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Sample records for chipped stone tools

  1. Stone tools from locality Crkvine in Stubline

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    Antonović Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone artifacts from excavations in Crkvine in 2008. originate from two stratigraphic units, both chronologically defined as the final stage of the Vinča culture: 1. distruction layer above and 2. from the floor of House 1/2008. None of the stone artifact types showed any specific regularity in vertical distribution. However, in the southern part of the Structure/House 1 there is higher abundance in horizontal distribution of both types of tools. Abundance of cores, blades for rejuvenation of the cores and unretouched blades among the chipped artifacts suggest that, most probably, this object was a working place where the artifacts were made (Fig. 9/1. Ground stone artifacts - all rought-out and final products, whole and fragmented pieces, ground-edge and abrasive tools, are equally distributed in the House 1/2008 as well as in the distruction layer above it. Only non-determined fragments and pieces of raw material, both defined as products of making stone tools, are far more numerous in the distruction layer above the House 1/2008. Higher concentrations of finds are situated in the House 1/2008, especially in its southern part, on the floor and above it, while the number of finds out of the House significantly decreases (Fig. 9/2. Such distribution of ground stone artifacts indicates that the production of stone artifacts was done within the household (large number of flakes of „light white stone“, presence of grindstone and whetstone, as well as that there occurred active preparation of food within the Vinča’s objects (querns and pounders within the houses. Findings of numerous quartzite, chert and jasper pebbles out of the House 1/2008, 2 metres away from the northeastern angle of the House (pottery group 1, could not be connected with production of chipped and ground stone artifacts. There are no any traces of treatment and utilization on the pebbles, and the pebbles themselves do not belong to raw material of good quality due to

  2. The Stone Tool Industry of Hac Sa, Macau, China

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    Vin Davis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some archaeological, geological and petrographical aspects of stone implements from a sand dune site in south-eastern China. A sample of preform, ground and polished stone implements from Macau, Coloane and Taipa are considered in relation to the archaeological landscape of the Zhujiang (Pearl River estuary. Particular attention is focused on evidence for the manufacturing technology of ornamental stone, jade and quartz rings. The possibility of selective exploitation of jade (quartz, which occurs locally as veins within the granitic outcrops, for tool and ring manufacture, and its relationship to mineralogical and textural characteristics, is considered. It is planned that more stone tools from Macau will be examined during 2009-12.

  3. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

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    Jay S Reti

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1 models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2 develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3 statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated

  4. Editorial - Stone Tools in Analytical and Cultural Perspective

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    Mark Edmonds

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The articles collected together here are the written record of presentations given at a conference on stone tool studies held in Britain at the Department of Archaeology, University of York, in the autumn of 2007. Convened by the Implement Petrology Group, the purpose of the conference was to encourage those working in a wide range of contexts to come together to discuss current approaches in lithic research. It seemed like a good idea; after all, stone tools are one of the most durable forms of evidence that we have for the study of the prehistoric past, and the conference created a chance to explore the various ways

  5. Capuchin stone tool use in Caatinga dry forest.

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    Moura, A C de A; Lee, P C

    2004-12-10

    Wild capuchin monkeys inhabiting dry forest were found to customarily use tools as part of their extractive foraging techniques. Tools consisted of twigs and sticks, often modified, which were used to probe for insects and, most frequently, of stones of a variety of sizes and shapes used for cracking and digging. The use of tools for digging has been thought to be restricted to humans. These monkeys, living in a harsh dry habitat, survive food limitation and foraging time constraints through their extensive tool use.

  6. Manual praxis in stone tool manufacture: implications for language evolution.

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    Ruck, Lana

    2014-12-01

    Alternative functions of the left-hemisphere dominant Broca's region have induced hypotheses regarding the evolutionary parallels between manual praxis and language in humans. Many recent studies on Broca's area reveal several assumptions about the cognitive mechanisms that underlie both functions, including: (1) an accurate, finely controlled body schema, (2) increasing syntactical abilities, particularly for goal-oriented actions, and (3) bilaterality and fronto-parietal connectivity. Although these characteristics are supported by experimental paradigms, many researchers have failed to acknowledge a major line of evidence for the evolutionary development of these traits: stone tools. The neuroscience of stone tool manufacture is a viable proxy for understanding evolutionary aspects of manual praxis and language, and may provide key information for evaluating competing hypotheses on the co-evolution of these cognitive domains in our species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Paleoindian unifacial stone tool 'spurs': intended accessories or incidental accidents?

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    Metin I Eren

    Full Text Available Paleoindian unifacial stone tools frequently exhibit distinct, sharp projections, known as "spurs". During the last two decades, a theoretically and empirically informed interpretation-based on individual artifact analysis, use-wear, tool-production techniques, and studies of resharpening-suggested that spurs were sometimes created intentionally via retouch, and other times created incidentally via resharpening or knapping accidents. However, more recently Weedman strongly criticized the inference that Paleoindian spurs were ever intentionally produced or served a functional purpose, and asserted that ethnographic research "demonstrates that the presence of so called 'graver' spurs does not have a functional significance." While ethnographic data cannot serve as a direct test of the archaeological record, we used Weedman's ethnographic observations to create two quantitative predictions of the Paleoindian archaeological record in order to directly examine the hypothesis that Paleoindian spurs were predominantly accidents occurring incidentally via resharpening and reshaping. The first prediction is that the frequency of spurs should increase as tool reduction proceeds. The second prediction is that the frequency of spurs should increase as tool breakage increases. An examination of 563 unbroken tools and 629 tool fragments from the Clovis archaeological record of the North American Lower Great Lakes region showed that neither prediction was consistent with the notion that spurs were predominately accidents. Instead, our results support the prevailing viewpoint that spurs were sometimes created intentionally via retouch, and other times, created incidentally via resharpening or knapping accidents. Behaviorally, this result is consistent with the notion that unifacial stone tools were multifunctional implements that enhanced the mobile lifestyle of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.

  8. View of a stone age adze cutting tool floating freely in the flight deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    View of a stone age adze cutting tool floating freely in the forward flight deck and framed by the forward and side windows. On the Earth below, the big island of Hawaii can be seen through the window.

  9. Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, K. B.

    2010-04-01

    The Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System produces user-selectable chip lengths and workpiece finishes and is compatible with any material, workpiece shape, and depth of cut. The MTP chip breaking system consistently creates the desired size of chips regardless of workpiece size, shape, or material, and the machine operator does not need to make any adjustments during the machining operation. The system's programmer configures the part program that commands the machine tool to move in a specific fashion to deliver the desired part size, shape, chip length, and workpiece surface finish. The MTP chip breaking system helps manufacturers avoid the detrimental effects of continuous chips, including expensive repair costs, delivery delays, and hazards to personnel.

  10. Stone tool analysis and human origins research: some advice from Uncle Screwtape.

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    Shea, John J

    2011-01-01

    The production of purposefully fractured stone tools with functional, sharp cutting edges is a uniquely derived hominin adaptation. In the long history of life on earth, only hominins have adopted this remarkably expedient and broadly effective technological strategy. In the paleontological record, flaked stone tools are irrefutable proof that hominins were present at a particular place and time. Flaked stone tools are found in contexts ranging from the Arctic to equatorial rainforests and on every continent except Antarctica. Paleolithic stone tools show complex patterns of variability, suggesting that they have been subject to the variable selective pressures that have shaped so many other aspects of hominin behavior and morphology. There is every reason to expect that insights gained from studying stone tools should provide vital and important information about the course of human evolution. And yet, one senses that archeological analyses of Paleolithic stone tools are not making as much of a contribution as they could to the major issues in human origins research. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Early evidence of stone tool use in bone working activities at Qesem Cave, Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Zupancich, Andrea; Nunziante-Cesaro, Stella; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Cristiani, Emanuela; Venditti, Flavia; Lemorini, Cristina; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2016-01-01

    For a long while, the controversy surrounding several bone tools coming from pre-Upper Palaeolithic contexts favoured the view of Homo sapiens as the only species of the genus Homo capable of modifying animal bones into specialised tools. However, evidence such as South African Early Stone Age modified bones, European Lower Palaeolithic flaked bone tools, along with Middle and Late Pleistocene bone retouchers, led to a re-evaluation of the conception of Homo sapiens as the exclusive manufactu...

  12. 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya.

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    Harmand, Sonia; Lewis, Jason E; Feibel, Craig S; Lepre, Christopher J; Prat, Sandrine; Lenoble, Arnaud; Boës, Xavier; Quinn, Rhonda L; Brenet, Michel; Arroyo, Adrian; Taylor, Nicholas; Clément, Sophie; Daver, Guillaume; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Leakey, Louise; Mortlock, Richard A; Wright, James D; Lokorodi, Sammy; Kirwa, Christopher; Kent, Dennis V; Roche, Hélène

    2015-05-21

    Human evolutionary scholars have long supposed that the earliest stone tools were made by the genus Homo and that this technological development was directly linked to climate change and the spread of savannah grasslands. New fieldwork in West Turkana, Kenya, has identified evidence of much earlier hominin technological behaviour. We report the discovery of Lomekwi 3, a 3.3-million-year-old archaeological site where in situ stone artefacts occur in spatiotemporal association with Pliocene hominin fossils in a wooded palaeoenvironment. The Lomekwi 3 knappers, with a developing understanding of stone's fracture properties, combined core reduction with battering activities. Given the implications of the Lomekwi 3 assemblage for models aiming to converge environmental change, hominin evolution and technological origins, we propose for it the name 'Lomekwian', which predates the Oldowan by 700,000 years and marks a new beginning to the known archaeological record.

  13. Usewear analysis of Mesolithic and Neolithic stone tools from Mala Triglavca, Trhlovca and Pupičina peć

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    Simona Petru

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the usewear analysis of Mesolithic and Neolithic stone tools from three cave sites - Mala Triglavca and Trhlovca in the Slovenian Karst and Pupicina pec in Croatian Istra will be presented. Stone tools were examined under the light microscope at 50 - 200 x magnifications, and some additional physical and chemical analyses were undertaken. Various uses of the tools were determined and conclusions regarding the economies at those sites were drawn.

  14. Early evidence of stone tool use in bone working activities at Qesem Cave, Israel

    OpenAIRE

    ROSELL ARDÉVOL, JORDI; Andrea Zupancich; Stella Nunziante-Cesaro; Ruth Blasco; Emanuela Cristiani; Flavia Venditti; Cristina Lemorini; Ran Barkai; Avi Gopher

    2016-01-01

    DOI: 10.1038/srep37686 URL: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep37686 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI For a long while, the controversy surrounding several bone tools coming from pre-Upper Palaeolithic contexts favoured the view of Homo sapiens as the only species of the genus Homo capable of modifying animal bones into specialised tools. However, evidence such as South African Early Stone Age modified bones, European Lower Palaeolithic flaked bone tools, along with Middle...

  15. Biomechanical strategies for accuracy and force generation during stone tool production.

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    Williams, E M; Gordon, A D; Richmond, B G

    2014-07-01

    Multiple hominin species used and produced stone tools, and the archaeological record provides evidence that stone tool behaviors intensified among later members of the genus Homo. This intensification is widely thought to be the product of cognitive and anatomical adaptations that enabled later Homo taxa to produce stone tools more efficiently relative to earlier hominin species. This study builds upon recent investigations of the knapping motions of modern humans to test whether aspects of our upper limb anatomy contribute to accuracy and/or efficiency. Knapping kinematics were captured from eight experienced knappers using a Vicon motion capture system. Each subject produced a series of Oldowan bifacial choppers under two conditions: with normal wrist mobility and while wearing a brace that reduced wrist extension (∼30°-35°), simulating one aspect of the likely primitive hominin condition. Under normal conditions, subjects employed a variant of the proximal-to-distal joint sequence common to throwing activities: subjects initiated down-swing upper limb motion at the shoulder and proceeded distally, increasing peak linear and angular velocities from the shoulder to the elbow to the wrist. At the wrist, subjects utilized the 'dart-thrower's arc,' the most stable plane of radiocarpal motion, during which wrist extension is coupled with radial deviation and flexion with ulnar deviation. With an unrestrained wrist, subjects achieved significantly greater target accuracy, wrist angular velocities, and hand linear velocities compared with the braced condition. Additionally, the modern wrist's ability to reach high degrees of extension (≥28.5°) following strike may decrease risk of carpal and ligamentous damage caused by hyperextension. These results suggest that wrist extension in humans contributes significantly to stone tool-making performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The GenoChip: A New Tool for Genetic Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran; Greenspan, Elliott; Staats, Sean; Krahn, Thomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco; Pagani, Luca; Jin, Li; Li, Hui; Schurr, Theodore G.; Greenspan, Bennett; Spencer Wells, R.

    2013-01-01

    relevance, the GenoChip is a useful tool for genetic anthropology and population genetics. PMID:23666864

  17. Neolithic and Chalcolithic stone tools used in ceramics production: Examples from the south of Romania

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    Otis Crandell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Neolithic and Chalcolithic stone tools found at the Măgura ‘Buduiasca’ and Vităneşti ‘Măgurice’ sites in southern Romania, which might been involved in the chaîne opératoire of ceramic pottery production. To better understand how ceramic objects were made during this period, it is important to know what tools were available. Representative artefacts were selected from the sites and have here been grouped based on their possible involvement in various stages of pottery production: a quarrying of the raw claystone (picks; b processing the raw materials (mortars and pestles; and c surface finishing (smoothers, burnishers, polishers. The surface of the tools was examined by non-destructive methods (handheld loupe, stereomicroscope with the aim of further determining their function and whether they were likely used in the ceramics industry. This study provides examples of specific Neolithic and Chalcolithic stone tool types and illustrates characteristics useful for identifying their use. It also shows the possible chaîne opératoire of pottery produced during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic in the area of southern Romania. It is considered that most of these tools categories, and likely most of the individual tools themselves, had multiple uses, or similar uses with different materials in different industries. It is therefore difficult to determine with much certainty whether they were only used within the ceramics industry.

