when A is a complex number; the latter correlates with the non-self-conjugacy of the N(A) at complex A-s. The meaning of pos...
Dense Matter and Neutron Stars in Parity Doublet Models
Schramm, S; Negreiros, R; Steinheimer, J
2011-01-01
We investigate the properties of dense matter and neutron stars. In particular we discuss model calculations based on the parity doublet picture of hadronic chiral symmetry. In this ansatz the onset of chiral symmetry restoration is reflected by the degeneracy of baryons and their parity partners. In this approach we also incorporate quarks as degrees of freedom to be able to study hybrid stars.
Microscopic study of chiral rotation in odd-odd A $\\sim$ 100 nuclei
Dar, W.A.(Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006, India); Sheikh, J. A.; Bhat, G.H.(Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006, India); Palit, R.; Frauendorf, S.
2013-01-01
A systematic study of the doublet bands observed in odd-odd mass $\\sim$ 100 is performed using the microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. This mass region has depicted some novel features which are not observed in other mass regions, for instance, it has been observed that two chiral bands cross diabatically in $^{106}$Ag. It is demonstrated that this unique feature is due to crossing of the two 2-quasiparticle configurations having different intrinsic structures. Further, we pr...
Opportunities for collective model and chirality studies at TRIUMF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
First predictions for a specific case of the particle-hole-core coupling model which takes advantage of symmetries of a triaxial rotor with γ = 90° are reviewed. Results of the model calculations point towards existence of stable chiral geometry in specific configurations involving high-j orbitals. Next, experimental information on doublet bands built on unique parity, πh11/2νh11/2 intruder states in odd-odd 134Pr is discussed; in particular observed disagreements between electromagnetic transitions within the doublet structures which is pointed out as inconsistent with the simplest models. Finally, the unique experimental infrastructure developed at the Tri-University Meson Facility (TRIUMF) Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics is presented including a range of isotopes in the mass 130 region that are accessible as beams and which can possibly yield significant new information in investigations of nuclear chirality. (author)
Dias, R G; Coutinho, B C; Martins, L P
2014-01-01
We present a study of Josephson junctions arrays with two-band superconducting elements in the highcapacitance limit. We consider two particular geometries for these arrays: a single rhombus and a rhombi chain with two-band superconducting elements at the spinal positions. We show that the rhombus shaped JJ circuit and the rhombi chain can be mapped onto a triangular JJ circuit and a JJ two-leg ladder, respectively, with zero effective magnetic flux, but with Josephson couplings that are magnetic flux dependent. If the two-band superconductors are in a sign-reversed pairing state, one observes transitions to or from chiral phase configurations in the mapped superconducting arrays when magnetic flux or temperature are varied. The phase diagram for these chiral configurations is discussed. When half-flux quantum threads each rhombus plaquette, new phase configurations of the rhombi chain appear that are characterized by the doubling of the periodicity of the energy density along the chain, with every other two-...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Just like an electronic diode that allows the electrical current to flow in one direction only, a kind of chiral metamaterial structure with a similar functionality for the electromagnetic wave is proposed. The designed nanostructure that consists of twisted metallic split-ring resonators on both sides of a dielectric substrate achieves asymmetric transmission for a forward and backward propagating linearly polarized wave by numerical simulation in near-infrared band. Difference in transmission efficiency of the optimized structure between the same polarized waves incident from opposite directions can reach a maximum at the communication wavelength (1.55 μm). Moreover, the simulation results of this structure also exhibit strong optical activity and circular dichroism. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Microscopic study of chiral rotation in odd-odd A $\\sim$ 100 nuclei
Dar, W A; Bhat, G H; Palit, R; Frauendorf, S
2013-01-01
A systematic study of the doublet bands observed in odd-odd mass $\\sim$ 100 is performed using the microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. This mass region has depicted some novel features which are not observed in other mass regions, for instance, it has been observed that two chiral bands cross diabatically in $^{106}$Ag. It is demonstrated that this unique feature is due to crossing of the two 2-quasiparticle configurations having different intrinsic structures. Further, we provide a complete set of transition probabilities for all the six-isotopes studied in this work and it is shown that the predicted transitions are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Origins of inert Higgs doublets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas W. Kephart
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We consider beyond the standard model embedding of inert Higgs doublet fields. We argue that inert Higgs doublets can arise naturally in grand unified theories where the necessary associated Z2 symmetry can occur automatically. Several examples are discussed.
Dark Matter with Two Inert Doublets plus One Higgs Doublet
Keus, Venus; Moretti, Stefano; Sokolowska, Dorota
2014-01-01
Following the discovery of a Higgs boson, there has been renewed interest in the general 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM). A model with One Inert Doublet plus One Higgs Doublet (I(1+1)HDM), where one of the scalar doublets is "inert" (since it has no vacuum expectation value and does not couple to fermions) has an advantage over the 2HDM since it provides a good Dark Matter (DM) candidate, namely the lightest inert scalar. Motivated by the existence of three fermion families, here we consider a model with two scalar doublets plus one Higgs doublet (I(2+1)HDM), where the two scalar doublets are inert. The I(2+1)HDM has a richer phenomenology than either the I(1+1)HDM or the 2HDM. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density in the I(2+1)HDM with simplified couplings and address the possibility of constraining the model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct detection experiments.
Spectral signatures of chirality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger
2009-01-01
We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast to t...
Fat Branes, Orbifolds and Doublet-Triplet Splitting
Haba, N; Haba, Naoyuki; Maru, Nobuhito
2003-01-01
A simple higher dimensional mechanism of the doublet-triplet splitting is presented in a five dimensional supersymmetric SU(5) GUT on S^1/Z_2. The splitting of multiplets is realized by a VEV of the adjoint chiral superfield which breaks SU(5) gauge symmetry. Depending on the sign of the VEV, zero mode Higgs doublets and triplets are localized on the either side of the fixed points. The mass splitting is realized due to the difference of magnitudes of the overlap with a brane localized or a bulk singlet field. No unnatural fine-tuning of parameters is needed. The proton stability is ensured by locality {em without symmetries}. As well as a conventional mass splitting solution, it is shown that the weak scale Higgs triplet is consistent with the proton stability. This result might provide an alternative signature of GUT in future collider experiments.
Compressing the Inert Doublet Model
Blinov, Nikita; Morrissey, David E; de la Puente, Alejandro
2015-01-01
The Inert Doublet Model relies on a discrete symmetry to prevent couplings of the new scalars to Standard Model fermions. This stabilizes the lightest inert state, which can then contribute to the observed dark matter density. In the presence of additional approximate symmetries, the resulting spectrum of exotic scalars can be compressed. Here, we study the phenomenological and cosmological implications of this scenario. We derive new limits on the compressed Inert Doublet Model from LEP, and outline the prospects for exclusion and discovery of this model at dark matter experiments, the LHC, and future colliders.
The chiral symplectic universality class
Asada, Yoichi; Slevin, Keith; Ohtsuki, Tomi
2003-01-01
We report a numerical investigation of localization in the SU(2) model without diagonal disorder. At the band center, chiral symmetry plays an important role. Our results indicate that states at the band center are critical. States away from the band center but not too close to the edge of the spectrum are metallic as expected for Hamiltonians with symplectic symmetry.
Chiral magnetic effect without chirality source in asymmetric Weyl semimetals
Kharzeev, Dmitri; Meyer, Rene
2016-01-01
We describe a new type of the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) that should occur in Weyl semimetals with an asymmetry in the dispersion relations of the left- and right-handed chiral Weyl fermions. In such materials, time-dependent pumping of electrons from a non-chiral external source generates a non-vanishing chiral chemical potential. This is due to the different capacities of the left- and right-handed (LH and RH) chiral Weyl cones arising from the difference in the density of states in the LH and RH cones. The chiral chemical potential then generates, via the chiral anomaly, a current along the direction of an applied magnetic field even in the absence of an external electric field. The source of chirality imbalance in this new setup is thus due to the band structure of the system and the presence of (non-chiral) electron source, and not due to the parallel electric and magnetic fields. We illustrate the effect by an argument based on the effective field theory, and by the chiral kinetic theory calculation f...
Doublet-Triplet Splitting and Fat Branes
Maru, N
2001-01-01
We consider the doublet-triplet splitting problem in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory in five dimensions where the fifth dimension is non-compact. We point out that an unnatural fine-tuning of parameters in order to obtain the light Higgs doublets is not required due to the exponential suppression of the overlap of the wave functions.
A spectral route to determining chirality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger
2009-01-01
We show how one-dimensional structured media can be used to measure chirality, via the spectral shift of the photonic band gap edges. Analytically, we show that a chiral contrast can, in some cases, be mapped unto an index contrast, thereby greatly simplifying the analysis of such structures. Using...... this mapping, we derive a first-order shift of the band gap edges with chirality. Potentially, this effect could be used for measuring enantiomeric excess....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, Timothy; /SLAC /Michigan U., MCTP; Kearney, John; Pierce, Aaron; /Michigan U., MCTP; Tucker-Smith, David; /Williams Coll.
2012-02-15
In light of recent data from direct detection experiments and the Large Hadron Collider, we explore models of dark matter in which an SU(2){sub L} doublet is mixed with a Standard Model singlet. We impose a thermal history. If the new particles are fermions, this model is already constrained due to null results from XENON100. We comment on remaining regions of parameter space and assess prospects for future discovery. We do the same for the model where the new particles are scalars, which at present is less constrained. Much of the remaining parameter space for both models will be probed by the next generation of direct detection experiments. For the fermion model, DeepCore may also play an important role.
Torsional vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes using doublet mechanics
Fatahi-Vajari, Alireza; Imam, Ali
2016-08-01
This paper investigates the torsional vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using a new approach based on doublet mechanics (DM) incorporating explicitly scale parameter and chiral effects. A fourth-order partial differential equation that governs the torsional vibration of nanotubes is derived. Using DM, an explicit equation for the natural frequency in terms of geometrical and mechanical property of CNTs is obtained for both the Zigzag and Armchair nanotube for the torsional vibration mode. It is shown that chiral effects along with the scale parameter play a significant role in the vibration behavior of SWCNTs in torsional vibration mode. Such effects decrease the natural frequency obtained by DM compared to the classical continuum mechanics and nonlocal theory predictions. However, with increase in the length and/or the radius of the tube, the effect of the chiral and scale parameter on the natural frequency decreases.
Higgs properties in the Stealth Doublet Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wouda Glenn
2013-11-01
Full Text Available I present a model with two scalar doublets and a softly broken ℤ2 symmetry, where only one of the doublets gets a vacuum expectation value and couples to fermions at tree-level. The softly broken ℤ2 symmetry leads to interesting phenomenology such as mixing between the two doublets and a charged scalar H± which can be light and dominantly decays into Hγ. The model can also naturally reproduce an enhanced γγ signal of the newly observed Higgs boson at the LHC with mass 125 GeV.
Vacuum stability in neutrinophilic Higgs doublet model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haba, Naoyuki [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Horita, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomohiro@het.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)
2011-11-03
A neutrinophilic Higgs model has tiny vacuum expectation value (VEV), which can naturally explain tiny masses of neutrinos. There is a large energy scale hierarchy between a VEV of the neutrinophilic Higgs doublet and that of usual standard model-like Higgs doublet. In this Letter we at first analyze vacuum structures of Higgs potential in both supersymmetry (SUSY) and non-SUSY neutrinophilic Higgs models, and next investigate a stability of this VEV hierarchy against radiative corrections. We will show that the VEV hierarchy is stable against radiative corrections in both Dirac neutrino and Majorana neutrino scenarios in both SUSY and non-SUSY neutrinophilic Higgs doublet models.
Hayami, Satoru; Ozawa, Ryo; Motome, Yukitoshi
2016-07-01
Magnetic orders characterized by multiple ordering vectors harbor noncollinear and noncoplanar spin textures and can be a source of unusual electronic properties through the spin Berry phase mechanism. We theoretically show that such multiple-Q states are stabilized in itinerant magnets in the form of superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down (UUDD) spin states, which accompany the density waves of vector and scalar chirality. The result is drawn by examining the ground state of the Kondo lattice model with classical localized moments, especially when the Fermi surface is tuned to be partially nested by the symmetry-related commensurate vectors. We unveil the instability toward a double-Q UUDD state with vector chirality density waves on the square lattice and a triple-Q UUDD state with scalar chirality density waves on the triangular lattice, using the perturbative theory and variational calculations. The former double-Q state is also confirmed by large-scale Langevin dynamics simulations. We also show that, for a sufficiently large exchange coupling, the chirality density waves can induce rich nontrivial topology of electronic structures, such as the massless Dirac semimetal, Chern insulator with quantized topological Hall response, and peculiar edge states which depend on the phase of chirality density waves at the edges.
Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yee, Ho-Ung
2012-01-01
We consider the properties of electric circuits involving Weyl semimetals. The existence of the anomaly-induced chiral magnetic current in a Weyl semimetal subjected to magnetic field causes an interesting and unusual behavior of such circuits. We consider two explicit examples: i) a circuit involving the "chiral battery" and ii) a circuit that can be used as a "quantum amplifier" of magnetic field. The unique properties of these circuits stem from the chiral anomaly and may be utilized for c...
Inoue, Yoshihisa
2004-01-01
Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S
Effective Theory for Electroweak Doublet Dark Matter
Dedes, Athanasios; Karamitros, Dimitrios; Spanos, Vassilis C.
2016-01-01
We perform a detailed study of an effective field theory which includes the Standard Model particle content extended by a pair of Weyl fermionic SU(2)-doublets with opposite hypercharges. A discrete symmetry guarantees that a linear combination of the doublet components is stable and can act as a candidate particle for Dark Matter. The dark sector fermions interact with the Higgs and gauge bosons through renormalizable $d=4$ operators, and non-renormalizable $d=5$ operators that appear after ...
Emergent two-Higgs doublet models
Abe, Tomohiro; Omura, Yuji
2016-08-01
We investigate origin of three features that are often assumed in analysis of two-Higgs doublet models: (i) softly broken Z 2 symmetry, (ii) CP invariant Higgs potential, and (iii) degenerated mass spectra. We extend electroweak gauge symmetry, introducing extra gauge symmetry and extra scalars, and we show that our models effectively derive two-Higgs doublet models at low energy which naturally hold the three features. We also find that the models can solve the strong CP problem.
Tunable circular dichroism due to the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals
Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2014-01-01
Weyl semimetals are a three dimensional gapless topological phase in which bands intersect at arbitrary points -- the Weyl nodes -- in the Brillouin zone. These points carry a topological quantum number known as the \\emph{chirality} and always appear in pairs of opposite chiralities. The notion of chirality leads to anomalous non-conservation of chiral charge, known as the \\emph{chiral anomaly}, according to which charge can be pumped between Weyl nodes of opposite chiralities by an electroma...
DSAM lifetime measurements for the chiral pair in 194Tl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most important for the identification of chiral symmetry in atomic nuclei is to establish a pair of bands that are near-degenerate in energy, but also in B(M1) and B(E2) transition probabilities. Dedicated lifetime measurements were performed for four bands of 194Tl, including the pair of four-quasiparticle chiral bands with close near-degeneracy, considered as a prime candidate for best chiral symmetry pair. The lifetime measurements confirm the excellent near-degeneracy in this pair and indicate that a third band may be involved in the chiral symmetry scenario. (orig.)
Structural insights into microtubule doublet interactions inaxonemes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Downing, Kenneth H.; Sui, Haixin
2007-06-06
Coordinated sliding of microtubule doublets, driven by dynein motors, produces periodic beating of the axoneme. Recent structural studies of the axoneme have used cryo-electron tomography to reveal new details of the interactions among some of the multitude of proteins that form the axoneme and regulate its movement. Connections among the several sets of dyneins, in particular, suggest ways in which their actions may be coordinated. Study of the molecular architecture of isolated doublets has provided a structural basis for understanding the doublet's mechanical properties that are related to the bending of the axoneme, and has also offered insight into its potential role in the mechanism of dynein activity regulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
1994-12-01
This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.
Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John
2015-01-01
Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a c...
Doublet III vacuum vessel neutral beam armor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The evolution of the Doublet III neutral beam armor is followed from the initial design of a radiation cooled metallic tile to the present actively cooled graphite design. Results of the thermal and stress analyses that dictated the present design are reviewed
Gauge coupling unification with extra Higgs doublets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harada, Junpei [Research Center for Higher Education, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido (Japan)
2016-06-15
Gauge coupling unification is studied within the framework where there are extra Higgs doublets and E{sub 6} exotic fields. Supersymmetric models and nonsupersymmetric models are investigated, and a catalog of models with gauge coupling unification is presented. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Ecker, G
1999-01-01
Broken chiral symmetry has become the basis for a unified treatment of hadronic interactions at low energies. After reviewing mechanisms for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, I outline the construction of the low--energy effective field theory of the Standard Model called chiral perturbation theory. The loop expansion and the renormalization procedure for this nonrenormalizable quantum field theory are developed. Evidence for the standard scenario with a large quark condensate is presented, in particular from high--statistics lattice calculations of the meson mass spectrum. Elastic pion--pion scattering is discussed as an example of a complete calculation to O(p^6) in the low--energy expansion. The meson--baryon system is the subject of the last lecture. After a short summary of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, a recent analysis of pion--nucleon scattering to O(p^3) is reviewed. Finally, I describe some very recent progress in the chiral approach to the nucleon--nucleon interaction.
Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel; Walker, Sara Imari
2008-12-01
Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively L-amino acids, while only D-sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high intensity and long duration events may drive achiral initial conditions towards chirality. We argue that life’s homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events, thus extending the theory of punctuated equilibrium to the prebiotic realm. Applying our arguments to other potentially life-bearing planetary platforms, we predict that a statistically representative sampling will be racemic on average.
Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari
2008-01-01
Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively levorotatory (L) amino acids, while only dextrorotatory (R) sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high intensity and long duration events may drive achiral initial conditions towards chirality. We argue that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events, thus extending the theory of punctuated equilibrium to the prebiotic realm. Applying our arguments to other potentially life-bearing planetary platforms, we predict that a statistically representative sampling will be racemic on average.
Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Dibyendu S. Bag; T.C. Shami; K.U. Bhasker Rao
2008-01-01
The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology describes the nanoscale appr...
Chiral density wave in nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinz, Achim [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Giacosa, Francesco [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Rischke, Dirk H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2015-01-15
Inspired by recent work on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter within models featuring quark degrees of freedom, we investigate the chiral density-wave solution in nuclear matter at zero temperature and nonvanishing baryon number density in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM). The eLSM is an effective model for the strong interaction based on the global chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons as well as baryons. In the latter sector, the nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The eLSM simultaneously provides a good description of hadrons in vacuum as well as nuclear matter ground-state properties. We find that an inhomogeneous phase in the form of a chiral density wave is realized, but only for densities larger than 2.4ρ{sub 0}, where ρ{sub 0} is the nuclear matter ground-state density.
Effective Theory for Electroweak Doublet Dark Matter
Dedes, Athanasios; Spanos, Vassilis C
2016-01-01
We perform a detailed study of an effective field theory which includes the Standard Model particle content extended by a pair of Weyl fermionic SU(2)-doublets with opposite hypercharges. A discrete symmetry guarantees that a linear combination of the doublet components is stable and can act as a candidate particle for Dark Matter. The dark sector fermions interact with the Higgs and gauge bosons through renormalizable $d=4$ operators, and non-renormalizable $d=5$ operators that appear after integrating out extra degrees of freedom above the TeV scale. We study collider, cosmological and astrophysical probes for this effective theory of Dark Matter. We find that a WIMP with a mass nearby to the electroweak scale, and thus observable at LHC, is consistent with collider and astrophysical data only when fairly large magnetic dipole moment transition operators with the gauge bosons exist, together with moderate Yukawa interactions.
Effective Field Theory with Two Higgs Doublets
Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano
2016-01-01
In this article we extend the effective field theory framework describing new physics effects to the case where the underlying low-energy theory is a Two-Higgs-Doublet model. We derive a complete set of independent operators up to dimension six assuming a $Z_2$-invariant CP-conserving Higgs potential. The effects on Higgs and gauge boson masses, mixing angles in the Higgs sector as well as couplings to fermions and gauge bosons are computed. At variance with the case of a single Higgs doublet, we find that pair production of SM-like Higgses, arising through dimension-six operators, is not fixed by fermion-fermion-Higgs couplings and can therefore be sizable.
On Chiral Space Groups and Chiral Molecules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
This note explains the relationship (as well as the absence of a relationship) between chiral space groups and chiral molecules (which have absolute configurations). For a chiral molecule, which must crystallize in a chiral space group, the outcome of the absolute configuration determination must be linked to some other properties of the chiral crystal such as its optical activity for the observation to the relevant.
Dirac neutrinos from a second Higgs doublet
Davidson, Shainen M.; Logan, Heather E.
2009-01-01
We propose a minimal extension of the Standard Model in which neutrinos are Dirac particles and their tiny masses are explained without requiring tiny Yukawa couplings. A second Higgs doublet with a tiny vacuum expectation value provides neutrino masses while simultaneously improving the naturalness of the model by allowing a heavier Standard Model-like Higgs boson consistent with electroweak precision data. The model predicts a mu to e gamma rate potentially detectable in the current round o...
Doublet III construction and engineering test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Progress during FY-78 on the construction and operation of the Doublet III is reported. Detailed discussions about the installation and testing of various components and subsystems, including the B-coil, E-coil, F-coils and support structure, vacuum vessel, vacuum pumping system, limiter, thermal insulation blanket, control system, B-coil power system, E-coil power system, F-coil power system, and motor-generator, are presented. A brief review of the engineering test operation is given
Emergent two-Higgs doublet models
Abe, Tomohiro
2016-01-01
We investigate origin of three features that are often assumed in analysis of two-Higgs doublet models: (i) softly broken Z2 symmetry, (ii) CP invariant Higgs potential, and (iii) degenerated mass spectra. We extend electroweak gauge symmetry, introducing extra gauge symmetry and extra scalars, and we show that our models effectively derive two-Higgs dou- blet models at low energy which naturally hold the three features. We also find that the models can solve the strong CP problem.
Chiral Lagrangian with Heavy Quark-Diquark Symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jie Hu; Thomas Mehen
2005-11-29
We construct a chiral Lagrangian for doubly heavy baryons and heavy mesons that is invariant under heavy quark-diquark symmetry at leading order and includes the leading O(1/m{sub Q}) symmetry violating operators. The theory is used to predict the electromagnetic decay width of the J=3/2 member of the ground state doubly heavy baryon doublet. Numerical estimates are provided for doubly charm baryons. We also calculate chiral corrections to doubly heavy baryon masses and strong decay widths of low lying excited doubly heavy baryons.
Quantum Melting of Spin Ice: Emergent Cooperative Quadrupole and Chirality
Onoda, Shigeki; TANAKA, Yoichi
2009-01-01
A quantum melting of the spin ice is proposed for pyrochlore-lattice magnets Pr$_2TM_2$O$_7$ ($TM=$Ir, Zr, and Sn). The quantum superexchange Hamiltonian having a nontrivial magnetic anisotropy is derived in the basis of atomic non-Kramers magnetic doublets. The ground states exhibit a cooperative ferroquadrupole and pseudospin chirality, forming a magnetic analog of smectic liquid crystals. Our theory accounts for dynamic spin-ice behaviors experimentally observed in Pr$_2TM_2$O$_7$.
Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel; Walker, Sara Imari
2008-01-01
Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively levorotatory (L) amino acids, while only dextrorotatory (R) sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high int...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lu, Xinpei, E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O. Box 218, Sydney, New South Wales 2070 (Australia)
2015-10-15
The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.
Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin; Lu, Xinpei; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken
2015-10-01
The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.
The Doublet fusion programme - one step from electricity production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doublet III, the first tokamak designed to generate and maintain the plasma conditions required for a reactor, is described. Stages in its development are outlined with parameters for past, present, and planned devices of General Atomics experimental fusion research programme. Information from the first three machines Doublet I, Doublet II and Doublet IIA helped the design of Doublet III. The Experimental Power Reactor-1 (EPR-1) is a design study showing what a Doublet-powered plant would consist of, based on the present knowledge of plasma scaling, whilst the final facility planned, the Demonstration Power Reactor (DPR), is a scaled-up version of the EPR demonstrating the major features of a larger commercial fusion power plant. (U.K.)
Chiral symmetry in rotating systems
Malik, Sham S.
2015-08-01
The triaxial rotating system at critical angular momentum I ≥Iband exhibits two enatiomeric (the left- and right-handed) forms. These enatiomers are related to each other through dynamical chiral symmetry. The chiral symmetry in rotating system is defined by an operator χ ˆ =Rˆy (π) T ˆ, which involves the product of two distinct symmetries, namely, continuous and discrete. Therefore, new guidelines are required for testing its commutation with the system Hamiltonian. One of the primary objectives of this study is to lay down these guidelines. Further, the possible impact of chiral symmetry on the geometrical arrangement of angular momentum vectors and investigation of observables unique to nuclear chiral-twins is carried out. In our model, the angular momentum components (J1, J2, J3) occupy three mutually perpendicular axes of triaxial shape and represent a non-planar configuration. At certain threshold energy, the equation of motion in angular momentum develops a second order phase transition and as a result two distinct frames (i.e., the left- and right-handed) are formed. These left- and right-handed states correspond to a double well system and are related to each other through chiral operator. At this critical angular momentum, the centrifugal and Coriolis interactions lower the barrier in the double well system. The tunneling through the double well starts, which subsequently lifts the degeneracy among the rotational states. A detailed analysis of the behavior of rotational energies, spin-staggering, and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the resulting twin-rotational bands is presented. The ensuing model results exhibit similarities with many observed features of the chiral-twins. An advantage of our formalism is that it is quite simple and it allows us to pinpoint the understanding of physical phenomenon which lead to chiral-twins in rotating systems.
Does a 5/2+-5/2- ground-state parity doublet exist in 229Pa?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 1/2[530] decoupled band in 229Pa has been identified up to the 19/2- level in (p,t) and (p,2nγ) experiments. It is found that the 3/2- band head has an excitation energy of 19(10) keV, and can thus not be identified with a 123 keV level observed in the 229U electron capture decay. This removes the evidence presented earlier for a spin-parity assignment of 5/2+-5/2- to a proposed nearly degenerate ground-state doublet in 229Pa
Doublet-singlet model and unitarity
Cynolter, G; Lendvai, E
2016-01-01
We study the renormalizable singlet-doublet fermionic extension of the Standard Model. In this model, the new vector-like fermions couple to the gauge bosons and to the Higgs via new Yukawa couplings, that allow for nontrivial mixing in the new sector, providing a stable, neutral dark matter candidate. Approximate analytic formulae are given for the mass spectrum around the blind spots, where the dark matter candidate coupling to $h$ or $Z$ vanishes. We calculate the two particle scattering amplitudes in the model, impose the perturbative unitarity constraints and establish bounds on the Yukawa couplings.
Usman, Muhammad
2015-01-01
Scalar fields are among the possible candidates for dark energy. This paper is devoted to the scalar fields from the inert doublet model, where instead of one as in the standard model, two SU(2) Higgs doublets are used. The component fields of one SU(2) doublet ($\\phi_1$) act in an identical way to the standard model Higgs while the component fields of the second SU(2) doublet ($\\phi_2$) are taken to be the dark energy candidate (which is done by assuming that the phase transition in the field has not yet occurred). It is found that one can arrange for late time acceleration (dark energy) by using an SU(2) Higgs doublet in the inert Higgs doublet model, whose vacuum expectation value is zero, in the quintessential regime.
The relative line strength and intensity of the N II 2143 doublet
Bucsela, Eric J.; Sharp, William E.
1989-01-01
The doublet emission from N II at 2139.7 A and 2143.6 A was observed by a 1.4-m scanning spectrometer with 3.1 A resolution in the daytime, high-altitude thermosphere during moderate levels of solar activity. The spectrometer viewed the earth's limb 5 deg below the local horizontal to give a nominal tangent height of 152 km. Both sub band heads of the nitric oxide gamma band system were resolved in the data at the resolution used. The emission features from N II are clearly evident on the short wavelength shoulder of the (1, 0) band. Synthetic profiles of the (1, 0) gamma band and the (0, 3) delta band of nitric oxide were fitted to the data using a chi-square analysis. These contributions were removed from the data leaving a residual emission, considered to be the N II doublet. A chi-square minimization of the data relative to a synthetic intensity profile was done. The minimum was for a line strength ratio between the 2139 A and 2143 A lines of 0.58 + or - 0.08. The mean solar EUV flux deduced from the intensity of the N II emission in this experiment is lower than other reported observations, consistent with a lower solar activity level.
Neutrino signature of inert doublet dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreas, Sarah [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E; Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Physique Theorique; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-11-15
In the framework of the Inert Doublet Model and extensions, the signature of neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Earth, the Sun and at the Galactic centre is presented. The model contains an extra Higgs doublet, a neutral component of which is chosen as dark matter candidate. There are three distinct mass ranges for which consistency both with WMAP abundance and direct searches can be obtained: a low (4-8 GeV), a middle (60-70 GeV) and a high (500-1500 GeV) WIMP mass range. The first case is of interest as we showed that the model can at the same time give the correct WMAP abundance and account for the positive DAMA results without contradicting other direct searches. We present how capture in the Sun can further constrain this scenario using Super-Kamiokande data. Indirect detection through neutrinos is challenging for the middle and high mass ranges. For the former, the presence of the so-called 'iron resonance' gives rise to larger neutrino fluxes for WIMP masses around 60-70 GeV since capture by the Earth is enhanced. The addition of light right-handed Majorana neutrinos to the particle content of the model further increases the signal since it opens a direct annihilation channel into mono-energetic neutrinos. Neutrinos from the Galactic centre might be detected for heavy WIMPs if the dark matter density at the Galactic centre is substantially boosted. (orig.)
Neutrino signature of Inert Doublet Dark Matter
Andreas, Sarah
2009-01-01
In the framework of the Inert Doublet Model and extensions, the signature of neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Earth, the Sun and at the Galactic centre is presented. The model contains an extra Higgs doublet, a neutral component of which is chosen as dark matter candidate. There are three distinct mass ranges for which consistency both with WMAP abundance and direct searches can be obtained: a low (4 - 8 GeV), a middle (60 - 70 GeV) and a high (500 - 1500 GeV) WIMP mass range. The first case is of interest as we showed that the model can at the same time give the correct WMAP abundance and account for the positive DAMA results without contradicting other direct searches. We present how capture in the Sun can further constrain this scenario using Super-Kamiokande data. Indirect detection through neutrinos is challenging for the middle and high mass ranges. For the former, the presence of the so-called 'iron resonance' gives rise to larger neutrino fluxes for WIMP masses around 60 - 70 GeV since c...
Three-loop Neutrino Mass Model with Doubly Charged Particles from Iso-Doublets
Okada, Hiroshi
2016-01-01
We propose a new type of a three-loop induced neutrino mass model with dark matter candidates which are required for the neutrino mass generation. The smallness of neutrino masses can be naturally explained without introducing super heavy particles, namely, much heavier than a TeV scale and quite small couplings as compared to the gauge couplings. We find that as a bonus, the anomaly of the muon anomalous magnetic moment can simultaneously be explained by loop effects of new particles. In our model, there are doubly charged scalar bosons and leptons from isospin doublet fields which give characteristic collider signatures. In particular, the doubly charged scalar bosons can decay into the same sign dilepton with its chirality of both right-handed or left- and right-handed. This can be a smoking gun signature to identify our model and be useful to distinguish other models with doubly charged scalar bosons at collider experiments.
Nuclear chiral and magnetic rotation in covariant density functional theory
Meng, Jie
2016-01-01
Excitations of chiral rotation observed in triaxial nuclei and magnetic and/or antimagnetic rotations seen in near-spherical nuclei have attracted a lot of attention. Unlike conventional rotation in well-deformed or superdeformed nuclei, here the rotational axis is not necessary coinciding with any principal axis of the nuclear density distribution. Thus, tilted axis cranking is mandatory to describe these excitations self-consistently in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). We will briefly introduce the formalism of tilted axis cranking CDFT and its application for magnetic and antimagnetic rotation phenomena. Configuration-fixed CDFT and its predictions for nuclear chiral configurations and for favorable triaxial deformation parameters are also presented, and the discoveries of the multiple chiral doublets (M\\c{hi}D) in 133Ce and 103Rh are discussed.
DSAM lifetime measurements for the chiral pair in {sup 194}Tl
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masiteng, P.L.; Bvumbi, S.P. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville (South Africa); University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park (South Africa); Pasternak, A.A. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lawrie, E.A.; Shirinda, O.; Lawrie, J.J.; Bark, R.A.; Kheswa, N.Y.; Lieder, E.O.; Lieder, R.M.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); Lindsay, R. [University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville (South Africa); Madiba, T.E.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville (South Africa); Ndayishimye, J.; Papka, P. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of Stellenbosch, Department of Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland (South Africa); Ntshangase, S.S. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Private Bag, Rondebosch (South Africa)
2016-02-15
Most important for the identification of chiral symmetry in atomic nuclei is to establish a pair of bands that are near-degenerate in energy, but also in B(M1) and B(E2) transition probabilities. Dedicated lifetime measurements were performed for four bands of {sup 194}Tl, including the pair of four-quasiparticle chiral bands with close near-degeneracy, considered as a prime candidate for best chiral symmetry pair. The lifetime measurements confirm the excellent near-degeneracy in this pair and indicate that a third band may be involved in the chiral symmetry scenario. (orig.)
Partially composite two-Higgs doublet model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Dong-Won Jung
2007-11-01
In the extra dimensional scenarios with gauge fields in the bulk, the Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge bosons can induce Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type attractive four-fermion interactions, which can break electroweak symmetry dynamically with accompanying composite Higgs fields. We consider a possibility that electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) is triggered by both a fundamental Higgs and a composite Higgs arising in a dynamical symmetry breaking mechanism induced by a new strong dynamics. The resulting Higgs sector is a partially composite two-Higgs doublet model with specific boundary conditions on the coupling and mass parameters originating at a compositeness scale . The phenomenology of this model is discussed including the collider phenomenology at LHC and ILC.
Partially Natural Two Higgs Doublet Models
Draper, Patrick; Ruderman, Joshua T
2016-01-01
It is possible that the electroweak scale is low due to the fine-tuning of microscopic parameters, which can result from selection effects. The experimental discovery of new light fundamental scalars other than the Standard Model Higgs boson would seem to disfavor this possibility, since generically such states imply parametrically worse fine-tuning with no compelling connection to selection effects. We discuss counterexamples where the Higgs boson is light because of fine-tuning, and a second scalar doublet is light because a discrete symmetry relates its mass to the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson. Our examples require new vectorlike fermions at the electroweak scale, and the models possess a rich electroweak vacuum structure. The mechanism that we discuss does not protect a small CP-odd Higgs mass in split or high-scale supersymmetry-breaking scenarios of the MSSM due to an incompatibility between the discrete symmetries and holomorphy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plum, Eric, E-mail: erp@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I., E-mail: niz@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); The Photonics Institute and Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637378 (Singapore)
2015-06-01
Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.
Magnetic rotation and chiral symmetry breaking
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok Kumar Jain; Amita
2001-08-01
The deformed mean ﬁeld of nuclei exhibits various geometrical and dynamical symmetries which manifest themselves as various types of rotational and decay patterns. Most of the symmetry operations considered so far have been deﬁned for a situation wherein the angular momentum coincides with one of the principal axes and the principal axis cranking may be invoked. New possibilities arise with the observation of rotational features in weakly deformed nuclei and now interpreted as magnetic rotational bands. More than 120 MR bands have now been identiﬁed by ﬁltering the existing data. We present a brief overview of these bands. The total angular momentum vector in such bands is tilted away from the principal axes. Such a situation gives rise to several new possibilities including breaking of chiral symmetry as discussed recently by Frauendorf. We present the outcome of such symmetries and their possible experimental veriﬁcation. Some possible examples of chiral bands are presented.
Chiral Gravitational Waves from Chiral Fermions
Anber, Mohamed M
2016-01-01
We report on a new mechanism that leads to the generation of primordial chiral gravitational waves, and hence, the violation of the parity symmetry in the Universe. We show that nonperturbative production of fermions with a definite helicity is accompanied by the generation of chiral gravitational waves. This is a generic and model-independent phenomenon that can occur during inflation, reheating and radiation eras, and can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background polarization and may be observed in future ground- and space-based interferometers. We also discuss a specific model where chiral gravitational waves are generated via the production of light chiral fermions during pseudoscalar inflation.
Signature effects in Gallagher-Moszkowski doublets of doubly odd 162, 164Ho and 164Tm nuclei
Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Sukhjeet; Jain, A. K.; Sharma, J. K.; Goel, A.
2016-07-01
The signature effects in total five Gallagher-Moszkowski (GM) doublets, three based on the K^{π} = 1- ( ↑ ↓ ) , K^{π} = 6- (\\uparrow \\uparrow):7/2[523]_{π} ⊗ 5/2[642]_{ν} configuration observed in 162 Ho, 164 Ho, 164 Tm nuclides and two based on the K^{π} = 1+ (\\uparrow \\uparrow) , K^{π} = 6+ (\\uparrow downarrow): 7/2[523]_{π} ⊗ 5/2[523]_{ν} configuration observed in 162 Ho, 164 Ho nuclides, are studied in the framework of two quasiparticle axially symmetric rotor model. We successfully explained the experimentally observed signature splitting and also confirmed tentatively assigned spin, parity and configuration assignments to some members of the GM doublets under discussion. For the K^{π} = 1- (\\uparrow downarrow): 7/2[523]_{π}⊗ 5/2[642]_{ν} member of the GM doublet observed in 164 Tm, the experimental phase of staggering before and after the point of inversion, which could not be explained in the earlier calculations, is successfully reproduced. The Newby shifted K = 0 bands, which play a vital role in explaining the observed signature effects in the low- K members of the GM doublets under discussion, are identified and the corresponding Newby shift energies for these K = 0 bands are estimated. The lower-lying levels of some low- K members of the above-said GM doublets are not observed experimentally. The excitation energies of these unobserved lower-lying levels are calculated and presented as a future prediction for experimentalists.
Anomalous Chiral Superfluidity
Lublinsky, Michael(Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel); Zahed, Ismail
2009-01-01
We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavour anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is ...
Low scale thermal leptogenesis in neutrinophilic Higgs doublet models
Haba, Naoyuki
2011-01-01
It is well-known that leptogenesis in low energy scale is difficult in the conventional Type-I seesaw mechanism with hierarchical right-handed neutrino masses. We show that in a class of two Higgs doublet model, where one Higgs doublet generates masses of quarks and charged leptons whereas the other Higgs doublet with a tiny vacuum expectation value generates neutrino Dirac masses, large Yukawa couplings lead to a large enough CP asymmetry of the right-handed neutrino decay. Thermal leptogenesis suitably works at low energy scale as keeping no enhancement of lepton number violating wash out effects. We will also point out that thermal leptogenesis works well without confronting gravitino problem in a supersymmetric neutrinophilic Higgs doublet model with gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. Neutralino dark matter and baryon asymmetry generation by thermal leptogenesis are easily compatible in our setup.
