Sample records for chiral aromatic imines

  1. Chiral magnesium BINOL phosphate-catalyzed phosphination of imines: access to enantioenriched α-amino phosphine oxides. (United States)

    Ingle, Gajendrasingh K; Liang, Yuxue; Mormino, Michael G; Li, Guilong; Fronczek, Frank R; Antilla, Jon C


    A new method to synthesize chiral α-amino phosphine oxides is reported. The reaction combines N-substituted imines and diphenylphosphine oxide and is catalyzed by a chiral magnesium phosphate salt. A wide variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldimines substituted by electron-neutral benzhydryl or dibenzocycloheptene groups were excellent substrates for the addition reaction. The dibenzocycloheptene protected imines afforded improved enantioselectivity in the resulting products. Substituted diphenylphosphine oxide nucleophiles also showed good reactivity. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Chiral Magnesium BINOL Phosphate-Catalyzed Phosphination of Imines: Access to Enantioenriched α-Amino Phosphine Oxides (United States)

    Ingle, Gajendrasingh K.; Liang, Yuxue; Mormino, Michael G.; Li, Guilong; Fronczek, Frank R.; Antilla, Jon C.


    A new method to synthesize chiral α-amino phosphine oxides is reported. The reaction combines N-substituted imines and diphenylphosphine oxide, and is catalyzed by a chiral magnesium phosphate salt. A wide variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldimines substituted by electron neutral benzhydryl or dibenzocycloheptene groups were excellent substrates for the addition reaction. The dibenzocycloheptene protected imines afforded improved enantioselectivity in the resulting products. Substituted diphenylphosphine oxide nucleophiles also showed good reactivity. PMID:21413695

  3. Asymmetric Imine Isomerisation in the Enantioselective Synthesis of Chiral Amines from Prochiral Ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Johannes G.H.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Zwanenburg, Binne


    An asymmetric catalytic synthesis of chiral amines using a chiral base catalysed [1,3]-proton shift reaction of imines is described. The isomerisation reaction of N-benzylimines derived from prochiral ketones (benzylacetone, acetophenone) and p-substituted benzylamines, is catalysed by chiral

  4. Asymmetric aza-Diels-Alder reaction of Danishefsky's diene with imines in a chiral reaction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pégot Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract The asymmetric aza-Diels-Alder reaction of chiral imines with Danishefsky's diene in chiral ionic liquids provides the corresponding cycloadduct with moderate to high diastereoselectivity. The reaction has proved to perform better at room temperature in ionic liquids without either Lewis acid catalyst or organic solvent. Chiral ionic liquids are recycled while their efficiency is preserved.

  5. Stereoselective Reduction of Imines with Trichlorosilane Using Solid-Supported Chiral Picolinamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia D. Fernandes


    Full Text Available The stereoselective reduction of imines with trichlorosilane catalyzed by chiral Lewis bases is a well-established procedure for the synthesis of enantio-enriched amines. Five supported cinchona-based picolinamides have been prepared and their activity tested in a model reaction. The comparison of different supporting materials revealed that polystyrene gave better results than silica in terms of stereoselectivity. The applicability of the solid-supported catalyst of choice to the reduction of different imines was also demonstrated. Additionally, for the first time, a catalytic reactor containing a polymer-immobilized chiral picolinamide has been employed for the stereoselective reduction of imines with trichlorosilane under continuous flow conditions.

  6. Chiral Bis(ImidazolidinePyridine-Cu Complex-Catalyzed Enantioselective [3+2]-Cycloaddition of Azomethine Imines with Propiolates

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    Yuta Ogino


    Full Text Available [3+2] Cycloaddition of azomethine imines with electron-deficient terminal alkynes was smoothly catalyzed by a chiral bis(imidazolidinepyridine-CuOAc complex to give bicyclic pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazolone derivatives with up to 74% ee.

  7. Aromatic C-H addition of ketones to imines enabled by manganese catalysis. (United States)

    Zhou, Bingwei; Hu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ting; Wang, Congyang


    Selectivity control of varied C-H bonds in a complex molecule is a long-standing goal and still a great challenge in C-H activation field. Most often, such selectivity is achieved by the innate reactivity of different C-H bonds. In this context, the classic Mannich reaction of acetophenone derivatives and imines is ascribed to the more reactive C(sp(3))-H bonds α to the carbonyl, with the much less reactive aromatic C(sp(2))-H bonds remaining intact. Herein we report an aromatic C(sp(2))-H addition of ketones to imines enabled by manganese catalysis, which totally reverses the innate reactivity of C-H bonds α to the carbonyl and those on the aromatic ring. Diverse products of ortho-C-H aminoalkylated ketones, cyclized exo-olefinic isoindolines, and three-component methylated isoindolines can be successfully accessed under mild reaction conditions, which significantly expands the synthetic utilities of ketones as simple bulk chemicals.

  8. Induced chirality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous bile salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Williamson, C.K.; McGown, L.B. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))


    We will discuss the effects of organized bile salt phases on the chirality of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as investigated by transmission circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence-detected circular dichroism (FDCD). Amphiphilic bile salt monomers form chiral micellar aggregates and should induce interesting changes in the chirality of the PAH probes. The high sensitivity of FDCD allows us to examine the effects of the organized bile salt media on the probe molecule over a large range of concentrations both above and below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the bile salt. The use of chiral bile salt media for FDCD determination of fluorescent analytes will be discussed.

  9. Crystal structures of three mercury(II complexes [HgCl2L] where L is a bidentate chiral imine ligand

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    Guadalupe Hernández


    Full Text Available The crystal structures of three complexes [HgCl2L] were determined, namely, (S-(+-dichlorido[1-phenyl-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneethylamine-κ2N,N′]mercury(II, [HgCl2(C14H14N2], (S-(+-dichlorido[1-(4-methylphenyl-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneethylamine-κ2N,N′]mercury(II, [HgCl2(C15H16N2], and (1S,2S,3S,5R-(+-dichlorido[N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneisopinocampheylamine-κ2N,N′]mercury(II, [HgCl2(C16H22N2]. The complexes consist of a bidentate chiral imine ligand coordinating to HgCl2 and crystallize with four independent molecules in the first complex and two independent molecules in the other two. The coordination geometry of mercury is tetrahedral, with strong distortion towards a disphenoidal geometry, as a consequence of the imine bite angle being close to 70°. The Cl—Hg—Cl angles span a large range, 116.0 (2–138.3 (3°, which is related to the aggregation state in the crystals. For small Cl—Hg—Cl angles, complexes have a tendency to form dimers, via intermolecular Hg...Cl contacts. These contacts become less significant in the third complex, which features the largest intramolecular Cl—Hg—Cl angles.

  10. Diastereoselective Addition of α-Metalated Sulfoxides to Imines Revisited: Mechanism, Computational Studies, and the Effect of External Chiral Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian; Rein, Tobias; Søtofte, Inger


    six-membered "flat chair") was probed by quantum mechanical calculations, which underpinned the idea of using external chiral ligands to enhance the diastereoselectivity of otherwise moderately selective reactions. In this way, the diastereomeric ratio of the product 3a could be raised from (84 : 16...

  11. Poly-cross-linked PEI through aromatically conjugated imine linkages as a new class of pH-responsive nucleic acids packing cationic polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun eChen


    Full Text Available Cationic polyimines polymerized through aromatically conjugated bis-imine linkages and intra-molecular cross-linking were found to be a new class of effective transfection materials for their flexibility in structural optimization, responsiveness to intracellular environment, the ability to facilitate endosome escape and cytosol release of the nucleic acids, as well as self-metabolism. When three phthalaldehydes of different substitution positions were used to polymerize highly branched low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI-1.8K, the product through ortho-phthalimines (named PPOP showed significantly higher transfection activity than its two tere- and iso-analogues (named PPTP and PPIP. Physicochemical characterization confirmed the similarity of three polyimines in pH-responded degradability, buffer capacity, as well as the size and Zeta potential of the polyplexes formed from the polymers. A mechanistic speculation may be that the ortho-positioned bis-imine linkage of PPOP may only lead to the straight trans-configuration due to steric hindrance, resulting in larger loops of intra-polymer cross-linking and more flexible backbone.

  12. Different NMR approaches to the chiral analysis of trisubstituted allenes devoid of polar functional groups and aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, G; Balzano, F; Salvadori, P; Lazzaroni, R; Caporusso, A M; Menicagli, R


    The use of permethylated beta-cyclodextrin as chiral solvating agent for NMR spectroscopy allowed us to determine the enantiomeric purity of chiral aromatic hydrocarbons as well as the enantiomeric purity and absolute configuration of chiral trisubstituted allenes devoid of polar functional groups. The enantiomeric excesses of the trisubstituted allenes have been also determined by 195Pt NMR spectroscopy of the diastereoisomeric trans-dichloro[(S)-alpha-phenylethyl-amine](allene)Pt(II) complexes.

  13. Synthesis and crystal structure of a chiral aromatic amine chloride salt (C8H12N)Cl (United States)

    Ben Salah, A. M.; Naїli, H.; Mhiri, T.; Bataille, T.


    The new organic chloride salt incorporating an aromatic primary amine with a chiral functional group, (S)-α-methylbenzylammonium), has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystals are trigonal with non-centrosymmetric sp. gr. R3. The crystal packing is determined by N-H···Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H···π interactions between the aromatic rings of the organic moieties, resulting in supramolecular architecture.

  14. Tren-Capped Hexaphyrin Zinc Complexes: Interplaying Molecular Recognition, Möbius Aromaticity, and Chirality. (United States)

    Ruffin, Hervé; Nyame Mendendy Boussambe, Gildas; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent; Boitrel, Bernard; Le Gac, Stéphane


    Over the past decade, the hexaphyrin skeleton has emerged as a multifaceted frame exhibiting strong interplay between topology, aromaticity, and metal coordination, opening new research areas beyond porphyrins. However, molecular recognition with hexaphyrins has been underexplored, mainly because of the lack of general synthetic strategies leading to sophisticated molecular hosts. Here we have developed a straightforward approach for capping the heteroannulene frame with tripodal units (e.g., tris(2-aminoethyl)amine [tren]) through postsynthetic modification of a readily accessible meso-(2-aminophenyl) tris-substituted platform. The resulting tren-capped hexaphyrins, obtained in three steps from a 5-(aryl)dipyrromethane precursor, display remarkable features: (i) Considering the 28π-conjugated system, instantaneous and site-selective Zn(II) metalation at the level of a dipyrrin versus tren unit triggers a planar-to-singly twisted conformational change and hence a Hückel antiaromatic-to-Möbius aromatic transformation. In spite of the tripodal linkage, a smooth twist and efficient π overlap are preserved. (ii) Selective and cooperative binding of both an acetato ligand and an amino ligand to zinc occurs in distinct confined environments, reminiscent of substrate discrimination at the buried metal centers of metalloenzymes. The ligand binding pockets are allosterically tuned by monoprotonation of the tren unit. (iii) Substantial chiral induction of the molecular twist is achieved using chiral amino ligands (diastereomeric excess up to 77%, the highest reported to date for a Möbius compound), to which is associated a strong chiroptical signature in circular dichroism. These results provide unprecedented insights into molecular recognition with hexaphyrins, paving the way to innovative Möbius-type molecular hosts for sensing and catalysis.

  15. Chiral Organic Cages with a Triple-Stranded Helical Structure Derived from Helicene. (United States)

    Malik, Abaid Ullah; Gan, Fuwei; Shen, Chengshuo; Yu, Na; Wang, Ruibin; Crassous, Jeanne; Shu, Mouhai; Qiu, Huibin


    We report the use of helicene with an intrinsic helical molecular structure to prepare covalent organic cages via imine condensation. The organic cages revealed a [3+2]-type architecture containing a triple-stranded helical structure with three helicene units arranged in a propeller-like fashion with the framework integrally twisted. Such structural chirality was retained upon dissolution in organic solvents, as indicated by a strong diastereotopy effect in proton NMR and unique Cotton effects in circular dichroism spectra. Further study on chiral adsorption showed that the chiral organic cages possess considerable enantioselectivity toward a series of aromatic racemates.

  16. The generation of stationary π-electron rotations in chiral aromatic ring molecules possessing non-degenerate excited states. (United States)

    Yamaki, Masahiro; Teranishi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Lin, Sheng Hsien; Fujimura, Yuichi


    The electron angular momentum is a fundamental quantity of high-symmetry aromatic ring molecules and finds many applications in chemistry such as molecular spectroscopy. The stationary angular momentum or unidirectional rotation of π electrons is generated by the excitation of a degenerated electronic excited state by a circularly-polarized photon. For low-symmetry aromatic ring molecules having non-degenerate states, such as chiral aromatic ring molecules, on the other hand, whether stationary angular momentum can be generated or not is uncertain and has not been clarified so far. We have found by both theoretical treatments and quantum optimal control (QOC) simulations that a stationary angular momentum can be generated even from a low-symmetry aromatic ring molecule. The generation mechanism can be explained in terms of the creation of a dressed-state, and the maximum angular momentum is generated by the dressed state with an equal contribution from the relevant two excited states in a simple three-electronic state model. The dressed state is formed by inducing selective nonresonant transitions between the ground and each excited state by two lasers with the same frequency but having different polarization directions. The selective excitation can be carried out by arranging each photon-polarization vector orthogonal to the electronic transition moment of the other transition. We have successfully analyzed the results of the QOC simulations of (P)-2,2'-biphenol of axial chirality in terms of the analytically determined optimal laser fields. The present findings may open up new types of chemical dynamics and spectroscopy by utilizing strong stationary ring currents and current-induced magnetic fields, which are created at a local site of large compounds such as biomolecules.

  17. Facile synthesis of (S)-beta-hydroxy-beta-trichloromethylated aromatic ketones by the regioselective ring cleavage of chiral beta-trichloromethyl-beta-propiolactone under the Friedel-Crafts conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, T; Ito, T; Fujimoto, K; Shimizu, M; Wynberg, H; Staring, EGJ


    The reaction of enantiomerically pure beta-trichloromethyl-beta-propiolactone (1) as a chiral building block with an aromatic compound in the presence of Lewis acid provided an acylated product with a chiral trichloromethyl carbinol moiety. The acylated product was used as an effective chiral

  18. Enantioselective Synthesis of Isoquinolines: Merging Chiral-Phosphine and Gold Catalysis. (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Ning; Shi, Feng-Chen; Xu, Qin; Shi, Min


    The highly enantioselective synthesis of dihydroisoquinoline derivatives from aromatic sulfonated imines tethered with an alkyne moiety, through a one-pot asymmetric relay catalysis of chiral-phosphine and gold catalysts, is reported. Enantiomerically enriched dihydroisoquinoline derivatives were afforded in good yields and good-to-excellent ee values under mild conditions, based on the asymmetric aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction. Dihydroisoquinoline derivatives containing two chiral centers were also synthesized through further transformations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Construction of chiral polyesters from polycondensation of multifunctional monomer containing both flexible amino acid and rigid pendant groups with aromatic diols. (United States)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Khani, Marziyeh


    A number of chiral wholly aromatic polyesters (PEs) with phthalimido and flexible chiral unit in the backbone were prepared from a chiral synthesized diacid monomer, 5-(3-methyl-2-phthalimidylpentanoylamino)isophthalic acid (1), and various aromatic diols via the polyesterification reaction. The tosyl chloride/pyridine/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) system was used as a condensing agent. All of the these polymers having bulky phthalimido and amino acid functionalities in the side chain showed excellent solubility and readily dissolved in various solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, N,N-dimethylacetamide and DMF. Since, these chiral polymers have natural amino acids in the polymer architecture, they are expected to be biodegradable and therefore may be classified under eco-friendly polymers. They had useful levels of thermal stability associated with excellent solubility. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the obtained PEs are rather thermally stable, 10% weight loss temperatures in excess of 317 degrees C, and char yields at 700 degrees C in the nitrogen atmosphere higher than 24%. The resulting polymers were obtained in good yields with inherent viscosities ranging between 0.22 and 0.56 dL/g and were characterized with FT-IR, 1H-NMR, elemental and TGA techniques.

  20. Non-Markovian response of ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents in chiral aromatic molecules in a condensed phase (United States)

    Mineo, H.; Lin, S. H.; Fujimura, Y.; Xu, J.; Xu, R. X.; Yan, Y. J.


    Results of a theoretical study on non-Markov response for femtosecond laser-driven coherent ring currents in chiral aromatic molecules embedded in a condensed phase are presented. Coherent ring currents are generated by coherent excitation of a pair of quasi-degenerated π-electronic excited states. The coherent electronic dynamical behaviors are strongly influenced by interactions between the electronic system and phonon bath in a condensed phase. Here, the bath correlation time is not instantaneous but should be taken to be a finite time in ultrashort time-resolved experiments. In such a case, Markov approximation breaks down. A hierarchical master equation approach for an improved semiclassical Drude dissipation model was adopted to examine the non-Markov effects on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents of (P)-2,2'-biphenol in a condensed phase. Time evolution of the coherent ring current derived in the hierarchical master equation approach was calculated and compared with those in the Drude model in the Markov approximation and in the static limit. The results show how non-Markovian behaviors in quantum beat signals of ring currents depend on the Drude bath damping constant. Effects of temperatures on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents are also clarified.

  1. Chiral pinwheel clusters lacking local point chirality. (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Shao, Ting-Na; Xie, Jia-Le; Lan, Meng; Yuan, Hong-Kuan; Xiong, Zu-Hong; Wang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Xue, Qi-Kun


    The supramolecular pinwheel cluster is a unique chiral structure with evident handedness. Previous studies reveal that the chiral pinwheels are composed of chiral or achiral molecules with polar groups, which result in strong intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen-bonding or dipole interactions. Herein, it is shown that the simple linear aromatic molecule, pentacene, can be self-assembled into large chiral pinwheel clusters on the semimetal Bi(111) surface, due to enhanced intermolecular interactions. The pentacene pinwheels reveal two levels of organizational chirality: the chiral hexamers resulting from asymmetric shifting along the long molecular axis, and chiral arrangement of six hexamers with a rotor motif. Furthermore, a new relation between the local point chirality and organizational chirality is identified from the pinwheels: the former is not essential for the latter in 2D pinwheel clusters of the pentacene molecule. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Catalytic Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines: Recent Advances. (United States)

    Foubelo, Francisco; Yus, Miguel


    In this review article recent developments in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines from 2008 up to today are presented. The main methodology involves either metal-catalyzed procedures in the presence of a chiral ligand or organocatalyzed technologies using a Hantzsch ester and a chiral BINOL-derived phosphoric acid. The most important procedures are collected, paying special attention to the application of this methodology in synthetic organic chemistry. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamic imine chemistry. (United States)

    Belowich, Matthew E; Stoddart, J Fraser


    Formation of an imine--from an amine and an aldehyde--is a reversible reaction which operates under thermodynamic control such that the formation of kinetically competitive intermediates are, in the fullness of time, replaced by the thermodynamically most stable product(s). For this fundamental reason, the imine bond has emerged as an extraordinarily diverse and useful one in the hands of synthetic chemists. Imine bond formation is one of a handful of reactions which define a discipline known as dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC), which is now employed widely in the construction of exotic molecules and extended structures on account of the inherent 'proof-reading' and 'error-checking' associated with these reversible reactions. While both supramolecular chemistry and DCC operate under the regime of reversibility, DCC has the added advantage of constructing robust molecules on account of the formation of covalent bonds rather than fragile supermolecules resulting from noncovalent bonding interactions. On the other hand, these products tend to require more time to form--sometimes days or even months--but their formation can often be catalysed. In this manner, highly symmetrical molecules and extended structures can be prepared from relatively simple precursors. When DCC is utilised in conjunction with template-directed protocols--which rely on the use of noncovalent bonding interactions between molecular building blocks in order to preorganise them into certain relative geometries as a prelude to the formation of covalent bonds under equilibrium control--an additional level of control of structure and topology arises which offers a disarmingly simple way of constructing mechanically-interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes, catenanes, Borromean rings, and Solomon knots. This tutorial review focuses on the use of dynamic imine bonds in the construction of compounds and products formed with and without the aid of additional templates. While synthesis under thermodynamic

  4. Chiral multichromic single crystals for optical devices (LDRD 99406).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Richard Alan; Felix, Ana M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)


    This report summarizes our findings during the study of a novel system that yields multi-colored materials as products. This system is quite unusual as it leads to multi-chromic behavior in single crystals, where one would expect that only a single color would exist. We have speculated that these novel solids might play a role in materials applications such as non-linear optics, liquid crystal displays, piezoelectric devices, and other similar applications. The system examined consisted of a main-group alkyl compound (a p block element such as gallium or aluminum) complexed with various organic di-imines. The di-imines had substituents of two types--either alkyl or aromatic groups attached to the nitrogen atoms. We observed that single crystals, characterized by X-ray crystallography, were obtained in most cases. Our research during January-July, 2006, was geared towards understanding the factors leading to the multi-chromic nature of the complexes. The main possibilities put forth initially considered (a) the chiral nature of the main group metal, (b) possible reduction of the metal to a lower-valent, radical state, (c) the nature of the ligand(s) attached to the main group metal, and (d) possible degradation products of the ligand leading to highly-colored products. The work carried out indicates that the most likely explanation considered involves degradation of the aromatic ligands (a combination of (c) and (d)), as the experiments performed can clearly rule out (a) and (b).

  5. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul


    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b...

  6. Chiral phosphines in nucleophilic organocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Xiao


    Full Text Available This review discusses the tertiary phosphines possessing various chiral skeletons that have been used in asymmetric nucleophilic organocatalytic reactions, including annulations of allenes, alkynes, and Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH acetates, carbonates, and ketenes with activated alkenes and imines, allylic substitutions of MBH acetates and carbonates, Michael additions, γ-umpolung additions, and acylations of alcohols.

  7. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O.


    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (Kb), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated Kb and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81 × 10- 7 M for anthracene and 3.48 × 10- 8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a

  8. Dynamic kinetic asymmetric ring-opening/reductive amination sequence of racemic nitroepoxides with chiral amines: enantioselective synthesis of chiral vicinal diamines. (United States)

    Agut, Juan; Vidal, Andreu; Rodríguez, Santiago; González, Florenci V


    We report a highly diastereoselective synthesis of vicinal diamines by the treatment of nitroepoxides with primary amines and then a reducing agent. When using a chiral primary amine, racemic nitroepoxides are transformed into chiral diamines as a single enantiomers (>95:5 er) through a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT). The overall process is a one-pot procedure combining the exposure of nitroepoxides to chiral amines to afford diastereomeric mixtures of aminoimines and subsequent stereoselective imine reduction.

  9. Organocatalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Mrsic, Natasa; Mršić, Nataša


    The asymmetric organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation of imines can be accomplished in good yields with high enantioselectivities through the use of BINOL-derived phosphoric acids as catalysts and Hantzsch esters or benzothiazoles as the hydride source. The same method can also be applied to the

  10. Chiral photochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshihisa


    Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S

  11. Chiral algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Beilinson, Alexander


    Chiral algebras form the primary algebraic structure of modern conformal field theory. Each chiral algebra lives on an algebraic curve, and in the special case where this curve is the affine line, chiral algebras invariant under translations are the same as well-known and widely used vertex algebras. The exposition of this book covers the following topics: the "classical" counterpart of the theory, which is an algebraic theory of non-linear differential equations and their symmetries; the local aspects of the theory of chiral algebras, including the study of some basic examples, such as the ch

  12. Computer-Assisted Design and Synthetic Applications of Chiral Enol Borinates: Novel, Highly Enantioselective Aldol Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennari Cesare


    Full Text Available We have recently described the development of a quantitative transition state model for the prediction of stereoselectivity in the boron-mediated aldol reaction. This model provides qualitative insights into the factors contributing to the stereochemical outcome of a variety of reactions of synthetic importance. The force field model was used to assist the design and preparation of new chiral boron ligands derived from menthone. The chiral boron enolates were employed in various stereoselective processes, including the addition to chiral aldehydes and the reagent-controlled total synthesis of (3S,4S-statine. The chiral enolates derived from alpha-halo and alpha-oxysubstituted thioacetates were added to aldehydes and imines. Addition to imines leads to the enantioselective synthesis of chiral aziridines, a formal total synthesis of (+-thiamphenicol, and a new highly efficient synthesis of the paclitaxel (taxol® C-13 side-chain and taxol semisynthesis from baccatin III. The stereochemical outcome of the addition to imines was rationalised with the aid of computational studies. Enantioselective addition reactions of the chiral boron enolate derived from thioacetate have successfully been applied to solid phase bound aldehydes to give aldol products in comparable yields and enantioselectivities to the usual solution conditions.

  13. Chiral plasmonics (United States)

    Hentschel, Mario; Schäferling, Martin; Duan, Xiaoyang; Giessen, Harald; Liu, Na


    We present a comprehensive overview of chirality and its optical manifestation in plasmonic nanosystems and nanostructures. We discuss top-down fabricated structures that range from solid metallic nanostructures to groupings of metallic nanoparticles arranged in three dimensions. We also present the large variety of bottom-up synthesized structures. Using DNA, peptides, or other scaffolds, complex nanoparticle arrangements of up to hundreds of individual nanoparticles have been realized. Beyond this static picture, we also give an overview of recent demonstrations of active chiral plasmonic systems, where the chiral optical response can be controlled by an external stimulus. We discuss the prospect of using the unique properties of complex chiral plasmonic systems for enantiomeric sensing schemes. PMID:28560336

  14. Cyclic imines evaluation in European commercial shellfish samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambla, Maria; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Miles, Christopher O.

    Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have n...

  15. Enhanced reactivities toward amines by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand: Direct coupling of two amines to form an imine without oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    He, Lipeng


    Dehydrogenative homocoupling of primary alcohols to form esters and coupling of amines to form imines was accomplished using a class of novel pincer ruthenium complexes. The reactivities of the ruthenium pincer complexes for the direct coupling of amines to form imines were enhanced by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand. Selective oxidation of benzylamines to imines was achieved using aniline derivatives as the substrate and solvent. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Genotoxicity of poly(propylene imine) dendrimers. (United States)

    Ziemba, Barbara; Matuszko, Gabriela; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Bryszewska, Maria; Klajnert, Barbara


    Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules with the potential in biomedical applications. Due to positively charged surfaces, several dendrimers reveal toxicity. Coating peripheral cationic groups with carbohydrate residues can reduce it. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three types of 4th generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers were investigated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with uncoated (PPI-g4) dendrimers, and dendrimers in which approximately 40% or 90% of peripheral amino groups were coated with maltotriose (PPI-g4-OS or PPI-g4-DS) at concentration of 0.05, 0.5, 5 mg/ml. Abbreviations OS and DS stand for open shell and dense shell respectively, that describes the structure of carbohydrate modified dendrimers. After 1 h of cell incubation at 37°C, the MTT and comet assays were performed. PPI dendrimers demonstrated surface-modification-degree dependent toxicity, although genotoxicity of PPI-g4 and PPI-g4-OS measured by the comet assay was concentration dependent up to 0.5 mg/ml and at 5 mg/ml the amount of DNA that left comet's head decreased. Results may suggest a strong interaction between dendrimers and DNA, and furthermore, that coating PPI dendrimers by maltoriose is an efficient method to reduce their genotoxicity what opens the possibilities to use them as therapeutic agents or drug carriers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Structural studies of mesogenic orthopalladated imine derivatives (United States)

    Ciriano, M. A.; Espinet, P.; Lalinde, E.; Ros, M. B.; Serrano, J. L.


    Structural studies by 1H NMR of 12 orthopalladated complexes of the type: {Pd 2(μ-Y) 2(C 10H 21OC 6H 4C(X)NC 6H 4R) 2} (XH, CH 3; YOCOCH 3, Cl, Br, SCN; ROC 10H 21, C 10H 21) are reported. Although in all cases only the trans isomers of these complexes have been observed, the presence of other types of isomerism has been detected. Thus, the thiocyanate complexes show isomers arising from the relative disposition of the asymmetrical bridging ligands, whereas the acetato-bridged complexes must be a mixture of the D and L enantiomers due to their rigid open-book shape. From the results of different spectroscopic studies (low temperature and selective decoupling) carried out on the ketone-derived imine complex {Pd 2(μ-OCOCH 3) 2(C 10H 21OC 6H 4C(CH 3)NC 6H 4C 10H 21) 2} we suggest that a structural distortion due to steric hindrances exists for this compound.

  18. Punctuated Chirality


    Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel; Walker, Sara Imari


    Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively levorotatory (L) amino acids, while only dextrorotatory (R) sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high int...

  19. Chiral streamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lu, Xinpei, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O. Box 218, Sydney, New South Wales 2070 (Australia)


    The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.

  20. Chiral Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nitti


    Full Text Available Organic nanotubes, as assembled nanospaces, in which to carry out host–guest chemistry, reversible binding of smaller species for transport, sensing, storage or chemical transformation purposes, are currently attracting substantial interest, both as biological ion channel mimics, or for addressing tailored material properties. Nature’s materials and machinery are universally asymmetric, and, for chemical entities, controlled asymmetry comes from chirality. Together with carbon nanotubes, conformationally stable molecular building blocks and macrocycles have been used for the realization of organic nanotubes, by means of their assembly in the third dimension. In both cases, chiral properties have started to be fully exploited to date. In this paper, we review recent exciting developments in the synthesis and assembly of chiral nanotubes, and of their functional properties. This review will include examples of either molecule-based or macrocycle-based systems, and will try and rationalize the supramolecular interactions at play for the three-dimensional (3D assembly of the nanoscale architectures.

  1. Deracemization of Racemic Amino Acids Using (R)- and (S)-Alanine Racemase Chiral Analogues as Chiral Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Manjeong [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, So Hee; Lee, Wonjae [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong Seong [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwan Mook [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Our findings show that both (R)- and (S)-ARCA can be practical chiral converters for L- and D-amino acids, respectively, in the deracemization of racemic amino acids. The overall stereoselectivities of both chiral converters are generally greater than 90%. In addition, we developed chiral and achiral HPLC methods for the analysis of stereoselectivity determination. This chromatographic method proved much more accurate and convenient at determining both enantiomer and diastereomer purity than did those previously reported. Deracemization is the stereoselective process of converting a racemate into either a pure enantiomer or a mixture in which one enantiomer is present in excess.1 Previous studies have shown that (S)-alanine racemase chiral analogue (ARCA) [(S)-2-hydroxy-2'-(3-phenyluryl-benzyl)-1,1'-binaphthyl-3-carboxaldehyde], developed as a chiral convertor compound that imitates the function of alanine racemase, plays an essential role in the stereoselective conversion of amino acid. Since (S)-ARCA showed a higher stability with D-amino acids than with L-amino acids, several L-amino acids were preferentially converted to D-amino acids via (S)-ARCA/D-amino acid imine diastereomer formation. For the deracemization process undertaken in this study, we utilized both (R)-ARCA and (S)-ARCA as chiral converters, which were expected to generate L- and D-amino acids, respectively, from the starting racemic mixtures.

  2. Hydride, hydrogen, proton, and electron affinities of imines and their reaction intermediates in acetonitrile and construction of thermodynamic characteristic graphs (TCGs) of imines as a "molecule ID card". (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Qiao-Yun; Chen, Qiang; Mei, Lian-Rui


    A series of 61 imines with various typical structures were synthesized, and the thermodynamic affinities (defined as enthalpy changes or redox potentials in this work) of the imines to abstract hydride anions, hydrogen atoms, and electrons, the thermodynamic affinities of the radical anions of the imines to abstract hydrogen atoms and protons, and the thermodynamic affinities of the hydrogen adducts of the imines to abstract electrons in acetonitrile were determined by using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The pure heterolytic and homolytic dissociation energies of the C=N pi-bond in the imines were estimated. The polarity of the C=N double bond in the imines was examined using a linear free-energy relationship. The idea of a thermodynamic characteristic graph (TCG) of imines as an efficient "Molecule ID Card" was introduced. The TCG can be used to quantitatively diagnose and predict the characteristic chemical properties of imines and their various reaction intermediates as well as the reduction mechanism of the imines. The information disclosed in this work could not only supply a gap of thermodynamics for the chemistry of imines but also strongly promote the fast development of the applications of imines.

  3. Catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reactions of unactivated acyclic 1,3-dienes with aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkyl-substituted imines. (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yasuo; Nantaku, Shuuto; Nishimura, Yuhki; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Sekikaw, Tohru


    A catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated acyclic dienes with aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkyl-substituted imines is described. With 5-10 mol% loadings of a new Brønsted acid catalyst, the aza-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated acyclic dienes proceeded to give the corresponding aza-Diels-Alder adducts in high yields (up to 98%) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee). Preliminary DFT calculations suggest that the reaction proceeds through a chiral ion pair intermediate.

  4. High Pressure Diels Alder Reactions of 1-Vinyl-2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexene Catalyzed by Chiral Lewis Acids; An Enantioselective Route to a Drimane Sesquiterpene Precursor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Joop; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Bernard


    The Diels Alder reaction of 1-vinyl-2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexene and 3-((E)-3-(methoxycarbonyl)propenoyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one under high pressure, catalyzed by a chiral bis-imine copper(II) complex, yields a drimane sesquiterpene precursor in a highly regio- and diastereoselective manner with

  5. Dynamical Local Chirality and Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei


    We present some of the reasoning and results substantiating the notion that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) in QCD is encoded in local chiral properties of Dirac eigenmodes. Such association is possible when viewing chirality as a dynamical effect, measured with respect to the benchmark of statistically independent left-right components. Following this rationale leads to describing local chiral behavior by a taylor-made correlation, namely the recently introduced correlation coefficient of polarization C_A. In this language, correlated modes (C_A>0) show dynamical preference for local chirality while anti-correlated modes (C_A<0) favor anti-chirality. Our conclusion is that SChSB in QCD can be viewed as dominance of low-energy correlation (chirality) over anti-correlation (anti-chirality) of Dirac sea. The spectral range of local chirality, chiral polarization scale Lambda_ch, is a dynamically generated scale in the theory associated with SChSB. One implication of these findings is briefly dis...

  6. Well-defined silica-supported zirconium–imido complexes mediated heterogeneous imine metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel


    Upon prolonged thermal exposure under vacuum, a well-defined single-site surface species [(≡Si-O-)Zr(NEt2)3] (1) evolves into an ethylimido complex [(≡Si-O-)Zr(=NEt)NEt2] (2). Reactions of 2 with an imine substrate result in imido/imine (=NRi, R: Et, Ph) exchange (metathesis) with the formation of [(≡Si-O-)Zr(=NPh)NEt2] (3). Compounds 2 and 3 effectively catalyze imine/imine cross-metathesis and are thus considered as the first heterogeneous catalysts active for imine metathesis. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  7. Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures. (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; de Moura, André F; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A


    The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of individual nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others. Multiple chiral geometries were observed with characteristic scales from ångströms to microns. Uniquely high values of chiral anisotropy factors that spurred the development of the field and differentiate it from chiral structures studied before, are now well understood; they originate from strong resonances of incident electromagnetic waves with plasmonic and excitonic states typical for metals and semiconductors. At the same time, distinct similarities with chiral supramolecular and biological systems also emerged. They can be seen in the synthesis and separation methods, chemical properties of individual NPs, geometries of the nanoparticle assemblies, and interactions with biological membranes. Their analysis can help us understand in greater depth the role of chiral asymmetry in nature inclusive of both earth and space. Consideration of both differences and similarities between chiral inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures will also accelerate the development of technologies based on chiroplasmonic and chiroexcitonic effects. This review will cover both experiment and theory of chiral nanostructures starting with the origin and multiple components of mirror asymmetry of individual NPs and their assemblies. We shall consider four different types of chirality in nanostructures and related physical, chemical, and

  8. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, V.


    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented.

  9. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  10. Enhanced Ionic Conductivity of Poly(Ethylene Imine) Phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senadeera, G.K.R.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen


    The conductivity of mixtures of phosphoric acid with poly(ethylene imine) has been studied, and it was found that the conductivity of such mixtures with high acid content can be enhanced by the addition of highly dispersed silica (fumed silica). At the same time, silica addition increases...... the stiffness of the polymer, and macroscopically solid composites with good proton conductivity can be obtained, without significant degradation of the optical transparency of the polymer electrolyte....

  11. On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica


    In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)

  12. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.


    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  13. Dynamic formation of hybrid peptidic capsules by chiral self-sorting and self-assembly. (United States)

    Jędrzejewska, Hanna; Wierzbicki, Michał; Cmoch, Piotr; Rissanen, Kari; Szumna, Agnieszka


    Owing to their versatility and biocompatibility, peptide-based self-assembled structures constitute valuable targets for complex functional designs. It is now shown that artificial capsules based on β-barrel binding motifs can be obtained by means of dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) and self-assembly. Short peptides (up to tetrapeptides) are reversibly attached to resorcinarene scaffolds. Peptidic capsules are thus selectively formed in either a heterochiral or a homochiral way by simultaneous and spontaneous processes, involving chiral sorting, tautomerization, diastereoselective induction of inherent chirality, and chiral self-assembly. Self-assembly is shown to direct the regioselectivity of reversible chemical reactions. It is also responsible for shifting the tautomeric equilibrium for one of the homochiral capsules. Two different tautomers (keto-enamine hemisphere and enol-imine hemisphere) are observed in this capsule, allowing the structure to adapt for self-assembly. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. cis-2,5-Diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane, a New Chiral Scaffold for Asymmetric Catalysis. (United States)

    Shaw, Subrata; White, James D


    Catalysis of widely used chemical transformations in which the goal is to obtain the product as a pure enantiomer has become a major preoccupation of synthetic organic chemistry over the past three decades. A large number of chiral entities has been deployed to this end, many with considerable success, but one of the simplest and most effective catalytic systems to have emerged from this effort is that based on a chiral diamine, specifically trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane. While there have been attempts to improve upon this scaffold in asymmetric synthesis, few have gained the recognition needed to take their place alongside this classic diamine. The challenge is to design a scaffold that retains the assets of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane while enhancing its intrinsic chirality and maximizing the scope of its applications. It occurred to us that cis-2,5-diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane could be such a scaffold. Synthesis of this diamine in enantiopure form was completed from benzoic acid, and the (1R,2R,4R,5R) enantiomer was used in all subsequent experiments in this laboratory. Condensation of the diamine with various salicyl aldehydes generated imine derivatives which proved to be excellent "salen" ligands for encapsulation of transition and other metals. In total, 12 salen-metal complexes were prepared from this ligand, many of which were crystalline and three of which, along with the ligand itself, yielded to X-ray crystallography. An advantage of this ligand is that it can be tuned sterically or electronically to confer specific catalytic properties on the salen-metal complex, and this feature was used in several applications of our salen-metal complexes in asymmetric synthesis. Thus, replacement of one of the tert-butyl groups in each benzenoid ring of the salen ligand by a methoxy substituent enhanced the catalytic efficiency of a cobalt(II)-salen complex used in asymmetric cyclopropanation of 1,1-disubstituted alkenes; the catalyst was employed in an improved

  15. Mechanical separation of chiral dipoles by chiral light

    CERN Document Server

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W


    Optical forces take on a specific form when involving chiral light fields interacting with chiral objects. We show that optical chirality density and flow can have mechanical effects through reactive and dissipative components of chiral forces exerted on chiral dipoles. Remarkably, these force components are directly related to standard observables: optical rotation and circular dichroism, respectively. As a consequence, resulting forces and torques are dependent on the enantiomeric form of the chiral dipole. This leads to promising strategies for the mechanical separation of chiral objects using chiral light forces.

  16. Chiral separation of new designer drugs (Cathinones) on chiral ion-exchange type stationary phases. (United States)

    Wolrab, Denise; Frühauf, Peter; Moulisová, Alena; Kuchař, Martin; Gerner, Christopher; Lindner, Wolfgang; Kohout, Michal


    We present the enantioseparation of new designer drugs from the cathinone family on structurally different chiral ion-exchange type stationary phases. A novel strong cation-exchange type chiral stationary phase was synthesized and its performance compared with previously reported ion-exchange type chiral stationary phases. The influence of structural elements of the chiral selectors on their chromatographic performance was studied and the possibilities of tuning chromatographic parameters by varying the polarity of the employed mobile phases were determined. Evidence is provided that a change in mobile phase composition strongly influences the solvation shell of the polarized and polarizable units of the selectors and analytes, as well as ionizable mobile phase additives. Furthermore, the structural features of the selectors (e.g. the size of aromatic units and their substitution pattern) are shown to play a key role in the effective formation of diastereomeric complexes with analytes. Thus, we have achieved the enantioseparation of all test analytes with a mass spectrometry-compatible mobile phase with a chiral strong cation-exchange type stationary phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...

  18. Competitive chiral induction in a 2D molecular assembly: Intrinsic chirality versus coadsorber-induced chirality (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Li, Shu-Ying; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun


    Noncovalently introducing stereogenic information is a promising approach to embed chirality in achiral molecular systems. However, the interplay of the noncovalently introduced chirality with the intrinsic chirality of molecules or molecular aggregations has rarely been addressed. We report a competitive chiral expression of the noncovalent interaction–mediated chirality induction and the intrinsic stereogenic center–controlled chirality induction in a two-dimensional (2D) molecular assembly at the liquid/solid interface. Two enantiomorphous honeycomb networks are formed by the coassembly of an achiral 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid (BIC) derivative and 1-octanol at the liquid/solid interface. The preferential formation of the globally homochiral assembly can be achieved either by using the chiral analog of 1-octanol, (S)-6-methyl-1-octanol, as a chiral coadsorber to induce chirality to the BIC assembly via noncovalent hydrogen bonding or by covalently linking a chiral center in the side chain of BIC. Both the chiral coadsorber and the intrinsically chiral BIC derivative can act as a chiral seeds to induce a preferred handedness in the assembly of the achiral BIC derivatives. Furthermore, the noncovalent interaction–mediated chirality induction can restrain or even overrule the manifestation of the intrinsic chirality of the BIC molecule and dominate the handedness of the 2D molecular coassembly. This study provides insight into the interplay of intrinsically chiral centers and external chiral coadsorbers in the chiral induction, transfer, and amplification processes of 2D molecular assembly.

  19. A highly active cyclometallated iridium catalyst for the hydrogenation of imines. (United States)

    Villa-Marcos, Barbara; Tang, Weijun; Wu, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Jianliang


    A cyclometallated iridium complex containing an imino ligand has been shown to catalyse the hydrogenation of imines. The catalyst is highly active and selective for imino bonds, with a wide variety of imines being hydrogenated in less than 1 hour at a substrate/catalyst (S/C) ratio of 2000 at 20 bar H2 pressure and 75 °C.

  20. The Zinc Mediated Condensation of Amino Acid Esters with Imines to b-Lactams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.


    An experimentally attractive stereoselectie 'one pot' synthesis of beta-lactams is described. This route is based on the zinc mediated condensation of an alpha-amino acid ester with an imine via a zinc ester enolate. Making use of proper substituents in both the amino acid ester and the imine the

  1. Chiral magnetic superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharzeev Dmitri E.


    Full Text Available Materials with charged chiral quasiparticles in external parallel electric and magnetic fields can support an electric current that grows linearly in time, corresponding to diverging DC conductivity. From experimental viewpoint, this “Chiral Magnetic Superconductivity” (CMS is thus analogous to conventional superconductivity. However the underlying physics is entirely different – the CMS does not require a condensate of Cooper pairs breaking the gauge degeneracy, and is thus not accompanied by Meissner effect. Instead, it owes its existence to the (temperature-independent quantum chiral anomaly and the conservation of chirality. As a result, this phenomenon can be expected to survive to much higher temperatures. Even though the chirality of quasiparticles is not strictly conserved in real materials, the chiral magnetic superconductivity should still exhibit itself in AC measurements at frequencies larger than the chirality-flipping rate, and in microstructures of Dirac and Weyl semimetals with thickness below the mean chirality-flipping length that is about 1 – 100 μm. In nuclear physics, the CMS should contribute to the charge-dependent elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions.

  2. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark flavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully ...

  3. Optical chirality breaking in a bilayered chiral metamaterial. (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxing; Fu, Yuegang; Liu, Zhiying; Zhou, Jianhong


    We propose a planar optical bilayered chiral metamaterial, which consists of periodic metallic arrays of two L-shaped structures and a nanorod twisted on both sides of a dielectric slab, to investigate the optical chirality breaking effect by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Even the metamaterial is with chiral symmetry, an optical chirality breaking window in the asymmetric transmission pass band is obtained in chiral metamaterial structure. We analyze the plasmonic mode properties and attribute the mechanism of the optical chirality breaking effect to the plasmonic analogue of EIT. The optical chirality breaking window can be modulated by changing the geometric parameters of the nanorods in the structure.