  18. Woodworking activities by early humans: a plant residue analysis on Acheulian stone tools from Peninj (Tanzania).

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    Dominguez- Rodrigo, M; Serrallonga, J; Juan-Tresserras, J; Alcala, L; Luque, L

    2001-04-01

    The emergence of the Acheulian stone tool industry, between 1.7 and 1.5 m.y.a., constitutes one of the earliest evidences of complex behavior in the process of human evolution. The major technological breakthrough with the Acheulian industry was the beginning of the manufacture of bifacially shaped heavy-duty tools. Handaxes made with a predetermined form and a high degree of symmetry are the main characteristic of the Acheulian tradition. The tools are shaped through a long knapping sequence with a remarkable increase in the technical skills of the makers, compared with the older Oldowan tradition, implying a high degree of planning and foresight. Until recently, the function of these early bifacial tools remained unknown. A large number of these artefacts were found at Peninj in Tanzania, and phytolith analyses on handaxes have yielded for the first time unambiguous evidence of their function as woodworking tools. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE TMPERATURES ON UNCOATED CEMENTIDE CARBIDE CUTTING TOOLS

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    Kasım HABALI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the temperature as the result of the heat developed during machining at the tool-chip interface has an influence on the tool life and workpiece surface guality and the methods for measuring this temperature are constantly under investigation. In this study, the measurement of tool-chip interface temperature using toolworkpiece termocouple method was investigated. The test were carried out on a AISI 1040 steel and the toolchip interface temperature variation was examined depending on the cutting speed and feed rate. The obtained groups show that cutting speed has more influence on the temperature than feedrate has.

  20. Internet search trends analysis tools can provide real-time data on kidney stone disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Scott D; Nguyen, Mike M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of using Internet search trends data to estimate kidney stone occurrence and understand the priorities of patients with kidney stones. Internet search trends data represent a unique resource for monitoring population self-reported illness and health information-seeking behavior. The Google Insights for Search analysis tool was used to study searches related to kidney stones, with each search term returning a search volume index (SVI) according to the search frequency relative to the total search volume. SVIs for the term, "kidney stones," were compiled by location and time parameters and compared with the published weather and stone prevalence data. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association of the search interest score with known epidemiologic variations in kidney stone disease, including latitude, temperature, season, and state. The frequency of the related search terms was categorized by theme and qualitatively analyzed. The SVI correlated significantly with established kidney stone epidemiologic predictors. The SVI correlated with the state latitude (R-squared=0.25; Pstate mean annual temperature (R-squared=0.24; Pstate combined sex prevalence (R-squared=0.25; PInternet users are most interested in the diagnosis, followed by etiology, infections, and treatment. Geographic and temporal variability in kidney stone disease appear to be accurately reflected in Internet search trends data. Internet search trends data might have broader applications for epidemiologic and urologic research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CATCHprofiles: Clustering and Alignment Tool for ChIP Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. G. Nielsen, Fiona; Galschiøt Markus, Kasper; Møllegaard Friborg, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP) profiling detects in vivo protein-DNA binding, and has revealed a large combinatorial complexity in the binding of chromatin associated proteins and their post-translational modifications. To fully explore the spatial and combinatorial patterns in ChIP-profil......Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP) profiling detects in vivo protein-DNA binding, and has revealed a large combinatorial complexity in the binding of chromatin associated proteins and their post-translational modifications. To fully explore the spatial and combinatorial patterns in Ch......IP-profiling data and detect potentially meaningful patterns, the areas of enrichment must be aligned and clustered, which is an algorithmically and computationally challenging task. We have developed CATCHprofiles, a novel tool for exhaustive pattern detection in ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles is built upon...... a computationally efficient implementation for the exhaustive alignment and hierarchical clustering of ChIP profiling data. The tool features a graphical interface for examination and browsing of the clustering results. CATCHprofiles requires no prior knowledge about functional sites, detects known binding patterns...

  2. The evolution of the hominin thumb and the influence exerted by the non-dominant hand during stone tool production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Alastair J M; Dunmore, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans possess a highly derived thumb that is substantially stronger and more robust than the fingers. Previous hypotheses concerning the evolution of such traits have focused upon the manipulation of hammerstones during stone tool production and of stone tools during their use. To date there has been no research on the manipulative pressures exerted by the non-dominant (core-holding) hand during stone tool production and its potential influence on the evolutionary history of the thumb. Here we provide the first investigation into the frequencies of digit recruitment and the relative manipulative forces experienced in the non-dominant hand during stone tool production. Eight experienced knappers produced flake cutting tools under four distinct conditions while pressure sensors, secured to the volar pads of the thumb, index and middle fingers of the non-dominant hand, recorded manipulative forces. Results indicate that relative to the fingers, the thumb was recruited significantly more frequently and experienced significantly greater manipulative forces during core repositioning events and the securing of the core during flake detachments. Our results support the hypothesis that the robust thumb anatomy observed in the hominin lineage was selected for, at least in part, as a result of more frequent and greater manipulative pressures acting upon the thumb relative to the fingers on the non-dominant hand during stone tool production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stone tool production and utilization by bonobo-chimpanzees (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Itai; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Rubert-Pugh, Elizabeth; Ronen, Avraham; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-09-04

    Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval. For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical flakes were used as axes or wedges, leaving consistent wear patterns along the glued slits, the weakest areas of the log. For digging underground, a variety of modified stone tools, as well as unmodified flint nodules, were used as shovels. Such tool production and utilization competencies reported here in Pan indicate that present-day Pan exhibits Homo-like technological competencies.

  4. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  5. Mongolian “Neolithic” and Early Bronze Age ground stone tools from the northern edge of the Gobi Desert

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    Joan S. Schneider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition from the Mongolian Neolithic to the Bronze Age is not well understood. Within Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, over a period of five years, we identified a number of sites with dense surface artefact scatters and features that seem to represent this transition period. Evident in those concentrations are characteristic microblade cores, microblades, “thumbnail" flake scrapers, projectile points, ground stone tools, and stone features of unknown function. Between 2012 and 2014 we collected ground stone artefacts from four sites and sediment samples from three sites. With permission of Mongolian authorities, the artefacts from one site and sediment samples from three sites were sent for botanical analyses to the University of Texas, Austin, Environmental Archaeology Laboratory. Preliminary results indicate that plant remains are present on the ground stone artefacts: dendritic long-cells from a deep pore of one artefact and starch grains from the pores of six of the seven artefacts. These data present the first opportunity to understand what resources “Neolithic” people were processing with ground stone tools in this area and further our opportunity to better understand the little-known “Neolithic”-Early Bronze Age transition period in Central Asia. This paper describes the ground stone artefacts and further explores the results of data retrieved from some of these artefacts.

  6. Early evidence of stone tool use in bone working activities at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancich, Andrea; Nunziante-Cesaro, Stella; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Cristiani, Emanuela; Venditti, Flavia; Lemorini, Cristina; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2016-11-25

    For a long while, the controversy surrounding several bone tools coming from pre-Upper Palaeolithic contexts favoured the view of Homo sapiens as the only species of the genus Homo capable of modifying animal bones into specialised tools. However, evidence such as South African Early Stone Age modified bones, European Lower Palaeolithic flaked bone tools, along with Middle and Late Pleistocene bone retouchers, led to a re-evaluation of the conception of Homo sapiens as the exclusive manufacturer of specialised bone tools. The evidence presented herein include use wear and bone residues identified on two flint scrapers as well as a sawing mark on a fallow deer tibia, not associated with butchering activities. Dated to more than 300 kya, the evidence here presented is among the earliest related to tool-assisted bone working intended for non-dietary purposes, and contributes to the debate over the recognition of bone working as a much older behaviour than previously thought. The results of this study come from the application of a combined methodological approach, comprising use wear analysis, residue analysis, and taphonomy. This approach allowed for the retrieval of both direct and indirect evidence of tool-assisted bone working, at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Qesem Cave (Israel).

  7. Shared brain lateralization patterns in language and Acheulean stone tool production: a functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uomini, Natalie Thaïs; Meyer, Georg Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The popular theory that complex tool-making and language co-evolved in the human lineage rests on the hypothesis that both skills share underlying brain processes and systems. However, language and stone tool-making have so far only been studied separately using a range of neuroimaging techniques and diverse paradigms. We present the first-ever study of brain activation that directly compares active Acheulean tool-making and language. Using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), we measured brain blood flow lateralization patterns (hemodynamics) in subjects who performed two tasks designed to isolate the planning component of Acheulean stone tool-making and cued word generation as a language task. We show highly correlated hemodynamics in the initial 10 seconds of task execution. Stone tool-making and cued word generation cause common cerebral blood flow lateralization signatures in our participants. This is consistent with a shared neural substrate for prehistoric stone tool-making and language, and is compatible with language evolution theories that posit a co-evolution of language and manual praxis. In turn, our results support the hypothesis that aspects of language might have emerged as early as 1.75 million years ago, with the start of Acheulean technology.

  8. On the tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee last common ancestor, and the origins of hominine stone tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The last common ancestor (LCA) shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) was an Early Pleistocene African ape, which, based on the behavior of modern chimpanzees, may be assumed to be a tool-using animal. However, the character of tool use in the Pan lineage prior to the 20th century is largely unknown. Here, I use available data on wild bonobo tool use and emerging molecular estimates of demography during Pan evolution to hypothesise the plausible tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee LCA (or "Pancestor") at the start of the Pleistocene, over 2 million years ago. This method indicates that the common ancestor of living Pan apes likely used plant tools for probing, sponging, and display, but it did not use stone tools. Instead, stone tool use appears to have been independently invented by Western African chimpanzees (P. t. verus) during the Middle Pleistocene in the region of modern Liberia-Ivory Coast-Guinea, possibly as recently as 200,000-150,000 years ago. If this is the case, then the LCA of humans and chimpanzees likely also did not use stone tools, and this trait probably first emerged among hominins in Pliocene East Africa. This review also suggests that the consistently higher population sizes of Central African chimpanzees (P. t. troglodytes) over the past million years may have contributed to the increased complexity of wild tool use seen in this sub-species today. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tools to improve the accuracy of kidney stone sizing with ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Lee, Franklin C; Hsi, Ryan S; Cunitz, Bryan W; Paun, Marla; Bailey, Michael R; Sorensen, Mathew D; Harper, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasound (US) overestimates stone size when compared with CT. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the overestimation of stone size with US in an in vitro water bath model and investigate methods to reduce overestimation. Ten human stones (3-12 mm) were measured using B-mode (brightness mode) US by a sonographer blinded to the true stone size. Images were captured and compared using both a commercial US machine and software-based research US device. Image gain was adjusted between moderate and high stone intensities, and the transducer-to-stone depth was varied from 6 to 10 cm. A computerized stone-sizing program was developed to outline the stone width based on a grayscale intensity threshold. Overestimation with the commercial device increased with both gain and depth. Average overestimation at moderate and high gain was 1.9±0.8 and 2.1±0.9 mm, respectively (p=0.6). Overestimation increased an average of 22% with an every 2-cm increase in depth (p=0.02). Overestimation using the research device was 1.5±0.9 mm and did not vary with depth (p=0.28). Overestimation could be reduced to 0.02±1.1 mm (p<0.001) with the computerized stone-sizing program. However, a standardized threshold consistent across depth, system, or system settings could not be resolved. Stone size is consistently overestimated with US. Overestimation increased with increasing depth and gain using the commercial machine. Overestimation was reduced and did not vary with depth, using the software-based US device. The computerized stone-sizing program shows the potential to reduce overestimation by implementing a grayscale intensity threshold for defining the stone size. More work is needed to standardize the approach, but if successful, such an approach could significantly improve stone-sizing accuracy and lead to automation of stone sizing.

  10. Introducing LIR (Lithotheque Ireland, a reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian Driscoll

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The LIR (Lithotheque Ireland reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland began in 2013, and is based on the geological prospection from two projects. The first (2013-2015 focused attention primarily on Carboniferous cherts from the northwest of Ireland, collecting 405 samples. The second (2015-2017 is currently collecting samples of the Cretaceous flint primarily from in situ contexts in the northeast of Ireland, but also includes beach surveys of Cretaceous flint from around the island; the first phase of geological prospection in Autumn 2015 collected 239 samples, with the geological prospection continuing in 2016. Therefore, to date the collection contains over 600 hand samples of chert and flint, along with a small number of other materials (siliceous limestone, tuff, mudstone. The physical reference collection is housed at the UCD School of Archaeology, University College Dublin and contains the geological hand samples along with the various thin sections of the samples that are used for petrographic analysis. The physical collection is complemented by an online database that is to be used alongside the physical collection, or can be used as a stand-alone resource. This paper provides an overview of the database’s metadata and the processes of data entry and editing, to serve as a reference point for the database and the fieldwork undertaken to date, and to serve as a template for other researchers undertaking similar work on lithic reference collections.

  11. An evaluation of on-tool shrouds for controlling respirable crystalline silica in restoration stone work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Catherine B; Coggins, Marie A; Van Tongeren, Martie; MacCalman, Laura; McGowan, Padraic

    2014-11-01

    The task of grinding sandstone with a 5-inch angle grinder is a major source of exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS), known to cause diseases such as silicosis and lung cancer among workers who work with these materials. A shroud may be a suitable engineering control for this task. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of four commercially available shrouds at reducing respirable dust and RCS levels during the task of grinding sandstone using tools and accessories typical of restoration stone work. The task of grinding sandstone with a 5-inch angle grinder, equipped with different grinding wheels, was carried out over three trials at a restoration stone masonry site. Photometric and RCS data were collected when a 5-inch grinder, equipped with different grinding wheels, was used to grind sandstone with and without a shroud. A total of 24 short duration samples were collected for each no shroud and with shroud combination. Worker feedback on the practicalities of each shroud evaluated was also collected. Respirable dust concentrations and RCS were both significantly lower (P < 0.001) when the grinders were equipped with a shroud compared with grinders without a shroud. Total geometric mean (GM) photometric respirable dust levels measured when grinding with a shroud were 0.5 mg m(-3), a reduction of 92% compared to grinding without a shroud (7.1 mg m(-3)). The overall GM RCS concentrations were reduced by the use of a shroud by 99%. GM photometric exposure levels were highest when using the Hilti 5-inch diamond grinding cup and Diamond turbo cup and lowest when using the Corundum grinding point. Concentrations of respirable dust and RCS can be significantly reduced by using commercially available shrouds while grinding sandstone with a 5-inch angle grinder in restoration stonework. The short-term photometric respirable dust and RCS measurements collected with and without a shroud indicate that dust and RCS concentrations are

  12. Molecular Tools for Monitoring the Ecological Sustainability of a Stone Bio-Consolidation Treatment at the Royal Chapel, Granada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Jroundi

    as an efficient monitoring tool to assess the impact on the stone-autochthonous microbiota of the application of biomineralization processes as a restoration/conservation procedure.

  13. The quarry and workshop of Barranco Cardones (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: Basalt quern production using stone tools

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    Yurena Naranjo-Mayor

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyses the operational sequence, that is, the different phases of the extraction and fashioning techniques of basalt rotary querns based on the recent finds of two quarries located near the coast (Cardones and Cebolla and a quern manufacturing workshop (Cave 36, Arucas Municipality in a ravine about 600 m inland. Traditionally it was thought that the Pre-European population of Gran Canaria fashioned their querns from naturally detached volcanic surface blocks collected in ravines or along the coast. This supposition was based on the idea that the early Canarians were not capable of extracting blocks from bedrock with stone tools. This notion, however, has been proven wrong by the circular extraction negatives on the quarry faces and by finds of stone fashioning tools in the workshop.