WHETHER DOUBLETS-SYNONYMS ARE IDENTICAL OR NOT
Arkady Vladimirovich LEMOV
2015-01-01
The article considers pairs of lexical units, which in lexicology are defined as doublets or absolute synonyms. The main idea of the article is to show functional features of doublet units which would allow not to consider such units as absolutely identical. Based on the analysis of Russian nouns, noted in special publications and dictionaries as absolute synonyms, we show that there is often differentiation of elements of lexical pairs. It appears that many absolute synonyms do not disintegr...
A New Linearization Technique Using Multi-sinh Doublet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CEHAN, V.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new linearization technique using multi-sinh doublet, implemented with a second generation current conveyor is presented. This new linearization technique is compared with the one based on multi-tanh doublets with linearization series connected diodes on the branches. The comparative study of the two linearization techniques is carried out using both dynamic range analysis, expressed by linearity error and the THD value calculation of output current, and the noise behavior of the two analyzed doublets. For the multi-sinh linearization technique proposed in the paper a method which assures the increase of the dynamic range, keeping the transconductance value constant is presented. This is done by using two design parameters: the number of series connected diodes N, which specifies the desired linear operating range and the k emitters areas ratio of the input stage transistors, which establishes the transconductance value. In the paper is also shown that if the transconductances of the two analyzed doublets are identical, and for the same values of N and k parameters, respectively, the current consumption of the multi-sinh doublet is always smaller than for the multi-tanh doublet.
G2HDM : Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model
Huang, Wei-Chih; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2015-01-01
A novel model embedding the two Higgs doublets in the popular two Higgs doublet models into a doublet of a non-abelian gauge group $SU(2)_H$ is presented. The Standard Model $SU(2)_L$ right-handed fermion singlets are paired up with new heavy fermions to form $SU(2)_H$ doublets, while $SU(2)_L$ left-handed fermion doublets are singlets under $SU(2)_H$. Distinctive features of this anomaly-free model are: (1) Electroweak symmetry breaking is induced from spontaneous symmetry breaking of $SU(2)_H$ via its triplet vacuum expectation value; (2) One of the Higgs doublet can be inert, with its neutral component being a dark matter candidate as protected by the $SU(2)_H$ gauge symmetry instead of a discrete $Z_2$ symmetry in the usual case; (3) Unlike Left-Right Symmetric Models, the complex gauge fields $(W_1^{\\prime}\\mp i W_2^{\\prime})$ (along with other complex scalar fields) associated with the $SU(2)_H$ do not carry electric charges, while the third component $W^{\\prime}_3$ can mix with the hypercharge $U(1)_Y$...
Lifetime measurements in chiral nucleus 130Cs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Lie-Lin; WU Xiao-Guang; ZHU Li-Hua; LI Guang-Sheng; HAO Xin; ZHENG Yun; HE Chuang-Ye; WANG Lei; LI Xue-Qin; LIU Ying; PAN Bo; LI Zhong-Yu; DING Huai-Bo
2009-01-01
The level lifetimes in partner bands of 130Cs have been measured using the Doppler Shift Attenuation method. The high-spin states of 130Cs were populated via fusion evaporation reaction 124Sn(11B,5n)130Cs at a beam energy of 65 MeV. The absolute M1 and E2 transition probabilities have been deduced. The results indicate that the partner bands of 130Cs manifest the chiral properties.
Test of Chirality in Nucleus 130Cs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴晓光; 王烈林; 竺礼华; 李广生; 郝昕; 郑云; 贺创业; 李雪琴; 潘波; 刘颖; 汪雷; 赵延新; 李忠宇; 丁怀博
2012-01-01
The level lifetimes in partner bands of 130Cs have been measured using the Doppler Shift Attenuation method (DSAM). The high-spin states of 130Cs were populated via fusion evap- oration reaction 124Sn(11B; 5n)130Cs at a beam energy of 65 MeV. The absolute M1 and E2 transition probabilities have been deduced. The results indicate that the partner bands of 130Cs indeed manifest chiral properties.
Liu, Keh-Fei
2016-01-01
The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of $\\pi N \\sigma$ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral $U(1)$ anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.
Haupert, Levi M.; Simpson, Garth J.
2009-05-01
The past decade has witnessed the emergence of new measurement approaches and applications for chiral thin films and materials enabled by the observations of the high sensitivity of second-order nonlinear optical measurements to chirality. In thin films, the chiral response to second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation (SFG) from a single molecular monolayer is often comparable with the achiral response. The chiral specificity also allows for symmetry-allowed SFG in isotropic chiral media, confirming predictions made ˜50 years ago. With these experimental demonstrations in hand, an important challenge is the construction of intuitive predictive models that allow the measured chiral response to be meaningfully related back to molecular and macromolecular structure. This review defines and considers three distinct mechanisms for chiral effects in uniaxially oriented assemblies: orientational chirality, intrinsic chirality, and isotropic chirality. The role of each is discussed in experimental and computational studies of bacteriorhodopsin films, binaphthol, and collagen. Collectively, these three model systems support a remarkably simple framework for quantitatively recovering the measured chiral-specific activity.
Chiral Rotational Spectroscopy
Cameron, Robert P; Barnett, Stephen M
2015-01-01
We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy: a new technique that enables the determination of the individual optical activity polarisability components $G_{XX}'$, $G_{YY}'$, $G_{ZZ}'$, $A_{X,YZ}$, $A_{Y,ZX}$ and $A_{Z,XY}$ of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample whilst yielding an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centres. The principles that underpin chiral rotational spectroscopy can also be exploited in the search for molecular chirality in space, which, if found, may add weight to hypotheses that biological homochirality and indeed life itself are of cosmic origin.
On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica
2011-07-01
In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)
Interface-split Kramers doublets for acceptor-based qubits in silicon
Mol, Jan; Salfi, Joseph; Rahman, Rajib; Rogge, Sven
2013-03-01
Single dopants in silicon form a particular attractive platform for hosting spin quantum bits (qubits). The effective spin-3/2 states of acceptor-bound holes in silicon can be used to store bits of quantum information for several μs. Strong coupling of spin and momentum in the silicon valence band allows for rapid electrical manipulation of the hole spin. Acceptors in silicon have a four-fold degenerate ground-state, reflecting character of the top of the valence band. Symmetry breaking, by an electric field, strain or confinement, lifts this degeneracy, resulting in two Kramers doublets. The states within these isolated Kramers doublets are protected against decoherence by time reversal symmetry and form the working levels of a hole spin qubit. Here we investigate the effect of the presence of an interface on the ground-state energy splitting of individual sub-surface acceptors, as a function of dopant depth, by means of low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The depth of individual acceptors is determined by probing the Coulomb potential of the ionized acceptor nuclei. Resonant tunneling through the localized acceptor states provides a direct measure of the excited state spectrum of single dopants.
When Chiral Photons Meet Chiral Fermions: Photoinduced Anomalous Hall Effects in Weyl Semimetals
Chan, Ching-Kit; Lee, Patrick A.; Burch, Kenneth S.; Han, Jung Hoon; Ran, Ying
2016-01-01
The Weyl semimetal is characterized by three-dimensional linear band touching points called Weyl nodes. These nodes come in pairs with opposite chiralities. We show that the coupling of circularly polarized photons with these chiral electrons generates a Hall conductivity without any applied magnetic field in the plane orthogonal to the light propagation. This phenomenon comes about because with all three Pauli matrices exhausted to form the three-dimensional linear dispersion, the Weyl nodes cannot be gapped. Rather, the net influence of chiral photons is to shift the positions of the Weyl nodes. Interestingly, the momentum shift is tightly correlated with the chirality of the node to produce a net anomalous Hall signal. Application of our proposal to the recently discovered TaAs family of Weyl semimetals leads to an order-of-magnitude estimate of the photoinduced Hall conductivity which is within the experimentally accessible range.
When Chiral Photons Meet Chiral Fermions: Photoinduced Anomalous Hall Effects in Weyl Semimetals.
Chan, Ching-Kit; Lee, Patrick A; Burch, Kenneth S; Han, Jung Hoon; Ran, Ying
2016-01-15
The Weyl semimetal is characterized by three-dimensional linear band touching points called Weyl nodes. These nodes come in pairs with opposite chiralities. We show that the coupling of circularly polarized photons with these chiral electrons generates a Hall conductivity without any applied magnetic field in the plane orthogonal to the light propagation. This phenomenon comes about because with all three Pauli matrices exhausted to form the three-dimensional linear dispersion, the Weyl nodes cannot be gapped. Rather, the net influence of chiral photons is to shift the positions of the Weyl nodes. Interestingly, the momentum shift is tightly correlated with the chirality of the node to produce a net anomalous Hall signal. Application of our proposal to the recently discovered TaAs family of Weyl semimetals leads to an order-of-magnitude estimate of the photoinduced Hall conductivity which is within the experimentally accessible range. PMID:26824561
Understanding complex chiral plasmonics
Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na
2015-10-01
Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2014-01-01
We argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma formed at LHC and RHIC can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The "normal" component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the "superfluid" part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use the bosonization procedure with a finite cut-off and obtain a dynamical axion-like field out of the chiral fermionic modes. Then we use relativistic hydrodynamics for macroscopic description of the effective theory obtained after the bosonization. Finally, solving the hydrodynamic equations in gradient expansion, we find that in the presence of external electromagnetic fields or rotation the motion of the "superfluid" component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, chiral vortical, chiral electric and dipole wave effects. Latter two effects are specific for a two-component fluid, which provides us with crucial experimental tests of the model.
Mechanical separation of chiral dipoles by chiral light
Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W
2013-01-01
Optical forces take on a specific form when involving chiral light fields interacting with chiral objects. We show that optical chirality density and flow can have mechanical effects through reactive and dissipative components of chiral forces exerted on chiral dipoles. Remarkably, these force components are directly related to standard observables: optical rotation and circular dichroism, respectively. As a consequence, resulting forces and torques are dependent on the enantiomeric form of the chiral dipole. This leads to promising strategies for the mechanical separation of chiral objects using chiral light forces.
Electrical Property Analytical Prediction on Archimedes Chiral Carbon Nanoscrolls
Hassanzadazar, M.; Ahmadi, M. T.; Ismail, Razali; Goudarzi, Hadi
2016-06-01
Carbon nanoscrolls (CNS) with flexible exterior areas and interesting electrical and mechanical properties have gained interest in recent years, both experimentally and theoretically. These structures have been employed as ion channels, tunable water channels, molecular sensors, and gene and drug distribution systems. In this study, electrical behaviour of all types of CNS containing armchair, zigzag, and chiral CNSs band structure is investigated. In armchair CNSs, the small band gap among valence and the conduction band as a pseudo-gap are reported, which reveals a semimetallic property for some of these CNSs. This small band gap, as a result of layer interaction, has been confirmed. Also, in many other types of armchair CNSs at the Fermi level, related levels cross each other, illustrating metallic characteristics. On the other hand, our numerical results show small band gaps for zigzag types of CNSs, which means that they are semiconductors. However, it cannot be considered as a general occurrence because only in rare circumstances is a very small band gap observed that gives rise to semimetallic CNSs. In addition, the electrical properties of chiral CNSs are explored. Small band gaps between the associated valence and the conduction band reveals that chiral CNSs mainly exhibit semiconducting behaviour. Finally, all the numerical results are tabulated in the form of a CNS periodic table and a symmetric arrangement with respect to the armchair nanoscrolls and as a table diagonal data for the chiral CNSs is noticed. In addition, this investigation highlights the variations of the energy structure of chiral CNSs with respect to their length. Presented results offer significant potential for chiral CNSs as an alternative to silicon-based sensors in nanotechnology. Therefore, the band gap variations in the presence of attached materials as a sensor platform need to be explored.
Electrical Property Analytical Prediction on Archimedes Chiral Carbon Nanoscrolls
Hassanzadazar, M.; Ahmadi, M. T.; Ismail, Razali; Goudarzi, Hadi
2016-10-01
Carbon nanoscrolls (CNS) with flexible exterior areas and interesting electrical and mechanical properties have gained interest in recent years, both experimentally and theoretically. These structures have been employed as ion channels, tunable water channels, molecular sensors, and gene and drug distribution systems. In this study, electrical behaviour of all types of CNS containing armchair, zigzag, and chiral CNSs band structure is investigated. In armchair CNSs, the small band gap among valence and the conduction band as a pseudo-gap are reported, which reveals a semimetallic property for some of these CNSs. This small band gap, as a result of layer interaction, has been confirmed. Also, in many other types of armchair CNSs at the Fermi level, related levels cross each other, illustrating metallic characteristics. On the other hand, our numerical results show small band gaps for zigzag types of CNSs, which means that they are semiconductors. However, it cannot be considered as a general occurrence because only in rare circumstances is a very small band gap observed that gives rise to semimetallic CNSs. In addition, the electrical properties of chiral CNSs are explored. Small band gaps between the associated valence and the conduction band reveals that chiral CNSs mainly exhibit semiconducting behaviour. Finally, all the numerical results are tabulated in the form of a CNS periodic table and a symmetric arrangement with respect to the armchair nanoscrolls and as a table diagonal data for the chiral CNSs is noticed. In addition, this investigation highlights the variations of the energy structure of chiral CNSs with respect to their length. Presented results offer significant potential for chiral CNSs as an alternative to silicon-based sensors in nanotechnology. Therefore, the band gap variations in the presence of attached materials as a sensor platform need to be explored.
Analysis of parity doublet in medium mass nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although the nuclear shape co-existence for various mass regions of the periodic table is a well known phenomena, it remains an interesting investigation till today. On the other hand, the existence of parity doublet is relatively new. The origin and manifestation of such an interesting observable is not yet known clearly. It is reported that the parity doublet is not visible in a nucleus with normal deformation or spherical in shape. Here, we have chosen Zr nucleus as a potential candidate both for shape co-existence and study of parity doublets using the well known relativistic mean field (RMF) formalism and to take care of the pairing correlation, the constant gap BCS-approach is used in our calculations
Flavour constraints on multi-Higgs-doublet models: Yukawa alignment
Pich, Antonio
2010-01-01
In multi-Higgs-doublet models, the alignment in flavour space of all Yukawa matrices coupling to a given right-handed fermion guarantees the absence of tree-level flavour-changing neutral couplings, while introducing new sources of CP violation. With N Higgs doublets (and no right-handed neutrinos) the Yukawa Lagrangian is characterized by the fermion masses, the CKM quark mixing matrix and 3(N-1) complex couplings. Quantum corrections break the alignment, generating a minimal-flavour-violation structure with flavour-blind phases. The aligned multi-Higgs-doublet models lead to a rich and viable phenomenology with an interesting hierarchy of flavour-changing neutral current effects, suppressing them in light-quark systems while allowing potentially relevant signals in heavy-quark transitions.
Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong
2016-06-01
Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.
Anomalous chiral superfluidity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lublinsky, Michael, E-mail: lublinsky@phys.uconn.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zahed, Ismail [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)
2010-02-08
We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavor anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is briefly noted.
Sen, Srimoyee
2016-01-01
We study shock waves in relativistic chiral matter. We argue that the conventional Rankine- Hugoinot relations are modified due to the presence of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the entropy discontinuity in a weak shock wave is linearly proportional to the pressure discontinuity when the effect of chiral transport becomes sufficiently large. We also show that rarefaction shock waves, which do not exist in usual nonchiral fluids, can appear in chiral matter. These features are exemplified by shock propagation in dense neutrino matter in the hydrodynamic regime.
Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...
Singlet scalar Dark Matter in Dark Two Higgs Doublet Model
Gaitan, R; de Oca, J H Montes
2014-01-01
We consider the case of the Dark Two Higgs Doublet Model (D2HDM) where a $U(1)'$ symmetry group and an extra Higgs doublet are added to the Standard Model. This model leads to a gauge singlet particle as an interesting Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We obtain phenomenological constraints to the parameter space of the model considering the one necessary to produce the correct density of thermal relic dark matter $\\Omega h^2$. We find a relation between the masses of the DM matter candidate $m_S$ and $m_{Z'}$ that satisfy the relic density for given values of $\\tan\\beta$.
Two Higgs doublet models with an $S_3$ symmetry
Cogollo, D
2016-01-01
We study all implementations of the $S_3$ symmetry in the two Higgs doublet model with quarks, consistent with non-zero quark masses and a Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix which is not block diagonal. We study the impact of the various soft-breaking terms and vacuum expectation values, and find an interesting relation between $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$. We also show that, in this minimal setting, only two types of assignments are possible: either all field sectors are in singlets or all field sectors have a doublet.
Two-Higgs-doublet models with Minimal Flavour Violation
Carlucci, Maria Valentina
2010-01-01
The tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents in the two-Higgs-doublet models can be suppressed by protecting the breaking of either flavour or flavour-blind symmetries, but only the first choice, implemented by the application of the Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis, is stable under quantum corrections. Moreover, a two-Higgs-doublet model with Minimal Flavour Violation enriched with flavour-blind phases can explain the anomalies recently found in the Delta F = 2 transitions, namely the large CP-violating phase in B_s mixing and the tension between epsilon_K and S_\\psi_K.
Chiba, Y; Kimura, M
2016-01-01
[Background] Various cluster states of astrophysical interest are expected to exist in the excited states of $^{28}{\\rm Si}$. However, they have not been identified firmly, because of the experimental and theoretical difficulties. [Purpose] To establish the $^{24}$Mg+$\\alpha$, $^{16}$O+$^{12}$C and $^{20}$Ne+2$\\alpha$ cluster bands, we theoretically search for the negative-parity cluster bands that are paired with the positive-parity bands to constitute the inversion doublets. We also offer the isoscalar monopole and dipole transitions as a promising probe for the clustering. We numerically show that these transition strengths from the ground state to the cluster states are very enhanced. [Method] The antisymmetrized molecular dynamics with Gogny D1S effective interaction is employed to calculate the excited states of $^{28}{\\rm Si}$. The isoscalar monopole and dipole transition strengths are directly evaluated from wave functions of the ground and excited states. [Results] Negative-parity bands having $^{24}...
The IMF-sensitive 1.14-micron Na I doublet in early-type galaxies
Smith, Russell J; Lucey, John R; Conroy, Charlie; Carter, David
2015-01-01
We present J-band spectroscopy of passive galaxies focusing on the Na I doublet at 1.14 {\\mu}m. Like the Na I 0.82 {\\mu}m doublet, this feature is strong in low-mass stars and hence may provide a useful probe of the initial mass function (IMF). From high signal-to-noise composite spectra, we find that Na I 1.14 {\\mu}m increases steeply with increasing velocity dispersion, {\\sigma}, and for the most massive galaxies (\\sigma > 300 km/s) is much stronger than predicted from synthetic spectra with Milky-Way-like IMFs and solar abundances. Reproducing Na I 1.14 {\\mu}m at high {\\sigma} likely requires either a very high [Na/H], or a bottom-heavy IMF, or a combination of both. Using the Na D line to break the degeneracy between IMF and abundance, we infer [Na/H] $\\approx$ +0.5 and a steep IMF (single-slope-equivalent x $\\approx$ 3.2, where x = 2.35 for Salpeter), for the high-\\sigma galaxies. At lower mass ({\\sigma} = 50-100 km/s), the line strengths are compatible with MW-like IMFs and near-solar [Na/H]. We highlig...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, Lorentzian wormholes with a phantom field and chiral matter fields have been obtained. In addition, it is shown that for different values of the gravitational coupling of the chiral fields, the wormhole geometry changes. Finally, the stability of the corresponding wormholes is studied and it is shown that are unstable (eg. Ellis's wormhole instability)
Muscle fatigue induced by stimulation with and without doublets
Bigland-Ritchie, B; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK
2000-01-01
Muscles are usually stimulated by shocks delivered at some constant rate. However, human thenar motor units generate optimum force per pulse when excited by impulse trains that begin with one or two short interpulse intervals ("doublets"), followed by longer intervals. Our aim was to determine wheth
The influence of reservoir heterogeneities on geothermal doublet performance
Doddema, Leon
2012-01-01
SUMMARY The current main problem with deep geothermal energy in the Netherlands is the uncertainty in terms of attainable flow rate and life time. The goal of this research is therefore modeling a geothermal doublet in a heterogeneous reservoir, using a
Dark matter with topological defects in the Inert Doublet Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hindmarsh, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex,Falmer Hill, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki University, P.O. Box 64, Helsinki, 00014 (Finland); Kirk, Russell [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway University of London,Egham Hill, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); No, Jose Miguel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex,Falmer Hill, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); West, Stephen M. [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway University of London,Egham Hill, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)
2015-05-26
We examine the production of dark matter by decaying topological defects in the high mass region m{sub DM}≫m{sub W} of the Inert Doublet Model, extended with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry. The density of dark matter states (the neutral Higgs states of the inert doublet) is determined by the interplay of the freeze-out mechanism and the additional production of dark matter states from the decays of topological defects, in this case cosmic strings. These decays increase the predicted relic abundance compared to the standard freeze-out only case, and as a consequence the viable parameter space of the Inert Doublet Model can be widened substantially. In particular, for a given dark matter annihilation rate lower dark matter masses become viable. We investigate the allowed mass range taking into account constraints on the energy injection rate from the diffuse γ-ray background and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, together with constraints on the dark matter properties coming from direct and indirect detection limits. For the Inert Doublet Model high-mass region, an inert Higgs mass as low as ∼200 GeV is permitted. There is also an upper limit on string mass per unit length, and hence the symmetry breaking scale, from the relic abundance in this scenario. Depending on assumptions made about the string decays, the limits are in the range 10{sup 12} GeV to 10{sup 13} GeV.
Dark matter with topological defects in the Inert Doublet Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the production of dark matter by decaying topological defects in the high mass region mDM≫mW of the Inert Doublet Model, extended with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry. The density of dark matter states (the neutral Higgs states of the inert doublet) is determined by the interplay of the freeze-out mechanism and the additional production of dark matter states from the decays of topological defects, in this case cosmic strings. These decays increase the predicted relic abundance compared to the standard freeze-out only case, and as a consequence the viable parameter space of the Inert Doublet Model can be widened substantially. In particular, for a given dark matter annihilation rate lower dark matter masses become viable. We investigate the allowed mass range taking into account constraints on the energy injection rate from the diffuse γ-ray background and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, together with constraints on the dark matter properties coming from direct and indirect detection limits. For the Inert Doublet Model high-mass region, an inert Higgs mass as low as ∼200 GeV is permitted. There is also an upper limit on string mass per unit length, and hence the symmetry breaking scale, from the relic abundance in this scenario. Depending on assumptions made about the string decays, the limits are in the range 1012 GeV to 1013 GeV
Chiral Magnetic "Superfluidity"
Sadofyev, Andrey V
2015-01-01
We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for superfluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will {\\it not} contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit the behavior of 'superfluidity" -- the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analog to the case of a superfluid. However, this "superfluidity" exists even for chiral media at finite temperature and only in the directional longitudinal with the magnetic field, in contrast to the ordinary superfluid. We will call this novel phenomenon as the Chiral Magnetic "Superfluidity". We demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion ...
Chiral Magnetic Effect and Chiral Phase Transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Wei-Jie; LIU Yu-Xin; WU Yue-Liang
2011-01-01
We study the influence of the chiral phase transition on the chiral magnetic effect.The azimuthal chargeparticle correlations as functions of the temperature are calculated.It is found that there is a pronounced cusp in the correlations as the temperature reaches its critical value for the QCD phase transition.It is predicted that there will be a drastic suppression of the charge-particle correlations as the collision energy in RHIC decreases to below a critical value.We show then the azimuthal charge-particle correlations can be the signal to identify the occurrence of the QCD phase transitions in RHIC energy scan experiments.
Effects of fluid propagation on occurrence of doublet earthquakes
Mastrolembo V., Brunella; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Urpi, Luca; Rivalta, Eleonora; Passarelli, Luigi
2016-04-01
Most earthquake sequences consist of a main large event preceded and followed by a series of smaller magnitude quakes commonly referred as to fore- and after-shocks. However, seismic catalogs report many examples of earthquake sequences featuring two or more main events of comparable magnitude Such events are often referred as doublet earthquakes and are particularly observed in environments characterized by a large number of faults. Doublet earthquakes occur all over the world representing a significant issue in terms of seismic hazard assessment after large events. Some examples of doublets are: the 2012 Emilia-Romagna sequence (Italy), during which a magnitude 5.9 event occurred on May 20th, followed by a magnitude 5.8 event on May 29th; the 1992 Landers earthquake in California, which has been associated to the Big Bear earthquake, that hit about three hours later after the mainshock; the 2006 November 15th M8.3 event along the Kuril arc followed by a M8.1 event on 13 January 2007 is one of the largest great doublet earthquake on record. The spatial distribution of aftershocks usually well correlates with the coseismic (static) Coulomb stress change, while the observed time delay of aftershocks, as well as their diffusive-like behavior, have been explained as due to additional physical processes such as post-seismic relaxation, afterslip, poro-elastic effect, as well as induced fluid propagation. In this work we first perform an analysis of the available worldwide seismic catalogs in order to identify a number of doublet earthquakes based on a spatial and temporal distance correlation. Then we perform a parametric study to identify the main characteristics of every couple of events and extrapolate the common relations between time delay, hypocentral distances, geological, as well as hydrogeological parameters and fluids content. Numerical simulations are then carried out to study the time delay occurring between two events as related to hydrogeological and
Focusing properties of a square electrostatic rainbow lens doublet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Telečki Igor N.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This is a study on the properties of a square electrostatic rainbow lens doublet. The said optical element consists of two square electrostatic rainbow lenses with the second lens axially rotated for 45 degrees with respect to the first one. The propagation of a proton beam with a kinetic energy of 10 keV through the doublet is in the focus of our analysis. The potential of the electrodes of both lenses is 2 kV. The electrostatic potential and the electric field components of the lens doublet are calculated using a 3-D computer code based on the method of moments. Spatial and angular distributions of protons propagating through the lens doublet, as well as the parameters defining beam quality, are investigated. As in the case of the single square electrostatic rainbow lens, the evolution of these distributions is determined by the evolution of corresponding rainbow lines, generated by the use of the theory of crystal rainbows. Our study shows that a beam core in the shape of a cusped square is formed by the spatial rainbow line that appears first. This rainbow line occurs during proton propagation through the first lens. The beam core retains the cusped square shape during the propagation through the second lens. The electrostatic field of the second lens causes the appearance of an additional spatial rainbow line, which encompasses the beam core and defines the outer border of the beam. This rainbow line constitutes the main difference between the cases of the lens doublet and a single lens. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45006
Non-Kramer's doublet ground state in PrPtBi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PrPtBi is found to crystallize in the cubic MgAgAs-type structure. At the specific heat, an anomaly appears at about 1.35 K, the temperature at which the entropy approaches the value ∼Rln2. Data on the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility suggest that the crystalline-electric-field (C.E.F) ground state of PrPtBi is the non-Kramer's doublet Γ3. Below about 2.5 K, we observe a huge softening of the elastic constant CT, which suggests the onset of electric quadrupolar ordering. The Hall constant gives evidence that PrPtBi is a low-carrier system, as suggested from band calculations. (author)
Applications of chiral symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pisarski, R.D.
1995-03-01
The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.
Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan
2016-03-01
We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N = (4 , 4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T 4, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.
Bourget, Antoine
2015-01-01
We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N=(4,4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T4, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.
Catalysis of Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking by Chiral Chemical Potential
Braguta, V V
2016-01-01
In this paper we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parameterized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus the chiral chemical potential plays a role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.
Novozhilov, V Yu; Novozhilov, Victor; Novozhilov, Yuri
2002-01-01
We discuss specific features of color chiral solitons (asymptotics, possibility of confainment, quantization) at example of isolated SU(2) color skyrmions, i.e. skyrmions in a background field which is the vacuum field forming the gluon condensate.
Automatic extraction of candidate nomenclature terms using the doublet method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berman Jules J
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background New terminology continuously enters the biomedical literature. How can curators identify new terms that can be added to existing nomenclatures? The most direct method, and one that has served well, involves reading the current literature. The scholarly curator adds new terms as they are encountered. Present-day scholars are severely challenged by the enormous volume of biomedical literature. Curators of medical nomenclatures need computational assistance if they hope to keep their terminologies current. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of rapidly extracting new, candidate terms from huge volumes of biomedical text. The resulting lists of terms can be quickly reviewed by curators and added to nomenclatures, if appropriate. The candidate term extractor uses a variation of the previously described doublet coding method. The algorithm, which operates on virtually any nomenclature, derives from the observation that most terms within a knowledge domain are composed entirely of word combinations found in other terms from the same knowledge domain. Terms can be expressed as sequences of overlapping word doublets that have more specific meaning than the individual words that compose the term. The algorithm parses through text, finding contiguous sequences of word doublets that are known to occur somewhere in the reference nomenclature. When a sequence of matching word doublets is encountered, it is compared with whole terms already included in the nomenclature. If the doublet sequence is not already in the nomenclature, it is extracted as a candidate new term. Candidate new terms can be reviewed by a curator to determine if they should be added to the nomenclature. An implementation of the algorithm is demonstrated, using a corpus of published abstracts obtained through the National Library of Medicine's PubMed query service and using "The developmental lineage classification and taxonomy of neoplasms" as a reference
A search for close-mass lepton doublet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Described is a search for a heavy charged lepton with an associated neutrino of nearly the same mass, together known as a close-mass lepton doublet. The search is conducted in e+e/sup/minus// annihilation data taken with the Mark II detector at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. In order to suppress contamination from conventional two-photon reactions, the search applies a novel, radiative-tagging technique. Requiring the presence of an isolated, energetic photon allows exploration for lepton doublets with a mass splitting smaller than that previously accessible to experiment. No evidence for such a new lepton has been found, enabling limits to be placed on allowed mass combinations. Mass differences as low as 250-300 MeV are excluded for charged lepton masses up to 10 GeV. 78 refs., 64 figs., 8 tabs
ATLAS diboson excesses from the stealth doublet model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Chao
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The ATLAS Collaboration has reported excesses in diboson invariant mass searches of new resonances around 2 TeV, which might be a prediction of new physics around that mass range. We interpret these results in the context of a modified stealth doublet model where the extra Higgs doublet has a Yukawa interaction with the first generation quarks, and show that the heavy CP-even Higgs boson can naturally explain the excesses in the WW and ZZ channels with a small Yukawa coupling, ξ∼0.15, and a tiny mixing angle with the SM Higgs boson, α∼0.05. Furthermore, the model satisfies constraints from colliders and electroweak precision measurements.
A search for close-mass lepton doublet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riles, J.K.
1989-04-01
Described is a search for a heavy charged lepton with an associated neutrino of nearly the same mass, together known as a close-mass lepton doublet. The search is conducted in e/sup +/e/sup/minus// annihilation data taken with the Mark II detector at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. In order to suppress contamination from conventional two-photon reactions, the search applies a novel, radiative-tagging technique. Requiring the presence of an isolated, energetic photon allows exploration for lepton doublets with a mass splitting smaller than that previously accessible to experiment. No evidence for such a new lepton has been found, enabling limits to be placed on allowed mass combinations. Mass differences as low as 250-300 MeV are excluded for charged lepton masses up to 10 GeV. 78 refs., 64 figs., 8 tabs.
A Three Higgs Doublet Model for Fermion Masses
Chao, Wei
2016-09-01
In this paper we propose a possible explanation to the Fermion mass hierarchy problem by fitting the type-II seesaw mechanism into the Higgs doublet sector, such that their vacuum expectation values are hierarchal. We extend the Standard Model with two extra Higgs doublets as well as a spontaneously broken UX (1) gauge symmetry. All the fermion Yukawa couplings except that of the top quark are of O}(10-2) in our model. Constraints on the parameter space of the model from low energy processes are studied. Besides, the lightest one of the neutral fermion fields, which is introduced to cancel the anomalies of the U(1)X gauge symmetry can be the cold dark matter candidate. We investigate its signature in the dark matter direct detection. Supported in part by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goldstein Gary R.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nucleon spin structure, transversity and the tensor charge are of central importance to understanding the role of QCD in hadronic physics. A new approach to measuring orbital angular momenta of quarks in the proton via twist 3 GPDs is shown. The “flexible parametrization” of chiral even GPDs is reviewed and its transformation into the chiral odd sector is discussed. The resulting parametrization is applied to recent data on π0 and η electroproduction.
Chiral separation in microflows
Kostur, Marcin; Schindler, Michael; Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter
2005-01-01
Molecules that only differ by their chirality, so called enantiomers, often possess different properties with respect to their biological function. Therefore, the separation of enantiomers presents a prominent challenge in molecular biology and belongs to the ``Holy Grail'' of organic chemistry. We suggest a new separation technique for chiral molecules that is based on the transport properties in a microfluidic flow with spatially variable vorticity. Because of their size the thermal fluctua...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonner, W.A. [Department of Chemistry Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
1996-07-01
The indispensable role played by homochirality and chiral homogeneity in the self-replication of crucial biomolecules is stressed, with the conclusion that life could neither exist nor originate without these chiral molecular attributes. Hypotheses historically proposed for the origin of chiral molecules on Earth are reviewed, including biogenic theories as well as abiotic theories embracing both indeterminate and determinate mechanisms. Indeterminate mechanisms, including autocatalytic symmetry breaking, asymmetric adsorption on quartz and clay minerals, and asymmetric syntheses in chiral crystals, are discussed and evaluated in the context of the prebiotic environment. Abiotic determinate mechanisms based on electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, on circularly polarized light (CPL), and on parity violation effects are summarized, with the emphasis that only CPL has proved practicable experimentally, but that it would be implausible on the primitive Earth. Mechanisms for the amplification of small, indigenous enantiomeric excesses are discussed, with one involving the partial polymerization of amino acids and the partial hydrolysis of polypeptides suggested as potentially viable prebiotically. Aspects of the turbulent, chirality-destructive primeval environment are described, with the conclusion that all of the above mechanisms for the {ital terrestrial} prebiotic origin of chirality would be non-viable, and that an alternative extraterrestrial source for the accumulation of chiral molecules on primitive Earth must have been operative. A scenario for this is outlined, in which we postulate that asymmetric photolysis of the organic mantles on interstellar grains in molecular clouds by circularly polarized ultraviolet synchrotron radiation from the neutron star remnants of supernovae produces chiral molecules in the grain mantles. (Abstract Truncated)
Localized excitations in superconducting point contacts: probing the Andreev doublet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Josephson effect describes the coherent coupling between superconductors and the resulting supercurrent. Microscopically, it arises from the existence of discrete quasiparticle states, localized at the weak link, the Andreev bound states. They come in doublets in each conduction channel of the weak link, with energies symmetric about the Fermi energy and opposite supercurrents. Each Andreev doublet gives rise to four states: the ground state |-> and the excited state |+>, with even parity, and the excited odd states |↑> and |↓>. Is it possible to address and control Andreev doublets? This thesis describes two sets of experiments designed to answer this question using the most basic Josephson element, a one-atom contact between two superconducting electrodes. In a first experiment, we have observed and characterized the excited odd states |↑> and |↓>. As expected for a spin-degenerate system, they do not carry supercurrent. In this experiment the excitation was uncontrolled and resulted from trapping of spurious quasiparticles. We have measured the lifetime of the odd states: under some condition, it is found to exceed 100 μs. The second experiment is a photon-absorption spectroscopy of the Andreev doublet. It was performed by using a Josephson junction as an integrated on-chip microwave emitter and detector. The observed Andreev transitions correspond to excitation from the ground state |->to the excited even state |+>, and are well accounted for by our quantum model. This result opens the way to coherent manipulation of this two level system. The direct observation of the excited Andreev state, either by quasiparticle-injection or photon-absorption, strongly supports the mesoscopic theory of the Josephson effect. It shows that in addition to the phase difference, each channel of a Josephson weak link possesses an internal fermionic degree of freedom. It could be used to code information in a novel type of superconducting qubit. (author)
Searching for Signs of the Second Higgs Doublet
Craig, Nathaniel; GALLOWAY, JAMISON; Thomas, Scott
2013-01-01
The search for evidence of extended electroweak symmetry breaking has entered a new phase with the discovery of a Standard Model (SM)-like Higgs at the LHC. The measurement of Higgs couplings and direct searches for additional scalars provide complementary avenues for the discovery of new degrees of freedom. This complementarity is particularly sharp in two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) where the couplings of the SM-like Higgs may be directly related to the LHC signals of additional scalars. I...
Perturbative Unitarity Bounds in Composite 2-Higgs Doublet Models
De Curtis, Stefania; Yagyu, Kei; Yildirim, Emine
2016-01-01
We study bounds from perturbative unitarity in a Composite 2-Higgs Doublet Model (C2HDM) based on the spontaneous breakdown of a global symmetry $SO(6)\\to SO(4)\\times SO(2)$ at the compositeness scale $f$. The eight pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons (pNGBs) emerging from such a dynamics are identified as two isospin doublet Higgs fields. We calculate the $S$-wave amplitude for all possible 2-to-2-body elastic (pseudo)scalar boson scatterings at energy scales $\\sqrt{s}$ reachable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and beyond it, including the longitudinal components of weak gauge boson states as the corresponding pNGB states. In our calculation, the Higgs potential is assumed to have the same form as that in the Elementary 2-Higgs Doublet Model (E2HDM) with a discrete $Z_2$ symmetry, which is expected to be generated at the one-loop level via the Coleman-Weinberg (CW) mechanism. We find that the $S$-wave amplitude matrix can be block-diagonalized with maximally $2\\times 2$ submatrices in a way similar to the E2HDM...
Chiral electron transport in CVD bilayer graphene
Lee, Kyunghoon; Eo, Yun Suk; Kurdak, Cagliyan; Zhong, Zhaohui
2014-03-01
Charge carriers in bilayer graphene have a parabolic energy spectrum. Due to this band structure they are massive quasiparticles having a finite density of state at zero energy like other non-relativistic charge carriers in conventional two dimensional materials. However, they are massive Dirac fermions which have a chiral nature similar to the case of massless Dirac fermions in single layer graphene. Coupling of pseudospin and motion of charge carrier via chirality can result in dramatic consequence for transport in bipolar regime like Klein tunneling, Fabry-Perot interference, collimation of charge carrier, Veslago lens, etc. However, little attention has been paid to chiral dependent electron transport in bilayer graphene. Here we study these properties by probing phase coherent transport behavior in CVD bilayer graphene devices with sub-200nm channel length. Complex Fabry-Perot interference patterns are observed in resonant cavities defined by local gating. By applying Fourier analysis technique, we successfully analyze and identify the origin of each individual interference pattern in bipolar and monopolar regime. Our initial results also hint at the observation of cloaking of electronic states against chiral electrons in bilayer graphene.
Band gaps of primary metallic carbon nanotubes
Kleiner, Alex; Eggert, Sebastian
2000-01-01
Primary metallic, or small gap semiconducting nanotubes, are tubes with band gaps that arise solely from breaking the bond symmetry due to the curvature. We derive an analytic expression for these gaps by considering how a general symmetry breaking opens a gap in nanotubes with a well defined chiral wrapping vector. This approach provides a straightforward way to include all types of symmetry breaking effects, resulting in a simple unified gap equation as a function of chirality and deformati...