  4. Chiral Diamine-catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Da-zhen; WU Lu-lu; WANG Yong-mei


    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a simple and commercially available chiral primary diamine (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine(6) and trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) was employed for asymmetric Aldol reaction in i-PrOH at room temperature.A loading of 10%(molar fraction) catalyst 6 with TFA as a cocatalyst could catalyze the Aldol reactions of various ketones or aldehydes with a series of aromatic aldehydes,furnishing Aldol products in moderate to high yields(up to >99%) with enantioselectivities of up to >99% and diastereoselectivities of up to 99:1.

  5. Chiral separation by capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Gübitz, G; Schmid, M G


    The state of art in chiral capillary electrochromatography is reviewed. Chiral separations by capillary electrochromatography were carried out using capillaries packed with chiral stationary phases or achiral stationary phases in combination with a chiral selector added to the mobile phase. Furthermore, the use of open tubular capillaries containing the chiral selector coated to the capillary wall was also reported. Among other separation principles moleculary imprinted polymers represent a challenging approach for chiral capillary electrochromatography. A recent trend is the use of polymeric continuous beds with a chiral selector incorporated.

  6. Aromatic graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, D. K., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Sahoo, S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India)


    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  7. Applications of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarski, R.D.


    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  8. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger


    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  9. Chiral Brownian heat pump


    van den Broek, Martijn; Van den Broeck, Christian


    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  10. Chiral brownian heat pump. (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Van den Broeck, C


    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  11. Chiral Brownian heat pump


    Broek, M. van den; Broeck, C. Van Den


    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  12. Direct high-performance liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of free α-, β- And γ-aminophosphonic acids employing cinchona-based chiral zwitterionic ion exchangers Amino Acid Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargano, Andrea F.G.; Kohout, Michal; Macíková, Pavla; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Lindner, Wolfgang


    We report a chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic enantioseparation method for free α-aminophosphonic, β-aminophosphonic, and γ-aminophosphonic acids, aminohydroxyphosphonic acids, and aromatic aminophosphinic acids with different substitution patterns. Enantioseparation of these synthons

  13. Mixed unsymmetric oxadiazoline and/or imine platinum(II) complexes. (United States)

    Lasri, Jamal; Adília Januário Charmier, M; da Silva, M Fátima C Guedes; Pombeiro, Armando J L


    Iminoacylation of acetone oxime Me(2)C[double bond, length as m-dash]NOH upon reaction with trans-[PtCl(2)(NCCH(2)CO(2)Me)(2)] and [2 + 3] cycloaddition of acyclic nitrone (-)O(+)N(Me) = C(H)(C(6)H(4)Me-4) to a nitrile ligand in lead to the formation of mono-imine trans-[PtCl(2)(imine-a)(NCCH(2)CO(2)Me)] [imine-a = NH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CH(2)CO(2)Me)ON = CMe(2)] and mono-oxadiazoline trans-[PtCl(2)(oxadiazoline-a)(NCCH(2)CO(2)Me)] [oxadiazoline-a = [upper bond 1 start]N[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CH(2)CO(2)Me)ON(Me)C[upper bond 1 end](H)(C(6)H(4)Me-4)] unsymmetric mixed ligand complexes, respectively, as the main products. Reactions of or with acetone oxime , cyclic nitrone (-)O(+)N = CHCH(2)CH(2)C[upper bond 1 end]Me(2) or N,N-diethylhydroxylamine give access, in moderate to good yields, to the unsymmetric mixed ligand oxadiazoline and/or imine complexes trans-[PtCl(2)(oxadiazoline-a)(imine-a)] , trans-[PtCl(2)(oxadiazoline-a)(oxadiazoline-b)] [oxadiazoline-b = [upper bond 1 start]N[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CH(2)CO(2)Me)O[lower bond 1 start]NC[upper bond 1 end](H)CH(2)CH(2)C[lower bond 1 end]Me(2)], trans-[PtCl(2)(imine-a)(imine-b)] [imine-b = NH = C(CH(2)CO(2)Me)ONEt(2)] or trans-[PtCl(2)(imine-a)(oxadiazoline-b)] . The cis mono-imine mixed ligand complex cis-[PtCl(2)(imine-a)(NCCH(2)CO(2)Me)] is the major product from the reaction of cis-[PtCl(2)(NCCH(2)CO(2)Me)(2)] with the oxime , while the di-imine compound cis-[PtCl(2)(imine-a)(2)] is a minor product. Reaction of cis-[PtCl(2)(imine-a)(NCCH(2)CO(2)Me)] with N,N-diethylhydroxylamine or the cyclic nitrone affords, in good yields, the unsymmetric mixed ligand complexes cis-[PtCl(2)(imine-a)(imine-b)] or cis-[PtCl(2)(imine-a)(oxadiazoline-b)] , respectively. All these complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR and (1)H, (13)C and (195)Pt NMR spectroscopies, and FAB(+)-MS. The X-ray structural analysis of trans-[PtCl(2){NH=C(CH(2)CO(2)Me)ON=CMe(2)}(NCCH(2)CO(2)Me)] is also

  14. Influence of a change in helical twisting power of photoresponsive chiral dopants on rotational manipulation of micro-objects on the surface of chiral nematic liquid crystalline films. (United States)

    Thomas, Reji; Yoshida, Yohei; Akasaka, Takehito; Tamaoki, Nobuyuki


    Herein we report a group of five planar chiral molecules as photon-mode chiral switches for the reversible control of the self-assembled superstructures of doped chiral nematic liquid crystals. The chiral switches are composed of an asymmetrically substituted aromatic moiety and a photoisomerizing azobenzene unit connected in a cyclic manner through methylene spacers of varying lengths. All the molecules show conformational restriction in the rotation of the asymmetrically substituted aromatic moiety in both the E and Z states of the azobenzene units resulting in planar chirality with separable enantiomers. Our newly synthesized compounds in pure enantiomeric form show high helical twisting power (HTP) in addition to an improved change in HTP between the E and Z states. The molecule with a diphenylnaphthalene unit shows the highest ever known initial helical twisting power among chiral dopants with planar chirality. In addition to the reversible tuning of reflection colors, we employed the enantiomers of these five compounds in combination with four nematic liquid crystalline hosts to study their properties as molecular machines; the change in HTP of the chiral dopant upon photoisomerization induces rotation of the texture of the liquid crystal surfaces. Importantly, this study has revealed a linear dependence of the ratio of the difference between HTPs before and after irradiation against the absolute value of the initial HTP, not the absolute value of the change in helical twisting power between two states, on the angle of rotation of micro-objects on chiral nematic liquid crystalline films. This study has also revealed that a change in irradiation intensity does not affect the maximum angle of rotation, but it does affect the speed of rotational reorganization of the cholesteric helix. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Chiral Random Matrix Theory and Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damgaard, Poul H, E-mail: [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD has traditionally been inferred indirectly through low-energy theorems and comparison with experiments. Thanks to the understanding of an unexpected connection between chiral Random Matrix Theory and chiral Perturbation Theory, the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD can now be shown unequivocally from first principles and lattice simulations. In these lectures I give an introduction to the subject, starting with an elementary discussion of spontaneous breaking of global symmetries.

  16. Autoamplification of molecular chirality through the induction of supramolecular chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Beierle, John M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.


    The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The

  17. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.


    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  18. Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube (United States)

    Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.


    Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity--unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.

  19. Visible Light Induced Green Transformation of Primary Amines to Imines Using a Silicate Supported Anatase Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifani Zavahir


    Full Text Available Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  20. Can monoatomic xenon become chiral? (United States)

    Bartik, K; El Haouaj, M; Luhmer, M; Collet, A; Reisse, J


    A chiral host, cryptophane-A (1), makes even a monoatomic noble gas chiral. The interaction of xenon and 1 was monitored by (129) Xe NMR and in the presence of a chiral chemical shift reagent. © 2000 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  1. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)


    Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.

  2. A Facile CD Protocol for Rapid Determination of Enantiomeric Excess and Concentration of Chiral Primary Amines (United States)

    Nieto, Sonia; Dragna, Justin M.; Anslyn, Eric V.


    A protocol for the rapid determination of the absolute configuration and enantiomeric excess of α-chiral primary amines with potential applications in asymmetric reaction discovery has been developed. The protocol requires derivatization of α-chiral primary amines via condensation with pyridine carboxaldehyde to quantitatively yield the corresponding imine. The Cu(I) complex with 2,2'-bis (diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-dinaphthyl (BINAP -CuI) with the imine yields a metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer band (MLCT) in the visible region of the circular dichroism spectrum upon binding. Diastereomeric host-guest complexes give CD signals of the same signs, but different amplitudes, allowing for differentiation of enantiomers. Processing the primary optical data from the CD spectrum with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) allows for the determination of absolute configuration and identification of the amines, and processing with a supervised multi-layer perceptron artifical neural network (MLP-ANN) allows for the simultaneous determination of ee and concentration. The primary optical data necessary to determine the ee of unknown samples is obtained in 2 minutes per sample. To demonstrate the utility of the protocol in asymmetric reaction discovery, the ee's and concentrations for an asymmetric metal catalyzed reaction are determined. The potential of the protocol's application in high-throughput screening (HTS) of ee is discussed. PMID:19946914

  3. Towards racemizable chiral organogelators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bin Lin


    Full Text Available A chiral organogelator has been synthesized that can be racemized and self-assembled in apolar solvents whilst at higher concentrations organogels are formed. Field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of bundle fibrils that are able to gelate the solvent. 1H NMR studies showed hydrogen-bond interactions between the peptide head groups of neighbouring organogelator molecules. The enantiomerically pure organogelator can be racemized by the base DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene as was evident from chiral high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

  4. Towards racemizable chiral organogelators. (United States)

    Lin, Jian Bin; Dasgupta, Debarshi; Cantekin, Seda; Schenning, Albertus P H J


    A chiral organogelator has been synthesized that can be racemized and self-assembled in apolar solvents whilst at higher concentrations organogels are formed. Field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of bundle fibrils that are able to gelate the solvent. ¹H NMR studies showed hydrogen-bond interactions between the peptide head groups of neighbouring organogelator molecules. The enantiomerically pure organogelator can be racemized by the base DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene) as was evident from chiral high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

  5. DNA interaction, antimicrobial, anticancer activities and molecular docking study of some new VO(II), Cr(III), Mn(II) and Ni(II) mononuclear chelates encompassing quaridentate imine ligand. (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M; Aboelez, Moustafa O; Hassan Abdel-Mawgoud, Azza A


    The present study was conducted to synthesis of some new imine Cr(III), VO(II), Mn(II) and Ni(II) complexes derived from the condensation of 2-amino phenol with 2-hydroxynapthaldehyde were synthesized. The prepared HNPN imine ligand was analyzed by its melting point, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. The investigated HNPN imine complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV-vis and thermal analysis (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere from ambient temperature to 750°C. The experimental results revealed that the investigated complexes contain hydrated water molecules. The molar conductance values of complexes are relatively low, indicating the non-electrolytic nature of these complexes. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the investigated complexes are paramagnetic. Moreover, the stability constants of the preparing complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. All the complexes were found to be monomeric 1:1 (M:L) stoichiometry in nature with octahedral geometry for Cr(III), tetrahedral for Mn(II), square planner for Ni(II) and square pyramidal for VO(II). Moreover, the prepared HNPN imine ligand and its complexes were evaluated for antimicrobial effect against some types of bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis (+ve), Escherichia coli(-ve) and Staphylococcus aureus (+ve) and some types of fungi such as Aspergillusniger, Candida glabrata and Trichophyton rubrum. The results of these studies indicate that the metal complexes exhibit a stronger antibacterial and antifungal efficiency compared to their corresponding imine ligand. Moreover, the interaction of the investigated complexes with CT-DNA was checked using spectral studies, viscosity measurements and gel electrophoreses. The absorption titration studies revealed that each of these complexes is an avid binder to calf thymus-DNA. Also, there was appreciable changes in the relative viscosity of DNA, which is consistent with enhanced hydrophobic interaction of the aromatic rings and

  6. Chirality in molecular collision dynamics (United States)

    Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico


    Chirality is a phenomenon that permeates the natural world, with implications for atomic and molecular physics, for fundamental forces and for the mechanisms at the origin of the early evolution of life and biomolecular homochirality. The manifestations of chirality in chemistry and biochemistry are numerous, the striking ones being chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis with important applications in molecular sciences and in industrial and pharmaceutical chemistry. Chiral discrimination phenomena, due to the existence of two enantiomeric forms, very well known in the case of interaction with light, but still nearly disregarded in molecular collision studies. Here we review some ideas and recent advances about the role of chirality in molecular collisions, designing and illustrating molecular beam experiments for the demonstration of chiral effects and suggesting a scenario for a stereo-directional origin of chiral selection.

  7. Chirality of the 1,4-phenylene-silica nanoribbons at the nano and angstrom levels (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Sibing; Xiao, Min; Wang, Mingliang; Huang, Zhibin; Li, Baozong; Yang, Yonggang


    We reported the preparation of chiral 1,4-phenylene-silicas, using a sol-gel transcription approach, by self-assembly using low-molecular-weight gelators as templates. The silicas exhibited chirality at both the nano and angstrom levels. However, the relation between the chirality at the nano level and that at the angstrom levels has not been well studied. In this study, chiral 1,4-phenylene-silica nanoribbons were prepared by the self-assemblies of three chiral cationic gelators derived from amino acids as templates. These samples were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and circular dichroism. The results indicated that the handedness of the nanoribbons and the stacking of the aromatic rings were controllable. Although the nanoribbons exhibited left-handedness at the nano level, the stacking of the aromatic rings could exhibit left- or right-handedness. The handedness of the nanoribbons at the nano level was controlled by the organic self-assembly of the gelator. However, the stacking of the aromatic rings seemed to be controlled by the gelator itself.

  8. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingful. In particular, it is interesting to analyze the hadronic tensor that parametrizes the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and confront the model predictions with empirical data. This picture has led to interesting studies of hadron structure functions in bosonized chiral quark models. Here I will present the results of refs [5–7].

  9. Coupling the Torpedo microplate-receptor binding assay with mass spectrometry to detect cyclic imine neurotoxins. (United States)

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Ramos, Suzanne; Pelissier, Franck; Guérineau, Vincent; Benoit, Evelyne; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Zakarian, Armen; Molgó, Jordi


    Cyclic imine neurotoxins constitute an emergent family of neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin that are potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We developed a target-directed functional method based on the mechanism of action of competitive agonists/antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors for the detection of marine cyclic imine neurotoxins. The key step for method development was the immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of microplate wells and the use of biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin as tracer. Cyclic imine neurotoxins competitively inhibit biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The microplate-receptor binding assay allowed rapid detection of nanomolar concentrations of cyclic imine neurotoxins directly in shellfish samples. Although highly sensitive and specific for the detection of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a class, the receptor binding assay cannot identify a given analyte. To address the low selectivity of the microplate-receptor binding assay, the cyclic imine neurotoxins tightly bound to the coated Torpedo nicotinic receptor were eluted with methanol, and the chemical nature of the eluted ligands was identified by mass spectrometry. The immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes on the surface of microplate wells proved to be a high-throughput format for the survey of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors directly in shellfish matrixes with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  10. Syntheses of Azo-Imine Derivatives from Vanillin as an Acid Base Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwono


    Full Text Available Preparations of azo, imine and azo-imine derivatives from vanillin as an indicator of acid-base titration have been carried out. The azo derivative of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-(phenylazobenzaldehyde 2 was produced by diazotitation reaction of vanillin in 37.04% yield. The azo product was then refluxed with aniline in ethanol to yield azo-imine derivatives, 2-methoxy-6-(phenylazo-4-((phenyliminomethylphenol 1 in 82.21% yield. The imine derivative, 2-methoxy-4-((phenyliminomethyl-phenol 3 was obtained by refluxing of vanillin and aniline mixture in ethanol solvent and produced 82.17% yield. The imine product was then reacted with benzenediazonium chloride salt. However, the products indicated hydrolyzed product of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-(phenylazobenzaldehyde 2 in 22.15% yield. The 2-methoxy-4-((phenyliminomethylphenol 2 could be used as an indicator for titration of NaOH by H2C2O4 with maximum concentration of H2C2O4 0.1 M while the target compound 1 could be used as titration indicator for titration of NaOH with H2C2O4 with same result using phenolphthalein indicator.

  11. Enantioselective Synthesis of Biphenols from 1,4-Diketones by Traceless Central-to-Axial Chirality Exchange (United States)

    Guo, Fenghai; Konkol, Leah C.; Thomson, Regan J.


    A method for the enantioselective synthesis of biphenols from readily prepared 1,4-diketones is reported. Key to the success of this method is the highly selective transfer of central to axial chirality during a double aromatization event triggered by BF3•OEt2. Based upon X-ray crystallographic data, a stereochemical model for this chirality exchange process is put forth. PMID:21141997

  12. Synthesis of N,O-Type Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes Substituted on the Lower Rim and their Organocatalysis Properties


    Chang, Ming-Liang; He, Yong; Zhou, Jing; Li, Shao-Yong


    This work presented the first study of organocatalytic behaviors of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes substituted at the lower rim. A pair of N, O-type enantiomers based on inherently chiral calix[4]arenes substituted at the lower rim were readily synthesized and applied to catalyze Henry reaction between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane. Their organocatalytic reaction can afford the desired products in excellent yields (up to 99%) but poor enantioselectivities (up to 7.5% ee).

  13. Engineering chiral porous metal-organic frameworks for enantioselective adsorption and separation (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Gong, Tengfei; Zhang, Kang; Lin, Xiaochao; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Jianwen; Cui, Yong


    The separation of racemic molecules is of substantial significance not only for basic science but also for technical applications, such as fine chemicals and drug development. Here we report two isostructural chiral metal-organic frameworks decorated with chiral dihydroxy or -methoxy auxiliares from enantiopure tetracarboxylate-bridging ligands of 1,1‧-biphenol and a manganese carboxylate chain. The framework bearing dihydroxy groups functions as a solid-state host capable of adsorbing and separating mixtures of a range of chiral aromatic and aliphatic amines, with high enantioselectivity. The host material can be readily recycled and reused without any apparent loss of performance. The utility of the present adsorption separation is demonstrated in the large-scale resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine. Control experiments and molecular simulations suggest that the chiral recognition and separation are attributed to the different orientations and specific binding energies of the enantiomers in the microenvironment of the framework.

  14. Autoamplification of molecular chirality through the induction of supramolecular chirality. (United States)

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Beierle, John M; Stuart, Marc C A; Szymański, Wiktor; Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L


    The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The molecules co-assemble into helical fibers through hydrogen bonding and the handedness of the fibers is biased by the chiral, ring-closed diarylethene. Photochemical ring closure of the open diarylethene yields the ring-closed product, which is enriched in the template enantiomer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Chiral logarithms to five loops


    Bissegger, Moritz; Fuhrer, Andreas


    We investigate two specific Green functions in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. We show that, using analyticity and unitarity, their leading logarithmic singularities can be evaluated in the chiral limit to any desired order in the chiral expansion, with a modest calculational cost. The claim is illustrated with an evaluation of the leading logarithm for the scalar two-point function to five-loop order.

  16. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert


    A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can...

  17. An Efficient Synthesis of Substituted Quinolines via Indium(III) Chloride Catalyzed Reaction of Imines with Alkynes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mei; Fu, Weijun; Xun, Chen [Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Zou, Guanglong [Guizhou University for Nationalities, Guiyang (China)


    An efficient synthetic method for the preparation of quinolines through indium(III) chloride-catalyzed tandem addition-cyclization-oxidation reactions of imines with alkynes was developed. The processes can provide a diverse range of quinoline derivatives in good yields from simple imines and alkynes.

  18. Synthesis of Imine-Bearing ZnO Nanoparticle Thin Films and Characterization of Their Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties. (United States)

    Kaur, Narinder; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Kim, Deuk Young; Sharma, Hemant; Singh, Narinder


    We are presenting the first report on the fabrication of imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticle thin films grown on Corning glass by spin coating. The sol was prepared by dissolving imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticles in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The thickness of the films was manipulated to be 125-200 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed hexagonal wurtzite structure of imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticles thin films with a (002) preferential orientation. The stretching of chemical bonds of the imine linkage and Zn-O in imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticle thin films was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The grain size of the films increased with increasing the thickness of the films due to the number of coatings and subsequently dried at 200 °C. The transmittance of imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticle thin films was observed to be ≥94%, which was in close agreement to pure ZnO thin films in the visible region. The bandgap of imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticle thin films (3.04 eV), evaluated from Tauc's plot, was observed to be lower than that of pure ZnO (3.21 eV), which is attributed to the interaction of the ZnO nanoparticles with the imine receptor.

  19. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  20. Chiral Dynamics 2006 (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry


    pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4

  1. Thermally cleavable Imine Base / Isocyanate Adducts and Oligomers suitable as Initiators for Radical Homo- and Copolymerization


    Polenz, Ingmar; Laue, Andreas; Uhrin, Tamas; Rueffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich; Schmidt, Friedrich; Spange, Stefan


    The addition of isocyanates to C=N double bonds of imines gives triazindione heterocycle structures; their thermal properties are reported. Mono-isocyanates were used to form 2:1 adducts with the imine bases 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU), 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN) and 2-tert-butyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (tBuTMG). A 2:1 stoichiometry of the adducts was proven by NMR and IR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-Ray diffraction; certain cleavage temperatures (70 and 16...

  2. C-H bond oxidation catalyzed by an imine-based iron complex: A mechanistic insight


    Olivo, Giorgio; Nardi, Martina; Vidal Sánchez, Diego; Barbieri, Alessia; Lapi, Andrea; Gómez Martín, Laura; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Costas Salgueiro, Miquel; Di Stefano, Stefano


    A family of imine-based nonheme iron(II) complexes (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 has been prepared, characterized, and employed as C-H oxidation catalysts. Ligands LX (X = 1, 2, 3, and 4) stand for tridentate imine ligands resulting from spontaneous condensation of 2-pycolyl-amine and 4-substituted-2-picolyl aldehydes. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex occurs just upon mixing aldehyde, amine, and Fe(OTf)2 in a 2:2:1 ratio in acetonitrile solution. The solid-state structures of (L1)2Fe(OTf)(ClO4)...

  3. Chiral algebras of class S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beem, Christopher [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Peelaers, Wolfger; Rastelli, Leonardo [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Rees, Balt C. van [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    Four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories have families of protected correlation functions that possess the structure of two-dimensional chiral algebras. In this paper, we explore the chiral algebras that arise in this manner in the context of theories of class S. The class S duality web implies nontrivial associativity properties for the corresponding chiral algebras, the structure of which is best summarized in the language of generalized topological quantum field theory. We make a number of conjectures regarding the chiral algebras associated to various strongly coupled fixed points.

  4. Chiral nanophotonics chiral optical properties of plasmonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schäferling, Martin


    This book describes the physics behind the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures focusing on chiral aspects. It explains in detail how the geometry determines chiral near-fields and how to tailor their shape and strength. Electromagnetic fields with strong optical chirality interact strongly with chiral molecules and, therefore, can be used for enhancing the sensitivity of chiroptical spectroscopy techniques. Besides a short review of the latest results in the field of plasmonically enhanced enantiomer discrimination, this book introduces the concept of chiral plasmonic near-field sources for enhanced chiroptical spectroscopy. The discussion of the fundamental properties of these light sources provides the theoretical basis for further optimizations and is of interest for researchers at the intersection of nano-optics, plasmonics and stereochemistry. .

  5. Self-assembly of aromatic-functionalized amphiphiles: The role and consequences of aromatic-aromatic noncovalent interactions in building supramolecular aggregates and novel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, D.G.; Chen, L.; Geiger, H.C.; Perlstein, J.; Song, X. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.]|[Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)


    This feature article presents an overview of a study of several different aromatic-functionalized amphiphiles-fatty acid and phospholipid derivatives. These amphiphiles form organized assemblies when the fatty acids are spread as monolayers at the air-water interface or when the phospholipids are dispersed in aqueous solutions. For a wide range of aromatic chromophores--trans-stilbene derivatives and a series of vinylogues (1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene), diphenylacetylenes, and azobenzenes such as phenyl, biphenyl, and terphenyl derivatives and modified stilbenes (styryl thiophenes and styryl naphthalenes)--assembly formation is accompanied by formation of aggregates of the aromatic groups. Results of experimental studies and simulations indicate that in many cases the aromatics form a small, stable unit aggregate characterized by strong noncovalent edge-to-face interactions among adjacent aromatics. Although the unit aggregates exhibit characteristic spectral shifts and strong induced circular dichroism indicating a chiral pinwheel aggregate structure, they may be packed together in pure films or dispersions to form an extended glide or herringbone structure. Although the pinwheel unit aggregate and the extended glide or herringbone structure. Although the pinwheel unit aggregate and the extended glide structure is favored for the majority of aromatics studied, for certain aromatics (styrenes, styrylthiophenes, and {alpha}-styrylnaphthalenes) a translation layer, characterized by face-to-face noncovalent interactions, is preferred. The glide or herringbone aggregates are readily distinguished from the translation aggregates by different spectral signatures and different photochemical and photophysical behavior. Factors controlling the type of aggregate and hence extended structure formed from different aromatic functionalized aromatics include shape and steric factors and strength of the competing noncovalent edge-face and face

  6. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate (United States)

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.


    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  7. Imine-linked receptors decorated ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DSSCs with ruthenium–metal complex dye as a good photosensitizer. The recorded photovoltaic efficiency of sample. B-based DSSCs was enhanced by 1.36% compared to sample A-based DSSCs. Keywords. Imine-linked receptors; ruthenium–metal complex; ZnO nanoparticles; dye-sensitized solar cell. 1. Introduction.

  8. Harvesting Covert Networks: The Case Study of the iMiner Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock; Alhajj, Reda


    was incorporated in the iMiner prototype tool, which makes use of investigative data mining techniques to analyse data. This paper will present the developed framework along with the form and structure of the terrorist data in the database. Selected cases will be referenced to highlight the effectiveness of the i...

  9. Highly selective formation of imines catalyzed by silver nanoparticles supported on alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Poreddy, Raju; Engelbrekt, Christian


    The oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohols to aldehydes catalyzed by Ag nanoparticles supported on Al2O3 was studied. The catalyst promoted the direct formation of imines by tandem oxidative dehydrogenation and condensation of alcohols and amines. The reactions were performed under mild conditions...

  10. Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate. (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P


    In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.

  11. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitri Diakonov


    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  12. Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mohta, V


    Effective field theory techniques are used to describe the spectrum and interactions of hadrons. The mathematics of classical field theory and perturbative quantum field theory are reviewed. The physics of effective field theory and, in particular, of chiral perturbation theory and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory are also reviewed. The geometry underlying heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is described in detail. Results by Coleman et. al. in the physics literature are stated precisely and proven. A chiral perturbation theory is developed for a multiplet containing the recently- observed exotic baryons. A small coupling expansion is identified that allows the calculation of self-energy corrections to the exotic baryon masses. Opportunities in lattice calculations are discussed. Chiral perturbation theory is used to study the possibility of two multiplets of exotic baryons mixed by quark masses. A new symmetry constraint on reduced partial widths is identified. Predictions in the literature based ...

  13. Chiral Nuclear Dynamics II

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque


    This is the sequel to the first volume to treat in one effective field theory framework the physics of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions. This is vital for understanding the high temperature phenomena taking place in relativistic heavy ion collisions and in the early Universe, as well as the high-density matter predicted to be present in compact stars. The underlying thesis is that what governs hadronic properties in a heat bath and/or a dense medium is hidden local symmetry which emerges from chiral dynamics of light quark systems and from the duality between QCD in 4D and

  14. Asymmetric hydrogenation of aromatic ketones by new recyclable ionic tagged ferrocene-ruthenium catalyst system. (United States)

    Xu, Di; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Dai, Li; Tang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun


    Newly developed ferrocene-oxazoline-phosphine ligands containing quaternary ammonium ionic groups exhibited excellent catalytic performance for the ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenation of aromatic ketonic substrates to give chiral secondary alcohols with high levels of conversions and enantioselectivities. Simple manipulation process, water tolerance, high activity and good recyclable property make this catalysis practical and appealing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent achievements in developing the biocatalytic toolbox for chiral amine synthesis. (United States)

    Kohls, Hannes; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Höhne, Matthias


    Novel enzyme activities and chemoenzymatic reaction concepts have considerably expanded the biocatalytic toolbox for chiral amine synthesis. Creating new activities or extending the scope of existing enzymes by protein engineering is a common trend in biocatalysis and in chiral amine synthesis specifically. For instance, an amine dehydrogenase that allows for the direct asymmetric amination of ketones with ammonia was created by mutagenesis of an l-amino acid dehydrogenase. Another trend in chiral amine chemistry is the development of strategies allowing for the synthesis of secondary amines. For example the smart choice of substrates for amine transaminases provided access to secondary amines by chemoenzymatic reactions. Furthermore novel biocatalysts for the synthesis of secondary amines such as imine reductases and Pictet-Spenglerases have been identified and applied. Recent examples showed that the biocatalytic amine synthesis is emerging from simple model reactions towards industrial scale preparation of pharmaceutical relevant substances, for instance, as shown in the synthesis of a Janus kinase 2 inhibitor using an amine transaminase. A comparison of important process parameters such as turnover number and space-time yield demonstrates that biocatalytic strategies for asymmetric reductive amination are maturing and can already compete with established chemical methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of Axial Chirality in 8-Arylquinolines through Halogenation Reactions Using Bifunctional Organocatalysts. (United States)

    Miyaji, Ryota; Asano, Keisuke; Matsubara, Seijiro


    The enantioselective syntheses of axially chiral heterobiaryls were accomplished through the aromatic electrophilic halogenation of 3-(quinolin-8-yl)phenols with bifunctional organocatalysts that control the molecular conformations during successive halogenations. Axially chiral quinoline derivatives, which have rarely been synthesized in an enantioselective catalytic manner, were afforded in moderate-to-good enantioselectivities through bromination, and an analogous protocol also enabled enantioselective iodination. In addition, this catalytic reaction, which allows enantioselective control through the use of mono-ortho-substituted substrates, allowed the asymmetric synthesis of 8-arylquinoline derivatives bearing two different halogen groups in high enantioselectivities. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Chiral quantum optics. (United States)

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter


    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  18. Chiral imbalance in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexander


    Full Text Available The chiral imbalance (ChI is given by a difference between the numbers of RH and LH quarks which may occur in the fireball after heavy ion collision. To characterize it adiabatically a quark chiral (axial chemical potential must be introduced taking into account emergence of a ChI in such a phase. In this report the phenomenology of formation of Local spatial Parity Breaking (LPB in the hot and dense baryon matter is discussed and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. The appearance of new states in the spectra of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector particles in such a matter is elucidated. In particular, from the effective vector meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is demonstrated that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton invariant mass can serve as a characteristic indication of the LPB in PHENIX, STAR and ALICE experiments.

  19. Chiral imbalance in QCD (United States)

    Andrianov, Alexander; Andrianov, Vladimir; Espriu, Domenec


    The chiral imbalance (ChI) is given by a difference between the numbers of RH and LH quarks which may occur in the fireball after heavy ion collision. To characterize it adiabatically a quark chiral (axial) chemical potential must be introduced taking into account emergence of a ChI in such a phase. In this report the phenomenology of formation of Local spatial Parity Breaking (LPB) in the hot and dense baryon matter is discussed and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. The appearance of new states in the spectra of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector particles in such a matter is elucidated. In particular, from the effective vector meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is demonstrated that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton invariant mass can serve as a characteristic indication of the LPB in PHENIX, STAR and ALICE experiments.

  20. Chiral quantum dot based materials (United States)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii


    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  1. Configurationally stable longitudinally twisted polycyclic aromatic compounds. (United States)

    Walters, Robert S; Kraml, Christina M; Byrne, Neal; Ho, Douglas M; Qin, Qian; Coughlin, Frederick J; Bernhard, Stefan; Pascal, Robert A


    Two strategies for the synthesis of configurationally stable twisted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were pursued. The first approach employed dissymmetrically positioned 1-naphthyl substituents to bias the direction of twist in highly substituted PACs. 2,3-Bis(1-naphthyl)-1,4-diphenyltriphenylene (7) was prepared, and its meso cis-dinaphthyl and enantiomeric trans-dinaphthyl isomers were resolved by preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) on chiral supports. Similarly, several naphthyl-substituted derivatives of the more highly twisted 9,10,11,12,13,14-hexaphenylbenzo[b]triphenylene (2) were prepared. Of these, 10-(1-naphthyl)-9,11,12,14-tetraphenylbenzo[b]triphenylene (13) was resolved by SFC on a chiral support. The pure enantiomers of trans-7 showed moderately large specific rotations ([alpha]D(25) = -330 and +320 degrees), but the specific rotations for the enantiomers of 13 were unexpectedly small ([alpha]D(25) = -23 and +23 degrees). Computational studies suggest that the latter result is due to presence of a minor conformation of 13 possessing a larger rotation of opposite sign than the major conformation. Both 7 and 13 showed strong circular dichroism and moderately strong circularly polarized luminescence. A byproduct of these syntheses was 9,10,19,21-tetraphenyldiphenanthro[9,10-b:9,10-h]carbazole (15), a very crowded carbazole that exhibits an 81 degree end-to-end twist but is not resolvable. In the second approach, the large, twisted, polycyclic aromatic ligand 9,10,11,12,13,14-hexaphenylbenzo[h]naphtho[2,3-f]quinoline (21, an aza-2) was used to prepare the chiral, cyclometallated iridium(III) complex 4. The ligand 21 was prepared via an unusually stable benzannulated norbornadienone, for which the free energy of activation for decarbonylation was a remarkable 33.5 kcal/mol. The iridium complex 4 proved to be configurationally stable and resolvable by analytical HPLC on chiral supports, but the low solubility of 4 prevented its

  2. A High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR Study of the Enantiodiscrimination of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA by an Immobilized Polysaccharide-Based Chiral Phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C Barreiro

    Full Text Available This paper reports the investigation of the chiral interaction between 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA enantiomers and an immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral phase. For that, suspended-state high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS NMR was used. 1H HR-MAS longitudinal relaxation time and Saturation Transfer Difference (STD NMR titration experiments were carried out yielding information at the molecular level of the transient diastereoisomeric complexes of MDMA enantiomers and the chiral stationary phase. The interaction of the enantiomers takes place through the aromatic moiety of MDMA and the aromatic group of the chiral selector by π-π stacking for both enantiomers; however, a stronger interaction was observed for the (R-enantiomer, which is the second one to elute at the chromatographic conditions.

  3. Enantioselective binding of amino acids and amino alcohols by self-assembled chiral basket-shaped receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escuder, B.; Rowan, A.E.; Feiters, M.C.; Nolte, R.J.M.


    Amino acid appended diphenylglycoluril-based chiral molecular receptors 2 and 3 have been prepared and their aggregation has been studied in water at various pH's and in chloroform. The binding of several biologically relevant guests with aromatic moieties to these aggregates has been studied with

  4. An Optically Active Polymer for Broad-Spectrum Enantiomeric Recognition of Chiral Acids. (United States)

    Yan, Jijun; Kang, Chuanqing; Bian, Zheng; Ma, Xiaoye; Jin, Rizhe; Du, Zhijun; Gao, Lianxun


    Recognition of enantiomers of chiral acids by anion-π or lone pair-π interactions has not yet been investigated but is a significant and attractive challenge. This study reports an optically active polymer-based supramolecular system with capabilities of discriminating enantiomers of various chiral acids. The polymer featuring alternate π-acidic naphthalenediimides (NDIs) and methyl l-phenylalaninates in the backbone exhibits an unprecedented slow self-assembly process that is susceptible to perturbation by various chiral acids. Thus, the combination of anion-π or lone pair-π interactions and sensitivity of the polymeric self-assembly process to external chiral species endows the system with recognition capabilities. This is the first time that anion-π or lone pair-π interactions have been applied in the recognition of enantiomers of various chiral acids with a single system. The results shed light on new strategies for material design by integrating π-acidic aromatic systems and chiral building blocks to afford relevant advanced functions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi


    This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w

  6. Chiral higher spin gravity (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash


    We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.

  7. Amino Acids and Chirality (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.


    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  8. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  9. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten


    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  10. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore


    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  11. Meta-Chirality: Fundamentals, Construction and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Ma


    Full Text Available Chiral metamaterials represent a special type of artificial structures that cannot be superposed to their mirror images. Due to the lack of mirror symmetry, cross-coupling between electric and magnetic fields exist in chiral mediums and present unique electromagnetic characters of circular dichroism and optical activity, which provide a new opportunity to tune polarization and realize negative refractive index. Chiral metamaterials have attracted great attentions in recent years and have given rise to a series of applications in polarization manipulation, imaging, chemical and biological detection, and nonlinear optics. Here we review the fundamental theory of chiral media and analyze the construction principles of some typical chiral metamaterials. Then, the progress in extrinsic chiral metamaterials, absorbing chiral metamaterials, and reconfigurable chiral metamaterials are summarized. In the last section, future trends in chiral metamaterials and application in nonlinear optics are introduced.

  12. Graphenes–Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphenes - Aromatic Giants. Ivan Gutman Boris Furtula. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1238-1245. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords. Graphenes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polyphenyls; condensed benzenes.

  13. Benzoic-Imine-Based Physiological-pH-Responsive Materials for Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Qu, Xiaozhong; Yang, Zhenzhong


    The benzoic imine is a dynamic covalent bond, which is stable around neutral pH value (ca. 7.4), but starts to hydrolyze at the extracellular pH value of solid tumors (ca. 6.5) and rapidly disintegrates at endosome and lysosome pH values (ca. 4.5-6.5). This characteristic is promising for the construction of physiological-pH-responsive materials, such as polymeric micelles, nanoparticles, and hydrogels for pharmaceutical and tissue-engineering applications. This Focus Review summarizes recent progress in the design and synthesis of pH-sensitive materials that contain the benzoic imine bond with biomedical objectives. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Enantioselective Addition of Organolithium Reagents to Imines Mediated by C2-Symmetric Bis(aziridine) Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, F.; Tanner, David Ackland


    The C-2-symmetric bis(aziridine) ligands 1 - 5 have been screened in the enantioselective addition of organolithium reagents to imines. Ligand 1 (used in stoichiometric amounts) was found to be superior in terms of chemical yield and enantioselectivity, the best result being 90% yield and 89% e.......e. in the addition of vinyllithium to imine 6a. Use of ligand 1 in substoichiometric amounts gave poorer yield and lower enantioselectivity. The enantioselectivity of the reaction was investigated as a function of substrate, reagent, stoichiometry and temperature, but no firm mechanistic conclusions could be drawn....... Preliminary results with deuterium-labelled methyllithium indicate complexation/exchange processes involving ligand, reagent and substrate. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment. (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Miles, Christopher O; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Samdal, Ingunn A; Sandvik, Morten; Barbosa, Vera; Tediosi, Alice; Madorran, Eneko; Granby, Kit; Kotterman, Michiel; Calis, Tanja; Diogene, Jorge


    Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1-12µg/kg PnTX-G and 26-66µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3% and 31.2% of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25µg/kg for SPX-1 and 3µg/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Zinc(II) mediated imine-enamine tautomerization as a new chemosensory protocol (United States)

    Basa, Premnath

    Zinc (II) and copper (II) are prime transition cations that are not only abundant in free state in the human body but also in bound form. They play a key role in enzymes, electron transport, and oxygen transport systems. Recently, these cations have gained interest because of their implications in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Although numerous fluorescent chemosensors are currently available, less is known about their homeostasis or their etiological role in serious neurological disorders. Therefore, the current research is dedicated to developing novel chemosensors with excellent photophysical and photochemical properties and investigating their potential application for real-life problems. The dynamic nature of imines has been well utilized for the selective detection of zinc by blocking the E/Z isomerization process. However, other mechanistic pathways are available for imines; analyte-induced imine hydrolysis and metal-triggered tautomerization approaches are proving to be attractive sensory protocols. The current project is focused on understanding the basic principles that dictate Zn(II)-triggered tautomerization as a new "OFF-ON" type chemosensor. Synthesis of target compounds was achieved and confirmed through elemental analysis, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, ESI-MS, FTIR, and single-crystal XRD techniques. Zinc sensitivity and selectivity in the presence of 16 other transition, alkali, and alkaline earth cations was monitored by means of various spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques (fluorescence, UV-Vis absorbance, NMR and ESI-MS). The environmental parameters (solvents, pH) of zinc-induced fluorescence were also investigated and details will be discussed. A second project that describes Cu(II)-catalyzed imine hydrolysis via colorimetric and fluorescence change was also investigated.

  17. Concise methods for the synthesis of chiral polyoxazolines and their application in asymmetric hydrosilylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jie Li


    Full Text Available Seven polyoxazoline ligands were synthesized in high yield in a one-pot reaction by heating polycarboxylic acids or their esters and chiral β-amino alcohols under reflux with concomitant removal of water or the alcohol produced in the reaction. The method is much simpler and more efficient in comparison to those methods reported in the literature.The compounds were used as chiral ligands in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrosilylation of aromatic ketones, and the effects of the linkers and the substituents present on the oxazoline rings on the yield and enantioselectivity investigated. Compound 2 was identified as the best ligand of this family for the hydrosilylation of aromatic ketones.

  18. Electron induced conformational changes of an imine-based molecular switch on a Au(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze, Christian; Henningsen, Nils; Franke, Katharina; Schulze, Gunnar; Pascual, Jose Ignacio [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Luo, Ying; Haag, Rainer [Inst. f. Organische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)


    Azobenzene-based molecules exhibit a cis-trans configurational photoisomerisation in solution. Recently, the adsorption properties of azobenzene derivatives have been investigated on different metal surfaces in order to explore the possible changes in the film properties induced by external stimuli. In azobenzene, the diazo-bridge is a key group for the isomerization process. Its interaction with a metal surface is dominated through the N lone-pair electrons, which reduces the efficiency of the conformational change. In order to reduce the molecule-surface interaction, we explore an alternative molecular architecture by substituting the diazo-bridge (-N=N-) of azobenzene by an imine-group (-N=CH-). We have investigated the imine-based compound para-carboxyl-di-benzene-imine (PCI) adsorbed on a Au(111) surface. The carboxylic terminations mediates the formation of strongly bonded molecular dimers, which align in ordered rows preferentially following the fcc regions of the Au(111) herringbone reconstruction. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy was used to induce conformational changes between trans and cis state of individual molecules in a molecular monolayer.