  14. Stone tools and foraging in northern Madagascar challenge Holocene extinction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Robert E; Radimilahy, Chantal; Wright, Henry T; Jacobs, Zenobia; Kelly, Gwendolyn O; Berna, Francesco

    2013-07-30

    Past research on Madagascar indicates that village communities were established about AD 500 by people of both Indonesian and East African heritage. Evidence of earlier visits is scattered and contentious. Recent archaeological excavations in northern Madagascar provide evidence of occupational sites with microlithic stone technologies related to foraging for forest and coastal resources. A forager occupation of one site dates to earlier than 2000 B.C., doubling the length of Madagascar's known occupational history, and thus the time during which people exploited Madagascar's environments. We detail stratigraphy, chronology, and artifacts from two rock shelters. Ambohiposa near Iharana (Vohémar) on the northeast coast, yielded a stratified assemblage with small flakes, microblades, and retouched crescentic and trapezoidal tools, probably projectile elements, made on cherts and obsidian, some brought more that 200 km. (14)C dates are contemporary with the earliest villages. No food remains are preserved. Lakaton'i Anja near Antsiranana in the north yielded several stratified assemblages. The latest assemblage is well dated to A.D. 1050-1350, by (14)C and optically stimulated luminescence dating and pottery imported from the Near East and China. Below is a series of stratified assemblages similar to Ambohiposa. (14)C and optically stimulated luminescence dates indicate occupation from at least 2000 B.C. Faunal remains indicate a foraging pattern. Our evidence shows that foragers with a microlithic technology were active in Madagascar long before the arrival of farmers and herders and before many Late Holocene faunal extinctions. The differing effects of historically distinct economies must be identified and understood to reconstruct Holocene histories of human environmental impact.

  15. Magnetic Tools for Lab-on-a-chip Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekas, Nikola Slobodan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This study establishes a set of magnetics-based tools that have been integrated with microfluidic systems. The overall impact of the work begins to enable the rapid and efficient manipulation and detection of magnetic entities such as particles, picoliter-sized droplets, or bacterial cells. Details of design, fabrication, and theoretical and experimental assessments are presented. The manipulation strategy has been demonstrated in the format of a particle diverter, whereby micron-sized particles are actively directed into desired flow channels at a split-flow junction by means of integrated microelectromagnets. Magnetic detection has been realized by deploying Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors--microfabricated structures originally developed for use as readout elements in computer hard-drives. We successfully transferred the GMR technology to the lab-on-a-chip arena, and demonstrated the versatility of the concept in several important areas: real-time, integrated monitoring of the properties of multiphase droplet flows; rapid quantitative determination of the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles in droplets of ferrofluids; and high-speed detection of individual magnetic microparticles and magnetotactic bacteria. The study also includes novel schemes for hydrodynamic flow focusing that work in conjunction with GMR-based detection to ensure precise navigation of the sample stream through the GMR detection volume, therefore effectively establishing a novel concept of a microfabricated magnetic flow cytometer.

  16. In situ polymerization of 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GLYTS) as a new tool for stone conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiano, Paola; Sergi, Sergio; Lo Schiavo, Sandra; Piraino, Pasquale

    2003-03-01

    The effectiveness, as stone restoration materials, of a series of polymers obtained by "in situ polymerization" of the epoxy derivative 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYTS) with the primary amine 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATS), at various molar ratios and concentrations, has been explored through selected preliminary tests. The experiments carried on a low-porosity quartzite show that, independently from concentration and molar ratio, all of the mixtures fail to significantly affect the porosimetric and hydric properties of this stone while inducing not negligible chromatic alterations. As it concerns high porosity stones, such as Comiso calcarenite, the 2:1 15% mixture only has been selected for further experiments since preliminary tests show that it acts as an excellent barrier against water penetration either by capillarity as by total immersion while showing only negligible chromatic alterations.

  17. Marine prey processed with stone tools by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) in intertidal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-11-01

    Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) feed opportunistically in many habitats. The Burmese subspecies (M. f. aurea) inhabits coastal areas in southwestern Thailand and Myanmar, and some of their populations have adapted lithic customs for processing encased foods in intertidal habitats. We investigated the diet of such macaques in Laemson National Park, Thailand, and identified the variety of foods they processed with stones. We conducted 36 shore surveys to study tool sites following feeding activity, during which we counted the minimum number of individual (MNI) food items found at each site. We identified 47 food species (43 animals and four plants), from 37 genera. We counted 1,991 food items during surveys. Nearly all were mollusks (n = 1,924), with the small remainder primarily consisting of crustaceans and nuts. The two most common foods, rock oysters (Saccostrea cucullata; n = 1,062) and nerite snails (Nerita spp.; n = 538), composed 80.2% of our sample. Four prey species comprised 83.2% of the sample (MNI = 1,656), S. cucullata (n = 1,062), Nerita chamaeleon (n = 419), Thais bitubercularis (n = 95), and Monodonta labio (n = 80). Macaques selected a wide variety of foods. However, they heavily concentrated on those that were abundant, easy to access, and sufficiently sized. The Burmese long-tailed macaque stone-processed diet, which focuses on intertidal marine prey, differs from Sapajus and Pan, who use stones primarily for encased nuts and fruits. In terms of diversity of foods exploited, coastal stone-based predation by macaques resembles the diet of coastal-foraging humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Petrology of the Wong Tei Tung Stone Tool Manufacturing Site, Sham Chung, Hong Kong Sar, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vin Davis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wong Tei Tung archaeological site was discovered in 2003. Two periods have been proposed: an earlier period dating to around 40,000 years bp, and a later period dating to around 7000 years bp, but these dates should be treated cautiously. Initially, reported research found a few traits of the Wong Tei Tung assemblage to be similar to South-east Asia lithics, especially the short axe and Sumatralith cores. It has been reported that the Wong Tei Tung assemblage is a lithic cluster of certain 'techno-complex' implements rather than an archaeological culture; it offers a glimpse of lithic manufacturing in adaptation to its particular coastal environment. The published evidence points to a production of stone tools that considerably exceeded anticipated immediate local need. It is likely, therefore, that products from the site were distributed widely across the Zhujiang Estuary (Pearl River area and beyond (Fig. 1: map. This article presents the results of initial investigations into the geological setting of the site; provides new petrographic descriptions using data obtained from thin sections and geochemical analyses; and makes tentative comparisons with similar archaeological stone tool manufacturing sites in Britain.

  19. In-air broad beam ionoluminescence microscopy as a tool for rocks and stone artworks characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Gelli, Nicla; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    Broad beam ionoluminescence (IL) microscopy is a promising technique for the non-destructive characterisation of rocks and stone objects. Luminescence imaging by means of broad ion beams has been sporadically used by other authors but, to our knowledge, its potential has not yet been fully investigated, neither in geological science nor in other fields. The in-air broad beam IL microscope was developed and installed at the INFN-LABEC external microbeam in Florence. Similar to the cathodoluminescence (CL) microscope, the apparatus exploits a CCD colour camera collecting images (few square millimetres wide, with ~10-μm spatial resolution) of the luminescence emitted by the sample hit by a defocused megaelectron volt (MeV) proton beam. The main differences with the well-established and widespread CL are the possibility of working in air (no sampling or conductive coatings required) and the possibility of combining the analysis with microbeam analysis, such as, for example, μ-IL and μ-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). To show the potential of the technique, IL images of thin sections of lapis lazuli are compared with those obtained by means of an in-vacuum cold CL. An application to the study of stone artworks is also reported. This technique and apparatus will provide a valuable help for interdisciplinary applications, e.g. in geological sciences and in the cultural heritage field.

  20. BACK CHIP TEMPERATURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS TURNING WITH CONVENTIONAL AND INTERNALLY COOLED CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Anwar Che Ghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Central to machining processes is the interaction between the tool insert and the chip of material removed from the blank. Chip-insert interaction occurs when the chip slides on the rake face of the insert. Heat is generated by the friction inherent to this sliding process. The temperature in the cutting zone of both the insert and the chip rises, usually facilitating adhesion, diffusion, and more complex chemical and physical phenomena between the insert and the chip. These effects accelerate the insert wear, ultimately undermining the tool life. Thus, a number of methods have been developed to control heat generation. Most typically, metal working fluids are conveyed onto the rake face in the cutting zone. However, this solution may be not ideal from the point of view of cost, the environment, and contamination of the part, which may be unacceptable, for example, in healthcare and optical applications. In this study, microfluidic structures internal to the insert are examined as a means of controlling the heat generation.Conventional and internallycooled tools were compared in dry turning of AA6082-T6 aluminum alloy in two 3  3 factorial experiments of different machining conditions. Statistical analyses support the conclusion that chip temperature depends only on the depth of cut,and not on the feed rate or cutting speed. They also show that the benefit of cooling the insert internally increases as the depth of cut increases. Therefore, internallycooled tools can be particularly advantageous in roughing operations.

  1. Using 3D Microscopy to Analyze Experimental Cut Marks on Animal Bones Produced with Different Stone Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Moretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a combination of digital microscopic analysis and experimental archaeology to assess stone tool cut marks on animal bones. We used two un-retouched flint flakes and two burins to inflict cut marks on fresh, boiled, and dry ungulate  bones. The experiment produced three series of three engravings on each bone with each of the experimental tools. The first series involved one single stroke; the second, two strokes in the same direction; and the third, multiple strokes using a to-and-fro movement. We analyzed the striations using a Hirox 3D digital microscope (KH-7700 and collected metric and profile data on the morphology of the cut marks. In order to describe the shape of each cross section, we calculated the ratio between the breadth at the top and the breadth at the floor of cut marks. Preliminary results show that both the tool type and the method of creating the cut mark influence the shape of the resulting groove. In our experiment, morphological parameters can be used to differentiate between marks produced using un-retouched flint flakes and those produced using burins. However, neither morphological nor morphometric analysis allows us to identify the mechanical motion used to produce the cuts, nor the state of the bone (fresh, boiled, or dry at the moment of marking. 

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Respirable Dust and Crystalline Silica Controls During Simulated Performance of Stone Countertop Fabrication Tasks With Powered Hand Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David L; Phillips, Margaret L; Qi, Chaolong; Van, Anthony T; Hawley, Danielle A

    2017-07-01

    Workers who fabricate stone countertops using hand tools are at risk of silicosis from overexposure to respirable crystalline silica. This study explored the efficacy of simple engineering controls that can be used for dust suppression during use of hand tools by stone countertop fabricators. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure whether wet methods and on-tool local exhaust ventilation (LEV) reduced respirable dust (RD) exposures during use of various powered hand tools on quartz-rich engineered stone. RD samples collected during edge grinding with a diamond cup wheel and a silicon carbide abrasive wheel were analyzed gravimetrically as well as by X-ray diffraction to determine silica content. A personal optical aerosol monitor was used simultaneously with the RD samples and also for rapid assessment of controls for polishing, blade cutting, and core drilling. On-tool LEV and sheet-flow-wetting were effective in reducing exposures, especially when used in combination. Sheet-flow-wetting with LEV reduced geometric mean exposures by as much as 95%. However, typical water-spray-wetting on a grinding cup was less effective when combined with LEV than without LEV. Mean silica content of RD samples from grinding operations was 53%, and respirable mass and silica mass were very highly correlated (r = 0.980). Optical concentration measures were moderately well correlated with gravimetric measures (r = 0.817), but on average the optical measures during a single trial using the factory calibration were only one-fifth the simultaneous gravimetric measures. Sheet-flow-wetting combined with on-tool LEV is an effective engineering control for reducing RD exposures during engineered stone edge grinding and blade cutting. On the other hand, addition of LEV to some water-spray-wetted tools may reduce the effectiveness of the wet method.

  3. STRESS ANALYSIS IN CUTTING TOOLS COATED TiN AND EFFECT OF THE FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay ASLANTAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The coated tools are regularly used in today's metal cutting industry. Because, it is well known that thin and hard coatings can reduce tool wear, improve tool life and productivity. Such coatings have significantly contributed to the improvements cutting economies and cutting tool performance through lower tool wear and reduced cutting forces. TiN coatings have especially high strength and low friction coefficients. During the cutting process, low friction coefficient reduce damage in cutting tool. In addition, maximum stress values between coating and substrate also decrease as the friction coefficient decreases. In the present study, stress analysis is carried out for HSS (High Speed Steel cutting tool coated with TiN. The effect of the friction coefficient between tool and chip on the stresses developed at the cutting tool surface and interface of coating and HSS is investigated. Damage zones during cutting process was also attempted to determine. Finite elements method is used for the solution of the problem and FRANC2D finite element program is selected for numerical solutions.

  4. Natural Abundance 43Ca NMR as a Tool for Exploring Calcium Biomineralization: Renal Stone Formation and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2011-12-07

    Renal stone diseases are a global health issue with little effective therapeutic recourse aside from surgery and shock-wave lithotripsy, primarily because the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind calcium biomineralization are poorly understood. In this work, we show that natural abundance 43Ca NMR at 21.1 T is an effective means to probe the molecular-level Ca2+ structure in oxalate-based kidney stones. We find that the 43Ca NMR resonance of an authentic oxalate-based kidney stone cannot be explained by a single pure phase of any common Ca2+-bearing stone mineral. Combined with XRD results, our findings suggest an altered calcium oxalate monohydrate-like Ca2+ coordination environment for some fraction of Ca2+ in our sample. The evidence is consistent with existing literature hypothesizing that nonoxalate organic material interacts directly with Ca2+ at stone surfaces and is the primary driver of renal stone aggregation and growth. Our findings show that 43Ca NMR spectroscopy may provide unique and crucial insight into the fundamental chemistry of kidney stone formation, growth, and the role organic molecules play in these processes.

  5. Computer vision based analysis of potato chips--a tool for rapid detection of acrylamide level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökmen, Vural; Senyuva, Hamide Z; Dülek, Berkan; Cetin, Enis

    2006-09-01

    In this study, analysis of digital color images of fried potato chips were combined with parallel LC-MS based analysis of acrylamide in order to develop a rapid tool for the estimation of acrylamide during processing. Pixels of the fried potato image were classified into three sets based on their Euclidian distances to the representative mean values of typical bright yellow, yellowish brown, and dark brown regions using a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm. The featuring parameter extracted from the segmented image was NA2 value which was defined as the number of pixels in Set-2 divided by the total number of pixels of the entire fried potato image. Using training images of potato chips, it was shown that there was a strong linear correlation (r = 0.989) between acrylamide level and NA2 value. Images of a number of test samples were analyzed to predict their acrylamide level by means of this correlation data. The results confirmed that computer vision system described here provided explicit and meaningful description from the viewpoint of inspection and evaluation purpose for potato chips. Assuming a provisional threshold limit of 1000 ng/g for acrylamide, test samples could be successfully inspected with only one failure out of 60 potato chips.