Screw split ring resonator as building block of three-dimensional chiral metamaterials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Yong, E-mail: liaoy@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerocraft Tracking Telemetering and Command and Communication, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xian 710071 (China); Yang, Shizhong [Key Laboratory of Aerocraft Tracking Telemetering and Command and Communication, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shi, Lina [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices and Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)
2014-01-17
We proposed and numerically investigated the influence of spatial topology on the infrared frequency region response of chiral metamaterials based on discrete deformed split ring resonators. Compared with the well studied continuous helix, the proposed metamaterials with discrete topology exhibit broad band chiral electromagnetic response. It is shown that the conversion between left and right circular polarization waves for our model is much broader than the continuous helix model. The observed cross-coupling between electric and magnetic fields results from the chiral electric currents on the resonators due to the broken mirror symmetry. The findings are useful for the design of future real three-dimensional chiral metamaterials with tunable optical response.
Continuum model for chiral induced spin selectivity in helical molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Medina, Ernesto [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); González-Arraga, Luis A. [IMDEA Nanoscience, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Finkelstein-Shapiro, Daniel; Mujica, Vladimiro [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Berche, Bertrand [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)
2015-05-21
A minimal model is exactly solved for electron spin transport on a helix. Electron transport is assumed to be supported by well oriented p{sub z} type orbitals on base molecules forming a staircase of definite chirality. In a tight binding interpretation, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) opens up an effective π{sub z} − π{sub z} coupling via interbase p{sub x,y} − p{sub z} hopping, introducing spin coupled transport. The resulting continuum model spectrum shows two Kramers doublet transport channels with a gap proportional to the SOC. Each doubly degenerate channel satisfies time reversal symmetry; nevertheless, a bias chooses a transport direction and thus selects for spin orientation. The model predicts (i) which spin orientation is selected depending on chirality and bias, (ii) changes in spin preference as a function of input Fermi level and (iii) back-scattering suppression protected by the SO gap. We compute the spin current with a definite helicity and find it to be proportional to the torsion of the chiral structure and the non-adiabatic Aharonov-Anandan phase. To describe room temperature transport, we assume that the total transmission is the result of a product of coherent steps.
Phenomenology of the Inert (2+1) and (4+2) Higgs Doublet Models
Keus, Venus; Moretti, Stefano
2014-01-01
We make a phenomenological study of a model with two inert doublets plus one Higgs doublet (I(2+1)HDM) which is symmetric under a Z$_2$ group, preserved after Electro-Weak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB) by the vacuum alignment $(0,0,v)$. This model may be regarded as an extension to the model with one inert doublet plus one Higgs doublet (I(1+1)HDM), by the addition of an extra inert scalar doublet. The neutral fields from the two inert doublets provide a viable Dark Matter (DM) candidate which is stabilised by the conserved $Z_2$ symmetry. We study the new Higgs decay channels offered by the scalar fields from the extra doublets and their effect on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs couplings, including a new decay channel into photon(s) plus missing energy, which distinguishes the I(2+1)HDM from the I(1+1)HDM. Motivated by Supersymmetry, which requires an even number of doublets, we then extend this model into a model with four inert doublets plus two Higgs doublets (I(4+2)HDM) and study the phenomenology of the model...
Chiral anomalies and differential geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zumino, B.
1983-10-01
Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)
Negative magnetoresistance without well-defined chirality in the Weyl semimetal TaP.
Arnold, Frank; Shekhar, Chandra; Wu, Shu-Chun; Sun, Yan; Dos Reis, Ricardo Donizeth; Kumar, Nitesh; Naumann, Marcel; Ajeesh, Mukkattu O; Schmidt, Marcus; Grushin, Adolfo G; Bardarson, Jens H; Baenitz, Michael; Sokolov, Dmitry; Borrmann, Horst; Nicklas, Michael; Felser, Claudia; Hassinger, Elena; Yan, Binghai
2016-01-01
Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are topological quantum states wherein the electronic bands disperse linearly around pairs of nodes with fixed chirality, the Weyl points. In WSMs, nonorthogonal electric and magnetic fields induce an exotic phenomenon known as the chiral anomaly, resulting in an unconventional negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, the chiral-magnetic effect. However, it remains an open question to which extent this effect survives when chirality is not well-defined. Here, we establish the detailed Fermi-surface topology of the recently identified WSM TaP via combined angle-resolved quantum-oscillation spectra and band-structure calculations. The Fermi surface forms banana-shaped electron and hole pockets surrounding pairs of Weyl points. Although this means that chirality is ill-defined in TaP, we observe a large negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. We show that the magnetoresistance can be affected by a magnetic field-induced inhomogeneous current distribution inside the sample. PMID:27186980
Negative magnetoresistance without well-defined chirality in the Weyl semimetal TaP
Arnold, Frank; Shekhar, Chandra; Wu, Shu-Chun; Sun, Yan; Dos Reis, Ricardo Donizeth; Kumar, Nitesh; Naumann, Marcel; Ajeesh, Mukkattu O.; Schmidt, Marcus; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Bardarson, Jens H.; Baenitz, Michael; Sokolov, Dmitry; Borrmann, Horst; Nicklas, Michael; Felser, Claudia; Hassinger, Elena; Yan, Binghai
2016-05-01
Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are topological quantum states wherein the electronic bands disperse linearly around pairs of nodes with fixed chirality, the Weyl points. In WSMs, nonorthogonal electric and magnetic fields induce an exotic phenomenon known as the chiral anomaly, resulting in an unconventional negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, the chiral-magnetic effect. However, it remains an open question to which extent this effect survives when chirality is not well-defined. Here, we establish the detailed Fermi-surface topology of the recently identified WSM TaP via combined angle-resolved quantum-oscillation spectra and band-structure calculations. The Fermi surface forms banana-shaped electron and hole pockets surrounding pairs of Weyl points. Although this means that chirality is ill-defined in TaP, we observe a large negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. We show that the magnetoresistance can be affected by a magnetic field-induced inhomogeneous current distribution inside the sample.
Chiral Electroweak Currents in Nuclei
Riska, D O
2016-01-01
The development of the chiral dynamics based description of nuclear electroweak currents is reviewed. Gerald E. (Gerry) Brown's role in basing theoretical nuclear physics on chiral Lagrangians is emphasized. Illustrative examples of the successful description of electroweak observables of light nuclei obtained from chiral effective field theory are presented.
Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses
Feringa, Bernard
1988-01-01
The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the implicatio
The triton with long-range chiral N3LO three nucleon forces
Skibinski, R; Topolnicki, K; Witala, H; Epelbaum, E; Gloeckle, W; Krebs, H; Nogga, A; Kamada, H
2011-01-01
Long-range contributions to the three-nucleon force that have been recently worked out in chiral effective field theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order are for the first time included in the triton and the doublet nucleon-deuteron scattering length calculations. The strengths of the two short-range terms available at this order in the chiral expansion are determined from the triton binding energy and the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length. The structure of the resulting three-nucleon force is explored and effects for the two-nucleon correlation function in the triton are investigated. Expectation values of the individual contributions to the three-nucleon force in the triton are found to be in the range from a few 100 keV to about 1 MeV. Our study demonstrates that the very complicated operator structure of the novel chiral three-nucleon forces can be successively implemented in three-nucleon Faddeev calculations.
Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model confronts the LHC 750 GeV diphoton anomaly
Huang, Wei-Chih; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2016-08-01
In light of the recent 750 GeV diphoton anomaly observed at the LHC, we study the possibility of accommodating the deviation from the standard model prediction based on the recently proposed Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model. The model embeds two Higgs doublets into a doublet of a non-abelian gauge group SU(2)H, while the standard model SU(2)L right-handed fermion singlets are paired up with new heavy fermions to form SU(2)H doublets, and SU(2)L left-handed fermion doublets are singlets under SU(2)H. An SU(2)H scalar doublet, which provides masses to the new heavy fermions as well as the SU(2)H gauge bosons, can be produced via gluon fusion and subsequently decays into two photons with the new fermions circulating the triangle loops to account for the deviation from the standard model prediction.
Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model confronts the LHC 750 GeV di-photon anomaly
Huang, Wei-Chih; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2015-01-01
In light of the recent 750 GeV di-photon anomaly observed at the LHC, we check the possibility of accommodating the deviation from the Standard Model~(SM) prediction based on the Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model, which has been proposed lately. The model embeds two Higgs doublets into a doublet of a non-abelian gauge group $SU(2)_H$, while the SM $SU(2)_L$ right-handed fermion singlets are paired up with new heavy fermions to form $SU(2)_H$ doublets, and $SU(2)_L$ left-handed fermion doublets are singlets under $SU(2)_H$. An $SU(2)_H$ scalar doublet, which provides a mass to the new heavy fermions as well as the $SU(2)_H$ gauge bosons, can be produced via gluon fusion and subsequently decays into two photons with the help of the new fermions to account for the deviation from the SM prediction.
Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter
2016-01-01
At the most fundamental level, the interaction between light and matter is manifested by the emission and absorption of single photons by single quantum emitters. Controlling light--matter interaction is the basis for diverse applications ranging from light technology to quantum--information processing. Many of these applications are nowadays based on photonic nanostructures strongly benefitting from their scalability and integrability. The confinement of light in such nanostructures imposes an inherent link between the local polarization and propagation direction of light. This leads to {\\em chiral light--matter interaction}, i.e., the emission and absorption of photons depend on the propagation direction and local polarization of light as well as the polarization of the emitter transition. The burgeoning research field of {\\em chiral quantum optics} offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications both for single emitters and ensembles thereof. For instance, a chiral light--matter interface enables...
Holographic Chiral Magnetic Spiral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the ground state of baryonic/axial matter at zero temperature chiral-symmetry broken phase under a large magnetic field, in the framework of holographic QCD by Sakai-Sugimoto. Our study is motivated by a recent proposal of chiral magnetic spiral phase that has been argued to be favored against previously studied phase of homogeneous distribution of axial/baryonic currents in terms of meson super-currents dictated by triangle anomalies in QCD. Our results provide an existence proof of chiral magnetic spiral in strong coupling regime via holography, at least for large axial chemical potentials, whereas we don't find the phenomenon in the case of purely baryonic chemical potential. (author)
Repetitive doublet firing of motor units: evidence for plateau potentials in human motoneurones?
Kudina, Lydia P; Andreeva, Regina E
2010-07-01
During voluntary muscle contraction, human motoneurones can exhibit specific discharge patterns: single and repetitive doublets. Delayed depolarization has been accepted as the mechanism underlying single doublets. Repetitive doublet firing has been studied much less and its controlling mechanisms remain obscure. The aim of the present study was to examine properties of repetitive doublets in human motoneurones and to consider their underlying potential mechanisms. It was found that 22 of 41 (53.7%) lower-threshold motor units (MUs) in the trapezius and 15 of 42 (35.7%) MUs in triceps brachii displayed repetitive doublets with the mean interspike intervals (ISIs) of 5.5 +/- 1.1 and 6.4 +/- 2.6 ms, respectively. Each doublet was followed by a prolonged post-doublet ISI. The analysis of properties of repetitive doublets showed that they were typically initiated in quiescent motoneurones rather than in firing ones (appearing just at recruitment in an all-or-none manner) and could only be maintained at a certain level of muscle contraction. Repetitive doublets were interrupted either voluntarily (by the subject), or spontaneously with sudden transition from doublet firing to single discharges-the firing behaviour that may be referred to as a firing-pattern "jump". The properties of doublet firing seem to be consistent with traits of motoneurone firing in the presence of plateau potentials reported in animal studies. It was suggested that the potential mechanisms underlying repetitive doublet firing could include a delayed depolarization as the primary determinant, which likely could become persistent probably due to a plateau potential activated in parallel with a common synaptic input. PMID:20508919
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
H Weigel
2003-11-01
In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark ﬂavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully regularizes the effective action but also leads the scaling laws for structure functions. For the nucleon structure functions the present approach serves to determine the regularization prescription for structure functions whose leading moments are not given by matrix elements of local operators. Some numerical results are presented for the spin structure functions.
Barron, Laurence D.
2008-03-01
Chirality, meaning handedness, pervades much of modern science, from the physics of elementary particles to the chemistry of life. The amino acids and sugars from which the central molecules of life—proteins and nucleic acids—are constructed exhibit homochirality, which is expected to be a key biosignature in astrobiology. This article provides a brief review of molecular chirality and its significance for the detection of extant or extinct life on other worlds. Fundamental symmetry aspects are emphasized since these bring intrinsic physical properties of the universe to bear on the problem of the origin and role of homochirality in the living world.
(1)-covariant gauge for the two-Higgs doublet model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C G Honorato; J J Toscano
2009-12-01
A (1)-covariant gauge for the two-Higgs doublet model based on BRST (Becchi–Rouet–Stora–Tyutin) symmetry is introduced. This gauge allows one to remove a significant number of nonphysical vertices appearing in conventional linear gauges, which greatly simplifies the loop calculations, since the resultant theory satisfies QED-like Ward identities. The presence of four ghost interactions in these types of gauges and their connection with the BRST symmetry are stressed. The Feynman rules for those new vertices that arise in this gauge, as well as for those couplings already present in the linear gauge but that are modified by this gauge-fixing procedure, are presented.
Aspects of Standard Models with Two Higgs Doublets
Cvetic, G.
1994-01-01
We {works done in collaboration with C.S.Kim, Yonsei Univ., Seoul, Korea} present some properties of the SM with two Higgs doublets. Unlike the minimal SM, the Yukawa couplings (in the usual ``type II'' model) converge with the increasing energy to flavor democracy (FD), i.e.~to common values, in a specific flavor basis. This may represent a possible signal of some new, (almost) flavor-blind physics beyond the SM. When imposing the assumption of equality of the corresponding quark and leptoni...
Natural leptogenesis and neutrino masses with two Higgs doublets
Clarke, Jackson D.; Foot, Robert; Volkas, Raymond R.
2015-01-01
The minimal Type I see-saw model cannot explain the observed neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis without ceding naturalness. We show that this conclusion can be avoided by adding a second Higgs doublet with $\\tan\\beta\\gtrsim 4$. The models considered naturally accommodate a SM-like Higgs boson, and predict TeV-scale scalar states and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with $10^3\\text{ GeV}\\lesssim M_{N_1}\\lesssim 10^...
Natural leptogenesis and neutrino masses with two Higgs doublets
Clarke, Jackson D; Volkas, Raymond R
2015-01-01
The minimal Type I see-saw model cannot explain the observed neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis without ceding naturalness. We show that this conclusion can be avoided by adding a second Higgs doublet with $\\tan\\beta\\gtrsim 4$. The models considered naturally accommodate a SM-like Higgs boson, and predict TeV-scale scalar states and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with $10^3\\text{ GeV}\\lesssim M_{N_1}\\lesssim 10^8\\text{ GeV}$.
Search for a lighter Higgs in Two Higgs Doublet Models
Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Gascon, Suzanne; Corre, Solene Le; Lethuillier, Morgan; Tao, Junquan
2016-01-01
We consider present constraints on two Higgs doublet models, both from the LHC at Run 1 and from other sources in order to explore the possibility of constraining a neutral scalar or pseudoscalar particle lighter than the 125 GeV Higgs boson. Contrary to naive expectations, such a lighter particle is not yet completely excluded by present data. We show with a simplified analysis that some new constraints could be obtained at the LHC if such a search is performed by the experimental collaborations.
Chiral Heat Wave and wave mixing in chiral media
Chernodub, M N
2016-01-01
We show that a hot rotating fluid of relativistic chiral fermions possesses a new gapless collective excitation associated with coherent propagation of energy density and chiral density waves along the axis of rotation. This excitation, which we call the Chiral Heat Wave, emerges due to a mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. At finite density the Chiral Heat Wave couples to the Chiral Vortical Wave while in the presence of an external magnetic field it mixes with the Chiral Magnetic Wave. We find that the coupled waves - which are coherent fluctuations of the vector, axial and energy currents - have generally different velocities compared to the velocities of the individual waves. We also demonstrate that rotating chiral systems subjected to external magnetic field possess non-propagating metastable thermal excitations, the Dense Hot Spots.
Molecular architecture of axonemal microtubule doublets revealedby cryo-electron tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sui, Haixin; Downing, Kenneth H.
2006-05-22
The axoneme, which forms the core of eukaryotic flagella and cilia, is one of the largest macromolecular machines with a structure that is largely conserved from protists to mammals. Microtubule doublets are structural components of axonemes containing a number of proteins besides tubulin, and are usually found in arrays of nine doublets arranged around two singlet microtubules. Coordinated sliding of adjacent doublets, which involves a host of other proteins in the axoneme, produces periodic beating movements of the axoneme. We have obtained a 3D density map of intact microtubule doublets using cryo-electron tomography and image averaging. Our map, with a resolution of about 3 nm, provides insights into locations of particular proteins within the doublets and the structural features of the doublets that define their mechanical properties. We identify likely candidates for several of these non-tubulin components of the doublets. This work offers novel insight on how tubulin protofilaments and accessory proteins attach together to form the doublets and provides a structural basis for understanding doublet function in axonemes.
On SU(3 Effective Models and Chiral Phase Transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdel Nasser Tawfik
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Sensitivity of Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL model and Polyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM has been utilized in studying QCD phase-diagram. From quasi-particle model (QPM a gluonic sector is integrated into LSM. The hadron resonance gas (HRG model is used in calculating the thermal and dense dependence of quark-antiquark condensate. We review these four models with respect to their descriptions for the chiral phase transition. We analyze the chiral order parameter, normalized net-strange condensate, and chiral phase-diagram and compare the results with recent lattice calculations. We find that PLSM chiral boundary is located in upper band of the lattice QCD calculations and agree well with the freeze-out results deduced from various high-energy experiments and thermal models. Also, we find that the chiral temperature calculated from HRG is larger than that from PLSM. This is also larger than the freeze-out temperatures calculated in lattice QCD and deduced from experiments and thermal models. The corresponding temperature and chemical potential are very similar to that of PLSM. Although the results from PNJL and QLSM keep the same behavior, their chiral temperature is higher than that of PLSM and HRG. This might be interpreted due the very heavy quark masses implemented in both models.
On SU(3) effective models and chiral phase-transition
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser
2015-01-01
The sensitivity of Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model as an effective theory of quark dynamics to chiral symmetry has been utilized in studying the QCD phase-diagram. Also, Poyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM), in which information about the confining glue sector of the theory was included through Polyakov-loop potential. Furthermore, from quasi-particle model (QPM), the gluonic sector of QPM is integrated to LSM in order to reproduce recent lattice calculations. We review PLSM, QLSM, PNJL and HRG with respect to their descriptions for the chiral phase-transition. We analyse chiral order-parameter M(T), normalized net-strange condensate Delta_{q,s}(T) and chiral phase-diagram and compare the results with lattice QCD. We conclude that PLSM works perfectly in reproducing M(T) and Delta_{q,s}(T). HRG model reproduces Delta_{q,s}(T), while PNJL and QLSM seem to fail. These differences are present in QCD chiral phase-diagram. PLSM chiral boundary is located in upper band of lattice QCD calculations and agree we...
Chiral forces and molecular dissymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiral molecules leading to helical macromolecules seem to preserve information and extend it better. In the biological world RNA is the very paradigm for self-replication, elongation and autocatalytic editing. The nucleic acid itself is not chiral. It acquires its chirality by association with D-sugars. Although the chiral information or selectivity put in by the unit monomer is no longer of much interest to the biologists - they tend to leave it to the Darwinian selection principle to take care of it as illustrated by Frank's model - it is vital to understand the origin of chirality. There are three different approaches for the chiral origin of life: (1) Phenomenological, (2) Electromagnetic molecular and Coriolis forces and (3) Atomic or nuclear force, the neutral weak current. The phenomenological approach involves spontaneous symmetry breaking fluctuations in far for equilibrium systems or nucleation and crystallization. Chance plays a major role in the chiral molecule selected
Classical scale invariance in the inert doublet model
Plascencia, Alexis D
2015-01-01
The inert doublet model (IDM) is a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) that can account for the dark matter in the universe. Naturalness arguments motivate us to study whether the model can be embedded into a theory with dynamically generated scales. In this work we study a classically scale invariant version of the IDM with a minimal hidden sector, which has a $U(1)_{\\text{CW}}$ gauge symmetry and a complex scalar $\\Phi$. The mass scale is generated in the hidden sector via the Coleman-Weinberg (CW) mechanism and communicated to the two Higgs doublets via portal couplings. Since the CW scalar remains light, acquires a vacuum expectation value and mixes with the SM Higgs boson, the phenomenology of this construction can be modified with respect to the traditional IDM. We analyze the impact of adding this CW scalar and the $Z'$ gauge boson on the calculation of the dark matter relic density and on the spin-independent nucleon cross section for direct detection experiments. Finally, by studying the RG ...
Aspects of standard models with two higgs doublets
Cvetic, G
1994-01-01
We {works done in collaboration with C.S.Kim, Yonsei Univ., Seoul, Korea} present some properties of the SM with two Higgs doublets. Unlike the minimal SM, the Yukawa couplings (in the usual ``type II'' model) converge with the increasing energy to flavor democracy (FD), i.e.~to common values, in a specific flavor basis. This may represent a possible signal of some new, (almost) flavor-blind physics beyond the SM. When imposing the assumption of equality of the corresponding quark and leptonic Yukawa couplings at high transition energies, we can estimate the physical mass of the tau-neutrino as a function of m_t and the VEV ratio. Furthermore, such an assumption would effectively rule out the existence of the 4th generation of fermions. We {work done in collaboration with P.Overmann and E.A.Paschos, Dortmund Univ., Germany} also investigated the most general framework of the SM with two Higgs doublets such that no flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNC) occur at the tree level. Finite 1-loop-induced FCNC (and...
Light charged Higgs boson scenario in 3-Higgs doublet models
Akeroyd, A G; Yagyu, Kei; Yildirim, Emine
2016-01-01
The constraints from the measurements of the $B\\to X_s\\gamma$ decay rate on the parameter space of 3-Higgs Doublet Models (3HDMs), where all the doublets have non-zero vacuum expectation values, are studied at the next-to-leading order in QCD. In order to naturally avoid the presence of flavour changing neutral currents at the tree level, we impose two softly-broken discrete $Z_2$ symmetries. This gives rise to five independent types of 3HDMs that differ in their Yukawa couplings. We show that in all these 3HDMs (including the case of type-II-like Yukawa interactions) both masses of the two charged Higgs bosons $m_{H_1^\\pm}$ and $m_{H_2^\\pm}$ can be smaller than the top mass $m_t$ while complying with the constraints from $B\\to X_s\\gamma$. As an interesting phenomenological consequence, the branching ratios of the charged Higgs bosons decay into the $cb$ final states can be as large as $80\\%$ when their masses are taken to be below $m_t$ in two of the five 3HDMs (named as Type-Y and Type-Z). This light charge...
Electric dipole moments in two-Higgs-doublet models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Electric dipole moments are extremely sensitive probes for additional sources of CP violation in new physics models. Specifically, they have been argued in the past to exclude new CP-violating phases in two-Higgs-doublet models. Since recently models including such phases have been discussed widely, we revisit the available constraints in the presence of mechanisms which are typically invoked to evade flavour-changing neutral currents. To that aim, we start by assessing the necessary calculations on the hadronic, nuclear and atomic/molecular level, deriving expressions with conservative error estimates. Their phenomenological analysis in the context of two-Higgs-doublet models yields strong constraints, in some cases weakened by a cancellation mechanism among contributions from neutral scalars. While the corresponding parameter combinations do not yet have to be unnaturally small, the constraints are likely to preclude large effects in other CP-violating observables. Nevertheless, the generically expected contributions to electric dipole moments in this class of models lie within the projected sensitivity of the next-generation experiments
Collisional broadening of alkali doublets by helium perturbers
Mullamphy, D F T; Peach, G; Venturi, V; Whittingham, I B
2006-01-01
We report results for the Lorentzian profiles of the Li I, Na I and K I doublets and the Na I subordinate doublet broadened by helium perturbers for temperatures up to 3000 K They have been obtained from a fully quantum-mechanical close-coupling description of the colliding atoms, the Baranger theory of line shapes and new ab initio potentials for the alkali-helium interaction. For all lines except the 769.9 nm K I line, the temperature dependence of the widths over the range 70 < T < 3000 K is accurately represented by the power law form w=aT^b with 0.37 < b < 0.43. The 769.9 K I line has this form for 500 < T < 3000 K with b = 0.49. Although the shifts have a more complex temperature dependence, they all have the general feature of increasing with temperature above T=500 K apart from the 769.9 K I line whose shift decreases with temperature.
Fitting the Two-Higgs-Doublet model of type II
Eberhardt, Otto
2014-01-01
We present the current status of the Two-Higgs-Doublet model of type II. Taking into account all available relevant information, we exclude at $95$% CL sizeable deviations of the so-called alignment limit, in which all couplings of the light CP-even Higgs boson $h$ are Standard-Model-like. While we can set a lower limit of $240$ GeV on the mass of the pseudoscalar Higgs boson at $95$% CL, the mass of the heavy CP-even Higgs boson $H$ can be even lighter than $200$ GeV. The strong constraints on the model parameters also set limits on the triple Higgs couplings: the $hhh$ coupling in the Two-Higgs-Doublet model of type II cannot be larger than in the Standard Model, while the $hhH$ coupling can maximally be $2.5$ times the size of the Standard Model $hhh$ coupling, assuming an $H$ mass below $1$ TeV. The selection of benchmark scenarios which maximize specific effects within the allowed regions for further collider studies is illustrated for the $H$ branching fraction to fermions and gauge bosons. As an exampl...
LHC Phenomenology of Composite 2-Higgs Doublet Models
De Curtis, Stefania; Yagyu, Kei; Yildirim, Emine
2016-01-01
We investigate the phenomenology of Composite 2-Higgs Doublet Models (C2HDMs) of various Yukawa types based on the global symmetry breaking $SO(6)\\to SO(4)\\times SO(2)$. The kinetic term and the Yukawa Lagrangian are constructed in terms of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Boson (pNGB) matrix and a 6-plet of fermions under $SO(6)$. The scalar potential is assumed to be the same as that of the Elementary 2-Higgs Doublet Model (E2HDM) with a softly-broken discrete $Z_2$ symmetry. We then discuss the phenomenological differences between the E2HDM and C2HDM by focusing on the deviations from Standard Model (SM) couplings of the discovered Higgs state ($h$) as well as on the production cross sections and Branching Ratios (BRs) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of extra Higgs bosons. We find that, even if the same deviation in the $hVV$ ($V=W,Z$) coupling is assumed in both scenarios, there appear significant differences between E2HDM and C2HDM from the structure of the Yukawa couplings, so that production and decay fea...
Kojo, Toru; Fukushima, Kenji; McLerran, Larry; Pisarski, Robert D
2011-01-01
We elaborate how to construct the interweaving chiral spirals in (2+1) dimensions, that is defined as a superposition of differently oriented chiral spirals. We divide the two-dimensional Fermi sea into distinct wedges characterized by the opening angle 2 Theta and the depth Q \\simeq pF, where pF is the Fermi momentum. Each wedge earns an energy gain by forming a single chiral spiral. The optimal values for Theta and Q are chosen by the balance between this energy gain and the energy costs from the deformed Fermi surface (dominant at large Theta) and patch-patch interactions (dominant at small Theta). We estimate these energy gains and costs by means of the expansions in terms of 1/Nc, Lambda_QCD/Q, and Theta using a non-local four-Fermi interaction model: At small 1/Nc the mass gap (chiral condensate) is large enough and the interaction among quarks and the condensate is local in momentum space thanks to the form factor in our non-local model. The fact that patch-patch interactions lie only near the patch bo...
Generation of doublet spectral lines at self-seeded X-ray FELs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2010-11-15
Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim to reduce the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Braggtransmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. The obvious and technically possible extension is to use such kind of monochromator setup with two -or more- crystals arranged in a series to spectrally filter the SASE radiation at two -or more- closely-spaced wavelengths within the FEL gain band. This allows for the production of doublet- or multiplet-spectral lines. Applications exist over a broad range of hard X-ray wavelengths involving any process where there is a large change in cross section over a narrow wavelength range, as in multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction techniques (MAD). In this paper we consider the simultaneous operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL at two closely spaced wavelengths. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline, and we show that this method can produce fully coherent radiation shared between two longitudinal modes. Mode spacing can be easily tuned within the FEL gain band, i.e. within 10 eV. An interesting aspect of the proposed scheme is a way of modulating the electron bunch at optical frequencies without a seed quantum laser. In fact, the XFEL output intensity contains an oscillating ''mode-beat'' component whose frequency is related to the frequency difference between the pair of longitudinal modes considered. Thus, at saturation one obtains FEL-induced modulations of energy loss and energy spread in the electron bunch at optical frequency. These modulations can be converted into density modulation at the same optical frequency with the help of a weak chicane installed behind the baseline undulator. Powerful coherent radiation can then be generated with the help of an optical transition radiation (OTR) station,which have important applications. In this
Generation of doublet spectral lines at self-seeded X-ray FELs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim to reduce the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Braggtransmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. The obvious and technically possible extension is to use such kind of monochromator setup with two -or more- crystals arranged in a series to spectrally filter the SASE radiation at two -or more- closely-spaced wavelengths within the FEL gain band. This allows for the production of doublet- or multiplet-spectral lines. Applications exist over a broad range of hard X-ray wavelengths involving any process where there is a large change in cross section over a narrow wavelength range, as in multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction techniques (MAD). In this paper we consider the simultaneous operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL at two closely spaced wavelengths. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline, and we show that this method can produce fully coherent radiation shared between two longitudinal modes. Mode spacing can be easily tuned within the FEL gain band, i.e. within 10 eV. An interesting aspect of the proposed scheme is a way of modulating the electron bunch at optical frequencies without a seed quantum laser. In fact, the XFEL output intensity contains an oscillating ''mode-beat'' component whose frequency is related to the frequency difference between the pair of longitudinal modes considered. Thus, at saturation one obtains FEL-induced modulations of energy loss and energy spread in the electron bunch at optical frequency. These modulations can be converted into density modulation at the same optical frequency with the help of a weak chicane installed behind the baseline undulator. Powerful coherent radiation can then be generated with the help of an optical transition radiation (OTR) station,which have important applications. In this paper we briefly
Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao Huijuan [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu Lian [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)], E-mail: huliancaohj@yahoo.com
2008-04-21
We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots.
Haney, Darren W.
2011-01-01
This dissertation offers new approaches to an old and well-known problem in the study of the development of Romance varieties: duplicate lexis or doublets. Traditional analyses of duplication are narrow in scope both in what qualifies as a doublet (the popular/learned opposition has dominated, to the exclusion of other pairs) and in channels of…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R Appleby; P Bambade
2007-12-01
In this paper we use current and proposed final doublet magnet technologies to reoptimise the interaction region of the international linear collider and reduce the power losses. The result is a set of three new final doublet layouts with improved beam transport properties. The effect of localised power deposition and it's reduction using tungsten liners are considered.
Elve Doublets: The Ionospheric Fingerprints of Compact Intracloud Discharges
da Silva, C. L.; Marshall, R. A.; Pasko, V. P.
2015-12-01
Compact intracloud discharges (CIDs) persist to date as one of the most mysterious lightning manifestations. CIDs are known to be the strongest natural sources of radio-frequency radiation on Earth. At VHF frequencies, approximately above 30 MHz, their emitted power is ten times stronger than that of other lightning processes. The well-known strength of CIDs in VHF contrasts with the lack of substantial optical measurements. CID's VLF/LF electric field change waveforms resemble one full cycle of a distorted sine function, with the first half-cycle being (a few times) larger-amplitude and shorter-duration than the second. For this reason CIDs have been dubbed narrow bipolar events (NBEs). NBE waveshapes are strikingly similar to the largest initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) that occur during the earlier stages of a conventional lightning flash, called classic IBPs. The similarity between classic IBP and NBE far-field waveforms, combined with the fact that positive-polarity NBEs frequently appear as the first event in an otherwise regular positive intracloud discharge, may be indicative that the source of these two E-field pulse types share the same physical mechanism inside thunderclouds [da Silva and Pasko, JGR, 120, 4989-5009, 2015]. In this presentation, we introduce a novel way to investigate CIDs. We show evidence that CIDs can produce an unique ionospheric signature, named "elve doublets". These signatures are characterized by a pair of elves separated in time by 80-160 microseconds. Our analysis combines fast photometric elve data, equivalent-transmission-line models to describe the dynamics of CID source currents, and FDTD modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide accounting for its nonlinear interaction with the lower ionosphere [Marshall et al., GRL, 42, 2015, doi:10.1002/2015GL064862]. We show that typical (negative-polarity) CID altitudes, between 14-22 km, explain the time delay observed in elve doublets, where the
Three-Higgs-doublet models: symmetries, potentials and Higgs boson masses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keus, Venus [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London,Egham Hill, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Moretti, Stefano [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)
2014-01-13
We catalogue and study three-Higgs-doublet models in terms of all possible allowed symmetries (continuous and discrete, Abelian and non-Abelian), where such symmetries may be identified as flavour symmetries of quarks and leptons. We analyse the potential in each case, and derive the conditions under which the vacuum alignments (0,0,v), (0,v,v) and (v,v,v) are minima of the potential. For the alignment (0,0,v), relevant for dark matter models, we calculate the corresponding physical Higgs boson mass spectrum. Motivated by supersymmetry, we extend the analysis to the case of three up-type Higgs doublets and three down-type Higgs doublets (six doublets in total). Many of the results are also applicable to flavon models where the three Higgs doublets are replaced by three electroweak singlets.
On Charge Conjugation, Chirality and Helicity of the Dirac and Majorana Equation for Massive Leptons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eckart Marsch
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We revisit the charge-conjugation operation for the Dirac equation in its chiral representation. A new decomposition of the Dirac spinor field is suggested and achieved by means of projection operators based on charge conjugation, which is discussed here in a non-standard way. Thus, two separate two-component Majorana-type field equations for the eigenfields of the charge-conjugation operator are obtained. The corresponding free fields are entirely separated without a gauge field, but remain mixed and coupled together through an electromagnetic field term. For fermions that are charged and, thus, subjected to the gauge field of electrodynamics, these two Majorana fields can be reassembled into a doublet, which is equivalent to a standard four-component Dirac spinor field. In this way, the Dirac equation is retained in a new guise, which is fully equivalent to that equation in its chiral form.
Leptonic precision test of leptophilic two-Higgs-doublet model
Chun, Eung Jin; Kim, Jinsu
2016-07-01
The type X (lepton-specific) two-Higgs-doublet model at large tan β becomes leptophilic and thus allows a light pseudoscalar A accommodating the observed muon g - 2 deviation without conflicting with various hadronic constraints. On the other hand, it is strongly constrained by leptonic precision observables such as lepton universality test in the neutral and charged currents. Treating all the lepton universality data in a consistent way, we show how the current data constrain the parameter space of m A and tan β for given degenerate masses of heavy Higgs bosons H and H ±. While no overlapping region is found at 1 σ, a sizeable region is still viable at 2 σ for H/H ± masses at around 200 ˜ 400 GeV.
Leptonic Precision Test of Leptophilic Two-Higgs-Doublet Model
Chun, Eung Jin
2016-01-01
The type X (lepton-specific) two-Higgs-doublet model at large $\\tan\\beta$ becomes leptophilic and thus allows a light pseudoscalar $A$ accommodating the observed muon g-2 deviation without conflicting with various hadronic constraints. On the other hand, it is strongly constrained by leptonic precision observables such as lepton universality test in the neutral and charged currents. Treating all the lepton universality data in a consistent way, we show how the current data constrain the parameter space of $m_A$ and $\\tan\\beta$ for given degenerate masses of heavy Higgs bosons $H$ and $H^\\pm$. While no overlapping region is found at $1\\sigma$, a sizable region is still viable at $2\\sigma$ for $H/H^\\pm$ masses at around 200$\\sim$400 GeV.
Scalar sector of two-Higgs-doublet models: A minireview
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
GAUTAM BHATTACHARYYA; DIPANKAR DAS
2016-09-01
A vast literature on the theory and phenomenology of two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDM) exists since long. However, the present situation demands a revisit of some 2HDM properties. Now that a 125 GeV scalar resonance has been discovered at the LHC, with its couplings to other particles showing increasing affinity to the Standard Model Higgs-like behaviour, the 2HDM parameter space is more squeezed than ever. We briefly review the different parametrizations of the 2HDM potential and discuss the constraints on the parameter spacearising from the unitarity and stability of the potential together with constraints from the oblique electroweak $T$ -parameter. We also differentiate the consequences of imposing a global continuous $U(1)$ symmetry on thepotential from a discrete $Z_2$ symmetry.
Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment
Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Greggio, F.Bersani; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Cuha, V.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, Marcos; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, Antonio; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, Piero; Morishima, Kunihiro; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, Klaus P.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, Max; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, Amina; Zimmermann, R.
2008-01-01
New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic counters and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting oscillations between mu neutrino and tau neutrino in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions ("refreshing") have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units ("ECC bricks"). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronic...
Parity-doublet representation of Majorana fermions and neutron oscillation
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2016-01-01
We present a parity-doublet theorem for the representation of the intrinsic parity of Majorana fermions, which is expected to be useful also in condensed matter physics, and it is illustrated to provide a criterion of neutron-antineutron oscillation in a BCS-like effective theory with $\\Delta B=2$ baryon number violating terms. The CP violation in the present effective theory causes no direct CP violating effects in the oscillation itself, which is demonstrated by the exact solution, although it influences the neutron electric dipole moment in the leading order of small $\\Delta B=2$ parameters. An analogue of Bogoliubov transformation, which preserves P and CP, is crucial in the analysis.
Unitarity bound in the most general two Higgs doublet model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shinya Kanemura
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate unitarity bounds in the most general two Higgs doublet model without a discrete Z2 symmetry nor CP conservation. S-wave amplitudes for two-body elastic scatterings of Nambu–Goldstone bosons and physical Higgs bosons are calculated at high energies for all possible initial and final states (14 neutral, 8 singly-charged and 3 doubly-charged states. We obtain analytic formulae for the block-diagonalized scattering matrix by the classification of the two body scattering states using the conserved quantum numbers at high energies. Imposing the condition of perturbative unitarity to the eigenvalues of the scattering matrix, constraints on the model parameters can be obtained. We apply our results to constrain the mass range of the next-to-lightest Higgs state in the model.
A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crivellin Andreas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of these excesses can be accommodated.
Impurity studies and discharge cleaning in Doublet III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal of present and next generation tokamak experiments is to produce high-density, high-purity plasmas during high-power, extended-duration discharges. Plasma discharges with Z/sub eff/ values near unity and low concentrations of medium and high-Z metallic impurities have been obtained in Doublet III using a combination of low-power hydrogen discharge cleaning, gas puffing, precise plasma shape and position control, and high-Z limiters. Analysis of the first wall surface and residual gas impurities confirmed that clean conditions have been achieved. The high-Z limiters showed very limited amounts of melting or arcing. The progress of the wall cleaning process was monitored by three diagnostic techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy of metallic samples at the vessel wall, residual gas analysis, and the resistivity of full power discharges
Chiral Crystal Growth under Grinding
Saito, Yukio; Hyuga, Hiroyuki
2008-01-01
To study the establishment of homochirality observed in the crystal growth experiment of chiral molecules from a solution under grinding, we extend the lattice gas model of crystal growth as follows. A lattice site can be occupied by a chiral molecule in R or S form, or can be empty. Molecules form homoclusters by nearest neighbor bonds. They change their chirality if they are isolated monomers in the solution. Grinding is incorporated by cutting and shafling the system randomly. It is shown ...