  19. A Quinonoid-Imine-Enriched Nanostructured Polymer Mediator for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Peng, Hong-Jie; Hou, Ting-Zheng; Zhai, Pei-Yan; Li, Bo-Quan; Tang, Cheng; Zhu, Wancheng; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang


    The reversible formation of chemical bonds has potential for tuning multi-electron redox reactions in emerging energy-storage applications, such as lithium-sulfur batteries. The dissolution of polysulfide intermediates, however, results in severe shuttle effect and sluggish electrochemical kinetics. In this study, quinonoid imine is proposed to anchor polysulfides and to facilitate the formation of Li2 S2 /Li2 S through the reversible chemical transition between protonated state (NH+ ) and deprotonated state (N). When serving as the sulfur host, the quinonoid imine-doped graphene affords a very tiny shuttle current of 2.60 × 10-4 mA cm-2 , a rapid redox reaction of polysulfide, and therefore improved sulfur utilization and enhanced rate performance. A high areal specific capacity of 3.72 mAh cm-2 is achieved at 5.50 mA cm-2 on the quinonoid imine-doped graphene based electrode with a high sulfur loading of 3.3 mg cm-2 . This strategy sheds a new light on the organic redox mediators for reversible modulation of electrochemical reactions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chirality in adsorption on solid surfaces. (United States)

    Zaera, Francisco


    In the present review we survey the main advances made in recent years on the understanding of chemical chirality at solid surfaces. Chirality is an important topic, made particularly relevant by the homochiral nature of the biochemistry of life on Earth, and many chiral chemical reactions involve solid surfaces. Here we start our discussion with a description of surface chirality and of the different ways that chirality can be bestowed on solid surfaces. We then expand on the studies carried out to date to understand the adsorption of chiral compounds at a molecular level. We summarize the work published on the adsorption of pure enantiomers, of enantiomeric mixtures, and of prochiral molecules on chiral and achiral model surfaces, especially on well-defined metal single crystals but also on other flat substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Several phenomena are identified, including surface reconstruction and chiral imprinting upon adsorption of chiral agents, and the enhancement or suppression of enantioselectivity seen in some cases upon adsorption of enantiomixtures of chiral compounds. The possibility of enhancing the enantiopurity of adsorbed layers upon the addition of chiral seeds and the so-called "sergeants and soldiers" phenomenon are presented. Examples are provided where the chiral behavior has been associated with either thermodynamic or kinetic driving forces. Two main approaches to the creation of enantioselective surface sites are discussed, namely, via the formation of supramolecular chiral ensembles made out of small chiral adsorbates, and by adsorption of more complex chiral molecules capable of providing suitable chiral environments for reactants by themselves, via the formation of individual adsorbate:modifier adducts on the surface. Finally, a discussion is offered on the additional effects generated by the presence of the liquid phase often required in practical applications such as enantioselective crystallization, chiral

  1. Facile synthesis of chiral spirooxindole-based isotetronic acids and 5-1H-pyrrol-2-ones through cascade reactions with bifunctional organocatalysts. (United States)

    Guo, Wengang; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Boyu; Shen, Shuai; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Peng; Liu, Yan; Li, Can


    Unprecedented organocatalyzed asymmetric cascade reactions have been developed for the facile synthesis of chiral spirooxindole-based isotetronic acids and 5-1H-pyrrol-2-ones.The asymmetric 1,2-addition reactions of α-ketoesters to isatins and imines by using an acid-base bifunctional 6'-OH cinchona alkaloid catalyst, followed by cyclization and enolization of the resulting adducts, gave chiral spiroisotetronic acids and 5-1H-pyrrol-2-ones, respectively, in excellent optical purities (up to 98 % ee). FT-IR analysis supported the existence of hydrogen-bonding interaction between the 6'-OH group of the cinchona catalyst and an isatin carbonyl group, an interaction that might be crucial for catalyst activity and stereocontrol. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Chiral Ramachandran Plots I: Glycine. (United States)

    Baruch-Shpigler, Yael; Wang, Huan; Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Avnir, David


    Ramachandran plots (RPs) map the wealth of conformations of the polypeptide backbone and are widely used to characterize protein structures. A limitation of the RPs is that they are based solely on two dihedral angles for each amino acid residue and provide therefore only a partial picture of the conformational richness of the protein. Here we extend the structural RP analysis of proteins from a two-dimensional (2D) map to a three-dimensional map by adding the quantitative degree of chirality-the continuous chirality measure (CCM)-of the amino acid residue at each point in the RP. This measure encompasses all bond angles and bond lengths of an amino acid residue. We focus in this report on glycine (Gly) because, due to its flexibility, it occupies a large portion of the 2D map, thus allowing a detailed study of the chirality measure, and in order to evaluate the justification of classically labeling Gly as the only achiral amino acid. We have analyzed in detail 4366 Gly residues extracted from high resolution crystallographic data of 160 proteins. This analysis reveals not only that Gly is practically always conformationally chiral, but that upon comparing with the backbone of all amino acids, the quantitative chirality values of Gly are of similar magnitudes to those of the (chiral) amino acids. Structural trends and energetic considerations are discussed in detail. Generally we show that adding chirality to Ramachandran plots creates far more informative plots that highlight the sensitivity of the protein structure to minor conformational changes.

  3. Amplification of chirality in liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, Rienk; Feringa, Ben L.


    The amplification of molecular chirality by liquid crystalline systems is widely applied in investigations towards enantioselective solvent - solute interactions, chiral supramolecular assemblies, smart materials, and the development of liquid crystal displays. Here we present an overview of recent

  4. Reagent controlled addition of chiral sulfur ylides to chiral aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Jie


    Full Text Available Abstract The degree of reagent and substrate control in the reaction of chiral sulfur ylides with chiral aldehydes has been investigated. Specifically, the reactions of the two enantiomers of the chiral benzyl sulfonium salt 1 with glyceraldehyde acetonide were studied in detail. Of the two new stereogenic centers created, it was found that the C1 stereochemistry was largely controlled by the reagent, whereas control at the C2 center was dependent on the aldehyde used. In one case, the trans isomer was produced via reversible formation of the intermediate betaine, whereas in the alternative case, the C2 center was under Felkin Anh/Cornforth control through non-reversible formation of the betaine. Thus, the aldehyde stereocenter influenced the degree of reversibility in betaine formation, which impacted on the stereocontrol at the C2 position.

  5. Preparation and Use of Aziridino Alcohols as Promoters for the Enantioselective Addition of Dialkylzinc Reagents to N-(Diphenylphosphinoyl) IminesImines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Guijarro, David; Andersson, Pher G.


    A set of chiral aziridino alcohols has been synthesised, either from amino acids (serine, threonine or allo-threonine) or via Sharpless asymmetric aminohydroxylation/dihydroxylation of simple prochiral olefins. The ligands mediate the addition of diethylzinc to N-phosphinoylimines, with up to 94%...

  6. Magnetic chirality as probed by neutron scattering (United States)

    Simonet, V.; Loire, M.; Ballou, R.


    We review the concept of chirality, at first briefly in a general context then in the specific framework of the spin networks. We next discuss to what extent neutron scattering appears as an unconvertible tool to probe magnetic chirality in the static and dynamical regimes of the spins. The remarkable chiral ground state and excitations of the Fe-langasite compound finally serves to illustrate the use of neutron polarimetry in the experimental studies of the magnetic chirality.

  7. Quantum oscillations in the chiral magnetic conductivity (United States)

    Kaushik, Sahal; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.


    In strong magnetic field, the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in three-dimensional chiral materials is shown to exhibit a new type of quantum oscillations arising from the chiral magnetic effect (CME). These quantum CME oscillations are predicted to dominate over the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) ones in chiral materials with an approximately conserved chirality of quasiparticles at strong magnetic fields. The phase of quantum CME oscillations differs from the phase of the conventional SdH oscillations by π /2 .

  8. Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumsa-ard, K.


    In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints

  9. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes corresponding to the C director fluctuations in the chiral smectic C phase and the behaviour of the Goldstone-mode near the chiral smectic C–smectic A phase transition. In cholesteric liquid ...

  10. Covariant perturbation theory and chiral superpropagators

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, G


    The authors use a covariant formulation of perturbation theory for the non-linear chiral invariant pion model to define chiral superpropagators leading to S-matrix elements which are independent of the choice of the pion field coordinates. The relation to the standard definition of chiral superpropagators is discussed. (11 refs).

  11. Introduction to chiral symmetry in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdjian H.


    Full Text Available The main aspects of chiral symmetry in QCD are presented. The necessity of its spontaneous breakdown is explained. Some low-energy theorems are reviewed. The role of chiral effective Lagrangians in the formulation and realization of chiral perturbation theory is emphasized. The consequences of the presence of anomalies are sketched.

  12. Chirality and gravitational parity violation. (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro


    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Chiral Covalent Organic Frameworks with High Chemical Stability for Heterogeneous Asymmetric Catalysis. (United States)

    Han, Xing; Xia, Qingchun; Huang, Jinjing; Liu, Yan; Tan, Chunxia; Cui, Yong


    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) featuring chirality, stability, and function are of both fundamental and practical interest, but are yet challenging to achieve. Here we reported the metal-directed synthesis of two chiral COFs (CCOFs) by imine-condensations of enantiopure 1,2-diaminocyclohexane with C3-symmetric trisalicylaldehydes having one or zero 3-tert-butyl group. Powder X-ray diffraction and modeling studies, together with pore size distribution analysis demonstrate that the Zn(salen)-based CCOFs possess a two-dimensional hexagonal grid network with AA stacking. Dramatic enhancement in the chemical stability toward acidic (1 M HCl) and basic (9 M NaOH) conditions was observed for the COF incorporated with tert-butyl groups on the pore walls compared to the nonalkylated analog. The Zn(salen) modules in the CCOFs allow for installing multivariate metals into the frameworks by postsynthetic metal exchange. The exchanged CCOFs maintain high crystallinity and porosity and can serve as efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalysts for asymmetric cyanation of aldehydes, Diels-Alder reaction, alkene epoxidation, epoxide ring-opening, and related sequential reactions with up to 97% ee.

  14. Chiral symmetry in light-front QCD (United States)

    Wu, Menh-Hsiu; Zhang, Wei-Min


    The definition of chiral transformations in light-front field theory is very different from the conventional form in equal-time formalism. We study the consistency of chiral transformations and chiral symmetry in light-front QCD and derive a complete new light-front axial-vector current for QCD. The breaking of chiral symmetry in light-front QCD is only associated with helicity flip interaction between quarks and gluons. Remarkably, the new axial-vector current does not contain the pion pole part so that the associate chiral charge smoothly describes pion transitions for various hadronic processes.

  15. Merging constitutional and motional covalent dynamics in reversible imine formation and exchange processes. (United States)

    Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie


    The formation and exchange processes of imines of salicylaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, and benzaldehyde have been studied, showing that the former has features of particular interest for dynamic covalent chemistry, displaying high efficiency and fast rates. The monoimines formed with aliphatic α,ω-diamines display an internal exchange process of self-transimination type, inducing a local motion of either "stepping-in-place" or "single-step" type by bond interchange, whose rate decreases rapidly with the distance of the terminal amino groups. Control of the speed of the process over a wide range may be achieved by substituents, solvent composition, and temperature. These monoimines also undergo intermolecular exchange, thus merging motional and constitutional covalent behavior within the same molecule. With polyamines, the monoimines formed execute internal motions that have been characterized by extensive one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and EXSY proton NMR studies. In particular, with linear polyamines, nondirectional displacement occurs by shifting of the aldehyde residue along the polyamine chain serving as molecular track. Imines thus behave as simple prototypes of systems displaying relative motions of molecular moieties, a subject of high current interest in the investigation of synthetic and biological molecular motors. The motional processes described are of dynamic covalent nature and take place without change in molecular constitution. They thus represent a category of dynamic covalent motions, resulting from reversible covalent bond formation and dissociation. They extend dynamic covalent chemistry into the area of molecular motions. A major further step will be to achieve control of directionality. The results reported here for imines open wide perspectives, together with other chemical groups, for the implementation of such features in multifunctional molecules toward the design of molecular devices presenting a complex combination of

  16. Novel cycloalkylthiophene-imine derivatives bearing benzothiazole scaffold: synthesis, characterization and antiviral activity evaluation. (United States)

    Ke, Shaoyong; Wei, Yanhong; Yang, Ziwen; Wang, Kaimei; Liang, Ying; Shi, Liqiao


    A series of novel cycloalkylthiophene-imine derivatives containing benzothiazole unit were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-viral activities. The bio-evaluation results indicated that some of the target compounds (such as 5g, 5i, 5u) exhibited good to moderate antiviral effect on CVB5, ADV7 and EV71 viruses, however, these compounds did not have inhibition activity against H1N1 virus. Especially, the compounds 4c and 4d also exhibited high antiviral activities, which provide a new and efficient approach to evolve novel multi-functional antiviral agents by rational integration of active pharmacophores. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Well-Defined Silica Grafted Molybdenum Bis(imido) Catalysts for Imine Metathesis Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Barman, Samir


    Novel site-isolated tetracoordinated molybdenum complexes possessing bis(imido) ligands, [(≡Si–O)2Mo(═NR)2] (R = t-Bu, 2,6-C6H3-i-Pr2), were immobilized on partially dehydroxylated silica (SiO2-200) by a rigorous surface organometallic chemistry protocol. The newly developed materials adorned with bis(imido) functional units, which were previously exploited mainly as spectator ligands on silica-supported olefin metathesis molybdenum catalysts, are found to be efficient heterogeneous catalytic systems for imine cross metathesis under mild conditions.

  18. Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins. (United States)

    Stivala, Craig E; Benoit, Evelyne; Aráoz, Rómulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen


    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day.

  19. Silver nanoparticles supported on alumina-​a highly efficient and selective nanocatalyst for imine reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Riisager, Anders


    Silver nanoparticles supported on alumina were prepared and tested in the catalytic reduction of various imines to primary and secondary amines and were shown to be exceptionally active and chemoselective. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the prepared nanocatalyst was also tested...... organic synthesis. Due to the mild reaction conditions and high conversion as well as high selectivity, we consider that the utilization of silver nanoparticles supported on alumina represents an attractive and environmentally friendly alternative to the current synthesis of N-alkyl amines....

  20. C-H Bond Oxidation Catalyzed by an Imine-Based Iron Complex: A Mechanistic Insight. (United States)

    Olivo, Giorgio; Nardi, Martina; Vìdal, Diego; Barbieri, Alessia; Lapi, Andrea; Gómez, Laura; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Costas, Miquel; Di Stefano, Stefano


    A family of imine-based nonheme iron(II) complexes (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 has been prepared, characterized, and employed as C-H oxidation catalysts. Ligands LX (X = 1, 2, 3, and 4) stand for tridentate imine ligands resulting from spontaneous condensation of 2-pycolyl-amine and 4-substituted-2-picolyl aldehydes. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex occurs just upon mixing aldehyde, amine, and Fe(OTf)2 in a 2:2:1 ratio in acetonitrile solution. The solid-state structures of (L1)2Fe(OTf)(ClO4) and (L3)2Fe(OTf)2 are reported, showing a low-spin octahedral iron center, with the ligands arranged in a meridional fashion. (1)H NMR analyses indicate that the solid-state structure and spin state is retained in solution. These analyses also show the presence of an amine-imine tautomeric equilibrium. (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 efficiently catalyze the oxidation of alkyl C-H bonds employing H2O2 as a terminal oxidant. Manipulation of the electronic properties of the imine ligand has only a minor impact on efficiency and selectivity of the oxidative process. A mechanistic study is presented, providing evidence that C-H oxidations are metal-based. Reactions occur with stereoretention at the hydroxylated carbon and selectively at tertiary over secondary C-H bonds. Isotopic labeling analyses show that H2O2 is the dominant origin of the oxygen atoms inserted in the oxygenated product. Experimental evidence is provided that reactions involve initial oxidation of the complexes to the ferric state, and it is proposed that a ligand arm dissociates to enable hydrogen peroxide binding and activation. Selectivity patterns and isotopic labeling studies strongly suggest that activation of hydrogen peroxide occurs by heterolytic O-O cleavage, without the assistance of a cis-binding water or alkyl carboxylic acid. The sum of these observations provides sound evidence that controlled activation of H2O2 at (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 differs from that occurring in biomimetic iron catalysts described to date.

  1. Homo- and Copolymerization of Ethylene and Norbornene with Anilido–Imine Chromium Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Pei


    Full Text Available A series of anilido–imine chromium complexes have been used as precursors to catalyze homo- and copolymerization of ethylene and norbornene. The chromium complexes activated with methylalumoxane (MAO exhibit good activities for homopolymerization of ethylene (E to produce linear polyethylene and moderate activities for norbornene (N polymerization to afford vinyl-type polynorbornene. Ethylene–norbornene copolymers with high incorporation of norbornene can be also produced by these catalysts. 13C NMR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses show that the copolymers are random products, and –NNN– and –EEE– units can be observed in the microstructure of the copolymers.

  2. Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate (United States)

    Jiang, Wenge; Pacella, Michael S.; Athanasiadou, Dimitra; Nelea, Valentin; Vali, Hojatollah; Hazen, Robert M.; Gray, Jeffrey J.; McKee, Marc D.


    Chirality is ubiquitous in biology, including in biomineralization, where it is found in many hardened structures of invertebrate marine and terrestrial organisms (for example, spiralling gastropod shells). Here we show that chiral, hierarchically organized architectures for calcium carbonate (vaterite) can be controlled simply by adding chiral acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). Chiral, vaterite toroidal suprastructure having a `right-handed' (counterclockwise) spiralling morphology is induced by L-enantiomers of Asp and Glu, whereas `left-handed' (clockwise) morphology is induced by D-enantiomers, and sequentially switching between amino-acid enantiomers causes a switch in chirality. Nanoparticle tilting after binding of chiral amino acids is proposed as a chiral growth mechanism, where a `mother' subunit nanoparticle spawns a slightly tilted, consequential `daughter' nanoparticle, which by amplification over various length scales creates oriented mineral platelets and chiral vaterite suprastructures. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for how biomineralization-related enantiomers might exert hierarchical control to form extended chiral suprastructures.

  3. Mesoscale structure of chiral nematic shells. (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Guo, Ashley; Zhang, Rui; Armas-Perez, Julio C; Martínez-González, José A; Rahimi, Mohammad; Sadati, Monirosadat; de Pablo, Juan J


    There is considerable interest in understanding and controlling topological defects in nematic liquid crystals (LCs). Confinement, in the form of droplets, has been particularly effective in that regard. Here, we employ a Landau-de Gennes formalism to explore the geometrical frustration of nematic order in shell geometries, and focus on chiral materials. By varying the chirality and thickness in uniform shells, we construct a phase diagram that includes tetravalent structures, bipolar structures (BS), bent structures and radial spherical structures (RSS). It is found that, in uniform shells, the BS-to-RSS structural transition, in response to both chirality and shell geometry, is accompanied by an abrupt change of defect positions, implying a potential use for chiral nematic shells as sensors. Moreover, we investigate thickness heterogeneity in shells and demonstrate that non-chiral and chiral nematic shells exhibit distinct equilibrium positions of their inner core that are governed by shell chirality c.

  4. Chiral flat bands: Existence, engineering, and stability (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ajith; Andreanov, Alexei; Flach, Sergej


    We study flat bands in bipartite tight-binding networks with discrete translational invariance. Chiral flat bands with chiral symmetry eigenenergy E =0 and host compact localized eigenstates for finite range hopping. For a bipartite network with a majority sublattice chiral flat bands emerge. We present a simple generating principle of chiral flat-band networks and as a showcase add to the previously observed cases a number of new potentially realizable chiral flat bands in various lattice dimensions. Chiral symmetry respecting network perturbations—including disorder and synthetic magnetic fields—preserve both the flat band and the modified compact localized states. Chiral flat bands are spectrally protected by gaps and pseudogaps in the presence of disorder due to Griffiths effects.

  5. Single chirality through crystal grinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, W.L.


    The properties of chiral molecules in living organisms can be different for left- and right-handed molecules. Therefore, ways to produce molecules of single handedness are of paramount importance, especially for economical, high yielding processes to synthesize pharmaceutical compounds that must be

  6. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the CLEO Collaboration. Other sources could be the decay τ →ππν. In the modern context, a fresh Roy equation analysis with the view of combining dis- persion relations with chiral perturbation theory has been carried out [20]. The evaluation of the inhomogeneous terms, the so-called 'driving terms' for the Roy equations ...

  7. Baryon and chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsky, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Krikun, A. [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We briefly review the generalized Skyrmion model for the baryon recently suggested by us. It takes into account the tower of vector and axial mesons as well as the chiral symmetry breaking. The generalized Skyrmion model provides the qualitative explanation of the Ioffe’s formula for the baryon mass.

  8. Algebraic study of chiral anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jun 14, 2012 ... †Reproduced with kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Algebraic study of chiral anoma- lies, Juan Mañes, Raymond Stora and Bruno Zumino, Communications in Mathematical Physics 102, 157–174. (1985) Springer-Verlag. Even though at variance with normal Pramana policy, we ...

  9. Mechanism of Amido-Thiourea Catalyzed Enantioselective Imine Hydrocyanation: Transition State Stabilization via Multiple Non-Covalent Interactions (United States)

    Zuend, Stephan J.


    An experimental and computational investigation of amido-thiourea promoted imine hydrocyanation has revealed a new and unexpected mechanism of catalysis. Rather than direct activation of the imine by the thiourea, as had been proposed previously in related systems, the data are consistent with a mechanism involving catalyst-promoted proton transfer from hydrogen isocyanide to imine to generate diastereomeric iminium/cyanide ion pairs that are bound to catalyst through multiple non-covalent interactions; these ion pairs collapse to form the enantiomeric α-aminonitrile products. This mechanistic proposal is supported by the observation of a statistically significant correlation between experimental and calculated enantioselectivities induced by eight different catalysts (P ≪ 0.01). The computed models reveal a basis for enantioselectivity that involves multiple stabilizing and destabilizing interactions between substrate and catalyst, including thiourea-cyanide and amide-iminium interactions. PMID:19778044

  10. Asymmetric construction of binaphthyl by the chiral diether-mediated conjugate addition of naphthyllithium to naphthalenecarboxylic acid 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenyl ester. (United States)

    Shindo, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Yasutomo; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Tomioka, Kiyoshi


    Two ways for the synthesis of binaphthyl were examined based on a chiral ligand-mediated asymmetric conjugate addition of 1-naphthyllithium to naththalene-2-carboxylic acid 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenyl esters. The one pot method by conjugate addition-elimination gave a relatively higher enantioselectivity than the two step synthesis based on addition and subsequent oxidative aromatization.

  11. Chiral Induction with Chiral Conformational Switches in the Limit of Low "Sergeants to Soldiers" Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard


    Molecular-level insights into chiral adsorption phenomena are highly relevant within the fields of asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis or chiral separation and may contribute to understand the origins of homochirality in nature. Here, we investigate chiral induction by the "sergeants and soldiers......" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...

  12. One-pot catalytic asymmetric borylation of unsaturated aldehyde-derived imines; functionalisation to homoallylic boronate carboxylate ester derivatives. (United States)

    Pujol, Alba; Calow, Adam D J; Batsanov, Andrei S; Whiting, Andrew


    The β-borylation reaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehyde-derived imines, formed in situ, has been studied using a one-pot methodology, as a route to β-boryl aldehydes. The instability of the β-boryl aldehydes meant that derivatisation was required and routes to both acetal derivatives and homoallylic boronates were examined. β-Boryl acetals were also found to be unstable, however, the formation of homoallylic boronate derivatives using an in situ imine hydrolysis-Wittig olefination protocol was found to be suitable, resulting in an efficient synthesis with high enantiomeric excesses.

  13. Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for the Radical Acrylate Polymerization Co-initiated by Imine Bases (United States)

    Polenz, I.; Spange, S.


    The catalysis of the imine base acrylate (IBA) polymerization by Ionic Liquids (ILs) is reported. Addition of IL traces (~10-50 mM) to an imine base / acrylate mixture leads to both a significant decrease of the activation temperature (40 °C) required for the IBA polymerization process and an increase in the polymerization rate by a factor of 5-40 depending on the IL species. The radical character of the polymerization is proved by copolymerization experiments using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylonitrile (MAN) and comparison with literature known values of copolymerization parameters rMMA and rMAN of these co-monomers. The influence of the IL on the polymerization kinetics is quantified by the polymerization rate law; the order referring to the IL is 1 indicating its crucial impact on the monomer activation. The IBA activation properties are strongly dependent on the IL interaction strengths with the IBA components verified by the KAMELT-TAFT hydrogen bond donating ability α. The stronger the interaction (higher α) is, the less the IBA polymerization activation. The temperature dependence of four different IL catalysed IBA polymerization is investigated, allows a classification and anomalous non-ARRHENIUS regimes are discussed. Activation energies EA,P span over 20 and 50 kJ·mol-1, which is between the values of thermal- (~80 kJ·mol-1) and photo-initiation (~20 kJ·mol-1).

  14. Nanomechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with DAB dendrimers (poly-propylene imine) coatings onto titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charitidis, Costas A., E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Skarmoutsou, Amalia [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Tsetsekou, Athena; Brasinika, Despina [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Tsiourvas, Dimitris [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece)


    Highlights: ► The synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB). ► The nanomechanical properties of different HAP-DAB coatings onto titanium surfaces. ► Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the synthesized coatings quantified by nanoindentation data analysis. -- Abstract: Coatings of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods onto titanium surfaces were synthesized with the aim to improve coatings’ mechanical properties and adhesion to the substrate. The coatings are consisting of HAP nanorods synthesized in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB) bearing 32 amine end groups employing varying calcium: dendrimer ratios and varying hydrothermal treatments. The quality, surface morphology and structure of the coatings were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis. Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the coatings onto titanium substrates were studied through nanoindentation analysis. The experimental conditions, namely the calcium: dendrimer molar ratio and the hydrothermal treatment temperature were carefully selected; thus, it was possible to produce coatings of high hardness and elastic modulus values (ranging between 1–4.5 GPa and 40–150 GPa, respectively) and/or high wear resistance and plastic deformation values.

  15. A catalyst-free addition reaction of zinc amide enolates to N-sulfonyle imines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Seong Ryu; Im, Pyeong Won; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Seung Hoi [Dept. of Chemistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park Soo Youl [Interface Chemistry and Engineering Research Team, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Despite the remarkable expansion of the imino-Reformatsky reaction, one interesting aspect is that, to the best of our knowledge, zinc enolates derived solely from α-halo esters have been mainly used in the recent progress. In contrast, a few limited examples have been reported concerning the application of zinc enolates derived from α-halo amide to the imino-Reformatsky reaction. In recent years, Rodriguez-Solla and co-workers reported the addition reaction of samarium enolates derived from both α-halo esters and amides to imines, resulting in the synthe- sis of β-amino esters or amides. In conclusion, we established a potential synthetic proto- col for the preparation of β-amino amides. This work was accomplished by the direct addition of zinc amide enolates to N-sulfonyl imines in the absence of any metal-catalyst under mild conditions. Due to the operational simplicity of the proposed method, it can be further utilized in synthetic organic chemistry. Further studies to elucidate the scope of this approach are currently underway in our laboratory.

  16. Characterization of complexes formed by polypropylene imine dendrimers and anti-HIV oligonucleotides. (United States)

    Pedziwiatr-Werbicka, Elzbieta; Ferenc, Malgorzata; Zaborski, Marian; Gabara, Barbara; Klajnert, Barbara; Bryszewska, Maria


    Current anti-HIV therapies are capable of controlling viral infection but do not represent a definitive cure. They rely on the administration of antiretroviral nucleoside analogues, either alone or in combination with vectors. Dendrimers are branched, synthetic polymers with layered architectures, promising non-viral vectors in gene therapy. The aim of the paper was to study the interactions between three anti-HIV antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs): SREV, ANTI TAR, GEM91 and different generation polypropylene imine dendrimers (PPI) by monitoring changes in the fluorescence polarization of fluorescein attached to the ends of the ODNs when increasing concentrations of dendrimers were added. Laser Doppler electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize, respectively, zeta potential, particle size and morphology of dendriplexes formed in different molar ratios. Antisense oligonucleotides interacted with polypropylene imine dendrimers in different molar ratios depending on generation. Zeta potential of dendriplexes varied from (-25 to -21) mV to -5 mV (for PPIG3 and PPIG4 complexes) and to zero (for PPIG2 complexes). The structures presented a polydisperse size from about 50 nm to even 700-800 nm by TEM and about 250 nm by DLS. It means that besides single dendriplexes, aggregates were also present. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. REVIEW ARTICLE: Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments (United States)

    Wang, Bingnan; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.


    Electromagnetic metamaterials are composed of periodically arranged artificial structures. They show peculiar properties, such as negative refraction and super-lensing, which are not seen in natural materials. The conventional metamaterials require both negative epsilon and negative μ to achieve negative refraction. Chiral metamaterial is a new class of metamaterials offering a simpler route to negative refraction. In this paper, we briefly review the history of metamaterials and the developments on chiral metamaterials. We study the wave propagation properties in chiral metamaterials and show that negative refraction can be realized in chiral metamaterials with a strong chirality, with neither epsilon nor μ negative required. We have developed a retrieval procedure, adopting a uniaxial bi-isotropic model to calculate the effective parameters such as n ± , κ, epsilon and μ of the chiral metamaterials. Our work on the design, numerical calculations and experimental measurements of chiral metamaterials is introduced. Strong chiral behaviors such as optical activity and circular dichroism are observed and negative refraction is obtained for circularly polarized waves in these chiral metamaterials. We show that 3D isotropic chiral metamaterials can eventually be realized.

  18. Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials (United States)

    Ma, T. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Yuan, L.; Wang, J. S.; Qin, Q. H.


    Natural and artificial chiral materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), chromatin fibers, flagellar filaments, chiral nanotubes, and chiral lattice materials widely exist. Due to the chirality of intricately helical or twisted microstructures, such materials hold great promise for use in diverse applications in smart sensors and actuators, force probes in biomedical engineering, structural elements for absorption of microwaves and elastic waves, etc. In this paper, a Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials is developed based on noncentrosymmetric micropolar elasticity theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a chiral beam problem are derived using the variational method and Hamilton's principle. The static bending and free vibration problem of a chiral beam are investigated using the proposed model. It is found that chirality can significantly affect the mechanical behavior of beams, making materials more flexible compared with nonchiral counterparts, inducing coupled twisting deformation, relatively larger deflection, and lower natural frequency. This study is helpful not only for understanding the mechanical behavior of chiral materials such as DNA and chromatin fibers and characterizing their mechanical properties, but also for the design of hierarchically structured chiral materials.

  19. Chiral fullerenes from asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Maroto, Enrique E; Izquierdo, Marta; Reboredo, Silvia; Marco-Martínez, Juan; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín, Nazario


    Fullerenes are among the most studied molecules during the last three decades, and therefore, a huge number of chemical reactions have been tested on these new carbon allotropes. However, the aim of most of the reactions carried out on fullerenes has been to afford chemically modified fullerenes that are soluble in organic solvents or even water in the search for different mechanical, optical, or electronic properties. Therefore, although a lot of effort has been devoted to the chemical functionalization of these molecular allotropes of carbon, important aspects in the chemistry of fullerenes have not been properly addressed. In particular, the synthesis of chiral fullerenes at will in an efficient manner using asymmetric catalysis has not been previously addressed in fullerene science. Thus, despite the fact that the chirality of fullerenes has always been considered a fundamental issue, the lack of a general stereoselective synthetic methodology has restricted the use of enantiopure fullerene derivatives, which have usually been obtained only after highly expensive HPLC isolation on specific chiral columns or prepared from a pool of chiral starting materials. In this Account, we describe the first stereodivergent catalytic enantioselective syntheses in fullerene science, which have allowed the highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure derivatives with total control of the stereochemical result using metallic catalysts and/or organocatalysts under very mild conditions. Density functional theory calculations strongly support the experimental findings for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new stereocenters, which has also been ascertained by application of the sector rule and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of the curved double bond of fullerene cages as a two-π-electron component in a variety of stereoselective cycloaddition reactions represents a challenging goal considering that, in contrast to most of the substituted

  20. On Benzene and Aromaticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a flavour of all of these in the classroom and not just presented with dry facts. The development of the field over the last two centuries should be placed often in a ... The creativity of scientists has an appeal that transcends the subject. Chemistry of aromatic compounds provides ample opportunities for the teacher to cover ...

  1. On Benzene and Aromaticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 4. On Benzene and Aromaticity History and Some Folklore. M V Bhatt. General Article Volume 3 Issue 4 April 1998 pp 88-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  2. Graphenes – Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphenes – Aromatic Giants. (benzene) rings. Until recently it was believed [5] that their chemical investigations are limited to compounds with not more than 15 rings. The reason for this is based on the fact that large. PAHs are practically insoluble in water or organic solvents, which makes their purification and chemical ...

  3. Graphenes–Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 8. Graphenes – Aromatic Giants. Ivan Gutman Boris Furtula. General Article Volume 13 Issue 8 August 2008 pp 730-737. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  4. Graphenes – Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (often abbreviated as PAH) are an important class of organic compounds. Students learn about them in any course on organic chemistry. The best known representatives are benzene (which, in fact, is cyclic, not polycy- clic), naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Today.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: SHORT COMMUNICATION. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN MUNICIPAL WASTE ASHES. FROM THREE WASTE DUMPS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA. O.S. Amuda* and F.E. Adelowo-Imeokparia. Environmental/Analytical Chemistry Unit, ...

  6. Chiral heat wave and mixing of magnetic, vortical and heat waves in chiral media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernodub, M.N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique,Université de Tours, 37200 (France); Soft Matter Physics Laboratory, Far Eastern Federal University,Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent,Krijgslaan 281, S9, Gent (Belgium)


    We show that a hot rotating fluid of relativistic chiral fermions possesses a new gapless collective mode associated with coherent propagation of energy density and chiral density waves along the axis of rotation. This mode, which we call the Chiral Heat Wave, emerges due to a mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. At finite density the Chiral Heat Wave couples to the Chiral Vortical Wave while in the presence of an external magnetic field it mixes with the Chiral Magnetic Wave. The coupling of the Chiral Magnetic and Chiral Vortical Waves is also demonstrated. We find that the coupled waves — which are coherent fluctuations of the vector, axial and energy currents — have generally different velocities compared to the velocities of the individual waves.

  7. Chiral nanoparticles in singular light fields (United States)

    Vovk, Ilia A.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Zhu, Weiren; Shalkovskiy, Alexey G.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.


    The studying of how twisted light interacts with chiral matter on the nanoscale is paramount for tackling the challenging task of optomechanical separation of nanoparticle enantiomers, whose solution can revolutionize the entire pharmaceutical industry. Here we calculate optical forces and torques exerted on chiral nanoparticles by Laguerre-Gaussian beams carrying a topological charge. We show that regardless of the beam polarization, the nanoparticles are exposed to both chiral and achiral forces with nonzero reactive and dissipative components. Longitudinally polarized beams are found to produce chirality densities that can be 109 times higher than those of transversely polarized beams and that are comparable to the chirality densities of beams polarized circularly. Our results and analytical expressions prove useful in designing new strategies for mechanical separation of chiral nanoobjects with the help of highly focussed beams.

  8. Duality and symmetry in chiral Potts model (United States)

    Roan, Shi-shyr


    We discover an Ising-type duality in the general N-state chiral Potts model, which is the Kramers-Wannier duality of a planar Ising model when N = 2. This duality relates the spectrum and eigenvectors of one chiral Potts model at a low temperature (of small k') to those of another chiral Potts model at a high temperature (of k'-1). The τ(2) model and chiral Potts model on the dual lattice are established alongside of the dual chiral Potts models. With the aid of this duality relation, we exact a precise relationship between the Onsager-algebra symmetry of a homogeneous superintegrable chiral Potts model and the sl2-loop-algebra symmetry of its associated spin- (N-1)/2 XXZ chain through the identification of their eigenstates.

  9. Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan


    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.

  10. Chiral vortical effect for bosons (United States)

    Avkhadiev, Artur; Sadofyev, Andrey V.


    The thermal contribution to the chiral vortical effect is believed to be related to the axial anomaly in external gravitational fields. We use the universality of the spin-gravity interaction to extend this idea to a wider set of phenomena. We consider the Kubo formula at weak coupling for the spin current of a vector field and derive a novel anomalous effect caused by the medium rotation: the chiral vortical effect for bosons. The effect consists in a spin current of vector bosons along the angular velocity of the medium. We argue that it has the same anomalous nature as in the fermionic case and show that this effect provides a mechanism for helicity transfer, from flow helicity to magnetic helicity.

  11. Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson Chiral Fermions


    Mandula, Jeffrey E.


    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luscher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, wh...



    Meijer, E. W.; Feringa, B. L.


    Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical switching is demonstrated. The additional options offered by the combination of circularly polarized light and chiral molecules gives rise to the observation of Second Harmonic Generation from centrosym...

  13. Staggered chiral random matrix theory


    Osborn, James C.


    We present a random matrix theory (RMT) for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered RMT is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.

  14. Formation of imines by selective gold-catalysed aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines under ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegnæs, Søren; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Mentzel, Uffe Vie


    The formation of imines by aerobic oxidative coupling of mixtures of alcohols and amines was studied using gold nanoparticles supported on titanium dioxide, TiO2, as a heterogeneous catalyst. The reactions were performed at ambient conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure) and occurred...

  15. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah


    of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  16. Iron-catalyzed direct synthesis of imines from amines or alcohols and amines via aerobic oxidative reactions under air. (United States)

    Zhang, Erlei; Tian, Haiwen; Xu, Sendong; Yu, Xiaochun; Xu, Qing


    Abundant and cheap iron readily catalyzed the aerobic oxidative reactions of primary amines, secondary amines, benzylamines with anilines, and alcohols with amines by directly using air as the economic and safe oxidant, providing several direct, practical, and greener approaches for the preparation of useful imines.

  17. Azeotropic Preparation of a "C"-Phenyl "N"-Aryl Imine: An Introductory Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment (United States)

    Silverberg, Lee J.; Coyle, David J.; Cannon, Kevin C.; Mathers, Robert T.; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Tierney, John


    Imines are important in biological chemistry and as intermediates in organic synthesis. An experiment for introductory undergraduate organic chemistry is presented in which benzaldehyde was condensed with "p"-methoxyaniline in toluene to give 4-methoxy-"N"-(phenylmethylene)benzenamine. Water was removed by azeotropic…

  18. Hydrogenation of imines catalysed by ruthenium(II) complexes based on lutidine-derived CNC pincer ligands. (United States)

    Hernández-Juárez, Martín; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés


    The preparation of new Ru(II) complexes incorporating fac-coordinated lutidine-derived CNC ligands is reported. These derivatives are selectively deprotonated by (t)BuOK at one of the methylene arms of the pincer, leading to catalytically active species in the hydrogenation of imines.

  19. Aromatic Interactions as Control Elements in Stereoselective Organic Reactions (United States)


    Conspectus This Account describes how attractive interaction of aromatic rings with other groups can influence and control the stereoselectivity of many reactions. Recent developments in theory have led to improved accuracy in the modeling of aromatic interactions. Quantum mechanical modeling can now provide insights into the roles of these interactions at a level of detail not previously accessible, both for ground-state species and for transition states of chemical reactions. In this Account, we show how transition-state modeling led to the discovery of the influence of aryl groups on the stereoselectivities of several types of organic reactions. These reaction types include asymmetric dihydroxylations, transfer hydrogenations, hetero-Diels–Alder reactions, acyl transfers, and Claisen rearrangements. Our recent studies have led to a novel mechanistic picture for two classes of (4+3) cycloadditions, both of which involve reactions of furans with oxyallyl intermediates. The first class of cycloadditions, developed by Hsung, features neutral oxyallyls containing a chiral oxazolidinone auxiliary. Originally, these cycloadditions were thought rely on differential steric crowding of the two faces of a planar intermediate. Computations reveal a different picture and show that cycloadditions with furan takes place preferentially through the more crowded transition state, with furan adding on the same side as the oxazolidinone’s Ph substituent. The crowded transition state is stabilized by a CH–π interaction between furan and Ph, worth about 2.0 kcal/mol. Stereocontrol in a second class of (4+3) cycloadditions, involving chiral alkoxy siloxyallyl cations, also is controlled by attractive interactions with aromatic rings. Alkoxy groups derived from chiral α-methylbenzyl alcohols are found to favor crowded transition states, where a CH–π interaction is again present between furan and Ar. The cationic cycloadditions are stepwise, while the Hsung cycloadditions are

  20. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones. (United States)

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei


    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  1. Chiral Symmetry in Light-front QCD


    Wu, Meng-Hsiu; Zhang, Wei-Min


    The definition of chiral transformations in light-front field theory is very different from the conventional form in equal-time formalism. We study the consistency of chiral transformations and chiral symmetry in light-front QCD and derive a complete new light-front axial-vector current for QCD. The breaking of chiral symmetry in light-front QCD is only associated with helicity flip interaction between quarks and gluons. Remarkably, the new axial-vector current does not contain the pion pole ...

  2. Laser Writing of Multiscale Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Furlani


    Full Text Available A new approach to metamaterials is presented that involves laser-based patterning of novel chiral polymer media, wherein chirality is realized at two distinct length scales, intrinsically at the molecular level and geometrically at a length scale on the order of the wavelength of the incident field. In this approach, femtosecond-pulsed laser-induced two-photon lithography (TPL is used to pattern a photoresist-chiral polymer mixture into planar chiral shapes. Enhanced bulk chirality can be realized by tuning the wavelength-dependent chiral response at both the molecular and geometric level to ensure an overlap of their respective spectra. The approach is demonstrated via the fabrication of a metamaterial consisting of a two-dimensional array of chiral polymer-based L-structures. The fabrication process is described and modeling is performed to demonstrate the distinction between molecular and planar geometric-based chirality and the effects of the enhanced multiscale chirality on the optical response of such media. This new approach to metamaterials holds promise for the development of tunable, polymer-based optical metamaterials with low loss.

  3. Theoretical study on chiral recognition mechanism of methyl mandelate enantiomers on permethylated β-cyclodextrin. (United States)

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Ding, Zuo-Jing; Hu, Ying


    Host-guest interactions of permethylated β-cyclodextrin (PM-β-CD) with methyl mandelate enantiomers ((R/S)-MMA) were simulated using semiempirical PM3 and ONIOM (B3LYP/6-31G(d):PM3) method. The chiral recognition mechanism of (R/S)-MMA enantiomers on PM-β-CD was investigated. The binding energies for all orientations considered in this research are reported. The most stable geometry structures of the two complexes are different. The benzene ring of (R)-MMA locates horizontally approximately on the wider edge of the PM-β-CD cavity, but the aromatic ring of (S)-MMA is deeply included into the hydrophobic cavity. Furthermore, the results of NBO analysis show that the main driving forces in the inclusion process of PM-β-CD with (R/S)-MMA are hydrogen bonding interaction, dipole-dipole interaction, charge-transfer and hydrophobic interaction. The stabilization energy of the (R)-MMA/PM-β-CD complex is lower than that of the (S)-MMA/PM-β-CD complex. Moreover, the chiral carbon in MMA of (R/S)-MMA/PM-β-CD complexes are close to the C2 and C3 in the glucose unit. The chiral recognition mechanism is thus closely related to the chiral environment provided by C2 and C3 in the glucose unit and the degree of (R/S)-MMA and PM-β-CD inclusion.

  4. Poly(Propylene Imine Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wrońska


    Full Text Available Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine (PPI dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3. The concentrations of dendrimers used remained in the range non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. The results indicate that PPI dendrimers significantly enhance the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin alone, allowing antibiotic doses to be reduced. It is important to reduce doses of amoxicillin because its widespread use in medicine could lead to the development of bacterial resistance and environmental pollution. This is the first report on the combined antibacterial activity of PPI surface-modified maltose dendrimers and amoxicillin.

  5. Poly(Propylene Imine) Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents. (United States)

    Wrońska, Natalia; Felczak, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Poszepczyńska, Martyna; Różalska, Sylwia; Bryszewska, Maria; Appelhans, Dietmar; Lisowska, Katarzyna


    Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX) against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3). The concentrations of dendrimers used remained in the range non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. The results indicate that PPI dendrimers significantly enhance the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin alone, allowing antibiotic doses to be reduced. It is important to reduce doses of amoxicillin because its widespread use in medicine could lead to the development of bacterial resistance and environmental pollution. This is the first report on the combined antibacterial activity of PPI surface-modified maltose dendrimers and amoxicillin.

  6. Asymmetric Cycloaddition and Cyclization Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral N,N'-Dioxide-Metal Complexes. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Zheng, Haifeng; Xia, Yong; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming


    Catalytic asymmetric cycloadditions and cascade cyclizations are a major focus for the enantioselective construction of chiral carbo- and heterocycles. A number of chiral Lewis acids and organocatalysts have been designed for such reactions. The development of broadly applicable catalysts bearing novel chiral backbones to meet the demands of various applications is an ongoing challenge. Approximately 10 years ago, we introduced a group of conformationally flexible C2-symmetric N,N'-dioxide amide compounds, which represent a new class of privileged ligands. The coordination of the four oxygens of a chiral N,N'-dioxide around a central metal generates an octahedral tricyclometalated Lewis acid catalyst that can carry out various enantioselective reactions. In this Account, we summarize our recent studies on asymmetric cycloadditions between various dienophiles and dienes, dipoles and dipolarophiles, and cascade cyclizations catalyzed by chiral N,N'-dioxide-metal complexes. In principle, these unique chiral catalysts lower the LUMO energy of electron-deficient 2π components or heterodienes by coordination with the functional groups via various binding modes. With N-Boc-3-alkenyloxindole and alkylidene malonate as the electron-deficient 2π components, N,N'-dioxide-metal complexes provided excellent catalytic activities and asymmetric inductions for a variety of transformations, including [2 + 1], [3 + 2], [4 + 2], and [8 + 2] cycloadditions. Mechanistically, these substrates could be efficiently activated through bidentate coordination. The strategy was also useful for asymmetric cascade cyclizations to form polycyclic adducts. Monodentate or bidentate coordination of other α,β-unsubstituted carbonyl compounds to metal centers enabled both normal Diels-Alder reactions and inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions as well as [2 + 2] additions. Furthermore, hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of aldehydes, ketones, and imines are well-tolerated and afford various

  7. The Optical Chirality Flux as a Useful Far-Field Probe of Chiral Near Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Poulikakos, Lisa V; McPeak, Kevin M; Burger, Sven; Niegemann, Jens; Hafner, Christian; Norris, David J


    To optimize the interaction between chiral matter and highly twisted light, quantities that can help characterize chiral electromagnetic fields near nanostructures are needed. Here, by analogy with Poynting's theorem, we formulate the time-averaged conservation law of optical chirality in lossy dispersive media and identify the optical chirality flux as an ideal far-field observable for characterizing chiral optical near fields. Bounded by the conservation law, we show that it provides precise information, unavailable from circular dichroism spectroscopy, on the magnitude and handedness of highly twisted fields near nanostructures.