  6. Stone Tool Manufacture Strategies and Lithic Raw Material Exploitation in Coastal Patagonia, Argentina: A Multivariate Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cardillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to characterize strategies of artifact manufacture and lithic raw material exploitation along San Matías Gulf coast, Argentina, using multifactorial and cluster analysis. Multifactorial analysis is a relatively new method that has yet to be used for archaeological analysis; it has the advantage that it allows us to describe data using different groups of qualitative or quantitative variables at the same time. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted on multifactorial axis in a bid to identify grouping patterns. The results obtained from the combination of these two methods suggest that they may be useful in characterizing technological strategies in the study area. Furthermore, they may also be a powerful exploratory and characterization tool able to generate explanations at low spatial scales. The application of these methods on San Matías Gulf study case suggests that along the western and northern coasts of this Gulf the most important variables in determining differences in resource use were the fragmentation ratio and lithic raw materials used in artifact manufacture.

  7. Nut Cracking Tools Used by Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Their Comparison with Early Stone Age Percussive Artefacts from Olduvai Gorge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Adrián; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments at the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Japan, in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) performed several nut cracking sessions using raw materials from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We examined captive chimpanzee pounding tools using a combination of technological analysis, use-wear distribution, and micro-wear analysis. Our results show specific patterns of use-wear distribution across the active surfaces of pounding tools, which reveal some similarities with traces on archaeological percussive objects from the Early Stone Age, and are consistent with traces on other experimental pounding tools used by modern humans. The approach used in this study may help to stablish a framework with which to interpret archaeological assemblages and improve understanding of use-wear formation processes on pounding tools used by chimpanzees. This study represents the first direct comparison of chimpanzee pounding tools and archaeological material, and thus may contribute to a better understanding of hominin percussive activities.

  8. Nut Cracking Tools Used by Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Their Comparison with Early Stone Age Percussive Artefacts from Olduvai Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Adrián; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments at the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Japan, in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) performed several nut cracking sessions using raw materials from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We examined captive chimpanzee pounding tools using a combination of technological analysis, use-wear distribution, and micro-wear analysis. Our results show specific patterns of use-wear distribution across the active surfaces of pounding tools, which reveal some similarities with traces on archaeological percussive objects from the Early Stone Age, and are consistent with traces on other experimental pounding tools used by modern humans. The approach used in this study may help to stablish a framework with which to interpret archaeological assemblages and improve understanding of use-wear formation processes on pounding tools used by chimpanzees. This study represents the first direct comparison of chimpanzee pounding tools and archaeological material, and thus may contribute to a better understanding of hominin percussive activities. PMID:27870877

  9. Use of stone powder in concrete and mortar as an alternative of sand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses to determine the relative performance of concrete by using powder sand. From laboratory experiments, it was revealed that concrete made of stone powder and stone chip gained about 15% higher strength than that of the concrete made of normal sand and brick chip. Concrete of stone powder and brick ...

  10. Optically Driven Mobile Integrated Micro-Tools for a Lab-on-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jui Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an optically driven complex micromachine with an Archimedes microscrew as the mechanical power, a sphere as a coupler, and three knives as the mechanical tools. The micromachine is fabricated by two-photon polymerization and is portably driven by optical tweezers. Because the microscrew can be optically trapped and rotates spontaneously, it provides driving power for the complex micro-tools. In other words, when a laser beam focuses on the micromachine, the microscrew is trapped toward the focus point and simultaneously rotates. A demonstration showed that the integrated micromachines are grasped by the optical tweezers and rotated by the Archimedes screw. The rotation efficiencies of the microrotors with and without knives are 1.9 rpm/mW and 13.5 rpm/mW, respectively. The micromachine can also be portably dragged along planed routes. Such Archimedes screw-based optically driven complex mechanical micro-tools enable rotation similar to moving machines or mixers, which could contribute to applications for a biological microfluidic chip or a lab-on-a-chip.

  11. Dimension stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  12. Palaeomagnetic analysis of the Sterkfontein palaeocave deposits: implications for the age of the hominin fossils and stone tool industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, Andy I R; Shaw, John

    2011-05-01

    Palaeomagnetic analysis was conducted on speleothems from Members 1-5 at Sterkfontein Cave, South Africa. Palaeomagnetic analysis of siltstone and speleothem from the bulk of Member 4 indicate a reversed magnetic polarity that dates the deposits and its Australopithecus africanus fossils to between 2.58 and ~2.16 Ma. Further confirmation of this age comes in the form of two short normal polarity events correlated to the Rèunion (~2.16 Ma) and Huckleberry Ridge (~2.05 Ma) events in speleothem capping the bulk of Member 4 and coeval with deposition of the final phase of Member 4, including A. africanus fossil Sts 5. At ~2.16-2.05 Ma, Sts 5 is the youngest representative of A. africanus yet discovered. Palaeomagnetic analysis of the Silberberg Grotto deposits identifies a single short geomagnetic field event in flowstone overlying the StW 573 Australopithecus fossil, which is suggested to represent the Rèunion event at ~2.16 Ma. This further supports the uranium lead age estimates of 2.3-2.2 Ma for the StW 573 fossil. Based on a reversed polarity for the deposits below the skeleton it cannot be older than 2.58 Ma. If StW 573 is considered to be a second species of Australopithecus then this indicates that two species of Australopithecus are present at Sterkfontein between 2.6 and 2.0 Ma. All of the Member 5 deposits date to less than 1.8 Ma based on a comparison of palaeomagnetic, faunal, and electron spin resonance age estimates. The StW 53 fossil bearing infill (M5A) is intermediate in age between Member 4 and the rest of Member 5 (B-C) at around 1.78-1.49 Ma. The rest of Member 5 (B-C) containing Oldowan and Acheulian stone tools and Homo and Paranthropus fossils was deposited gradually between 1.40 and 1.07 Ma, much younger than previously suggested. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ligation-based molecular tools for lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Jonas; Jarvius, Jonas; Larsson, Chatarina; Söderberg, Ola; Landegren, Ulf; Nilsson, Mats

    2008-06-01

    Molecular diagnostics can offer early detection of disease, improved diagnostic accuracy, and qualified follow-up. Moreover, the use of microfluidic devices can in principle render these analyses quickly and user-friendly, placing them within the reach of the general practitioner and maybe even in households. However, the progress launching such devices has been limited so far. We propose that an important limiting factor has been the difficulty of establishing molecular assays suitable for microfabricated formats. The assays should be capable of monitoring a wide range of molecules, including genomic DNA, RNA and proteins with secondary modifications and interaction partners, and they must exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity. We discuss these problems and describe a series of molecular tools that may present new opportunities for lab-on-a-chip devices at the point-of-care.

  14. Microfluidic chips with multi-junctions: an advanced tool in recovering proteins from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Active recombinant proteins are used for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. Protein refolding is an important process for obtaining active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, the conventional refolding method of dialysis or dilution is time-consuming and recovered active protein yields are often low, and a cumbersome trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. To circumvent these difficulties, we used controllable diffusion through laminar flow in microchannels to regulate the denaturant concentration. This method largely aims at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This Commentary introduces the principles of the protein refolding method using microfluidic chips and the advantage of our results as a tool for rapid and efficient recovery of active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

  15. Biliary Interventions: Tools and Techniques of the Trade, Access, Cholangiography, Biopsy, Cholangioscopy, Cholangioplasty, Stenting, Stone Extraction, and Brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osman; Mathevosian, Sipan; Arslan, Bulent

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic access to the biliary system is generally limited to endoscopic or percutaneous approaches. A variety of percutaneous transhepatic biliary interventions are applicable for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary system pathologies, the majority of which may be performed in conjunction with one another. The backbone of nearly all of these interventions is percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography for opacification of the biliary tree, after which any number of therapeutic or diagnostic modalities may be pursued. We describe an overview of the instrumentation and technical approaches for several fundamental interventional procedures, including percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and internal/external biliary drainage, endobiliary biopsy techniques, cholangioscopy, cholangioplasty and biliary stenting, biliary stone extraction, and intraluminal brachytherapy.

  16. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.

    2016-09-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective.

  17. IMPACT OF DEPTH OF CUT ON CHIP FORMATION IN AZ91HP MAGNESIUM ALLOY MILLING WITH TOOLS OF VARYING CUTTING EDGE GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gziut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety of Mg milling processes can be expressed by means of the form and the number of fractions of chips formed during milling. This paper presents the state of the art of magnesium alloys milling technology in the aspect of chip fragmentation. Furthermore, the impact of the depth of cut ap and the rake angle γ on the number of chip fractions was analysed in the study. These were conducted on AZ91HP magnesium cast alloy and milling was performed with carbide tools of varying rake angle values (γ = 5º and γ = 30º. It was observed that less intense chip fragmentation occurs with decreasing depth of cut ap. The number of chip fractions was lower at the tool rake angle of γ = 30º. The test results were formulated as technological recommendations according to the number of generated chip fractions.

  18. ROTURA INTENCIONAL DE ARTEFACTOS LÍTICOS FORMATIZADOS EN LA REGIÓN PAMPEANA BONAERENSE / Intentional Breakage of Stone Tools in the Pampean Region, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Weitzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo abordamos la rotura intencional de ciertos objetos y específicamente de los artefactos líticos formatizados por talla. En primer lugar, presentamos una breve caracterización de los distintos tipos de fractura intencional y de los atributos que permiten identificarlas, basada en la síntesis de diversas descripciones otorgadas por otros investigadores y de resultados experimentales propios. En segundo lugar, se reseñan algunas de las explicaciones dadas a la presencia de objetos con roturas intencionales en contextos arqueológicos. La presencia de objetos con rotura intencional fue interpretada como una práctica asociada a diferentes estrategias tecnológicas y también como evidencia de prácticas rituales, según los objetos sobre los que se realiza o el contexto de depositación. Finalmente, se presentan como ejemplo dos casos de estudio de la Región Pampeana bonaerense en los que se reconocieron artefactos líticos formatizados con roturas intencionales y se proponen interpretaciones para la presencia de esta práctica en estos sitios.   Palabras clave: Rotura intencional; Artefactos líticos formatizados; Decisiones tecnológicas; Prácticas rituales; Región Pampeana.   Abstract In this paper we deal with the intentional breakage of objects, more precisely with intentional breakage of flaked stone tools. In the first place we present a brief characterization of different types of intentional fractures on lithics and of those traits that allows their recognition. This characterization is based on a synthesis of the descriptions given by other researchers and our own experimental results. The deliberate breakage of objects has been given different explanations according to the specific contexts in which it was recognized and to the objects on which it was performed. It has been linked to different technological strategies and it has been also considered as evidence of ritual practices. Finally, we present two case

  19. Kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your provider about what treatment options may work for you. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps you take depend on the type of stone you have, but they may include: Drinking extra water and other liquids Eating more of some foods ...

  20. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual...... on Anholt Island through qualitative means. They are tools for uncovering realities previously unseen or unimagined through the manipulation of data via personal experience....

  1. Enhanced tools for predicting annual stone pine (Pinus pinea L. cone production at tree and forest scale in Inner Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Calama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To present a new spatiotemporal model for Pinus pinea L. annual cone production with validity for Spanish Northen Plateau and Central Range regions. The new model aims to deal with detected deficiencies in previous models: temporal shortage, overestimation of cone production on recent years, incompatibility with data from National Forest Inventory, difficulty for upscaling and ignorance of the inhibitory process due to resource depletion. Area of study: Spanish Northern Plateau and Central Range regions, covering an area where stone pine occupies more than 90,000 ha Material and methods: Fitting data set include 190 plots and more than 1000 trees were cone production has been annually collected from 1996 to 2014. Models were fitted independently for each region, by means of zero-inflated log normal techniques. Validation of the models was carried out over the annual series of cone production at forest scale. Results: The spatial and temporal factors influencing cone production are similar in both regions, thus the main regional differences in cone yield are related with differences in the phenological timing, the intensity of the influent factors and forest intrinsic conditions. A significant inhibition of floral induction by resource depletion was detected and included into the model. Upscaling the model results in accurate prediction at forest scale. Research highlights: [1] The new model for annual cone production surpass the detected deficiencies of previous models, accurately predicting recent decay in cone production; [2] Regional differences in cone production are due to phenological and seasonal climatic differences rather than to between provenances genetic differences Keywords: zero-inflated models; pine nut; conelet losses; Leptoglossus occidentalis; forest upscaling.

  2. Enhanced tools for predicting annual stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone production at tree and forest scale in Inner Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Gordo, J.; Madrigal, G.; Mutke, S.; Conde, M.; Montero, G.; Pardos, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To present a new spatiotemporal model for Pinus pinea L. annual cone production with validity for Spanish Northen Plateau and Central Range regions. The new model aims to deal with detected deficiencies in previous models: temporal shortage, overestimation of cone production on recent years, incompatibility with data from National Forest Inventory, difficulty for upscaling and ignorance of the inhibitory process due to resource depletion. Area of study: Spanish Northern Plateau and Central Range regions, covering an area where stone pine occupies more than 90,000 ha. Material and methods: Fitting data set include 190 plots and more than 1000 trees were cone production has been annually collected from 1996 to 2014. Models were fitted independently for each region, by means of zero-inflated log normal techniques. Validation of the models was carried out over the annual series of cone production at forest scale. Results: The spatial and temporal factors influencing cone production are similar in both regions, thus the main regional differences in cone yield are related with differences in the phenological timing, the intensity of the influent factors and forest intrinsic conditions. A significant inhibition of floral induction by resource depletion was detected and included into the model. Upscaling the model results in accurate prediction at forest scale. Research highlights: [1] The new model for annual cone production surpass the detected deficiencies of previous models, accurately predicting recent decay in cone production; [2] Regional differences in cone production are due to phenological and seasonal climatic differences rather than to between provenances genetic differences. (Author)

  3. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...