Spiral Galaxies as Chiral Objects?
Capozziello, S; Capozziello, Salvatore; Lattanzi, Alessandra
2005-01-01
Spiral galaxies show axial symmetry and an intrinsic 2D-chirality. Environmental effects can influence the chirality of originally isolated stellar systems and a progressive loss of chirality can be recognised in the Hubble sequence. We point out a preferential modality for genetic galaxies as in microscopic systems like aminoacids, sugars or neutrinos. This feature could be the remnant of a primordial symmetry breaking characterizing systems at all scales.
Chiral dynamics and baryon resonances
Hyodo, Tetsuo
2010-01-01
The structure of baryon resonance in coupled-channel meson-baryon scattering is studied from the viewpoint of chiral dynamics. The meson-baryon scattering amplitude can be successfully described together with the properties of the resonance in the scattering, by implementing the unitarity condition for the amplitude whose low energy structure is constrained by chiral theorem. Recently, there have been a major progress in the study of the structure of the resonance in chiral dynamics. We revie...
Tsai, J.-C.; Ye, Fangfu; Rodriguez, Juan; Gollub, J. P.; Lubensky, T. C.
2005-05-01
Inspired by rattleback toys, we created small chiral wires that rotate in a preferred direction on a vertically oscillating platform and quantified their motion with experiment and simulation. We demonstrate experimentally that angular momentum of rotation about particle centers of mass is converted to collective angular momentum of center-of-mass motion in a granular gas of these wires, and we introduce a continuum model that explains our observations.
Generalized simplicial chiral models
Alimohammadi, M
2000-01-01
Using the auxiliary field representation of the simplicial chiral models on a (d-1)-dimensional simplex, we generalize the simplicial chiral models by replacing the term Tr$(AA^{\\d})$ in the Lagrangian of these models, by an arbitrary class function of $AA^{\\d}; V(AA^{\\d})$. This is the same method that has been used in defining the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM_2) from ordinary YM_2. We call these models, the " generalized simplicial chiral models ". With the help of the results of one-link integral over a U(N) matrix, we compute the large-N saddle-point equations for eigenvalue density function $\\ro (z)$ in the weak ($\\b >\\b_c$) and strong ($\\b <\\b_c$) regions. In d=2, where the model somehow relates to gYM_2 theory, we solve the saddle-point equations and find $\\ro (z)$ in two region, and calculate the explicit value of critical point $\\b_c$ for $V(B)=TrB^n (B=AA^{\\d})$. For $V(B)=Tr B^2,Tr B^3$ and Tr$B^4$, we study the critical behaviour of the model at d=2, and by calculating t...
Fiorilla, Salvatore; Weise, Wolfram
2011-01-01
We calculate the equation of state of nuclear matter for arbitrary isospin-asymmetry up to three loop order in the free energy density in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory. In our approach 1\\pi- and 2\\pi-exchange dynamics with the inclusion of the \\Delta-isobar excitation as an explicit degree of freedom, corresponding to the long- and intermediate-range correlations, are treated explicitly. Few contact terms fixed to reproduce selected known properties of nuclear matter encode the short-distance physics. Two-body as well as three-body forces are systematically included. We find a critical temperature of about 15 MeV for symmetric nuclear matter. We investigate the dependence of the liquid-gas first-order phase transition on isospin-asymmetry. In the same chiral framework we calculate the chiral condensate of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures. The contribution of the \\Delta-isobar excitation is essential for stabilizing the condensate. As a result, we find no indicati...
The chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamical approach
Sadofyev, A. V.; Isachenkov, M. V.
2010-01-01
In quark-gluon plasma nonzero chirality can be induced by the chiral anomaly. When a magnetic field is applied to a system with nonzero chirality an electromagnetic current is induced along the magnetic field. This phenomenon is called the chiral magnetic effect. In this paper appearance of the chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamical approximation is shown. We consider a hydrodynamical model for chiral liquid with two independent currents of left and right handed particles in the presence of...
Possible chiral symmetry in $^{138}$Nd
Raduta, A A; Petrache, C M
2015-01-01
The pheomenological Generalized Coherent State Model Hamiltonian is amended with a many body term describing a set of nucleons moving in a shell model mean-field and interacting among themselves with paring, as well as with a particle-core interaction involving a quadrupole-quadrupole and a hexadecapole-hexdecapole force and a spin-spin interaction. The model Hamiltonian is treated in a restricted space consisting of the core projected states associated to the bands ground, $\\beta, \\gamma,\\widetilde{\\gamma}, 1^+$ and $\\widetilde{1^+}$ and two proton aligned quasiparticles coupled to the states of the ground band. The chirally transformed particle-core states are also included. The Hamiltonian contains two terms which are not invariant to the chiral transformations relating the right handed trihedral $({\\bf J_F}, {\\bf J_p}, {\\bf J_n})$ and the left handed ones $(-{\\bf J_F}, {\\bf J_p}, {\\bf J_n})$, $({\\bf J_F}, -{\\bf J_p}, {\\bf J_n})$, $({\\bf J_F}, {\\bf J_p}, -{\\bf J_n})$ where ${\\bf J_F}, {\\bf J_p}, {\\bf J_n}$...
Isothermal Titration Calorimetry of Chiral Polymeric Nanoparticles.
Werber, Liora; Preiss, Laura C; Landfester, Katharina; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Mastai, Yitzhak
2015-09-01
Chiral polymeric nanoparticles are of prime importance, mainly due to their enantioselective potential, for many applications such as catalysis and chiral separation in chromatography. In this article we report on the preparation of chiral polymeric nanoparticles by miniemulsion polymerization. In addition, we describe the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to measure the chiral interactions and the energetics of the adsorption of enantiomers from aqueous solutions onto chiral polymeric nanoparticles. The characterization of chirality in nano-systems is a very challenging task; here, we demonstrate that ITC can be used to accurately determine the thermodynamic parameters associated with the chiral interactions of nanoparticles. The use of ITC to measure the energetics of chiral interactions and recognition at the surfaces of chiral nanoparticles can be applied to other nanoscale chiral systems and can provide further insight into the chiral discrimination processes of nanomaterials.
Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry
2007-10-01
pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4
Triaxial projected shell model study of chiral rotation in odd-odd nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhat, G.H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Sheikh, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Palit, R., E-mail: palit@tifr.res.in [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 400 005 (India)
2012-01-20
Chiral rotation observed in {sup 128}Cs is studied using the newly developed microscopic triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. The observed energy levels and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the nearly degenerate chiral dipole bands in this isotope are well reproduced by the present model. This demonstrates the broad applicability of the TPSM approach, based on a schematic interaction and angular-momentum projection technique, to explain a variety of low- and high-spin phenomena in triaxial rotating nuclei.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang et al. and Hojman et al. observed the Kπ = 1+ and Kπ = 6+ bands pertaining to a Gallagher Moszkowaski (GM) doublet based on 7/2(523)π⨂5/2(523)ν configuration in 162Ho and 164Ho nuclides, respectively. The spin, parity and configuration assignments to the Kπ = 1+ and Kπ = 6+ bands observed in 164Ho are still of tentative nature. The signature effects of two quasiparticle (2qp) rotational bands observed in odd-odd nuclei have been explored using the Two Quasiparticle Plus Rotor Model (TQPRM)
Quantum corrections to the spin-independent cross section in the inert Higgs doublet model
Abe, Tomohiro
2015-01-01
The inert Higgs doublet model is an extension of the standard model with an extra scalar doublet. The extra doublet is $Z_2$ odd while all the other particles are $Z_2$ even, thus the model contains a dark matter candidate. It is known that the spin-independent cross section of the dark matter and the nucleon is highly suppressed for $m_{\\text DM} \\sim m_h/2$ at the tree level. In this talk, we show the loop corrections give the significant effects in this regime.
2HDMC — two-Higgs-doublet model calculator
Eriksson, David; Rathsman, Johan; Stål, Oscar
2010-04-01
We describe version 1.0.6 of the public C++ code 2HDMC, which can be used to perform calculations in a general, CP-conserving, two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). The program features simple conversion between different parametrizations of the 2HDM potential, a flexible Yukawa sector specification with choices of different Z-symmetries or more general couplings, a decay library including all two-body — and some three-body — decay modes for the Higgs bosons, and the possibility to calculate observables of interest for constraining the 2HDM parameter space, as well as theoretical constraints from positivity and unitarity. The latest version of the 2HDMC code and full documentation is available from: http://www.isv.uu.se/thep/MC/2HDMC. New version program summaryProgram title: 2HDMC Catalogue identifier: AEFI_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFI_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 110 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 92 731 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any computer running Linux Operating system: Linux RAM: 5 Mb Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEFI_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2010) 189 Classification: 11.1 External routines: GNU Scientific Library ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Determining properties of the potential, calculation of mass spectrum, couplings, decay widths, oblique parameters, muon g-2, and collider constraints in a general two-Higgs-doublet model. Solution method: From arbitrary potential and Yukawa sector, tree-level relations are used to determine Higgs masses and couplings. Decay widths are calculated at leading order, including FCNC decays when applicable. Decays to off
Quark structure of chiral solitons
Diakonov, D
2004-01-01
There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ``chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ``soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.
Mass-Selective Chiral Analysis.
Boesl, Ulrich; Kartouzian, Aras
2016-06-12
Three ways of realizing mass-selective chiral analysis are reviewed. The first is based on the formation of diastereomers that are of homo- and hetero- type with respect to the enantiomers of involved chiral molecules. This way is quite well-established with numerous applications. The other two ways are more recent developments, both based on circular dichroism (CD). In one, conventional or nonlinear electronic CD is linked to mass spectrometry (MS) by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. The other is based on CD in the angular distribution of photoelectrons, which is measured in combination with MS via photoion photoelectron coincidence. Among the many important applications of mass-selective chiral analysis, this review focuses on its use as an analytical tool for the development of heterogeneous enantioselective chemical catalysis. There exist other approaches to combine chiral analysis and mass-selective detection, such as chiral chromatography MS, which are not discussed here. PMID:27070181
Dileptons and Chiral Symmetry Restoration
Hohler, P M
2015-01-01
We report on recent work relating the medium effects observed in dilepton spectra in heavy-ion collisions to potential signals of chiral symmetry restoration. The key connection remains the approach to spectral function degeneracy between the vector-isovector channel with its chiral partner, the axialvector-isovector channel. Several approaches are discussed to elaborate this connection, namely QCD and Weinberg sum rules with input for chiral order parameters from lattice QCD, and chiral hadronic theory to directly evaluate the medium effects of the axialvector channel and the pertinent pion decay constant as function of temperature. A pattern emerges where the chiral mass splitting between rho and a_1 burns off and is accompanied by a strong broadening of the spectral distributions.
Mass-Selective Chiral Analysis
Boesl, Ulrich; Kartouzian, Aras
2016-06-01
Three ways of realizing mass-selective chiral analysis are reviewed. The first is based on the formation of diastereomers that are of homo- and hetero- type with respect to the enantiomers of involved chiral molecules. This way is quite well-established with numerous applications. The other two ways are more recent developments, both based on circular dichroism (CD). In one, conventional or nonlinear electronic CD is linked to mass spectrometry (MS) by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. The other is based on CD in the angular distribution of photoelectrons, which is measured in combination with MS via photoion photoelectron coincidence. Among the many important applications of mass-selective chiral analysis, this review focuses on its use as an analytical tool for the development of heterogeneous enantioselective chemical catalysis. There exist other approaches to combine chiral analysis and mass-selective detection, such as chiral chromatography MS, which are not discussed here.
Higgcision in the two-Higgs doublet models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheung, Kingman [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sik [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Tseng, Po-Yan [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)
2014-01-16
We perform global fits to general two-Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with generalized couplings using the most updated data from ATLAS, CMS, and Tevatron. We include both scenarios with CP-conserving and CP-violating couplings. By relaxing the requirement on the discrete symmetries that are often imposed on the Yukawa couplings, we try to see which of the 2HDMs is preferred. We found that (i) Higgcision in 2HDMs can be performed efficiently by using only 4 parameters including the charged Higgs contributions to the Higgs couplings to two photons, (ii) the differences among various types of 2HDMs are very small with respect to the chi-square fits, (iii) tan β is constrained to be small, (iv) the p-values for various fits in 2HDMs are worse than that of the standard model. Finally, we put emphasis on our findings that future precision measurements of the Higgs coupling to the scalar top-quark bilinear (C{sub u}{sup S}) and tan β may endow us with the discriminating power among various types of 2HDMs especially when C{sub u}{sup S} deviates from its SM value 1.
Higgcision in the two-Higgs doublet models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform global fits to general two-Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with generalized couplings using the most updated data from ATLAS, CMS, and Tevatron. We include both scenarios with CP-conserving and CP-violating couplings. By relaxing the requirement on the discrete symmetries that are often imposed on the Yukawa couplings, we try to see which of the 2HDMs is preferred. We found that (i) Higgcision in 2HDMs can be performed efficiently by using only 4 parameters including the charged Higgs contributions to the Higgs couplings to two photons, (ii) the differences among various types of 2HDMs are very small with respect to the chi-square fits, (iii) tan β is constrained to be small, (iv) the p-values for various fits in 2HDMs are worse than that of the standard model. Finally, we put emphasis on our findings that future precision measurements of the Higgs coupling to the scalar top-quark bilinear (CuS) and tan β may endow us with the discriminating power among various types of 2HDMs especially when CuS deviates from its SM value 1
Higgcision in the Two-Higgs Doublet Models
Cheung, Kingman; Tseng, Po-Yan
2013-01-01
We perform global fits to general two-Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with generalized couplings using the most updated data from ATLAS, CMS, and Tevatron. We include both scenarios with CP-conserving and CP-violating couplings. By relaxing the requirement on the discrete symmetries that are often imposed on the Yukawa couplings, we try to see which of the 2HDMs is preferred. We found that (i) Higgcision in 2HDMs can be performed efficiently by using only 4 parameters including the charged Higgs contributions to the Higgs couplings to two photons, (ii) the differences among various types of 2HDMs are very small with respect to the chi-square fits, (iii) $\\tan\\beta$ is constrained to be small, (iv) the $p$-values for various fits in 2HDMs are worse than that of the standard model. Finally, we put emphasis on our findings that future precision measurements of the Higgs coupling to the scalar top-quark bilinear ($C_u^S$) and $\\tan\\beta$ may endow us with the discriminating power among various types of 2HDMs especia...
Higgs doublet decay as the origin of the baryon asymmetry
Hambye, Thomas
2016-01-01
We consider a question which curiously had not been properly considered so far: in the standard seesaw model what is the minimum value the mass of a right-handed (RH) neutrino must have for allowing successful leptogenesis via CP-violating decays? To answer this question requires to take into account a number of thermal effects. We show that, for low RH neutrino masses and thanks to these effects, leptogenesis turns out to proceed efficiently from the decay of the Standard Model (SM) scalar doublet components into a RH neutrino and a lepton. Such decays produce the asymmetry at low temperatures, slightly before sphaleron decoupling. If the RH neutrino has thermalized prior from producing the asymmetry, this mechanism turns out to lead to the bound $m_N>2$ GeV. If, instead, the RH neutrinos have not thermalized, leptogenesis from these decays is enhanced further and can be easily successful, even at lower scales. This Higgs-decay leptogenesis new mechanism works without requiring an interplay of flavor effects...
Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.
Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie
2016-06-01
Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes.
Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.
Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie
2016-06-01
Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes. PMID:27386585
Muon $g-2$ in the Aligned Two Higgs Doublet Model
Han, Tao; Sayre, Joshua
2015-01-01
We study the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model with the aligned Yukawa sector (A2HDM) in light of the observed excess measured in the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We take into account the existing theoretical and experimental constraints with up-to-date values and demonstrate that a phenomenologically interesting region of parameter space exists. With a detailed parameter scan, we show a much larger region of viable parameter space in this model beyond the limiting case Type X 2HDM as obtained before. It features the existence of light scalar states with masses $3$ GeV $\\lesssim m_H^{} \\lesssim 50$ GeV, or $\\ 10$ GeV $\\lesssim m_A^{} \\lesssim 130$ GeV, with enhanced couplings to tau leptons. The charged Higgs boson is typically heavier, with $200$ GeV $ \\lesssim m^{}_{H^+} \\lesssim 630$ GeV. The surviving parameter space is forced into the CP-conserving limit by EDM constraints. Some Standard Model observables may be significantly modified, including a possible new decay mode of the SM-like Higgs boson to four taus....
Exploring collider signatures of the inert Higgs doublet model
Datta, Amitava; Khan, Najimuddin; Rakshit, Subhendu
2016-01-01
We revisit the multilepton ($ml$) + ${E\\!\\!\\!\\!/_T}$ signatures of the Inert Doublet Model of dark matter in future LHC experiments for m = 3,4 and simulate, for the first time, the m = 5 case. In addition to the usual constraints like unitarity, perturbativity, the precision electroweak data, the observed dark matter relic density of the universe, we take into account the stringent constraints from the post Higgs ($h$) discovery era like the measured $m_h$ and the upper bound on the width of $h$ decay which were not included in the earlier analyses. We find that the IDM model embedded in a grand dessert scenario so that the unitarity constraint holds up to a very high scale, the entire parameter space allowed by the above constraints can be probed by the LHC via the $3l$ for an integrated luminosity $\\sim 3000$ fb$^{-1}$. On the other hand if any new physics shows up at a scale $\\sim$ 10 TeV only a part of the enlarged allowed parameter space can be probed. The $4l$ and $5l$ signals can help to discriminate ...
Muon g - 2 in the aligned two Higgs doublet model
Han, Tao; Kang, Sin Kyu; Sayre, Joshua
2016-02-01
We study the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model with the aligned Yukawa sector (A2HDM) in light of the observed excess measured in the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We take into account the existing theoretical and experimental constraints with up-to-date values and demonstrate that a phenomenologically interesting region of parameter space exists. With a detailed parameter scan, we show a much larger region of viable parameter space in this model beyond the limiting case Type X 2HDM as obtained before. It features the existence of light scalar states with masses 3 GeV ≲ m H ≲ 50 GeV, or 10 GeV ≲ m A ≲ 130 GeV, with enhanced couplings to tau leptons. The charged Higgs boson is typically heavier, with 200 GeV ≲ m H + ≲ 630 GeV. The surviving parameter space is forced into the CP-conserving limit by EDM constraints. Some Standard Model observables may be significantly modified, including a possible new decay mode of the SMlike Higgs boson to four taus. We comment on future measurements and direct searches for those effects at the LHC as tests of the model.
Constructing Self-Dual Chiral Polytopes
Cunningham, Gabe
2011-01-01
An abstract polytope is chiral if its automorphism group has two orbits on the flags, such that adjacent flags belong to distinct orbits. There are still few examples of chiral polytopes, and few constructions that can create chiral polytopes with specified properties. In this paper, we show how to build self-dual chiral polytopes using the mixing construction for polytopes.
Kopp, Victor I.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Sheng; Genack, Azriel Z.; Neugroschl, Dan
2009-02-01
We propose an in-fiber chiral optical isolator based on chiral fiber polarizer technology and calculate its performance by incorporating the magnetic field into the scattering matrix. The design will be implemented in a special preform, which is passed through a miniature heat zone as it is drawn and twisted. The birefringence of the fiber is controlled by adjusted the diameter of a dual-core optical fiber. By adjusting the twist, the fiber can convert linear to circular polarization and reject one component of circular polarization. In the novel central portion of the isolator, the fiber diameter is large. The effective birefringence of the circular central core with high Verdet constant embedded in an outer core of slightly smaller index of refraction is small. The central potion is a non-reciprocal polarization converter which passes forward traveling left circularly polarized (LCP) light as LCP, while converting backward propagating LCP to right circularly polarized (RCP) light. Both polarizations of light traveling backwards are scattered out of the isolator. Since it is an all-glass structure, we anticipate that the isolator will be able to handle several watts of power and will be environmentally robust.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The suggestion by Jaffe that if σ is a light q2q-bar2 state 0++ then even the fundamental chiral transformation properties of the σ becomes unclear, has stimulated much interest. Adler pointed out that in fact the seminal work on chiral symmetry via PCAC consistency, is really quite consistent with the σ being predominantly q2q-bar2. This interpretation was actually backed by subsequent work on effective Lagrangian methods for linear and non linear realizations. More recent work of Achasov suggests that intermediate four-quark states determine amplitudes involving other scalars a0(980) and f0(980) below 1 GeV, and the report by Ning Wu that study on σ meson in J/ψ → ωπ+π- continue to support a non qq-bar σ with mass as low as 390 MeV. It is also noted that more recent re-analysis of πK scattering by S. Ishida et al. together with the work of the E791 Collaboration, support the existence of the scalar κ particle with comparatively light mass as well
Nonequilibrium chiral perturbation theory and disoriented chiral condensates
Nicola, A G
1999-01-01
We analyse the extension of Chiral Perturbation Theory to describe a meson gas out of thermal equilibrium. For that purpose, we let the pion decay constant be a time-dependent function and work within the Schwinger-Keldysh contour technique. A useful connection with curved space-time QFT allows to consistently renormalise the model, introducing two new low-energy constants in the chiral limit. We discuss the applicability of our approach within a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collision environment. In particular, we investigate the formation of Disoriented Chiral Condensate domains in this model, via the parametric resonance mechanism.
Product lambda-doublet ratios for the O(3P) + D2 reaction: A mechanistic imprint
Jambrina, P G; Aldegunde, J; Brouard, M; Aoiz, F J
2016-01-01
In the last decade, the development of theoretical methods have allowed chemists to reproduce and explain almost all of the experimental data associated with elementary atom plus diatom collisions. However, there are still a few examples where theory cannot account yet for experimental results. This is the case for the preferential population of one of the $\\Lambda$-doublet states produced by chemical reactions. In particular, recent measurements of the OD($^2\\Pi$) product of the O($^3$P) + D$_2$ reaction have shown a clear preference for the $\\Pi(A')$ $\\Lambda$-doublet states, in apparent contradiction with {\\em ab initio} calculations, which predict a larger reactivity on the $A"$ potential energy surface. Here we present a method to calculate the $\\Lambda$-doublet ratio when concurrent potential energy surfaces participate in the reaction. It accounts for the experimental $\\Lambda$-doublet populations via explicit consideration of the stereodynamics of the process. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that...
The Lee-Wick Extension of the Two-Higgs Doublet Model
Johansen, Aria R; Thrasher, Keith
2015-01-01
The Lee-Wick Standard Model is a highly constrained model which solves the gauge hierarchy problem at the expense of including fields with negative norm. It appears to be macroscopically causal and consistent. This model is extended by considering the two-Higgs doublet extension of the Lee-Wick model. Rewriting the Lagrangian using auxiliary fields introduces two additional doublets of Lee-Wick partners. The model is highly constrained, with only one or two additional parameters beyond that of the usual two-Higgs doublet model, and yet there are four doublets. Mass relations are established by diagonalizing the mass matrices and further constraints are established by studying results from B --> tau nu, neutral B-meson mixing, and B --> X_s gamma. The prospects of detecting evidence for this model at the LHC are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes the diagnostic data acquisition, processing and archiving computer system for the Doublet III fusion research device. This paper's emphasis is mainly on the software, but provides a description of the hardware configuration
Localized temporal variation of Earth's inner-core boundary from high-quality waveform doublets
Xin, Danhua
2016-04-01
The accurate determination of the topography of an Earth's internal boundary is difficult because of the possible trade-off with the velocity of the media above it. Here we use waveform-doublet method to map the ICB topography. A waveform doublet is a pair of earthquakes occurring at essentially the same spatial position and received by the same station with high similarity in their waveforms (Poupinet et al. 1984), which make the exact detection of the ICB topography possible. In this study, we used this method to detect temporal change of the ICB using doublets from the Western Pacific (WP) area to increase global coverage of the ICB. Compared with previous study using doublets from South Sandwich Islands (SSI) (Song and Dai, 2008), the new samples showed negligible temporal change of the ICB.
Derivative interactions and perturbative UV contributions in N Higgs doublet models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kikuta, Yohei [KEK Theory Center, KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasuhiro [Universidad de Granada, Deportamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Facultad de Ciencias and CAFPE, Granada (Spain)
2016-05-15
We study the Higgs derivative interactions on models including arbitrary number of the Higgs doublets. These interactions are generated by two ways. One is higher order corrections of composite Higgs models, and the other is integration of heavy scalars and vectors. In the latter case, three point couplings between the Higgs doublets and these heavy states are the sources of the derivative interactions. Their representations are constrained to couple with the doublets. We explicitly calculate all derivative interactions generated by integrating out. Their degrees of freedom and conditions to impose the custodial symmetry are discussed. We also study the vector boson scattering processes with a couple of two Higgs doublet models to see experimental signals of the derivative interactions. They are differently affected by each heavy field. (orig.)
Radiative neutrino masses in the singlet-doublet fermion dark matter model with scalar singlets
Restrepo, Diego; Sánchez-Peláez, Marta; Zapata, Oscar; Tangarife, Walter
2015-01-01
When the singlet-doublet fermion dark matter model is extended with additional $Z_2$--odd real singlet scalars, neutrino masses and mixings can be generated at one-loop level. In this work, we discuss the salient features arising from the combination of the two resulting simplified dark matter models. When the $Z_2$-lightest odd particle is a scalar singlet, $\\operatorname{Br}(\\mu\\to e \\gamma)$ could be measurable provided that the singlet-doublet fermion mixing is small enough. In this scenario, also the new decay channels of vector-like fermions into scalars can generate interesting leptonic plus missing transverse energy signals at the LHC. On the other hand, in the case of doublet-like fermion dark matter, scalar coannihilations lead to an increase in the relic density which allow to lower the bound of doublet-like fermion dark matter.
On the Biological Advantage of Chirality
Gilat, G
1999-01-01
The presence of chirality in the main molecules of life may well be not just a structural artifact, but of pure biological advantage. The possibility of the existence of a phenomenon of a special mode of interaction, labeled as "chiral interaction" (CI), for which structural chirality is a necessary condition, is the main reason for such an advantage. In order to demonstrate such a possibility, macroscopic chiral devices are introduced and presented as analogies for such an interaction. For this purpose it is important to make a clear distinction between geometric and physical chiralities, where the latter are capable to perform chiral interactions with various media. Apart from chirality, a few other structural elements are required. In particular, the presence of an interface that separates between the chiral device and the medium with which it is interacting. The physical chirality is build into this very interface where chiral interaction is taking place. On a molecular level, soluble proteins in particul...
Dispersion Analysis of Wave Propagation in Cubic-Tetrahedral Assembly by Doublet Mechanics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIN Yan-Fang; ZHANG Jue; FANG Jing; Mauro Ferra
2004-01-01
@@ Based on elongation and shear microstrains between the doublet particles, we present the dynamic scaling equations of plane wave propagation in a cubic-tetrahedral assembly (lattice type H4) in accordance with the formalism of doublet mechanics (DM). The relations between the micro-moduli of DM constitutions and the macroparameters of the Cosserat continuum model are obtained by a mapping process and a non-scale approximation of the DM model.
Baryon number asymmetry and dark matter in the neutrino mass model with an inert doublet
Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro
2012-01-01
The radiative neutrino mass model with an inert doublet scalar has been considered as a promising candidate which can explain neutrino masses, dark matter abundance and baryon number asymmetry if dark matter is identified with the lightest neutral component of the inert doublet. We reexamine these properties by imposing all the data of the neutrino oscillation, which are recently suggested by the reactor experiments. We find that the sufficient baryon number asymmetry seems not to be easily g...
A Review of Electronic Band Structure of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes Using Tight Binding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davood Fathi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The electronic band structure variations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs using Huckle/tight binding approximation theory are studied. According to the chirality indices, the related expressions for energy dispersion variations of these elements are derived and plotted for zigzag and chiral nanotubes.
Microsecond-range optical shutter for unpolarized light with chiral nematic liquid crystal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A fast electro-optic shutter is fabricated and demonstrated. The device works independently of the polarization state of the incoming light beam. Modulation between 3% transmission and 60% transmission is obtained within a wavelength range of 50 nm with a response time of 20 μs. The device consists of two partly polymerized chiral nematic liquid crystal layers separated by a half wave plate. The transmission modulation is due to a 50 nm wavelength shift of the photonic band gap of the chiral liquid crystal realized by applying an electric field over a mixture of photo-polymerized LC and non-reactive nematic LC containing a chiral dopant. The shutter features high reflectivity in the photonic band gap. We investigate the influence of the amplitude of the applied voltage on the width and the depth of the reflection band.
Distributed Feedback in and Distributed Bragg Reflection from Periodic Chiral Structures.
Flood, Kevin Michael
1995-01-01
In this study, we examine the combined effects of electromagnetic chirality and periodicity on wave interactions in active and passive media. Isotropic chiral media have the unique property of possessing two intrinsic indices of refraction without the additional complication of anisotropy. The two refractive indices arise from different propagation velocities for right-circularly-polarized (RCP) and left -circularly-polarized (LCP) waves (i.e., circular birefringence), and their existence suggests that chiral media may be used in conjunction with the coherent feedback characteristics of periodic structures to create structures that favor either RCP or LCP solutions. In this study, we develop the theory that describes the wave interactions in such periodic chiral structures, and we examine several representative cases, including active devices, to identify specific characteristics. Bandgap characteristics are developed here for finite-length slabs of periodic chiral media using coupled -mode theory. The theory shows that stratified, periodic, isotropic media fall into one of three categories: subchiral, chiral, or superchiral. The superchiral periodic medium possesses three stop bands for the fundamental Bragg condition where the three stop bands are associated with LCP rightarrow RCP coupling, LCP to LCP coupling, and RCP to RCP coupling. We examine the reflectivity for superchiral periodic media to show the degree of polarization mode isolation for both passive and active structures. We also study the relationships among the chiral constitutive parameters (i.e., permittivity, permeability, and chirality admittance) based on a canonical chiral media model, and we address how the presence of chirality may enhance the reflectivity from periodic slabs. In addition to periodic media, we investigate the role of chirality for mode coupling in symmetric planar waveguides with periodic boundaries. Such structures are of current interest as mode converters, filters, and
Gómez-Rocha, María
2012-01-01
In this article we point out that the unitary transformation that relates the chiral basis $\\{R; I J^{PC}\\}$ and the $\\{I; ^{2S+1}L_J \\}$ basis, which was already derived for canonical spin in instant form, is also applicable in light-cone representations. From the most general expression for the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the Poincar\\'e group one can see that the chiral limit brings the angular momentum coupling into a simple form that permits a clear relation in terms of SU(2) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. It provides a tool of measurement of chiral symmetry in relativistic composite systems.
Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry
Hosaka, Atsushi
2001-01-01
This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w
Chiral Relaxation Time at the Chiral Crossover of Quantum Chromodynamics
Ruggieri, M; Chernodub, M
2016-01-01
We study microscopic processes responsible for chirality flips in the thermal bath of Quantum Chromodynamics at finite temperature and zero baryon chemical potential. We focus on the temperature range where the crossover from chirally broken phase to quark-gluon plasma takes place, namely $T \\simeq (150, 200)$ MeV. The processes we consider are quark-quark scatterings mediated by collective excitations with the quantum number of pions and $\\sigma$-meson, hence we refer to these processes simply as \\sugg{to} one-pion (one-$\\sigma$) exchange\\sugg{s}. We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to compute equilibrium properties of the thermal bath, as well as the relevant scattering kernel to be used in the collision integral to estimate the chiral relaxation time $\\tau$. We find $\\tau\\simeq 0.1 \\div 1$ fm/c around the chiral crossover.
Consistent chiral kinetic theory in Weyl materials: chiral magnetic plasmons
Gorbar, E V; Shovkovy, I A; Sukhachov, P O
2016-01-01
We argue that the correct definition of the electric current in the chiral kinetic theory for Weyl materials should include the Chern--Simons contribution that makes the theory consistent with the local conservation of the electric charge in electromagnetic and strain-induced pseudoelectromagnetic fields. By making use of such a kinetic theory, we study the plasma frequencies of collective modes in Weyl materials in constant magnetic and pseudomagnetic fields taking into account the effects of dynamical electromagnetism. We show that the collective modes are chiral plasmons. While the plasma frequency of the longitudinal collective mode coincides with the Langmuir one, this mode is unusual because it is characterized not only by oscillations of the electric current density, but also oscillations of the chiral current density. The latter are triggered by a dynamical version of the chiral electric separation effect. We also find that the plasma frequencies of the transverse modes split up in a magnetic field. T...
Field induced spin chirality and chirality switching in magnetic multilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tartakovskaya, Elena V., E-mail: elena_tartakovskaya@yahoo.com [Institute of Magnetism NAS of Ukraine, Vernadsky blvd 36b, 03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Institute of High Technologies, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 03022 Kiev (Ukraine)
2015-05-01
The physical origin of the field-induced spin chirality experimentally observed in rare earth multilayers is determined. It is shown that the effect is possible due to the interplay between solid-state exchange interactions (the Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida and the Dsyaloshinsky–Moriya interactions), the external magnetic field and a special confinement of magnetic constituents. The presented model describes a certain temperature dependence of the chirality factor in agreement with experimental data and opens a new way to design nanostructured objects with predicted handedness. - Highlights: • Field-induced spin chirality in magnetic multilayers is explained. • The roles of the RKKY, the DM and the Zeeman interactions are clarified. • Theoretical analysis of the chirality factor is in agreement with experimental data.
Lattice chiral effective field theory with three-body interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order
Epelbaum, Evgeny; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G
2009-01-01
We consider low-energy nucleons at next-to-next-to-leading order in lattice chiral effective field theory. Three-body interactions first appear at this order, and we discuss several methods for determining three-body interaction coefficients on the lattice. We compute the energy of the triton and low-energy neutron-deuteron scattering phase shifts in the spin-doublet and spin-quartet channels using Luescher's finite volume method. In the four-nucleon system we calculate the energy of the alpha particle using auxiliary fields and projection Monte Carlo.
Solnyshkov, Dmitry; Malpuech, Guillaume
2016-10-01
The optical modes of photonic structures are the so-called TE and TM modes that bring intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and chirality to these systems. This, combined with the unique flexibility of design of the photonic potential, and the possibility to mix photon states with excitonic resonances, sensitive to magnetic field and interactions, allows us to achieve many phenomena, often analogous to other solid-state systems. In this contribution, we review in a qualitative and comprehensive way several of these realizations, namely the optical spin Hall effect, the creation of spin currents protected by a non-trivial geometry, the Berry curvature for photons, and the photonic/polaritonic topological insulator. xml:lang="fr"
Reducible chiral metamaterials
Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo
2016-01-01
We introduce the concept of 3D reducible metamaterials whose constituent permittivity can be modelled by a factorized profile. The separated cartesian coordinates dependence, easily achieved in all-optical reconfigurable materials, allows to physically regard a reducible metamaterial as a superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, the electromagnetic response of reducible metamaterials can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media whose interplay provides large freedom to control the electromagnetic chirality. Our approach introduces an unprecedented decomposition strategy in metamaterial science which allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex 3D bianisotropic response by using 1D metamaterials as basic building blocks.
Generic Weyl phase in the vortex state of quasi-two-dimensional chiral superconductors
Yoshida, Tomohiro; Udagawa, Masafumi
2016-08-01
We study the collective behavior of Majorana modes in the vortex state of chiral p -wave superconductors. Away from the isolated vortex limit, the zero-energy Majorana states communicate with each other on a vortex lattice, and form a coherent band structure with a nontrivial topological character. We reveal that the topological nature of Majorana bands changes sensitively via quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional (2D) systems, by sweeping magnetic field or Fermi energy. Through the idea of dimensional reduction, we show the existence of a generic superconducting Weyl phase in a low magnetic field region of quasi-2D chiral superconductors.
Chiral Dynamics With Wilson Fermions
Splittorff, K
2012-01-01
Close to the continuum the lattice spacing affects the smallest eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator in a very specific manner determined by the way in which the discretization breaks chiral symmetry. These effects can be computed analytically by means of Wilson chiral perturbation theory and Wilson random matrix theory. A number of insights on chiral Dynamics with Wilson fermions can be obtained from the computation of the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator. For example, the unusual volume scaling of the smallest eigenvalues observed in lattice simulations has a natural explanation. The dynamics of the eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator also allow us to determine the additional low energy constants of Wilson chiral perturbation theory and to understand why the Sharpe-Singleton scenario is only realized in unquenched simulations.
Review of chiral perturbation theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Ananthanarayan
2003-11-01
A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.
Wang, X J; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Yan, Mu-Lin
1999-01-01
We study SU(3)$_L\\timesSU(3)_R$ chiral quark model of mesons up to next leading order of $1/N_c$ expansion. Composite vector and axial-vector mesons resonances are introduced via non-linear realization of chiral SU(3) and vector meson dominant. Effects of one-loop graphs of pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons is calculated systematically and the significant results are obtained. Correction of effective gluon interaction is studied too. The light quark masses are introduced via new mechanism which agree with phenomenology and the requirement of chiral symmetry. Up to powers four of derivatives, chiral effective lagrangian of mesons is derived and evaluated to next leading order of $1/N_c$. Low energy limit of the model is examined. Ten low energy coupling constants $L_i(i=1,2,...,10)$ in ChPT are obtained and agree with ChPT well.
Life's chirality from prebiotic environments
Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari
2012-10-01
A key open question in the study of life is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: almost every life-form on Earth has exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. Will the same handedness be preferred if life is found elsewhere? We review some of the pertinent literature and discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events. In one scenario, autocatalytic prebiotic reactions undergo stochastic fluctuations due to environmental disturbances, in a mechanism reminiscent of evolutionary punctuated equilibrium: short-lived destructive events may lead to long-term enantiomeric excess. In another, chiral-selective polymerization reaction rates influenced by environmental effects lead to substantial chiral excess even in the absence of autocatalysis. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has implications to the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic (chirally neutral) on average.
Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten;
2010-01-01
Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-10-23
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Chiral symmetry and lattice fermions
Creutz, Michael
2013-01-01
Lattice gauge theory and chiral perturbation theory are among the primary tools for understanding non-perturbative aspects of QCD. I review several subtle and sometimes controversial issues that arise when combining these techniques. Among these are one failure of partially quenched chiral perturbation theory when the valence quarks become lighter than the average sea quark mass and a potential ambiguity in comparisons of perturbative and lattice properties of non-degenerate quarks.
Qian, Hai-Long; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping
2016-07-12
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a novel class of porous materials, and offer great potential for various applications. However, the applications of COFs in chiral separation and chiral catalysis are largely underexplored due to the very limited chiral COFs available and their challenging synthesis. Here we show a bottom-up strategy to construct chiral COFs and an in situ growth approach to fabricate chiral COF-bound capillary columns for chiral gas chromatography. We incorporate the chiral centres into one of the organic ligands for the synthesis of the chiral COFs. We subsequently in situ prepare the COF-bound capillary columns. The prepared chiral COFs and their bound capillary columns give high resolution for the separation of enantiomers with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. The proposed strategy provides a promising platform for the synthesis of chiral COFs and their chiral separation application.