  8. Photodissociation of aromatic azides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budyka, M F [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    Quantitative data on the photochemical activity of aromatic azides and on the mechanism and kinetics of azido group photodissociation are analysed and described systematically for the first time. The results of quantum chemical calculations of the azide structure in the ground and lower electronically excited states and the potential energy surfaces along the reaction coordinate of the N-N{sub 2} bond dissociation are considered.

  9. A possible mechanism for enantioselectivity in the chiral epoxidation of olefins with. (United States)

    Jacobsen, H; Cavallo, L


    The origin of enantioselectivity in the Jacobsen-Katsuki reaction has been investigated by applying density functional calculations in combination with molecular mechanics methodologies. The calculations suggest that a high enantiomeric excess is connected to three specific features: 1) a chiral diimine bridge, which induces folding of the salen ligand(H2salen = bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine), and hence the formation of a chiral pocket; 2) bulky groups at the 3,3'-positions of the salen ligand, which cause a preferential approach from the side of the aromatic rings; and 3) pi conjugation of the olefinic double bond, which confers regioselectivity and, consequently, enantioselectivity. In combination with experimental studies, the model also provides a rationale for the decrease in ee values when one of these components is missing.

  10. Chirally-modified metal surfaces: energetics of interaction with chiral molecules. (United States)

    Dementyev, Petr; Peter, Matthias; Adamovsky, Sergey; Schauermann, Swetlana


    Imparting chirality to non-chiral metal surfaces by adsorption of chiral modifiers is a highly promising route to create effective heterogeneously catalyzed processes for the production of enantiopure pharmaceuticals. One of the major current challenges in heterogeneous chiral catalysis is the fundamental-level understanding of how such chirally-modified surfaces interact with chiral and prochiral molecules to induce their enantioselective transformations. Herein we report the first direct calorimetric measurement of the adsorption energy of chiral molecules onto well-defined chirally-modified surfaces. Two model modifiers 1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine and 2-methylbutanoic acid were used to impart chirality to Pt(111) and their interaction with propylene oxide was investigated by means of single-crystal adsorption calorimetry. Differential adsorption energies and absolute surface uptakes were obtained for the R- and S-enantiomers of propylene oxide under clean ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Two types of adsorption behavior were observed for different chiral modifiers, pointing to different mechanisms of imparting chirality to metal surfaces. The results are analyzed and discussed in view of previously reported stereoselectivity of adsorption processes.

  11. Evaluation of Dalbavancin as chiral selector for HPLC and comparison with Teicoplanin based chiral stationary phases (United States)



    Dalbavancin is a new compound of the macrocyclic glycopeptide family. It was covalently linked to 5μm silica particles by using two different binding chemsitries. Approximately two hundred and fifty racemates including (A) heterocyclic compounds; (B) chiral acids; (C) chiral amines; (D) chiral alcohols; (E) chiral sulfoxides and sulfilimines; (F) amino acids and amino acid derivatives; and (G) other chiral compounds were tested on the two new chiral stationary phases (CSP) using three different mobile phases. As dalbavancin is structurally related to teicoplanin, the same set of chiral compounds was screened on two commercially available teicoplanin CSPs for comparison. The dalbavancin CSPs were able to separate some enantiomers that were not separated by the teicoplanin CSPs and also showed improved separations for many racemates. However, there were other compounds only separated or better separated on teicoplanin CSPS. Therefore, the dalbavancin CSPs are complementary to the teicoplanin CSPs. PMID:19676111

  12. Titanium-mediated reductive cross-coupling reactions of imines with terminal alkynes: An efficient route for the synthesis of stereodefined allylic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin Mao


    Full Text Available Low-valency titanium species, generated in situ by using Ti(OiPr4/2 c-C5H9MgCl reagent, react with imines to give a titanium-imine complex that can couple with terminal alkynes to provide azatitanacyclopentenes with excellent regioselectivity. Stereodefined allylic amines are obtained in good yields after hydrolysis or iodonolysis of the corresponding azatitanacyclopentenes. When ethynylcyclopropane is used as the coupling partner to react with imines in this reaction, the initially generated allylic amine undergoes an unexpected 1,3-amino migration on silica gel during the column chromatography.

  13. A spectral route to determining chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger


    We show how one-dimensional structured media can be used to measure chirality, via the spectral shift of the photonic band gap edges. Analytically, we show that a chiral contrast can, in some cases, be mapped unto an index contrast, thereby greatly simplifying the analysis of such structures. Usi...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Feringa, B.L.


    Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical

  15. Orientation-Dependent Handedness and Chiral Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Efrati


    Full Text Available Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in the paradox of chiral connectedness. In this work, we put forward a quantification scheme in which the handedness of an object depends on the direction in which it is viewed. While consistent with familiar chiral notions, such as the right-hand rule, this framework allows objects to be simultaneously right and left handed. We demonstrate this orientation dependence in three different systems—a biomimetic elastic bilayer, a chiral propeller, and optical metamaterial—and find quantitative agreement with chirality pseudotensors whose form we explicitly compute. The use of this approach resolves the existing paradoxes and naturally enables the design of handed metamaterials from symmetry principles.

  16. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.


    The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum chiral anomaly [S. L. Adler. Axial-vector vertex in spinor electrodynamics. Physical Review, 177, 2426 (1969), J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw. A PCAC puzzle: π 0 γγin the σ-model. Il Nuovo Cimento A, 60, 47-61 (1969)] in systems possessing charged chiral fermions. In quark-gluon plasma containing nearly massless quarks, the chirality imbalance is sourced by the topological transitions. In condensed matter systems, the chiral quasiparticles emerge in gapless semiconductors with two energy bands having pointlike degeneracies opening the path to the study of chiral anomaly [H. B. Nielsen and M. Ninomiya. The Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly and Weyl fermions in a crystal. Physics Letters B, 130, 389-396 (1983)]. Recently, these novel materials - so-called Dirac and Weyl semimetals have been discovered experimentally, are suitable for the investigation of the CME in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first experimental observation of the CME in a 3D Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 [Q. Li, D. E. Kharzeev, C. Zhang, Y. Huang, I. Pletikosić, A. V. Fedorov, R. D. Zhong, J. A. Schneeloch, G. D. Gu, and T. Valla. Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5. Nature Physics (2016) doi:10.1038/nphys3648].

  17. High harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules. (United States)

    Wang, Dian; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Xi; Li, Liang; Zhang, Xiaofan; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang


    Axial chiral molecules, whose stereogenic element is an axis rather than a chiral center, have attracted widespread interest due to their important application, such as asymmetric synthesis and chirality transfer. We investigate high harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules with bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields. High harmonic generation from three typical molecules: (Sa)-3-chloropropa-1,2-dien-1-ol, propadiene, and (Ra)-2,3-pentadiene is simulated with time-dependent density-functional theory and strong field approximation. We found that harmonic spectra for 3D oriented axial chiral molecules exhibit obvious circular dichroism. However, the circular dichroism of High harmonic generation from an achiral molecule is much trivial. Moreover, the dichroism of high harmonic generation still exists when axial chiral molecules are 1D oriented,such as (Sa) -3-chloropropa-1,2-dien-1-ol. For a special form of axial chiral molecules with the formula abC=C=Cab (a, b are different substituents), like (Ra)-2,3-pentadiene, the dichroism discriminations disappear when the molecules are only in 1D orientation. The circular dichroism of high harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules is well explained by the trajectory analysis based on the semiclassical three-step mechanism.

  18. On infinite regular and chiral maps


    Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán


    We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.

  19. Chiral gauge theories with domain wall fermions


    Golterman, M.; Jansen, K.; Petcher, D.; Vink, J.


    We have investigated a proposal to construct chiral gauge theories on the lattice using domain wall fermions. The model contains two opposite chirality zeromodes, which live on two domain walls. We couple only one of them to a gauge field, but find that mirror fermions which also couple to the gauge field always seem to exist.

  20. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness. +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is ...

  1. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is about 30 MeV.

  2. Transport properties of chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhr, Matthias


    Anomalous transport phenomena have their origin in the chiral anomaly, the anomalous non-conservation of the axial charge, and can arise in systems with chiral fermions. The anomalous transport properties of free fermions are well understood, but little is known about possible corrections to the anomalous transport coefficients that can occur if the fermions are strongly interacting. The main goal of this thesis is to study anomalous transport effects in media with strongly interacting fermions. In particular, we investigate the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in a Weyl Semimetal (WSM) and the Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in finite-density Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The recently discovered WSMs are solid state crystals with low-energy excitations that behave like Weyl fermions. The inter-electron interaction in WSMs is typically very strong and non-perturbative calculations are needed to connect theory and experiment. To realistically model an interacting, parity-breaking WSM we use a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian with Wilson-Dirac fermions. This model features a non-trivial phase diagram and has a phase (Aoki phase/axionic insulator phase) with spontaneously broken CP symmetry, corresponding to the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry for interacting continuum Dirac fermions. We use a mean-field ansatz to study the CME in spatially modulated magnetic fields and find that it vanishes in the Aoki phase. Moreover, our calculations show that outside of the Aoki phase the electron interaction has only a minor influence on the CME. We observe no enhancement of the magnitude of the CME current. For our non-perturbative study of the CSE in QCD we use the framework of lattice QCD with overlap fermions. We work in the quenched approximation to avoid the sign problem that comes with introducing a finite chemical potential on the lattice. The overlap operator calls for the evaluation of the sign function of a matrix with a dimension proportional to the volume

  3. Microwave chirality discrimination in enantiomeric liquids (United States)

    Hollander, E.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R.


    Chirality discrimination is of fundamental interest in biology, chemistry, and metamaterial studies. In optics, near-field plasmon-resonance spectroscopy with superchiral probing fields is effectively applicable for analyses of large biomolecules with chiral properties. We show possibility for microwave near-field chirality discrimination analysis based on magnon-resonance spectroscopy. Newly developed capabilities in microwave sensing using magnetoelectric (ME) probing fields originated from multiresonance magnetic-dipolar-mode oscillations in quasi-2D yttrium-iron-garnet disks provide potential for unprecedented measurements of chemical and biological objects. We report on microwave near-field chirality discrimination for aqueous D- and L-glucose solutions. The shown ME-field sensing is addressed to deepen our understanding of microwave-biosystem interactions. It can also be important for an analysis and design of microwave chiral metamaterials.

  4. Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry (United States)

    Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.


    The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in {SU}(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadron spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly interacting constituent quarks.

  5. Enantioselective environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides. (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Zhao, Meirong; Niu, Lili; Liu, Weiping


    The enantioselective environmental toxic effect of chiral pesticides is becoming more important. As the industry develops, increasing numbers of chiral insecticides and herbicides will be introduced into use, potentially posing toxic effects on nontarget living beings. Chiral pesticides, including herbicides such as acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids, and imidazolinones, and insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, and DDT often behave enantioselectively during agricultural use. These compounds also pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological threats to nontarget living beings and/or humans, affecting the food chain and entire ecosystems. Thus, to investigate the enantioselective toxic effects of chiral insecticides and herbicides is necessary during environmental protection. The environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides, especially the findings obtained from studies conducted in our laboratory during the past 10 years, is reviewed.

  6. Genetically programmed chiral organoborane synthesis (United States)

    Kan, S. B. Jennifer; Huang, Xiongyi; Gumulya, Yosephine; Chen, Kai; Arnold, Frances H.


    Recent advances in enzyme engineering and design have expanded nature’s catalytic repertoire to functions that are new to biology. However, only a subset of these engineered enzymes can function in living systems. Finding enzymatic pathways that form chemical bonds that are not found in biology is particularly difficult in the cellular environment, as this depends on the discovery not only of new enzyme activities, but also of reagents that are both sufficiently reactive for the desired transformation and stable in vivo. Here we report the discovery, evolution and generalization of a fully genetically encoded platform for producing chiral organoboranes in bacteria. Escherichia coli cells harbouring wild-type cytochrome c from Rhodothermus marinus (Rma cyt c) were found to form carbon–boron bonds in the presence of borane–Lewis base complexes, through carbene insertion into boron–hydrogen bonds. Directed evolution of Rma cyt c in the bacterial catalyst provided access to 16 novel chiral organoboranes. The catalyst is suitable for gram-scale biosynthesis, providing up to 15,300 turnovers, a turnover frequency of 6,100 h–1, a 99:1 enantiomeric ratio and 100% chemoselectivity. The enantiopreference of the biocatalyst could also be tuned to provide either enantiomer of the organoborane products. Evolved in the context of whole-cell catalysts, the proteins were more active in the whole-cell system than in purified forms. This study establishes a DNA-encoded and readily engineered bacterial platform for borylation; engineering can be accomplished at a pace that rivals the development of chemical synthetic methods, with the ability to achieve turnovers that are two orders of magnitude (over 400-fold) greater than those of known chiral catalysts for the same class of transformation. This tunable method for manipulating boron in cells could expand the scope of boron chemistry in living systems.

  7. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo


    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.

  8. Induction of Chirality in Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Chiral 2D MoS2Nanostructures. (United States)

    Purcell-Milton, Finn; McKenna, Robert; Brennan, Lorcan J; Cullen, Conor P; Guillemeney, Lilian; Tepliakov, Nikita V; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Perova, Tatiana S; Duesberg, Georg S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gun'ko, Yurii K


    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been intensively investigated due to their interesting properties and range of potential applications. Although most research has focused on graphene, atomic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and particularly MoS 2 have gathered much deserved attention recently. Here, we report the induction of chirality into 2D chiral nanomaterials by carrying out liquid exfoliation of MoS 2 in the presence of chiral ligands (cysteine and penicillamine) in water. This processing resulted in exfoliated chiral 2D MoS 2 nanosheets showing strong circular dichroism signals, which were far past the onset of the original chiral ligand signals. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrated that the chiral nature of MoS 2 nanosheets is related to the presence of chiral ligands causing preferential folding of the MoS 2 sheets. There was an excellent match between the theoretically calculated and experimental spectra. We believe that, due to their high aspect ratio planar morphology, chiral 2D nanomaterials could offer great opportunities for the development of chiroptical sensors, materials, and devices for valleytronics and other potential applications. In addition, chirality plays a key role in many chemical and biological systems, with chiral molecules and materials critical for the further development of biopharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, and this research therefore should have a strong impact on relevant areas of science and technology such as nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Guven, Zekiye P.


    Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Chirality controlled responsive self-assembled nanotubes in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, D. J.; Stacko, P.; Stuart, M. C. A.; Browne, W. R.; Feringa, B. L.


    The concept of using chirality to dictate dimensions and to store chiral information in self-assembled nanotubes in a fully controlled manner is presented. We report a photoresponsive amphiphile that co-assembles with its chiral counterpart to form nanotubes and demonstrate how chirality can be used

  11. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias O. Senge


    Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.

  12. Confining Functional Nanoparticles into Colloidal Imine-Based COF Spheres by a Sequential Encapsulation-Crystallization Method. (United States)

    Rodríguez-San-Miguel, David; Yazdi, Amirali; Guillerm, Vincent; Pérez-Carvajal, Javier; Puntes, Víctor; Maspoch, Daniel; Zamora, Félix


    Here, a two-step method is reported that enables imparting new functionalities to covalent organic frameworks (COFs) by nanoparticle confinement. The direct reaction between 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbaldehyde in the presence of a variety of metallic/metal-oxide nanoparticles resulted in embedding of the nanoparticles in amorphous and non-porous imine-linked polymer organic spheres (NP@a-1). Post-treatment reactions of NP@a-1 with acetic acid under reflux led to crystalline and porous imine-based COF-hybrid spheres (NP@c-1). Interestingly, Au@c-1 and Pd@c-1 were found to be catalytically active. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Toxicity of imine-iminium dyes and pigments: electron transfer, radicals, oxidative stress and other physiological effects. (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy


    Although conjugation is well known as an important contributor to color, there is scant recognition concerning involvement of imine and iminium functions in the physiological effects of this class of dyes and pigments. The group includes the dyes methylene blue, rhodamine, malachite green, fuchsin, crystal violet, auramine and cyanins, in addition to the pigments consisting of pyocyanine, phthalocyanine and pheophytin. The physiological effects consist of both toxicity and beneficial aspects. The unifying theme of electron transfer-reactive oxygen species-oxidative stress is used as the rationale in both cases. Toxicity is frequently prevented or alleviated by antioxidants. The apparent dichotomy of methylene blue action as both oxidant and antioxidant is rationalized based on similar previous cases. This mechanistic approach may have practical benefit. This review is important in conveying, for the first time, a unifying mechanism for toxicity based on electron transfer-reactive oxygen species-oxidative stress arising from imine-iminium. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis, structure and stability of a chiral imine-based Schiff-based ligand derived from L-glutamic acid and its [Cu4] complex (United States)

    Muche, Simon; Levacheva, Irina; Samsonova, Olga; Biernasiuk, Anna; Malm, Anna; Lonsdale, Richard; Popiołek, Łukasz; Bakowsky, Udo; Hołyńska, Małgorzata


    Studies of the stability of a ligand derived from L-glutamic acid and ortho-vanillin and its new [Cu4] complex are presented. The [Cu4] complex contains a heterocubane [CuII4O4] core and pendant carboxylic groups increasing its solubility in water, also under basic conditions. The stability of the complex in different solvents is confirmed with ESI-MS studies and such experiments as successful recrystallization. The complex is stable also under physiological conditions whereas the ligand is partly decomposed to L-glutamic acid and ortho-vanillin.

  15. Total synthesis of fluoxetine and duloxetine through an in situ imine formation/borylation/transimination and reduction approach. (United States)

    Calow, Adam D J; Fernández, Elena; Whiting, Andrew


    We report efficient, catalytic, asymmetric total syntheses of both (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes conducting five sequential one-pot steps (imine formation/copper mediated β-borylation/transimination/reduction/oxidation) followed by the specific ether group formation which deliver the desired products (R)-fluoxetine in 45% yield (96% ee) and (S)-duloxetine in 47% yield (94% ee).

  16. Synthesis of 2-azetidinones from 2-diazo-1, 2-diarylethanones and N-(2-thienylidene)imines as possible antimicrobial agents. (United States)

    Singh, Girija S; Mmolotsi, Boycie J


    An equimolar reaction of 2-diazo-1, 2-diarylethanones with N-(2-thienylidene)imines affords 1-substituted-3, 3-diaryl-4-(2-thienyl)-2-azetidinones in excellent yields. The products have been characterized on the basis of satisfactory analytical and spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR, MS) data. The mechanism of formation of the products is shown. The antimicrobial activity of the compounds against some Gram(+) and Gram(-) bacteria, and fungi is reported.

  17. Enhanced Chiral Discriminatory van der Waals Interactions Mediated by Chiral Surfaces (United States)

    Barcellona, Pablo; Safari, Hassan; Salam, A.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi


    We predict a discriminatory interaction between a chiral molecule and an achiral molecule which is mediated by a chiral body. To achieve this, we generalize the van der Waals interaction potential between two ground-state molecules with electric, magnetic, and chiral response to nontrivial environments. The force is evaluated using second-order perturbation theory with an effective Hamiltonian. Chiral media enhance or reduce the free interaction via many-body interactions, making it possible to measure the chiral contributions to the van der Waals force with current technology. The van der Waals interaction is discriminatory with respect to enantiomers of different handedness and could be used to separate enantiomers. We also suggest a specific geometric configuration where the electric contribution to the van der Waals interaction is zero, making the chiral component the dominant effect.

  18. Enhanced Chiral Discriminatory van der Waals Interactions Mediated by Chiral Surfaces. (United States)

    Barcellona, Pablo; Safari, Hassan; Salam, A; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi


    We predict a discriminatory interaction between a chiral molecule and an achiral molecule which is mediated by a chiral body. To achieve this, we generalize the van der Waals interaction potential between two ground-state molecules with electric, magnetic, and chiral response to nontrivial environments. The force is evaluated using second-order perturbation theory with an effective Hamiltonian. Chiral media enhance or reduce the free interaction via many-body interactions, making it possible to measure the chiral contributions to the van der Waals force with current technology. The van der Waals interaction is discriminatory with respect to enantiomers of different handedness and could be used to separate enantiomers. We also suggest a specific geometric configuration where the electric contribution to the van der Waals interaction is zero, making the chiral component the dominant effect.

  19. Enhancing circular dichroism by super chiral hot spots from a chiral metasurface with apexes (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Teh, Bing Hong; Wang, Yue; Adamo, Giorgio; Teng, Jinghua; Sun, Handong


    Manipulating light spin (or circular polarization) is an important research field and may find broad applications from sensors, display technology, to quantum computing and communication. To this end, planar metasurfaces with larger circular dichroism are strongly demanded. However, current planar chiral metasurface structures suffer from either fabrication challenge, especially from near-infrared to visible spectrum, or insufficient circular dichroism. Here, we report a chiral metasurface composed of achiral nanoholes which allow for precisely creating apexes in the designed structure. Our investigation indicates that the apexes act as super chiral hot spots and enable the highly concentrated near-field optical chirality leading to a remarkable enhancement of circular dichroism in the far-field. A 4-fold enhancement of the circular dichroism and a strong optical activity of ˜15 degrees have been experimentally achieved. Besides the enhanced chirality, our design genuinely overcomes the nanofabrication challenge faced in existing planar chiral metasurfaces.

  20. Potential-driven chirality manifestations and impressive enantioselectivity by inherently chiral electroactive organic films. (United States)

    Sannicolò, Francesco; Arnaboldi, Serena; Benincori, Tiziana; Bonometti, Valentina; Cirilli, Roberto; Dunsch, Lothar; Kutner, Włodzimierz; Longhi, Giovanna; Mussini, Patrizia R; Panigati, Monica; Pierini, Marco; Rizzo, Simona


    The typical design of chiral electroactive materials involves attaching chiral pendants to an electroactive polyconjugated backbone and generally results in modest chirality manifestations. Discussed herein are electroactive chiral poly-heterocycles, where chirality is not external to the electroactive backbone but inherent to it, and results from a torsion generated by the periodic presence of atropisomeric, conjugatively active biheteroaromatic scaffolds, (3,3'-bithianaphthene). As the stereogenic element coincides with the electroactive one, films of impressive chiroptical activity and outstanding enantiodiscrimination properties are obtained. Moreover, chirality manifestations can be finely and reversibly tuned by the electric potential, as progressive injection of holes forces the two thianaphthene rings to co-planarize to favor delocalization. Such deformations, revealed by CD spectroelectrochemistry, are elastic and reversible, thus suggesting a breathing system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. "Carbo-aromaticity" and novel carbo-aromatic compounds. (United States)

    Cocq, Kévin; Lepetit, Christine; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi


    While the concept of aromaticity is being more and more precisely delineated, the category of "aromatic compounds" is being more and more expanded. This is illustrated by an introductory highlight of the various types of "aromaticity" previously invoked, and by a focus on the recently proposed "aromatic character" of the "two-membered rings" of the acetylene and butatriene molecules. This serves as a general foundation for the definition of "carbo-aromaticity", the relevance of which is surveyed through recent results in the synthetic, physical, and theoretical chemistry of carbo-mers and in particular macrocyclic-polycyclic representatives constituting a natural family of "novel aromatic compounds". With respect to their parent molecules, carbo-mers are constitutionally defined as "carbon-enriched", and can also be functionally regarded as "π-electron-enriched". This is exemplified by recent experimental and theoretical results on functional, aromatic, rigid, σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-benzene archetypes of various substitution patterns, with emphasis on the quadrupolar pattern. For the purpose of comparison, several types of non-aromatic references of carbo-benzenes are then considered, i.e. freely rotating σ,π-acyclic carbo-n-butadienes and flexible σ-cyclic, π-acyclic carbo-cyclohexadienes, and to "pro-aromatic" congeners, i.e. rigid σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-quinoids. It is shown that functional carbo-mers are entering the field of "molecular materials" for properties such as linear or nonlinear optical properties (e.g. dichromism and two-photon absorption) and single molecule conductivity. Since total or partial carbo-mers of aromatic carbon-allotropes of infinite size such as graphene (graphynes and graphdiynes) and graphite ("graphitynes") have long been addressed at the theoretical or conceptual level, recent predictive advances on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of such carbo-materials are surveyed. Very preliminary experimental results

  2. Investigation of the enantioselectivity of tetramethylammonium L-hydroxyproline ionic liquid as a novel chiral ligand in ligand-exchange CE and ligand-exchange MEKC. (United States)

    Liu, Ruijuan; Du, Yingxiang; Chen, Jiaquan; Zhang, Qi; Du, Shuaijing; Feng, Zijie


    Chiral ionic liquids (ILs) have drawn more and more attention in separation science; however, only a few papers focused on the application of chiral ILs as chiral ligands in LE-CE. In this article, a novel amino acid ionic liquid (AAIL), tetramethylammonium L-hydroxyproline ([TMA][L-OH-Pro]), was first applied as a chiral ligand to evaluate its enantioselectivity towards several aromatic amino acids in ligand-exchange capillary electrophoresis (LE-CE) and ligand-exchange micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (LE-MEKC). In the LE-CE system, excellent separations were achieved for tryptophan (Rs = 3.03) and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) (Rs = 4.35). Several parameters affecting the enantioseparation were systematically investigated, including AAIL concentration, type and concentration of central metal ion, buffer pH, as well as applied voltage. The optimum separation was obtained with 60 mM AAIL containing 30 mM Cu (II) at pH 4.5. Additionally, an LE-MEKC system was established to further study the enantioselectivity of [TMA][L-OH-Pro] towards selected analytes. As observed, the separations of the enantiomers of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and histidine were all improved compared to the LE-CE system. The results indicated that the application of AAILs as chiral ligands is a promising method in chiral separation science. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Model for chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, J.; Weyers, J.; Mandula, J.E.


    A recently proposed model for dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is extended and developed for the calculation of pion and chiral symmetry breaking parameters. The pion is explicitly realized as a massless Goldstone boson and as a bound state of the constituent quarks. We compute, in the limit of exact chiral symmetry, Msub(Q), the constituent quark mass, fsub(..pi..), the pion decay coupling, , the constituent quark loop density, 2//msub(q), the ratio of the Goldstone boson mass squared to the bare quark mass, and sub(..pi..), the pion electromagnetic charge radius squared.

  4. Partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iritani, Takumi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP) (Japan); Cossu, Guido [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Hashimoto, Shoji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai) (Japan)


    We investigate the spatial distribution of the chiral condensate around static color sources for both quark-antiquark and three-quark systems. In the QCD vacuum a tube-like structure of chromo fields appears between color sources, which leads to a linearly confining potential. We show that the magnitude of the condensate is reduced inside the flux-tube, which suggests that chiral symmetry is partially restored inside the hadrons. By using a static baryon source in a periodic box as a model of the nuclear matter, we estimate the restoration of chiral symmetry with finite baryon number density.

  5. Partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside hadrons (United States)

    Iritani, Takumi; Cossu, Guido; Hashimoto, Shoji


    We investigate the spatial distribution of the chiral condensate around static color sources for both quark-antiquark and three-quark systems. In the QCD vacuum a tube-like structure of chromo fields appears between color sources, which leads to a linearly confining potential. We show that the magnitude of the condensate is reduced inside the flux-tube, which suggests that chiral symmetry is partially restored inside the hadrons. By using a static baryon source in a periodic box as a model of the nuclear matter, we estimate the restoration of chiral symmetry with finite baryon number density.

  6. Enhanced Chiral Recognition by Cyclodextrin Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Jan Ravoo


    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the effect of multivalency in chiral recognition. To this end, we measured the host-guest interaction of a β-cyclodextrin dimer with divalent chiral guests. We report the synthesis of carbohydrate-based water soluble chiral guests functionalized with two borneol, menthol, or isopinocampheol units in either (+ or (– configuration. We determined the interaction of these divalent guests with a β-cyclodextrin dimer using isothermal titration calorimetry. It was found that—in spite of a highly unfavorable conformation—the cyclodextrin dimer binds to guest dimers with an increased enantioselectivity, which clearly reflects the effect of multivalency.

  7. Exploring chiral dynamics with overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Hidenori


    This talk presents a lattice study of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking performed by the JLQCD and TWQCD collaborations with dynamical overlap fermions. Our lattice configurations are generated in a fixed topological sector. Since finite volume effects, partly due to the fixed global topology, are mainly induced by pion fields, the dependence on the lattice volume, topological charge and quark masses can be analytically predicted using chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). We find a good agreement of Dirac operator spectrum calculated on the lattice with the ChPT prediction including its finite size scalings, through which the chiral condensate is determined with good accuracy.

  8. N = 3 chiral supergravity compatible with the reality condition and higher N chiral Lagrangian density


    Tsuda, Motomu


    We obtain N = 3 chiral supergravity (SUGRA) compatible with the reality condition by applying the prescription of constructing the chiral Lagrangian density from the usual SUGRA. The $N = 3$ chiral Lagrangian density in first-order form, which leads to the Ashtekar's canonical formulation, is determined so that it reproduces the second-order Lagrangian density of the usual SUGRA especially by adding appropriate four-fermion contact terms. We show that the four-fermion contact terms added in t...

  9. Review of aqueous chiral electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) with an emphasis on chiral microemulsion EKC. (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P


    The separation of enantiomers using electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) with chiral microemulsions is comprehensively reviewed through December 1, 2006. Aqueous chiral EKC separations based on other pseudostationary phases such as micelles and vesicles or on other chiral selectors such as CDs, crown ethers, glycopeptides, ligand exchange moeities are also reviewed from both mechanistic and applications perspective for the period of January 2005 to December 1, 2006.

  10. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li


    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  11. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids (United States)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Murchikova, Elena


    In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.

  12. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 845 W Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, M/S 298, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Murchikova, Elena [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium {sup 3}He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.

  13. Ruthenium complexes with chiral tetradentate PNNP ligands: asymmetric catalysis from the viewpoint of inorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Mezzetti, Antonio


    This is a personal account of the application of ruthenium complexes containing chiral tetradentate ligands with a P(2)N(2) ligand set (PNNP) as catalyst precursors for enantioselective "atom transfer" reactions. Therewith are meant reactions that involve bond formation between a metal-coordinated molecule and a free reagent. The reactive fragment (e.g. carbene) is transferred either from the metal to the non-coordinated substrate (e.g. olefin) or from the free reagent (e.g. F(+)) to the metal-bound substrate (e.g.beta-ketoester), depending on the class of catalyst (monocationic, Class A; or dicationic, Class B). The monocationic five-coordinate species [RuCl(PNNP)](+) and the six-coordinate complexes [RuCl(L)(PNNP)](+) (L = Et(2)O, H(2)O) of Class A catalyse asymmetric epoxidation, cyclopropanation (carbene transfer from the metal to the free olefin), and imine aziridination. Alternatively, the dicationic complexes [Ru(L-L)(PNNP)](2+) (Class B), which contain substrates that act as neutral bidentate ligands L-L (e.g., beta-ketoesters), catalyse Michael addition, electrophilic fluorination, and hydroxylation reactions. Additionally, unsaturated beta-ketoesters form dicationic complexes of Class B that catalyse Diels-Alder reactions with acyclic dienes to produce tetrahydro-1-indanones and estrone derivatives. Excellent enantioselectivity has been achieved in several of the catalytic reactions mentioned above. The study of key reaction intermediates (both in the solid state and in solution) has revealed significant mechanistic aspects of the catalytic reactions.

  14. Coarse-grained simulations of poly(propylene imine) dendrimers in solution (United States)

    Smeijers, A. F.; Markvoort, A. J.; Pieterse, K.; Hilbers, P. A. J.


    The behavior of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers in concentrated solutions has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations containing up to a thousand PPI dendrimers of generation 4 or 5 in explicit water. To deal with large system sizes and time scales required to study the solutions over a wide range of dendrimer concentrations, a previously published coarse-grained model was applied. Simulation results on the radius of gyration, structure factor, intermolecular spacing, dendrimer interpenetration, and water penetration are compared with available experimental data, providing a clear concentration dependent molecular picture of PPI dendrimers. It is shown that with increasing concentration the dendrimer volume diminishes accompanied by a reduction of internalized water, ultimately resulting in solvent filled cavities between stacked dendrimers. Concurrently dendrimer interpenetration increases only slightly, leaving each dendrimer a separate entity also at high concentrations. Moreover, we compare apparent structure factors, as calculated in experimental studies relying on the decoupling approximation and the constant atomic form factor assumption, with directly computed structure factors. We demonstrate that these already diverge at rather low concentrations, not because of small changes in form factor, but rather because the decoupling approximation fails as monomer positions of separate dendrimers become correlated at concentrations well below the overlap concentration.

  15. Terpyridine-Containing Imine-Rich Graphene for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Seok Lee


    Full Text Available We report a facile synthetic method for the preparation of a terpyridine-containing imine-rich graphene (IrGO-Tpy using an acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction between graphene oxide (GO and 4′-(aminophenyl-2,2′:6′2″-terpyridine. Owing to the presence of terpyridine ligands, cobalt ions (Co2+ were readily incorporated into the IrGO-Tpy structures, affording a metal complex, denoted IrGo-Tpy-Co. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry measurements confirm the noticeable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR activities of the IrGo-Tpy and IrGo-Tpy-Co electroacatalysts in alkaline electrolytes, along with the additional merits of high selectivity, excellent long-term durability, and good resistance to methanol crossover. In addition, a remarkable improvement in the ORR performance was observed for IrGO-Tpy-Co compared with that of IrGo-Tpy, arising from the significant contribution of the cobalt-terpyridine complex in facilitating the ORR process.

  16. Fluorogenic ratiometric dipodal optode containing imine-amide linkages: Exploiting subtle thorium (IV) ion sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayade, Kundan [School of Chemical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India); Kaur, Amanpreet [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Tetgure, Sandesh [School of Chemical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India); Chaitanya, G. Krishana [School of Chemical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Tirth Marathawada University, Nanded (India); Singh, Narinder [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar, Punjab (India); Kuwar, Anil, E-mail: [School of Chemical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India)


    Highlights: • A highly selective, simple, noncyclic, imine-amide based dipodal off–on fluorescence chemosensor for Th{sup 4+} ion is reported. • Sensing mechanism is based upon twisted plane intramolecular charge–transfer upon interaction with cations. • Th{sup 4+} ion on detection limit (as low as 0.1 μM) is reported. • This system can also be applied in real samples. - Abstract: The (13E,19E)-N1′,N3′-bis[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzylidene]malonohydrazide (L) has been developed for the detection of Th{sup 4+} ions using dual channel signalling system. The UV–vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed the formation of L–Th{sup 4+} complex in 1:1 equilibrium. The density functional theory (DFT) also confirms the optimum binding cavity for the recognition of metal ion. The binding constant computed from different mathematical models for an assembly of L–Th{sup 4+}. The detection limit of L for Th{sup 4+} recognition is to a concentration down to 0.1 μM (0.023 μg g{sup −1}). The present sensing system is also successfully applied for the detection of Th{sup 4+} ion present in soil near nuclear atomic plants.

  17. Chiral extrapolations for nucleon electric charge radii

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J M M; Young, R D


    Lattice simulations for the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon yield insights into the internal structure of hadrons. The logarithmic divergence of the charge radius in the chiral limit poses an interesting challenge in achieving reliable predictions from finite-volume lattice simulations. Recent results near the physical pion mass are examined in order to confront the issue of how the chiral regime is approached. The electric charge radius of the nucleon presents a forum for achieving consistent finite-volume corrections. Newly-developed techniques within the framework of chiral effective field theory are used to achieve a robust extrapolation of the electric charge radius to the physical pion mass, and to infinite volume. The chiral extrapolations exhibit considerable finite-volume dependence; lattice box sizes of L > 7 fm are required in order to achieve a direct lattice simulation result within 2% of the infinite-volume value at the physical point. Predictions of the volume-dependence are provide...

  18. Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, Matt M


    This paper develops, in precise quantum electrodynamic terms, photonic attributes of the "optical chirality density", one of several measures long known to be conserved quantities for a vacuum electromagnetic field. The analysis lends insights into some recent interpretations of chiroptical experiments, in which this measure, and an associated chirality flux, have been treated as representing physically distinctive "superchiral" phenomena. In the fully quantized formalism the chirality density is promoted to operator status, whose exploration with reference to an arbitrary polarization basis reveals relationships to optical angular momentum and helicity operators. Analyzing multi-mode beams with complex wave-front structures, notably Laguerre-Gaussian modes, affords a deeper understanding of the interplay between optical chirality and optical angular momentum. By developing theory with due cognizance of the photonic character of light, it emerges that only the spin angular momentum of light is engaged in such...

  19. Odd viscosity in chiral active fluids. (United States)

    Banerjee, Debarghya; Souslov, Anton; Abanov, Alexander G; Vitelli, Vincenzo


    We study the hydrodynamics of fluids composed of self-spinning objects such as chiral grains or colloidal particles subject to torques. These chiral active fluids break both parity and time-reversal symmetries in their non-equilibrium steady states. As a result, the constitutive relations of chiral active media display a dissipationless linear-response coefficient called odd (or equivalently, Hall) viscosity. This odd viscosity does not lead to energy dissipation, but gives rise to a flow perpendicular to applied pressure. We show how odd viscosity arises from non-linear equations of hydrodynamics with rotational degrees of freedom, once linearized around a non-equilibrium steady state characterized by large spinning speeds. Next, we explore odd viscosity in compressible fluids and suggest how our findings can be tested in the context of shock propagation experiments. Finally, we show how odd viscosity in weakly compressible chiral active fluids can lead to density and pressure excess within vortex cores.

  20. Organometallic chemistry of chiral diphosphazane ligands ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Organometallic chemistry of chiral diphosphazane ligands: Synthesis and structural characterisation. KANNAN RAGHURAMAN, SWADHIN K MANDAL,. T S VENKATAKRISHNAN, SETHARAMPATTU S. KRISHNAMURTHY* and MUNIRATHINAM NETHAJI. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  1. Controlling and imaging chiral spin textures (United States)

    Chen, Gong

    Chirality in magnetic materials is fundamentally interesting and holds potential for logic and memory applications. Using spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy at National Center for Electron Microscopy, we recently observed chiral domain walls in thin films. We developed ways to tailor the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which drives the chirality, by interface engineering and by forming ternary superlattices. We find that spin-textures can be switched between left-handed, right-handed, cycloidal, helical and mixed domain wall structures by controlling uniaxial strain in magnetic films. We also demonstrate an experimental approach to stabilize skyrmions in magnetic multilayers without external magnetic field. These results exemplify the rich physics of chirality associated with interfaces of magnetic materials

  2. Chiral Spin Pairing in Helical Magnets (United States)

    Onoda, Shigeki; Nagaosa, Naoto


    A concept of chiral spin pairing is introduced to describe a vector-chiral liquid-crystal order in frustrated spin systems. It is found that the chiral spin pairing is induced by the coupling to phonons through the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and the four-spin exchange interaction of the Coulomb origin under the edge-sharing network of magnetic and ligand ions. This produces two successive second-order phase transitions upon cooling: an O(2) chiral spin nematic, i.e., spin cholesteric, order appears with an either parity, and then the O(2) symmetry is broken to yield a helical magnetic order. Possible candidate materials are also discussed as new multiferroic systems.

  3. Light front distribution of the chiral condensate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D; Schmidt, Sebastian M


    The pseudoscalar projection of the pionE1/4s Poincare-covariant Bethe-Salpeter amplitude onto the light-front may be understood to provide the probability distribution of the chiral condensate within the pion...

  4. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel


    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  5. Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures on Achiral Nanopillars (United States)


    substrates via hydrothermal synthesis33 (Figure 1a). The first Au layer is then deposited on the ZnO nanopillars. Note that the substrate is inclined...Nano Lett. 2013, 13, 5277−52835279 7 optical extinction of ZnO nanopillars (Figure 3b). ZnO nanopillars and NPs grown by hydrothermal methods do not...generates chiral absorption of the achiral ZnO nanopillars. Similar phenomena have been observed for achiral nano- particles when chiral organic

  6. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierl, Dieter


    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  7. Switching chiral solitons for algebraic operation of topological quaternary digits (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cheon, Sangmo; Yeom, Han Woong


    Chiral objects can be found throughout nature; in condensed matter chiral objects are often excited states protected by a system's topology. The use of chiral topological excitations to carry information has been demonstrated, where the information is robust against external perturbations. For instance, reading, writing, and transfer of binary information have been demonstrated with chiral topological excitations in magnetic systems, skyrmions, for spintronic devices. The next step is logic or algebraic operations of such topological bits. Here, we show experimentally the switching between chiral topological excitations or chiral solitons of different chirality in a one-dimensional electronic system with Z4 topological symmetry. We found that a fast-moving achiral soliton merges with chiral solitons to switch their handedness. This can lead to the realization of algebraic operation of Z4 topological charges. Chiral solitons could be a platform for storage and operation of robust topological multi-digit information.

  8. Analysis of rainbow scattering by a chiral sphere. (United States)

    Shang, Qing-Chao; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Qu, Tan; Li, Zheng-Jun; Bai, Lu; Gong, Lei


    Based on the scattering theory of a chiral sphere, rainbow phenomenon of a chiral sphere is numerically analyzed in this paper. For chiral spheres illuminated by a linearly polarized wave, there are three first-order rainbows, with whose rainbow angles varying with the chirality parameter. The spectrum of each rainbow structure is presented and the ripple frequencies are found associated with the size and refractive indices of the chiral sphere. Only two rainbow structures remain when the chiral sphere is illuminated by a circularly polarized plane wave. Finally, the rainbows of chiral spheres with slight chirality parameters are found appearing alternately in E-plane and H-plane with the variation of the chirality.

  9. Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson chiral fermions (United States)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.


    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Lüscher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, whose elements are its cosets, is isomorphic to the continuum chiral symmetry group. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact that some different, noncommuting symmetry generators lead to the same Noether current. These are universal features of lattice chiral fermions based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation; they occur in the overlap, domain-wall, and perfect-action formulations. In a solvable example, free overlap fermions, these noncanonical elements of lattice chiral symmetry are related to complex energy singularities that violate reflection positivity and impede continuation to Minkowski space.

  10. Enantioselective separation on chiral Au nanoparticles. (United States)

    Shukla, Nisha; Bartel, Melissa A; Gellman, Andrew J


    The surfaces of chemically synthesized Au nanoparticles have been modified with d- or l-cysteine to render them chiral and enantioselective for adsorption of chiral molecules. Their enantioselective interaction with chiral compounds has been probed by optical rotation measurements during exposure to enantiomerically pure and racemic propylene oxide. The ability of optical rotation to detect enantiospecific adsorption arises from the fact that the specific rotation of polarized light by (R)- and (S)-propylene oxide is enhanced by interaction with Au nanoparticles. This effect is related to previous observations of enhanced circular dichroism by Au nanoparticles modified by chiral adsorbates. More importantly, chiral Au nanoparticles modified with either d- or l-cysteine selectively adsorb one enantiomer of propylene oxide from a solution of racemic propylene oxide, thus leaving an enantiomeric excess in the solution phase. Au nanoparticles modified with l-cysteine (d-cysteine) selectively adsorb the (R)-propylene oxide ((S)-propylene oxide). A simple model has been developed that allows extraction of the enantiospecific equilibrium constants for (R)- and (S)-propylene oxide adsorption on the chiral Au nanoparticles.

  11. Quantum coherent π-electron rotations in a non-planar chiral molecule induced by using a linearly polarized UV laser pulse (United States)

    Mineo, Hirobumi; Fujimura, Yuichi


    We propose an ultrafast quantum switching method of π-electron rotations, which are switched among four rotational patterns in a nonplanar chiral aromatic molecule (P)-2,2’- biphenol and perform the sequential switching among four rotational patterns which are performed by the overlapped pump-dump laser pulses. Coherent π-electron dynamics are generated by applying the linearly polarized UV pulse laser to create a pair of coherent quasidegenerated excited states. We also plot the time-dependent π-electron ring current, and discussed ring current transfer between two aromatic rings.