  4. Specificity of the Volosovo Culture Stone-Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Vladimir V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of the Volosovo culture Maslovo Boloto 4 (3rd millennium BC summer settlement site, located on the peatbog near the Klyazma river and excavated in 1972-1982 are presented. The monocultural character of the site has provided an opportunity to determine the specificity of the Volosovo culture stone technique as compared with both the synchronous Lyalovo culture and the preceding Neolithic ones. For centuries, on the Maslovo Boloto 4 site there had existed workshops producing chopping tools. The manufacturing process had been based upon nodules of local flint as raw material. The process implied the use of flint retouchers, being completed with wooden intermediate tools. The variety of types is associated with tool specialization. The following shapes are typical for the Volosovo culture: trapezoidal end-scrapers with a sharp blade (with grinding or denticulation; knives made from flat flakes with gentle retouch; drills with caught up working end, often chipped with end-scraper. As drills, arrowheads had often been used. The majority of end-scrapers were used to make boats. Arrow- and spearheads do not differ much from the Neolithic ones, but among them products of fine workmanship are also met. There are products (e.g. "flakes with a button", shaped flints, which might have had ritual significance. Basic differences between the Volosovo culture stone technique and the Neolithic one are related to the working tools and technologies

  5. GeoChip 3.0: A High Throughput Tool for Analyzing Microbial Community, Composition, Structure, and Functional Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhili; Deng, Ye; Nostrand, Joy Van; Tu, Qichao; Xu, Meiying; Hemme, Chris; Wu, Liyou; Hazen, Terry; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Xingyuan; Gentry, Terry; Yin, Yifeng; Liebich, Jost

    2010-05-17

    Microarray-based genomic technology has been widely used for microbial community analysis, and it is expected that microarray-based genomic technologies will revolutionize the analysis of microbial community structure, function and dynamics. A new generation of functional gene arrays (GeoChip 3.0) has been developed, with 27,812 probes covering 56,990 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles, energy metabolism, antibiotic resistance, metal resistance, and organic contaminant degradation. Those probes were derived from 2,744, 140, and 262 species for bacteria, archaea, and fungi, respectively. GeoChip 3.0 has several other distinct features, such as a common oligo reference standard (CORS) for data normalization and comparison, a software package for data management and future updating, and the gyrB gene for phylogenetic analysis. Our computational evaluation of probe specificity indicated that all designed probes had a high specificity to their corresponding targets. Also, experimental analysis with synthesized oligonucleotides and genomic DNAs showed that only 0.0036percent-0.025percent false positive rates were observed, suggesting that the designed probes are highly specific under the experimental conditions examined. In addition, GeoChip 3.0 was applied to analyze soil microbial communities in a multifactor grassland ecosystem in Minnesota, USA, which demonstrated that the structure, composition, and potential activity of soil microbial communities significantly changed with the plant species diversity. All results indicate that GeoChip 3.0 is a high throughput powerful tool for studying microbial community functional structure, and linking microbial communities to ecosystem processes and functioning. To our knowledge, GeoChip 3.0 is the most comprehensive microarrays currently available for studying microbial communities associated with geobiochemical cycling, global climate change, bioenergy

  6. Use of Liver Function Tests as First-line Diagnostic Tools for Predicting Common Bile Duct Stones in Acute Cholecystitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Keun Soo; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Han, Ho-Seong; Cho, Jai Young

    2016-08-01

    Prior studies have examined the use of liver function tests (LFT) for predicting the presence of common bile duct (CBD) stones in chronic cholecystitis (CC) patients. It is currently unclear whether LFT are also useful for predicting CBD stones in patients with acute cholecystitis (AC). Of 1059 patients who visited an emergency room with gallbladder-related symptoms between March 2004 and December 2009, 854 patients were analyzed, and were divided into three groups (556 AC patients without CBD stones (AC - CBD), 98 AC patients with CBD stones (AC + CBD), and 200 CC patients without CBD stones). We compared the LFT values at admission and the changes in LFT values over time following admission among the three groups. The LFT values were significantly greater in the AC + CBD group than in the AC - CBD groups. Of all the LFT variables analyzed, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase was the most reliable variable for predicting the presence of CBD stones, with a sensitivity of 80.6 % and a specificity of 75.3 % at the cut-off level of 224 IU/L. The elevated LFT values decreased significantly from the start of the follow-up assessment to before cholecystectomy in the AC - CBD group, but were unchanged before stone removal in the AC + CBD group. The LFT values on initial admission and the changes in LFT values over time are reliable predictors of CBD stones in patients with AC.

  7. Simulation Tool for Optimizing Non-Combatant Evacuation (STONE): Optimization of Evacuation Time and Transportation Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Le gouvernement du Canada est responsable de la sécurité et du bien -être de tous les Canadiens. Le MAECD assume cette responsabilité pour les...evacuation centres [16]. It was anticipated that the tool developed would benefit planning requirements for lodging, food, and transportation out of the...handles CEPs who go directly to an EC (on their own) with- out going through an AP. This was not explicitly illustrated in Figure 5 to reduce the

  8. Synthesis and Layout of an Asynchronous Network-on-Chip using Standard EDA Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christoph; Kasapaki, Evangelia; Sørensen, Rasmus Bo

    2014-01-01

    is the key role that clock signals play in specifying time-constraints for the synthesis. In this paper explain how we handled the synthesis and layout of an asynchronous network-on-chip for a multi-core platform. Focus is on the design process while the actual NOC-design and its performance are presented...

  9. Multiphase flow in lab on chip devices: A real tool for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Pennathur, S.; Pennathur, Sumita; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Many applications for lab on a chip (LOC) devices require the use of two or more fluids that are either not chemically related (e.g. oil and water) or in different phases (e.g. liquid and gas). Utilizing multiphase flow in LOC devices allows for both the fundamental study of multiphase flow and the

  10. Tool Forces and Chip Formation In Orthogonal Cutting Of Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Woodson; Peter Koch

    1970-01-01

    Specimens of earlywood and latewood of Pinus taeda L. were excised so that length along the grain was 3 inches and thickness was 0.1 inch. These specimens were cut orthogonally-as with a carpenter's plane-in the three major directions. Cutting velocity was 2 inches per minute. When cutting was in the planing (90-O) direction, thin chips,...

  11. Form and function of early neolithic bifacial stone tools reflects changes in land use practices during the neolithization process in the levant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Yerkes

    Full Text Available For many, climate change is no longer recognized as the primary cause of cultural changes in the Near East. Instead, human landscape degradation, population growth, socioeconomic adjustments, and conflict have been proposed as the mechanisms that shaped the Neolithic Revolution. However, as Bar-Yosef noted, even if there is chronological correlation between climate changes and cultural developments, what is important is to understand how Neolithic societies dealt with these improving or deteriorating environments. Changes in bifacial stone tools provide a framework for examining some of these interactions by focusing on changing land use practices during the Neolithization process. The results of microwear analysis of 40 bifacial artifacts from early Pre-Pottery Neolithic (EPPNB levels at Motza in the Judean hills document changes during the PPNA-PPNB transition at the onset of the Levantine Moist Period (ca. 8000 cal B.C. when conditions for agriculture improved. EPPNB villagers added heavy-duty axes to a toolkit they had used for carpentry and began to clear forests for fields and grazing lands. Sustainable forest management continued for the duration of the PPN until the cumulative effects of tree-felling and overgrazing seem to have led to landscape degradation at end of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (PPNC, when a cold, dry climatic anomaly (6600-6000 cal B.C. may have accelerated the reduction of woodlands. Early PPNB components at sites like Motza, with data from nearly five millennia of Neolithic occupations, show how complex hunter-gatherers and early food producers were able to establish sustainable resource management systems even as climate changed, population increased, and social relations were redefined.

  12. Form and function of early neolithic bifacial stone tools reflects changes in land use practices during the neolithization process in the levant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Richard W; Khalaily, Hamudi; Barkai, Ran

    2012-01-01

    For many, climate change is no longer recognized as the primary cause of cultural changes in the Near East. Instead, human landscape degradation, population growth, socioeconomic adjustments, and conflict have been proposed as the mechanisms that shaped the Neolithic Revolution. However, as Bar-Yosef noted, even if there is chronological correlation between climate changes and cultural developments, what is important is to understand how Neolithic societies dealt with these improving or deteriorating environments. Changes in bifacial stone tools provide a framework for examining some of these interactions by focusing on changing land use practices during the Neolithization process. The results of microwear analysis of 40 bifacial artifacts from early Pre-Pottery Neolithic (EPPNB) levels at Motza in the Judean hills document changes during the PPNA-PPNB transition at the onset of the Levantine Moist Period (ca. 8000 cal B.C.) when conditions for agriculture improved. EPPNB villagers added heavy-duty axes to a toolkit they had used for carpentry and began to clear forests for fields and grazing lands. Sustainable forest management continued for the duration of the PPN until the cumulative effects of tree-felling and overgrazing seem to have led to landscape degradation at end of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (PPNC), when a cold, dry climatic anomaly (6600-6000 cal B.C.) may have accelerated the reduction of woodlands. Early PPNB components at sites like Motza, with data from nearly five millennia of Neolithic occupations, show how complex hunter-gatherers and early food producers were able to establish sustainable resource management systems even as climate changed, population increased, and social relations were redefined.

  13. An investigation of force, surface roughness and chip in surface grinding of SKD 11 tool steel using minimum quantity lubrication-MQL technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soepangkat, Bobby O. P.; Agustin, H. C. Kis; Subiyanto, H.

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed to analyze the viability of the minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL) technique towards normal force, tangential force, surface roughness and chip formation in surface grinding of SKD 11 tool steel. The three surface grinding parameters were varied including the type of cooling method (MQL and dry), table speed, and depth of cut. Based on statistical analysis, depth of cut is the most influential factor which affects the four responses in both dry and MQL grinding. MQL could reduce normal force and tangential force considerably, but produce higher surface roughness. In MQL grinding, the chips removal took place mostly by shearing and fracturing.

  14. Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

  15. Oscillating bubbles: a versatile tool for lab on a chip applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Ali; Yu, Gan; Reilly-Collette, Marina; Heiman, Garrett; Xu, Jie

    2012-11-07

    With the fast development of acoustic and multiphase microfluidics in recent years, oscillating bubbles have drawn more-and-more attention due to their great potential in various Lab on a Chip (LOC) applications. Many innovative bubble-based devices have been explored in the past decade. In this article, we first briefly summarize current understanding of the physics of oscillating bubbles, and then critically summarize recent advancements, including some of our original work, on the applications of oscillating bubbles in microfluidic devices. We intend to highlight the advantages of using oscillating bubbles along with the challenges that accompany them. We believe that these emerging studies on microfluidic oscillating bubbles will be revolutionary to the development of next-generation LOC technologies.

  16. Evaluation of Stepping Stones as a tool for changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours associated with gender, relationships and HIV risk in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Banadakoppa M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stepping Stones training aims to help individuals explore sexual relationships and recognize gender inequalities, the structural drivers of the HIV epidemic, in order to understand risk behaviours and to seek solutions to factors that increase HIV vulnerability. Despite earlier studies suggesting the success of Stepping Stones, little data exist to show diffusion to trainees' social networks or the wider community. Methods A mixed-methods evaluation of this approach was undertaken using in-depth interviews of trainees and friends, and polling booth surveys in 20 villages where Stepping Stones training took place and in another 20 villages with no Stepping Stones intervention. Results The interview respondents and their friends reported significant changes in their relationships after training, and benefit from discussion of gender, sexuality, condom use and HIV vulnerability issues. However, though diffusion of this knowledge at the level of personal contacts was strong, the evaluation revealed that diffusion to the community level was limited. Conclusions The qualitative part of this study reflects other studies in different settings, in that SS participants gained immensely from the training. Wider behaviour change is a challenging goal that many programmes fail to attain, with most interventions too limited in scope and intensity to produce larger community effects. This may have contributed to the fact that we observed few differences between interventions and non-intervention villages in this study. However, it is also possible that we had excessive expectations of individual change at the community level, and that it might have been more appropriate to have had broader community level rather than individual behavioural change indicators. We suggest that SS could be enhanced by efforts to better engage existing community opinion leaders, to empower and train participants as community change agents, and to support the

  17. Evaluation of stepping stones as a tool for changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours associated with gender, relationships and HIV risk in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet E; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Girish, Meghna; Das, Arup K

    2011-06-24

    Stepping Stones training aims to help individuals explore sexual relationships and recognize gender inequalities, the structural drivers of the HIV epidemic, in order to understand risk behaviours and to seek solutions to factors that increase HIV vulnerability. Despite earlier studies suggesting the success of Stepping Stones, little data exist to show diffusion to trainees' social networks or the wider community. A mixed-methods evaluation of this approach was undertaken using in-depth interviews of trainees and friends, and polling booth surveys in 20 villages where Stepping Stones training took place and in another 20 villages with no Stepping Stones intervention. The interview respondents and their friends reported significant changes in their relationships after training, and benefit from discussion of gender, sexuality, condom use and HIV vulnerability issues. However, though diffusion of this knowledge at the level of personal contacts was strong, the evaluation revealed that diffusion to the community level was limited. The qualitative part of this study reflects other studies in different settings, in that SS participants gained immensely from the training. Wider behaviour change is a challenging goal that many programmes fail to attain, with most interventions too limited in scope and intensity to produce larger community effects. This may have contributed to the fact that we observed few differences between interventions and non-intervention villages in this study. However, it is also possible that we had excessive expectations of individual change at the community level, and that it might have been more appropriate to have had broader community level rather than individual behavioural change indicators. We suggest that SS could be enhanced by efforts to better engage existing community opinion leaders, to empower and train participants as community change agents, and to support the development of village-level action plans that combat sexual

  18. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  20. Titer on chip: new analytical tool for influenza vaccine potency determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Kuck

    Full Text Available Titer on Chip (Flu-ToC is a new technique for quantification of influenza hemagglutinin (HA concentration. In order to evaluate the potential of this new technique, a comparison of Flu-ToC to more conventional methods was conducted using recombinant HA produced in a baculovirus expression system as a test case. Samples from current vaccine strains were collected from four different steps in the manufacturing process. A total of 19 samples were analysed by Flu-ToC (blinded, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the purity adjusted bicinchoninic acid assay (paBCA. The results indicated reasonable linear correlation between Flu-ToC and SRID, ELISA, and paBCA, with regression slopes of log-log plots being 0.91, 1.03, and 0.91, respectively. The average ratio for HA content measured by Flu-ToC relative to SRID, ELISA, and paBCA was 83%, 147%, and 81%, respectively; indicating nearly equivalent potency determination for Flu-ToC relative to SRID and paBCA. These results, combined with demonstrated multiplexed analysis of all components within a quadrivalent formulation and robust response to HA strains over a wide time period, support the conclusion that Flu-ToC can be used as a reliable and time-saving alternative potency assay for influenza vaccines.

  1. Modeling Stone Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Gonzalez, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, eith...

  2. Managing caliceal stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J Gross

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence.