Qian, Hai-Long; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping
2016-07-01
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a novel class of porous materials, and offer great potential for various applications. However, the applications of COFs in chiral separation and chiral catalysis are largely underexplored due to the very limited chiral COFs available and their challenging synthesis. Here we show a bottom-up strategy to construct chiral COFs and an in situ growth approach to fabricate chiral COF-bound capillary columns for chiral gas chromatography. We incorporate the chiral centres into one of the organic ligands for the synthesis of the chiral COFs. We subsequently in situ prepare the COF-bound capillary columns. The prepared chiral COFs and their bound capillary columns give high resolution for the separation of enantiomers with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. The proposed strategy provides a promising platform for the synthesis of chiral COFs and their chiral separation application.
Cantcheff, M Botta
2011-01-01
A well-defined local gauge structure for non-Abelian two-form gauge fields was introduced some years ago. This was achieved by introducing doublet group representations and doublet-assembled connections. We provide a summarized version of this formalism, in order to recall its features and applications. We also build up doublet-extended gauge-invariant actions for bosonic and fermionic matter, and discuss the appearance of novel topological quantities in these doublet-type gauge models. A partner action for higher spin fields appears in the doublet version of the fermionic matter sector. As an application of the formalism, a Chern-Simons and an Yang-Mills action in four dimensions may both be rigorously defined. We carry out this task and show that, in this doublet framework, their combination constitutes a consistent (power-counting renormalizable and unitary) non-Abelian generalization of the Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond theory with topological mass.
Chirality in Bare and Passivated Gold Nanoclusters
Garzon, I L; Rodrigues-Hernandez, J I; Sigal, I; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K
2002-01-01
Chiral structures have been found as the lowest-energy isomers of bare (Au$_{28}$ and Au$_{55}) and thiol-passivated (Au$_{28}(SCH$_{3})$_{16}$ and Au$_{38}$(SCH$_{3}$)$_{24}) gold nanoclusters. The degree of chirality existing in the chiral clusters was calculated using the Hausdorff chirality measure. We found that the index of chirality is higher in the passivated clusters and decreases with the cluster size. These results are consistent with the observed chiroptical activity recently reported for glutahione-passivated gold nanoclusters, and provide theoretical support for the existence of chirality in these novel compounds.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chao CHE; Zhong Ning ZHANG; Gui Lan HUANG; Xin Xing WANG; Zhao Hai QIN
2004-01-01
The use of chiral organophosphorus derivatizing agents prepared in situ from chiral tartrate or chiral diamine for the 31PNMR determination of the enantiomeric composition of chiral carboxylic acids is described. The method is accurate, reliable and convenient.
Chiral low-energy physics from squashed branes in deformed ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM
Steinacker, Harold C
2015-01-01
We discuss the low-energy physics which arises on stacks of squashed brane solutions of $SU(N)$ ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM, deformed by a cubic soft SUSY breaking potential. A brane configuration is found which leads to a low-energy physics similar to the standard model in the broken phase, assuming suitable VEV's of the scalar zero modes. Due to the triple self-intersection of the branes, the matter content includes that of the MSSM with precisely 3 generations and right-handed neutrinos. No exotic quantum numbers arise, however there are extra chiral superfields with the quantum numbers of the Higgs doublets, the $W,Z$, $e_R$ and $u_R$, whose fate depends on the details of the rich Higgs sector. The chiral low-energy sector is complemented by a heavy mirror sector with the opposite chiralities, as well as super-massive Kaluza-Klein towers completing the ${\\cal N}=4$ multiplets. The sectors are protected by two gauged global $U(1)$ symmetries.
Inert doublet dark matter with an additional scalar singlet and 125 GeV Higgs boson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta Banik, Amit; Majumdar, Debasish [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India)
2014-11-15
In this work we consider a model for particle dark matter where an extra inert Higgs doublet and an additional scalar singlet is added to the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian. The dark matter candidate is obtained from only the inert doublet. The stability of this one component dark matter is ensured by imposing a Z{sub 2} symmetry on this additional inert doublet. The additional singlet scalar has a vacuum expectation value (VEV) and mixes with the Standard Model Higgs doublet, resulting in two CP even scalars h{sub 1} and h{sub 2}. We treat one of these scalars, h{sub 1}, to be consistent with the SM Higgs-like boson of mass around 125 GeV reported by the LHC experiment. These two CP even scalars contribute to the annihilation cross section of this inert doublet dark matter, resulting in a larger dark matter mass region that satisfies the observed relic density. We also investigate the h{sub 1} → γγ and h{sub 1} → γ Z processes and compared these with LHC results. This is also used to constrain the dark matter parameter space in the present model. We find that the dark matter candidate in the mass region 60-80 GeV (m{sub 1} = 125 GeV, mass of h{sub 1}) satisfies the recent bound from LUX direct detection experiment. (orig.)
Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian
2016-01-12
A benchmark set of 11 small radicals is set up to assess the performance of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for the excited states of open-shell systems. Both the unrestricted (U-TD-DFT) and spin-adapted (X-TD-DFT) formulations of TD-DFT are considered. For comparison, the well-established EOM-CCSD (equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) is also used. In total, 111 low-lying singly excited doublet states are accessed by all the three approaches. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as the benchmark, it is found that both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD perform well for those states dominated by singlet-coupled single excitations (SCSE) from closed-shell to open-shell, open-shell to vacant-shell, or closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals. However, for those states dominated by triplet-coupled single excitations (TCSE) from closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals, both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD fail miserably due to severe spin contaminations. In contrast, X-TD-DFT provides balanced descriptions of both SCSE and TCSE. As far as the functional dependence is concerned, it is found that, when the Hartree-Fock ground state does not suffer from the instability problem, both global hybrid (GH) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals perform grossly better than pure density functionals, especially for Rydberg and charge-transfer excitations. However, if the Hartree-Fock ground state is instable or nearly instable, GH and RSH tend to underestimate severely the excitation energies. The SAOP (statistically averaging of model orbital potentials) performs more uniformly than any other density functionals, although it generally overestimates the excitation energies of valence excitations. Not surprisingly, both EOM-CCSD and adiabatic TD-DFT are incapable of describing excited states with substantial double excitation characters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahaman, Anisur, E-mail: anisur.rahman@saha.ac.in
2015-10-15
The vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model was replaced by the chiral type and a new model was presented which was termed as chiral Thirring–Wess model in Rahaman (2015). The model was studied there with a Faddeevian class of regularization. Few ambiguity parameters were allowed there with the apprehension that unitarity might be threatened like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. In the present work it has been shown that no counter term containing the regularization ambiguity is needed for this model to be physically sensible. So the chiral Thirring–Wess model is studied here without the presence of any ambiguity parameter and it has been found that the model not only remains exactly solvable but also does not lose the unitarity like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this new model have been determined in the present scenario. The theoretical spectrum is found to contain a massive boson with ambiguity free mass and a massless boson.
Tactoids of chiral liquid crystals
Palacio-Betancur, Viviana; Villada-Gil, Stiven; Zhou, Ye; Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; de Pablo, Juan José; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan Pablo
The phase diagram of chiral liquid crystals confined in ellipsoids is obtained, by following a theoretically informed Monte Carlo relaxation of the tensor alignment field Q. The free energy of the system is described by a functional in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. This study also includes the effect of anchoring strength, curvature, and chirality of the system. In the low chirality region of the phase diagram we found the twist bipolar (BS) phase and some cholesteric phases such as the radial spherical structure (RSS), twist cylinder (TC) and double twist cylinder (DTC) whose axis of rotation is not necessarily aligned with the major axis of the geometry. For high chirality scenarios, the disclination lines are twisted or bent near the surface preventing the formation of symmetric networks of defects, although an hexagonal pattern is formed on the surface which might serve as open sites for collocation of colloids. By analyzing the free energies of isochoric systems, prolate geometries tend to be more favorable for high chirality and low anchoring conditions. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Ph.D. grant and COLCIENCIAS under the Contract No. 110-165-843-748. CONACYT for Postdoctoral Fellowships Nos. 186166 and 203840.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Crooijmans, R. A.; Willems, C. J L; Nick, Hamid;
2016-01-01
A three-dimensional model is used to study the influence of facies heterogeneity on energy production under different operational conditions of low-enthalpy geothermal doublet systems. Process-based facies modelling is utilised for the Nieuwerkerk sedimentary formation in the West Netherlands Basin...... and the energy recovery rate for different discharge rates and the production temperature (Tmin) above which the doublet is working. With respect to the results, we propose a design model to estimate the life time and energy recovery rate of the geothermal doublet. The life time is estimated as a function of N...... errors in predicting the life time of low-enthalpy geothermal systems for N/G values below 70%....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Crooijmans, R. A.; Willems, C. J L; Nick, Hamid;
2016-01-01
A three-dimensional model is used to study the influence of facies heterogeneity on energy production under different operational conditions of low-enthalpy geothermal doublet systems. Process-based facies modelling is utilised for the Nieuwerkerk sedimentary formation in the West Netherlands Basin...... life time and the energy recovery rate for different discharge rates and the production temperature (Tmin) above which the doublet is working. With respect to the results, we propose a design model to estimate the life time and energy recovery rate of the geothermal doublet. The life time is estimated...... lead to significant errors in predicting the life time of low-enthalpy geothermal systems for N/G values below 70%....
Physiological consequences of doublet discharges on motoneuronal firing and motor unit force
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Włodzimierz eMrówczyński
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The double discharges are observed at the onset of contractions of mammalian motor units (MUs, especially during their recruitment to strong or fast movements. Doublets lead to MU force increase and improve ability of muscles to maintain high force during prolonged contractions. In this review we discuss an ability to produce doublets by fast and slow motoneurons (MNs, their influence on the course of action potential afterhyperpolarization as well as its role in modulation of the initial stage of the firing pattern of MNs. In conclusion, a generation of doublets is an important strategy of motor control, responsible for fitting the motoneuronal firing rate to the optimal for MUs at the start of their contraction, necessary for increment of muscle force.
Loop Suppression of Dirac Neutrino Mass in the Neutrinophilic Two Higgs Doublet Model
Kanemura, Shinya; Sugiyama, Hiroaki
2013-01-01
We extend the scalar sector of the neutrinophilic two Higgs doublet model, where small masses of Dirac neutrinos are obtained via a small vacuum expectation value v_nu of the neutrinophilic SU(2)_L-doublet scalar field which has a Yukawa interaction with only right-handed neutrinos. A global U(1)_X symmetry is used for the neutrinophilic nature of the second SU(2)_L-doublet scalar field and also for eliminating Majorana mass terms of neutrinos. By virtue of an appropriate assignment of the U(1)_X-charges to new particles, our model has an unbroken Z_2 symmetry, under which the lightest Z_2-odd scalar boson can be a dark matter candidate. In our model, v_nu is generated by the one-loop diagram to which Z_2-odd particles contribute. We briefly discuss a possible signature of our model at the LHC.
Chiral gap effect in curved space
Flachi, Antonino
2014-01-01
We discuss a new type of QCD phenomenon induced in curved space. In the QCD vacuum a mass gap of Dirac fermions is attributed to the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. If the curvature is positive large, the chiral condensate melts but a chiral invariant mass gap can still remain, which we name the chiral gap effect in curved space. This leads to decoupling of quark deconfinement which implies a view of black holes surrounded by a first-order QCD phase transition.
Strain induced Chiral Magnetic Effect in Weyl semimetals
Cortijo, Alberto; Landsteiner, Karl; Vozmediano, María A H
2016-01-01
We argue that strain applied to a time-reversal and inversion breaking Weyl semi-metal in a magnetic field can induce an electric current via the chiral magnetic effect. A tight binding model is used to show that strain generically changes the locations in the Brillouin zone but also the energies of the band touching points (tips of the Weyl cones). Since axial charge in a Weyl semi-metal can relax via inter-valley scattering processes the induced current will decay with a timescale given by the lifetime of a chiral quasiparticle. We estimate the strength and lifetime of the current for typical material parameters and find that it should be experimentally observable.
A Chiral Hemiporphyrazine Derivative: Synthesis and Chiroptical Properties.
Wu, Yanping; Gai, Lizhi; Xiao, Xuqiong; Lu, Hua; Li, Zhifang; Mack, John; Harris, Jessica; Nyokong, Tebello; Shen, Zhen
2016-08-01
The synthesis of an optically active hemiporphyrazine with chiral binaphthyl substituents (1) is reported, providing the first example of the incorporation of an intrinsically chiral moiety into the macrocyclic core of a hemiporphyrazine analogue. A negative circular dichroism (CD) signal is observed in the 325-450 nm region of the CD spectrum of (S,S)-1, while mainly positive bands are observed in the 220-325 nm region. Mirror symmetry is observed across the entire wavelength range of the CD spectra of (R,R)-1 and (S,S)-1. An irreversible one-electron oxidation wave with an onset potential at 1.07 V is observed by cyclic voltammetry, along with a reversible one-electron reduction wave at -0.85 V. Density functional calculations reproduce the experimentally observed data and trends, and provide further insight into the nature of the electronic transitions. PMID:27348494
Observing chiral superfluid order by matter-wave interference.
Kock, T; Ölschläger, M; Ewerbeck, A; Huang, W-M; Mathey, L; Hemmerich, A
2015-03-20
The breaking of time-reversal symmetry via the spontaneous formation of chiral order is ubiquitous in nature. Here, we present an unambiguous demonstration of this phenomenon for atoms Bose-Einstein condensed in the second Bloch band of an optical lattice. As a key tool, we use a matter-wave interference technique, which lets us directly observe the phase properties of the superfluid order parameter and allows us to reconstruct the spatial geometry of certain low-energy excitations, associated with the formation of domains of different chirality. Our work marks a new era of optical lattices where orbital degrees of freedom play an essential role for the formation of exotic quantum matter, similarly as in electronic systems.
Topological protection of defect states from semi-chiral symmetry
Poli, Charles; Bellec, Matthieu; Kuhl, Ulrich; Mortessagne, Fabrice
2015-01-01
Bipartite quantum systems from the chiral universality classes admit topologically protected zero modes at point defects. However, these states are difficult to separate from compacton-like localized states that arise from flat bands, formed if the two sublattices support a different number of sites within a unit cell. Here we identify a natural reduction of chiral symmetry, obtained by coupling sites on the majority sublattice, which gives rise to spectrally isolated point-defect states, topologically characterized as zero modes supported by the complementary minority sublattice. We observe these states in a microwave realization of a dimerized Lieb lattice with next-nearest neighbour coupling, and also demonstrate topological mode selection via sublattice-staggered absorption.
Field induced spin chirality and chirality switching in magnetic multilayers
Tartakovskaya, Elena V.
2015-05-01
The physical origin of the field-induced spin chirality experimentally observed in rare earth multilayers is determined. It is shown that the effect is possible due to the interplay between solid-state exchange interactions (the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida and the Dsyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions), the external magnetic field and a special confinement of magnetic constituents. The presented model describes a certain temperature dependence of the chirality factor in agreement with experimental data and opens a new way to design nanostructured objects with predicted handedness.
Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pumsa-ard, K.
2006-07-01
In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints
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Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory to one loop
Colangelo, G.; Pallante, E.
1998-01-01
The divergences of the generating functional of quenched Chiral Perturbation theory (qCHPT) to one loop are computed in closed form. We show how the quenched chiral logarithms can be reabsorbed in the renormalization of the B0 parameter of the leading order Lagrangian. Finally, we do the chiral powe
Neutrino Oscillation Induced by Chiral Phase Transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MU Cheng-Fu; SUN Gao-Feng; ZHUANG Peng-Fei
2009-01-01
Electric charge neutrality provides a relationship between chiral dynamics and neutrino propagation in compact stars.Due to the sudden drop of the electron density at the first-order chiral phase transition,the oscillation for low energy neutrinos is significant and can be regarded as a signature of chiral symmetry restoration in the core of compact stars.
Shear Viscosity of Turbulent Chiral Plasma
Kumar, Avdhesh; Das, Amita; Kaw, P K
2016-01-01
It is well known that the difference between the chemical potentials of left-handed and right-handed particles in a parity violating (chiral) plasma can lead to an instability. We show that the chiral instability may drive turbulent transport. Further we estimate the anomalous viscosity of chiral plasma arising from the enhanced collisionality due to turbulence.
Solutions of ward's modified chiral model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the adaptation of Uhlenbeck's method of solving the chiral model in 2 Euclidean dimensions to Ward's modified chiral model in (2+1) dimensions. We show that the method reduces the problem of solving the second-order partial differential equations for the chiral field to solving a sequence of first-order partial differential equations for time dependent projector valued fields
Floquet topological phase transitions and chiral edge states in a kagome lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Chaocheng; Zhang, Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn
2014-09-05
The Floquet topological phases and chiral edge states in a kagome lattice under a circularly-polarized driving field are studied. In the off-resonant case, the system exhibits the similar character as the kagome lattice model with staggered magnetic fluxes, but the total band width is damped in oscillation. In the on-resonant case, the degeneracy splitting at the Γ point does not always result in a gap. The positions of the other two gaps are influenced by the flat band. With the field intensity increased, these two gaps undergo closing-then-reopening processes, accompanied with the changing of the winding numbers. - Highlights: • A kagome lattice under a circularly-polarized driving field is studied. • The band structures and chiral edge states are studied via exact Floquet method. • Various modifications of the Floquet band structure are found. • Floquet topological phase transitions appear in both off- and on-resonant cases.
Neutral Higgs Production on LHC in the General two-Higgs-doublet Model
Bao, Shou-Shan
2009-01-01
Spontaneous CP violation motivates the introduction of two Higgs doublets in the electroweak theory, such a simple extension of the standard model has five physical Higgs bosons and rich CP-violating sources. Exploration on more than one Higgs boson is a direct evidence for new physics beyond the standard model. The neutral Higgs production on LHC is investigated in such a general two Higgs doublet model with spontaneous CP violation, it is shown that the production cross section and decays of the neutral Higgs boson can significantly be different from the predictions from the standard model.
Two-Higgs-doublet models with maximally restrictive leptonic texture zeros
Felipe, R Gonzalez
2016-01-01
The implementation of maximally restrictive texture zeros in the leptonic sector is investigated in the context of two-Higgs-doublet models with Majorana neutrinos. After analysing all maximally restrictive pairs of leptonic mass matrices with zero entries, we conclude that there are only four texture combinations that are compatible with observations at 3 sigma confidence level and can be implemented through Abelian symmetries in a two-Higgs-doublet model. The compatibility of these textures with current constraints on lepton-flavour-violating processes is also studied.
Baryogenesis in the two doublet and inert singlet extension of the Standard Model
Alanne, Tommi; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Vaskonen, Ville
2016-01-01
We investigate an extension of the Standard Model containing two Higgs doublets and a singlet scalar field (2HDSM). We show that the model can have a strongly first-order phase transition and give rise to the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe, consistent with all experimental constraints. In particular, the constraints from the electron and neutron electric dipole moments are less constraining here than in pure two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). The two-step, first-order transition in 2H...
Measurements of Narrow Mg II Associated Absorption Doublets with Two Observations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Zhi-Fu Chen; Cai-Juan Pan; Guo-Qiang Li; Wei-Rong Huang; Mu-Sheng Li
2013-12-01
The measurement of the variations of absorption lines over time is a good method to study the physical conditions of absorbers. In this paper, we measure the variations of the line strength of 36 narrow Mg II2796, 2803 associated absorption doublets, which are imprinted on 31 quasar spectra with two observations of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The timescales of these quasar span 1.1–5.5 years at the quasar rest-frame. On these timescales, we find that these narrow Mg II associated absorption doublets are stable, with no one 2796 line showing strength variation beyond 2 times error (2).
B_{s,d} -> l+ l- in a Two-Higgs-Doublet Model
Logan, Heather E.; Nierste, Ulrich
2000-01-01
We compute the branching fractions of B_{s,d} -> l+ l- in the type-II two-Higgs-doublet model with large tan(beta). We find that the parameters of the neutral Higgs sector of the two-Higgs-doublet model cancel in the result, so that the branching fractions depend only on the charged Higgs mass and tan(beta). For large values of tan(beta) and a charged Higgs mass above the bound from b -> s gamma, we find that the branching fractions can be enhanced by up to an order of magnitude or suppressed...
Extension of minimal fermionic dark matter model: a study with two Higgs doublet model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta Banik, Amit; Majumdar, Debasish [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India)
2015-08-15
We explore a fermionic dark matter model with a possible extension of Standard Model of particle physics into two Higgs doublet model. Higgs doublets couple to the singlet fermionic dark matter through a non-renormalisable coupling providing a new physics scale. We explore the viability of such dark matter candidate and constrain the model parameter space by collider serach, relic density of DM, direct detection measurements of DM-nucleon scattering cross-section and with the experimentally obtained results from indirect search of dark matter. (orig.)
Characterization of Wave Dispersion in Viscoelastic Cellular Assemblies by Doublet Mechanics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIN Yan-Fang; XIONG Chun-Yang; FANG Jing; FERRARI Mauro
2009-01-01
Using the Voigt model, we analyze wave propagation in viscoelastic granular media with a monatomic lattice, planar simple cubic package and cubical-tetrahedral assembly within the context of doublet mechanics. Microstrains of elongation between the doublet particles are considered in the models. Wave dispersive relations are derived from dynamic equations of the particles involved in the media, and phase velocities and attenuations of the dispersive waves are obtained for the different assemblies. Variations in these dispersion characteristics are analyzed with the changes of cell interval, modulus, and wave frequency. The relations between micro-constants and macro-parameters are presented under the condition of non-scale continuity of the media.
Mu to e gamma in the 2 Higgs Doublet Model: an exercise in EFT
Davidson, Sacha
2016-01-01
The 2 Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) of type III has renormalisable Lepton Flavour-Violating couplings, and its one and two-loop ("Barr-Zee") contributions to $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ are known. In the decoupling limit, where the mass scale M of the second doublet is much greater than the electroweak scale, the model can be parametrised with an Effective Field Theory(EFT) containing dimension six operators. The $1/M^2$ terms of the exact calculation are reproduced in the EFT, provided that the four-fer...
Chiral cardiovascular drugs: an overview.
Ranade, Vasant V; Somberg, John C
2005-01-01
Stereochemistry in drug molecules is rapidly becoming an important aspect in drug research, design, and development. Recently, individual stereoisomers of drug molecules with asymmetric centers such as fexofenadine, cetirizine, verapamil, fluoxetine, levalbutarol, and amphetamine, for example, have been separated and developed as individual drugs. These stereoisomers have different therapeutic activity, and each isomer has contributed differently with respect to its formulation's pharmacologic activity, side effects, and toxicity. The present overview discusses chirality among a select group of cardiovascular drugs, their stereochemical synthesis/preparation, isolation techniques using chiral chromatography, methods for confirmation of their enantiomeric purity, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics. Chirality has been visualized as an important factor in cardiovascular research. It is also becoming evident in other areas of therapeutics.
Synthetic Applications of Chiral Furanboronate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHAN; KinFai
2001-01-01
We recently uncovered that consecutive reactions of chiral furfural-boronate 1 with a lithium alkoxide and a nucleophile led to the formation of alcohols 2 with good diastereoselection in favor of S-configuration at the newly generated chiral carbon. In addition, it was also found that 2a and 2b were chromatographically separable on a silica gel column. This reaction is believed to involve a tetrahedral borate intermediate, as can be substantiated by 11BNMR spectroscopic studies. Chiral furanmethanolboronates 2a(or 2b) underwent a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling to form enantiomerically pure furans 3, which can be further converted to the synthetically useful hydroxypyranones 4.1,2,3 In addition, Mukaiyama reaction of 1 also led to chromatographically separable diastereomeric aldol-products. The scope and limitation of these conversions will be discussed. ……
Chiral interaction and biomolecular evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent developments in the concept of chiral interaction open now new options and dynamical possibilities for biomolecules which have so far been overlooked. A few of these possibilities are mentioned, such as the control mechanism of enzymatic activity and the role played by non-ergodicity in evolutionary processes. It is shown that chiral interaction, being a surface phenomenon, does not obey Barron's symmetry constraints, which are suitable for force fields present in bulk interactions. In particular, the situation at the ocean-air surface in the prebiotic era is described, as well as the possible role played by chiral interaction in conjunction with the terrestrial magnetic field normal to the ocean surface, which could have lead to a process of deracernization at the ocean-air interface. (author)
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model
Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul;
1996-01-01
A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b......A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines...
Novel Chiral Auxiliaries of BIAZOLs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN; Arh-Hwang
2001-01-01
Asymmetric catalysis is one of the most challenging and formidable endeavor in organic synthesis. The development of chiral auxiliaries is a key in the asymmetric catalysis. Azulenoids, a parent structure of bicyclo[5.3.0]decapentaene with 10 πelectrons, are useful as dye materials, medical treatment of inflammation and hypertension, and the development of liquid crystals. In continuing to investigate synthetic application of azulenoids, we have studied to develop novel chiral auxiliaries of BIAZOLs. The BIAZOLs were synthesized from dicyclopentadiene and characterized using spectroscopies. ……
Novel Chiral Auxiliaries of BIAZOLs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Arh-Hwang; YUAN Shou-Bin; CHIU Shu-Ching
2001-01-01
@@ Asymmetric catalysis is one of the most challenging and formidable endeavor in organic synthesis. The development of chiral auxiliaries is a key in the asymmetric catalysis. Azulenoids, a parent structure of bicyclo[5.3.0]decapentaene with 10 πelectrons, are useful as dye materials, medical treatment of inflammation and hypertension, and the development of liquid crystals. In continuing to investigate synthetic application of azulenoids, we have studied to develop novel chiral auxiliaries of BIAZOLs. The BIAZOLs were synthesized from dicyclopentadiene and characterized using spectroscopies.
Chiral Baryon with Quantized Pions
McNeil, J A
1993-01-01
We study a hybrid chiral model for the nucleon based on the linear sigma model with explicit quarks. We solve the model using a Fock-space configuration consisting of three quarks plus three quarks and a pion as the ground state ansatz in place of the ``hedgehog'' ansatz. We minimize the expectation value of the chiral hamiltonian in this ground state configuration and solve the resulting equations for nucleon quantum numbers. We calculate the canonical set of nucleon observables and compare with previous work.
Strange chiral nucleon form factors
Hemmert, T R; Meißner, Ulf G; Hemmert, Thomas R.; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.
1999-01-01
We investigate the strange electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory to third order in the chiral expansion. All counterterms can be fixed from data. In particular, the two unknown singlet couplings can be deduced from the parity-violating electron scattering experiments performed by the SAMPLE and the HAPPEX collaborations. Within the given uncertainties, our analysis leads to a small and positive electric strangeness radius, $ = (0.05 \\pm 0.16) fm^2$. We also deduce the consequences for the upcoming MAMI A4 experiment.
Sahin, M; Unel, G
2011-01-01
In a recent Letter Martinez et al.2011 have argued that the existence of extra three families is still perfectly in accord with the standard model (SM), as long as an additional Higgs doublet is also present. Here we claim that the mentioned accordance can be obtained with less reliance on BSM physics like additional Higgs doublets, but benefiting from Majorana neutrinos is sufficient.
Response of fermions in Chern bands to spatially local quenches
Grushin, Adolfo G.; Roy, Sthitadhi; Haque, Masudul
2016-08-01
We study the dynamical evolution of Chern-band systems after subjecting them to local quenches. For open-boundary systems, we show for half-filling that the chiral nature of edge states is manifested in the time-dependent chiral response to local density quenches on the edge. In the presence of power-law traps, we show how to mimic the half-filling situation by choosing the appropriate number of fermions depending on the trap size, and explore chiral responses of edges to local quenches in such a configuration. We find that perturbations resulting from the quenches propagate at smaller group velocities as the gap controlling the spatial extent of the edge modes decreases. Our results provide different routes to check dynamically the non-trivial nature of Chern bands.
Scaling laws in chiral hydrodynamic turbulence
Yamamoto, Naoki
2016-01-01
We study the turbulent regime of chiral (magneto)hydrodynamics for charged and neutral matter with chirality imbalance. We find that the chiral magnetohydrodynamics for charged plasmas possesses a unique scaling symmetry only without fluid helicity under the local charge neutrality. We also find a different type of unique scaling symmetry in the chiral hydrodynamics for neutral matter with fluid helicity in the inertial range. We show that these symmetries dictate the self-similar inverse cascade of the magnetic and kinetic energies. Our results imply the possible inverse energy cascade in core-collapse supernovae due to the chiral transport of neutrinos.
Chiral magnetic effect in the PNJL model
Fukushima, Kenji; Gatto, Raoul
2010-01-01
We study the two-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop (PNJL model) in the presence of a strong magnetic field and a chiral chemical potential $\\mu_5$ which mimics the effect of imbalanced chirality due to QCD instanton and/or sphaleron transitions. Firstly we focus on the properties of chiral symmetry breaking and deconfinement crossover under the strong magnetic field. Then we discuss the role of $\\mu_5$ on the phase structure. Finally the chirality charge, electric current, and their susceptibility, which are relevant to the Chiral Magnetic Effect, are computed in the model.
K stability and stability of chiral ring
Collins, Tristan C; Yau, Shing-Tung
2016-01-01
We define a notion of stability for chiral ring of four dimensional N=1 theory by introducing test chiral rings and generalized a maximization. We conjecture that a chiral ring is the chiral ring of a superconformal field theory if and only if it is stable. We then study N=1 field theory derived from D3 branes probing a three-fold singularity X, and show that the K stability which implies the existence of Ricci-flat conic metric on X is equivalent to the stability of chiral ring of the corresponding field theory.
Scaling laws in chiral hydrodynamic turbulence
Yamamoto, Naoki
2016-06-01
We study the turbulent regime of chiral (magneto)hydrodynamics for charged and neutral matter with chirality imbalance. We find that the chiral magnetohydrodynamics for charged plasmas possesses a unique scaling symmetry, only without fluid helicity under the local charge neutrality. We also find a different type of unique scaling symmetry in the chiral hydrodynamics for neutral matter with fluid helicity in the inertial range. We show that these symmetries dictate the self-similar inverse cascade of the magnetic and kinetic energies. Our results imply the possible inverse energy cascade in core-collapse supernovae due to the chiral transport of neutrinos.
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2011-11-15
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self coupling. (orig.)
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim
2011-01-01
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self coupling.
Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: new excitation modes in chiral fluids
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2016-01-01
In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in a external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density, the chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves. We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the excitation reduces to a charge diffusion mode or is completely absent. We also correct the dispersion relation for the chiral magnetic wave.
Chiral Cosmological Models: Dark Sector Fields Description
Chervon, S V
2014-01-01
The present review is devoted to a Chiral Cosmological Model as the self-gravitating nonlinear sigma model with the potential of (self)interactions employed in cosmology. The chiral cosmological model has successive applications in descriptions of the inflationary epoch of the Universe evolution; the present accelerated expansion of the Universe also can be described by the chiral fields multiplet as the dark energy in wide sense. To be more illustrative we are often addressed to the two-component chiral cosmological model. Namely, the two-component chiral cosmological model describing the phantom field with interaction to a canonical scalar field is analyzed in details. New generalized model of quintom character is proposed and exact solutions are founded out. In the review we represented the perturbation theory for chiral cosmological model with the aim to describe the structure formation using the progress achieved in the inflation theory. It was shown that cosmological perturbations from chiral fields can...
Constraints on the septet-doublet mixing models from oblique parameters
Geng, Chao-Qiang; Yu, Yao
2014-01-01
The limitations of the doublet-septet mixing models by electroweak oblique parameters of $S$ and $T$ are studied. In the minimal model, the mixture of the septet and the scalar doublet in the standard model (SM) is driven by a non-Hermitian dimension-7 operator. For a smaller bare mass of the septet, $\\Delta S$ gives a stringent constraint on $\\sin\\beta$, for example, $\\sin\\beta\\lesssim 0.22$ for $M_\\eta=300\\,{\\rm GeV}$. In general, increasing $M_\\eta$ will enhance the deviation of $T$ from the SM, whereas it decreases the magnitude of $\\Delta S$ for a larger bare mass within the range $M_\\eta\\lesssim 400\\,{\\rm GeV}$. We also examine two expended models from the ordinary doublet-septet mixture pattern. One of them is based on a inert doublet-septet mixing pattern, in which there is no vacuum expectation value for the neutral component of $\\eta$, and a stable dark matter could naturally exist. For a benchmark point with $M_\\chi=250{\\rm}$ and $M_\\eta=400\\,{\\rm GeV}$ in this model, the mixing coefficient is foun...
2+1-dimensional wormhole from a doublet of scalar fields
Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, Mustafa
2015-01-01
We present a class of exact solutions in the framework of (2+1)-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled minimally to a doublet of scalar fields. Our solution can be interpreted upon the tuning of parameters as an asymptotically flat wormhole as well as a particle model in 2+1 dimensions.
Separation of the 1+/1− parity doublet in 20Ne
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Beller
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The (J,T=(1,1 parity doublet in 20Ne at 11.26 MeV is a good candidate to study parity violation in nuclei. However, its energy splitting is known with insufficient accuracy for quantitative estimates of parity violating effects. To improve on this unsatisfactory situation, nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using linearly and circularly polarized γ-ray beams were used to determine the energy difference of the parity doublet ΔE=E(1−−E(1+=−3.2(±0.7stat(−1.2+0.6sys keV and the ratio of their integrated cross sections Is,0(+/Is,0(−=29(±3stat(−7+14sys. Shell-model calculations predict a parity-violating matrix element having a value in the range 0.46–0.83 eV for the parity doublet. The small energy difference of the parity doublet makes 20Ne an excellent candidate to study parity violation in nuclear excitations.
Spin-slip structure and central peak phenomena in singlet-doublet system: Praseodymium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1997-01-01
A theory is given for the central peaks observed in praseodymium, which is an effective singlet-doublet System of localized spins. The dominant peak is due to induced longitudinal magnetic ordering, which can be accounted for by mode-mode coupling theory. The second, broader peak is due to an ind...
Electroweak Z-string in Two-Higgs-Doublet Standard Model
La, H S
1992-01-01
We derive electroweak Z-string solutions in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model with two Higgs doublets. The existence of such solutions in particular requires a specific relation between the ratio of the two Higgs vacuum expectation values, {\\it i.e.} $\\tan\\beta$, and the couplings in the Higgs potential.
Vacuum stability and supersymmetry at high scales with two Higgs doublets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagnaschi, E.; Buchmueller, W.; Voigt, A.; Weiglein, G. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Bruemmer, F. [Montpellier Univ. (France). Lab. Univers et Particules de Montpellier
2016-02-15
We investigate the stability of the electroweak vacuum for two-Higgs doublet models with a supersymmetric UV completion. The supersymmetry breaking scale is taken to be of the order of the grand unification scale. We first study the case where all superpartners decouple at this scale. We show that contrary to the Standard Model with one Higgs doublet, matching to the supersymmetric UV completion is possible if the low-scale model contains two Higgs doublets. In this case vacuum stability and experimental constraints point towards low values of tanβ
Deformed Pseudospin Doublets as a Fingerprint of a Relativistic Supersymmetry in Nuclei
Leviatan, A
2010-01-01
The single-particle spectrum of deformed shell-model states in nuclei, is shown to exhibit a supersymmetric pattern. The latter involves deformed pseudospin doublets and intruder levels. The underlying supersymmetry is associated with the relativistic pseudospin symmetry of the nuclear mean-field Dirac Hamiltonian with scalar and vector potentials.
Deformed pseudospin doublets as a fingerprint of a relativistic supersymmetry in nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leviatan, A, E-mail: ami@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2011-01-01
The single-particle spectrum of deformed shell-model states in nuclei, is shown to exhibit a supersymmetric pattern. The latter involves deformed pseudospin doublets and intruder levels. The underlying supersymmetry is associated with the relativistic pseudospin symmetry of the nuclear mean-field Dirac Hamiltonian with scalar and vector potentials.
The Permian Rotliegend reservoir architecture of the Dutch Koekoekspolder geothermal doublet
Mijnlieff, H.F.; Bloemsma, M.R.; Donselaar, M.E.; Henares, S.; Redjosentono, A.E.; Veldkamp, J.G.; Weltje, G.J.
2014-01-01
The Dutch Koekoekspolder geothermal doublet was drilled in 2011 targeting the Permian Rotliegendreservoir. The encountered reservoir properties were less favorable than expected pre-drill. Post-drill integrated evaluation of vintage data and the new data from the geothermal wells resulted in a refin
Algebraic study of chiral anomalies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Juan Mañes; Raymond Stora; Bruno Zumino
2012-06-01
The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles by the introduction of a ﬁxed background connection. Some of the techniques used in the study of the anomaly are improved or generalized, including a systematic way of generating towers of ‘descent equations’.
Mori, Tadashi; Inoue, Yoshihisa
The chiroptical properties, such as electronic and vibrational circular dichroism and optical rotation, of planar chiral cyclophanes have attracted much attention in recent years. Although the chemistry of cyclophanes has been extensively explored for more than 60 years, the studies on chiral cyclophanes are rather limited. Experimentally, the use of chiral stationary phases in HPLC becomes more popular and facilitates the enantiomer separation of chiral cyclophanes of interest. Almost all chiral cyclophanes can be readily separated, in analytical and preparative scales, most typically on a Daicel OD type column, which is based on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). The CD spectra of chiral cyclophanes are unique in their fairly large, significantly coupled Cotton effects observed in all the 1 B b, 1 L a, and 1 L b band regions. Theoretically, the time-dependent density functional theory, or TD-DFT, method becomes a cost-efficient, yet accurate, theoretical method to reproduce the electronic circular dichroisms and the absorption spectra of a variety of cyclophanes. The direct comparison of the experimental CD spectra with the theoretical ones readily leads to the unambiguous assignment of the absolute configuration of cyclophanes. In addition, the analysis of configuration interaction and molecular orbitals allows detailed interpretation of the electronic transitions and Cotton effects in the UV and CD spectra. Through the study of the CD spectra of chiral cyclophanes as model systems, the effects of intra- and intermolecular interactions on the chiroptical properties of molecules can be explored, and the results thus obtained are valuable in comprehensively elucidating the structure-chiroptical property relationship. In this review the recent progress in experimental and theoretical investigations of the electronic CD spectra of chiral cyclophanes is discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The alkali-hydrolysis of D-glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) was investigated by chiral Raman and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies in combination with density functional theory calculation. Based on the characteristic CD bands of GDL and its hydrolysis product, the dynamics of hydrolysis was studied using stopped-flow CD method. Using chiral Raman spectroscopy (CRS), the stereochemical change of GDL owing to the hydrolysis reaction was discussed on the vibrational scale. The CRS results show that the ring-opening due to hydrolysis has a great influence on the chiral structure around the car-bonyl group, which was evidenced by the disappearance of the CRS band at 1735 cm-1 (C== O stretching vibrational mode). In addition, the change of positions and intensity of CRS bands was also observed, which was ascribed to the perturbation around the C2, C3, C4 and C5 carbons due to ring-opening. It is worthy to note that the stereochemistry of C2, C3, C4 and C5 had no fundamental change during the hydrolysis reaction, which was reflected in the maintenance of the signs of the CRS bands. Our results demonstrate that in comparison with CD technique, CRS may provide more detailed structural information of chiral molecules and open up new vistas of research for chiral reactions.