  12. Synthesis of chiral amino epoxyaziridines: useful intermediates for the preparation of chiral trisubstituted piperidines. (United States)

    Concellón, José M; Riego, Estela; Rivero, Ignacio A; Ochoa, Adrián


    Chiral aminoalkyl epoxyaziridine 1 is synthesized in high yield and diastereoselectivity from L-serine. Ring opening of epoxyaziridine 1 with primary amines is carried out with total chemo- and regioselectivity, affording chiral polyfunctionalized piperidines 8. The structure of these trisubstituted piperidines is established by NMR studies.

  13. Chiral polymerization in open systems from chiral-selective reaction rates. (United States)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Nelson, Bradley J; Walker, Sara Imari


    We investigate the possibility that prebiotic homochirality can be achieved exclusively through chiral-selective reaction rate parameters without any other explicit mechanism for chiral bias. Specifically, we examine an open network of polymerization reactions, where the reaction rates can have chiral-selective values. The reactions are neither autocatalytic nor do they contain explicit enantiomeric cross-inhibition terms. We are thus investigating how rare a set of chiral-selective reaction rates needs to be in order to generate a reasonable amount of chiral bias. We quantify our results adopting a statistical approach: varying both the mean value and the rms dispersion of the relevant reaction rates, we show that moderate to high levels of chiral excess can be achieved with fairly small chiral bias, below 10%. Considering the various unknowns related to prebiotic chemical networks in early Earth and the dependence of reaction rates to environmental properties such as temperature and pressure variations, we argue that homochirality could have been achieved from moderate amounts of chiral selectivity in the reaction rates.

  14. Deuterium isotope effects on the interaction between hyperbranched polyethylene imine and an anionic surfactant. (United States)

    Bastardo, L A; Mészaros, R; Varga, I; Gilanyi, T; Cleasson, P M


    Solvent isotope effects on the interaction between the hyperbranched cationic polyelectrolyte, polyethylene imine (PEI), and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were investigated using potentiometric titration and eletrophoretic mobility measurements. In the basic pH range, a significantly higher fraction of the amine groups was found to be protonated when the PEI was dissolved in D2O compared to H2O at the same pH/pD. The difference in polymer charge in the two solvents decreases gradually with decreasing pH, and it completely diminishes at around pH = 4. Electrophoretic mobility measurements of PEI/SDS complexes at different pH values correlated very well with these observations. At pH/pD approximately 9 a much higher mobility of the PEI/SDS complexes was found in D2O than in H2O at low surfactant concentrations, and the charge neutralization point shifted to a considerably larger surfactant concentration in heavy water. These results can be explained by the significantly higher charge density of the PEI in D2O compared to H2O. However, at the natural pH/pD as well as at pH = 4 and pD = 4 conditions the PEI molecules have roughly equal charge densities, which result in very similar charged characteristics (mobilities) of the PEI/SDS complexes as well as the same charge neutralization SDS concentration. It can be concluded that extreme care must be taken in the general analysis of those experiments in which weak polyelectrolyte/surfactant aggregates are investigated in heavy water, and then these observations are correlated with structures of the same system in water.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Scomber scombrus), suya beef and plantain (Musa paradiasca) sold and consumed in Amassoma town were screened for the presence of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concentration of chromium, lead and cadmium were also ...

  16. Description of aromaticity in porphyrinoids. (United States)

    Wu, Judy I; Fernández, Israel; Schleyer, Paul v R


    Like the larger nonplanar Möbius rings, porphyrinoid aromaticity is not due primarily to the macrocyclic π conjugation of the corresponding annulene perimeters. The block-localized wave function (BLW)-derived aromatic stabilization energies (ASE) of several porphyrinoids reveal that, on a per atom basis, the appended 6π electron heterocycles of porphyrinoids confer aromaticity much more effectively than the macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugations. There is no direct relationship between thermochemical stability of porphyrinoids and their macrocyclic 4n or 4n+2 π electron counts. Porphyrinoids having an "antiaromatic" macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugation pathway (e.g., 4) as well as those having no macrocyclic conjugation (e.g., 9) can be stabilized by aromaticity. Computed nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the anisotropy of the induced current density (ACID) disclose the intricate local versus macrocyclic circulation interplay for several porphyrinoids.

  17. Separation of aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, N.F.; Yablochkina, M.N.; Shapiro, L.P.; Rogozkin, V.A.


    An optimal system of extraction has been developed making it possible to produce benzene, toluene and xylenes economically and with high efficiency.The raw material used for catalytic reforming consists of narrow-boiling-range gasoline fractiions at 62 to 85, 62 to 105 and 105 to 140/sup 0/C. Processing of the first fraction makes it possible to produce benzene; the second, benzene and toluene; and the third, toluene and xylenes. The addition of reforming extraction units has made it possible to produce aromatic hydrocarbons suitable for any specialized application. At the current time the output of benzene with extraction plants is about 60 percent of the total output, of toluene more than 80 percent and of xylene more than 50 percent. The key technological indicators are given for the processes of extraction with hydrous polyglycols. For new higher-capacity plants, in addition to extraction with tetraethylene glycol, the 'Ekstars' process has been developed for extraction with a hybrid solvent based on propylene carbonate. For eliminating the presence of unsaturated compounds, a process has been developed for the selective hydrogenation of reforming catalysis products. The process is carried out in an additional reactor included in the catalytic reforming system, at 160 to 250/sup 0/C with an aluminoplatinic catalyst in a combined steam and gas mixture flow at a pressure of 1.5 to 3.5 MPa. (JMT)

  18. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)


    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  19. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.


    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  20. Aromatic character of nanographene model compounds. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kenkichi; Nishina, Naoko; Enoki, Toshiaki; Aihara, Jun-ichi


    Superaromatic stabilization energy (SSE) defined to estimate the degree of macrocyclic aromaticity can be used as a local aromaticity index for individual benzene rings in very large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and finite-length graphene nanoribbons. Aromaticity patterns estimated using SSEs indicate that the locations of both highly aromatic and reactive rings in such carbon materials are determined primarily by the edge structures. Aromatic sextets are first placed on the jutting benzene rings on armchair edges, if any, and then on inner nonadjacent benzene rings. In all types of nanographene model compounds, the degree of local aromaticity varies markedly near the edges.

  1. Arabidopsis and Maize RidA Proteins Preempt Reactive Enamine/Imine Damage to Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Plastids[C][W][OPEN (United States)

    Niehaus, Thomas D.; Nguyen, Thuy N.D.; Gidda, Satinder K.; ElBadawi-Sidhu, Mona; Lambrecht, Jennifer A.; McCarty, Donald R.; Downs, Diana M.; Cooper, Arthur J.L.; Fiehn, Oliver; Mullen, Robert T.; Hanson, Andrew D.


    RidA (for Reactive Intermediate Deaminase A) proteins are ubiquitous, yet their function in eukaryotes is unclear. It is known that deleting Salmonella enterica ridA causes Ser sensitivity and that S. enterica RidA and its homologs from other organisms hydrolyze the enamine/imine intermediates that Thr dehydratase forms from Ser or Thr. In S. enterica, the Ser-derived enamine/imine inactivates a branched-chain aminotransferase; RidA prevents this damage. Arabidopsis thaliana and maize (Zea mays) have a RidA homolog that is predicted to be plastidial. Expression of either homolog complemented the Ser sensitivity of the S. enterica ridA mutant. The purified proteins hydrolyzed the enamines/imines formed by Thr dehydratase from Ser or Thr and protected the Arabidopsis plastidial branched-chain aminotransferase BCAT3 from inactivation by the Ser-derived enamine/imine. In vitro chloroplast import assays and in vivo localization of green fluorescent protein fusions showed that Arabidopsis RidA and Thr dehydratase are chloroplast targeted. Disrupting Arabidopsis RidA reduced root growth and raised the root and shoot levels of the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis intermediate 2-oxobutanoate; Ser treatment exacerbated these effects in roots. Supplying Ile reversed the root growth defect. These results indicate that plastidial RidA proteins can preempt damage to BCAT3 and Ile biosynthesis by hydrolyzing the Ser-derived enamine/imine product of Thr dehydratase. PMID:25070638

  2. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)


    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  3. A short designed semi-aromatic organic nanotube – synthesis, chiroptical characterization, and host properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wixe, Torbjörn; Christensen, Niels Johan; Lidin, Sven


    The first generation of an organic nanotube based on the enantiomerically pure bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane framework is presented. The helical tube synthesised is the longest to date having its aromatic systems oriented parallel to the axis of propagation (length 26 Å and inner diameter 11 Å according...... for modification toward solubility and functionalization are described. The electronic CD spectra of the tube and molecular intermediates are correlated with theoretical spectra calculated with time-dependent density functional theory to characterize the chirality of the tube. Both experimental (NMR-titrations...

  4. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.


    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Salama, Farid


    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  6. Total synthesis of Fluoxetine & Duloxetine through an in situ imine formation/borylation/transimination and reduction approach


    Fernández, E.; Calow, A.D.J; Whiting, A.


    author can archive pre-print (ie pre-refereeing), 12 meses de embargo. Post print subject to Restrictions below, author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing) DOI: 10.1039/c4ob01142b URL:!divAbstract Filiació URV: SI We report efficient, catalytic, asymmetric total syntheses of both (R)-Fluoxetine and (S)-Duloxetine from ¿¿¿-unsaturated aldehydes conducting five sequential one pot steps (imine ...

  7. Towards HIV detection: Novel Poly(propylene imine) Dendrimer-Streptavidin platform for electrochemical DNA and gp120 aptamer biosensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, SV


    Full Text Available (2014) 5425 - 5437 International Journal of ELECTROCHEMICAL SCIENCE Towards HIV Detection: Novel Poly(propylene imine) Dendrimer-Streptavidin Platform for Electrochemical DNA and gp120 Aptamer Biosensors Suru V.... Gray, M. C. Madiga, N. Tumba, K. B. Alexandre, T. Khoza, C. K. Wibmer, P. L. Moore, L. Morris and M. M. Khati, Journal of Virology, 86 (2012) 1 15. G. Li, X. Li, J. Wan and S. Zhang, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 24 (2009) 3281 16. A. K. H. Cheng...

  8. Chiral liquid phase of simple quantum magnets (United States)

    Wang, Zhentao; Feiguin, Adrian E.; Zhu, Wei; Starykh, Oleg A.; Chubukov, Andrey V.; Batista, Cristian D.


    We study a T =0 quantum phase transition between a quantum paramagnetic state and a magnetically ordered state for a spin S =1 XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. The transition is induced by an easy-plane single-ion anisotropy D . At the mean-field level, the system undergoes a direct transition at a critical D =Dc between a paramagnetic state at D >Dc and an ordered state with broken U(1 ) symmetry at D field the phase diagram is very different and includes an intermediate, partially ordered chiral liquid phase. Specifically, we find that inside the paramagnetic phase the Ising (Jz) component of the Heisenberg exchange binds magnons into a two-particle bound state with zero total momentum and spin. This bound state condenses at D >Dc , before single-particle excitations become unstable, and gives rise to a chiral liquid phase, which spontaneously breaks spatial inversion symmetry, but leaves the spin-rotational U(1 ) and time-reversal symmetries intact. This chiral liquid phase is characterized by a finite vector chirality without long-range dipolar magnetic order. In our analytical treatment, the chiral phase appears for arbitrarily small Jz because the magnon-magnon attraction becomes singular near the single-magnon condensation transition. This phase exists in a finite range of D and transforms into the magnetically ordered state at some D calculations.

  9. Influence of microemulsion chirality on chromatographic figures of merit in EKC: results with novel three-chiral-component microemulsions and comparison with one- and two-chiral-component microemulsions. (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P


    Novel microemulsion formulations containing all chiral components are described for the enantioseparation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers (atenolol, ephedrine, metoprolol, N-methyl ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and synephrine). The chiral surfactant dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV, R- and S-), the chiral cosurfactant S-2-hexanol, and the chiral oil diethyl tartrate (R- and S-) were combined to create four different chiral microemulsions, three of which were stable. Results obtained for enantioselectivity, efficiency, and resolution were compared for the triple-chirality systems and the single-chirality system that contained chiral surfactant only. Improvements in enantioselectivity and resolution were achieved by simultaneously incorporating three chiral components into the aggregate. The one-chiral-component microemulsion provided better efficiencies. Enantioselective synergies were identified for the three-chiral-component nanodroplets using a thermodynamic model. Additionally, two types of dual-chirality systems, chiral surfactant/chiral cosurfactant and chiral surfactant/chiral oil, were examined in terms of chromatographic figures of merit, with the former providing much better resolution. The two varieties of two-chiral-component microemulsions gave similar values for enantioselectivity and efficiency. Lastly, the microemulsion formulations were divided into categories based on the number of chiral microemulsion reagents and the average results for each pair of enantiomers were analyzed for trends. In general, enantioselectivity and resolution were enhanced while efficiency was decreased as more chiral components were used to create the pseudostationary phase (PSP).

  10. New chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis system with chiral amino amide ionic liquids as ligands. (United States)

    Jiang, Junfang; Mu, Xiaoyu; Qiao, Juan; Su, Yuan; Qi, Li


    Using chiral amino amide ionic liquids as the ligands, a new chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis method with Cu(II) as the central ion was constructed for enantioseparation of labeled D,L-amino acids. The effects of key parameters, including pH value of the running buffer, the ratio of Cu(II) to chiral amino amide ionic liquids, the concentration of complexes based on Cu(II)-chiral amino amide ionic liquids were investigated. It has been observed that eight pairs of labeled D,L-amino acids could be baseline-separated with a running buffer of 15.0mM ammonium acetate, 10.0mM Cu(II) and 20.0mML-phenylalaninamide based ionic liquid at pH 5.0. The quantitation of D,L-amino acids was conducted and good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.964) was obtained. Furthermore, an assay for determining the enantiomeric purity of D,L-amino acids was developed and the possible enantiorecognition mechanism was discussed briefly. The results indicated that the chiral amino amide ionic liquids could play the role of ligands in chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis system and exhibit great potential in chiral analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Review on Chiral Chromatography and its Application to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    overview of chiral separations to researchers who are versed in the area of ... This review highlights significant issues of the chiral separations and provides salient examples from specific classes of chiral selectors where appropriate. Terms and Definitions ..... molecule. This three-point interaction rule is generally valid for ...

  12. Synthetic approaches to aromatic belts: building up strain in macrocyclic polyarenes. (United States)

    Eisenberg, David; Shenhar, Roy; Rabinovitz, Mordecai


    This tutorial review discusses synthetic strategies towards aromatic belts, defined here as double-stranded conjugated macrocycles, such as [n]cyclacenes, [n]cyclophenacenes, Schlüter belt, and Vögtle belt. Their appeal stems, firstly, from the unique nature of their conjugation, having p orbitals oriented radially rather than perpendicular to the plane of the macrocycle. Secondly, as aromatic belts are model compounds of carbon nanotubes of different chiralities, a synthetic strategy towards the buildup of structural strain in these compounds could finally open a route towards rational chemical synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The elusiveness of these compounds has stimulated fascinating and ingenious synthetic strategies over the last decades. The various strategies are classified here by their approach to the buildup of structural strain, which is the main obstacle in the preparation of these curved polyarenes.

  13. Magnetic test of chiral dynamics in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, Yu.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117118, Moscow, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25 (Russian Federation)


    Strong magnetic fields in the range eB≫m{sub π}{sup 2} effectively probe internal quark structure of chiral mesons and test basic parameters of the chiral theory, such as 〈q-barq〉,f{sub π}. We argue on general grounds that 〈q-barq〉 should grow linearly with eB when charged quark degrees of freedom come into play. To make explicit estimates we extend the previously formulated chiral theory, including quark degrees of freedom, to the case of strong magnetic fields and show that the quark condensate |〈q-barq〉|{sub u,d} grows quadratically with eB for eB<0.2 GeV{sup 2} and linearly for higher field values. These results agree quantitatively with recent lattice data and differ from χPT predictions.

  14. Chiral light by symmetric optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Mekonnen, Addis; Zubritskaya, Irina; Jönsson, Gustav Edman; Dmitriev, Alexandre


    Chirality is at the origin of life and is ubiquitous in nature. An object is deemed chiral if it is non-superimposable with its own mirror image. This relates to how circularly polarized light interacts with such object, a circular dichroism, the differential absorption of right and left circularly polarized light. According to the common understanding in biology, chemistry and physics, the circular dichroism results from an internal chiral structure or external symmetry breaking by illumination. We show that circular dichroism is possible with simple symmetric optical nanoantennas at symmetric illumination. We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that two electromagnetic dipole-like modes with a phase lag, in principle, suffice to produce circular dichroism in achiral structure. Examples of the latter are all visible spectrum optical nanoantennas, symmetric nanoellipses and nanodimers. The simplicity and generality of this finding reveal a whole new significance of the electromagnetic design at a nan...

  15. On chiral-odd Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Paris (France); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland)


    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process {gamma} + N {yields} {pi} + {rho} + N', in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. Estimated counting rates show that the experiment is feasible with real or quasi real photon beams expected at JLab at 12 GeV and in the COMPASS experiment. (Phys Letters B688,154,2010) In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral-odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented. Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral-odd GPDs to a minimal set. (author)

  16. Chiral Perturbation Theory With Lattice Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ouimet, P P A


    In this work, alternative methods to regularize chiral perturbation theory are discussed. First, Long Distance Regularization will be considered in the presence of the decuplet of the lightest spin 32 baryons for several different observables. This serves motivation and introduction to the use of the lattice regulator for chiral perturbation theory. The mesonic, baryonic and anomalous sectors of chiral perturbation theory will be formulated on a lattice of space time points. The consistency of the lattice as a regulator will be discussed in the context of the meson and baryon masses. Order a effects will also be discussed for the baryon masses, sigma terms and magnetic moments. The work will close with an attempt to derive an effective Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangian for Wilson fermions at non-zero a. Following this discussion, there will be a proposal for a phenomenologically useful WZW Lagrangian at non-zero a.

  17. Chiral geometry in symmetry-restored states: Chiral doublet bands in 128Cs (United States)

    Chen, F. Q.; Chen, Q. B.; Luo, Y. A.; Meng, J.; Zhang, S. Q.


    The pairing-plus-quadrupole Hamiltonian is diagonalized in a symmetry-restored basis, i.e., the triaxial quasiparticle states with angular momentum and particle number projections, and applied for chiral doublet bands in 128Cs. The observed energy spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities are reproduced well without introducing any parameters. The orientation of the angular momentum in the intrinsic frame is investigated by the distributions of its components on the three principle axes (K plot) and those of its tilted angles (azimuthal plot). The evolution of the chirality with spin is illustrated, and the chiral geometry is demonstrated in the angular momentum projected model for the first time.

  18. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora


    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  19. Unphysical states in staggered chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Christopher; Davila, George


    We study the extended phase diagram for staggered quarks using chiral perturbation theory. Recent beyond-the-standard-model simulations have shown that broken phases occur for coarse enough lattice spacing, so long as the number of quark flavors in the simulation is large enough (greater than eight). One of the phases seen in these simulations can be studied in depth using chiral perturbation theory. We also show that there are only three broken phases for staggered quarks that can arise, at least for lattice spacings in the regime a^2<< Lambda^2_{QCD}.

  20. Chiral Surface Waves for Enhanced Circular Dichroism

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Giovanni; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo


    We present a novel chiral sensing platform that combines a one-dimensional photonic crystal design with a birefringent surface defect. The platform sustains simultaneous transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface modes, which are exploited to generate chiral surface waves. The present design provides homogeneous and superchiral fields of both handednesses over arbitrarily large areas in a wide spectral range, resulting in the enhancement of the circular dichroism signal by two orders of magnitude, thus paving the road toward the successful combination of surface-enhanced spectroscopies and electromagnetic superchirality.

  1. Chiral edge fluctuations of colloidal membranes (United States)

    Jia, Leroy; Zakhary, Mark; Dogic, Zvonimir; Pelcovits, Robert; Powers, Thomas

    Using experiments and theory we study chiral fluctuations of the edge of a nearly flat colloidal membrane, consisting of rod-like viruses held together by the depletion interaction. Our measurements show an anomalous peak in the power spectrum around 1 inverse micron. Using an effective theory to describe the liquid crystal degrees of freedom by geometric properties of the edge, such as length, geodesic torsion, and curvature, we calculate the spectrum of out-of-plane edge fluctuations. The peak arises for sufficiently strong chirality, and corresponds to the instability of a flat membrane to a shape with helical, rippled edges.

  2. Probing Chiral Interactions in Light Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogga, A; Barrett, B R; Meissner, U; Witala, H; Epelbaum, E; Kamada, H; Navratil, P; Glockle, W; Vary, J P


    Chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions are studied in a few-nucleon systems. We investigate the cut-off dependence and convergence with respect to the chiral expansion. It is pointed out that the spectra of light nuclei are sensitive to the three-nucleon force structure. As an example, we present calculations of the 1{sup +} and 3{sup +} states of {sup 6}Li using the no-core shell model approach. The results show contributions of the next-to-next-to-leading order terms to the spectra, which are not correlated to the three-nucleon binding energy prediction.

  3. Isotropic Chiral Objects With Zero Backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Karilainen, Antti O


    In this paper we study electrically small chiral objects with isotropic response and zero backscattering. A bi-isotropic sphere is used as a simple example and its zero-backscattering conditions are studied. A theoretical model of an object composed of three orthogonal chiral particles made of conducting wire is presented as an analog of the zero-backscattering bi-isotropic sphere. A potential application of the object as a receiving antenna or a sensor with the ability to receive power from an arbitrary direction without backscattering is discussed.

  4. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Takuya [iTHES Research Group and Quantum Hadron Physics Laboratory, RIKEN,Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)


    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  5. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takuya


    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  6. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.


    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  7. Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu


    A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.

  8. Rotating optical microcavities with broken chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Raktim; Wiersig, Jan; Cao, Hui


    We demonstrate in open microcavities with broken chiral symmetry, quasi-degenerate pairs of co-propagating modes in a non-rotating cavity evolve to counter-propagating modes with rotation. The emission patterns change dramatically by rotation, due to distinct output directions of CW and CCW waves. By tuning the degree of spatial chirality, we maximize the sensitivity of microcavity emission to rotation. The rotation-induced change of emission is orders of magnitude larger than the Sagnac effect, pointing to a promising direction for ultrasmall optical gyroscopes.

  9. Speciation and gene flow between snails of opposite chirality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in snails is intriguing because individuals of opposite chirality are either unable to mate or can only mate with difficulty, so could be reproductively isolated from each other. We have therefore investigated chiral evolution in the Japanese land snail genus Euhadra to understand whether changes in chirality have promoted speciation. In particular, we aimed to understand the effect of the maternal inheritance of chirality on reproductive isolation and gene flow. We found that the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of Euhadra is consistent with a single, relatively ancient evolution of sinistral species and suggests either recent "single-gene speciation" or gene flow between chiral morphs that are unable to mate. To clarify the conditions under which new chiral morphs might evolve and whether single-gene speciation can occur, we developed a mathematical model that is relevant to any maternal-effect gene. The model shows that reproductive character displacement can promote the evolution of new chiral morphs, tending to counteract the positive frequency-dependent selection that would otherwise drive the more common chiral morph to fixation. This therefore suggests a general mechanism as to how chiral variation arises in snails. In populations that contain both chiral morphs, two different situations are then possible. In the first, gene flow is substantial between morphs even without interchiral mating, because of the maternal inheritance of chirality. In the second, reproductive isolation is possible but unstable, and will also lead to gene flow if intrachiral matings occasionally produce offspring with the opposite chirality. Together, the results imply that speciation by chiral reversal is only meaningful in the context of a complex biogeographical process, and so must usually involve other factors. In order to understand the roles of reproductive character displacement and gene flow in the chiral evolution of Euhadra, it will be

  10. Solid-phase receptor-based assay for the detection of cyclic imines by chemiluminescence, fluorescence, or colorimetry. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Laura P; Vilariño, Natalia; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo; Antelo, Alvaro; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M


    The spirolides and gymnodimines are marine phycotoxins included in the group of cyclic imines. The toxicity of these compounds to humans is still unknown, although their toxicity by intraperitoneal injection in rodents is very high. A receptor-based method was developed using the competition of the 13-desmethyl spirolide C with biotin-labeled α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the immobilization of the α-bungarotoxin-receptor complex on streptavidin-coated surfaces. The quantification of the immobilized receptor can be achieved using a specific antibody. Finally, after the addition of a secondary antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase, three alternative substrates of this enzyme generate a chemiluminescent, fluorescent, or colorimetric signal. The assay performs well in shellfish extracts and the detection range is 5-150 nM of 13-desmethyl spirolide C in shellfish extracts, which is at least 5 times more sensitive than the existing fluorescence polarization assay. This assay can also detect gymnodimine, although with 10 times lower sensitivity than the spirolide. The detection of cyclic imines with microplate assays would be useful for screening purposes in order to reduce the number of samples to be processed by bioassays or analytical methods.

  11. Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones in aqueous solution catalyzed by Rhodium(III) complexes with C2-symmetric fluorene-ligands containing chiral (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvo-Gonzalez, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Tepic, Nay (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas y Farmaceuticas; Chavez, Daniel; Aguirre, Gerardo; Parra-Hake, Miguel; Somanathan, Ratnasamy, E-mail: somanatha@sundown.sdsu.ed [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, B.C. (Mexico). Centro de Graduados e Investigacion


    Two C{sub 2}-symmetric bis(sulfonamide) ligands containing fluorene-chiral (1R, 2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine were complexed to Rh{sup III}(Cp{sup *}) and used as catalyst to reduce aromatic ketones. The corresponding chiral secondary alcohols were obtained in 87-100% ee and 85-99% yield, under asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) conditions using aqueous sodium formate as the hydride source. With acetophenone, 94% ee and 86-97% yield was achieved with substrate/catalyst (S/C) ratio of 10,000. (author)

  12. Liquid Phases in SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory: Drops of Strange Chiral Nucleon Liquid & Ordinary Chiral Heavy Nuclear Liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, Bryan W.


    Chiral SU(3) Perturbation Theory (SU3XPT) identifies hadrons as the building blocks of strongly interacting matter at low densities and temperatures. We show that it admits two co-existing chiral nucleon liquid phases at zero external pressure with well-defined surfaces: 1) ordinary microscopic chiral heavy nuclear liquid drops (XNL) and 2) a new Strange Chiral Nucleon Liquid (SXNL) phase with both microscopic and macroscopic drop sizes. Liquid drops of both XNL and SXNL are simultaneously solutions to the SU3XPT semi-classical equations of motion and obey all relevant CVC and PCAC equations. Axial-vector currents are conserved inside macroscopic drops of SXNL, a new form of baryonic matter with zero electric charge density, which is by nature "dark". The numerical values of all SU3XPT coefficients are used to fit current scattering experiments and ordinary XNL drops (identified with the ground state of ordinary even-even spin-zero spherical closed-shell nuclei). SXNL then also emerges (i.e. without new adjus...

  13. Characteristic monomials with chirality fittingness for combinatorial enumeration of isomers with chiral and achiral ligands (United States)



    A new method of combinatorial enumeration based on characteristic monomials with chirality fittingness (CM-CFs) has been proposed in order to enumerate isomers with chiral ligands as well as with achiral ones. The CM-CFs have been defined as monomials that consist of three kinds of dummy variables in light of the subduction of the Q-conjugacy representations for chiral and achiral cyclic groups. A procedure of calculating CM-CFs for cyclic groups and finite groups has been discribed so as to tabulate them as CM-CF tables. Then the CM-CF method has been applied to the enumeration of isomers with achiral ligands as well as chiral ones.


    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were obtained on polysaccharide chiral HPLC columns using an alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, dyfonate, fenamiphos, ...

  15. Chiral vortical effect generated by chiral anomaly in vortex-skyrmions (United States)

    Volovik, G. E.


    We discuss the type of the general macroscopic parity-violating effects, when there is the current along the vortex, which is concentrated in the vortex core. We consider vortices in chiral superfluids with Weyl points. In the vortex core, the positions of the Weyl points form the skyrmion structure. We show that the mass current concentrated in such a core is provided by the spectral flow through the Weyl points according to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw equation for chiral anomaly.

  16. Synthesis of Chiral Building Blocks for Use in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustum S. Boyce


    Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a significant growth in the sales of pharmaceutical drugs worldwide, but more importantly there has been a dramatic growth in the sales of single enantiomer drugs. The pharmaceutical industry has a rising demand for chiral intermediates and research reagents because of the continuing imperative to improve drug efficacy. This in turn impacts on researchers involved in preclinical discovery work. Besides traditional chiral pool and resolution of racemates as sources of chiral building blocks, many new synthetic methods including a great variety of catalytic reactions have been developed which facilitate the production of complex chiral drug candidates for clinical trials. The most ambitious technique is to synthesise homochiral compounds from non-chiral starting materials using chiral metal catalysts and related chemistry. Examples of the synthesis of chiral building blocks from achiral materials utilizing asymmetric hydrogenation and asymmetric epoxidation are presented.

  17. Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuki Hiroaki


    Full Text Available We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a “continent” of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.

  18. Supramolecular Nanostructures of Chiral Perylene Diimides with Amplified Chirality for High-Performance Chiroptical Sensing. (United States)

    Shang, Xiaobo; Song, Inho; Ohtsu, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Yoon Ho; Zhao, Tianming; Kojima, Tatsuhiro; Jung, Ji Hyung; Kawano, Masaki; Oh, Joon Hak


    Chiral supramolecular nanostructures with optoelectronic functions are expected to play a central role in many scientific and technological fields but their practical use remains in its infancy. Here, this paper reports photoconductive chiral organic semiconductors (OSCs) based on perylene diimides with the highest electron mobility among the chiral OSCs and investigates the structure and optoelectronic properties of their homochiral and heterochiral supramolecular assemblies from bottom-up self-assembly. Owing to the well-ordered supramolecular packing, the homochiral nanomaterials exhibit superior charge transport with significantly higher photoresponsivity and dissymmetry factor compared with those of their thin film and monomeric equivalents, which enables highly selective detection of circularly polarized light, for the first time, in visible spectral range. Interestingly, the heterochiral nanostructures assembled from co-self-assembly of racemic mixtures show extraordinary chiral self-discrimination phenomenon, where opposite enantiomeric molecules are packed alternately into heterochiral architectures, leading to completely different optoelectrical performances. In addition, the crystal structures of homochiral and heterochiral nanostructures have first been studied by ab initio X-ray powder diffraction analysis. These findings give insights into the structure-chiroptical property relationships of chiral supramolecular self-assemblies and demonstrate the feasibility of supramolecular chirality for high-performance chiroptical sensing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chiral symmetry breaking and chiral polarization: Tests for finite temperature and many flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Alexandru


    Full Text Available It was recently conjectured that, in SU(3 gauge theories with fundamental quarks, valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is equivalent to condensation of local dynamical chirality and appearance of chiral polarization scale Λch. Here we consider more general association involving the low-energy layer of chirally polarized modes which, in addition to its width (Λch, is also characterized by volume density of participating modes (Ω and the volume density of total chirality (Ωch. Few possible forms of the correspondence are discussed, paying particular attention to singular cases where Ω emerges as the most versatile characteristic. The notion of finite-volume “order parameter”, capturing the nature of these connections, is proposed. We study the effects of temperature (in Nf=0 QCD and light quarks (in Nf=12, both in the regime of possible symmetry restoration, and find agreement with these ideas. In Nf=0 QCD, results from several volumes indicate that, at the lattice cutoff studied, the deconfinement temperature Tc is strictly smaller than the overlap–valence chiral transition temperature Tch in real Polyakov line vacuum. Somewhat similar intermediate phase (in quark mass is also seen in Nf=12. It is suggested that deconfinement in Nf=0 is related to indefinite convexity of absolute X-distributions.

  20. From Ostwald Ripening to Single Chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, Wim L.; Vlieg, Elias; Kellogg, Richard M.; Kaptein, Bernard


    A century ago Wilhelm Ostwald received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Although Ostwald was never significantly involved with the phenomenon of chirality, one of his discoveries, Ostwald ripening, is thought to be involved in a recently discovered method in which grinding-induced attrition is used to

  1. Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls

    KAUST Repository

    Jué, Emilie


    Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).

  2. Optimization of enantioselective production of chiral epichlorohydrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2009 ... Kinetic resolution for optically active epoxides by microbial enantioselective hydrolysis. Biotechnol. Tech. 12: 225-228. Choi WJ, Lee EY, Yoon SJ, Yang ST, Choi CY (1999). Biocatalytic production of chiral epichlorohydrin in organic solvents. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 88: 339-341. De Vries EJ, Janssen DB (2003).

  3. Wave propagation retrieval method for chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    In this paper we present the wave propagation method for the retrieving of effective properties of media with circularly polarized eigenwaves, in particularly for chiral metamaterials. The method is applied for thick slabs and provides bulk effective parameters. Its strong sides are the absence...

  4. Chiral perturbation theory and nucleon polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusci, D.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)


    The available experimental data concerning the unpolarized cross section for the Compton scattering on the nucleon at low energy are compared with the predictions of the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) at the order q{sup 3}.

  5. Insights on some chiral smectic phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. August 2003 physics pp. 285–295. Insights on some chiral smectic phases. B PANSU. Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bt 510, UMR 8502, Universit ..... volve complex organizations of small SmCA grains, small meaning that the width of each grain is ... The colours of the platelets are due to low birefringence.

  6. Functional polypedes—chiral nematic fullerenes


    Campidelli, Stéphane; Eng, Carine; Saez, Isabel M.; Goodby, John W.; Deschenaux, Robert


    Self-organising, functional materials created by bottom-up synthesis represent important steps forward in the development of novel materials, here we report on the preparation and properties of a chiral nematic tetrapedal liquid crystal that has been functionalised with C60.

  7. Quantization of massive chiral electrodynamics reexamined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, C.; Montemayor, R. (Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina))


    We show that the models considered by Andrianov [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1554 (1989); and Phys. Rev. D 44, 2602 (1991)] are equivalent to other models where it is easily proved that the anomaly decouples and consequently the value of the chiral triangles amplitude is irrelvant for the unitarity of the [ital S] matrix.

  8. Polar Superhelices in Ferroelectric Chiral Nanosprings (United States)

    Shimada, Takahiro; Lich, Le Van; Nagano, Koyo; Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Jie; Kitamura, Takayuki


    Topological objects of nontrivial spin or dipolar field textures, such as skyrmions, merons, and vortices, interacting with applied external fields in ferroic materials are of great scientific interest as an intriguing playground of unique physical phenomena and novel technological paradigms. The quest for new topological configurations of such swirling field textures has primarily been done for magnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, while the absence of such intrinsic chiral interactions among electric dipoles left ferroelectrics aside in this quest. Here, we demonstrate that a helical polarization coiled into another helix, namely a polar superhelix, can be extrinsically stabilized in ferroelectric nanosprings. The interplay between dipolar interactions confined in the chiral geometry and the complex strain field of mixed bending and twisting induces the superhelical configuration of electric polarization. The geometrical structure of the polar superhelix gives rise to electric chiralities at two different length scales and the coexistence of three order parameters, i.e., polarization, toroidization, and hypertoroidization, both of which can be manipulated by homogeneous electric and/or mechanical fields. Our work therefore provides a new geometrical configuration of swirling dipolar fields, which offers the possibility of multiple order-parameters, and electromechanically controllable dipolar chiralities and associated electro-optical responses.

  9. Dihyperons in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mass of the dibaryon having spin, parity =0+, isospin = 0 and strangeness -2 is computed using chiral color dielectric model. The bare wave function is constructed as a product of two color-singlet three-quark clusters and then it is properly antisymmetrized by considering appropriate exchange operators for spin, ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ, M.


    With two degenerate quarks, the chiral condensate exhibits a jump as the quark masses pass through zero. I discuss how this single transition splits into two Ising like transitions when the quarks are made non-degenerate. The order parameter is the expectation of the neutral pion field. The transitions represent long distance coherent phenomena occurring without the Dirac operator having vanishingly small eigenvalues.

  11. Topological Order in Spin Liquids with Chirality


    Scharfenberger, Burkhard


    We use the Kalmeyer-Laughlin Chiral Spin Liquid as building block to construct a hierarchy of higher-spin spin liquids and determine numerically their topological properties. We compute the entanglement spectra of some of these liquids as well as of ground states of critically frustrated quantum magnets. From the comparison, we find preliminary evidence for a topological phase transition in these systems.

  12. Chiral liquid chromatography-circular dichroism-NMR for estimating separation conditions of chiral HPLC without authentic samples. (United States)

    Tokunaga, Takashi; Okamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Kozo; Tode, Chisato; Sugiura, Makiko


    Chiral separation by high performance liquid chromatography (Chiral HPLC) is one of the most powerful methods for estimating optical and chemical purity of chiral compounds. However, it has a weakness in that much time and effort are required to prepare authentic samples. A novel chiral liquid chromatography-circular dichroism-NMR (LC-CD-NMR) technique, on the other hand, requires only crude chiral compounds that include enantiomers as minor impurities. In this study, chiral LC-CD-NMR was constructed by connecting a conventional LC-NMR system with a CD detector. A pyridylalanine derivative mixture was prepared to mimic technical grade material in an early phase of development. By chiral LC-CD-NMR, the enantiomer peak is identified by an opposite sign of the CD Cotton effect curve and an identical (1)H NMR spectrum to that of the main component. Using NMR as a detector, this method is superior in ability to discriminate enantiomers from other isomers indistinguishable by MS. Furthermore, this method is also applicable for selecting the best separation conditions of chiral HPLC. The degrees of separation (Rs) between the main component and its enantiomer in several chiral columns were compared. Even with modern chromatographic methods, establishing the best chiral HPLC conditions in an early phase of development is difficult: chiral LC-CD-NMR is a suitable solution.

  13. Rational design of sterically and electronically easily tunable chiral bisimidazolines and their applications in dual Lewis acid/brønsted base catalysis for highly enantioselective nitroaldol (Henry) reactions. (United States)

    Ma, Kuoyan; You, Jingsong


    A new addition to the rational design of sterically and electrically easily tunable chiral bis(imidazoline) ligands from chiral amino alcohols has been developed. Vast structural variation of chiral bis(imidazoline) ligands can be simply achieved by the choice of both the 1,2-amino alcohol and its N-1 R1 substituent. A small library of chiral bisimidazolines (1 a-h) has been constructed. The method has provided an easy and simplified route to a diverse set of air-stable and water-tolerant chiral bis(imidazoline) ligands on 10 g scales. The dual Lewis Acid/Brønsted base catalytic system generated from the (S)-1 a/Cu(OTf)2 complex and Et3N was able to catalyze Henry reactions between aldehydes and nitromethane effectively at room temperature, and also to tolerate a wide scope of aldehydes with excellent enantiomeric excesses. Not only aromatic aldehydes but also aliphatic aldehydes afforded the nitroalcohol products, with enantiomeric excesses in the 93-98% range. This dual catalytic system is among the most effective systems so far reported for the asymmetric parent Henry reactions. This work also represents the first members of the class of chiral bisimidazolines to have been demonstrated to achieve excellent enantioselectivities.

  14. Nuclear chirality, a model and the data (United States)

    Starosta, K.; Koike, T.


    In the last decade, the manifestation of chirality in atomic nuclei has become the subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies. The common feature of current model calculations is that the chiral geometry of angular momentum coupling is extracted from expectation values of orientation operators, rather than being a starting point in construction of a model. However, using the particle-hole coupling model for triaxial odd-odd nuclei it is possible to construct a basis which contains right-handed, left-handed and planar states of angular momentum coupling. If this basis is used, the chirality is an explicit rather than an extracted feature as in any other models with non-chiral bases. The time-reversal symmetry, which relates the basis states of opposite handedness, can be used to reduce the dimension of matrices for diagonalization of the model Hamiltonian, proving the effectiveness of this approach. Moreover, the final model eigenstate wave functions show a concentration of amplitudes among a relatively small number (˜1%) of components compared to the full model space. In that sense, the ‘chiral’ basis provides a useful tool to examine model predictions providing direct insight into the structure of doublet states. In this work, similarities and differences between the rotational behaviour of an axial and triaxial body provide a starting point for derivation of the basis optimal for valence nucleon coupling to an axial and a triaxial core. The derived ‘chiral’ basis is optimal for coupling of a valence particle and hole to the triaxial core. Model predictions are presented and discussed. A comprehensive review of current experimental data on observed chiral band candidates is also provided.

  15. Advances towards aromatic oligoamide foldamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Plesner, Malene; Dissing, Mette Marie


    We have efficiently synthesized 36 arylopeptoid dimers with ortho-, meta-, and para-substituted aromatic backbones and tert-butyl or phenyl side chains. The dimers were synthesized by using a "submonomer method" on solid phase, by applying a simplified common set of reaction conditions. X-ray cry...

  16. Deuterated interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E; Allamandola, LJ; Bauschlicher, CW; Hudgins, DM; Sandford, SA; Tielens, AGGM


    We report infrared spectral evidence of deuterated interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two bands are detected in the infrared emission from the ionization bar in Orion at 4.4 and 4.65 mum. The one at 4.65 mum is present at the 4.4 sigma level, while the one at 4.4 mum is more

  17. Synthesis of Dihydropyridines and Pyridines from Imines and Alkynes via C-H Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellman, Jonathan A.; Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert


    A convenient one-pot C-H alkenylation/electrocyclization/aromatization sequence has been developed for the synthesis of highly substituted pyridine derivatives from alkynes and {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated N-benzyl aldimines and ketimines that proceeds through dihydropyridine intermediates. A new class of ligands for C-H activation was developed, providing broader scope for the alkenylation step than could be achieved with previously reported ligands. Substantial information was obtained about the mechanism of the reaction. This included the isolation of a C-H activated complex and its structure determination by X-ray analysis; in addition, kinetic simulations using the Copasi software were employed to determine rate constants for this transformation, implicating facile C-H oxidative addition and slow reductive elimination steps.

  18. In situ generation of N-Boc-protected alkenyl imines: controlling the E/Z geometry of alkenyl moieties in the Mukaiyama-Mannich reaction. (United States)

    Bai, Jian-Fei; Sasagawa, Hajime; Yurino, Taiga; Kano, Taichi; Maruoka, Keiji


    Readily available Boc-protected Z-alkenyl aminals could be used as Z-alkenyl and E-alkenyl imine precursors under acidic conditions. In the Mukaiyama-Mannich reaction of Z-alkenyl Boc-aminals, the E/Z geometry of the products was controlled by the catalyst used. The present method was also applied to asymmetric Mukaiyama-Mannich reactions.

  19. Ceria-Based Mixed Oxide Supported Nano-Gold as an Efficient and Durable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Amines to Imines Using Molecular Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad Dar


    Full Text Available The present work is intended to determine the catalytic activity of Mixed Oxide supported gold for aerobic oxidative dehydrogenation of amines to imines using Ceria as a main constituent of the each support. The model catalysts Au/CeO2:TiO2 Au/CeO2:SiO2, Au/CeO2:ZrO2 and Au/CeO2:Al2Os were prepared by deposition co-precipitation method and deposition of gold was determined by EDEX analysis. The supported nano-gold catalyzes the dehydrogenation of secondary amines to imines without loss of activity. On recycling good amount of product yield is obtained. Oxidation of secondary amines to imines is carried at 100˚C and almost 90 % conversion was obtained with >99% selectivity. © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 26th December 2011; Revised: 7th June 2012; Accepted: 13rd June 2012[How to Cite: B.A. Dar, M. Sharma, B. Singh. (2012. Ceria-Based Mixed Oxide Supported Nano-Gold as an Efficient and Durable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Amines to Imines Using Molecular Oxygen. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(1: 79-84.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1257.79-84][How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  20. Tailor-made graphite oxide-DAB poly(propylene imine) dendrimer intercalated hybrids and their potential for efficient CO2 adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, T.; Katsaros, F.; Sideratou, Z.; Romanos, G.; Ivashenko, O.; Rudolf, P.; Kooi, B. J.; Papageorgiou, S.; Karakassides, M. A.