  3. GeoChip 3.0 as a high-thoughput tool for analyzing microbial community composition, structure, and functional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.; Deng, Y.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Tu, Q.; Xu, M.; Hemme, C.L.; Li, X.; Wu, L.; Gentry, T.J.; Yin, Y.; Liebich, J.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2010-04-01

    A new generation of functional gene arrays (FGAs; GeoChip 3.0) has been developed, with {approx}28,000 probes covering approximately 57,000 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles, energy metabolism, antibiotic resistance, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. GeoChip 3.0 also has several other distinct features, such as a common oligo reference standard (CORS) for data normalization and comparison, a software package for data management and future updating and the gyrB gene for phylogenetic analysis. Computational evaluation of probe specificity indicated that all designed probes would have a high specificity to their corresponding targets. Experimental analysis with synthesized oligonucleotides and genomic DNAs showed that only 0.0036-0.025% false-positive rates were observed, suggesting that the designed probes are highly specific under the experimental conditions examined. In addition, GeoChip 3.0 was applied to analyze soil microbial communities in a multifactor grassland ecosystem in Minnesota, USA, which showed that the structure, composition and potential activity of soil microbial communities significantly changed with the plant species diversity. As expected, GeoChip 3.0 is a high-throughput powerful tool for studying microbial community functional structure, and linking microbial communities to ecosystem processes and functioning.

  4. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000135.htm Kidney stones - self-care To use the sharing features on ... you how to do this. What is a Kidney Stone? A kidney stone is a solid piece of ...

  5. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectively...

  6. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more ...

  7. Everybody Must Get Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Darvill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely recognised that monument building in the fourth and third millennia cal BC often involved transporting selected blocks of preferred stone many kilometres over difficult terrain. Some structures incorporated blocks from several different sources, brought together as an ensemble in much the same way perhaps that assemblages of flint and stone axes reflect both local and distant sources. This article explores alternative models accounting for the selection of stones, contrasting those that foreground symbolic attachments and imposed meanings with those that focus on the intrinsic qualities of particular types of stone and their source. The assemblage of different stone types that accumulated at Stonehenge, Wiltshire, over a period of more than a thousand years is used as a case study.

  8. Renoscintigram in urinary stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egawa, Shin; Lee, Kanei; Ikeda, Shigeru; Ishibashi, Akira (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-05-01

    Seventy six patients who suffered from urinary stones on either side of the upper urinary tract were reviewed. The 99m-Tc DTPA renoscintigram was analyzed to examine whether stasis presented on the contralateral side of the urinary stone retrospectively. Though excretory urogram showed neither apparant stasis nor other abnormalities on the contralateral sides, 55 of these 76 cases showed stasis to some degree in the renoscintigram. Thirty five of these 55 cases also showed elongation of T1/2 in the ROI curve. Since 72.4% showed urinary stasis on the contralateral side of the urinary stone, we suggest the possibility that stasis can well be a cause of stone formation. In addition we warn of the possibility of future stone formation on the now healthy contralateral side.

  9. An epidemiological study on the composition of urinary stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Bouatia

    Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), ureteroscopy (URS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgery are all effective methods to remove urinary calculi, and knowing the urinary stone composi- tion is frequently a key factor in determining the most appropriate management [5]. Urinary stone analysis is a tool for ...

  10. Comparison of surface roughness and chip characteristics obtained under different modes of lubrication during hard turning of AISI H13 tool work steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anil; Wins, K. Leo Dev; Varadarajan, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    Surface roughness is one of the important parameters, which not only affects the service life of a component but also serves as a good index of machinability. Near Dry Machining, methods (NDM) are considered as sustainable alternative for workshops trying to bring down their dependence on cutting fluids and the hazards associated with their indiscriminate usage. The present work presents a comparison of the surface roughness and chip characteristics during hard turning of AISI H13 tool work steel using hard metal inserts under two popular NDM techniques namely the minimal fluid application and the Minimum Quantity Lubrication technique(MQL) using an experiment designed based on Taguchi's techniques. The statistical method of analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the relative significance of input parameters consisting of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the attainable surface finish and the chip characteristics. It was observed that the performance during minimal fluid application was better than that during MQL application.

  11. Stone technology: intracorporeal lithotripters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, Kymora B; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Pace, Kenneth T; Chew, Ben H

    2017-09-01

    Intracorporeal lithotripsy is becoming the most commonly used surgical method of stone treatment in Urology. The five major types of intracorporeal lithotripters are ultrasonic, ballistic, and combination lithotripters as well as laser and electrohydraulic lithotripters. The advantages and disadvantages of choosing each of these treatment modalities are reviewed. Extensive review of literature was performed to identify the types of intracorporeal lithotripters. An investigation was undertaken of the early development of each modality of intracorporeal lithotripsy and/or the mechanism of action. Challenges of each technique were identified and presented. Finally, a determination was made of how these lithotripters compare on the basis of effectiveness of action and cost based on information provided in primary literature as well as previous reviews of these modalities. Contemporary lithotripters have found widespread use in the management of urinary lithiasis. Holmium laser lithotripsy has become one of the most commonly used tools for intracorporeal lithotripsy. There is a wide variety of intracorporeal lithotripters which can be chosen based on the characteristics of each modality and the requirements of the urologist.

  12. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  13. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle. Drinking lots of sugary, caffeinated , or sports drinks and eating a diet high in sodium (salt) ... in their diet limit consumption of soda/soft/sports drinks If dietary changes fail to prevent kidney stones, ...

  14. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  15. Fire effects on flaked stone, ground stone, and other stone artifacts [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Deal

    2012-01-01

    Lithic artifacts can be divided into two broad classes, flaked stone and ground stone, that overlap depending on the defining criteria. For this discussion, flaked stone is used to describe objects that cut, scrape, pierce, saw, hack, etch, drill, or perforate, and the debris (debitage) created when these items are manufactured. Objects made of flaked stone include...

  16. Hybrid polymer waveguide characterization for microoptical tools with integrated laser diode chips for optogenetic applications at 430 nm and 650 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaerzle, Michael; Nehlich, Julian; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Paul, Oliver; Ruther, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Appropriate micro-optical tools are required to exploit the key advantages of optogenetics in neuroscience, i.e. optical stimulation and inhibition of neural tissue at high spatial as well as temporal resolutions, providing cell specificity and the opportunity to simultaneously record electrophysiological signals. Besides the need for minimally invasive probes mandatory for a reduced tissue damage, highly flexible or wireless interfaces are demanded for experiments with freely behaving animals. Both these technical system requirements are achieved by integrating miniaturized waveguides for light transmission combined with bare laser diode (LD) chips integrated directly into neural probes. This paper describes a system concept using integrated, side emitting LD chips directly coupled to miniaturized waveguides implemented on silicon (Si) substrates. It details the fabrication, assembly, and optical as well as electrical characterization of waveguides (WG) made from the hybrid polymer Ormorcere. The WGs were photolithographically patterned to have a cross-section of 20x15 μm2. Bare LD chips are flip-chip bonded to electroplated gold (Au) pads with +/-5 μm accuracy relative to the WG facets. Transmitted radiant fluxes for blue (430 nm, (Al,In)GaN) and red (650 nm, AlGaInP) LDs are measured to be 150 μW (ID = 35 mA, 5% duty cycle) and 4.35 μW (ID = 225 mA, 0.5% duty cycle), respectively. This corresponds to an efficiency of the coupled and transmitted light of 44% for the red LDs. Long term measurements for 24 h using these systems with red LDs showed a decrease of the radiant flux of about 4% caused by LD aging at stable WG transmission properties. WGs immersed into Ringer's solution showed no significant change of their optical transmission properties after four weeks of exposure to the ionic solution.

  17. Chip to System Testability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNamer, Michael

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate objective of the Chip-to-System Testability program was the development of a structured testability implementation methodology which will be used as a basis for a PC-based tool called TESPAD...

  18. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  19. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  20. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  1. Validation of the Cancer BioChip System as a 3D siRNA screening tool for breast cancer targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joie N Marhefka

    Full Text Available Genomic studies have revealed that breast cancer consists of a complex biological process with patient-specific genetic variations, revealing the need for individualized cancer diagnostic testing and selection of patient-specific optimal therapies. One of the bottlenecks in translation of genomic breakthroughs to the clinic is the lack of functional genomic assays that have high clinical translatability. Anchorage-independent three-dimensional (3D growth assays are considered to be the gold-standard for chemosensitivity testing, and leads identified with these assays have high probability of clinical success. The Cancer BioChip System (CBCS allows for the simultaneous, quantitative, and real time evaluation of multitudes of anchorage-independent breast cancer cell growth inhibitors. We employed a Test Cancer BioChip that contains silencing RNAs (siRNAs targeting cancer-related genes to identify 3D-specific effectors of breast cancer cell growth. We compared the effect of these siRNAs on colony growth of the hormone receptor positive (MCF7 and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2/c- Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 (HER2/c-erb-b2 positive (SK-BR-3 cells on the Test Cancer BioChip. Our results confirmed cell-specific inhibition of MCF7 and SK-BR-3 colony formation by estrogen receptor α (ESR1 and (ERBB2 siRNA, respectively. Both cell lines were also suppressed by Phosphoinositide-3-kinase Catalytic, alpha Polypeptide (PIK3CA siRNA. Interestingly, we have observed responses to siRNA that are unique to this 3D setting. For example, ß-actin (ACTB siRNA suppressed colony growth in both cell types while Cathepsin L2 (CTSL2 siRNA caused opposite effects. These results further validate the importance of the CBCS as a tool for the identification of clinically relevant breast cancer targets.

  2. URINARY STONES IN CHIULDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philip

    procedures such as ureteroscopic, cystoscopic and nephroroscopic lithitomy are commonly used to treat stones in children especially in the developed countries. These techniques may be used alone or together with ESWL. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is also a popular treatment option; recently laser has also been used ...

  3. Challenging Case: Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis.

  4. When Stones Teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  5. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made up of tiny crystals. You had a medical procedure called lithotripsy to break up the kidney stones. This article gives you advice on what to expect and how to take care of yourself after the procedure. When You're ...

  6. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  7. Focused ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones: review and update of preclinical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Mathew D; Bailey, Michael R; Hsi, Ryan S; Cunitz, Bryan W; Simon, Julianna C; Wang, Yak-Nam; Dunmire, Barbrina L; Paun, Marla; Starr, Frank; Lu, Wei; Evan, Andrew P; Harper, Jonathan D

    2013-10-01

    A noninvasive tool to reposition kidney stones could have significant impact in the management of stone disease. Our research group has developed a noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound device. A review and update of the current status of this technology is provided. DISCUSSION OF TECHNOLOGY: Stone propulsion is achieved through short bursts of focused, ultrasonic pulses. The initial system consisted of an eight-element annular array transducer, computer, and separate ultrasound imager. In the current generation, imaging and therapy are completed with one ultrasound system and a commercial probe. This generation allows real-time ultrasound imaging, targeting, and propulsion. Safety and effectiveness for the relocation of calyceal stones have been demonstrated in the porcine model. ROLE IN ENDOUROLOGY: This technology may have applications in repositioning stones as an adjunct to lithotripsy, facilitating clearance of residual fragments after lithotripsy, expelling de novo stones, and potentially repositioning obstructing stones. Human trials are in preparation.

  8. Polymeric LabChip Real-Time PCR as a Point-of-Care-Potential Diagnostic Tool for Rapid Detection of Influenza A/H1N1 Virus in Human Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ok; Kim, Je-Hyoung; Ryu, Ho-Sun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sun-Jin; Kim, Deog-Joong; Suh, In Bum; Choi, Du Young; In, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Woo; Park, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    It is clinically important to be able to detect influenza A/H1N1 virus using a fast, portable, and accurate system that has high specificity and sensitivity. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop a highly specific primer set that recognizes only influenza A viral genes and a rapid real-time PCR system that can detect even a single copy of the viral gene. In this study, we developed and validated a novel fluidic chip-type real-time PCR (LabChip real-time PCR) system that is sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza A/H1N1, including the pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1 of 2009. This LabChip real-time PCR system has several remarkable features: (1) It allows rapid quantitative analysis, requiring only 15 min to perform 30 cycles of real-time PCR. (2) It is portable, with a weight of only 5.5 kg. (3) The reaction cost is low, since it uses disposable plastic chips. (4) Its high efficiency is equivalent to that of commercially available tube-type real-time PCR systems. The developed disposable LabChip is an economic, heat-transferable, light-transparent, and easy-to-fabricate polymeric chip compared to conventional silicon- or glass-based labchip. In addition, our LabChip has large surface-to-volume ratios in micro channels that are required for overcoming time consumed for temperature control during real-time PCR. The efficiency of the LabChip real-time PCR system was confirmed using novel primer sets specifically targeted to the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza A/H1N1 and clinical specimens. Eighty-five human clinical swab samples were tested using the LabChip real-time PCR. The results demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity, showing 72 positive and 13 negative cases. These results were identical to those from a tube-type real-time PCR system. This indicates that the novel LabChip real-time PCR may be an ultra-fast, quantitative, point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for influenza A/H1N1 with a high sensitivity and specificity

  9. Polymeric LabChip real-time PCR as a point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for rapid detection of influenza A/H1N1 virus in human clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ok Song

    Full Text Available It is clinically important to be able to detect influenza A/H1N1 virus using a fast, portable, and accurate system that has high specificity and sensitivity. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop a highly specific primer set that recognizes only influenza A viral genes and a rapid real-time PCR system that can detect even a single copy of the viral gene. In this study, we developed and validated a novel fluidic chip-type real-time PCR (LabChip real-time PCR system that is sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza A/H1N1, including the pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1 of 2009. This LabChip real-time PCR system has several remarkable features: (1 It allows rapid quantitative analysis, requiring only 15 min to perform 30 cycles of real-time PCR. (2 It is portable, with a weight of only 5.5 kg. (3 The reaction cost is low, since it uses disposable plastic chips. (4 Its high efficiency is equivalent to that of commercially available tube-type real-time PCR systems. The developed disposable LabChip is an economic, heat-transferable, light-transparent, and easy-to-fabricate polymeric chip compared to conventional silicon- or glass-based labchip. In addition, our LabChip has large surface-to-volume ratios in micro channels that are required for overcoming time consumed for temperature control during real-time PCR. The efficiency of the LabChip real-time PCR system was confirmed using novel primer sets specifically targeted to the hemagglutinin (HA gene of influenza A/H1N1 and clinical specimens. Eighty-five human clinical swab samples were tested using the LabChip real-time PCR. The results demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity, showing 72 positive and 13 negative cases. These results were identical to those from a tube-type real-time PCR system. This indicates that the novel LabChip real-time PCR may be an ultra-fast, quantitative, point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for influenza A/H1N1 with a high sensitivity and

  10. Experimental investigation in turning as a basis for modelling chip formation, tool life and cutting fluid performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.

    Tool life is a parameter closely connected to the lubricating effect of a cutting fluid. Long tool life in turning corresponds to good lubrication and a process with good lubrication is preferred, since it normally results in lower tool wear and better surface quality. Cutting forces are mainly...... important for understanding the mechanism of the cutting process itself and to perform in this way data about the influence of the cutting fluids....