Gu, Zhigang
2014-06-17
Oriented circular dichroism (OCD) is explored and successfully applied to investigate chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs) based on camphoric acid (D- and Lcam) with the composition [Cu2(Dcam) 2x(Lcam)2-2x(dabco)]n (dabco=1,4-diazabicyclo- [2.2.2]-octane). The three-dimensional chiral SURMOFs with high-quality orientation were grown on quartz glass plates by using a layer-by-layer liquid-phase epitaxy method. The growth orientation, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), could be switched between the [001] and [110] direction by using either OH- or COOH-terminated substrates. These SURMOFs were characterized by using OCD, which confirmed the ratio as well as the orientation of the enantiomeric linker molecules. Theoretical computations demonstrate that the OCD band intensities of the enantiopure [Cu2(Dcam)2(dabco)] n grown in different orientations are a direct result of the anisotropic nature of the chiral SURMOFs. Finally, the enantiopure [Cu 2(Dcam)2(dabco)]n and [Cu2(Lcam) 2(dabco)]n SURMOFs were loaded with the two chiral forms of ethyl lactate [(+)-ethyl-D-lactate and (-)-ethyl-L-lactate)]. An enantioselective enrichment of >60 % was observed by OCD when the chiral host scaffold was loaded from the racemic mixture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Low temperature thermal hall conductivity of a nodal chiral superconductor
Yip, Sungkit
2016-08-01
Motivated by Sr2RuO4, we consider a chiral superconductor where the gap is strongly suppressed along certain momentum directions. We evaluate the thermal Hall conductivity in the gapless regime, i.e., at low temperature compared with the impurity band width γ, taking the simplest model of isotropic impurity scattering. We find that, under favorable circumstances, this thermal Hall conductivity can be quite significant and is smaller than the diagonal component (the universal thermal conductivity) only by a factor of 1/{ln}(2{{{Δ }}}M/γ ), where {{{Δ }}}M is the maximum gap.
Instability of the hedgehog shape for the octet baryon in the chiral quark soliton model
Akiyama, S; Akiyama, Satoru; Futami, Yasuhiko
2003-01-01
In this paper the stability of the hedgehog shape of the chiral soliton is studied for the octet baryon with the SU(3) chiral quark soliton model. The strangeness degrees of freedom are treated by a simplified bound-state approach, which omits the locality of the kaon wave function. The mean field approximation for the flavor rotation is applied to the model. The classical soliton changes shape according to the strangeness. The baryon appears as a rotational band of the combined system of the deformed soliton and the kaon.
Chiral extraction of ketoprofen enantiomers with chiral selector tartaric esters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Dan; LIU Jia-jia; TANG Ke-wen; HUANG Ke-long
2007-01-01
Distribution behavior of ketoprofen enantiomers was examined in methanol aqueous and organic solvent mixture containing tartaric esters. The influence of length of alkyl chain of tartaric esters, concentration of L-tartaric esters and methanol aqueous, kind of organic solvent on partition ratio and separation factors was investigated. The results show that L-tartaric and D-tartaric esters have different chiral recognition abilities. S-ketoprofen is easily extracted by L-tartaric esters, and R-ketoprofen is easily extracted by D-tartaric esters. L-tartaric esters form more stable diastereomeric complexes with S-enantiomer than that with R-enantiomer. This distribution behavior is consistent with chiral recognition mechanism. With the increase of the concentration of tartaric ester from 0 to 0.3 mol/L, partition coefficient K and separation factor α increase. Also, the kind of organic solvent and the concentration of the methanol aqueous have significant influence on K and α.
Fujimoto, Noriko; Matsumura, Mio; Azumaya, Isao; Nishiyama, Shizuka; Masu, Hyuma; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Tanatani, Aya
2012-05-18
Chiral properties of bowl-shaped cyclic triamides bearing functional groups with hydrogen-bonding ability were examined. Chiral induction of cyclic triamide 3a was observed by addition of chiral amine in solution, and chiral separation was achieved by simple crystallization to afford chiral capsule-type dimer structure of 4a.
Shah, Syed Touseef Hussain; Syed, Aqeel A; Naqvi, Qaisar Abbas
2013-01-01
Focusing of electromagnetic plane wave from a large size paraboloidal reflector, composed of layers of chiral and/or chiral nihility metamaterials, has been studied us- ing Maslov's method. First, the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic plane wave from two parallel layers of chiral and/or chiral nihility metamaterials are cal- culated using transfer matrix method. The effects of change of angle of incidence, chirality parameters and impedances of layers are noted and discussed. Special cases by taking very large and small values of permittivity of second layer, while assuming value of corresponding chirality equal to zero, are also treated. These special cases are equivalent to reflection from a perfect electric conductor backed chiral layer and nihility backed chiral layer, respectively. Results of reflection from parallel layers have been utilized to study focusing from a large size paraboloidal reflector. The present study, on focusing from a paraboloidal re{\\deg}ector, not only unifies several ...
Mechanism of chirality conversion by periodic change of temperature: Role of chiral clusters
Katsuno, Hiroyasu; Uwaha, Makio
2016-01-01
By grinding crystals in a solution, the chirality of crystal structure (and the molecular chirality for the case of chiral molecules as well) can be converted, and the cause of the phenomenon is attributed to crystal growth with chiral clusters. We show that the recently found chirality conversion with a periodic change of temperature can also be explained by crystal growth with chiral clusters. With the use of a generalized Becker-Döring model, which includes enantio-selective incorporation of small chiral clusters to large solid clusters, the change of cluster distribution and the mass flow between clusters are studied. The chiral clusters act as a reservoir to pump out the minority species to the majority, and the exponential amplification of the enantiomeric excess found in the experiment is reproduced in the numerical calculation.
Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal
Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander
2016-08-01
The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity.
Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal.
Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander
2016-01-01
The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity. PMID:27562028
Anomalous Maxwell equations for inhomogeneous chiral plasma
Gorbar, E V; Vilchinskii, S; Rudenok, I; Boyarsky, A; Ruchayskiy, O
2016-01-01
Using the chiral kinetic theory we derive the electric and chiral current densities in inhomogeneous relativistic plasma. We also derive equations for the electric and chiral charge chemical potentials that close the Maxwell equations in such a plasma. The analysis is done in the regimes with and without a drift of the plasma as a whole. In addition to the currents present in the homogeneous plasma (Hall current, chiral magnetic, chiral separation, and chiral electric separation effects, as well as Ohm's current) we derive several new terms associated with inhomogeneities of the plasma. Apart from various diffusion-like terms, we find also new dissipation-less terms that are independent of relaxation time. Their origin can be traced to the Berry curvature modifications of the kinetic theory.
Anomalous Maxwell equations for inhomogeneous chiral plasma
Gorbar, E. V.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Vilchinskii, S.; Rudenok, I.; Boyarsky, A.; Ruchayskiy, O.
2016-05-01
Using the chiral kinetic theory we derive the electric and chiral current densities in inhomogeneous relativistic plasma. We also derive equations for the electric and chiral chemical potentials that close the Maxwell equations in such a plasma. The analysis is done in the regimes with and without a drift of the plasma as a whole. In addition to the currents present in the homogeneous plasma (Hall current, chiral magnetic, chiral separation, and chiral electric separation effects, as well as Ohm's current) we derive several new terms associated with inhomogeneities of the plasma. Apart from various diffusionlike terms, we find also new dissipationless terms that are independent of relaxation time. Their origin can be traced to the Berry curvature modifications of the kinetic theory.
Dimonte, Alice; Adamatzky, Andrew; Erokhin, Victor; Levin, Michael
2016-02-01
Left-right patterning and lateralised behaviour is an ubiquitous aspect of plants and animals. The mechanisms linking cellular chirality to the large-scale asymmetry of multicellular structures are incompletely understood, and it has been suggested that the chirality of living cells is hardwired in their cytoskeleton. We examined the question of biased asymmetry in a unique organism: the slime mould Physarum polycephalum, which is unicellular yet possesses macroscopic, complex structure and behaviour. In laboratory experiment using a T-shape, we found that Physarum turns right in more than 74% of trials. The results are in agreement with previously published studies on asymmetric movement of muscle cells, neutrophils, liver cells and growing neural filaments, and for the first time reveal the presence of consistently-biased laterality in the fungi kingdom. Exact mechanisms of the slime mould's direction preference remain unknown. PMID:26747637
Bootstrapping N=2 chiral correlators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemos, Madalena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Liendo, Pedro [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). IMIP
2015-12-15
We apply the numerical bootstrap program to chiral operators in four-dimensional N=2 SCFTs. In the first part of this work we study four-point functions in which all fields have the same conformal dimension. We give special emphasis to bootstrapping a specific theory: the simplest Argyres-Douglas fixed point with no flavor symmetry. In the second part we generalize our setup and consider correlators of fields with unequal dimension. This is an example of a mixed correlator and allows us to probe new regions in the parameter space of N=2 SCFTs. In particular, our results put constraints on relations in the Coulomb branch chiral ring and on the curvature of the Zamolodchikov metric.
Chiral Particle Separation by a Nonchiral Microlattice
Bogunovic, Lukas; Fliedner, Marc; Eichhorn, Ralf; Wegener, Sonja; Regtmeier, Jan; Anselmetti, Dario; Reimann, Peter
2012-09-01
We conceived a model experiment for a continuous separation strategy of chiral molecules (enantiomers) without the need of any chiral selector structure or derivatization agents: Microparticles that only differ by their chirality are shown to migrate along different directions when driven by a steady fluid flow through a square lattice of cylindrical posts. In accordance with our numerical predictions, the transport directions of the enantiomers depend very sensitively on the orientation of the lattice relative to the fluid flow.
Chiral phases of fundamental and adjoint quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Natale, A. A. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bl.II - 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2016-01-22
We consider a QCD chiral symmetry breaking model where the gap equation contains an effective confining propagator and a dressed gluon propagator with a dynamically generated mass. This model is able to explain the ratios between the chiral transition and deconfinement temperatures in the case of fundamental and adjoint quarks. It also predicts the recovery of the chiral symmetry for a large number of quarks (n{sub f} ≈ 11 – 13) in agreement with lattice data.
Infinite Chiral Symmetry in Four Dimensions
Beem, Christopher; Liendo, Pedro; Peelaers, Wolfger; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C
2015-01-01
We describe a new correspondence between four-dimensional conformal field theories with extended supersymmetry and two-dimensional chiral algebras. The meromorphic correlators of the chiral algebra compute correlators in a protected sector of the four-dimensional theory. Infinite chiral symmetry has far-reaching consequences for the spectral data, correlation functions, and central charges of any four-dimensional theory with ${\\mathcal N}=2$ superconformal symmetry.
Random Matrix Theory and Chiral Logarithms
Berbenni-Bitsch, M. E.; Göckeler, M.; Hehl, H.; Meyer, S.; Rakow, P. E. L.; Schäfer, A.; Wettig, T.
1999-01-01
Abstract: Recently, the contributions of chiral logarithms predicted by quenched chiral perturbation theory have been extracted from lattice calculations of hadron masses. We argue that a detailed comparison of random matrix theory and lattice calculations allows for a precise determination of such corrections. We estimate the relative size of the m log(m), m, and m^2 corrections to the chiral condensate for quenched SU(2).
Chiral magnetic effect by synthetic gauge fields
Hayata, Tomoya
2016-01-01
We study the dynamical generation of the chiral chemical potential in a Weyl metal constructed from a three-dimensional optical lattice and subject to synthetic gauge fields. By numerically solving the Boltzmann equation with the Berry curvature in the presence of parallel synthetic electric and magnetic fields, we find that the spectral flow and the ensuing chiral magnetic current emerge. We show that the spectral flow and the chiral chemical potential can be probed by time-of-flight imaging.
Majorana Neutrino: Chirality and Helicity
Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V
2012-01-01
We introduce the Majorana spinors in the momentum representation. They obey the Dirac-like equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled (as shown by Ziino). Particular attention has been paid to the questions of chirality and helicity (two concepts which frequently are confused in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states.
An epistemological note on chirality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The terms ''chiral'' and ''achiral'' are sharply defined when applied to geometric figures or models. The same terms are also commonly used to refer to the real systems to which these models have been adjoined. e.g., molecules, solvents, or reagents. Here, the terms are not sharply defined but depend upon conditions or measurement. The contrast between the geometric and operational usages is discussed in detail
Staggered chiral random matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a random matrix theory for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered random matrix theory is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.
Chiral Separation of Erythromycin as a New Chiral Selector on CE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Erythromycin as a new chiral selector was first used for chrial separation of four derivatives of biphenyldimethylester enantiomers on CE. The influence of pH, the chiral selector concentration and organic modifiers were preliminarily studied. Experiments show that the erythromycin as chiral selector is useful to CE.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard;
2014-01-01
" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...
Chiral assembly of achiral pseudoisocyanine with D-and L-phenylalanine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG LiXi; HE Yujian; DAI ZhiFeng; WANG Jian; WANG CaiQi; YANG YongGang
2009-01-01
Supramolecular chirality and molecular self-assembly are important and interesting phenomena in living and non-living systems.In this work,supramolecular chirality of achiral pseudoisocyanine (PIC) J-aggregates was successfully induced by D-,L-phenylalanine (Phe) and other amino acids in NaCI solution.The chiral J-aggregates showed a characteristic,induced circular dichroism (ICD) in the visible region of J-band chromophore which depends on the absolute configuration,concentration and side groups of a-amino acids,as well as temperature.The atomic force microscopy images indicated that the J-aggregates exist in large bundles of entangled nanof ibers,and the observed ICD might result from the macroscopic helical arrangement of the assemblies.
Chiral assembly of achiral pseudoisocyanine with D-and L-phenylalanine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Supramolecular chirality and molecular self-assembly are important and interesting phenomena in living and non-living systems.In this work,supramolecular chirality of achiral pseudoisocyanine(PIC) J-aggregates was successfully induced by D-,L-phenylalanine(Phe) and other amino acids in NaCl solution.The chiral J-aggregates showed a characteristic,induced circular dichroism(ICD) in the visible region of J-band chromophore which depends on the absolute configuration,concentration and side groups of α-amino acids,as well as temperature.The atomic force microscopy images indicated that the J-aggregates exist in large bundles of entangled nanofibers,and the observed ICD might result from the macroscopic helical arrangement of the assemblies.
Chirality-dependent electrical properties of one dimensional single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs)
Gayathri, V.; Mutharasu, D.; Ramasubbu, A.; Varadan, Vijay K.
2003-10-01
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) can be considered as a sheet of graphite rolled in to a seamless cylinder, which exhibits unique electrical and mechanical properties. Based on the way of rolling the graphene sheets, there are three types of CNTs, armchair, zigzag and chiral tubes. Both the diameter and chiral angle determine the electronic properties of these nanostructures. In this paper we have studied the variation of the band gap as a function of chiral angle for various sets of lattice indices. The energy expression in the tight binding approximation is also obtained for the 2D graphene sheets with hexagonal lattice. In order to analyze the role of impurity, we have considered the impurity confined within these one-dimensional structures. By taking a suitable one-electron wave function we have obtained the min. For an impurity confined in CNTs.
Chiral symmetry and functional integral
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gamboa Saravi, R.E.; Muschietti, M.A.; Schaposnik, F.A.; Solomin, J.E.
1984-10-15
The change in the fermionic functional integral measure under chiral rotations is analyzed. Using the zeta-function method, the evaluation of chiral Jacobians to theories including non-hermitian Dirac operators D, can be extended in a natural way. (This being of interest, for example, in connection with the Weinberg-Salam model or with the relativistic string theory). Results are compared with those obtained following other approaches, the possible discrepancies are analyzed and the equivalence of the different methods under certain conditions on D is proved. Also shown is how to compute the Jacobian for the case of a finite chiral transformation and this result is used to develop a sort of path-integral version of bosonization in d = 2 space-time dimensions. This result is used to solve in a very simple and economical way relevant d = 2 fermionic models. Furthermore, some interesting features in connection with the theta-vacuum in d = 2,4 gauge theories are discussed.
Chiral primaries in strange metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isachenkov, Mikhail, E-mail: mikhail.isachenkov@desy.de; Kirsch, Ingo, E-mail: ingo.kirsch@desy.de; Schomerus, Volker, E-mail: volker.schomerus@desy.de
2014-08-15
It was suggested recently that the study of 1-dimensional QCD with fermions in the adjoint representation could lead to an interesting toy model for strange metals and their holographic formulation. In the high density regime, the infrared physics of this theory is described by a constrained free fermion theory with an emergent N=(2,2) superconformal symmetry. In order to narrow the choice of potential holographic duals, we initiate a systematic search for chiral primaries in this model. We argue that the bosonic part of the superconformal algebra can be extended to a coset chiral algebra of the form W{sub N}=SO(2N{sup 2}−2){sub 1}/SU(N){sub 2N}. In terms of this algebra the spectrum of the low energy theory decomposes into a finite number of sectors which are parametrized by special necklaces. We compute the corresponding characters and partition functions and determine the set of chiral primaries for N≤5.
Chiral primaries in strange metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isachenkov, Mikhail; Kirsch, Ingo; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2014-03-15
It was suggested recently that the study of 1-dimensional QCD with fermions in the adjoint representation could lead to an interesting toy model for strange metals and their holographic formulation. In the high density regime, the infrared physics of this theory is described by a constrained free fermion theory with an emergent N=(2,2) superconformal symmetry. In order to narrow the choice of potential holographic duals, we initiate a systematic search for chiral primaries in this model. We argue that the bosonic part of the superconformal algebra can be extended to a coset chiral algebra of the form W{sub N}=SO(2N{sup 2}-2){sub 1}/SU(N){sub 2N}. In terms of this algebra the spectrum of the low energy theory decomposes into a finite number of sectors which are parametrized by special necklaces. We compute the corresponding characters and partition functions and determine the set of chiral primaries for N≤5.
Chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles
Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pucci, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increa...
Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces
Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J. P. Balthasar; Capasso, Federico
2015-01-01
The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555
Implications of Local Chiral Symmetry Breaking
La, H S
2003-01-01
The spontaneous symmetry breaking of a local chiral symmetry to its diagonal vector symmetry naturally realizes a complete geometrical structure more general than that of Yang-Mills (YM) theory, rather similar to that of gravity. A good example is the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with respect to the Chiral Color model. Also, a new anomaly-free particle content for a Chiral Color model is introduced: the Chiral Color can be realized without introducing whole new generations of quarks and leptons, but by simply enlarging each generation with new exotic fermions.
Laser Writing of Multiscale Chiral Polymer Metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. P. Furlani
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new approach to metamaterials is presented that involves laser-based patterning of novel chiral polymer media, wherein chirality is realized at two distinct length scales, intrinsically at the molecular level and geometrically at a length scale on the order of the wavelength of the incident field. In this approach, femtosecond-pulsed laser-induced two-photon lithography (TPL is used to pattern a photoresist-chiral polymer mixture into planar chiral shapes. Enhanced bulk chirality can be realized by tuning the wavelength-dependent chiral response at both the molecular and geometric level to ensure an overlap of their respective spectra. The approach is demonstrated via the fabrication of a metamaterial consisting of a two-dimensional array of chiral polymer-based L-structures. The fabrication process is described and modeling is performed to demonstrate the distinction between molecular and planar geometric-based chirality and the effects of the enhanced multiscale chirality on the optical response of such media. This new approach to metamaterials holds promise for the development of tunable, polymer-based optical metamaterials with low loss.
Ultrasound Attenuation in Biological Tissue Predicted by the Modified Doublet Mechanics Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Xin; LIU Xiao-Zhou; WU Jun-Ru
2009-01-01
Experimental results have shown that in the megahertz frequency range the relationship between the acoustic attenuation coefficient in soft tissues and frequency is nearly linear. The classical continuum mechanics (CCM),which assumes that the material is uniform and continuous, fails to explain this relationship particularly in the high megahertz range. Doublet mechanics (DM) is a new elastic theory which takes the discrete nature of material into account. The current DM theory however does not consider the loss. We revise the doublet mechanics (DM)theory by including the loss term, and calculate the attenuation of a soft tissue as a function of frequency using the modified the DM theory (MDM). The MDM can now well explain the nearly linear relationship between the acoustic attenuation coefficient in soft tissues and frequency.
Energy splitting of the ground-state doublet in the nucleus 229Th.
Beck, B R; Becker, J A; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Moody, K J; Wilhelmy, J B; Porter, F S; Kilbourne, C A; Kelley, R L
2007-04-01
The energy splitting of the 229Th ground-state doublet is measured to be 7.6+/-0.5 eV, significantly greater than earlier measurements. Gamma rays produced following the alpha decay of 233U (105 muCi) were counted in the NASA/electron beam ion trap x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer with an experimental energy resolution of 26 eV (FWHM). A difference technique was applied to the gamma-ray decay of the 71.82 keV level that populates both members of the doublet. A positive correction amounting to 0.6 eV was made for the unobserved interband decay of the 29.19 keV state (29.19-->0 keV).
Energy Splitting of the Ground-State Doublet in the Nucleus Th229
Beck, B. R.; Becker, J. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Moody, K. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.
2007-04-01
The energy splitting of the Th229 ground-state doublet is measured to be 7.6±0.5eV, significantly greater than earlier measurements. Gamma rays produced following the alpha decay of U233 (105μCi) were counted in the NASA/electron beam ion trap x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer with an experimental energy resolution of 26 eV (FWHM). A difference technique was applied to the gamma-ray decay of the 71.82 keV level that populates both members of the doublet. A positive correction amounting to 0.6 eV was made for the unobserved interband decay of the 29.19 keV state (29.19→0keV).
The Mg 280-nm doublet as a monitor of changes in solar ultraviolet irradiance
Heath, D. F.; Schlesinger, B. M.
1986-01-01
Solar irradiance data gathered with the Nimbus 7 spacecraft from 1978-1985 are compared with atmospheric MG 289-nm doublet emission line data to evaluate the possibility of using the rotational line data to calculate the total solar UV input. The satellite instrumentation is described, including the calibration equipment and procedures. The spacecraft records solar irradiance once per day and the remainder of the time records irradiance scattered by the atmosphere. The measured irradiances are converted to equivalent brightness temperatures, which can be interpolated for specific layers of the atmosphere. Sample daily data are provided to illustrate the correlation between variations in the Mg-II core radiation and the soalr UV irradiance. Techniques are defined for correcting for periodic variations in instrument performance to quantify long-term solar UV radiance variations. Using the atmospheric Mg-II doublet radiation for measuring soalr UV irradiance is concluded of value for characterizing the effects of solar radiation on the atmosphere.
The dispersive properties of an excited-doublet four-level atomic system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Zheng-Feng; Deng Jian-Liao; Wang Yu-Zhu
2008-01-01
We have investigated the dispersive properties of excited-doublet four-level atoms interacting with a weak probe field and an intense coupling laser field.We have derived an analytical expression of the dispersion relation for a general excited-doublet four-level atomic system sunject to a one-photon detuning.The numerical results demonstrate that for a typical rubidium D1 line configuration,due to the unequal dipole moments for the transitions of each ground state to double excited states,generally there exists no exact dark state in the system.Close to the two-photon resonance,the probe light can be absorbed or gained and propagate in the so-called superluminal form.This system may be used as an optical switch.
Mu to e gamma in the 2 Higgs Doublet Model: an exercise in EFT
Davidson, Sacha
2016-01-01
The 2 Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) of type III has renormalisable Lepton Flavour-Violating couplings, and its one and two-loop ("Barr-Zee") contributions to $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ are known. In the decoupling limit, where the mass scale M of the second doublet is much greater than the electroweak scale, the model can be parametrised with an Effective Field Theory(EFT) containing dimension six operators. The $1/M^2$ terms of the exact calculation are reproduced in the EFT, provided that the four-fermion operator basis below the weak scale is enlarged with respect to the SU(2)-invariant Buchmuller-Wyler list. The two-loop "Barr-Zee" contributions are located in the EFT, showing that two-loop matching and running would be required to obtain the most important contributions, and that dimension eight operators can be numerically relevant.
CP Violating Two-Higgs-Doublet Model: Constraints and LHC Predictions
Keus, Venus; Moretti, Stefano; Yagyu, Kei
2015-01-01
Two-Higgs-Doublet Models (2HDMs) are amongst the simplest extensions of the Standard Model. Such models allow for tree-level CP Violation (CPV) in the Higgs sector. We analyse a class of CPV 2HDM (of Type-I) in which only one of the two Higgs doublets couples to quarks and leptons, avoiding dangerous Flavour Changing Neutral Currents. We provide an up to date and comprehensive analysis of the constraints and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) predictions of such a model. Of immediate interest to the LHC Run 2 is the golden channel where all three neutral Higgs bosons are observed to decay into gauge boson pairs, $WW$ and $ZZ$, providing a smoking gun signature of the CPV 2HDM.
Neutrino masses, anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry and doublet-triplet splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose an attractive scenario of grand unified theories in which doublet-triplet splitting is naturally realized in SO(10) unification using the Dimopoulos-Wilczek mechanism. The anomalous U(1)A gauge symmetry plays an essential role in the double-triplet splitting mechanism. It is interesting that the anomalous U(1)A charges determine the unification scale and mass spectrum of additional particles, as well as the order of the Yukawa couplings of quarks and leptons. For the neutrino sector, bi-maximal mixing angles are naturally obtained, and proton decay via dimension 5 operators is suppressed. It is suggestive that the anomalous U(1)A gauge symmetry motivated by superstring theory effectively solves the two biggest problems in grand unified theories, the fermion mass hierarchy problem and doublet-triplet splitting problem. (author)
Lepton Flavor Violation in the Two Higgs Doublet Model type III
Díaz, R; Rodríguez, José Alberto
2001-01-01
We consider a two Higgs doublet model type III which produces Flavour Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) at tree level in the leptonic sector. In the framework of this model we have two situations: when both doublets acquire a vacuum expectation value different from zero and the case when only one of them get it. We find that both models contain the Standard Model in the decoupling limit for the Higgs fields but in the former FCNC at tree level remains by means of the interaction with the would-be Goldstone boson of Z, meanwhile in the latter these ones are completely absent. We get an upper bound for the flavour changing factor $N_{\\mu e}$ in the decoupling limit using the rare processes $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ and $\\mu \\to eee$. Also, we present allowed regions in the $N_{\\mu e}-m_{h^0}$ plane.
Radiatively induced flavour violation in the general two-Higgs doublet model with Yukawa alignment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The most general two-Higgs doublet model contains new sources of flavour violation that are usually in conflict with the experimental constraints. One possibility to suppress the exotic contribution to the flavour changing neutral currents consists on imposing the alignment of the Yukawa couplings. This condition presumably holds at a high-energy scale and is spoiled by the radiative corrections. We compute in this Letter the size of the radiatively induced flavour violating Higgs couplings at the electroweak scale. These also yield the absolute lower bound on the size of the exotic contributions to the flavour changing neutral currents in any two-Higgs doublet model, barring cancellations and the existence of discrete symmetries. We show that these contributions are well below the experimental bounds in large regions of the parameter space.
Cold Baryogenesis from first principles in the Two-Higgs Doublet model with Fermions
Mou, Zong-Gang; Tranberg, Anders
2015-01-01
We present a first-principles numerical computation of the baryon asymmetry in electroweak-scale baryogenesis. For the scenario of Cold Baryogenesis, we consider a one fermion-family reduced CP-violating two Higgs-doublet model, including a classical SU(2)-gauge/two-Higgs sector coupled to one quantum left-handed fermion doublet and two right-handed singlets. Separately, the C(CP) breaking of the two-Higgs potential and the C and P breaking of the gauge-fermion interactions do not provide a baryon asymmetry. Only when combined does baryogenesis occur. Through large-scale computer simulations, we compute the asymmetry for one particularly favourable scalar potential. The numerical signal is at the boundary of what is numerically discernible with the available computer resources, but we tentatively find an asymmetry of $|\\eta|\\leq 3.5\\times 10^{-7}$.
Ishizu, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Emi; Tanabe, Haruka; Yokoyama, Aoi
2016-01-01
In the (1)H-NMR spectrum of a solution containing an equimolecular amount of cyclo(L-Pro-Gly), cyclo(D-Pro-Gly) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCg) in a D2O, a difference in the chemical shift of (1)H-NMR signal for H7α, H7β,8α of the Pro residue was observed. Judging from the crystal structures of the 2 : 2 complexes of EGCg and cyclo(L-Pro-Gly), cyclo(D-Pro-Gly), the difference in the chemical shift resulted mainly from a magnetic anisotropic shielding effect by the ring current from the B ring of EGCg. Therefore, it was considered that chirality of cyclo(Pro-Gly) was recognized by EGCg in the D2O solution. Furthermore, in the (1)H-NMR spectrum of a solution containing an equimolecular amount of racemic propranolol ((R)- and (S)-propranolols) and EGCg in D2O, the (1)H-NMR signal for H2 of the naphthalene group was observed as two doublets, suggesting that the racemic propranolol formed diastereomers of complexes with EGCg; as a result, chirality of propranolol was recognized by EGCg in the D2O solution.
Implications of b{yields}s{gamma} in the Weinberg three-Higgs-doublet models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Darwin; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Geng, Chao-Qiang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, TW (China). Dept. of Physics
1996-06-01
Using recent experimental measurements on Br(b{yields}s{gamma}) from CLEO, we study the constraints on the charged Higgs sector in various three-Higgs-doublet models. Some phenomenological implications in these models with emphasis on CP violation are presented. In particular, in some of these models, the CP violating muon polarization in K{sub {mu}3} can be detected using the current KEK experiment E246. (author)
Meier, J.; Bleile, A.; Ceballos Velasco, J.; Fischer, E.; Hess, G.; Macavei, J.; Spiller, P.
2015-12-01
The FAIR project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) evolves and builds an international accelerator- and experimental facility for basic research activities in various fields of modern physics. Within the course of this project, integrated quadrupole doublet modules are in development. The quadrupole doublet modules provide a pair of superconducting main quadrupoles (focusing and defocusing), corrector magnets, cryogenic collimators and beam position monitors as integrated sets of ion-optical elements. Furthermore LHe cooled beam pipes and vacuum cold-warm transitions are used as ultra-high vacuum components for beam transportation. Superconducting bus bars are used for 13 kA current supply of the main quadrupole magnets. All components are integrated as one common cold mass into one cryostat. High temperature super conductor local current leads will be applied for the low current supply of corrector magnets. The quadrupole doublet modules will be operated in the SIS100 heavy ion accelerator, the core component of the FAIR project. A first version of a corrector magnet has already been manufactured at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Russia, and is now ready for testing. The ion-optical lattice structure of SIS100 requires multiple configurations of named components. Eleven different configurations, organized in four categories, provide the required quadrupole doublet module setups. The high integration level of multiple ion-optical, mechanical and cryogenic functions, based on requirements of operation safety, is leading towards a sophisticated mechanical structure and cooling solution, to satisfy the demanding requirements on position preservation during thermal cycling. The mechanical and cryogenic design solutions will be discussed.
Pseudo-Goldstone Higgs Doublets from Non-Vectorlike Grand Unified Higgs Sector
Hernández, A E Cárcamo
2016-01-01
We present a novel way of realizing the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson mechanism for the doublet-triplet splitting in supersymmetric grand unified theories. The global symmetries of the Higgs sector are attributed to a non-vectorlike Higgs content, which is consistent with unbroken supersymmetry in a scenario with flat extra dimensions and branes. We also show how in such a model one can naturally obtain a realistic pattern for the Standard Model fermion masses and mixings.
The vacuum structure of the Higgs complex singlet-doublet model
Ferreira, P. M.
2016-01-01
The complex singlet-doublet model is a popular theory to account for dark matter and electroweak baryogenesis, wherein the Standard Model particle content is supplemented by a complex scalar gauge singlet, with certain discrete symmetries imposed. The scalar potential which results thereof can have seven different types of minima at tree-level, which may coexist for specific choices of parameters. There is therefore the possibility that a given minimum is not global but rather a local one, an...
Collider and Dark Matter Searches in the Inert Doublet Model from Peccei-Quinn Symmetry
Alves, Alexandre; Camargo, Daniel A.; Dias, Alex G.; Longas, Robinson; Nishi, Celso C.; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.
2016-01-01
Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and axions are arguably the most compelling dark matter candidates in the literature. Could they coexist as dark matter particles? More importantly, can they be incorporated in a well motivated framework in agreement with experimental data? In this work, we show that this two component dark matter can be realized in the Inert Doublet Model in an elegant and natural manner by virtue of the spontaneous breaking of a Peccei-Quinn $U(1)_{PQ}$ symmetry ...
Finite-difference grid for a doublet well in an anisotropic aquifer
Miller, R.T.; Voss, C.I.
1986-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey is modeling hydraulic flow and thermal-energy transport at a two-well injection/ withdrawal system in St. Paul, Minnesota. The design of the finite-difference model grid for the doublet-well system is complicated because the aquifer is anisotropic and the principal axes of transmissivity are not aligned with the axis between the two wells.
Enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance in a non-magnetic cubic doublet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis two lanthanide compounds are studied which show enhanced nuclear magnetism at low temperatures: Rb2NaHoF6 and CsNaHoF6. Chapter II gives a description of the 4He-circulating refrigerator, which was built to provide the low temperatures required for the polarization of the enhanced nuclear moments. This type of dilution refrigerator was chosen because of its simple design and large cooling power. Chapter III is devoted to a comparison of the different types of dilution refrigerators. A theoretical discussion is given of their performance, starting from the differential equations, which govern the temperature distribution in the refrigerator. In chapter IV the actual performance of the refrigerator, described in chapter II is discussed. In chapter V a description of the NMR-apparatus, developed for very-low-temperature NMR experiments is given. In chapter VI experimental results on the compound Rb2NaHoF6 are presented. The CEF-ground state of this compound is probably the non-magnetic doublet GAMMA3, but at a temperature of 170 K a structural phase transition lowers the crystal symmetry from cubic to tetragonal and the doublet is split into two singlets. In chapter VII specific heat, (enhanced) nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetization measurements on the compound Cs2NaHoF6 are presented which also has a GAMMA3-doublet ground state. In zero magnetic field the degeneracy of the doublet is removed at a temperature of 393 mK, where a phase transition is induced by quadrupolar interactions. (Auth.)
Searching the charged Higgs boson of the type III two Higss doublet model
Cardenas, H
2008-01-01
In the framework of the Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) type III appears two charged Higgs boson and recently there are experimental reports from D0 and CDF collaborations searching a particular signature of new physics. We present a review of the analisys done in the region $M_{H^+}>m_t$ by D0 collaboration and we use the ratio $R_\\sigma$ for the region $M_{H^+} < m_t$ in different scenarios of space parameter of this model.
FCNI suppression and CP violation in a two-Higgs-doublet model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Epele, L.; Fanchiotti, H.; Canal, C.G.; Dumm, D.G. (La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica)
1994-08-01
A two-Higgs-doublet model including a tree-level suppression mechanism for flavour-changing neutral interactions is analysed. In this framework, explicit CT violation is considered. One finds the model capable of saturating the neutron EDM experimental bound while simultaneously preserving the correct low-energy predictions of the standard model. A compatibility check with the observed CP violation phenomena in kaon physics is also presented. (Author).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Enbo; Yu, Xianbin; Zhang, Xinliang;
2009-01-01
Photonic generation of ultrawideband (UWB) monocycle and doublet pulses is experimentally demonstrated using a cascaded electroabsorption modulator (EAM) and semiconductor optical amplifier by exploiting a combination of cross-absorption modulation and cross-gain modulation. The polarities and...
The 125 GeV Higgs in the context of four generations with 2 Higgs doublets
Geller, Michael; Eilam, Gad; Soni, Amarjit
2012-01-01
We interpret the recent discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs-like state in the context of a two Higgs doublets model with a heavy 4th sequential generation of fermions, in which one Higgs doublet couples only to the 4th generation fermions, while the second doublet couples to the lighter fermions of the 1st-3rd families. This model is designed to accommodate the apparent heaviness of the 4th generation fermions and to effectively address the low-energy phenomenology of a dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scenario. The physical Higgs states of the model are, therefore, viewed as composites primarily of the 4th generation fermions. We find that the lightest Higgs, h, is a good candidate for the recently discovered 125 GeV spin-zero particle, when tan\\beta ~ O(1), for typical 4th generation fermion masses of M_{4G} = 400 -600 GeV, and with a large t - t' mixing in the right-handed quarks sector. This, in turn, leads to BR(t' -> t h) ~ O(1), which drastically changes the t' decay pattern. We also find that, based o...
Raghuram, Susarla
2014-01-01
In comets the atomic oxygen green to red-doublet emission intensity ratio (G/R ratio) of 0.1 has been used to confirm H$_2$O as the parent species producing oxygen emission lines. The larger ($>$0.1) value of G/R ratio observed in a few comets is ascribed to the presence of higher CO$_2$ and CO relative abundances in the cometary coma. We aim to study the effect of CO$_2$ and CO relative abundances on the observed G/R ratio in comets observed at large ($>$2 au) heliocentric distances by accounting for important production and loss processes of O($^1$S) and O($^1$D) in the cometary coma. Recently we have developed a coupled chemistry-emission model to study photochemistry of O($^1$S) and O($^1$D) atoms and the production of green and red-doublet emissions in comets Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp. In the present work we applied the model to six comets where green and red-doublet emissions are observed when they are beyond 2 au from the Sun. In a water-dominated cometary coma and with significant ($>$10%) CO$_2$ relati...
Higgs boson couplings in multi-doublet models with natural flavour conservation
Yagyu, Kei
2016-01-01
We investigate the deviation in couplings of the standard model (SM) like Higgs boson ($h$) with the mass of 125 GeV from the prediction of the SM in multi-doublet models within the framework where flavour changing neutral currents at the tree level are naturally forbidden. After we present the general expressions for the modified gauge and Yukawa couplings for $h$, we show the correlation between the deviation in the Yukawa coupling for the tau lepton $h\\tau^+\\tau^-$ and that for the bottom quark $hb\\bar{b}$ under the assumption of a non-zero deviation in the $hVV$ $(V=W,Z)$ couplings in two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) and three Higgs doublet models (3HDMs) as the simple examples. We clarify the possible allowed prediction of the deviations in the 3HDMs which cannot be explained in the 2HDMs even taking into account the one-loop electroweak corrections to the Yukawa coupling.
Cvetič, G.; Kim, C. S.
We assume that the standard model (SM) breaks down around some energy Λ and is replaced there by a new (Higgsless) flavor gauge theory (FGT) with fewer input parameters in the interactions corresponding to the Yukawa sector of SM. This would imply more symmetry for the values of the Yukawa (running) parameters of SM at E Λ, possibly by a (approximate) flavor democracy (for the quark mass sector). We investigate this possibility by studying the renormalization group equations (RGE's) for the quark Yukawa couplings of SM with one and two Higgs doublets, by running them from the known physical values at low energies (E 1 GeV) to Λ (> 1 TeV) and comparing the resulting quark masses mq (E Λ) for various mt and υU/υD. Unlike previous investigations of these RGE's, we do not implement the requirement mt(Λpole) = ∞. We found that SM with two Higgs doublets (type 2) is most likely to experience a gradual transition to FGT. Our results also shed more light on the adequacy and deficiencies of the usual RGE approaches within TMSM and related models. We also found that, independent of the assumption of a transition mechanism to FGT, mt phy< ˜ 200 GeV for Λpole≪ ΛPlanck in most cases of SM with two Higgs doublets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabado, M.M.; Marcus, F.B.; Trester, P.W.; Wesley, J.C.