    We report the rational design and synthesis of DAB poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB) intercalated graphite oxide (GO) hybrids with tailorable interlayer distances. The amine groups originating from the intercalated dendrimer molecules cross-link adjacent GO sheets and strongly favour CO2

  1. Converting lignin to aromatics: step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassberger, Z.I.


    Lignin, the glue that holds trees together, is the most abundant natural resource of aromatics. In that respect, it is a far more advanced resource than crude oil. This is because lignin already contains the aromatic functional groups. Thus, catalytic conversion of lignin to high-value aromatics is

  2. Baryons in the chiral regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippschild, Bastian


    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, one of the four fundamental forces in our Universe. It describes the interaction of gluons and quarks which build up hadrons like protons and neutrons. Most of the visible matter in our universe is made of protons and neutrons. Hence, we are interested in their fundamental properties like their masses, their distribution of charge and their shape. The only known theoretical, non-perturbative and ab initio method to investigate hadron properties at low energies is lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). However, up-to-date simulations (especially for baryonic quantities) do not achieve the accuracy of experiments. In fact, current simulations do not even reproduce the experimental values for the form factors. The question arises wether these deviations can be explained by systematic effects in lattice QCD simulations. This thesis is about the computation of nucleon form factors and other hadronic quantities from lattice QCD. So called Wilson fermions are used and the u- and d-quarks are treated fully dynamically. The simulations were performed using gauge ensembles with a range of lattice spacings, volumes and pion masses. First of all, the lattice spacing was set to be able to make contact between the lattice results and their experimental complement and to be able to perform a continuum extrapolation. The light quark mass has been computed and found to be m{sub ud}{sup MS}(2 GeV)=3.03(17)(38) MeV. This value is in good agreement with values from experiments and other lattice determinations. Electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon have been calculated. From these form factors the nucleon radii and the coupling constants were computed. The different ensembles enabled us to investigate systematically the dependence of these quantities on the volume, the lattice spacing and the pion mass. Finally we perform a continuum extrapolation and chiral extrapolations to the physical point

  3. No-carrier-added (NCA) aryl [{sup 18}F]fluorides via the nucleophilic aromatic substitution of electron rich aromatic rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yu-Shin; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.


    A method for synthesizing no-carrier-added (NCA) aryl [{sup 18}F] fluoride substituted aromatic aldehyde compositions bearing an electron donating group is described. The method includes the step of reacting aromatic nitro aldehydes having a suitably protected hydroxyl substituent on an electron rich ring. The reaction is carried out by nucleophilic aromatic substitution with a no-carrier-added (NCA) [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion. The method can be used to synthesize various no-carrier-added aryl [{sup 18}F]fluoride compositions, including 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA, 2-[{sup 18}F]fluorotyrosine, 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine, and 6-[{sup 18}F]fluorodopamine. In those instances when a racemic mixture of enantiomers is produced by the present invention, such as in the synthesis of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine, a preferred method also includes resolution of the racemic mixture on a chiral HPLC column. This procedure results in a high yield of enantiomerically pure [{sup 18}F] labeled isomers, for example [-]-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine and [+]-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine.

  4. Glycosides of benzodioxole-indole alkaloids from Narcissus having axial chirality. (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomás; Rezanka, Pavel; Sigler, Karel


    Glycosides of benzodioxole-indole alkaloid 6-hydroxy-galanthindole (7-(6'-(hydroxymethyl)benzo[d][1',3']dioxol-5'-yl)-1-methyl-1H-indol-6-ol) having axial chirality were isolated from Narcissus cultivar 'Dutch Master'. The structure, including absolute configuration, was determined by means of extensive spectroscopic data such as UV, IR, CD, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and computational chiroptical methods. The aglycone has a structure containing two aromatic moieties with substituents hindering rotation about the biaryl axis and is connected to a saccharide moiety linked at C-6 and made up of one, two, or three sugars (glucose, alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranose, and trisaccharide ([beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->2)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranose). 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metal-Free, Multicomponent Synthesis of Pyrrole-Based π-Conjugated Polymers from Imines, Acid Chlorides, and Alkynes. (United States)

    Kayser, Laure V; Vollmer, Moritz; Welnhofer, Merve; Krikcziokat, Hanna; Meerholz, Klaus; Arndtsen, Bruce A


    Multicomponent coupling reactions (MCRs) are becoming increasingly used in the synthesis of macromolecules, as they can allow the rapid generation of libraries of materials as a method to tune properties. MCRs could prove particularly useful in the synthesis of π-conjugated polymers in which structural changes are necessary for fine-tuning of electronic properties. We describe here the first metal-free multicomponent approach to conjugated polymers. This reaction exploits the coupling of imines, acid chlorides, and (catechyl)PPh to generate phospha-münchnone-containing polymers, which can be converted to poly(pyrroles) via cycloaddition. The platform allows for the efficient synthesis of families of high molecular weight polymers in one step from readily available monomers.

  6. Intracellular siRNA delivery dynamics of integrin-targeted, PEGylated chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Colombo, Stefano; Pourcelle, Vincent


    Integrin-targeted nanoparticles are promising for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumor cells or tumor endothelium in cancer therapy aiming at silencing genes essential for tumor growth. However, during the process of optimizing and realizing their full potential, it is pertinent...... chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles. The amount of intracellular siRNA delivered by αvβ3-targeted versus non-targeted nanoparticles was quantified in the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line H1299 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a stem-loop reverse......-fold increase in the number of siRNA copies/cell, subsequently resulting in as much as 90% silencing of EGFP at well-tolerated carrier concentrations. In contrast, non-targeted nanoparticles mediated low levels of gene silencing, despite relatively high intracellular siRNA concentrations, indicating...

  7. Molecular-Level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Zaera


    The following is a proposal to continue our multi-institutional research on heterogeneous chiral catalysis. Our team combines the use of surface-sensitive analytical techniques for the characterization of model systems with quantum and statistical mechanical calculations to interpret experimental data and guide the design of future research. Our investigation focuses on the interrelation among the three main mechanisms by which enantioselectivity can be bestowed to heterogeneous catalysts, namely: (1) by templating chirality via the adsorption of chiral supramolecular assemblies, (2) by using chiral modifiers capable of forming chiral complexes with the reactant and force enantioselective surface reactions, and (3) by forming naturally chiral surfaces using imprinting chiral agents. Individually, the members of our team are leaders in these various aspects of chiral catalysis, but the present program provides the vehicle to generate and exploit the synergies necessary to address the problem in a comprehensive manner. Our initial work has advanced the methodology needed for these studies, including an enantioselective titration procedure to identify surface chiral sites, infrared spectroscopy in situ at the interface between gases or liquids and solids to mimic realistic catalytic conditions, and DFT and Monte Carlo algorithms to simulate and understand chirality on surfaces. The next step, to be funded by the monies requested in this proposal, is to apply those methods to specific problems in chiral catalysis, including the identification of the requirements for the formation of supramolecular surface structures with enantioselective behavior, the search for better molecules to probe the chiral nature of the modified surfaces, the exploration of the transition from supramolecular to one-to-one chiral modification, the correlation of the adsorption characteristics of one-to-one chiral modifiers with their physical properties, in particular with their configuration

  8. Chiral alkylated-aniline as a noninvasive fluorescence sensor: Spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies (United States)

    Sengupta, Bidisha; Mukherjee, Chirantan Sen; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Muhammad, Maria Jones; Gladney, William; Armstrong, George


    Aniline, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and arylamines are known carcinogens. Recently aniline mustard has come into prominence as a novel anticancer agent. In this project, microwave irradiation has been used to synthesize an optically active alkylated aniline namely 2,6-dimethyl-4-(1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)aniline (abbreviated DMPA). The presence of quartet and doublet peaks in NMR and a single chromatogram in HPLC verified that the final product DMPA, prepared from the synthesis reactions, had no major impurities. By using a Lux chiral column in HPLC, two peaks have been detected in the chromatogram, which correspond to two enantiomers of the chiral aniline derivative. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements on DMPA indicated conspicuous dependence of its emission behavior on the polarity (in terms of the empirical polarity parameter ET(30)) of the homogeneous solvents used, a property important for an optical sensor. The nature of the emission profiles, along with the relevant parameter namely wavelength at emission maximum (λemmax) is used to infer the distribution, binding and microenvironment of the DMPA molecules in human serum albumin protein (HSA). DMPA is weakly fluorescent in aqueous buffer medium, with a dramatic enhancement in the fluorescence emission in the presence of HSA. Molecular modeling studies have been carried out on the two enantiomers (R and S) of DMPA with HSA. The implications of these findings are examined in relation to the potentialities of DMPA as a novel fluorescence sensor for biological systems.

  9. Novel Chiral Bis-Phosphoramides as Organocatalysts for Tetrachlorosilane-Mediated Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rossi


    Full Text Available The formation of novel chiral bidentate phosphoroamides structures able to promote Lewis base-catalyzed Lewis acid-mediated reactions was investigated. Two different classes of phosphoroamides were synthetized: the first class presents a phthalic acid/primary diamine moiety, designed with the aim to perform a self-assembly recognition process through hydrogen bonds; the second one is characterized by the presence of two phosphoroamides as side arms connected to a central pyridine unit, able to chelate SiCl4 in a 2:1 adduct. These species were tested as organocatalysts in the stereoselective allylation of benzaldehyde and a few other aromatic aldehydes with allyl tributyltin in the presence of SiCl4 with good results. NMR studies confirm that only pyridine-based phosphoroamides effectively coordinate tetrachlorosilane and may lead to the generation of a self-assembled entity that would act as a promoter of the reaction. Although further work is necessary to clarify and confirm the formation of the hypothesized adduct, the study lays the foundation for the design and the synthesis of chiral supramolecular organocatalysts.

  10. Chiral alkylated-aniline as a noninvasive fluorescence sensor: Spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies. (United States)

    Sengupta, Bidisha; Mukherjee, Chirantan Sen; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Muhammad, Maria Jones; Gladney, William; Armstrong, George


    Aniline, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and arylamines are known carcinogens. Recently aniline mustard has come into prominence as a novel anticancer agent. In this project, microwave irradiation has been used to synthesize an optically active alkylated aniline namely 2,6-dimethyl-4-(1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)aniline (abbreviated DMPA). The presence of quartet and doublet peaks in NMR and a single chromatogram in HPLC verified that the final product DMPA, prepared from the synthesis reactions, had no major impurities. By using a Lux chiral column in HPLC, two peaks have been detected in the chromatogram, which correspond to two enantiomers of the chiral aniline derivative. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements on DMPA indicated conspicuous dependence of its emission behavior on the polarity (in terms of the empirical polarity parameter ET(30)) of the homogeneous solvents used, a property important for an optical sensor. The nature of the emission profiles, along with the relevant parameter namely wavelength at emission maximum (λem(max)) is used to infer the distribution, binding and microenvironment of the DMPA molecules in human serum albumin protein (HSA). DMPA is weakly fluorescent in aqueous buffer medium, with a dramatic enhancement in the fluorescence emission in the presence of HSA. Molecular modeling studies have been carried out on the two enantiomers (R and S) of DMPA with HSA. The implications of these findings are examined in relation to the potentialities of DMPA as a novel fluorescence sensor for biological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel Enantiopure Sigma Receptor Modulators: Quick (Semi-)Preparative Chiral Resolution via HPLC and Absolute Configuration Assignment. (United States)

    Rui, Marta; Marra, Annamaria; Pace, Vittorio; Juza, Markus; Rossi, Daniela; Collina, Simona


    The identification of novel pan-sigma receptor (SR) modulators, potentially useful in cancer treatment, represents a new goal of our research. Here, we report on the preparation of novel chiral compounds characterized by a 3-C alkyl chain bridging an aromatic portion to a 4-benzyl-piperidine moiety. All of the studied compounds have been prepared both in racemic and enantiomerically-pure form, with the final aim to address the role of chirality in the SR interaction. To isolate and characterize enantiomeric compounds, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedures were set up. A systematic analytical screening, involving several combinations of chiral stationary and mobile phases, allowed us to optimize the analytical resolution and to set up the (semi-)preparative chromatographic conditions. Applying the optimized procedure, the enantiomeric resolution of the studied compounds was successfully achieved, obtaining all of the compounds with an enantiomeric excess higher than 95%. Lastly, the absolute configuration has been empirically assigned to enantiopure compounds, combining the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) technique to the elution order study.

  12. Novel Enantiopure Sigma Receptor Modulators: Quick (Semi-Preparative Chiral Resolution via HPLC and Absolute Configuration Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rui


    Full Text Available The identification of novel pan-sigma receptor (SR modulators, potentially useful in cancer treatment, represents a new goal of our research. Here, we report on the preparation of novel chiral compounds characterized by a 3-C alkyl chain bridging an aromatic portion to a 4-benzyl-piperidine moiety. All of the studied compounds have been prepared both in racemic and enantiomerically-pure form, with the final aim to address the role of chirality in the SR interaction. To isolate and characterize enantiomeric compounds, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedures were set up. A systematic analytical screening, involving several combinations of chiral stationary and mobile phases, allowed us to optimize the analytical resolution and to set up the (semi-preparative chromatographic conditions. Applying the optimized procedure, the enantiomeric resolution of the studied compounds was successfully achieved, obtaining all of the compounds with an enantiomeric excess higher than 95%. Lastly, the absolute configuration has been empirically assigned to enantiopure compounds, combining the electronic circular dichroism (ECD technique to the elution order study.

  13. Chiral assembly of weakly curled hard rods: Effect of steric chirality and polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensink, H. H., E-mail:; Morales-Anda, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides–UMR 8502, Université Paris-Sud & CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France)


    We theoretically investigate the pitch of lyotropic cholesteric phases composed of slender rods with steric chirality transmitted via a weak helical deformation of the backbone. In this limit, the model is amenable to analytical treatment within Onsager theory and a closed expression for the pitch versus concentration and helical shape can be derived. Within the same framework, we also briefly review the possibility of alternative types of chiral order, such as twist-bend or screw-like nematic phases, finding that cholesteric order dominates for weakly helical distortions. While long-ranged or “soft” chiral forces usually lead to a pitch decreasing linearly with concentration, steric chirality leads to a much steeper decrease of quadratic nature. This reveals a subtle link between the range of chiral intermolecular interaction and the pitch sensitivity with concentration. A much richer dependence on the thermodynamic state is revealed for polar helices where parallel and anti-parallel pair alignments along the local director are no longer equivalent. It is found that weak temperature variations may lead to dramatic changes in the pitch, despite the lyotropic nature of the assembly.

  14. Electromagnetic wave propagation through a dielectric-chiral interface and through a chiral slab (United States)

    Bassiri, S.; Papas, C. H.; Engheta, N.


    The reflection from and transmission through a semiinfinite chiral medium are analyzed by obtaining the Fresnel equations in terms of parallel- and perpendicular-polarized modes, and a comparison is made with results reported previously. The chiral medium is described electromagnetically by the constitutive relations D = (epsilon)E+i(gamma)B and H = i(gamma)E+(1/mu)B. The constants epsilon, mu and gamma are real and have values that are fixed by the size, the shape, and the spatial distribution of the elements that collectively compose the medium. The conditions are obtained for the total internal reflection of the incident wave from the interface and for the existence of the Brewster angle. The effects of the chirality on the polarization and the intensity of the reflected wave from the chiral half-space are discussed and illustrated by using the Stokes parameters. The propagation of electromagnetic wave through an infinite slab of chiral medium is formulated for oblique incidence and solved analytically for the case of normal incidence.

  15. Amino acid ionic liquids as chiral ligands in ligand-exchange chiral separations. (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Wu, Kangkang; Tang, Fei; Yao, Lihua; Yang, Fei; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo


    Recently, amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) have attracted much research interest. In this paper, we present the first application of AAILs in chiral separation based on the chiral ligand exchange principle. By using 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium L-proline (L-Pro) as a chiral ligand coordinated with copper(II), four pairs of underivatized amino acid enantiomers-dl-phenylalanine (dl-Phe), dl-histidine (dl-His), dl-tryptophane (dl-Trp), and dl-tyrosine (dl-Tyr)-were successfully separated in two major chiral separation techniques, HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with higher enantioselectivity than conventionally used amino acid ligands (resolution (R(s))=3.26-10.81 for HPLC; R(s)=1.34-4.27 for CE). Interestingly, increasing the alkyl chain length of the AAIL cation remarkably enhanced the enantioselectivity. It was inferred that the alkylmethylimidazolium cations and L-Pro form ion pairs on the surface of the stationary phase or on the inner surface of the capillary. The ternary copper complexes with L-Pro are consequently attached to the support surface, thus inducing an ion-exchange type of retention for the dl-enantiomers. Therefore, the AAIL cation plays an essential role in the separation. This work demonstrates that AAILs are good alternatives to conventional amino acid ligands for ligand-exchange-based chiral separation. It also reveals the tremendous application potential of this new type of task-specific ILs.

  16. Manipulating the Lorentz force via the chirality of nanoparticles (United States)

    Wang, Maoyan; Li, Hailong; Dong, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Du, Ming; Wang, Rui; Xu, Tong; Wu, Jian


    We demonstrate that a single plane wave pulls a chiral nanoparticle toward the light source. The nanoparticle exhibits optical gain in a particular wavelength region. The equivalence of the generalized and alternative expressions of the Lorentz force density relating to bound charges for chiral media is numerically validated. By considering the two-dimensional electromagnetic problem of incident plane waves normally impinged on active chiral cylinders, it is shown that the gradient force is mainly contributed by the bound electric and magnetic current densities of the cross-polarized waves. We also investigate how the medium parameters and impedance mismatch can be used to manipulate the pulling or pushing Lorentz forces between two chiral cylinders. This finding may provide a recipe to understand the light interaction with multiple chiral nanoparticles of arbitrary shapes (in general) with the aid of the numerical approach. It could be a promising avenue in controlling the optical micromanipulation for chiral nanoparticles with mirroring asymmetry.

  17. Enhanced Electromagnetic Chirality by Locally Excited Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Alizadeh, M H


    The possibility to enhance chiral light-matter interactions through plasmonic nanostructures provides entirely new opportunities for greatly improving the detection limits of chiroptical spectroscopies down to the single molecule level. The most pronounced of these chiral interactions occur in the ultraviolet (UV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is difficult to access with conventional localized plasmon resonance based sensors. Although Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) on noble metal films can sustain resonances in the desired spectral range, their transverse magnetic nature has been an obstacle for enhancing chiroptical effects. Here we demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that SPPs excited by near-field sources can exhibit rich and non-trivial chiral characteristics. In particular, we show that the excitation of SPPs by a chiral source not only results in a locally enhanced optical chirality but also achieves manifold enhancement of net optical chirality. Our finding that SPPs facil...

  18. Packing of Helices: Is Chirality the Highest Crystallographic Symmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Gautier


    Full Text Available Chiral structures resulting from the packing of helices are common in biological and synthetic materials. Herein, we analyze the noncentrosymmetry (NCS in such systems using crystallographic considerations. A comparison of the chiral structures built from helices shows that the chirality can be expected for specific building units such as 31/32 or 61/65 helices which, in hexagonal arrangement, will more likely lead to a chiral resolution. In these two systems, we show that the highest crystallographic symmetry (i.e., the symmetry which can describe the crystal structure from the smallest assymetric unit is chiral. As an illustration, we present the synthesis of two materials ([Zn(2,2’-bpy3](NbF62 and [Zn(2,2’-bpy3](TaF62 in which the 3n helices pack into a chiral structure.

  19. Identification of Enantioselective Extractants for Chiral Separation of Amines and Amino-Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, M.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.; Kwant, Gerard


    lack of versatile enantioselective extractants. Therefore, a rational approach is developed to transfer the extensive knowledge of chiral selectors reported in the literature on chiral recognition and other chiral separation techniques to extraction. Based on a similarity in separation mechanisms,

  20. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.


    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  1. The formation mechanism of chiral carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Liren; Lu, Junzhe; Zhu, Hengjiang


    The nuclei and the formation mechanism of chiral carbon nanotubes, namely, single-, double-, and triple-walled carbon nanotubes are simulated by the first principle density functional theory. The formation mechanism from nuclei to corresponding infinitely long carbon nanotubes occurs spirally and via absorbing carbon atoms layer by layer. Carbon atoms at the open end are metastable state compared with ones in the tube wall or the closed end, which indicate the growth point of chiral carbon nanotubes is located at the open end. Growth of outer layer tubular clusters takes precedence over the inner layer in the process of forming multi-walled nuclear structures. Because of the ratio of carbon atoms at the open end to all carbon atoms decreases, the stability of the tubular clusters increases with their length. The infinitely long carbon nanotubes are obtained by executing periodic boundary conditions depend on corresponding nuclear structures.

  2. Chiral perturbation theory with tensor sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cata, Oscar; Cata, Oscar; Mateu, Vicent


    We construct the most general chirally-invariant Lagrangian for mesons in the presence of external sources coupled to the tensor current \\bar psi sigma_mu nu psi. In order to have only even terms in the chiral expansion, we consider the new source of O(p2). With this choice, we build the even-parity effective Lagrangian up to the p6-order (NLO). While there are only 4 new terms at the p4-order, at p6-order we find 78 terms for n_f=2 and 113 terms for n_f=3. We provide a detailed discussion on the different mechanisms that ensure that our final set of operators is complete and non-redundant. We also examine the odd-parity sector, to conclude that the first operators appear at the p8-order (NNLO).

  3. New approaches in sensitive chiral CE. (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Guijarro-Diez, Miguel; Marina, María Luisa; Crego, Antonio L


    CE has shown to have a big potential for chiral separations, with advantages such as high efficiency, high resolution, and low sample and reagents consumption. Nevertheless, when UV detection is employed, CE has some drawbacks, especially the low sensitivity obtained due to the short optical path length. Notwithstanding, sensitivity improvements can be achieved when different approaches are employed, such as sample treatment strategies (off-line or on-line), in-capillary sample preconcentration techniques, and/or alternative detection systems to UV-Vis (such as fluorescence, conductimetry, electrochemiluminiscence, MS, etc.). This article reviews the most recent methodological and instrumental advances reported from June 2011 to May 2013 for enhancing the sensitivity in chiral analysis by CE. The sensitivity achieved for the enantioseparated analytes and the applications carried out using the developed methodologies are also summarized. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Chiral Selectivity as a Bridge to Homochirality (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Berger, E. L.


    In abiotic reactions, equal mixtures of L- and D- amino acid enantiomers are produced unless conditions that favor one enantiomer over the other are present. Understanding how the transition from racemic, abiotic chemistry to homochiral polymers used in proteins occurred is fundamental to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth and the search for signs of life elsewhere, but this transition is still poorly understood. We have begun investigations into whether enantiopure amino acid pools are a necessary condition, or if the polymerization process itself can impart some added degree of stereoselectivity. More specifically, we are exploring the polymerization behavior of chiral amino acids to determine if they show a preference for homochiral or heterochiral polymerization. We are also determining the effects of different amino acid chiral ratios (L greater than D) to determine at what level of enantiomeric enrichment homochiral peptides become predominant. These data will allow us to evaluate the plausibility of homochiral polymers arising by known abiotic mechanisms.

  5. A primer for Chiral Perturbative Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Stefan [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Schindler, Matthias R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Physics


    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques. (orig.)

  6. Chiral Response of Twisted Bilayer Graphene (United States)

    Stauber, T.; Low, T.; Gómez-Santos, G.


    We present an effective (minimal) theory for chiral two-dimensional materials. These materials possess an electromagnetic coupling without exhibiting a topological gap. As an example, we study the response of doped twisted bilayers, unveiling unusual phenomena in the zero frequency limit. An in-plane magnetic field induces a huge paramagnetic response at the neutrality point and, upon doping, also gives rise to a substantial longitudinal Hall response. The system also accommodates nontrivial longitudinal plasmonic modes that are associated with a longitudinal magnetic moment, thus endowing them with a chiral character. Finally, we note that the optical activity can be considerably enhanced upon doping and our general approach would enable systematic exploration of 2D material heterostructures with optical activity.

  7. Sensing and actuation of smart chiral honeycombs (United States)

    Abramovitch, H.; Burgard, M.; Edery-Azulay, Lucy; Evans, K. E.; Hoffmeister, M.; Miller, W.; Scarpa, F.; Smith, C. W.; Tee, K. F.; Schönecker, A.; Seffner, L.


    A chiral honeycomb configuration is developed with embedded piezosensors and actuators for smart sandwich panel applications. The chiral honeycomb concept is made of repeating units of cylinders and plates (ligaments), featuring an in-plane negative Poisson's ratio. Rapid Prototyping vacuum-cast and FDM (Fusion Deposition Moulding) techniques are developed to embed micro fibres composites to be used for potential structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, and microwave absorption screens for electromagnetic compatibility. Finite Element models are also developed to prototype and simulate the response, sensing and actuation capability of the honeycombs for design purposes. Dynamic tests using scanning laser vibrometers and acoustic wave propagation are carried out to assess the feasibility of the concept.

  8. A primer for chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Stefan


    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques.

  9. Note on the Lattice Fermion Chiral Symmetry Group


    Mandula, Jeffrey E.


    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luscher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of the chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators is found. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact...

  10. Lipase-Catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Aryltrimethylsilyl Chiral Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H. Andrade


    Full Text Available Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols through a transesterification reaction was studied. The optimal conditions found for the kinetic resolution of m- and p-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols, led to excellent results, high conversions (c = 50%, high enantiomeric ratios (E > 200 and enantiomeric excesses for the remaining (S-alcohol and (R-acetylated product (>99%. However, kinetic resolution of o-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols did not occur under the same conditions applied to the other isomers.

  11. Chiral perturbation theory for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Manashov, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik]|[Sankt-Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Schaefer, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik


    We analyze the moments of the isosinglet generalized parton distributions H, E, H, E of the nucleon in one-loop order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. We discuss in detail the construction of the operators in the effective theory that are required to obtain all corrections to a given order in the chiral power counting. The results will serve to improve the extrapolation of lattice results to the chiral limit. (orig.)

  12. Chiral Rayleigh particles discrimination in dynamic dual optical traps (United States)

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador


    A chiral optical conveyor belt for enantiomeric separation of nanoparticles is numerically demonstrated by using different types of counter propagating elliptical Laguerre Gaussian beams with different beam waist and topological charge. The analysis of chiral resolution has been made for particles immersed in water demonstrating that in the analyzed conditions one type of enantiomer is trapped in a deep potential and the others are transported by the chiral conveyor toward another trap located in a different geometrical region.

  13. Chiral symmetry on the lattice with Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Maiani, L.; Martinelli, G.; Rossi, G.; Testa, M.


    The chiral properties of the continuum limit of lattice QCD with Wilson fermions are studied. We show that a partially conserved axial current can be defined, satisfying the usual current algebra requirements. A proper definition of the chiral symmetry order parameter, <0 vertical stroke anti psi psi vertical stroke 0>, is given, and the chiral properties of composite operators are investigated. The implications of our analysis to the lattice determination of non-leptonic weak amplitudes are also discussed. (orig.).

  14. Chiral quaternary phosphonium salts: a new class of organocatalysts. (United States)

    Enders, Dieter; Nguyen, Thanh Vinh


    Phase-transfer catalysis has widely been used as a prime synthetic tool for both laboratory and industrial processes. During the last twenty years, asymmetric phase-transfer catalysis using chiral organocatalysts has attracted widespread interest. However, the scope of chiral phase-transfer catalysis has been limited mostly to the quaternary ammonium salts. As an emerging area, the recent developments in the application of quaternary phosphonium salts as chiral phase-transfer catalysts are discussed in this article.

  15. Emerging functional chiral microporous materials: synthetic strategies and enantioselective separations


    Xue, Ming; Li, Bin; Qiu, Shilun; Chen, Banglin


    In recent years, chiral microporous materials with open pores have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in enantioselective separation and catalysis. This review summarizes the recent advances on chiral microporous materials, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs). We will introduce the synthetic strategies in detail and highlight the current status of chiral microporous materials on...

  16. What flows in the chirally anomalous transport?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Kenji


    A combination of the magnetic field and the quantum anomaly leads to transport phenomena of chiral fermions. On the microscopic level, however, what really flows is a non-trivial question. I propose an answer to this question; the particle production affected by the magnetic field and the quantum anomaly has an anisotropic distribution in momentum space, which should be realized in the heavy-ion collision by a fast process occurring on top of color flux tubes in the glasma.

  17. Chiral Biomarkers and Microfossils in Carbonaceous Meteorites (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now established that the amino acids present in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites have a moderate to strong excess of the L-enantiomer. Stable isotope data have established that these amino acids are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain many other strong chemical biomarkers including purines and pyrimidines (nitrogen heterocycles of nucleic acids); pristine and phytane (components of the chlorophyll pigment) and morphological biomarkers (microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria). Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that nitrogen is below the detectability level in most of the meteorite filaments as well as in Cambrian Trilobites and filaments of 2.7 Gya Archaean cyanobacteria from Karelia. The deficiency of nitrogen in the filaments and the total absence of sugars, of twelve of the life-critical protein amino acids, and two of the nucleobases of DNA and RNA provide clear and convincing evidence that these filaments are not modern biological contaminants. This paper reviews the chiral, chemical biomarkers morphological biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites. This paper reviews chiral and morphological biomarkers and discusses the missing nitrogen, sugars, protein amino acids, and nucleobases as ?bio-discriminators? that exclude modern biological contaminants as a possible explanation for the permineralized cyanobacterial filaments found in the meteorites.

  18. Chiral Molecule in the Standard Model


    Fukuyama, Takeshi


    This review is based on the talk in the conference of "Spectroscopic Studies on Molecular Chirality" held on Dec 20-21 2013. The objects of the present paper are to (1) derive the energy difference between Laevorotatory, or left-handed, (L-) and Dextrotatory, or right-handed, (D-) molecules and to (2) discuss how this tiny energy difference leads us to the observed enantiomer excess. Relations with other parity violating phenomena in molecules, electric dipole moment and natural optical activ...

  19. Hadron Structure in Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksejevs, A. [Grenfell campus of Memorial University, Newfoundland (Canada); Barkanova, S. [Acadia University, Nova Scotia (Canada)


    We present our predictions for meson form factors for the SU(3) octet and investigate their impact on the pion electroproduction cross sections. The electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the SU(3) octet of mesons and baryons are analyzed in detail. These extensive calculations are made possible by the recent implementation of semi-automatized calculations in fully-relativistic chiral perturbation theory, which allows evaluation of polarizabilities from Compton scattering up to next-to-the-leading order.

  20. Chiral biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now established that the amino acids present in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites have a moderate to strong excess of the L-enantiomer. Stable isotope data have established that these amino acids are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain many other strong chemical biomarkers including purines and pyrimidines (nitrogen heterocycles of nucleic acids); pristine and phytane (components of the chlorophyll pigment) and morphological biomarkers (microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria). Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that nitrogen is below the detectability level in most of the meteorite filaments as well as in Cambrian Trilobites and filaments of 2.7 Gya Archaean cyanobacteria from Karelia. The deficiency of nitrogen in the filaments and the total absence of sugars, of twelve of the life-critical protein amino acids, and two of the nucleobases of DNA and RNA provide clear and convincing evidence that these filaments are not modern biological contaminants. This paper reviews the chiral, chemical biomarkers morphological biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites. This paper reviews chiral and morphological biomarkers and discusses the missing nitrogen, sugars, protein amino acids, and nucleobases as "bio-discriminators" that exclude modern biological contaminants as a possible explanation for the permineralized cyanobacterial filaments found in the meteorites.

  1. Chiral discrimination in biomimetic systems: Phenylalanine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    cine derivatives were synthesized and stereoselectivity was measured using IC50 potency assay.6 Naturally occurring L-puromycine inhibits globin mRNA trans- lation with an IC50 of 1⋅8 μM and D-puromycine inhibit translation giving an IC50 of 280 μM. The difference is 150-fold and is a signature of strong chiral dis-.

  2. Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of chiral molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, C.J.


    In this thesis a theory of the Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of chiral molecules as modelled by a helix oriented with respect to the direction of incidence of light is presented. It is shown that a necessary condition for the existence of CIDS is the presence of an asymmetric polarizability in the scatterer. The polarizability of the scatterer is assumed generally complex, so that both refractive and absorptive phenomena are taken into account.

  3. Bicyclic Baird-type aromaticity (United States)

    Cha, Won-Young; Kim, Taeyeon; Ghosh, Arindam; Zhang, Zhan; Ke, Xian-Sheng; Ali, Rashid; Lynch, Vincent M.; Jung, Jieun; Kim, Woojae; Lee, Sangsu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Park, Jung Su; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Chandrashekar, Tavarekere K.; Kim, Dongho


    Classic formulations of aromaticity have long been associated with topologically planar conjugated macrocyclic systems. The theoretical possibility of so-called bicycloaromaticity was noted early on. However, it has yet to be demonstrated by experiment in a simple synthetic organic molecule. Conjugated organic systems are attractive for studying the effect of structure on electronic features. This is because, in principle, they can be modified readily through dedicated synthesis. As such, they can provide useful frameworks for testing by experiment with fundamental insights provided by theory. Here we detail the synthesis and characterization of two purely organic non-planar dithienothiophene-bridged [34]octaphyrins that permit access to two different aromatic forms as a function of the oxidation state. In their neutral forms, these congeneric systems contain competing 26 and 34 π-electronic circuits. When subject to two-electron oxidation, electronically mixed [4n+1]/[4n+1] triplet biradical species in the ground state are obtained that display global aromaticity in accord with Baird's rule.

  4. The direct aromatization of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R.; Migone, R.A.; Kazi, A.M. [Altamira Instruments, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The thermal decomposition of methane shows significant potential as a process for the production of higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of the reaction is limited. Thermodynamic calculations have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds can significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon and heavier (C{sub 10+}) materials. Much work remains to be done in optimizing the quenching process and this is one of the goals of this program. Means to lower the temperature of the reaction are being studied as this result in a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts will be investigated as a means of lowering the reaction temperature thus allowing faster quenching. It is highly likely that such studies will lead to a successful direct methane to higher hydrocarbon process.

  5. Chiral Receiving Antenna With Low Backscattering Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Karilainen, Antti O


    Receiving antennas absorb power from incident waves, but they also re-radiate some power into surrounding space. If a receiving antenna is to be used as a sensor which should not disturb the object under study, it should scatter as little power as possible in the receiving direction. We propose to use a chiral element composed of two orthogonal chiral particles as a low-scattering sensor.The element can transmit and receive circular polarization in all directions with the Huygens' pattern. We derive the vector effective length for the antenna using the small dipole approximation for the chiral particles. We observe that the element does not backscatter, regardless of the polarization, when the incidence direction is normal to the plane of the particles. Scattered fields, scattered axial ratio, and the scattering cross section are presented. We show that the zero-backscattering property holds also for the antenna element when it is capable to receive all the available power with conjugate loading. The approxim...

  6. Chiral symmetry breaking in unstirred crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szurgot, M. [Center of Mathematics and Physics, Technical University of Lodz (Poland)


    Statistics of nucleation of chiral forms of sodium bromate from unstirred aqueous solutions was studied. It was established that bimodal, trimodal and unimodal distributions of enantiomers are obtained in unstirred crystallization. It was also found out that probabilities of the creation of L or D crystals and racemates R, as well as the presence of D, L, and R peaks in distributions depend on crystallizer size, supersaturation and temperature. Nucleation at low supersaturations in small, closed crystallizers leads to the formation of pure enantiomers, and to bimodal distributions with D and L peaks at any temperature. At high supersaturations in large, open crystallizers the formation of racemates and unimodal distributions with racemate R peaks results. In open crystallizers at the lowest temperatures and at the highest temperatures used in crystallization from aqueous solution racemates of sodium bromate are preferentially formed, but in a wide range of intermediate-temperatures apart from racemates, pure enantiomers are efficiently formed which leads to trimodal distributions. The spontaneous formation of pure enantiomers in crystallization from unstirred, unseeded solutions is caused by the chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon, the same as that discovered in stirred crystallization. The conservation of chiral symmetry is, in unstirred crystallization, one of the two possibilities, and the other one is the breakage of symmetry. Both of them occur in nature. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Chirality-induced magnon transport in AA-stacked bilayer honeycomb chiral magnets (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.


    In this Letter, we study the magnetic transport in AA-stacked bilayer honeycomb chiral magnets coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically. For both couplings, we observe chirality-induced gaps, chiral protected edge states, magnon Hall and magnon spin Nernst effects of magnetic spin excitations. For ferromagnetically coupled layers, thermal Hall and spin Nernst conductivities do not change sign as function of magnetic field or temperature similar to single-layer honeycomb ferromagnetic insulator. In contrast, for antiferromagnetically coupled layers, we observe a sign change in the thermal Hall and spin Nernst conductivities as the magnetic field is reversed. We discuss possible experimental accessible honeycomb bilayer quantum materials in which these effects can be observed.

  8. Enantiomeric separations of chiral pharmaceuticals using chirally modified tetrahexahedral Au nanoparticles (United States)

    Shukla, N.; Yang, D.; Gellman, A. J.


    Tetrahexahedral (THH, 24-sided) Au nanoparticles modified with D- or L-cysteine (Cys) have been used as enantioselective separators of the chiral pharmaceutical propranolol (PLL) in solution phase. Polarimetry has been used to measure the rotation of linearly polarized light by solutions containing mixtures of PLL and Cys/THH-Au NPs with varying enantiomeric excesses of each. Polarimetry yields clear evidence of enantiospecific adsorption of PLL onto the Cys/THH-Au NPs. This extends prior work using propylene oxide as a test chiral probe, by using the crystalline THH Au NPs with well-defined facets to separate a real pharmaceutical. This work suggests that chiral nanoparticles, coupled with a density separation method such as centrifugation, could be used for enantiomeric purification of real pharmaceuticals. A simple robust model developed earlier has also been used to extract the enantiospecific equilibrium constants for R- and S-PLL adsorption onto the D- and L-Cys/THH-Au NPs.

  9. The Three Dimensional Dual of 4D Chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Porrati, M


    Chiral gauge theories can be defined in four-dimensional Anti de Sitter space, but AdS boundary conditions explicitly break the chiral symmetry in a specific, well defined manner, which in turns results in an anomalous Ward identity. When the 4D theory admits a dual description in terms of a 3D CFT, the 3D dual of the broken chiral symmetry is a certain double-trace deformation of the CFT, which produces the same anomalous chiral Ward identities that obtains in the 4D bulk theory.

  10. Partial restoration of chiral symmetry in the color flux tube (United States)

    Iritani, Takumi; Cossu, Guido; Hashimoto, Shoji


    Using the quark eigenmodes computed on the lattice with the overlap-Dirac operator, we investigate the spatial distribution of the chiral condensate around static color sources corresponding to quark-antiquark and three-quark systems. A flux structure of chromo fields appears in the presence of such color charges. The magnitude of the chiral condensate is reduced inside the color flux, which implies partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside hadrons. Taking a static baryon source in a periodic box as a toy model of nuclear matter, we estimate the magnitude of the chiral symmetry restoration as a function of baryon matter density.

  11. Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio L.


    Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.

  12. Heavy–light mesons in chiral AdS/QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yizhuang, E-mail:; Zahed, Ismail, E-mail:


    We discuss a minimal holographic model for the description of heavy–light and light mesons with chiral symmetry, defined in a slab of AdS space. The model consists of a pair of chiral Yang–Mills and tachyon fields with specific boundary conditions that break spontaneously chiral symmetry in the infrared. The heavy–light spectrum and decay constants are evaluated explicitly. In the heavy mass limit the model exhibits both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry and allows for the explicit derivation of the one-pion axial couplings to the heavy–light mesons.

  13. Chirality-dependent cellular uptake of chiral nanocarriers and intracellular delivery of different amounts of guest molecules (United States)

    Kehr, Nermin Seda; Jose, Joachim


    We demonstrate the organic molecules loaded and chiral polymers coated periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) to generate chiral nanocarriers that we used to study chirality-dependent cellular uptake in serum and serum-free media and the subsequent delivery of different amounts of organic molecules into cells. Our results show that the amount of internalized PMO and thus the transported amount of organic molecules by nanocarrier PMO into cells was chirality dependent and controlled by hard/soft protein corona formation on the PMO surfaces. Therefore, this study demonstrate that chiral porous nanocarriers could potentially be used as advanced drug delivery systems which are able to use the specific chiral surface-protein interactions to influence/control the amount of (bio)active molecules delivered to cells in drug delivery and/or imaging applications.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Kinetic Models for Chiral Dominance in Soft Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvaerd, Søren


    Molecular dynamics simulation, models for isomerization kinetics, origin of biomolecular chirality......Molecular dynamics simulation, models for isomerization kinetics, origin of biomolecular chirality...

  15. Inherently chiral calix[4]arenes via oxazoline directed ortholithiation: synthesis and probe of chiral space. (United States)

    Herbert, Simon A; van Laeren, Laura J; Castell, Dominic C; Arnott, Gareth E


    The diastereoselective oxazoline-directed lithiation of calix[4]arenes is reported with diastereoselective ratios of greater than 100:1 in some instances. Notably, it has been found that the opposite diastereomer can be accessed via this approach merely through the choice of an alkyllithium reagent. The inherently chiral oxazoline calix[4]arenes have also been preliminarily examined as ligands in the palladium-catalyzed Tsuji-Trost allylation reaction, returning results comparable to their planar chiral ferrocene counterparts pointing towards future application of these types of compounds.

  16. Effects of size and ligand density on the chirality transfer from chiral-ligand-capped nanoparticles to nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Nemati, Ahlam; Bergquist, Leah; Hegmann, Torsten


    Studies of chiroptical effects of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are a fascinating and rapidly evolving field in nanomaterial research with promising applications of such chiral metal NPs in catalysis and metamaterials as well as chiral sensing and separation. The aim of our studies was to seek out a system that not only allows the detection and understanding of Au NP chirality but also permits visualization and ranking — considering size, shape and nature as well as density of the ligand shell — of the extent of chirality transfer to a surrounding medium. Nematic liquid crystal (N-LC) phases are an ideal platform to examine these effects, exhibiting characteristic defect textures upon doping with a chiral additive. To test this, we synthesized series of Au NPs capped with two structurally different chiral ligands and studied well-dispersed mixtures in two nematic liquid crystal hosts. Induced circular dichroism (ICD) spectropolarimetry and polarized light optical microscopy (POM) confirmed that all Au NPs induce chiral nematic (N*-LC) phases, and measurements of the helical pitch as well as calculation of the helical twisting power (HTP) in various cell geometries allowed for an insightful ranking of the efficiency of chirality transfer of all Au NPs as well as their free ligands.

  17. Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellman, Andrew John [Carnegie Mellon University; Sholl, David S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tysoe, Wilfred T. [University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee; Zaera, Francisco [University of California at Riverside


    Understanding and controlling selectivity is one of the key challenges in heterogeneous catalysis. Among problems in catalytic selectivity enantioselectivity is perhaps the most the most challenging. The primary goal of the project on “Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts” is to understand the origins of enantioselectivity on chiral heterogeneous surfaces and catalysts. The efforts of the project team include preparation of chiral surfaces, characterization of chiral surfaces, experimental detection of enantioselectivity on such surfaces and computational modeling of the interactions of chiral probe molecules with chiral surfaces. Over the course of the project period the team of PI’s has made some of the most detailed and insightful studies of enantioselective chemistry on chiral surfaces. This includes the measurement of fundamental interactions and reaction mechanisms of chiral molecules on chiral surfaces and leads all the way to rationale design and synthesis of chiral surfaces and materials for enantioselective surface chemistry. The PI’s have designed and prepared new materials for enantioselective adsorption and catalysis. Naturally Chiral Surfaces • Completion of a systematic study of the enantiospecific desorption kinetics of R-3-methylcyclohexanone (R-3-MCHO) on 9 achiral and 7 enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces with orientations that span the stereographic triangle. • Discovery of super-enantioselective tartaric acid (TA) and aspartic acid (Asp) decomposition as a result of a surface explosion mechanism on Cu(643)R&S. Systematic study of super-enantiospecific TA and Asp decomposition on five enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces. • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-propylene oxide (PO) from Cu(100) imprinted with {3,1,17} facets by L-lysine adsorption. Templated Chiral Surfaces • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-PO from Pt(111) and Pd(111

  18. Theoretical study on the distribution of atomic charges in the Schiff bases of 3-hydroxypyridine-4-aldehyde and alanine. The effect of the protonation state of the pyridine and imine nitrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasnovas, Rodrigo; Salva, Antoni; Frau, Juan; Donoso, Josefa [Institut Universitari d' Investigacio en Ciencies de la Salut (IUNICS), Departament de Quimica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Munoz, Francisco [Institut Universitari d' Investigacio en Ciencies de la Salut (IUNICS), Departament de Quimica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)], E-mail:


    The protonation state of the pyridine and imine nitrogen atoms on the 'electron-sink' effect was studied by DFT(B3LYP/6-31+G*) calculations in the Schiff bases formed between 3-hydroxypyridine-4-aldehyde and alanine and their C{alpha}-carbanionic counterparts. Results indicate that the protonation of pyridine nitrogen promotes the enolimine-ketoenamine tautomerism. The importance of pyridine nitrogen on the 'electron-sink' effect in the carbanionic molecules clearly depends on the protonation state of the imine nitrogen: in the enolimine tautomers, where the imine nitrogen is deprotonated, a 70% of the electron charge is delocalized on the pyridine ring, whereas in the ketoenamine type structures, where the imine nitrogen is fully protonated, just a 20% of this charge is delocalized in this molecular moiety. The results are discussed in relation to the chemistry of some PLP-dependent enzymes and the structure of their active sites.