  11. Using Hounsfield unit measurement and urine parameters to predict uric acid stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spettel, Sara; Shah, Paras; Sekhar, Kiran; Herr, Allen; White, Mark D

    2013-07-01

    To determine the in vivo ability to predict uric acid stone composition by Hounsfield units (HU) with the addition of urine parameters. We reviewed all consecutive stones sent for analysis during a 4-year period from our institution for patients with an in-house computed tomography (CT) scan within the prior 6 months and urinalysis within the prior week. CT scans were independently reviewed by a radiologist blinded to stone composition. Of the 507 patients with stones sent for analysis, 235 met the criteria for inclusion. Analysis showed 212 stones were predominantly calcium-based, and 22 were predominantly uric acid in composition. There was a significant difference between calcium stones and uric acid stones in mean HU (890 ± 20 vs 484 ± 44; P 4 mm. Uric acid stones show a significant difference in HU and urine pH from calcium stones, and the use of both criteria is superior to either separately. For a stone >4 mm, a HU ≤500 and pH ≤5.5 has a positive predictive value of 90% for uric acid composition. Our prediction model gives a straightforward tool that can be easily measured to predict a uric acid stone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stones used in Milan architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Folli, Luisa; Bugini, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble fro...

  13. [Stone free rate assesment after percutaneous nephrolithotomy using nephrolitometric nomogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Salas, Jason Damián; Torres-Anguiano, Juan Ramón; Maldonado-Alcaraz, Efraín; Lopez-Samano, Virgilio Augusto; Serrano-Brambila, Eduardo Alonso; Moreno-Palacios, Jorge

    2017-04-19

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy remains the standard of care for kidney stones larger than 2cm. Therefore, setting a prognosis for complete stone resolution through this method is essential. The prognostic tools available have limited prediction. To evaluate the stone-free rate in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy with the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society nomogram and suggest modifications to improve the classification. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy applying the nephrolithometric nomogram specified. We modified the scale dividing the patients into 3groups: i from 80 to 110 points, II from 111 to 170 points, and III more than 170 points, respectively assessing the stone-free rate (Kruskall-Wallis test was performed, p<0.05). A total of 126 patients were included. According to the nehrolithometric nomogram the stone-free rate was 12.5% for patients with fewer than 111 points and 70.9% for those with 111 points or more. In the modification proposed for groups I, IIand III the stone-free rate was 12.5%, 50% and 80% respectively (p=0.000). Evaluation using the nephrolithometric nomogram demonstrated accurate stone-free rate prediction for complex and simple stones, with a lack of discrimination for patients with intermediate scores. Our modification enabled better differentiation of the intermediate groups from the high and low stone-free rate groups. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. DIMENSION STONE DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology, petrographycal composition and properties of dimension stone deposits in Croatia are described. Dimension stone deposits in the conception of mobilistic view of the genesis and structure of Dinarides, as well as after stratigraphic units, are considered. Valuation of the dimension stones of the active quarries is exposed. The marketable categories of dimension stone in Croatia are different varietes of limestones and calcareous clastites, primarly of Cretaceous age, and to lesser degree of Jurassic and Paleogene. The greatest part of deposits is concentrated in the Adriatic carbonate platform or Adriaticum.

  15. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  16. Middle Stone Age starch acquisition in the Niassa Rift, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Raja, Mussa

    2008-09-01

    The quest for direct lines of evidence for Paleolithic plant consumption during the African Middle Stone Age has led scientists to study residues and use-wear on flaked stone tools. Past work has established lithic function through multiple lines of evidence and the spatial breakdown of use-wear and microscopic traces on tool surfaces. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of starch assemblages and the botanical identification of grains from flake and core tools to learn about human ecology of carbohydrate use around the Niassa woodlands, in the Mozambican Rift. The processing of starchy plant parts is deduced from the occurrence of starch assemblages that presumably got attached to stone tool surfaces by actions associated with extractive or culinary activities. Specifically, we investigate starch grains from stone tools recently excavated in northern Mozambique at the site of Mikuyu; which presumably spans the middle to late Pleistocene and represents similar sites found along the Malawi/Niassa corridor that links East, Southern, and Central Africa. Starch was extracted and processed with a diverse tool kit consisting of scrapers, cores, points, flakes, and other kinds of tools. The microbotanical data suggests consumption of seeds, legumes, caryopses, piths, underground storage organs, nuts, and mesocarps from more than a dozen families. Our data suggest a great antiquity for starch use in Africa as well as an expanded diet and intensification.

  17. The systematic classification of gallbladder stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Qiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. METHODOLOGY: A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297, pigment stones (217, calcium carbonate stones (139, phosphate stones (12, calcium stearate stones (9, protein stones (3, cystine stones (1 and mixed stones (129. Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05, however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. CONCLUSION: The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones.

  18. About the best value of rake angle for cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pămîntaş Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of whether the case of processing through methods of cutting metal, wood, plastics, stone, composite materials etc., the rake angle (γ is of major importance for energy efficiency and dynamic behaviour of cutting process, dimensional accuracy, work surface quality and pieces made cost. The paper examines the possibility of establishing the best value for the rake angle supposing two idealizations: one regarding the conditions in which cutting process takes place, and the second related to the simplifications aiming to facilitate a first stage of theoretical development of mathematical description for the chip forming process. Both idealizations are intended to individualize the influence that has the value of rake angle of the cutting tools on the process of chip forming in order to perceive the meaning of the link between the geometry of the cutting tool with other parameters of chips and by default with the work parameters set to machine-tool. While both validity and applicability of the mathematical relations obtained are negatively marked by the simplifying assumption which was appealed in achieving the approach, the highlighted findings may be good starting points for further research on the kinematics cutting depth and in the structure of the material being processed.

  19. Novel ultrasound method to reposition kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anup; Owen, Neil R.; Lu, Wei; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Kaczkowski, Peter J.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2010-01-01

    The success of surgical management of lower pole stones is principally dependent on stone fragmentation and residual stone clearance. Choice of surgical method depends on stone size, yet all methods are subject to post-surgical complications resulting from residual stone fragments. Here we present a novel method and device to reposition kidney stones using ultrasound radiation force delivered by focused ultrasound and guided by ultrasound imaging. The device couples a commercial imaging array...

  20. A study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Jeon Ki; Lee, Han Yeang [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and guide frames. Contaminations on the building stone surface of Sejong culture center can be found around floor stones, stair stones, parterre stones, pillar stones and other outdoor stone panels. The parterre stones are contaminated by white tarnishes and rust flows are occurred on the surface of pillar stones and outdoor stone panels around entrance. Black tarnishes are cumulated on the pillar stones and other outdoor decorated stone panels and change the original granite color. Causes of building stone contaminations from Sejong culture center are wet method to attach stone panels, rust from steel compounds structures and air pollutants. Cement and mortar used from wet method react with sulfur dioxides in polluted air and from fine calcite crystals (white tarnish). Rusts from steel compounds structures such as rainwater culvert and steel guide frames can move to the stone surface by rain and leave rust flows on it. Pollutants (tar compounds, carbons, dusts, etc.) in air are cumulated with humidity on the stone surface and change color from white granite color to dusty dark color. Historical stone sculptures such as man and animal shaped stone crafts, tombstones, square stone tables in front of a tomb and guide and circumference stones around tomb in Royal Tombs (Donggu rung, Yung rung, Seoou rung and Hunin rung) distributed in Kyunggi province are contaminated by various moss and air pollutants and its original colors are deeply changed. (author). 21 refs., 11 tabs., 22 figs.

  1. On-chip biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and microelectromechanical systems have achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently, several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lens-free holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lens-free optical tomography.

  2. BEAT: Bioinformatics Exon Array Tool to store, analyze and visualize Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon Array data from disease experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consiglio Arianna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known from recent studies that more than 90% of human multi-exon genes are subject to Alternative Splicing (AS, a key molecular mechanism in which multiple transcripts may be generated from a single gene. It is widely recognized that a breakdown in AS mechanisms plays an important role in cellular differentiation and pathologies. Polymerase Chain Reactions, microarrays and sequencing technologies have been applied to the study of transcript diversity arising from alternative expression. Last generation Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays offer a more detailed view of the gene expression profile providing information on the AS patterns. The exon array technology, with more than five million data points, can detect approximately one million exons, and it allows performing analyses at both gene and exon level. In this paper we describe BEAT, an integrated user-friendly bioinformatics framework to store, analyze and visualize exon arrays datasets. It combines a data warehouse approach with some rigorous statistical methods for assessing the AS of genes involved in diseases. Meta statistics are proposed as a novel approach to explore the analysis results. BEAT is available at http://beat.ba.itb.cnr.it. Results BEAT is a web tool which allows uploading and analyzing exon array datasets using standard statistical methods and an easy-to-use graphical web front-end. BEAT has been tested on a dataset with 173 samples and tuned using new datasets of exon array experiments from 28 colorectal cancer and 26 renal cell cancer samples produced at the Medical Genetics Unit of IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza. To highlight all possible AS events, alternative names, accession Ids, Gene Ontology terms and biochemical pathways annotations are integrated with exon and gene level expression plots. The user can customize the results choosing custom thresholds for the statistical parameters and exploiting the available clinical

  3. The study on force, surface integrity, tool life and chip on laser assisted machining of inconel 718 using Nd:YAG laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, K

    2017-07-01

    Inconel 718, a high-temperature alloy, is a promising material for high-performance aerospace gas turbine engines components. However, the machining of the alloy is difficult owing to immense shear strength, rapid work hardening rate during turning, and less thermal conductivity. Hence, like ceramics and composites, the machining of this alloy is considered as difficult-to-turn materials. Laser assisted turning method has become a promising solution in recent years to lessen cutting stress when materials that are considered difficult-to-turn, such as Inconel 718 is employed. This study investigated the influence of input variables of laser assisted machining on the machinability aspect of the Inconel 718. The comparison of machining characteristics has been carried out to analyze the process benefits with the variation of laser machining variables. The laser assisted machining variables are cutting speeds of 60-150 m/min, feed rates of 0.05-0.125 mm/rev with a laser power between 1200 W and 1300 W. The various output characteristics such as force, roughness, tool life and geometrical characteristic of chip are investigated and compared with conventional machining without application of laser power. From experimental results, at a laser power of 1200 W, laser assisted turning outperforms conventional machining by 2.10 times lessening in cutting force, 46% reduction in surface roughness as well as 66% improvement in tool life when compared that of conventional machining. Compared to conventional machining, with the application of laser, the cutting speed of carbide tool has increased to a cutting condition of 150 m/min, 0.125 mm/rev. Microstructural analysis shows that no damage of the subsurface of the workpiece.

  4. The study on force, surface integrity, tool life and chip on laser assisted machining of inconel 718 using Nd:YAG laser source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkatesan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718, a high-temperature alloy, is a promising material for high-performance aerospace gas turbine engines components. However, the machining of the alloy is difficult owing to immense shear strength, rapid work hardening rate during turning, and less thermal conductivity. Hence, like ceramics and composites, the machining of this alloy is considered as difficult-to-turn materials. Laser assisted turning method has become a promising solution in recent years to lessen cutting stress when materials that are considered difficult-to-turn, such as Inconel 718 is employed. This study investigated the influence of input variables of laser assisted machining on the machinability aspect of the Inconel 718. The comparison of machining characteristics has been carried out to analyze the process benefits with the variation of laser machining variables. The laser assisted machining variables are cutting speeds of 60–150 m/min, feed rates of 0.05–0.125 mm/rev with a laser power between 1200 W and 1300 W. The various output characteristics such as force, roughness, tool life and geometrical characteristic of chip are investigated and compared with conventional machining without application of laser power. From experimental results, at a laser power of 1200 W, laser assisted turning outperforms conventional machining by 2.10 times lessening in cutting force, 46% reduction in surface roughness as well as 66% improvement in tool life when compared that of conventional machining. Compared to conventional machining, with the application of laser, the cutting speed of carbide tool has increased to a cutting condition of 150 m/min, 0.125 mm/rev. Microstructural analysis shows that no damage of the subsurface of the workpiece.

  5. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  6. Recumbent Stone Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  7. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  8. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  9. The exposome for kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities.

  10. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  11. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  12. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  13. Classification of dimension stone wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Zeki; Pekin, Abdülkerim; Deliormanlı, Ahmet Hamdi

    2012-07-01

    For countries in which the stone industry is well developed, opposition to quarry and plant waste is gradually increasing. The primary step for waste control and environmental management is to define the problem of concern. In this study, natural building stone wastes were classified for the first time in the literature. Following on-site physical observations and research at more than 50 quarries and 20 plants, stone wastes were classified as (1) solid, (2) dust and (3) semi-slurry, slurry and cake. As a result of this study, the characteristics of wastes, their main environmental threats and the industries in which wastes could be used were defined for each group.

  14. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haewook; Segal, Adam M; Seifter, Julian L; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones.

  15. Optical lattice on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, D.; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    Optical dipole traps and atom chips are two very powerful tools for the quantum manipulation of neutral atoms. We demonstrate that both methods can be combined by creating an optical lattice potential on an atom chip. A red-detuned laser beam is retroreflected using the atom chip surface as a high......-quality mirror, generating a vertical array of purely optical oblate traps. We transfer thermal atoms from the chip into the lattice and observe cooling into the two-dimensional regime. Using a chip-generated Bose-Einstein condensate, we demonstrate coherent Bloch oscillations in the lattice....

  16. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stones by making changes in how much sodium , animal protein , calcium , or oxalate is in the food you ... See tips to reduce your sodium intake . Limit animal protein Eating animal protein may increase your chances of ...

  17. Physicochemical mechanisms of stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L

    2017-02-01

    In this article, the term "physicochemical mechanism" is defined as a sequential series of steps culminating in the formation of a renal stone. Distinctions are drawn between physicochemical prerequisites for urinary supersaturation, crystallization, and stone formation. In particular, attention is focussed on the transition from crystal to stone. Emphasis is laid on crystal retention being the fundamental mechanism by which stones are formed, and mention is made of the different ways in which it can be achieved. The processes which dictate crystal-size enlargement, either during free particle flow or during fixed particle entrapment, are described. Modulators of these processes are classified in terms of their mode of action on particular steps in the mechanism rather than on their molecular weight or size. Three different approaches for describing stone formation mechanisms are summarized. These involve mathematical models, qualitative step-by-step pathways, and qualitative non-schematic descriptions. It is suggested that although physicochemical mechanisms are crucially involved in stone formation, they do so in concert with numerous other mechanistic processes, all of which are dictated by their own specific conditions.