1979-10-01
The plasma limiter system for Doublet III is described. Initially, high-Z materials, Ta-10W for the primary limiter and Mo for the backup limiters, were selected as the most attractive metallic candidates from the standpoint of thermal and structural properties. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of material Z on plasma performance, the nonmagnetic, Ni-base alloy Inconel X-750 was selected for a medium-Z limiter material. Graphite, a low-Z material, will likely be the next limiter material for evaluation. Design and material selection criteria for the different Z ranges are presented. The performance of the high-Z limiters in Doublet III is reviewed for an operation period that included approximately 5000 plasma shots. Changes in surface appearance and metallurgical changes are characterized. Discussion is presented on how and to what extent the high-Z elements affected the performance of the plasma based on theory and measurements in Doublet III. The fabrication processes for the Inconel X-750 limiters are summarized, and, last, observations on early performance of the Inconel limiters are described. (MOW)
Schmieder, Martin; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Buchner, Elmar; Hopp, Jens; Tohver, Eric; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Lehtinen, Martti; Moilanen, Jarmo; Werner, Stephanie C.; Öhman, Teemu
2016-05-01
The two neighboring Suvasvesi North and South impact structures in central-east Finland have been discussed as a possible impact crater doublet produced by the impact of a binary asteroid. This study presents 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data for impact melt rocks recovered from the drilling into the center of the Suvasvesi North impact structure and melt rock from glacially transported boulders linked to Suvasvesi South. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analysis yielded two essentially flat age spectra indicating a Late Cretaceous age of ~85 Ma for the Suvasvesi North melt rock, whereas the Suvasvesi South melt sample gave a Neoproterozoic minimum (alteration) age of ~710 Ma. Although the statistical likelihood for two independent meteorite strikes in close proximity to each other is rather low, the remarkable difference in 40Ar/39Ar ages of >600 Myr for the two Suvasvesi impact melt samples is interpreted as evidence for two temporally separate, but geographically closely spaced, impacts into the Fennoscandian Shield. The Suvasvesi North and South impact structures are, thus, interpreted as a "false" crater doublet, similar to the larger East and West Clearwater Lake impact structures in Québec, Canada, recently shown to be unrelated. Our findings have implications for the reliable recognition of impact crater doublets and the apparent rate of binary asteroid impacts on Earth and other planetary bodies in the inner solar system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenbin Chen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence strongly suggests that spontaneous doublet mutations in normal mouse tissues generally arise from chronocoordinate events. These chronocoordinate mutations sometimes reflect "mutation showers", which are multiple chronocoordinate mutations spanning many kilobases. However, little is known about mutagenesis of doublet and multiplet mutations (domuplets in human cancer. Lung cancer accounts for about 25% of all cancer deaths. Herein, we analyze the epidemiology of domuplets in the EGFR and TP53 genes in lung cancer. The EGFR gene is an oncogene in which doublets are generally driver plus driver mutations, while the TP53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene with a more typical situation in which doublets derive from a driver and passenger mutation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EGFR mutations identified by sequencing were collected from 66 published papers and our updated EGFR mutation database (www.egfr.org. TP53 mutations were collected from IARC version 12 (www-p53.iarc.fr. For EGFR and TP53 doublets, no clearly significant differences in race, ethnicity, gender and smoking status were observed. Doublets in the EGFR and TP53 genes in human lung cancer are elevated about eight- and three-fold, respectively, relative to spontaneous doublets in mouse (6% and 2.3% versus 0.7%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although no one characteristic is definitive, the aggregate properties of doublet and multiplet mutations in lung cancer are consistent with a subset derived from chronocoordinate events in the EGFR gene: i the eight frameshift doublets (present in 0.5% of all patients with EGFR mutations are clustered and produce a net in-frame change; ii about 32% of doublets are very closely spaced (< or =30 nt; and iii multiplets contain two or more closely spaced mutations. TP53 mutations in lung cancer are very closely spaced (< or =30 nt in 33% of doublets, and multiplets generally contain two or more very closely spaced mutations. Work in
The Optical Chirality Flux as a Useful Far-Field Probe of Chiral Near Fields
Poulikakos, Lisa V; McPeak, Kevin M; Burger, Sven; Niegemann, Jens; Hafner, Christian; Norris, David J
2016-01-01
To optimize the interaction between chiral matter and highly twisted light, quantities that can help characterize chiral electromagnetic fields near nanostructures are needed. Here, by analogy with Poynting's theorem, we formulate the time-averaged conservation law of optical chirality in lossy dispersive media and identify the optical chirality flux as an ideal far-field observable for characterizing chiral optical near fields. Bounded by the conservation law, we show that it provides precise information, unavailable from circular dichroism spectroscopy, on the magnitude and handedness of highly twisted fields near nanostructures.
Synthesis and Chiral Recognition of a New Type of Chiral Calix[4]arene Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE,Yong-Bing; LI,Jian-Feng; XIAO,Yuan-Jing; WEI,Lan-Hua; WU,Xiao-Jun; MENG,Ling-Zhi
2003-01-01
Two new chiral calix[4] arenes bearing chiral pendants, which were from by-product of the antibiotic industry, were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, MS-FAB and elemental analysis. Studies of 1H NMR of the two calix [4] arene derivatives indicate that they exist in cone conformation in solution. Results of chiral recognition of the two chiral ligands 2a and 2b towards the tartaric acid derivative 3 show that ligand 2a exhibited good chiral recognition abilities compared to ligand 2b.
Moreno, Vanessa; Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Muriel Fernández, Miguel Ángel; Capmany, José
2013-01-01
In this paper, a novel method to generate ultrawideband (UWB) doublets is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, which is based on exploiting the cross-phase modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The key component is an integrated SOA Mach-Zehnder interferometer pumped with an optical carrier modulated by a Gaussian pulse. The transfer function of the nonlinear conversion process leads to the generation of UWB doublet pulses by tuning the SOA currents to different values. ...
Formation of Enhanced Uniform Chiral Fields in Symmetric Dimer Nanostructures
Tian, Xiaorui; Sun, Mengtao
2015-01-01
Chiral fields with large optical chirality are very important in chiral molecules analysis, sensing and other measurements. Plasmonic nanostructures have been proposed to realize such super chiral fields for enhancing weak chiral signals. However, most of them cannot provide uniform chiral near-fields close to the structures, which makes these nanostructures not so efficient for applications. Plasmonic helical nanostructures and blocked squares have been proved to provide uniform chiral near-fields, but structure fabrication is a challenge. In this paper, we show that very simple plasmonic dimer structures can provide uniform chiral fields in the gaps with large enhancement of both near electric fields and chiral fields under linearly polarized light illumination with polarization off the dimer axis at dipole resonance. 30 times of volume averaged chiral field enhancement is gotten in the whole gap. Chiral fields with opposite handedness can be obtained simply by changing the polarization to the other side of...
Gong, Wei-Jiang; Gao, Zhen; Shan, Wan-Fei; Yi, Guang-Yu
2016-01-01
One Majorana doublet can be realized at each end of the time-reversal-invariant Majorana nanowires. We investigate the Josephson effect in the Majorana-doublet-presented junction modified by different inter-doublet coupling manners. It is found that when the Majorana doublets couple indirectly via a non-magnetic quantum dot, only the normal Josephson effect occurs, and the fermion parity in the system just affects the current direction and amplitude. However, one magnetic field applied on the dot can induce the fractional Josephson effect in the odd-parity case. Next if the direct and indirect couplings between the Majorana doublets coexist, no fractional Josephson effect takes place, regardless of the presence of magnetic field. Instead, there almost appears the π-period-like current in some special cases. All the results are clarified by analyzing the influence of the fermion occupation in the quantum dot on the parity conservation in the whole system. We ascertain that this work will be helpful for describing the dot-assisted Josephson effect between the Majorana doublets. PMID:26971719
DEVELOPMENT AND REGISTRATION OF CHIRAL DRUGS
WITTE, DT; ENSING, K; FRANKE, JP; DEZEEUW, RA
1993-01-01
In this review we describe the impact of chirality on drug development and registration in the United States, Japan and the European Community. Enantiomers may have differences in their pharmacological profiles, and, therefore, chiral drugs ask for special analytical and pharmacological attention du
Orientation-Dependent Handedness and Chiral Design
Efrati, Efi; Irvine, William T. M.
2014-01-01
Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in the paradox of chiral connectedness. In this work, we put forward a quantification scheme in which the handedness of an object depends on the direction in which it is viewed. While consistent with familiar chiral notions, such as the right-hand rule, this framework allows objects to be simultaneously right and left handed. We demonstrate this orientation dependence in three different systems—a biomimetic elastic bilayer, a chiral propeller, and optical metamaterial—and find quantitative agreement with chirality pseudotensors whose form we explicitly compute. The use of this approach resolves the existing paradoxes and naturally enables the design of handed metamaterials from symmetry principles.
Chiral Anomaly in Toroidal Carbon Nanotubes
Sasaki, K.
2001-01-01
It is pointed out that the chiral anomaly in 1+1 dimensions should be observed in toroidal carbon nanotubes on a planar geometry with varying magnetic field. We show that the chiral anomaly is closely connected with the persistent current in a one-dimensional metallic ring.
An Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Zong-Ye; YU You-Wen; WANG Ping; DAI Lian-Rong
2003-01-01
The chiral SU(3) quark model is extended by including the vector meson exchanges to describe the short range interactions. The phase shifts of NN scattering are studied in this model. Compared with the results of the chiral SU(3) quark model in which only the pseudo-scalar and scalar chiralfields are considered, the phase shifts of 1 So wave are obviously improved.
Generalized electromagnetic fields in a chiral medium
Bisht, P. S.; Singh, Jivan; Negi, O. P. S.
2007-09-01
The time-dependent Dirac-Maxwell's equations in the presence of electric and magnetic sources are reformulated in a chiral medium, and the solutions for the classical problem are obtained in a unique, simple and consistent manner. The quaternion reformulation of generalized electromagnetic fields in the chiral medium has also been discussed in a compact, simple and consistent manner.
Generalized Electromagnetic fields in Chiral Medium
Bisht, P. S.; Singh, Jivan; Negi, O. P. S.
2007-01-01
The time dependent Dirac-Maxwell's Equations in presence of electric and magnetic sources are written in chiral media and the solutions for the classical problem are obtained in unique simple and consistent manner. The quaternion reformulation of generalized electromagnetic fields in chiral media has also been developed in compact, simple and consistent manner.
Generalized electromagnetic fields in a chiral medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bisht, P S [Department of Physics, Kumaun University, Soban Singh Jeena Campus, Almora-263601 (Uttarakhand) (India); Singh, Jivan [Department of Physics, Govt. Post Graduate College, Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand) (India); Negi, O P S [Department of Physics, Kumaun University, Soban Singh Jeena Campus, Almora-263601 (Uttarakhand) (India)
2007-09-14
The time-dependent Dirac-Maxwell's equations in the presence of electric and magnetic sources are reformulated in a chiral medium, and the solutions for the classical problem are obtained in a unique, simple and consistent manner. The quaternion reformulation of generalized electromagnetic fields in the chiral medium has also been discussed in a compact, simple and consistent manner.
Partial quenching and chiral symmetry breaking
Creutz, Michael
2014-01-01
Partially quenched chiral perturbation theory assumes that valence quarks propagating on gauge configurations prepared with sea quarks of different masses will form a chiral condensate as the valence quark mass goes to zero. I present a counterexample involving non-degenerate sea quarks where the valence condensate does not form.
LINEARLY POLARIZED PROBES OF SURFACE CHIRALITY
VERBIEST, T; KAURANEN, M; MAKI, JJ; TEERENSTRA, MN; SCHOUTEN, AJ; NOLTE, RJM; PERSOONS, A
1995-01-01
We present a new nonlinear optical technique to study surface chirality. We demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation from isotropic chiral surfaces is different for excitation with fundamental light that is +45 degrees and -45 degrees linearly polarized with respe
[Research on the emission spectrum of NO molecule's γ-band system by corona discharge].
Zhai, Xiao-dong; Ding, Yan-jun; Peng, Zhi-min; Luo, Rui
2012-05-01
The optical emission spectrum of the gamma-band system of NO molecule, A2 sigma+ --> X2 pi(r), has been analyzed and calculated based on the energy structure of NO molecule' doublet states. By employing the theory of diatomic molecular Spectra, some key parameters of equations for the radiative transition intensity were evaluated theoretically, including the potentials of the doublet states of NO molecule's upper and lower energy levels, the electronic transition moments calculated by using r-centroid approximation method, and the Einstein coefficient of different vibrational and rotational levels. The simulated spectrum of the gamma-band system was calculated as a function of different vibrational and rotational temperature. Compared to the theoretical spectroscopy, the measured results were achieved from corona discharge experiments of NO and N2. The vibrational and rotational temperatures were determined approximately by fitting the measured spectral intensities with the calculated ones. PMID:22827043
Ko, P; Yu, Chaehyun
2013-01-01
An extra $U(1)'$ model with $Z'$ coupled only to the right-handed (RH) up-type quarks has been one of the popular models for the Tevatron top forward-backward asymmetry (FBA), and has been excluded by the same-sign top-pair productions at the LHC. However, the original $Z'$ model is not physical, since the up-type quarks are massless including the top quark. This disaster can be evaded if the Higgs sector is extended by including new Higgs doublets with nonzero $U(1)'$ charges. We find that some parameter regions could achieve not only the top FBA at the Tevatron, but also the charge asymmetry at the LHC without exceeding the upper limit of the same-sign top-quark pair production at the LHC. The lesson is that it is mandatory to extend the Higgs sector whenever one considers chiral gauge symmetries beyond the SM gauge group. Otherwise some fermions remain massless, and thus it is meaningless to work on phenomenology without the extra Higgs doublets with new chiral gauge charges.
Lambda Hypernuclei in a Chiral Hadronic Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Yin-Hua; GUO Hua
2005-01-01
@@ Nuclear matter calculations in a chiral hadronic model have been performed. It has been found that the scalar and the vector potentials and binding energies per nucleon in the chiral hadronic model are very close to those of the microscopic relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations. The good results for finite nuclei can be obtained in the mean field approximation only if scalar mass ms and coupling constant gs have been improved with the fixed values of cs2 ≡ g2s(M/ms)2 as those given by the original parameter sets of the chiral hadronic model. Then the chiral hadronic model is extended to lambda hypernuclei. Our results predicted by the chiral hadronic model are compared with those by the nonlinear Walecka model. It has been shown that the hadronic model can also be used to describe lambda hypernuclei successfully.
Chiral Superfluidity for the Heavy Ion Collisions
Kalaydzhyan, T
2013-01-01
We argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma formed at LHC and RHIC can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The "normal" component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the "superfluid" part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use the bosonization procedure with a finite cut-off and obtain a dynamical axion-like field out of the chiral fermionic modes. Then we use relativistic hydrodynamics for macroscopic description of the effective theory obtained after the bosonization. Finally, solving the hydrodynamic equations in gradient expansion, we find that in the presence of external electromagnetic fields the motion of the "superfluid" component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, chiral electric and dipole wave effects. Latter two effects are specific for a two-component fluid, which provides us with crucial experimental tests of the model. By considering probe quarks one can show that the fermionic spectrum at the intermediate tempera...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIA GuoQing; QIU Shi; LI GuanNa; ZHOU Jun; FENG ZhaoChi; LI Can
2009-01-01
The alkali-hydrolysis of D-glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) was investigated by chiral Raman and circular dichroism (CD) spectroecopies in combination with density functional theory calculation. Based on the characteristic CD bands of GDL and its hydrolysis product, the dynamics of hydrolysis was studied using stopped-flow CD method. Using chiral Raman spectroscopy (CRS), the stereochemical change of GDL owing to the hydrolysis reaction was discussed on the vibrational scale. The CRS results show that the ring-opening due to hydrolysis has a great influence on the chiral structure around the cer-bonyl group, which was evidenced by the disappearance of the CRS band at 1735 cm-1 (C=0 stretching vibrational mode). In addition, the change of positions and intensity of CRS bands was also observed, which was ascribed to the perturbation around the C2, C3, C4 and C5 carbons due to ring-opening. It is worthy to note that the stereochemistry of C2, C3, C4 and C5 had no fundamental change during the hydrolysis reaction, which was reflected in the maintenance of the signs of the CRS bands. Our results demonstrate that in comparison with CD technique, CRS may provide more detailed structural infor-mation of chiral molecules and open up new vistas of research for chirel reactions.
Status of chiral meson physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bijnens, Johan [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Sölvegatan 14A, SE 22362 Lund (Sweden)
2016-01-22
This talk includes a short introduction to Chiral Perturbation Theory in the meson sector concentrating on a number of recent developments. I discuss the latest fit of the low-energy constants. Finite volume corrections are discussed for the case with twisted boundary conditions for form-factors and first results at two-loops for three flavours for masses. The last part discusses the extension to other symmetry breaking patterns relevant for technicolour and related theories as well as the calculation of leading logarithms to high loop orders.
Teleporting Superpositions of Chiral Amplitudes
Maierle, C S; Harris, R A; Maierle, Christopher S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Harris, Robert A.
1998-01-01
Chiral molecules may exist in superpositions of left- and right-handed states. We show how the amplitudes of such superpositions may be teleported to the polarization degrees of freedom of a photon. Two experimental schemes are proposed, one leading to perfect, the other to state-dependent teleportation. Both methods yield complete information about the amplitudes. This is the first explicit example of "inter-species" teleportation, where the amplitudes of the quantum superposition of one species are transferred at the end of the process to a different species. The latter is then easily accessible for measurement.
Negative group velocity in layer-by-layer chiral photonic crystals
Fung, Kin Hung; Chan, C T
2008-01-01
We study the group velocity of light in layer-by-layer chiral photonic crystals composed of dielectrics and metals. Through studying the band structures with an extended-zone scheme that is given by a Fourier analysis, we show the existence of negative group velocity in the proposed chiral structures. The physical mechanism is interpreted with the help of a simplified model that has an analytical solution. The iso-frequency contours of the photonic band structure suggest that the negative group velocity can lead to either positive or negative refraction, depending on the orientation of the medium interface. We propose a feasible realization of such kind of photonic crystals. Computational results on the proposed realization are consistent with that of the simplified models.
Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters
Güven, Zekiye Pelin; Guven, Zekiye Pelin; Üstbaş, Burçin; Ustbas, Burcin; Harkness, Kellen M.; Coşkun, Hikmet; Coskun, Hikmet; Joshi, Chakra P.; Besong, Tabot M. D.; Stellacci, Francesco; Bakr, Osman M.; Akbulut, Özge; Akbulut, Ozge
2015-01-01
Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. The ratio of the ligands was changed to track the formation of these clusters. While the chiral ligand lead to nanoparticles, Presence of the achiral ligand induced the formation of nanoclusters with chiral properties.
Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters
Guven, Zekiye P.
2016-06-22
Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Yanagisawa, Takashi
2016-01-01
We investigate the chiral sine-Gordon model using the renormalization group method. The chiral sine-Gordon model is a model for $G$-valued fields and describes a new class of phase transitions, where $G$ is a compact Lie group. We show that the model is renormalizable by means of a perturbation expansion and we derive beta functions of the renormalization group theory. The coefficients of beta functions are represented by the Casimir invariants. The model contains both asymptotically free and ultraviolet strong coupling regions. The beta functions have a zero which is a bifurcation point that divides the parameter space into two regions; they are the weak coupling region and the strong coupling region. A large-$N$ model is also considered. This model is reduced to the conventional sine-Gordon model that describes the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition near the fixed point. In the strong-coupling limit, the model is reduced to a $U(N)$ matrix model.
Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathias O. Senge
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.
Chiral differential operators and topology
Cheung, Pokman
2010-01-01
The first part of this paper provides a new formulation of chiral differential operators (CDOs) in terms of global geometric quantities. The main result is a recipe to define essentially all sheaves of smooth CDOs on a cs-manifold; its ingredients consist of an affine connection and an even 3-form that trivializes the first Pontrjagin form. With the connection fixed, two suitable 3-forms define isomorphic sheaves of CDOs if and only if their difference is exact. Moreover, conformal structures are in one-to-one correspondence with even 1-forms that trivialize the first Chern form. The second part of this paper concerns the construction of what may be called "chiral Dolbeault complexes". The classical Dolbeault complex of a complex manifold M may be viewed as the functions on an associated cs-manifold with the action of an odd vector field Q that satisfies Q^2=0. Motivated by this, we study the condition under which a conformal sheaf of CDOs on that cs-manifold admits an odd derivation Q' that extends Q and sat...
Chiral transition with magnetic fields
Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia; Rojas, Juan Cristobal; Villavicencio, Cristian
2014-01-01
We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses, taken as functions of the order parameter, can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling const...
Bwambok, David K.; Hadi M Marwani; Fernand, Vivian E.; FAKAYODE, SAYO O.; Lowry, Mark; Negulescu, Ioan; Robert M Strongin; Warner, Isiah M.
2008-01-01
We report the synthesis and characterization of amino acid ester based chiral ionic liquids, derived from L- and D-alanine tert butyl ester chloride. The synthesis was accomplished via an anion metathesis reaction between commercially available L-and D-alanine tert butyl ester chloride using a variety of counterions such as lithium bis (trifluoromethane) sulfonimide, silver nitrate, silver lactate, and silver tetrafluoroborate. Both enantiomeric forms were obtained as confirmed by bands of op...
Atroposelective Synthesis of Axially Chiral Thiohydantoin Derivatives.
Sarigul, Sevgi; Dogan, Ilknur
2016-07-15
Nonracemic axially chiral thiohydantoins were synthesized atroposelectively by the reaction of o-aryl isothiocyanates with amino acid ester salts in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). The synthesis of the nonaxially chiral derivatives, however, gave thiohydantoins racemized at C-5 of the heterocyclic ring. The micropreparatively resolved enantiomers of the nonaxially chiral derivatives from the racemic products were found to be optically stable under neutral conditions. On formation of the 5-methyl-3-arylthiohydantoin ring, bulky o-aryl substituents at N3 were found to suppress the C-5 racemization and in this way enabled the transfer of chirality from the α-amino acid to the products. The corresponding 5-isopropylthiohydantoins turned out to be more prone to racemization at C-5 during the ring formation. The isomer compositions of the synthesized axially chiral thiohydantoins have been determined through HPLC analyses with chiral stationary phases. In most cases a high prevalence of the P isomers over the M isomers has been obtained. The barriers to rotation determined around the Nsp(2)-Caryl chiral axis were found to be dependent upon the size of the o-halo aryl substituents. PMID:27322739
Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells
Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David
Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.
Higgs dark matter from a warped extra dimension — the truncated-inert-doublet model
Ahmed, Aqeel; Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Gunion, John F.; Jiang, Yun
2015-10-01
We construct a 5D {{Z}}_2 -symmetric model with three D3-branes: two IR ones with negative tension located at the ends of an extra-dimensional interval and a UV-brane with positive tension placed in the middle of the interval — IR-UV-IR model. The background solutions for this geometric setup are found without and with taking into account the backreaction of the matter fields. A 5D SU(2) Higgs doublet is employed as the Goldberger-Wise stabilizing field in this geometry and solutions of the 5D coupled scalar-gravity equations are found by using the superpotential method. Within this setup we investigate the low-energy (zero-mode) effective theory for the bulk Standard Model (SM) bosonic sector. The {{Z}}_2 -even zero-modes correspond to known standard degrees of freedom, whereas the {{Z}}_2 -odd zero modes might serve as a dark sector. The effective low-energy scalar sector contains a scalar which mimics the SM Higgs boson and a second stable scalar particle (dark-Higgs) is a dark matter candidate; the latter is a component of the zero-mode of the {{Z}}_2 -odd Higgs doublet. The model that results from the {{Z}}_2 -symmetric background geometry resembles the Inert Two Higgs Doublet Model. The effective theory turns out to have an extra residual SU(2) × U(1) global symmetry that is reminiscent of an underlying 5D gauge transformation for the odd degrees of freedom. At tree level the SM Higgs and the dark-Higgs have the same mass; however, when leading radiative corrections are taken into account the dark-Higgs turns out to be heavier than the SM Higgs. Implications for dark matter are discussed; it is found that the dark-Higgs can provide only a small fraction of the observed dark matter abundance.
Rupture features of the Aug 19, 2002 Tonga deep earthquake doublet
Ruff, L. J.; Bilek, S. L.
2002-12-01
Two of the largest earthquakes in 2002 occurred in the Tonga subduction zone on Aug. 19. The seismic moments and depths are similar for these two events, and although they are separated by a few hundred kilometers along the strike of the subduction zone, their origin times are just over 7 minutes apart. The possibility of wave triggering of the second event in quite enticing, though difficult to ascertain since random seismicity occurrence can also produce a doublet. Here we focus on the rupture characteristics of these events to determine if there is any obvious unusual feature in either earthquake. In the 8-year time period from 1994 to 2002, there are seven events with Mw > 7.2 and depth greater than 70 km. Certainly the occurrence of two more large deep events in the same day is unusual. The source time functions (STF) for the two largest deep earthquakes (1994 Bolivia and 1996 Flores Is.) are "complex" with relatively long durations (42 and 21 seconds respectively). In contrast, the STF for the previous large deep earthquake in Tonga (March 9, 1994) displays a relatively short duration of 11 sec and a large value of peak moment rate. The STF for the first event on Aug. 19 also displays a relatively short duration (about 10 seconds) and the consequent large value for peak moment rate. Results for the second earthquake in the doublet are unclear at this point. It is possible to interpret the initial slope of the STF as the initial dynamic stress drop of the earthquake. With this interpretation, the first event of the Aug. 19 doublet has a relatively large dynamic stress drop, which translates into larger peak velocity of the teleseismic waves. This aspect is attractive for advocates of dynamic triggering of the second event. However, one caveat is that the dynamic stress drop of the 1994 Tonga event is even larger, yet the 1994 event did not trigger another nearby large earthquake.
Chiral Structure of Baryon and Scalar Tetraquark Currents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Hua-Xing
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate chiral properties of local fields of baryons consisting of three quarks with flavor SU(3 symmetry. We construct explicitly independent local threequark fields belonging to definite Lorentz and flavor representations. We discuss some implications of the allowed chiral symmetry representations on physical quantities such as axial coupling constants and chiral invariant Lagrangians. We also systematically investigate chiral properties of local scalar tetraquark currents, and study their chiral transformation properties.
New type of chiral motion in even–even nuclei: the 138Nd case
Raduta, A. A.; Raduta, Al H.; Petrache, C. M.
2016-09-01
The phenomenological generalized coherent state model Hamiltonian is amended with a many body term describing a set of nucleons moving in a shell model mean-field and interacting among themselves with pairing, as well as with a particle–core interaction of spin–spin type. The model Hamiltonian is treated in a restricted space consisting of the core projected states associated to the band ground, β ,γ ,\\widetilde{γ },{1}+ and \\widetilde{{1}+} and two proton aligned quasiparticles coupled to the states of the collective dipole band. The chirally transformed particle–core states are also included. The Hamiltonian contains two terms which are not invariant to the chiral transformations relating the right-handed frame ({{J}}{F},{{J}}{p},{{J}}{n}) and the left-handed ones (-{{J}}{F},{{J}}{p},{{J}}{n}), ({{J}}{F},-{{J}}{p},{{J}}{n}), ({{J}}{F},{{J}}{p},-{{J}}{n}) where {{J}}{F},{{J}}{p},{{J}}{n} are the angular momenta carried by fermions, proton and neutron bosons, respectively. The energies defined with the particle–core states form four bands, two of them being degenerate in the present formalism, while the other two exhibit chiral properties reflected by energies, electromagnetic properties and the energy staggering function. A numerical application for 138Nd shows a good agreement between results and the corresponding experimental data.
Solving the muon {(g-2)_{μ}} anomaly in two higgs doublet models
Jin Chun, Eung
2016-07-01
Updating various theoretical and experimental constraints on the four different types of two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDMs), we find that only the "lepton-specific" (or "type X") 2HDM can explain the present muon ( g - 2) anomaly in the parameter region of large tan β , a light CP-odd Higgs boson, and heavier CP-even and charged Higgs bosons which are almost degenerate. The severe constraints on the models come mainly from the consideration of vacuum stability and perturbativity, the electroweak precision data, B physics observables like b → s γ as well as the 125GeV Higgs boson properties measured at the LHC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Computer support of a tokamak fusion experiment for the purpose of data acquisition, analysis, and archiving required handling the large amounts of data generated each shot, and presenting the data for both individual diagnostic experiments and shot summary in a timely and useful manner. A distributed computer system with processing at three levels supports General Atomic's Doublet III tokamak by providing: (1) acquisition and permanent archiving of all diagnostic data, (2) analysis and control for each physics diagnostic, (3) overall shot summary after each shot, and (4) detailed analysis of current and post shot data
Scalar sector properties of two-Higgs-doublet models with a global U(1) symmetry
Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Pal, Palash B; Rebelo, M N
2013-01-01
We analyze the scalar sector properties of a general class of two-Higgs-doublet models which has a global U(1) symmetry in the quartic terms. We find constraints on the parameters of the potential from the considerations of unitarity of scattering amplitudes, the global stability of the potential and the $\\rho$-parameter. We concentrate on the spectrum of the non-standard scalar masses in the decoupling limit which is preferred by the Higgs data at the LHC. We exhibit charged-Higgs induced contributions to the diphoton decay width of the 125\\,GeV Higgs boson and its correlation with the corresponding $Z\\gamma$ width.
Orbifold Grand Unification: A Solution to the Doublet-Triplet Problem
Jia, Bei
2014-01-01
To solve the doublet-triplet splitting problem in SU(5) grand unified theories, we propose a four dimensional orbifold grand unified theory by acting Z2 on the SU(5) gauge group. Without an adjoint Higgs, the orbifold procedure breaks the SU(5) gauge symmetry down to the standard model gauge group, and removes the triplet component of the fundamental SU(5) Higgs. In the supersymmetric framework, we show that the orbifold procedure removes two triplet superfields of the Higgs multiplets and leaves us with the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which also solves the hierarchy problem and realizes gauge coupling unification. We also discuss possible UV completions of the orbifold theories.
Formation of the O I resonance triplet and intercombination doublet in the solar chromosphere
Skelton, D. L.; Shine, R. A.
1982-01-01
Spectrum synthesis calculations are presented for the O I resonance triplet at 1304 A and the intercombination doublet at 1358 A for the solar atmosphere and several variants, allowing for triplet fluorescence by the Ly-beta emission of H I. Profiles, synthesized from a seven-level plus continuum O I atom are compared to observations taken with the high-resolution spectrometer on OSO 8. It is found that the O I triplet emission is dominated by the Ly-beta fluorescence and that the agreement between observations and profiles computed with current chromospheric models is much improved over earlier studies.
New LHC benchmarks for the CP -conserving two-Higgs-doublet model
Haber, Howard E.; Stål, Oscar
2015-01-01
We introduce a strategy to study the parameter space of the general, CP -conserving, two-Higgs-doublet Model (2HDM) with a softly broken Z2 -symmetry by means of a new “hybrid” basis. In this basis the input parameters are the measured values of the mass of the observed Standard Model (SM)-like Higgs boson and its coupling strength to vector boson pairs, the mass of the second CP -even Higgs boson, the ratio of neutral Higgs vacuum expectation values, and three additional dimensionless parame...
The vacuum structure of the Higgs complex singlet-doublet model
Ferreira, P M
2016-01-01
The complex singlet-doublet model is a popular theory to account for dark matter and electroweak baryogenesis, wherein the Standard Model particle content is supplemented by a complex scalar gauge singlet, with certain discrete symmetries imposed. The scalar potential which results thereof can have seven different types of minima at tree-level, which may coexist for specific choices of parameters. There is therefore the possibility that a given minimum is not global but rather a local one, and may tunnel to a deeper extremum, thus causing vacuum instability. This rich vacuum structure is explained and discussed in detail.
Accuracy improvement in the isochronous mass measurement using a cavity doublet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, X., E-mail: x.chen@gsi.de; Sanjari, M. S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Piotrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology (Poland); Hülsmann, P.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Nolden, F.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Germany)
2015-11-15
The accuracy of the isochronous mass measurement in a storage ring is subject to the isochronous condition γ=γ{sub t}. It is obvious that this condition cannot be fulfilled for all kinds of nuclides since their velocities certainly differ from each other. However, the non-isochronicity effect can be corrected for by additionally measuring transverse positions of charged particles in the ring. To this end, we outline in this paper the correction method with an arrangement of a cavity doublet, which consists of a position cavity and a reference cavity.
Effects of Two Inert Scalar Doublets on Higgs Interactions and Electroweak Phase Transition
Ahriche, Amine; Ho, Shu-Yu; Nasri, Salah; Tandean, Jusak
2015-01-01
We study some implications of the presence of two inert scalar doublets which are charged under a dark Abelian gauge symmetry. Specifically, we investigate the effects of the new scalars on oblique electroweak parameters and on the interactions of the 125 GeV Higgs boson, especially its decay modes $h\\to\\gamma\\gamma,\\gamma Z$, and trilinear coupling, all of which will be probed with improved precision in future Higgs measurements. Moreover, we explore how the inert scalars may give rise to strongly first-order electroweak phase transition and also show its correlation with sizable modifications to the Higgs trilinear coupling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dembowski, C.; Dietz, B.; Graef, H.D.; Heine, A.; Leyvraz, F.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Richter, A.; Seligman, T.H.
2002-11-01
The spectral properties of a two-dimensional microwave billiard showing threefold symmetry have been studied with a new experimental technique. This method is based on the behavior of the eigenmodes under variation of a phase shift between two input channels, which strongly depends on the symmetries of the eigenfunctions. Thereby a complete set of 108 Kramers doublets has been identified by a simple and purely experimental method. This set clearly shows Gaussian unitary ensemble statistics, although the system is time-reversal invariant. (orig.)
New Barr-Zee contributions to ( g - 2) μ in two-Higgs-doublet models
Ilisie, Victor
2015-04-01
We study the contribution of new sets of two-loop Barr-Zee type diagrams to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon within the two-Higgs-doublet model framework. We show that some of these contributions can be quite sizeable for a large region of the parameter space and can significantly reduce, and in some cases even explain, the discrepancy between the theoretical prediction and the experimentally measured value of this observable. Analytical expressions are given for all the calculations performed in this work.
Lightest Higgs boson production at photon colliders in the two Higgs doublet model type III
Martínez, R; Rodríguez, José Alberto; 10.1103/PhysRevD.72.035017
2005-01-01
The branching ratios of the lightest CP-even Higgs boson h/sup 0/ are calculated in the framework of the general two higgs doublet model. Different scenarios are presented taking into account constraints on the flavor changing neutral currents factors obtained in previous works. Plausible scenarios where appear flavor changing processes at tree level like bs and tc are analyzed for relevant parameters. The loop-induced Higgs couplings to photon pairs can be tested with a photon collider. The number of events of h/sup 0/ as a resonance in photon colliders are calculated taking into account its corresponding background signal at TESLA, CLIC, and NLC.
Higgs boson pair production at the Photon Linear Collider in the two Higgs doublet model
Asakawa, Eri; Kanemura, Shinya; Okada, Yasuhiro; Tsumura, Koji
2009-01-01
We calculate the cross section of the lightest Higgs boson pair production at the Photon Linear Collider in the two Higgs doublet model. We focus on the scenario in which the lightest Higgs boson has the standard model like couplings to gauge bosons. We take into account the one-loop correction to the $hhh$ coupling as well as additional one-loop diagrams due to charged bosons to the $\\gamma\\gamma \\to hh$ helicity amplitudes. We discuss the impact of these corrections on the $hhh$ coupling measurement at the Photon Linear Collider.
Gauge invariance and the physical spectrum in the two-Higgs-doublet model
Maas, Axel; Pedro, Leonardo
2016-03-01
Observable states are gauge invariant. In a non-Abelian gauge theory, these are necessarily composite operators. We investigate the spectrum of these operators in the two-Higgs-doublet model. For this purpose, we are working along the lines of the Fröhlich-Morchio-Strocchi mechanism to relate the physical spectrum to the spectrum of the elementary particles. We also investigate the consequences of spontaneous breaking of the global (custodial) symmetry group. Finally, we briefly comment on how to test the results using lattice methods.
Gauge invariance and the physical spectrum in the two-Higgs-doublet model
Maas, Axel
2016-01-01
Observable states are gauge-invariant. In a non-Abelian gauge theory, these are necessarily composite operators. We investigate the spectrum of these operators in the two-Higgs-doublet model. For this purpose, we are working along the lines of the Fr\\"ohlich-Morchio-Strocchi mechanism to relate the physical spectrum to the spectrum of the elementary particles. We also investigate the consequences of spontaneous breaking of the global (custodial) symmetry group. Finally, we briefly comment on how to test the results using lattice methods.
The Half-composite Two Higgs Doublet Model and the Relaxion
Antipin, Oleg
2015-01-01
We study a new confining gauge theory with fermions in a vectorial representation under the SM gauge group that allows for Yukawa interactions with the Higgs. If the fermion masses are smaller than the confinement scale this realizes a type I two Higgs doublet model where a composite Higgs mixes with the elementary Higgs. This class of models interpolates between an elementary and a composite Higgs and has interesting phenomenology with potentially observables effects in collider physics, EDMs and SM couplings but very weak bounds from indirect searches. The very same framework can be used to realize the cosmological relaxation of the electro-weak scale recently discussed in the literature.
Interplay between Deconfinement and Chiral Properties
Suganuma, Hideo; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro
2016-01-01
We study interplay between confinement/deconfinement and chiral properties. We derive some analytical relations of the Dirac modes with the confinement quantities, such as the Polyakov loop, its susceptibility and the string tension. For the confinement quantities, the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes are found to give negligible contribution, while they are essential for chiral symmetry breaking. This indicates no direct, one-to-one correspondence between confinement/deconfinement and chiral properties in QCD. We also investigate the Polyakov loop in terms of the eigenmodes of the Wilson, the clover and the domain-wall fermion kernels, respectively.
Enhanced Chiral Recognition by Cyclodextrin Dimers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bart Jan Ravoo
2011-07-01
Full Text Available In this article we investigate the effect of multivalency in chiral recognition. To this end, we measured the host-guest interaction of a β-cyclodextrin dimer with divalent chiral guests. We report the synthesis of carbohydrate-based water soluble chiral guests functionalized with two borneol, menthol, or isopinocampheol units in either (+ or (– configuration. We determined the interaction of these divalent guests with a β-cyclodextrin dimer using isothermal titration calorimetry. It was found that—in spite of a highly unfavorable conformation—the cyclodextrin dimer binds to guest dimers with an increased enantioselectivity, which clearly reflects the effect of multivalency.
Effective action in general chiral superfield model
Petrov, A. Yu.
2000-01-01
The effective action in general chiral superfield model with arbitrary k\\"{a}hlerian potential $K(\\bar{\\Phi},\\Phi)$ and chiral (holomorphic) potential $W(\\Phi)$ is considered. The one-loop and two-loop contributions to k\\"{a}hlerian effective potential and two-loop (first non-zero) contribution to chiral effective potential are found for arbitrary form of functions $K(\\bar{\\Phi},\\Phi)$ and $W(\\Phi)$. It is found that despite the theory is non-renormalizable in general case two-loop contributi...