  19. Formal synthesis of (-)-podophyllotoxin through the photocyclization of an axially chiral 3,4-bisbenzylidene succinate amide ester--a flow photochemistry approach. (United States)

    Lisiecki, Kamil; Krawczyk, Krzysztof K; Roszkowski, Piotr; Maurin, Jan K; Czarnocki, Zbigniew


    We have developed a strategy for the stereoselective synthesis of cyclolignans related to podophyllotoxin and its derivatives. The crucial step of the synthesis is the photocyclization of a chiral atropoisomeric 1,2-bisbenzylidenesuccinate amide ester, which can be prepared from suitable aromatic aldehydes, diethyl succinate and l-prolinol. The photocyclization was found to be more efficient when irradiation was performed in a home-built continuous flow photochemical reactor. The in-flow irradiation also allowed us to perform the reaction on a multigram scale. The chiral auxiliary was removed by reductive cleavage with the Schwartz's reagent to give the cytotoxic 1R,2R-cis-podophyllic aldehyde, which in turn could be easily reduced to the corresponding alcohol, completing the formal synthesis of (-)-podophyllotoxin.

  20. Qualitative Analysis of the Helical Electronic Energy of Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes: An Approach to Effectively Assign Their Absolute Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zheng


    Full Text Available For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: 1/E = μ (H − K Δα2 , where μ = 1 for the right-handed microhelix and μ = −1 for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E with the atom polarizability difference (Δα on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration


    AbstractExperimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane¯oxygen¯argon burner s...

  2. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical study in gaseous and solid phases of the imine 4-Acetyl-N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)aniline (United States)

    Batista, J. F. N.; Cruz, J. W.; Doriguetto, A. C.; Torres, C.; de Almeida, E. T.; Camps, I.


    In the present paper we describe the synthesis and characterization of the Schiff's base or imine 4-Acetyl-N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)aniline (1), which provided experimental support for the theoretical calculations. The imine was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and single crystal XRD techniques. The computational studies were performed using the density functional theory (DFT) for the gaseous and solid phases. As similar compounds already shown biological activity, the pharmacokinetic properties of (1) were evaluated. Our results shown that (1), in its gaseous form, it is electronically stable and has pharmacological drug like properties. Due to its structural similarity with commercial drugs, it is a promise candidate to act as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and to treat dementia, sleep disorders, alcohol dependence, and psychosis. From the solid state calculations we obtain that (1) is a low gap semiconductor and can act as an absorber for electromagnetic radiations with energy greater that ∼ 0.9eV .

  3. Alcohol oxidation with H2O2 catalyzed by a cheap and promptly available imine based iron complex. (United States)

    Olivo, Giorgio; Giosia, Simone; Barbieri, Alessia; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Di Stefano, Stefano


    We previously reported that the iminopyridine iron(ii) complex 1, easily and quantitatively obtainable in situ, can activate H2O2 to form a powerful oxidant, capable of aliphatic C-H bond hydroxylation. In the present study we expand the application of this catalyst to the oxidation of a series of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. The oxidation of aliphatic alcohols proceeds smoothly, while that of benzylic alcohols is shown to be challenging. Some collected pieces of evidence suggest a preference of the oxidizing species for the aromatic ring instead for the alcoholic moiety. The decrease of the electron density in the aromatic ring shifts the oxidation from the aromatic towards the alcoholic moiety. Quite surprisingly, preferential oxidation of cyclohexanol versus benzylic alcohol was achieved, showing unprecedented selectivity.

  4. Synthesis of Chiral Chalcone Derivatives Catalyzed by the Chiral Cinchona Alkaloid Squaramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Xie


    Full Text Available An effective method has been developed for the preparation of novel chiral chalcone derivatives under mild conditions from the easily accessible starting materials nitromethane and chalcone derivatives 2. The corresponding products were obtained in moderate yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99%.

  5. Chiral liquid crystals: the vestigial chiral phases of T, O, I matter (United States)

    Nissinen, Jaakko; Liu, Ke; Slager, Robert-Jan; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan

    We show how chiral order develops in vestigial isotropic phases of T , O and I liquid crystalline systems in three dimensions. The liquid crystal phases are realized in a lattice model of orientational degrees of freedom with point group symmetries G ⊂ O (3) , represented as O (3) -rotors coupled to G gauge fields. The model incorporates also disclinations via the gauge fields, features an ordered nematic phase with unbroken G rotations at low temperatures and a high temperature isotropic liquid phase. We observe an intermediate phase with spontaneous chirality but isotropic SO (3) symmetry (a liquid) for the gauge groups T, O, and I, the proper symmetry groups of the tetrahedron, cube and icosahedron, respectively. For the other subgroups of SO (3) , Cn <= ∞ and Dn <= ∞, there is generically only a single phase transition from the nematic phase to the isotropic liquid. We discuss the nature of the phase transitions and conditions under which the chiral phase is stabilized by the nematic order parameter fluctuations. The nature of the vestigial chiral phase is reminiscent of the so-called Ising nematic phase in iron based superconductors. Research supported by the Netherlands foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM).

  6. Out-of-equilibrium chiral magnetic effect from chiral kinetic theory (United States)

    Huang, Anping; Jiang, Yin; Shi, Shuzhe; Liao, Jinfeng; Zhuang, Pengfei


    Recently there has been significant interest in the macroscopic manifestation of chiral anomaly in many-body systems of chiral fermions. A notable example is the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME). Enthusiastic efforts have been made to search for the CME in the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy ion collisions. A crucial challenge is that the extremely strong magnetic field in such collisions may last only for a brief moment and the CME current may have to occur at so early a stage that the quark-gluon matter is still far from thermal equilibrium. This thus requires modeling of the CME in an out-of-equilibrium setting. With the recently developed theoretical tool of chiral kinetic theory, we make a first phenomenological study of the CME-induced charge separation during the pre-thermal stage in heavy ion collisions. The effect is found to be very sensitive to the time dependence of the magnetic field and also influenced by the initial quark momentum spectrum as well as the relaxation time of the system evolution toward thermal equilibrium. Within the present approach, such pre-thermal charge separation is found to be modest.

  7. Substrate specific hydrolysis of aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic esters in orchid tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz


    Full Text Available We found that tissue cultures of higher plants were able, similarly as microorganisms, to transform low-molecular-weight chemical compounds. In tissue cultures of orchids (Cymbidium 'Saint Pierre' and Dendrobium phalaenopsis acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols were hydrolyzed, whereas methyl esters of aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic acids did not undergo this reaction. Acetates of racemic aromatic-aliphatic alcohols were hydrolyzed with distinct enantiospecificity.

  8. Long Range Chiral Imprinting of Cu(110) by Tartaric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, T J; Pushkarev, V; Wei, D; Lucci, F R; Sholl, D S; Gellman, A J; Sykes, E C. H.


    Restructuring of metals by chiral molecules represents an important route to inducing and controlling enantioselective surface chemistry. Tartaric acid adsorption on Cu(110) has served as a useful system for understanding many aspects of chiral molecule adsorption and ordering on a metal surface, and a number of chiral and achiral unit cells have been reported. Herein, we show that given the appropriate annealing treatment, singly deprotonated tartaric acid monolayers can restructure the Cu metal itself, and that the resulting structure is both highly ordered and chiral. Molecular resolution scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that singly deprotonated tartaric acid extracts Cu atoms from the Cu(110) surface layer and incorporates them into highly ordered, chiral adatom arrays capped by a continuous molecular layer. Further evidence for surface restructuring comes from images of atom-deep trenches formed in the Cu(110) surface during the process. These trenches also run in low symmetry directions and are themselves chiral. Simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images are consistent with the appearance of the added atom rows and etched trenches. The chiral imprinting results in a long-range, highly ordered unit cell covering the whole surface as confirmed by low energy electron diffraction. Details of the restructuring mechanism were further investigated via time-lapse imaging at elevated temperature. This work reveals the stages of nanoscale surface restructuring and offers an interesting method for chiral modification of an achiral metal surface.

  9. Inorganic–Organic Hybrids Incorporating a Chiral Cyclic Ammonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inorganic–Organic Hybrids Incorporating a Chiral Cyclic Ammonium Cation. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... In this paper we report the synthesis and the crystal structure of eight inorganic–organic hybrids containing various lead halides as the inorganic motif and a chiral, primary ammonium cation as the organic ...

  10. The possible mass region for shears bands and chiral doublets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Frauendorf, S.


    The Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) theory is reviewed. The recent progress of TAC for triaxial deformed nuclei is reported. More emphasis has been paid to the new discovered phenomena - chiral doublets and their explanation. The possible mass region for the shears bands and chiral doublets and their experimental signature are discussed. (author)

  11. Chiral effective field theories of the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, M.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Scherer, S. [Institut fur Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat, 55099 Mainz (Germany)


    Effective field theories of the strong interactions based on the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD provide a model-independent approach to low-energy hadron physics. We give a brief introduction to mesonic and baryonic chiral perturbation theory and discuss a number of applications. We also consider the effective field theory including vector and axial-vector mesons. (authors)

  12. Chiral symmetry breaking from Ginsparg-Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Pilar; Lellouch, L P; Hernandez, Pilar; Jansen, Karl; Lellouch, Laurent


    We calculate the large-volume and small-mass dependences of the quark condensate in quenched QCD using Neuberger's operator. We find good agreement with the predictions of quenched chiral perturbation theory, enabling a determination of the chiral lagrangian parameter \\Sigma, up to a multiplicative renormalization.

  13. Static and Dynamic properties of Cubic Chiral Magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, F.


    The research presented in this thesis focuses on chiral magnets, where skyrmion lattices are stablised by magnetic fields. Neutron scattering, magnetisation and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been performed on several typical chiral magnets such as the multiferroic insulator Cu2OSeO3 and

  14. Integrable double deformation of the principal chiral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delduc, F., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon and CNRS UMR 5672, Université de Lyon, 46, allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Magro, M., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon and CNRS UMR 5672, Université de Lyon, 46, allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Vicedo, B., E-mail: [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)


    We define a two-parameter family of integrable deformations of the principal chiral model on an arbitrary compact group. The Yang–Baxter σ-model and the principal chiral model with a Wess–Zumino term both correspond to limits in which one of the two parameters vanishes.

  15. Split Octonion Reformulation for Electromagnetic Chiral Media of Massive Dyons (United States)

    Chanyal, B. C.


    In an explicit, unified, and covariant formulation of an octonion algebra, we study and generalize the electromagnetic chiral fields equations of massive dyons with the split octonionic representation. Starting with 2×2 Zorn’s vector matrix realization of split-octonion and its dual Euclidean spaces, we represent the unified structure of split octonionic electric and magnetic induction vectors for chiral media. As such, in present paper, we describe the chiral parameter and pairing constants in terms of split octonionic matrix representation of Drude-Born-Fedorov constitutive relations. We have expressed a split octonionic electromagnetic field vector for chiral media, which exhibits the unified field structure of electric and magnetic chiral fields of dyons. The beauty of split octonionic representation of Zorn vector matrix realization is that, the every scalar and vector components have its own meaning in the generalized chiral electromagnetism of dyons. Correspondingly, we obtained the alternative form of generalized Proca–Maxwell’s equations of massive dyons in chiral media. Furthermore, the continuity equations, Poynting theorem and wave propagation for generalized electromagnetic fields of chiral media of massive dyons are established by split octonionic form of Zorn vector matrix algebra.

  16. Chiral Recognition by Fluorescence: One Measurement for Two Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yu


    Full Text Available This outlook describes two strategies to simultaneously determine the enantiomeric composition and concentration of a chiral substrate by a single fluorescent measurement. One strategy utilizes a pseudoenantiomeric sensor pair that is composed of a 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol-based amino alcohol and a partially hydrogenated 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol-based amino alcohol. These two molecules have the opposite chiral configuration with fluorescent enhancement at two different emitting wavelengths when treated with the enantiomers of mandelic acid. Using the sum and difference of the fluorescent intensity at the two wavelengths allows simultaneous determination of both concentration and enantiomeric composition of the chiral acid. The other strategy employs a 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol-based trifluoromethyl ketone that exhibits fluorescent enhancement at two emission wavelengths upon interaction with a chiral diamine. One emission responds mostly to the concentration of the chiral diamine and the ratio of the two emissions depends on the chiral configuration of the enantiomer but independent of the concentration, allowing both the concentration and enantiomeric composition of the chiral diamine to be simultaneously determined. These strategies would significantly simplify the practical application of the enantioselective fluorescent sensors in high-throughput chiral assay.

  17. Locally Enhanced and Tunable Optical Chirality in Helical Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Philipp; Burger, Sven


    We report on a numerical study of optical chirality. Intertwined gold helices illuminated with plane waves concentrate right and left circularly polarized electromagnetic field energy to sub-wavelength regions. These spots of enhanced chirality can be smoothly shifted in position and magnitude by varying illumination parameters, allowing for the control of light-matter interactions on a nanometer scale.

  18. Chiral amide from (1, 2)-(+)-norephedrine and furoic acid: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral amide derived from (1, 2)-(+)-norephedrine and 2-furoic acid was found to catalyse the asymmetric Reformatsky reaction between prochiral aldehydes and α-bromo ethylacetate with diethylzinc as zinc source. The corresponding chiral -hydroxy esters were formed in 99% yield with over 80% enantiomeric excess ...

  19. Strange two-baryon interactions using chiral effective field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.


    We have constructed the leading order strangeness S = −1,−2 baryon-baryon potential in a chiral effective field theory approach. The chiral potential consists of one-pseudoscalar-meson exchanges and non-derivative four-baryon contact terms. The potential, derived using SU(3)f symmetry constraints,

  20. Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chiral symmetry. To get the EOS, we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Golstone formalism with Bonn-B potential as two-body interaction and QCD sum rule and ... The spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry is signaled by the ... pairs observed in the invariant mass region around 400 MeV in the 200A GeV central col-.

  1. Renormalization of NN Interaction with Relativistic Chiral Two Pion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, R; Valderrama, M Pavon; Arriola, E Ruiz


    The renormalization of the NN interaction with the Chiral Two Pion Exchange Potential computed using relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory is considered. The short distance singularity reduces the number of counter-terms to about a half as those in the heavy-baryon expansion. Phase shifts and deuteron properties are evaluated and a general overall agreement is observed.

  2. Chiral Boson Theory on the Light-Front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Prem P.


    The framework for describing the quantized theory of chiral boson is discussed. It avoids the conflict with the requirement of the principle of microcausality as is found in the conventional treatment. The discussion of the Floreanini-Jackiw model and its modified version for describing the chiral boson becomes very transparent on the light-front.

  3. Spontaneous transmission of chirality through multiple length scales. (United States)

    Iski, Erin V; Tierney, Heather L; Jewell, April D; Sykes, E Charles H


    The hierarchical transfer of chirality in nature, from the nano-, to meso-, to macroscopic length scales, is very complex, and as of yet, not well understood. The advent of scanning probes has allowed chirality to be monitored at the single molecule or monolayer level and has opened up the possibility to track enantiospecific interactions and chiral self-assembly with molecular-scale detail. This paper describes the self-assembly of a simple, model molecule (naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene) that is achiral in the gas phase, but becomes chiral when adsorbed on a surface. This polyaromatic hydrocarbon forms a stable and reversibly ordered system on Cu(111) in which the transmission of chirality from single surface-bound molecules to complex 2D chiral architectures can be monitored as a function of molecular packing density and surface temperature. In addition to the point chirality of the surface-bound molecule, the unit cell of the molecular domains was also found to be chiral due to the incommensurate alignment of the molecular rows with respect to the underlying metal lattice. These molecular domains always aggregated in groups of three, all of the same chirality, but with different rotational orientations, forming homochiral "tri-lobe" ensembles. At a larger length scale, these tri-lobe ensembles associated with nearest-neighbor tri-lobe units of opposite chirality at lower packing densities before forming an extended array of homochiral tri-lobe ensembles at higher converges. This system displayed chirality at a variety of size scales from the molecular (≈1 nm) and domain (≈5 nm) to the tri-lobe ensemble (≈10 nm) and extended array (>25 nm) levels. The chirality of the tri-lobe ensembles dictated how the overall surface packing occurred and both homo- and heterochiral arrays could be reproducibly and reversibly formed and interchanged as a function of surface coverage. Finally, these chirally templated surfaces displayed remarkable enantiospecificity for

  4. The market of chiral drugs: Chiral switches versus de novo enantiomerically pure compounds. (United States)

    Calcaterra, Andrea; D'Acquarica, Ilaria


    This review article is aimed at providing an overview of the current market of chiral drugs by exploring which is the nowadays tendency, for the pharmaceutical industry, either to exploit the chiral switching practice from already marketed racemates or to develop de novo enantiomerically pure compounds. A concise illustration of the main techniques developed to assess the absolute configuration (AC) and enantiomeric purity of chiral drugs has been given, where greater emphasis was placed on the contribution of enantioselective chromatography (HPLC, SFC and UHPC). Afterwards, we focused our study on the cohort of 45 new drugs that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015. We extracted the chemical structure of the new drugs from the FDA approval chemistry reviews available on the database of the agency's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), and we selected a subgroup (i.e., 44% of the cohort) of small-molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) containing one or more chirality centers. On the basis of the FDA dossiers examined, it emerged that all the chiral drugs approved by the FDA in 2015 are enantiomerically pure compounds with a well-defined AC, with the exception of one, namely lesinurad, which has been licensed as the racemate of two enantiomeric atropoisomers, arising because of the hindered rotation around the single C-N bond in the naphthalene ring. Finally, none of the previously developed racemates has been switched to the single-enantiomer version in 2015. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Some aspects of chirality: Fermion masses and chiral p-forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleppe, A.


    The properties of fermion mass matrices are investigated from different points of view, both within the minimal Standard Model and in extensions of the model. It is shown how mass matrix invariants are used to define the measurables of the quark mixing matrix as invariant functions of the mass matrices. One model is presented where the family pattern is suggested to originate from a kind of mass scaling. A Lagrangian density is defined for an entire charge sector, such that the existence of a Dirac field with mass m{sub 0} implies the existence of other Dirac fields where the corresponding quanta have masses Rm{sub 0}, R{sup 2}m{sub 0}, .. which are obtained by a discrete scale transformation. This suggests a certain type of democratic fermion mass matrices. Also extensions of the minimal Standard Model are investigated, obtained by including right-handed neutrinos in the model. The Standard Model extended by two right-handed neutrinos gives rise to a mass spectrum with two massive and three massless neutrinos. The phenomenological consequences of this model are discussed. The neutrino mass matrix in such a scheme has what is defined as a democratic texture. They are studied for the cases with two and three right-handed neutrinos, resp. The chiral fields that we find in the Standard Model have certain similarities with self-dual fields. Among other things, both chiral and self-dual fields suffer species doubling on the lattice. Chiral p-forms are self-dual fields that appear in twice odd dimensions. Chiral p-forms violate manifest covariance, in the same sense as manifest covariance is violated by non-covariant gauges in electrodynamics. It is shown that a covariant action can nevertheless be formulated for chiral p-forms, by introducing an infinite set of gauge fields in a carefully controlled way.

  6. Dynamic control of chirality in phosphine ligands for enantioselective catalysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Depeng; Neubauer, Thomas M; Feringa, Ben L


    Chirality plays a fundamental role in biology and chemistry and the precise control of chirality in a catalytic conversion is a key to modern synthesis most prominently seen in the production of pharmaceuticals. In enantioselective metal-based catalysis, access to each product enantiomer is commonly achieved through ligand design with chiral bisphosphines being widely applied as privileged ligands. Switchable phosphine ligands, in which chirality is modulated through an external trigger signal, might offer attractive possibilities to change enantioselectivity in a catalytic process in a non-invasive manner avoiding renewed ligand synthesis. Here we demonstrate that a photoswitchable chiral bisphosphine based on a unidirectional light-driven molecular motor, can be used to invert the stereoselectivity of a palladium-catalysed asymmetric transformation. It is shown that light-induced changes in geometry and helicity of the switchable ligand enable excellent selectivity towards the racemic or individual enantiomers of the product in a Pd-catalysed desymmetrization reaction.

  7. Chirality of sulforhodamine dye molecules incorporated in DNA thin films (United States)

    Steckl, A. J.; Spaeth, H.; Singh, K.; Grote, J.; Naik, R.


    Thin films formed from salmon sperm DNA reacted with a cationic surfactant (CTMA-Cl) included up to 25 wt % fluorescent molecule sulforhodamine (SRh). SRh effect on DNA chirality and vice versa was investigated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The CD signals at 250-265 nm indicate that DNA chirality was maintained or enhanced. Induced CD (iCD) signal at 580-610 nm indicates that SRh is chiral in DNA/CTMA. iCD signal from both solutions and thin films generally increases with SRh concentration. The chirality induced in SRh molecules and the absence of significant DNA reduction in chirality are clear indicators of strong binding to DNA/CTMA.

  8. Exotic meson decays in the environment with chiral imbalance (United States)

    Andrianov, A. A.; Andrianov, V. A.; Espriu, D.; Iakubovich, A. V.; Putilova, A. E.


    An emergence of Local Parity Breaking (LPB) in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC) at high energies is discussed. LPB in the fireball can be produced by a difference between the number densities of right- and left-handed chiral fermions (Chiral Imbalance) which is implemented by a chiral (axial) chemical potential. The effective meson lagrangian induced by QCD is extended to the medium with Chiral Imbalance and the properties of light scalar and pseudoscalar mesons (π, α0) are analyzed. It is shown that exotic decays of scalar mesons arise as a result of mixing of π and α0 vacuum states in the presence of chiral imbalance. The pion electromagnetic formfactor obtains an unusual parity-odd supplement which generates a photon polarization asymmetry in pion polarizability. We hope that the above pointed indications of LPB can be identified in experiments on LHC, RHIC, CBM FAIR and NICA accelerators.

  9. Stochastic chiral symmetry breaking process besides the deterministic one. (United States)

    Silva-Dias, L; López-Castillo, A


    In chiral symmetry breaking, populations with initial enantiomeric excess (EE) are probabilistically favored if statistical fluctuation is present, as in nature. Stochastic methods correctly describe chiral symmetry breaking by taking into account the quantitative enantiomeric difference (excess or deficiency) and the statistical fluctuation amplitude, which is inversely proportional to the absolute size of the populations involved. From this, we obtain a law, which indicates that such a favoring probability decreases exponentially [P(EE) = 1/(e(αEE) + 1)] with an initial enantiomeric deficiency mediated by statistical fluctuation. Obviously, chiral symmetry breaking equally favors populations without enantiomeric excess [P(0) = 1/2]. However, if deterministic methods are considered, chiral symmetry breaking will strictly favor the population with an initial enantiomeric excess (EE). To study these stochastic chiral symmetry breaking processes the autocatalytic Frank model was considered. Summarizing, our results show that the initial enantiomeric excesses are not entirely responsible for the final state configuration of autocatalytic finite systems.

  10. [B₃₀]⁻: a quasiplanar chiral boron cluster. (United States)

    Li, Wei-Li; Zhao, Ya-Fan; Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng


    Chirality is vital in chemistry. Its importance in atomic clusters has been recognized since the discovery of the first chiral fullerene, the D2 symmetric C76. A number of gold clusters have been found to be chiral, raising the possibility to use them as asymmetric catalysts. The discovery of clusters with enantiomeric structures is essential to design new chiral materials with tailored chemical and physical properties. Herein we report the first inherently chiral boron cluster of [B30](-) in a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study. The most stable structure of [B30](-) is found to be quasiplanar with a hexagonal hole. Interestingly, a pair of enantiomers arising from different positions of the hexagonal hole are found to be degenerate in our global minimum searches and both should co-exist experimentally because they have identical electronic structures and give rise to identical simulated photoelectron spectra. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Exotic meson decays in the environment with chiral imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov A. A.


    Full Text Available An emergence of Local Parity Breaking (LPB in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC at high energies is discussed. LPB in the fireball can be produced by a difference between the number densities of right- and left-handed chiral fermions (Chiral Imbalance which is implemented by a chiral (axial chemical potential. The effective meson lagrangian induced by QCD is extended to the medium with Chiral Imbalance and the properties of light scalar and pseudoscalar mesons (π, α0 are analyzed. It is shown that exotic decays of scalar mesons arise as a result of mixing of π and α0 vacuum states in the presence of chiral imbalance. The pion electromagnetic formfactor obtains an unusual parity-odd supplement which generates a photon polarization asymmetry in pion polarizability. We hope that the above pointed indications of LPB can be identified in experiments on LHC, RHIC, CBM FAIR and NICA accelerators.

  12. Stability of dendriplexes formed by anti-HIV genetic material and poly(propylene imine) dendrimers in the presence of glucosaminoglycans. (United States)

    Szewczyk, Michal; Drzewinska, Joanna; Dzmitruk, Volha; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Klajnert, Barbara; Appelhans, Dietmar; Bryszewska, Maria


    There are several barriers to the application of dendriplexes formed by poly(propylene imine) dendrimers and genetic material for gene therapy. One limitation is their interaction with extracellular matrix components such as glucosaminoglycans. These can displace the genetic material from the dendriplexes, affecting their transfection activity. In this study, we analyzed the interaction between dendriplexes and the four main glucosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid) by fluorescence polarization and gel electrophoresis. Dendriplexes were formed by combining three anti-HIV antisense oligodeoxynucleotides with three poly(propylene imine) dendrimers of the fourth generation: unmodified and partially modified with maltose and maltotriose (open shell glycodendrimers). The data showed that the effect of glucosaminoglycans on dendriplexes depends on the glucosaminoglycan type and the oligosaccharide serving as the surface group of the dendrimer. Heparin at physiological concentrations destroys dendriplexes formed by open shell glycodendrimers, but dendriplexes based on unmodified poly(propylene imine) dendrimers are stable in its presence. The other glucosaminoglycans at physiological concentrations cannot destroy dendriplexes formed by any of the dendrimers studied.

  13. One-pot synthesis of imines from nitroaromatics and alcohols by tandem photocatalytic and catalytic reactions on Degussa (Evonik) P25 titanium dioxide. (United States)

    Hirakawa, Hiroaki; Katayama, Miyu; Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Hirokatsu; Wang, Kunlei; Ohtani, Bunsho; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Hirai, Takayuki


    Photoirradiation (λ > 300 nm) of Degussa (Evonik) P25 TiO2, a mixture of anatase and rutile particles, in alcohols containing nitroaromatics at room temperature produces the corresponding imines with very high yields (80-96%). Other commercially available anatase or rutile TiO2 particles, however, exhibit very low yields (nitrobenzene (aniline formation) and (ii) condensation of the formed aldehyde and aniline on the Lewis acid sites (imine formation). The respective anatase and rutile particles were isolated from P25 TiO2 by the H2O2/NH3 and HF treatments to clarify the activity of these two step reactions. Photocatalysis experiments revealed that the active sites for photocatalytic reactions on P25 TiO2 are the rutile particles, promoting efficient reduction of nitrobenzene on the surface defects. In contrast, catalysis experiments showed that the anatase particles isolated from P25 TiO2 exhibit very high activity for condensation of aldehyde and aniline, because the number of Lewis acid sites on the particles (73 μmol g(-1)) is much higher than that of other commercially available anatase or rutile particles (<15 μmol g(-1)). The P25 TiO2 particles therefore successfully promote tandem photocatalytic and catalytic reactions on the respective rutile and anatase particles, thus producing imines with very high yields.

  14. Twist Defect in Chiral Photonic Structures (United States)

    Kopp, Victor I.; Genack, Azriel Z.


    We demonstrate that twisting one part of a chiral photonic structure about its helical axis produces a single circularly polarized localized mode that gives rise to an anomalous crossover in propagation. Up to a crossover thickness, this defect results in a peak in transmission and exponential scaling of the linewidth for a circularly polarized wave with the same handedness as structure. Above the crossover, however, the linewidth saturates and the defect mode can be excited only by the oppositely polarized wave, resulting in a peak in reflection instead of transmission.

  15. Chiral transport of neutrinos in supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Naoki


    Full Text Available The conventional neutrino transport theory for core-collapse supernovae misses one key property of neutrinos: the left-handedness. The chirality of neutrinos modifies the hydrodynamic behavior at the macroscopic scale and leads to topological transport phenomena. We argue that such transport phenomena should play important roles in the evolution of core-collapse supernovae, and, in particular, lead to a tendency toward the inverse energy cascade from small to larger scales, which may be relevant to the origin of the supernova explosion.

  16. Chiral phase transition from string theory. (United States)

    Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A


    The low energy dynamics of a certain D-brane configuration in string theory is described at weak t'Hooft coupling by a nonlocal version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We study this system at finite temperature and strong t'Hooft coupling, using the string theory dual. We show that for sufficiently low temperatures chiral symmetry is broken, while for temperatures larger then the critical value, it gets restored. We compute the latent heat and observe that the phase transition is of the first order.

  17. Chiral molecule in the Standard Model (United States)

    Fukuyama, Takeshi


    This paper is based on the talk at the conference of "Spectroscopic Studies on Molecular Chirality" held on December 20-21, 2013. The objects of the present paper are to (1) derive the energy difference between Laevorotatory, or left-handed, (L-) and Dextrorotatory, or right-handed, (D-) molecules and to (2) discuss how this tiny energy difference leads us to the observed enantiomer excess. Relations with other parity violating phenomena in molecules, electric dipole moment (EDM) and natural optical activity, are also discussed.

  18. Chiral Imbalance in QCD and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexander


    Full Text Available Under extreme conditions of high temperature and/or large quark (baryon density, the vacuum of QCD changes its properties, and deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration as well as chiral symmetry breaking take place. These transitions (phases are accompanied by the rapid change in the rate and nature of topological transitions connecting different topological sectors. The heavy ion collisions (HIC program opens a possibility to study these phenomena in so-called non-Abelian Quark-gluon plasma (QGP. In these phases the currents of light quarks (vector and axial-vector can be independently examined for right-handed (RH and left-handed (LH quarks. To describe such a quark matter chiral chemical potential can be introduced to quantify the presence of chirality imbalance (ChI i.e. the difference between the average numbers of RH and LH quarks in the fireball after HIC. In this review talk we will focus our attention on the discussion of the ChI related developments in heavy ion physics at central collisions and the plans for the future experiments aimed at establishing (or falsifying the presence of Local spacial Parity Breaking (LPB in heavy ion data. We describe some of experimental observables in detecting the signal of LPB. A number of measurements is proposed that allow to reach a definite conclusion on the occurrence of LPB effects in non-Abelian QGP produced in central heavy ion collisions and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. Based on the effective meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is found that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. Moreover a resonance broadening occurs that leads to an increase of spectral contribution to the dilepton production as compared to the vacuum state. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the

  19. Moduli stabilisation for chiral global models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mayrhofer, Christoph [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Valandro, Roberto [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    We combine moduli stabilisation and (chiral) model building in a fully consistent global set-up in Type IIB/F-theory. We consider compactifications on Calabi-Yau orientifolds which admit an explicit description in terms of toric geometry. We build globally consistent compactifications with tadpole and Freed-Witten anomaly cancellation by choosing appropriate brane set-ups and world-volume fluxes which also give rise to SU(5)- or MSSM-like chiral models. We fix all the Kaehler moduli within the Kaehler cone and the regime of validity of the 4D effective field theory. This is achieved in a way compatible with the local presence of chirality. The hidden sector generating the non-perturbative effects is placed on a del Pezzo divisor that does not have any chiral intersections with any other brane. In general, the vanishing D-term condition implies the shrinking of the rigid divisor supporting the visible sector. However, we avoid this problem by generating r

  20. Chiral Lagrangians and quark condensate in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, J.; Chanfray, G.; Ericson, M.


    The evolution of density of quark condensate in nuclear medium with interacting nucleons, including the short range correlations is examined. Two chiral models are used, the linear sigma model and the non-linear one. It is shown that the quark condensate, as other observables, is independent on the variant selected. The application to physical pions excludes the linear sigma model as a credible one. The non-linear models restricted to pure s-wave pion-nucleon scattering are examined. (author). 28 refs.; Submitted to nuclear Physics, A (NL).

  1. Chiral bands in {sup 105}Rh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara-Nunez, J.A.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Rao, M.N.; Ribas, R.V.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Seale, W.A.; Falla-Sotelo, F.; Wiedemann, K.T. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Dimitrov, V.I.; Frauendorf, S. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Institute for Nuclear and Hadronic Physics


    The {sup 105}Rh nucleus has been studied by in-beam {gamma} spectroscopy with the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 100}Mo({sup 11}B, {alpha}2n{gamma}) at 43 MeV. A rich variety of structures was observed at high and low spin, using {gamma}-{gamma}-t and {gamma}-{gamma}-particle coincidences and directional correlation ratios. Four magnetic dipole bands have also been observed at high spin. Two of them are nearly degenerate in excitation energy and could be chiral partners, as predicted by Tilted Axis Cranking calculations. (author)

  2. Three-nucleon reactions with chiral dynamics*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witała H.


    Full Text Available Faddeev calculations using the chiral three-nucleon force at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order show that this force is not able to provide an explanation for the low-energy Ay puzzle. Also the large discrepancies between data and theory for the symmetric-space-star and for the neutron-neutron quasi-free-scattering cross sections in low energy neutron-deuteron breakup cannot be explained by that three-nucleon force. The discrepancy for the neutron-neutron quasi-free-scattering cross section seems to require a modification of the 1S0 neutron-neutron force.

  3. Chiral separation of novel iminonaringenin derivatives. (United States)

    Bouanini, Meriem; Belboukhari, Nasser; Menéndez, J Carlos; Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkarim; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y


    A series of 4-iminonaringenin derivatives 2-6 have been prepared in good overall yields from a condensation reaction between naringenin and primary amines. The structures of all products were confirmed by ultraviolet, infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. These derivatives were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases, namely, Chiralpak IB and Chiralcel OD, using various mobile phases. 2-Propanol showed a high enantioselectivity for naringin and its derivatives using achiral column containing immobilized polysaccharides (Chiralpak IB). © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.


    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  5. Tests of Chiral perturbation theory with COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Jan M.


    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at CERN accesses pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect., where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. When a single real photon is produced, pion Compton scattering is accessed and from the measured cross-section shape, the pion polarisability is determined. The COMPASS measurement is in contradiction to the earlier dedicated measurements, and rather in agreement with the theoretical expectation from ChPT. In the same experimental data taking, reactions with neutral and charged pions in the final state are measured and analyzed in the context of chiral perturbation theory.

  6. Enantiomeric Separation of 1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)alkylamines on Chiral Stationary Phases Based on Chiral Crown Ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soohyun; Kim, Sang Jun; Hyun, Myung Ho [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Optically active chiral amines are important as building blocks for pharmaceuticals and as scaffolds for chiral ligands and, consequently, many efforts have been devoted to the development of efficient methods for their preparation. For example, reduction of amine precursors with chiral catalysts, enzymatic kinetic resolution or dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic amines and the direct amination of ketones with transaminases have been developed as the efficient methods for the preparation of optically active chiral amines. During the process of developing or utilizing optically active chiral amines, the methods for the determination of their enantiomeric composition are essential. Among various methods, liquid chromatographic resolution of enantiomers on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been known to be one of the most accurate and economic means for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of optically active chiral compounds. Especially, CSPs based on chiral crown ethers have been successfully used for the resolution of racemic primary amines. For example, CSPs based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid (CSP 1, Figure 1) or (3,3'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl)-20-crown-6 (CSP 2 and CSP 3, Figure 1) have been known to be quite effective for the resolution of cyclic and non-cyclic amines, various fluoroquinolone antibacterials containing a primary amino group, tocainide (antiarrhythmic agent) and its analogues, aryl-a-amino ketones and 3-amino-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones.

  7. Self-Assembly of Hierarchical Chiral Nanostructures Based on Metal-Benzimidazole Interactions: Chiral Nanofibers, Nanotubes, and Microtubular Flowers. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Jin, Qingxian; Zhang, Li; Shen, Zhaocun; Jiang, Long; Liu, Minghua


    Controlled hierarchical self-assembly of synthetic molecules into chiral nanoarchitectures to mimic those biological chiral structures is of great importance. Here, a low-molecular-weight organogelator containing a benzimidazole moiety conjugated with an amphiphilic l-glutamic amide has been designed and its self-assembly into various hierarchical chiral nanostructures is investigated. Upon gel formation in organic solvents, 1D chiral nanostructure such as nanofiber and nanotube are obtained depending on the solvents. In the presence of transition and rare earth metal ions, hierarchical chiral nanostructures are formed. Specifically, the addition of TbCl3 , EuCl3 , and AgNO3 leads to nanofiber structures, while the addition of Cu(NO3 )2 , Tb(NO3 )3 , or Eu(NO3 )3 provides the microflower structures and microtubular flower structures, respectively. While Eu(III) and Tb(III)-containing microtubular flowers keep the chirality, the Cu(II)-coordinated microflowers lose chirality. More interestingly, the nanofibers formed by the gelator coordinated with Eu(III) or Tb(III) ions show not only the supramolecular chirality but also the circularly polarized luminescence. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synergistic effects on enantioselectivity of zwitterionic chiral stationary phases for separations of chiral acids, bases, and amino acids by HPLC. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian V; Pell, Reinhard; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Lindner, Wolfgang


    In an attempt to overcome the limited applicability scope of earlier proposed Cinchona alkaloid-based chiral weak anion exchangers (WAX) and recently reported aminosulfonic acid-based chiral strong cation exchangers (SCX), which are conceptionally restricted to oppositely charged solutes, their individual chiral selector (SO) subunits have been fused in a combinatorial synthesis approach into single, now zwitterionic, chiral SO motifs. The corresponding zwitterionic ion-exchange-type chiral stationary phases (CSPs) in fact combined the applicability spectra of the parent chiral ion exchangers allowing for enantioseparations of chiral acids and amine-type solutes in liquid chromatography using polar organic mode with largely rivaling separation factors as compared to the parent WAX and SCX CSPs. Furthermore, the application spectrum could be remarkably expanded to various zwitterionic analytes such as alpha- and beta-amino acids and peptides. A set of structurally related yet different CSPs consisting of either a quinine or quinidine alkaloid moiety as anion-exchange subunit and various chiral or achiral amino acids as cation-exchange subunits enabled us to derive structure-enantioselectivity relationships, which clearly provided strong unequivocal evidence for synergistic effects of the two oppositely charged ion-exchange subunits being involved in molecular recognition of zwitterionic analytes by zwitterionic SOs driven by double ionic coordination.

  9. Experimental and theoretical DFT studies of structure, spectroscopic and fluorescence properties of a new imine oxime derivative (United States)

    Kaya, Yunus; Yilmaz, Veysel T.; Arslan, Taner; Buyukgungor, Orhan


    A new imine oxime, (1E,2E)-phenyl-[(1-phenylethyl)imino]-ethanal oxime (I), is synthesized and characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 12.3416(7), b = 9.5990(6), c = 11.9750(7), β = 92.417(4) and Z = 4. Crystallographic, vibrational (IR), and NMR (1H and 13C chemical shifts) data are compared with the results of density functional theory (DFT) method at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The structure of I is stabilized by intermolecular Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The theoretical calculations show that the compound exhibits a number of isomers, and the molecular geometry of the most stable optimized isomer (s-trans-E,E) can well reproduce the X-ray structure. The calculated vibrational bands and NMR chemical shifts are consistent with the experimental results. The NBO/NPA atomic charges are performed to explore the possible coordination modes of the compound. The electronic (UV-vis) and photoluminescence spectra calculated using the TD-DFT method are correlated to the experimental spectra. The DMSO solutions of I are fluorescent at room temperature. The assignment and analysis of the frontier HOMO and LUMO orbitals indicates that both absorption and emission bands are originated mainly from the π-π* transitions.

  10. Microwave assisted synthesis, spectroscopic, electrochemical and DNA cleavage studies of lanthanide(III) complexes with coumarin based imines. (United States)

    Kapoor, Puja; Fahmi, Nighat; Singh, R V


    The present work stems from our interest in the synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of lanthanide(III) complexes of a class of coumarin based imines which have been prepared by the interaction of hydrated lanthanide(III) chloride with the sodium salts of 3-acetylcoumarin thiosemicarbazone (ACTSZH) and 3-acetylcoumarin semicarbazone (ACSZH) in 1:3 molar ratio using thermal as well as microwave method. Characterization of the ligands as well as the metal complexes have been carried out by elemental analysis, melting point determinations, molecular weight determinations, magnetic moment, molar conductance, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, electronic, EPR, X-ray powder diffraction and mass spectral studies. Spectral studies confirm ligands to be monofunctional bidentate and octahedral environment around metal ions. The redox behavior of one of the synthesized metal complex was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Further, free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial as well as DNA cleavage activity. The results of these findings have been presented and discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sugar-modified poly(propylene imine) dendrimers as drug delivery agents for cytarabine to overcome drug resistance. (United States)

    Szulc, Aleksandra; Pulaski, Lukasz; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara


    Maltose-modified poly(propylene imine) glycodendrimers (PPI-m OS) of the 4th generation provide a promising strategy for leukemia treatment. Anticancer therapy with nucleoside analog drugs such as cytarabine (Ara-C) frequently has limited efficacy due to drug resistance, inefficient uptake and accumulation of the drug inside cancer cells where it has to be transformed into the active triphosphate congener. The cationic nature of PPI dendrimers makes it possible to form complexes with nucleotide Ara-C triphosphate forms (Ara-CTP). The aim of this work was to test the concept of applying PPI glycodendrimers as drug delivery devices in order to facilitate the delivery of activated cytarabine to cancer cells to overcome metabolic limitations of the drug. The study has been carried out using 1301 and HL-60 leukemic cell lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results of cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays showed enhanced activity of Ara-C triphosphate form (Ara-CTP) complexed with PPI-m dendrimers in relation to free Ara-C and Ara-CTP against 1301 leukemic cells. Secondly, enhanced uptake and cytotoxicity of Ara-CTP-dendrimers complexes toward 1301 cells with blocked human equilibrative nucleoside transporter - hENT1 suggested that this combination might be a versatile candidate for chemotherapy against resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with lower expression of hENT1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons mediated by neurotropic poly(ethylene imine)-based nanoparticles (United States)

    Lopes, Cátia DF; Oliveira, Hugo; Estevão, Inês; Pires, Liliana Raquel; Pêgo, Ana Paula


    A major challenge in neuronal gene therapy is to achieve safe, efficient, and minimally invasive transgene delivery to neurons. In this study, we report the use of a nonviral neurotropic poly(ethylene imine)-based nanoparticle that is capable of mediating neuron-specific transfection upon a subcutaneous injection. Nanoparticles were targeted to peripheral neurons by using the nontoxic carboxylic fragment of tetanus toxin (HC), which, besides being neurotropic, is capable of being retrogradely transported from neuron terminals to the cell bodies. Nontargeted particles and naked plasmid DNA were used as control. Five days after treatment by subcutaneous injection in the footpad of Wistar rats, it was observed that 56% and 64% of L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia neurons, respectively, were expressing the reporter protein. The delivery mediated by HC-functionalized nanoparticles spatially limited the transgene expression, in comparison with the controls. Histological examination revealed no significant adverse effects in the use of the proposed delivery system. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the developed neurotropic nanoparticles for the minimally invasive delivery of genes to the peripheral nervous system, opening new avenues for the application of gene therapy strategies in the treatment of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:27354797

  13. Synthesis and reactivity of copper(I) complexes with an ethylene-bridged bis(imidazolin-2-imine) ligand. (United States)

    Petrovic, Dejan; Hill, Lyndal M R; Jones, Peter G; Tolman, William B; Tamm, Matthias


    A series of copper(I) complexes with a sterically hindered, bidentate ligand, BL iPr, derived from an N-heterocyclic carbene precursor have been isolated, characterized and their reactivity studied. The ethylene-bridged bis(imidazolin-2-imine) ligand (BL iPr) provides strongly donating N-donor atoms for the stabilization of a copper(I) metal center, priming it for reactivity. The complexes [(BL iPr)Cu(XyNC)]PF6 (4) and [(BL iPr)CuCl] (5) were characterized by X-ray crystallography and exhibit trigonal coordination at the copper centers. The reactivity of [(BL iPr)Cu]SbF6 toward dioxygen was studied at low temperature, indicating formation of a thermally sensitive intermediate with intense UV/Vis features and an isotope-sensitive vibration at 625 cm(-1) (599 cm(-1) with 18 O2). The intermediate is assigned as containing the bis(mu-oxo)dicopper(III) core, [2](PF6)2, and the related, stable hydroxo form was crystallized as [{(BL iPr)Cu}2(mu-OH)2](PF6)2, [3](PF6)2. The reactivity of 5 as a catalyst for the ATR polymerization of styrene was assessed in terms of reaction kinetics and polymer properties, with low PDI values achieved for polymers with molecular weights up to 30 000 g mol(-1).