The convoluted evolution of snail chirality
Schilthuizen, M.; Davison, A.
2005-11-01
The direction that a snail (Mollusca: Gastropoda) coils, whether dextral (right-handed) or sinistral (left-handed), originates in early development but is most easily observed in the shell form of the adult. Here, we review recent progress in understanding snail chirality from genetic, developmental and ecological perspectives. In the few species that have been characterized, chirality is determined by a single genetic locus with delayed inheritance, which means that the genotype is expressed in the mother's offspring. Although research lags behind the studies of asymmetry in the mouse and nematode, attempts to isolate the loci involved in snail chirality have begun, with the final aim of understanding how the axis of left-right asymmetry is established. In nature, most snail taxa (>90%) are dextral, but sinistrality is known from mutant individuals, populations within dextral species, entirely sinistral species, genera and even families. Ordinarily, it is expected that strong frequency-dependent selection should act against the establishment of new chiral types because the chiral minority have difficulty finding a suitable mating partner (their genitalia are on the ‘wrong’ side). Mixed populations should therefore not persist. Intriguingly, however, a very few land snail species, notably the subgenus Amphidromus sensu stricto, not only appear to mate randomly between different chiral types, but also have a stable, within-population chiral dimorphism, which suggests the involvement of a balancing factor. At the other end of the spectrum, in many species, different chiral types are unable to mate and so could be reproductively isolated from one another. However, while empirical data, models and simulations have indicated that chiral reversal must sometimes occur, it is rarely likely to lead to so-called ‘single-gene’ speciation. Nevertheless, chiral reversal could still be a contributing factor to speciation (or to divergence after speciation) when
The Macromolecular Route to Chiral Amplification.
Green; Park; Sato; Teramoto; Lifson; Selinger; Selinger
1999-11-01
Cooperative phenomena, described by one-dimensional statistical physical methods, are observed between the enantiomeric characteristics of monomeric materials and the polymers they produce. The effect of minute energies associated with this amplified chirality, although currently not interpretable, can be easily measured. Nonlinear relationships between enantiomeric excess or enantiomeric content and polymer properties may offer the possibility of developing chiral catalysts and chiral chromatographic materials in which the burden of large enantiomeric excess or content may be considerably alleviated. New approaches to information and sensor technology may become possible. PMID:10556885
Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.
Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji
2014-07-01
Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study.
Chiral particle separation by a non-chiral micro-lattice
Bogunovic, Lukas; Fliedner, Marc; Eichhorn, Ralf; Wegener, Sonja; Regtmeier, Jan; Anselmetti, Dario; Reimann, Peter
2012-01-01
We conceived a model experiment for a continuous separation strategy of chiral molecules (enantiomers) without the need of any chiral selector structure or derivatization agents: Micro-particles that only differ by their chirality are shown to migrate along different directions when driven by a steady fluid flow through a square lattice of cylindrical posts. In accordance with our numerical predictions, the transport directions of the enantiomers depend very sensitively on the orientation of ...
Weijermars, R.; van Harmelen, A.
2016-07-01
An important real world application of doublet flow occurs in well design of both geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. A guiding principle for fluid management of injection and extraction wells is that mass balance is commonly assumed between the injected and produced fluid. Because the doublets are considered closed loops, the injection fluid is assumed to eventually reach the producer well and all the produced fluid ideally comes from stream tubes connected to the injector of the well pair making up the doublet. We show that when an aquifer background flow occurs, doublets will rarely retain closed loops of fluid recirculation. When the far-field flow rate increases relative to the doublet's strength, the area occupied by the doublet will diminish and eventually vanishes. Alternatively, rather than using a single injector (source) and single producer (sink), a linear array of multiple injectors separated by some distance from a parallel array of producers can be used in geothermal energy projects as well as in waterflooding of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fluid flow in such an arrangement of parallel source-sink arrays is shown to be macroscopically equivalent to that of a line doublet. Again, any far-field flow that is strong enough will breach through the line doublet, which then splits into two vortices. Apart from fundamental insight into elementary flow dynamics, our new results provide practical clues that may contribute to improve the planning and design of doublets and direct line drives commonly used for flow management of groundwater, geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Weijermars, R.; van Harmelen, A.
2016-04-01
An important real world application of doublet flow occurs in well design of both geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. A guiding principle for fluid management of injection and extraction wells is that mass balance is commonly assumed between the injected and produced fluid. Because the doublets are considered closed loops, the injection fluid is assumed to eventually reach the producer well and all the produced fluid ideally comes from stream tubes connected to the injector of the well pair making up the doublet. We show that when an aquifer background flow occurs, doublets will rarely retain closed loops of fluid re-circulation. When the far-field flow rate increases relative to the doublet's strength, the area occupied by the doublet will diminish and eventually vanishes. Alternatively, rather than using a single injector (source) and single producer (sink), a linear array of multiple injectors separated by some distance from a parallel array of producers can be used in geothermal energy projects as well as in waterflooding of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fluid flow in such an arrangement of parallel source-sink arrays is shown to be macroscopically equivalent to that of a line doublet. Again, any far-field flow that is strong enough will breach through the line doublet, which then splits into two vortices. Apart from fundamental insight into elementary flow dynamics, our new results provide practical clues that may contribute to improve the planning and design of doublets and direct line drives commonly used for flow management of groundwater, geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs.
New Chiral Metal Cluster Systems for Catalytic Asymmetric Syntheses of Chiral Alcohols
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yan-yun; CHEN Jian-shan; YANG Chuan-bo; DONG Zhen-rong; LI Bao-zhu; ZHANG Hui; GAO Jing-xing; TAKAO Ikariya
2004-01-01
The efficient chiral Ru3(CO)12 systems were prepared in situ from Ru3(CO)12 and various chiral diiminoor diamino-diphosphine tetradentate ligands. The systems have been used for the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of propiophenone in 2-propanol, leading to 1-phenyl-1-propanol in a 98% yield and 96% e.e. The IR study suggests that the carbonyl hydride anion [HRu3(CO)11]- most probably exists as a principal species under the reaction conditions. The high chiral efficiency may be due to the synergetic effect produced by the neighboring ruthenium atoms and a special chiral micro-environment involving the polydentate ligand and the Ru3 framework.
Double chiral logarithms of Generalized Chiral Perturbation Theory for low-energy pi-pi scattering
L. GirlandaPadua U. & INFN
2015-01-01
We express the two-massless-flavor Gell-Mann--Oakes--Renner ratio in terms of low-energy pi-pi observables, including the O(p^6) double chiral logarithms of generalized chiral perturbation theory. Their contribution is sizeable and tends to compensate the one from the single chiral logarithms. However it is not large enough to spoil the convergence of the chiral expansion. As a signal of reduced theoretical uncertainty, we find that the scale dependence from the one-loop single logarithms is ...
Berry Curvature and Chiral Plasmons in Massive Dirac Materials
Song, Justin; Rudner, Mark
2015-03-01
In the semiclassical model of carrier dynamics, quasiparticles are described as nearly free electrons with modified characteristics modified characteristics such as effective masses which may differ significantly from those of an electron in vacuum. In addition to being influenced by external electric and magnetic fields, the trajectories of electrons in topological materials are also affected by the presence of an interesting quantum mechanical field - the Berry curvature - which is responsible for a number of anomalous transport phenomena recently observed in Dirac materials including G/hBN, and MoS2. Here we discuss how Berry curvature can affect the collective behavior of electrons in these systems. In particular, we show that the collective electronic excitations in metallic massive Dirac materials can feature a chirality even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The chirality of these plasmons arises from the Berry curvature of the massive Dirac bands. The corresponding dispersion is split between left- and right-handed modes. We also discuss experimental manifestations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Luo Yu-Pin; Tien Li-Gan; Tsai Chuen-Horng; Lee Ming-Hsien; Li Feng-Yin
2011-01-01
Ab initio calculations demonstrated that the energy gap modulation of a chiral carbon nanotube with monovacancy defect can be achieved by applying a transverse electric field. The bandstructure of this defective carbon nanotube varying due to the external electric field is distinctly different from those of the perfect nanotube and defective zigzag nanotube. This variation in bandstructure strongly depends on not only the chirality of the nanotube and also the applied direction of the transverse electric field. A mechanism is proposed to explain the response of the local energy gap between the valence band maximum state and the local gap state under external electric field. Several potential applications of these phenomena are discussed.
Chiral exceptional points in metasurfaces
Kang, Ming; Chen, Jing; Chong, Y. D.
2016-09-01
An exceptional point (EP) is a degeneracy occurring in a non-energy-conserving system, in which two eigenvectors of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian coalesce. We explore how EPs can be realized in a metamaterial surface, or metasurface, consisting of a pair of lossy coupled linear antennas in each unit cell. EPs appear in the eigenvectors of the transmission matrix by tuning the frequency and the coupling and loss rates of the metasurface. Each EP is associated with the appearance of a circularly polarized transmission eigenstate; hence, within the parameter space of the system, the EPs lie along pairs of curves with distinct chirality. Our results are obtained using finite-difference time-domain simulations, as well as a fitted coupled-mode theory. The coupled-mode theory agrees well with the numerical results and is capable of accurately predicting the EP f curves.
Binary mixtures of chiral gases
Presilla, Carlo
2015-01-01
A possible solution of the well known paradox of chiral molecules is based on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At low pressure the molecules are delocalized between the two minima of a given molecular potential while at higher pressure they become localized in one minimum due to the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Evidence for such a phase transition is provided by measurements of the inversion spectrum of ammonia and deuterated ammonia at different pressures. In particular, at pressure greater than a critical value no inversion line is observed. These data are well accounted for by a model previously developed and recently extended to mixtures. In the present paper, we discuss the variation of the critical pressure in binary mixtures as a function of the fractions of the constituents.
Resolution of the Chiral Drugs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
@@ Chiral drugs are generally not permitted to be used in racemic form so that unintended side effects and unnecessary environmental hazards are avoided. Moreover, homochiral molecules are required immediately to progress key toxicological and clinical studies in the drug discovery. One series of technologies which can rapidly supply homochiral compounds is the separation of racemates, and of those the technique of crystallization of diastereomers is extremely effective-principally because it is simple to operate and it affords both enantiomers. In classical resolution via diastereoisomeric salt formation, the resolved compounds are limited to a given racemic acid or base and the choice of a suitable resolving agent for a racemic target compound is achieved by time-consuming trial-and-error procedure.
Resolution of the Chiral Drugs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG; JinGen
2001-01-01
Chiral drugs are generally not permitted to be used in racemic form so that unintended side effects and unnecessary environmental hazards are avoided. Moreover, homochiral molecules are required immediately to progress key toxicological and clinical studies in the drug discovery. One series of technologies which can rapidly supply homochiral compounds is the separation of racemates, and of those the technique of crystallization of diastereomers is extremely effective-principally because it is simple to operate and it affords both enantiomers. In classical resolution via diastereoisomeric salt formation, the resolved compounds are limited to a given racemic acid or base and the choice of a suitable resolving agent for a racemic target compound is achieved by time-consuming trial-and-error procedure. ……
Chiral magnetic effect and holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirsch, Ingo; Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-01-15
The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is a highly discussed effect in heavy-ion collisions stating that, in the presence of a magnetic field B, an electric current is generated in the background of topologically nontrivial gluon fields. We present a holographic (AdS/CFT) description of the CME in terms of a fluid-gravity model which is dual to a strongly-coupled plasma with multiple anomalous U(1) currents. In the case of two U(1) charges, one axial and one vector, the CME formally appears as a first-order transport coefficient in the vector current. We will holographically compute this coefficient at strong coupling and compare it with the hydrodynamic result. Finally, we will discuss an anisotropic variant of the model and study a possible dependence of the CME on the elliptic flow coefficient {nu}{sub 2}.
Chiral Lagrangians and proton decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phenomenological Lagrangian method is employed to obtain nucleon decay branching ratio sin conventional and supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories. After a brief survey of the theory of nucleon decay, the dominant effective baryon-number violating operators in supergravity models are derived where the observed sector is described by an SU(5) SUSY GUT. It is shown how the phenomenological Lagrangian technique may be understood from a mathematical viewpoint. This technique is then applied to calculate two- and three-body nucleon decay branching ratios in SUGRA models. Finally, the author answers criticism of the usual phenomenological Lagrangian approach when used for nucleon decay calculations by developing a hybrid chiral quark model. With this model, branching ratios for conventional and SUSY GUTs are calculated. (author)
Chiral supergravity actions and superforms
Gates, S J; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, G
2009-01-01
The superform construction of supergravity actions, christened the "ectoplasm method," is based on the use of a closed super d-form in the case of d space-time dimensions. In known examples, such superforms are obtained by iteratively solving nontrivial cohomological problems. The latter usually makes this scheme no less laborious than the normal coordinate method for deriving component actions for matter-coupled supergravity. In this note we present an alternative procedure to generate required superforms in four space-time dimensions, which makes use of self-dual vector multiplets. It provides the shortest derivation of chiral actions in two different theories: (i) N = 1 old minimal supergravity; and (ii) N = 2 conformal supergravity. The N = 2 superform construction is developed here for the first time. Although our consideration is restricted to the case of four dimensions, a generalization to higher dimensions is plausible.
New Advances in Chiral Catalyst Immobilization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
@@ Asymmetric catalysis of organic reactions is one of the most efficient ways to obtain optically pure chiral compounds, which are crucially important to the development of modern pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries, as well as material science.
Personal recollections on chiral symmetry breaking
Kobayashi, Makoto
2016-07-01
The author's work on the mass of pseudoscalar mesons is briefly reviewed. The emergence of the study of CP violation in the renormalizable gauge theory from consideration of chiral symmetry in the quark model is discussed.
Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation
Coles, Matt M
2012-01-01
This paper develops, in precise quantum electrodynamic terms, photonic attributes of the "optical chirality density", one of several measures long known to be conserved quantities for a vacuum electromagnetic field. The analysis lends insights into some recent interpretations of chiroptical experiments, in which this measure, and an associated chirality flux, have been treated as representing physically distinctive "superchiral" phenomena. In the fully quantized formalism the chirality density is promoted to operator status, whose exploration with reference to an arbitrary polarization basis reveals relationships to optical angular momentum and helicity operators. Analyzing multi-mode beams with complex wave-front structures, notably Laguerre-Gaussian modes, affords a deeper understanding of the interplay between optical chirality and optical angular momentum. By developing theory with due cognizance of the photonic character of light, it emerges that only the spin angular momentum of light is engaged in such...
Application of cyclodextrins in chiral capillary electrophoresis.
Rezanka, Pavel; Navrátilová, Klára; Rezanka, Michal; Král, Vladimír; Sýkora, David
2014-10-01
CE represents a very powerful separation tool in the area of chiral separations. CD-mediated chiral CE is a continuously flourishing technique within the frame of the electromigration methods. In this review, a brief overview of the synthetic procedures leading to modified CDs is provided first. Next, selected aspects related to the utilization of CDs in chiral CE are discussed specifically in the view of recently published data. Advantages of CDs and basic principles of chiral CE are remained. The topic of the determination of binding constants is touched. Particular attention is paid to the effort aiming at better understanding of the molecular level of the enantiorecognition between CDs and the analyte in the solution. Powerful approaches extensively utilized in this field are NMR, molecular modeling, and computer simulations. Then, a summary of applications of CDs in the CE enantioseparations is given, covering years 2008-2013. Finally, the general trend of modified CDs use in separation science is statistically evaluated.
Staggered Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory
Bailey, Jon A
2007-01-01
Although taste violations significantly affect the results of staggered calculations of pseudoscalar and heavy-light mesonic quantities, those entering staggered calculations of baryonic quantities have not been quantified. Here I develop staggered chiral perturbation theory in the light-quark baryon sector by mapping the Symanzik action into heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. For 2+1 dynamical quark flavors, the masses of flavor-symmetric nucleons are calculated to third order in partially quenched and fully dynamical staggered chiral perturbation theory. To this order the expansion includes the leading chiral logarithms, which come from loops with virtual decuplet-like states, as well as terms the order of the cubed pion mass, which come from loops with virtual octet-like states. Taste violations enter through the meson propagators in loops and tree-level terms the order of the squared lattice spacing. The pattern of taste symmetry breaking and the resulting degeneracies and mixings are discussed in d...
NN Interaction in Chiral Constituent Quark Models
Valcarce, A; González, P
2003-01-01
We review the actual state in the description of the NN interaction by means of chiral constituent quark models. We present a series of relevant features that are nicely explained within the quark model framework.
Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions
Liao, Jinfeng
2016-01-01
The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. It is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields $|\\vec{\\bf B}|\\sim m_\\pi^2$ are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. In this contribution we give a brief overview on the status of such efforts.
Chiral Schwinger model at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the chiral Schwinger model at finite temperature using Fujikawa's method. We solve this model exactly and show that the axial anomaly and the dynamically generated mass for the gauge field are temperature independent. (author). 20 refs
Nuclear Chiral EFT in the Precision Era
Epelbaum, Evgeny
2015-01-01
Chiral effective field theory has established itself as the method of choice to study nuclear forces and low-energy nuclear dynamics. I review the status and prospects of this approach and discuss ongoing efforts to advance the precision frontier for ab initio description of few-nucleon systems. Special emphasis is put on the precise determination of the two-nucleon force at fifth order in the chiral expansion, role of the chiral symmetry, the convergence pattern of the chiral expansion and the quantification of the theoretical uncertainties. The discussed topics are essential for ongoing studies towards elucidating the structure of the three-nucleon force which will be briefly addressed as well.
Chiral susceptibility and the scalar Ward identity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, L.; Liu, Y.-X.; Roberts, C. D.; Shi, Y.-M.; Sun, W.-M.; Zong, H.-S.; Physics; Inst. of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics; Peking Univ.; National Lab. of Heavy Ion Accelerator; Univ. of New South Wales; Nanjing Univ.; Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology
2009-03-01
The chiral susceptibility is given by the scalar vacuum polarization at zero total momentum. This follows directly from the expression for the vacuum quark condensate so long as a nonperturbative symmetry preserving truncation scheme is employed. For QCD in-vacuum the susceptibility can rigorously be defined via a Pauli-Villars regularization procedure. Owing to the scalar Ward identity, irrespective of the form or Ansatz for the kernel of the gap equation, the consistent scalar vertex at zero total momentum can automatically be obtained and hence the consistent susceptibility. This enables calculation of the chiral susceptibility for markedly different vertex Ansaetze. For the two cases considered, the results were consistent and the minor quantitative differences easily understood. The susceptibility can be used to demarcate the domain of coupling strength within a theory upon which chiral symmetry is dynamically broken. Degenerate massless scalar and pseudoscalar bound-states appear at the critical coupling for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carole Cometti
Full Text Available This study compared knee extensors' neuromuscular fatigue in response to two 30-minute stimulation patterns: constant frequency train (CFT and doublet frequency train (DFT. Fifteen men underwent two separate sessions corresponding to each pattern. Measurements included torque evoked by each contraction and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC measured before and immediately after the stimulation sessions. In addition, activation level and torque evoked during doublets (Pd and tetanic contractions at 80-Hz (P80 and 20-Hz (P20 were determined in six subjects. Results indicated greater mean torque during the DFT stimulation session as compared with CFT. But, no difference was obtained between the two stimulation patterns for MVC and evoked torque decreases. Measurements conducted in the subgroup depicted a significant reduction of Pd, P20 and P80. Statistical analyses also revealed bigger P20 immediate reductions after CFT than after DFT. We concluded that DFT could be a useful stimulation pattern to produce and maintain greater force with quite similar fatigue than CFT.
A 100 m/320 Gbps SDM FSO link with a doublet lens scheme
Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lu, Ting-Chien; Wu, Chang-Jen; Chu, Chien-An; Lin, Hung-Hsien; Cheng, Ming-Te
2016-07-01
A 100 m/320 Gbps space-division-multiplexing (SDM) free-space optical (FSO) link with a doublet lens scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The transmission capacity of FSO links is increased significantly by the SDM topology, and the transmission distance of FSO links is greatly extended by the doublet lens scheme. An FSO link of eight channels over a 100 m free-space link with a total transmission rate of 320 Gbps (40 Gbps/λ × 8λ = 320 Gbps) is achieved. With the assistance of a low noise amplifier (LNA) and clock/data recovery (CDR) at the receiving site, a good bit error rate (BER) performance and a clear eye diagram are obtained at 100 m/320 Gbps. The proposed 100 m/320 Gbps SDM FSO link is shown to be a notable option to provide the advantages of long transmission distances and high transmission rates for optical wireless communications.
Baryogenesis in the two doublet and inert singlet extension of the Standard Model
Alanne, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo; Vaskonen, Ville
2016-01-01
We investigate an extension of the Standard Model containing two Higgs doublets and a singlet scalar field (2HDSM). We show that the model can have a strongly first-order phase transition and give rise to the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe, consistent with all experimental constraints. In particular, the constraints from the electron and neutron electric dipole moments are less constraining here than in pure two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). The two-step, first-order transition in 2HDSM, induced by the singlet field, may lead to strong supercooling and low nucleation temperatures in comparison with the critical temperature, $T_n \\ll T_c$, which can significantly alter the usual phase-transition pattern in 2HD models with $T_n \\approx T_c$. Furthermore, the singlet field can be the dark matter particle. However, in models with a strong first-order transition its abundance is typically but a thousandth of the observed dark matter abundance.
Natural quasi-alignment with two Higgs doublets and RGE stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botella, F.J. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Branco, G.C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisbon (Portugal); CERN, Theory Group, Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Coutinho, Antonio M.; Rebelo, M.N.; Silva-Marcos, J.I. [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisbon (Portugal)
2015-06-15
In the context of two Higgs doublet models, we study the conditions required in order to have stable quasi-alignment in flavour space. We show that stability under the renormalisation group equations imposes strong constraints on the flavour structure of the Yukawa couplings associated to each one of the Higgs doublets. In particular, we find a novel solution, where all Yukawa couplings are proportional to the so-called democratic matrix. This solution is rather unique, since it is the only stable solution which is a good starting point for reproducing the observed pattern of quark masses and mixing. We also show that this stable solution can be obtained by imposing on the Lagrangian a Z{sub 3} x Z{sub 3}{sup '} flavour symmetry. Quark masses of the lighter quark generations are generated through the breaking of this discrete symmetry, and, at this stage, scalar-mediated flavour-changing neutral-currents arise, but they are naturally suppressed by the smallness of the light quark masses. In this way, we relate Higgs alignment to the hierarchy of the quark masses through a discrete family symmetry. (orig.)
Phenomenology of the Basis-Independent CP-Violating Two-Higgs Doublet Model [Dissertation
O'Neil, Deva
2009-01-01
The Two-Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) is a model of low-energy particle interactions that is identical to the Standard Model except for the addition of an extra Higgs doublet. This extended Higgs sector would appear in experiments as the presence of multiple Higgs particles, both neutral and charged. The neutral states may either be eigenstates of CP (in the CP-conserving 2HDM), or be mixtures of CP eigenstates (in the CP-violating 2HDM). In order to understand how to measure the couplings of these new particles, this document presents the theory of the CP-violating 2HDM in a basis-independent formalism and explicitly identifies the physical parameters of the model, including a discussion of tan(beta)-like parameters. The CP-conserving limit, decoupling limit, and the custodial limit of the model are presented. In addition, phenomenological constraints from the oblique parameters (S, T, and U) are discussed. A survey of the parameter space of this model shows that the 2HDM is consistent with a large range of pos...
Numerical Analysis of Doublet Wells for Cold Energy Storage on Heat Damage Treatment in Deep Mines
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Man-chao; ZHANG Yi; GUO Dong-ming; QIAN Zeng-zhen
2006-01-01
Deep mining is an inevitable tendency in the development of coal industry. There are many heat damage problems with the increase of mining depth. The technology of using doublet wells, together with Heat Exchange Machine Systems (HEMSs), to store cold energy is a key to solve the heat damage problems in deep mines. Based on the geological conditions, thermodynamic and hydraulic parameters of Jiahe Mine, the isotherms in the period of cold energy storage and refrigeration and the volumes of cold water within different temperature ranges of the cold energy storage well were numerically analyzed. The results show that 1) with the same pumped and injected water volumes, the lower the temperature of injected water is, the larger the volume of cold water in the cold energy storage well is. With the larger volume, the effect of cold energy storage is better. 2) the larger the volumes of pumped and reinjected water are, the larger the volume of cold water from the cold energy storage well is. With the larger volume, the effect of refrigeration is better. And 3) without disturbance, the volume and temperature of cold water in the cold energy storage well can keep unchanged or have only a little change for a long time. Therefore the technology of doublet wells for cold energy storage is feasible and the cold energy storage aquifers can meet the requirement of the technology.
Implications of the LHC two-photon signal for two-Higgs-doublet models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P. M. Ferreira, Rui Santos, Marc Sher, Joao P. Silva
2012-04-01
We study the implications for Two Higgs Doublet Models of the recent announcement at the LHC giving a tantalizing hint for a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV decaying into two photons. We require that the experimental result be within a factor of two of the theoretical Standard Model prediction, and analyze the type I and type II models as well as the lepton-specific and flipped models, subject to this requirement. It is assumed that there is no new physics other than two Higgs doublets. In all of the models, we display the allowed region of parameter space taking the recent LHC announcement at face value, and we analyze the W{sup +}W{sup -}, ZZ, {bar b}b and {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} expectations in these allowed regions. Throughout the entire range of parameter space allowed by the {gamma}{gamma} constraint, the number of events for Higgs decays into WW, ZZ and b{bar b} are not changed from the Standard Model by more than a factor of two. In contrast, in the Lepton Specific model, decays to {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} are very sensitive across the entire {gamma}{gamma}-allowed region.
Two Higgs bi-doublet left-right model with spontaneous P and CP violation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU YueLiang; ZHOU YuFeng
2008-01-01
A left-right symmetric model with two Higgs bi-doublet is shown to be a consistent model for both spontaneous P and CP violation.The flavor changing neutral cur-rents can be suppressed by the mechanism of approximate global U(1) family symmetry.The constraints from neural K meson mass difference △mK are calcu-lated and it is demonstrated that a right-handed gauge boson W2 contribution in box-diagrams with mass well below 1 TeV is allowed due to a cancelation caused by a light-charged Higgs boson with a mass range of 150-300 GeV.The W2 contribution to εK can be suppressed from an appropriate choice of additional CP phases appearing in the right-handed Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix.The model is also found to be fully consistent with B0 mass difference △mB and the mixing induced CP violation sin2βJ/ψ,which is usually difficult for the model with only one Higgs bi-doublet.The new physics beyond the standard model can be directly searched at the colliders LHC and ILC.
A search for neutral Higgs bosons in the MSSM and models with two scalar field doublets
Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; List, B; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rembser, C; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D
1998-01-01
A search is described for the neutral Higgs bosons h^0 and A^0 predicted by models with two scalar field doublets and, in particular, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The search in the Z^0 h^0 and h^0 A^0 production channels is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 25 pb^{-1} from e^+e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 130 and 172GeV collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. The observation of a number of candidates consistent with Standard Model background expectations is used in combination with earlier results from data collected at the Z^0 resonance to set limits on m_h and m_A in general models with two scalar field doublets and in the MSSM. For example, in the MSSM, for tan(beta) > 1, minimal and maximal scalar top quark mixing and soft SUSY-breaking masses of 1 TeV, the 95% confidence level limits m_h > 59.0 GeV and m_A > 59.5 GeV are obtained. For the first time, the MSSM parameter space is explored in a detailed scan.
Collider and Dark Matter Searches in the Inert Doublet Model from Peccei-Quinn Symmetry
Alves, Alexandre; Dias, Alex G; Longas, Robinson; Nishi, Celso C; Queiroz, Farinaldo S
2016-01-01
Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and axions are arguably the most compelling dark matter candidates in the literature. Could they coexist as dark matter particles? More importantly, can they be incorporated in a well motivated framework in agreement with experimental data? In this work, we show that this two component dark matter can be realized in the Inert Doublet Model in an elegant and natural manner by virtue of the spontaneous breaking of a Peccei-Quinn $U(1)_{PQ}$ symmetry into a residual $Z_2$ symmetry. The WIMP stability is guaranteed by the $Z_{2}$ symmetry and a new dark matter component, the axion, arises. There are two interesting outcomes: (i) vector-like quarks needed to implement the Peccei-Quinn symmetry in the model act as a portal between the dark sector and the SM fields with a supersymmetry-type phenomenology at colliders; (ii) two-component Inert Doublet Model re-opens the phenomenologically interesting 100-500 GeV mass region. We show that the model can plausibly have two co...
Anomalous magnetic hyperfine structure of the 229Th ground-state doublet in muonic atoms
Tkalya, E. V.
2016-07-01
The magnetic hyperfine (MHF) splitting of the ground and low-energy 3 /2+(7.8 ±0.5 eV) levels in the 229Th nucleus in the muonic atom (μ1S1 /2 -229Th) * is calculated considering the distribution of the nuclear magnetization in the framework of the collective nuclear model with wave functions of the Nilsson model for the unpaired neutron. It is shown that (a) deviation of the MHF structure of the isomeric state exceeds 100% from its value for a pointlike nuclear magnetic dipole (the order of sublevels is reversed); (b) partial inversion of levels of the 229Th ground-state doublet and spontaneous decay of the ground state to the isomeric state occur; (c) the E 0 transition, which is sensitive to differences in the mean-square charge radii of the doublet states, is possible between mixed sublevels with F =2 ; and (d) MHF splitting of the 3 /2+ isomeric state may be in the optical range for certain values of the intrinsic gK factor and a reduced probability of a nuclear transition between the isomeric and the ground states.
Two Higgs bi-doublet left-right model with spontaneous P and CP violation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
A left-right symmetric model with two Higgs bi-doublet is shown to be a consistent model for both spontaneous P and CP violation. The flavor changing neutral cur- rents can be suppressed by the mechanism of approximate global U(1) family symmetry. The constraints from neural K meson mass difference ΔmK are calcu- lated and it is demonstrated that a right-handed gauge boson W2 contribution in box-diagrams with mass well below 1 TeV is allowed due to a cancelation caused by a light-charged Higgs boson with a mass range of 150-300 GeV. The W2 con- tribution to εK can be suppressed from an appropriate choice of additional CP phases appearing in the right-handed Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The model is also found to be fully consistent with B0 mass difference ΔmB and the mixing induced CP violation sin2βJ/ψ , which is usually difficult for the model with only one Higgs bi-doublet. The new physics beyond the standard model can be directly searched at the colliders LHC and ILC.
Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2016-06-01
In this paper, bandgap and dynamic effective properties of two-dimensional elastic metamaterials with a chiral comb-like interlayer are studied by using the finite element method. The effects of the geometrical parameters of the chiral comb-like interlayer on the band edges are investigated and discussed. Combined with the analysis of the vibration modes at the band edges, equivalent spring-mass/pendulum models are developed to investigate the mechanisms of the bandgap generation. The analytically predicted results of the band edges, including the frequency where the double negative properties appear, and the numerical ones are generally in good agreement. The research findings in this paper have relevant engineering applications of the elastic metamaterials in the low frequency range.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程凯旋; 吴融融; 刘晓宙; 刘杰惠; 龚秀芬; 吴君汝
2015-01-01
In view of the discrete characteristics of biological tissue, doublet mechanics has demonstrated its advantages in the mathematic description of tissue in terms of high frequency (>10 MHz) ultrasound. In this paper, we take human breast biopsies as an example to study the influence of the internodal distance, a microscope parameter in biological tissue in doublet mechanics, on the sound velocity and attenuation by numerical simulation. The internodal distance causes the sound velocity and attenuation in biological tissue to change with the increase of frequency. The magnitude of such a change in pathological tissue is distinctly different from that in normal tissue, which can be used to differentiate pathological tissue from normal tissue and can depict the diseased tissue structure by obtaining the sound and attenuation distribution in the sample at high ultrasound frequency. A comparison of sensitivity between the doublet model and conventional continuum model is made, indicating that this is a new method of characterizing ultrasound tissue and diagnosing diseases.
Sizable NSI from the $SU(2)_L$ scalar doublet-singlet mixing and the implications in DUNE
Forero, David V
2016-01-01
We propose a novel and simple mechanism where sizable effects of non-standard interactions (NSI) in neutrino propagation are induced from the mixing between an electrophilic second Higgs doublet and a charged singlet. The mixing arises from a dimensionful coupling of the scalar doublet and singlet to the standard model Higgs boson. In light of the small mass, the light mass eigenstate from the doublet-singlet mixing can generate much larger NSI than those from the heavy eigenstate. We show that a sizable NSI $\\varepsilon_{e\\tau}$ ($\\sim 0.3$) can be attained without being excluded by a variety of experimental constraints. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NSI can mimic effects of the Dirac CP phase in the neutrino mixing matrix but they can potentially be disentangled by future long-baseline neutrino experiments, such as the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).
Insights on some chiral smectic phases
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Pansu
2003-08-01
Combining layered positional order as smectic order and chirality can generate complex architectures since twist parallel to the layers is not allowed. This paper will review some new experimental results on different phases resulting from the competition between smectic positional order and twist orientational order. It concerns the TGBA and the NL*, that is the liquid line phase as well as the SmQ phase. Chiral effects in the isotropic phase will also be discussed.
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-15
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Is the chiral U(1) theory trivial?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chiral U(1) theory differs from the corresponding vector theory by an imaginary contribution to the effective action which amounts to a phase factor in the partition function. The vector theory, i.e. QED, is known to be trivial in the continuum limit. It is argued that the presence of the phase factor will not alter this result and the chiral theory is non-interacting as well. (orig.)
Attomolar DNA detection with chiral nanorod assemblies
Ma, Wei; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Liguang; Ding, Li; Xu, Chuanlai; Wang, Libing; Kotov, Nicholas A.
2013-01-01
Nanoscale plasmonic assemblies display exceptionally strong chiral optical activity. So far, their structural design was primarily driven by challenges related to metamaterials whose practical applications are remote. Here we demonstrate that gold nanorods assembled by the polymerase chain reaction into DNA-bridged chiral systems have promising analytical applications. The chiroplasmonic activity of side-by-side assembled patterns is attributed to a 7–9 degree twist between the nanorod axes. ...
Chiral Symmetry in algebraic and analytic approaches
Vereshagin, V.; Dillig, M.; Vereshagin, A.
1996-01-01
We compare among themselves two different methods for the derivation of results following from the requirement of polynomial boundedness of tree-level chiral amplitudes. It is shown that the results of the algebraic approach are valid also in the framework of the analytical one. This means that the system of Sum Rules and Bootstrap equations previously obtained with the help of the latter approach can be analyzed in terms of reducible representations of the unbroken Chiral group with the know...
Super Virasoro Algebras From Chiral Supergravity
Hyakutake, Yoshifumi
2015-01-01
In this note, we construct Noether charges for the chiral supergravity, which contains the Lorentz Chern-Simons term, by applying Wald's prescription to the vielbein formalism. We investigate the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence by using the vielbein formalism. The asymptotic symmetry group is carefully examined by taking into account the local Lorentz transformation, and we construct super Virasoro algebras with central extensions from the chiral supergravity.
Proton Spin Based On Chiral Dynamics
Weber, H. J.
1999-01-01
Chiral spin fraction models agree with the proton spin data only when the chiral quark-Goldstone boson couplings are pure spinflip. For axial-vector coupling from soft-pion physics this is true for massless quarks but not for constituent quarks. Axial-vector quark-Goldstone boson couplings with {\\bf constituent} quarks are found to be inconsistent with the proton spin data.
Chiral effective model with the Polyakov loop
Fukushima, Kenji
2003-01-01
We discuss how the simultaneous crossovers of deconfinement and chiral restoration can be realized. We propose a dynamical mechanism assuming that the effective potential gives a finite value of the chiral condensate if the Polyakov loop vanishes. Using a simple model, we demonstrate that our idea works well for small quark mass, though there should be further constraints to reach the perfect locking of two phenomena.
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ+ pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Nondipole Photoemission from Chiral Enantiomers of Camphor
Bowen, K. P.; Stolte, W. C.; Young, J. A.; Demchenko, I. N.; Guillemin, R.; Hemmers, O.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Lindle, D. W.
2010-03-01
K-shell photoemission from the carbonyl carbon in the chiral molecule camphor has been studied in the region just above the core-shell ionization threshold. Differences between angular distributions of emitted photoelectrons from the two enantiomers are attributed to the influence of chirality combined with nondipole effects in the photoemission process, despite the fact the measurements were taken using linearly polarized x-rays. The results suggest the possibility of a new form of linear dichroism.
Tests of Chiral Perturbation Theory with COMPASS
Friedrich, Jan
2010-01-01
The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS studies with high precision pion-photon induced reactions via the Primakoff effect on nuclear targets. This offers the test of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) in various channels: Pion Compton scattering allows to clarify the long-standing question of the pion polarisabilities, single neutral pion production is related to the chiral anomaly, and for the two-pion production cross sections exist as yet untested ChPT predictions.
Tests of Chiral Perturbation Theory with COMPASS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The COMPASS experiment at CERN studies with high precision pion-photon induced reactions on nuclear targets via the Primakoff effect. This offers the possibility to test chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) in various channels: Pion Compton scattering allows to clarify the longstanding question of the pion polarisabilities, single neutral pion production is related to the chiral anomaly, and for the two-pion production cross sections exist as yet untested ChPT predictions.
Large Enhancement of Circular Dichroism Using an Embossed Chiral Metamaterial
Mousavi, S Hamed Shams; El-Sayed, Mostafa A; Eftekhar, Ali A; Adibi, Ali
2016-01-01
In the close vicinity of a chiral nanostructure, the circular dichroism of a biomolecule could be greatly enhanced, due to the interaction with the local superchiral fields. Modest enhancement of optical activity using a planar metamaterial, with some chiral properties, and achiral nanoparticles has been previously reported. A more substantial chirality enhancement can be achieved in the local filed of a chiral nanostructure with a three-dimensional arrangement. Using an embossed chiral nanostructure designed for chiroptical sensing, we measure the circular dichroism spectra of two biomolecules, Chlorophylls A and B, at the molecular level, using a simple polarization resolved reflection measurement. This experiment is the first realization of the on-resonance surface-enhanced circular dichroism, achieved by matching the chiral resonances of a strongly chiral metamaterial with that of a chiral molecule, resulting in an unprecedentedly large differential CD spectrum from a monolayer of a chiral material.
Bringing chiral optical forces to dominance with optical nanofibers
Alizadeh, M H
2016-01-01
Transverse spin angular momentum (SAM) of light and associated transverse chiral optical forces have received tremendous attention recently as the latter may lead to an optical separation of chiral biomolecules. Previous schemes to generate chiral forces are plagued by the fact that the chiral optical forces are orders of magnitude smaller than conventional gradient and scattering forces. The relative magnitude of chiral and non-chiral forces represents a fundamental challenge for the implementation of chiral separation schemes. In this work we demonstrate that, by spatially separating the maxima of transverse spin density from the gradient of field intensity, in the vicinity of optical nanofibers and nanowires, chiral optical forces can emerge that are stronger than gradient and scattering forces. This finding has important implications for the design of improved optical separation schemes for chiral biomolecules.