  14. Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds. (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander


    Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A molecular model of the enantioselective liquid chromatographic separation of (R,S)-ifosfamide and its N-dechloroethylated metabolites on a teicoplanin aglycon chiral stationary phase. (United States)

    Ravichandran, Sarangan; Collins, Jack R; Singh, Nagendra; W Wainer, Irving


    The enantioselective separations of the chiral oxazaphosphorines (R,S)-ifosfamide (IF), (R,S)-2-N-dechloroethyl-IF (2-DCE-IF) and (R,S)-3-N-dechloroethyl-IF (3-DCE-IF) were achieved on teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase using isopropanol:methanol (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase. Computational models of the teicoplanin and teicoplanin aglycon (TAG) chiral selectors were constructed and used in docking experiments to examine the chiral recognition mechanism associated with the observed resolutions. Initial data showed no significant differences between the simulated selector-selectand complexes using teicoplanin and TAG, and the full study was conducted using TAG. The data from the study indicate that hydrophobic interactions arise between the chlorine atom present in the cholorethyl moieties of the oxazaphosphorine molecules and hydrophobic pockets within the TAG basket and that these interactions anchored and positioned the selectands within the selector-selectand complexes. The complexes were stabilized through the formation of a network of hydrogen bond and cation-π interactions, in which the latter involved the phosphorous atom of the phosphoramide moiety and aromatic components of the TAG aglycon basket. The chirality of the oxazaphosphorine molecule determined the number and strength of the stabilizing interactions which resulted in significant differences in the relative mean binding energies between the complexes formed by the (R) and (S) enantiomers of the selectands. These differences were consistent with the observed chromatographic enantioselectivity and suggest a multi-step chrial recognition mechanism involving the tethering of the selectand to the selector followed by conformational adjustments and stabilization of the selectand-selector complex. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Pharmacologically active compounds in the environment and their chirality. (United States)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara


    Pharmacologically active compounds including both legally used pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs are potent environmental contaminants. Extensive research has been undertaken over the recent years to understand their environmental fate and toxicity. The one very important phenomenon that has been overlooked by environmental researchers studying the fate of pharmacologically active compounds in the environment is their chirality. Chiral drugs can exist in the form of enantiomers, which have similar physicochemical properties but differ in their biological properties such as distribution, metabolism and excretion, as these processes (due to stereospecific interactions of enantiomers with biological systems) usually favour one enantiomer over the other. Additionally, due to different pharmacological activity, enantiomers of chiral drugs can differ in toxicity. Furthermore, degradation of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment and in the environment can be stereoselective and can lead to chiral products of varied toxicity. The distribution of different enantiomers of the same chiral drug in the aquatic environment and biota can also be stereoselective. Biological processes can lead to stereoselective enrichment or depletion of the enantiomeric composition of chiral drugs. As a result the very same drug might reveal different activity and toxicity and this will depend on its origin and exposure to several factors governing its fate in the environment. In this critical review a discussion of the importance of chirality of pharmacologically active compounds in the environmental context is undertaken and suggestions for directions in further research are made. Several groups of chiral drugs of major environmental relevance are discussed and their pharmacological action and disposition in the body is also outlined as it is a key factor in developing a full understanding of their environmental occurrence, fate and toxicity. This review will be of interest to environmental

  17. Increments to chiral recognition facilitating enantiomer separations of chiral acids, bases, and ampholytes using Cinchona-based zwitterion exchanger chiral stationary phases. (United States)

    Wernisch, Stefanie; Pell, Reinhard; Lindner, Wolfgang


    The intramolecular distances of anion and cation exchanger sites of zwitterionic chiral stationary phases represent potential tuning sites for enantiomer selectivity. In this contribution, we investigate the influence of alkanesulfonic acid chain length and flexibility on enantiomer separations of chiral acids, bases, and amphoteric molecules for six Cinchona alkaloid-based chiral stationary phases in comparison with structurally related anion and cation exchangers. Employing polar-organic elution conditions, we observed an intramolecular counterion effect for acidic analytes which led to reduced retention times but did not impair enantiomer selectivities. Retention of amphoteric analytes is based on simultaneous double ion pairing of their charged functional groups with the acidic and basic sites of the zwitterionic selectors. A chiral center in the vicinity of the strong cation exchanger site is vital for chiral separations of bases. Sterically demanding side chains are beneficial for separations of free amino acids. Enantioseparations of free (un-derivatized) peptides were particularly successful in stationary phases with straight-chain alkanesulfonic acid sites, pointing to a beneficial influence of more flexible moieties. In addition, we observed pseudo-enantiomeric behavior of quinine and quinidine-derived chiral stationary phases facilitating reversal of elution orders for all analytes. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Why (almost) all bundles are chiral (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Zachary V.; Blackwell, Robert A.; Glaser, Matthew A.


    We examine the self assembly of bundles of achiral hard rods with distributed, short-range attractive interactions. We show that in the majority of cases the equilibrium state of the bundle is chiral, with a double twist structure. We use biased Monte Carlo techniques and cell theory to compute the free energy as a function of an appropriately defined twist order parameter, and show that the formation of spontaneously chiral bundles is driven by maximization of orientational entropy. The finite curvature of the bundle boundary permits orientational escape, in which the circumferential angular range of motion of the rods is maximized for some finite average tilt. We map out the phase diagram of bundles in terms of the density, the ratio of rod length to bundle radius, L / R , and rod aspect ratio, L / D , and find transitions between untwisted, weakly twisted, and strongly twisted states. This work helps explain the common observation of twisted macroscopic bundles, and may provide insight into observations of twist in self-assembled membranes of colloidal rods.[2] This work funded by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-0820579.

  19. Orbifolds, fuzzy spheres and chiral fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Zoupanos, George


    Starting with a N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions with gauge group SU(3N) we perform an orbifold projection leading to a N=1 supersymmetric SU(N)^3 Yang-Mills theory with matter supermultiplets in bifundamental representations of the gauge group, which is chiral and anomaly free. Subsequently, we search for vacua of the projected theory which can be interpreted as spontaneously generated twisted fuzzy spheres. We show that by adding the appropriate soft supersymmetry breaking terms we can indeed reveal such vacua. Three cases are studied, where the gauge group is spontaneously broken further to the low-energy gauge groups SU(4)xSU(2)xSU(2), SU(4)^3 and SU(3)^3. Such models behave in intermediate scales as higher-dimensional theories with a finite Kaluza-Klein tower, while their low-energy physics is governed by the corresponding zero-modes and exhibit chirality in the fermionic sector. The most interesting case from the phenomenological point of view turns out to be the SU(3)^3 unified t...

  20. Optical activity of chirally distorted nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepliakov, Nikita V.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V. [Department of Optical Physics and Modern Natural Science, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Rukhlenko, Ivan D., E-mail: [Department of Optical Physics and Modern Natural Science, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Monash University, Clayton Campus, Victoria 3800 (Australia)


    We develop a general theory of optical activity of semiconductor nanocrystals whose chirality is induced by a small perturbation of their otherwise achiral electronic subsystems. The optical activity is described using the quantum-mechanical expressions for the rotatory strengths and dissymmetry factors introduced by Rosenfeld. We show that the rotatory strengths of optically active transitions are decomposed on electric dipole and magnetic dipole contributions, which correspond to the electric dipole and magnetic dipole transitions between the unperturbed quantum states. Remarkably, while the two kinds of rotatory strengths are of the same order of magnitude, the corresponding dissymmetry factors can differ by a factor of 10{sup 5}. By maximizing the dissymmetry of magnetic dipole absorption one can significantly enhance the enantioselectivity in the interaction of semiconductor nanocrystals with circularly polarized light. This feature may advance chiral and analytical methods, which will benefit biophysics, chemistry, and pharmaceutical science. The developed theory is illustrated by an example of intraband transitions inside a semiconductor nanocuboid, whose rotatory strengths and dissymmetry factors are calculated analytically.

  1. 8th International Workshop on Chiral Dynamics

    CERN Document Server


    The International Workshop on Chiral Dynamics 2015, the eighth in a series which started in 1994 at MIT, and was later held in Mainz (1997), Jefferson Lab (2000 and 2012), Bonn (2003), Duke (2006) and Bern (2009), will take place in Pisa, from June 29 to July 3 2015, and will be jointly hosted by the Department of Physics of the University of Pisa and the Pisa branch of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The purpose of this workshop series is to bring physicists together who are active in this field, as well as those who are interested, to discuss and debate the most recent achievements and future developments. The workshop will have a near equal contribution from theorists and experimentalists and, as in the latest editions, a strong synergy with the lattice community will be present. Topics: Hadron structure Isospin breaking in hadronic systems Meson-meson and meson-baryon interaction Effective field theory and chiral perturbation theory Few-body physics Compton scattering and the polarizabilities o...

  2. Attomolar DNA detection with chiral nanorod assemblies (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Liguang; Ding, Li; Xu, Chuanlai; Wang, Libing; Kotov, Nicholas A.


    Nanoscale plasmonic assemblies display exceptionally strong chiral optical activity. So far, their structural design was primarily driven by challenges related to metamaterials whose practical applications are remote. Here we demonstrate that gold nanorods assembled by the polymerase chain reaction into DNA-bridged chiral systems have promising analytical applications. The chiroplasmonic activity of side-by-side assembled patterns is attributed to a 7-9 degree twist between the nanorod axes. This results in a strong polarization rotation that matches theoretical expectations. The amplitude of the bisignate ‘wave’ in the circular dichroism spectra of side-by-side assemblies demonstrates excellent linearity with the amount of target DNA. The limit of detection for DNA using side-by-side assemblies is as low as 3.7 aM. This chiroplasmonic method may be particularly useful for biological analytes larger than 2-5 nm which are difficult to detect by methods based on plasmon coupling and ‘hot spots’. Circular polarization increases for inter-nanorod gaps between 2 and 20 nm when plasmonic coupling rapidly decreases. Reaching the attomolar limit of detection for simple and reliable bioanalysis of oligonucleotides may have a crucial role in DNA biomarker detection for early diagnostics of different diseases, forensics and environmental monitoring.

  3. Nucleation Mechanisms of Aromatic Polyesters, PET, PBT, and PEN, on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes: Early Nucleation Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Espinoza-Martínez


    Full Text Available Nucleation mechanisms of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET, poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT, and poly(ethylene naphthalate (PEN on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs are proposed, based on experimental evidence, theoretical epitaxy analysis, and semiempirical quantum chemical calculations. In order to elucidate early nucleation stages polyester-coated nanotubes were obtained from highly diluted solutions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM revealed helical morphologies for PET/SWNTs and PEN/SWNTs and the formation of lobules with different orientations for PBT/SWNTs. To explain the morphological behavior one model was proposed based on crystallographic interactions, that is, epitaxy. Theoretical epitaxy calculations indicated that epitaxy is not possible from the strict epitaxy point of view. Instead, aromatic self-assembly mechanism was proposed based on π-π interactions and the chirality of the nanotube. It was proposed that the mechanism implies two steps to produce helical or lobular morphologies with different orientations. In the first step polymer chains were approached, aligned parallel to the nanotube axis and adsorbed due to electrostatic interactions and the flexibility of the molecule. However, due to π-π interactions between the aromatic rings of the polymer and the nanotube, in the second step chains reoriented on the nanotube surface depending on the chirality of the nanotube. The mechanism was supported by semi-empirical calculations.

  4. Assembling optically active and nonactive metamaterials with chiral units (United States)

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Feng, Yi-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu


    Metamaterials constructed with chiral units can be either optically active or nonactive depending on the spatial configuration of the building blocks. For a class of chiral units, their effective induced electric and magnetic dipoles, which originate from the induced surface electric current upon illumination of incident light, can be collinear at the resonant frequency. This feature provides significant advantage in designing metamaterials. In this paper we concentrate on several examples. In one scenario, chiral units with opposite chiralities are used to construct the optically nonactive metamaterial structure. It turns out that with linearly polarized incident light, the pure electric or magnetic resonance (and accordingly negative permittivity or negative permeability) can be selectively realized by tuning the polarization of incident light for 90°. Alternatively, units with the same chirality can be assembled as a chiral metamaterial by taking the advantage of the collinear induced electric and magnetic dipoles. It follows that for the circularly polarized incident light, negative refractive index can be realized. These examples demonstrate the unique approach to achieve certain optical properties by assembling chiral building blocks, which could be enlightening in designing metamaterials.

  5. Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Na [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.

  6. Chiral d-wave superconductivity in doped graphene. (United States)

    Black-Schaffer, Annica M; Honerkamp, Carsten


    A highly unconventional superconducting state with a spin-singlet dx2-y2+/-idxy-wave, or chiral d-wave symmetry has recently been suggested to emerge from electron-electron interactions in doped graphene. It has been argued that graphene doped to the van Hove singularity at 1/4 doping, where the density of states diverge, is particularly likely to be a chiral d-wave superconductor. In this review we summarize the currently mounting theoretical evidence for the existence of a chiral d-wave superconducting state in graphene, obtained with methods ranging from mean-field studies of effective Hamiltonians to angle-resolved renormalization group calculations. We further discuss the multiple distinctive properties of the chiral d-wave superconducting state in graphene, as well as its stability in the presence of disorder. We also review the means of enhancing the chiral d-wave state using proximity-induced superconductivity. The appearance of chiral d-wave superconductivity is intimately linked to the hexagonal crystal lattice and we also offer a brief overview of other materials which have also been proposed to be chiral d-wave superconductors.

  7. Chirality Recognition in Camphor - 1,2-PROPANEDIOL Complexes (United States)

    Perez, Cristobal; Fatima, Mariyam; Krin, Anna; Schnell, Melanie


    The molecular interactions in complexes involving chiral molecules are of particular interest, because the interactions change in a subtle way upon replacing one of the partners by its mirror image. This is based on the fact that chiral molecules are sensitive probes for other chiral objects and chiral interactions. In this particular case, we will concentrate on molecule-molecule interactions and investigate them with broadband rotational spectroscopy. When two chiral molecules form complexes, the homochiral and heterochiral forms have different structures (and thus rotational constants and spectra) and different energies. They are diastereomers, which can easily be differentiated, for example via molecular spectroscopy. This is often exploited in chemical synthesis for identifying and separating enantiomers. The phenomena involving chirality recognition are relevant in the biosphere, in organic synthesis and in polymer design. We use chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy to study the structures and the underlying interactions of camphor-1,2-propanediol complexes. This system is also interesting because the complex formation can be expected to be ruled by an interplay between hydrogen bonding to the polar carbonyl group in camphor and dispersion interactions. The spectra are extremely rich because of the high number of conformers for 1,2-propanediol. We started out with racemic mixtures of both camphor and 1,2-propanediol. Using enantiopure samples of different handedness of the two partners nicely simplifies the spectra and guides the assignment. In the talk, we will report on the latest results for this chiral complex.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Mounted Chiral Metal-Organic Frameworks


    Gu, Zhi-Gang


    Chiral surface mounted metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs), composed of metal ions and chiral organic ligands, have been grown on functionalized substrates and studied in this thesis. On one hand, the impact of the pore size of the chiral SURMOF on the enantioselectivity has been investigated in this thesis. On the other hand, oriented circular dichroism (OCD) was chosen as a tool to investigate the chirality and enantioselective separation property of chiral SURMOFs.

  9. Chiral cavity ring down polarimetry: Chirality and magnetometry measurements using signal reversals. (United States)

    Bougas, Lykourgos; Sofikitis, Dimitris; Katsoprinakis, Georgios E; Spiliotis, Alexandros K; Tzallas, Paraskevas; Loppinet, Benoit; Rakitzis, T Peter


    We present the theory and experimental details for chiral-cavity-ring-down polarimetry and magnetometry, based on ring cavities supporting counterpropagating laser beams. The optical-rotation symmetry is broken by the presence of both chiral and Faraday birefringence, giving rise to signal reversals which allow rapid background subtractions. We present the measurement of the specific rotation at 800 nm of vapors of α-pinene, 2-butanol, and α-phellandrene, the measurement of optical rotation of sucrose solutions in a flow cell, the measurement of the Verdet constant of fused silica, and measurements and theoretical treatment of evanescent-wave optical rotation at a prism surface. Therefore, these signal-enhancing and signal-reversing methods open the way for ultrasensitive polarimetry measurements in gases, liquids and solids, and at surfaces.

  10. A model for chiral symmetry breaking in QCD (United States)

    Govaerts, J.; Mandula, J. E.; Weyers, J.


    A recently proposed model for dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is extended and developed for the calculation of pion and chiral symmetry breaking parameters. The pion is explicitly realized as a massless Goldstone boson and as a bound state of the constituent quarks. We compute, in the limit of exact chiral symmetry, MQ, the constituent quark mass ƒ π the pion decay coupling, , the constituent quark loop density, μπ2/ mq, the ratio of the Goldstone boson mass squared to the bare quark mass, and π, the pion electromagnetic charge radius squared.

  11. Causality relations for materials with strong artificial optical chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkunov, M V; Ezhov, A A; Artemov, V V; Rogov, O Y


    We demonstrate that the fundamental causality principle being applied to strongly chiral artificial materials yields the generalized Kramers-Kronig relations for the observables -- circular dichroism and optical activity. The relations include the Blaschke terms determined by material-specific features - the zeros of transmission amplitude on the complex frequency plane. By the example of subwavelength arrays of chiral holes in silver films we show that the causality relations can be used not only for a precise verification of experimental data but also for resolving the positions of material anomalies and resonances and quantifying the degree of their chiral splitting.

  12. Relativistic Chiral Theory of Nuclear Matter and QCD Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Chanfray, G


    We present a relativistic chiral theory of nuclear matter which includes the effect of confinement. Nuclear binding is obtained with a chiral invariant scalar background field associated with the radial fluctuations of the chiral condensate Nuclear matter stability is ensured once the scalar response of the nucleon depending on the quark confinement mechanism is properly incorporated. All the parameters are fixed or constrained by hadron phenomenology and lattice data. A good description of nuclear saturation is reached, which includes the effect of in-medium pion loops. Asymmetry properties of nuclear matter are also well described once the full rho meson exchange and Fock terms are included.

  13. Quantum-mechanical picture of peripheral chiral dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos [Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    The nucleon's peripheral transverse charge and magnetization densities are computed in chiral effective field theory. The densities are represented in first-quantized form, as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions describing the transition of the nucleon to soft pion-nucleon intermediate states. The orbital motion of the pion causes a large left-right asymmetry in a transversely polarized nucleon. As a result, the effect attests to the relativistic nature of chiral dynamics [pion momenta k = O(Mπ)] and could be observed in form factor measurements at low momentum transfer.

  14. Chiral gold nanowires with boerdijk-coxeter-bernal structure

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Yihan


    A Boerdijk-Coxeter-Bernal (BCB) helix is made of linearly stacked regular tetrahedra (tetrahelix). As such, it is chiral without nontrivial translational or rotational symmetries. We demonstrate here an example of the chiral BCB structure made of totally symmetrical gold atoms, created in nanowires by direct chemical synthesis. Detailed study by high-resolution electron microscopy illustrates their elegant chiral structure and the unique one-dimensional "pseudo-periodicity". The BCB-type atomic packing mode is proposed to be a result of the competition and compromise between the lattice and surface energy.

  15. Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, Jian, E-mail: [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Mo, Qi, E-mail: [School of Software, Yunnan University, Cuihu Bai Road, Kunming City, Yunnan Province 650091 (China); Cheng, Yaokun [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Liu, Taixiang [Taishan Vocational College of Nursing, Shandong Province 271000 (China)


    We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

  16. Chiral Disorder and Random Matrix Theory with Magnetism


    Nowak, Maciej A.; Sadzikowski, Mariusz; Zahed, Ismail.


    We revisit the concept of chiral disorder in QCD in the presence of a QED magnetic field $|eH|$. Weak magnetism corresponds to $|eH|\\le 1/\\rho^2$ with $\\rho\\approx 1/3$\\,fm the vacuum instanton size, while strong magnetism the reverse. Asymptotics (ultra-strong magnetism) is in the realm of perturbative QCD. We analyze weak magnetism using the concept of the quark return probability in the diffusive regime of chiral disorder. The result is in agreement with expectations from chiral perturbati...

  17. Method for the synthesis of chiral allylic alcohols utilizing selone based chiral derivatizing agents (United States)

    Silks, III, Louis A.


    Molecules containing a chiral 1,2-diol unit are synthesized from reactions between aldehydes and N-acyl selones. A chilled N-acyl selone is reacted with a Lewis acid such as TiCl.sub.4 and mixed with a tertiary amine such as diisopropylethylamine to generate an enolate solution. Upon further chilling of the enolate solution a desired aldehyde is added and after an acceptable reaction period a quencher is introduced and the product isolated.

  18. Photo- and pion electroproduction in chiral effective field theory; Photo- und Elektropionproduktion in chiraler effektiver Feldtheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilt, Marius


    This thesis is concerned with pion photoproduction (PPP) and pion electroproduction (PEP) in the framework of manifestly Lorentz-invariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. For that purpose two different approaches are used. Firstly, a one-loop-order calculation up to chiral order O(q{sup 4}) including pions and nucleons as degrees of freedom, is performed to describe the energy dependence of the reactions over a large range. To improve the dependence on the virtuality of the photon in PEP, in a second approach vector mesons are included as explicit degrees of freedom. The latter calculation includes one-loop contributions up to chiral order O(q{sup 3}). Only three of the four physical processes of PPP and PEP can be accessed experimentally. These reactions are measured at several different facilities, e.g. Mainz, Bonn, or Saskatoon. The data obtained there are used to explore the limits of chiral perturbation theory. This thesis is the first complete manifestly Lorentz-invariant calculation up to order O(q{sup 4}) for PPP and PEP, and the first calculation ever for these processes including vector mesons explicitly. Beside the calculation of physical observables, a partial wave decomposition is performed and the most important multipoles are analyzed. They may be extracted from the calculated amplitudes and allow one to examine the nucleon and {delta} resonances. The number of diagrams one has to calculate is very large. In order to handle these expressions, several routines were developed for the computer algebra system Mathematica. For the multipole decomposition, two different programs are used. On the one hand, a modified version of the so-called {chi}MAID has been employed. On the other hand, similar routines were developed for Mathematica. In the end, the different calculations are compared with respect to their applicability to PPP and PEP.

  19. Topics in three flavor chiral dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Robin


    In this work, we investigate several processes in low-energy hadron physics by combining chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), the effective field theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies, with a unitarization method based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Such so-called chiral unitary approaches are capable of describing processes in the three flavor sector of the strong interaction which involve substantial effects from final-state interactions and the excitation of (subthreshold) resonances, a domain where the perturbative framework of ChPT is not applicable. In part I of this work we study {eta} and {eta}' decays which constitute a perfect tool to examine symmetries and symmetry breaking patterns of QCD being incorporated in a model-independent fashion in ChPT. In particular, these decays allow to investigate the breaking of isospin symmetry due to the light quark mass difference m{sub d}-m{sub u} as well as effects of anomalies stemming from the quantum nature of QCD. For these reasons the decays of {eta} and {eta}' have also attracted considerable experimental interest. They are currently under investigation at several facilities including KLOE rate at DA{phi}NE, Crystal Ball at MAMI, WASA-at-COSY, VES at IHEP, and CLEO at CESR. In part II we investigate low-energy meson-baryon scattering in the strangeness S=-1 sector which is dominated by the {lambda}(1405) resonance immediately below the anti KN threshold. The anti KN interaction below threshold is of relevance for the quest of possible deeply bound anti K-nuclear clusters and has recently received an additional tight constraint: the K{sup -}p scattering length as determined from kaonic hydrogen by the KEK and the DEAR collaborations. Apart from successfully describing a large amount of experimental data and furnishing predictions for yet unmeasured quantities, our calculations allow to interrelate different experimental observables providing important consistency tests of experiments. E

  20. Relativistic chiral mean field model and chiral property of finite nuclei and nuclear matter (United States)

    Toki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yoko; Hu, Jinniu


    We study the role of pion in finite nuclei and nuclear matter with the relativistic chiral mean field (RCMF) model. In the RCMF model, we use the linear sigma model Lagrangian, which contains the nucleon field and sigma and pion fields in chiral symmetric way. We introduce further the omega meson coupling in order to include necessary repulsion to form nucleus. We take first the mean field approximation and obtain meson fluctuation terms to be treated in the 2p-2h space so that the pion exchange interaction is fully taken into account. The pion exchange interaction provides major contribution to the nuclear binding. We calculate ^4He, ^12C and ^16O and nuclear matter. For finite nuclei, we obtain more than a half of the attraction from the pion exchange interaction. We get an extra binding for ^12C than ^16O due to the pion exchange interaction coming from the Pauli-blocking effect. We find the nucleon mass is reduced about 20% from the free space value in the interior of finite nuclei. We calculate also chiral condensate in nuclear matter, which has a similar behavior to the model independent expression as a function of density. This behavior agrees with the behavior of isovector s-wave parameter extracted from deeply bound pionic atoms.

  1. Examination of the Potential for Adaptive Chirality of the Nitrogen Chiral Center in Aza-Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Bouayad-Gervais


    Full Text Available The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  2. Aromatic claw: A new fold with high aromatic content that evades structural prediction: Aromatic Claw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Joseph R. [Biomolecular NMR Core Facility, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Adhikari, Aashish N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Gawlak, Grzegorz [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Hoey, Robert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Liu, Gaohua [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Biological Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois; Montelione, Gaetano T. [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Sosnick, Tobin R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Koide, Shohei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and the Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York New York


    We determined the NMR structure of a highly aromatic (13%) protein of unknown function, Aq1974 from Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 5SYQ). The unusual sequence of this protein has a tryptophan content five times the normal (six tryptophan residues of 114 or 5.2% while the average tryptophan content is 1.0%) with the tryptophans occurring in a WXW motif. It has no detectable sequence homology with known protein structures. Although its NMR spectrum suggested that the protein was rich in β-sheet, upon resonance assignment and solution structure determination, the protein was found to be primarily α-helical with a small two-stranded β-sheet with a novel fold that we have termed an Aromatic Claw. As this fold was previously unknown and the sequence unique, we submitted the sequence to CASP10 as a target for blind structural prediction. At the end of the competition, the sequence was classified a hard template based model; the structural relationship between the template and the experimental structure was small and the predictions all failed to predict the structure. CSRosetta was found to predict the secondary structure and its packing; however, it was found that there was little correlation between CSRosetta score and the RMSD between the CSRosetta structure and the NMR determined one. This work demonstrates that even in relatively small proteins, we do not yet have the capacity to accurately predict the fold for all primary sequences. The experimental discovery of new folds helps guide the improvement of structural prediction methods.

  3. Induction of axial chirality in divanillin by interaction with bovine serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Venturini

    Full Text Available Vanillin is a plant secondary metabolite and has numerous beneficial health applications. Divanillin is the homodimer of vanillin and used as a taste enhancer compound and also a promissory anticancer drug. Here, divanillin was synthesized and studied in the context of its interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA. We found that divanillin acquires axial chirality when complexed with BSA. This chiroptical property was demonstrated by a strong induced circular dichroism (ICD signal. In agreement with this finding, the association constant between BSA and divanillin (3.3 x 105 mol-1L was higher compared to its precursor vanillin (7.3 x 104 mol-1L. The ICD signal was used for evaluation of the association constant, demonstration of the reversibility of the interaction and determination of the binding site, revealing that divanillin has preference for Sudlow's site I in BSA. This property was confirmed by displacement of the fluorescent markers warfarin (site I and dansyl-L-proline (site II. Molecular docking simulation confirmed the higher affinity of divanillin to site I. The highest scored conformation obtained by docking (dihedral angle 242° was used for calculation of the circular dichroism spectrum of divanillin using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT. The theoretical spectrum showed good similarity with the experimental ICD. In summary, we have demonstrated that by interacting with the chiral cavities in BSA, divanillin became a atropos biphenyl, i.e., the free rotation around the single bound that links the aromatic rings was impeded. This phenomenon can be explained considering the interactions of divanillin with amino acid residues in the binding site of the protein. This chiroptical property can be very useful for studying the effects of divanillin in biological systems. Considering the potential pharmacological application of divanillin, these findings will be helpful for researchers interested in the pharmacological

  4. The synthesis of boronic-imine structured compounds and identification of their anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Pasa


    Full Text Available Boronic acid compounds with different substituted groups were handled to synthesize various ligands encoded as B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7 and B8. B5 and B7 were tested for the cytotoxic activity against the prostate cancer cells and it was found that the cell viability of cancer cells was decreased while most of the healthy cells could still be viable. 5 µM solutions of B5 and B7 decreased the cell viability to 33% and 44% whereas healthy cells were 71% and 95%, respectively, after treatment. Antimicrobial properties were explored against the bacterial and fungal microorganisms with B1, B5 and B7. The inhibition zones were evaluated for all boronic structures, and the growth inhibition zones were determined in a range of 7–13 mm diameter for different microorganism species. Staphylococcus aureus was the common microorganism that three boronic compounds with imine ligands showed the activity. Antioxidant features of B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7 and B8 were investigated by different processes such as Beta-carotene bleaching (BCB, 2,2-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and CUPric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC methods. Significant antioxidant activity was achieved by the phenyl boronic based ligands and these compounds demonstrated as much activity as standards (α-Toc and BHT. In addition, all structures were applied properly without any decomposition during the experiments. They were rather stable both in aqueous media and solid state.

  5. (Photo)physical Properties of New Molecular Glasses End-Capped with Thiophene Rings Composed of Diimide and Imine Units (United States)


    New symmetrical arylene bisimide derivatives formed by using electron-donating–electron-accepting systems were synthesized. They consist of a phthalic diimide or naphthalenediimide core and imine linkages and are end-capped with thiophene, bithiophene, and (ethylenedioxy)thiophene units. Moreover, polymers were obtained from a new diamine, N,N′-bis(5-aminonaphthalenyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-dicarboximide and 2,5-thiophenedicarboxaldehyde or 2,2′-bithiophene-5,5′-dicarboxaldehyde. The prepared azomethine diimides exhibited glass-forming properties. The obtained compounds emitted blue light with the emission maximum at 470 nm. The value of the absorption coefficient was determined as a function of the photon energy using spectroscopic ellipsometry. All compounds are electrochemically active and undergo reversible electrochemical reduction and irreversible oxidation processes as was found in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies. They exhibited a low electrochemically (DPV) calculated energy band gap (Eg) from 1.14 to 1.70 eV. The highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels and Eg were additionally calculated theoretically by density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The photovoltaic properties of two model compounds as the active layer in organic solar cells in the configuration indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/active layer/Al under an illumination of 1.3 mW/cm2 were studied. The device comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene) with the compound end-capped with bithiophene rings showed the highest value of Voc (above 1 V). The conversion efficiency of the fabricated solar cell was in the range of 0.69–0.90%. PMID:24966893

  6. A Highly Stable Microporous Covalent Imine Network Adsorbent for Natural Gas Upgrading and Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar


    The feasible capture and separation of CO2 and N2 from CH4 is an important task for natural gas upgrading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we studied the microporous covalent imine networks (CIN) material prepared through Schiff base condensation and exhibited superior chemical robustness under both acidic and basic conditions and high thermal stability. The material possesses a relatively uniform nanoparticle size of approximately 70 to 100 nm. This network featured permanent porosity with a high surface area (722 m2g-1) and micropores. A single-component gas adsorption study showed enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptakes of 3.32 mmol/g and 1.14 mmol/g, respectively, at 273 K and 1 bar, coupled with high separation selectivities for CO2/CH4, CH4/N2, and CO2/N2 of 23, 11.8 and 211, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity in the porous skeletons favours the interaction of quadrupolar CO2 and polarizable CH4, resulting in enhanced CH4 and CO2 uptake and high CH4/N2, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities. Breakthrough experiments showed high CO2/CH4, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 selectivities of 7.29, 40 and 125, respectively, at 298 K and 1 bar. High heats of adsorption for CH4 and CO2 (QstCH4; 32.61 kJ mol-1 and QstCO2; 42.42 kJ mol-1) provide the ultimate validation for the high selectivity. To the best of our knowledge, such a versatile adsorbent material that displays both enhanced uptake and selectivity for a variety of binary gas mixtures, including CO2/ CH4, CO2/N2 and CH4/N2, has not been extensively explored.

  7. Ionic Conductivity and Potential Application for Fuel Cell of a Modified Imine-Based Covalent Organic Framework. (United States)

    Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-San-Miguel, David; Polo, Eduardo; Escudero-Cid, Ricardo; Ruiz-González, Maria Luisa; Navarro, Jorge A R; Ocón, Pilar; Zamora, Félix


    We present the novel potential application of imine-based covalent organic frameworks (COFs), formed by the direct Schiff reaction between 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbaldehyde building blocks in m-cresol or acetic acid, named RT-COF-1 or RT-COF-1Ac/RT-COF-1AcB. The post-synthetic treatment of RT-COF-1 with LiCl leads to the formation of LiCl@RT-COF-1. The ionic conductivity of this series of polyimine COFs has been characterized at variable temperature and humidity, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. LiCl@RT-COF-1 exhibits a conductivity value of 6.45 × 10-3 S cm-1 (at 313 K and 100% relative humidity) which is among the highest values so far reported in proton conduction for COFs. The mechanism of conduction has been determined using 1H and 7Li solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Interestingly, these materials, in the presence of controlled amounts of acetic acid and under pressure, show a remarkable processability that gives rise to quasi-transparent and flexible films showing in-plane structural order as confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Finally, we prove that these films are useful for the construction of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) reaching values up to 12.95 mW cm-2 and 53.1 mA cm-2 for maximum power and current density at 323 K, respectively.

  8. Synthesis of a Fluorine-Containing Cis-Cisoidal One-Handed Helical Polyphenylacetylene and Application of Highly Selective Photocyclic Aromatization Product on Oxygen Permselective Membrane. (United States)

    Zang, Yu; Yin, Guanwu; Aoki, Toshiki; Teraguchi, Masahiro; Kaneko, Takashi; Ma, Liqun; Jia, Hongge


    A novel phenylacetylene monomer having a perfluorinated alkyl group (M-F) was synthesized and polymerized in a chiral catalytic system to yield a one-handed helical polymer. The ability and efficiency of the chiral induction of the fluorine-containing monomer in the helix-sense-selective polymerization (HSSP) was much higher than those of a monomer having the corresponding alkyl group (M-H) we reported before. The resulting polymer showed cis-cisoidal one-handed helical conformation, and was suitable for highly selective photocyclic aromatization (SCAT) to give a 2D surface modifier (). Oxygen permselectivity through a base polymer membrane was highly enhanced from 1.83 to 2.36 by adding a small amount (1-5 wt%) of the 2D surface modifier . The improvement was thought to be caused by improvement of solution selectivity on the membrane surface which the 2D surface modifier effectively covered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino


    in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms......The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric......) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates...

  10. Chiral Lagrangians, anomalies, supersymmetry, and holomorphy (United States)

    Losev, Andrei; Moore, Gregory; Nekrasov, Nikita; Shatashvili, Samson


    We investigate higher-dimensional analogues of the bc systems of 2D RCFT. When coupled to gauge fields and Beltrami differentials defining integrable holomorphic structures, the bc partition functions can be explicitly evaluated using anomalies and holomorphy. The resulting induced actions generalize the chiral algebras of 2D RCFT to 2 n dimensions. Moreover, bc systems in four and six dimensions are closely related to supersymmetric matter. In particular, we show that d = 4, N = 2 hypermultiplets induce a theory of self-dual Yang-Mills fields coupled to self-dual gravity. In this way the bc systems fermionize both the algebraic sector of the WZW 4 theory, as defined by Losev et al., and the classical open NWS = 2 string.

  11. Chiral Lagrangians, anomalies, supersymmetry, and holomorphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Moore, G. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nekrasov, N. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Shatashvili, S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics


    We investigate higher-dimensional analogues of the bc systems of 2D RCFT. When coupled to gauge fields and Beltrami differentials defining integrable holomorphic structures, the bc partition functions can be explicitly evaluated using anomalies and holomorphy. The resulting induced actions generalize the chiral algebras of 2D RCFT to 2n dimensions. Moreover, bc systems in four and six dimensions are closely related to supersymmetric matter. In particular, we show that d=4, N=2 hypermultiplets induce a theory of self-dual Yang-Mills fields coupled to self-dual gravity. In this way the bc systems fermionize both the algebraic sector of the WZW{sub 4} theory, as defined by Losev et al., and the classical open N{sub ws}=2 string. (orig.).

  12. Superconformal index, BPS monodromy and chiral algebras (United States)

    Cecotti, Sergio; Song, Jaewon; Vafa, Cumrun; Yan, Wenbin


    We show that specializations of the 4d N=2 superconformal index labeled by an integer N is given by Tr ℳ N where ℳ is the Kontsevich-Soibelman monodromy operator for BPS states on the Coulomb branch. We provide evidence that the states enumerated by these limits of the index lead to a family of 2d chiral algebras A_N . This generalizes the recent results for the N = -1 case which corresponds to the Schur limit of the superconformal index. We show that this specialization of the index leads to the same integrand as that of the elliptic genus of compactification of the superconformal theory on S 2 × T 2 where we turn on 1/2N units of U(1) r flux on S 2.

  13. Discovering Chiral Higgsinos at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC


    The concept of chirality is extended to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and the {micro} term is forbidden by a gauged U(1){prime} symmetry. R-parity automatically emerges after symmetry breaking, suppressing proton decay and protecting the LSP. Exotics charged under the SM pose a challenge to traditional SU(5) unification, but unification is still implemented in deconstructed GUTs. Because of the multitude of additional states to the MSSM, the Z{prime} has a large width, and the SM background, neglected in previous theoretical studies, becomes important for Z{prime} discovery. As a result, the LHC reach is reduced from 3.2 TeV, for a Z{prime} with SM decays, to 1.5 TeV, when additional decay channels are included. This model also predicts possibly long-lived colored and electroweak exotics.

  14. Chiral perturbation theory for lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Oliver


    The formulation of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. We start with brief summaries of ChPT for continuum QCD as well as the Symanzik effective theory for lattice QCD. We then review the formulation of ChPT for lattice QCD. After an additional chapter on partial quenching and mixed action theories various concrete applications are discussed: Wilson ChPT, staggered ChPT and Wilson ChPT with a twisted mass term. The remaining chapters deal with the epsilon regime with Wilson fermions and selected results in mixed action ChPT. Finally, the formulation of heavy vector meson ChPT with Wilson fermions is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Chiral Alkyl Halides: Underexplored Motifs in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Gál


    Full Text Available While alkyl halides are valuable intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry, their use as bioactive motifs in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry is rare in comparison. This is likely attributable to the common misconception that these compounds are merely non-specific alkylators in biological systems. A number of chlorinated compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as a growing number of halogenated marine natural products showing unique bioactivity, illustrate the role that chiral alkyl halides can play in drug discovery. Through a series of case studies, we demonstrate in this review that these motifs can indeed be stable under physiological conditions, and that halogenation can enhance bioactivity through both steric and electronic effects. Our hope is that, by placing such compounds in the minds of the chemical community, they may gain more traction in drug discovery and inspire more synthetic chemists to develop methods for selective halogenation.

  16. A lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodwin, G.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.


    The authors present a method for formulating gauge theories of chiral fermions in lattice field theory. The method makes use of a Wilson mass to remove doublers. Gauge invariance is then restored by modifying the theory in two ways: the magnitude of the fermion determinant is replaced with the square root of the determinant for a fermion with vector-like couplings to the gauge field; a double limit is taken in which the lattice spacing associated with the fermion field is taken to zero before the lattice spacing associated with the gauge field. The method applies only to theories whose fermions are in an anomaly-free representation of the gauge group. They also present a related technique for computing matrix elements of operators involving fermion fields. Although the analyses of these methods are couched in weak-coupling perturbation theory, it is argued that computational prescriptions are gauge invariant in the presence of a nonperturbative gauge-field configuration.

  17. Selective control of reconfigurable chiral plasmonic metamolecules (United States)

    Kuzyk, Anton; Urban, Maximilian J.; Idili, Andrea; Ricci, Francesco; Liu, Na


    Selective configuration control of plasmonic nanostructures using either top-down or bottom-up approaches has remained challenging in the field of active plasmonics. We demonstrate the realization of DNA-assembled reconfigurable plasmonic metamolecules, which can respond to a wide range of pH changes in a programmable manner. This programmability allows for selective reconfiguration of different plasmonic metamolecule species coexisting in solution through simple pH tuning. This approach enables discrimination of chiral plasmonic quasi-enantiomers and arbitrary tuning of chiroptical effects with unprecedented degrees of freedom. Our work outlines a new blueprint for implementation of advanced active plasmonic systems, in which individual structural species can be programmed to perform multiple tasks and functions in response to independent external stimuli. PMID:28439556

  18. Stereodirection of an α-ketoester at sub-molecular sites on chirally modified Pt(111): heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Demers-Carpentier, Vincent; Rasmussen, Anton M H; Goubert, Guillaume; Ferrighi, Lara; Dong, Yi; Lemay, Jean-Christian; Masini, Federico; Zeng, Yang; Hammer, Bjørk; McBreen, Peter H


    Chirally modified Pt catalysts are used in the heterogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation of α-ketoesters. Stereoinduction is believed to occur through the formation of chemisorbed modifier-substrate complexes. In this study, the formation of diastereomeric complexes by coadsorbed methyl 3,3,3-trifluoropyruvate, MTFP, and (R)-(+)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine, (R)-NEA, on Pt(111) was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory methods. Individual complexes were imaged with sub-molecular resolution at 260 K and at room temperature. The calculations find that the most stable complex isolated in room-temperature experiments is formed by the minority rotamer of (R)-NEA and pro-S MTFP. The stereodirecting forces in this complex are identified as a combination of site-specific chemisorption of MTFP and multiple non-covalent attractive interactions between the carbonyl groups of MTFP and the amine and aromatic groups of (R)-NEA.

  19. Experimental demonstration of spontaneous chirality in a nonlinear microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Qi-Tao; Dong, Chun-Hua; Jing, Hui; Liu, Rui-Shan; Chen, Xi; Ge, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng


    Chirality is an important concept that describes the asymmetry property of a system, which usually emerges spontaneously due to mirror symmetry breaking. Such spontaneous chirality manifests predominantly as parity breaking in modern physics, which has been studied extensively, for instance, in Higgs physics, double-well Bose-Einstein condensates, topological insulators and superconductors. In the optical domain, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking has been elusive experimentally, especially for micro- and nano-photonics which demands multiple identical subsystems, such as photonic nanocavities, meta-molecules and other dual-core settings. Here, for the first time, we observe spontaneous emergence of a chiral field in a single ultrahigh-Q whispering- gallery microresonator. This counter-intuitive effect arises due to the inherent Kerr nonlinearity-modulated coupling between clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) propagating waves. At an ultra-weak input threshold of a few hundred microwatts, the initial c...

  20. Active chiral control of GHz acoustic whispering-gallery modes (United States)

    Mezil, Sylvain; Fujita, Kentaro; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Clark, Matt; Wright, Oliver B.; Matsuda, Osamu


    We selectively generate chiral surface-acoustic whispering-gallery modes in the gigahertz range on a microscopic disk by means of an ultrafast time-domain technique incorporating a spatial light modulator. Active chiral control is achieved by making use of an optical pump spatial profile in the form of a semicircular arc, positioned on the sample to break the symmetry of clockwise- and counterclockwise-propagating modes. Spatiotemporal Fourier transforms of the interferometrically monitored two-dimensional acoustic fields measured to micron resolution allow individual chiral modes and their azimuthal mode order, both positive and negative, to be distinguished. In particular, for modes with 15-fold rotational symmetry, we demonstrate ultrafast chiral control of surface acoustic waves in a micro-acoustic system with picosecond temporal resolution. Applications include nondestructive testing and surface acoustic wave devices.