  18. Determination of minor and trace elements in kidney stones by x-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Heisinger, Brianne J.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Lee, Hyong-Koo; Liu, Xin; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. In particular, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be very useful for the determination of minor and trace materials in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence measurements were performed at the Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy Laboratory (RMSL) of department of nuclear engineering of Missouri University of Science and Technology and different kidney stones were acquired from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF analysis of the kidney stone. The correlation of applied radiation source intensity, emission of X-ray spectrum from involving elements and absorption coefficient characteristics were analyzed. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF technique. The elements which were identified from this techniques are Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Gallium (Ga), Germanium (Ge), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb), Rubidium (Rb), Selenium (Se), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr). This paper presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF instrumental activation analysis technique.

  19. Lunar stone saw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  20. Chip breaking and control for a precision automated turning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M.W. (BDM International, Inc., McLean, VA (USA)); Abbatiello, L.A. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Chip breaking and control is essential to automatic operation of precision turning systems. Failure to transfer parts and system jams can occur if chip fragments are not continuously removed. Surface damage and tool breakage also result from chips that are permitted to wrap around the tool. Also, with increasing environmental concerns, chip handling and recycling are becoming major issues in manufacturing. New information on a variety of mechanisms for breaking chips and methods for removal from the system are discussed. Some of the chip breaking methods are evaluated for the range of cutting in which they are effective. Chip curl and chip breaking analyzed carefully by Nakayama and others is expanded to more fully understand the ways in which chips can be broken. 23 figs.

  1. Longitudinal evaluation of the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire in patients with kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnally, Chester J; Gupta, Amit; Bensalah, Karim; Tuncel, Altug; Raman, Jay; Pearle, Margaret S; Lotan, Yair

    2011-04-01

    Although the 36-Item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36) has been utilized to assess quality of life (QoL) in cross-sectional studies, no longitudinal studies have evaluated this instrument in stone formers. Hence, we evaluated the performance of the SF-36 over time in a group of stone formers. From January to May 2007, the SF-36 was administered by independent interviewers to 155 patients with a history of stones, and 96 individuals subsequently completed a second questionnaire at a median interval of 18 months (10.3-28.5 months). Subjects were asked to report changes in stone status, interval procedures, and significant non-stone related changes. Changes in individual and composite scores of SF-36 were compared. Among the 96 patients who completed two SF-36 surveys, 75 patients denied experiencing a stone episode within the month preceding their initial or follow-up SF-36 form. No statistically significant differences in any of the SF-36 domains or the aggregate physical or mental health composite scores over time were noted in these patients. A total of 18 patients reported a stone event within the month preceding completion of the initial questionnaire but no stone event prior to the follow-up survey. No clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the SF-36 domains between the first and follow-up questionnaire were seen among these 18 patients. The results show the stability of the SF-36 over time in patients with no change in their stone status. However, the absence of significant changes in the SF-36 despite a change in stone status suggests that the SF-36 may not be an adequate tool to monitor quality of life over time in stone patients. Validated, disease-specific questionnaires are needed to facilitate comparison of treatment strategies for stone disease.

  2. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  3. DNA Chip

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. In the human ge- nome, the ratio between coding and non-coding DNA is very low (less than 3% of the human .... construction of a Tm-specific chip, i.e. all the oligos/cDNA on the chip will hybridize at the same temperature. The techniques available are still not able to create a chip ...

  4. The use of the MeDALL-chip to assess IgE sensitization: a new diagnostic tool for allergic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrindo, Ingebjørg; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Hovland, Vegard; Pahr, Sandra; Baar, Alexandra; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Wickman, Magnus; Melen, Erik; Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep M; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2015-05-01

    Allergic sensitization is frequently present in asthma and rhinitis, but the role of specific immunoglobulin E (s-IgE) is not always clear. Multiple s-IgE analyses may provide insight into this relationship, thus a microarray chip was developed within the EU-funded MeDALL project. The main objective was to evaluate the performance of the MeDALL-chip compared to ImmunoCAP and skin prick test (SPT) in detecting allergic sensitization in children and secondarily to investigate the association to asthma and allergic rhinitis. From the 'Environment and Childhood Asthma Study', 265 children were investigated at 10 and 16 yr of age with clinical examination, interview, SPT, ImmunoCAP, and the MeDALL-chip including 152 allergen components in the analysis. Allergic sensitization at 10 yr was more frequently detected using the MeDALL-chip (38.1%) compared to the ImmunoCAP (32.8%) (p = 0.034) and SPT (25.5%) (p < 0.001), but no significant difference was seen at 16 yr (MeDALL-chip 49.8%, ImmunoCAP 48.6%, SPT 45.8%). The MeDALL-chip did not differ significantly from the ImmunoCAP or SPT in terms of detecting allergic sensitization in subjects with rhinitis or asthma at 10 or 16 yr. The prevalence of allergic sensitization increased by all three diagnostic tests from 10 to 16 yr was similar by SPT and ImmunoCAP and significantly higher with the MeDALL-chip at 10 yr. All three tests were comparable for identification of allergic sensitization among children with current rhinitis or asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Big Stone NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  6. Flexible ureteroscopy for renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M; Amón, J H; Mainez, J A; Rodríguez, V; Alonso, D; Martínez-Sagarra, J M

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this prospective study are to present our experience with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), and to analyze its results and complications. 150 patients with renal stones were treated with RIRS. 111 cases showed single stones whilst multiple stones were observed in 39 cases. The mean size was 19.12mm (r: 5-74). Success rate was defined as the absence of residual stones or the presence of fragments ≤2mm. in 21 (14%) patients RIRS could not be performed on first attempt because it was impossible to place the ureteral access sheath. The immediate success rate was 85.7%, and 91.6% at three months later. The average operating time was 85min (r: 25-220). Postoperative complications were observed in 22 cases (14.6%), although most of them were classified as Clavien 1 and 2 (19 cases), and only 2% (3 cases) showed Clavien 4 complications (sepsis requiring admission in the intensive care unit). 10 patients underwent a second procedure in order to complete the treatment. Thus, the number of procedures per patient was 1.06. There were no late complications. the treatment of renal stones with flexible ureteroscopy using the ureteral access sheath shows a high successful rate with a low complication rate. In order to define its indication more precisely, randomized studies comparing RIRS with minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures (miniperc and microperc) would be necessary. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  8. A fish hepatoma cell line (PLHC-1) as a tool to study cytotoxicity and CYP1A induction properties of cellulose and wood chip extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, S E; Hahn, M E; Lindström-Seppä, P

    1998-06-01

    Cytotoxicity and CYP1A induction properties of celluloses and wood chips were studied with a teleost liver cell line, PLHC-1. Cells were exposed to acetone extracts of celluloses produced using new bleaching techniques (elemental chlorine free, ECF; totally chlorine free, TCF) in two sulphate mills or without any bleaching (unbleached, UB) in a sulphite mill. In another set of exposures, celluloses (ECF and TCF bleached) and wood chips (from pine and birch) were collected from a sulphate mill, extracted with acetone, and the extracts used to treat the cells. After exposure, O-deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD, a measure of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) catalytic activity), and total protein content, a measure of cytotoxicity, were assayed. The presence of the CYP1A protein in the exposed cells was assessed by immunoblotting. The cellulose and wood chip extracts were able to cause both cytotoxicity and EROD induction in the PLHC-1 cells. In the exposures conducted with the material from three different mills, the celluloses made of birch were more cytotoxic and more potent inducers of EROD activity than were the celluloses of pine. Further, UB celluloses increased EROD activity and caused cytotoxicity at lower doses than material bleached with modern bleaching techniques. In the exposures made with material from one single mill, there were no clear trends between the celluloses made of pine or birch. Wood chips of pine, however, were more cytotoxic than wood chips of birch. Especially with pine wood chips, cytotoxicity interfered with the induction of EROD activity, thus complicating the evaluation of CYP1A induction. CYP1A protein content was not detected in cells exposed to extracts of celluloses or wood chips, possibly due to low amounts of protein available for the assay. Wood and pulp processing, like bleaching, may change the chemical composition of the raw material in a way that reduces the potency for biological effects of the final product, cellulose

  9. Grasping the Formless in Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the ritual and social aesthetics of "petromorphic gods" in a Hindu context, this chapter demonstrates that it is not a single theoretical key but rather the interpretive combination of theories which allows one to understand how stones connect religious knowledge, performative action...... objects in cognitive technologies, and the structure of the human mind, the chapter unravels how the sensory and synaesthetic qualities have made these stones ritually important. In this weaving together of different aspects, the chapter illustrates the way in which an aesthetic approach forms...... a connective pathway within religious studies scholarship....

  10. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  11. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  12. Regularities of dust formation during stone cutting for construction works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Lebedev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When cutting stone, a large amount of dust release, which is a mixture of small, mostly sharp, mineral particles. Shallow dry dust with inhalation causes the pathological changes in organs that are a consequence of infiltration of acute and solids particles. Despite the importance of this problem, the questions of dust generation during the various working processes and its fractions distribution are practically not considered. This determines the time of dust standing in the air and its negative impact on a person. Aim: The aim of this research is to study the process of dusting during stones cutting and dust distribution on fractions regularities and quantification of dust formation process in order to improve the production equipment, staff individual and collective safety equipment. Materials and Methods: Many types of cutting can be divided into two types - a “dry” cutting and cutting with fluid. During “dry” cutting a dust represents a set of micro-chips which are cut off by the abrasive grains. The size of such chips very small: from a micrometer to a few micrometers fraction. Thus, the size of chips causes the possibility of creating dust slurry with low fall velocity, and which is located in the working space in large concentrations. Results: The following characteristic dependences were obtained as a result of research: dependence of the dust fall from the size of the dust particles, size of dust particles from minute feeding and grain range wheel, the specific amount of dust from the number of grit abrasive wheel and the temperature of the dust particles from the feeding at wheel turnover. It was shown that the distribution of chips (dust by size will request of a normal distribution low. Dimensions of chips during cut are in the range of 0.4...6 μm. Thus, dust slurry is formed with time of particles fall of several hours. This creates considerable minute dust concentration - within 0.28∙10^8...1.68∙10^8 units/m3.

  13. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Diri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL.

  14. "Stone Cold": Worthy of Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthwaite, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on my experiences of teaching "Stone Cold" to respond to a blog post suggesting that the novel holds little educational value. I argue that the novel's narrative style helps to foster criticality while its subject matter can help students see the relevance of literature to the world around them. Relating this to…

  15. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  16. Stones used in Milan architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folli, Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble from Lake Como; and conglomerate and sandstone from the Adda River basin. Traditionally, the chief uses have been dimension stone (all stones, column shafts (granite, slabs (marble, moulding (dolomite, limestone and ornamental (marble, dolomite, limestone.La ciudad de Milán se encuentra en una llanura de suelo arcilloso adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos pero en la cual no hay yacimientos de rocas. No obstante, en las colinas y montañas circundantes, que están comunicadas con la ciudad mediante vías navegables naturales y artificiales, sí existe una abundante cantidad de piedra. Entre los tipos de piedra utilizados desde la época de los romanos se encuentran granitos, mármoles y gneises del valle de Ossola, dolomías del lago Mayor, calizas detríticas del valle de Ceresio (Lugano, areniscas de las colinas de la Brianza, calizas negras y mármoles del lago Como y conglomerados y areniscas de la cuenca del río Adda. Tradicionalmente, los principales usos han sido la piedra de fábrica (todas ellas, fustes de columnas (granito, losas (mármol, molduras (dolomía, caliza y ornamental (mármol, dolomía, caliza.

  17. Kidney stones: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Priscilla; Noble, Helen; Al-Modhefer, Abdul-Kadhum; Walsh, Ian

    2016-11-10

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing, and approximately 12 000 hospital admissions every year are due to this condition. This article will use a case study to focus on a patient diagnosed with a calcium oxalate kidney stone. It will discuss the affected structures in relation to kidney stones and describe the pathology of the condition. Investigations for kidney stones, differential diagnosis and diagnosis, possible complications and prognosis, will be discussed. Finally, a detailed account of management strategies for the patient with kidney stones will be given, looking at pain management, medical procedures and dietary interventions.

  18. Chip breaking for an automated accurate turning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M.W. (BDM Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Abbatiello, L.A. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Based upon a survey of chip breakup information, the various methods have been evaluated for application to automated accurate turning systems. Many chip breaking methods work well on shafts or cylinders but fail to break chips for an entire inside or outside contouring cut. Many metals produce straight or snarled chip forms at small depths of cut, feed rates, or moderate surface speeds. These chip forms can be a cause of workpiece and tool damage. Such forms also interfere with on-machine gaging, part transfer, and tool change. Often the chip wraps around the tool holder and is difficult to remove even in manual operation. Computer analysis now makes it possible to get the most of each types of chip breaking system. Reliable ship breaking is urgently needed for automated systems, especially those operating in an unmanned mode. 83 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Management of ureteric stone in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Minevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of ureteral stones in children is becoming more similar to that in adults. A number of factors must be taken into account when selecting one′s choice of therapy for ureteral stone in children such as the size of the stone, its location, its composition, and urinary tract anatomy. Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. The safety and efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy make it the intracorporeal lithotriptor of choice. Given its minimally invasive features, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL has become a primary mode of treatment for the pediatric patients with reno-ureteral stones. Stone-free rates have been reported from 59% to 91% although some patients will require more than one treatment session for stone clearance. It appears that the first-line of therapy in the child with distal and mid-ureteral stones should be ureteroscopic lithotripsy. While ESWL is still widely considered the first-line therapy for proximal ureteral calculi, there is an increasing body of evidence that shows that endoscopic or ESWL are equally safe and efficacious in those clinical scenarios. Familiarity with the full spectrum of endourological techniques facilitates a minimally invasive approach to pediatric ureteral stones.

  20. Improvement of Armor Stone Performance for Protection of Great Lakes Coastal Navigation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhani, M.; Harrelson, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Evaluating long-term performance and deterioration of armor stones are essential for maritime structures to protect harbors or navigable areas. Armor rocks are impacted by the natural elements such as seasonal weather, and repeated cycles of temperature (e.g., flowing water, wetting and drying, wave action, freeze and thaw, etc.). The rock's behavior in the field may vary greatly from the laboratory test results. The design process for the determination of armor stone sizes is complex and various factors must be considered in order to fully understand how the design parameters have an indirect effect on stone performance. Numerous investigators have studied to develop relationships for the minimum stable weight of a rubble-mound armor unit for given wave conditions. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate major factors affecting the armor stone durability. The effects of scaling on the test results of various samples of rock types used in Great Lakes coastal projects have been investigated. To consider the combined effects of environmental stresses on armor stone, testing have been done to evaluate the performance of stone subjected to both freezing and thawing and wetting and drying. The stone quarries and sites were evaluated and sampled to determine the stone sources, and their surrounding environments. Long-term performance or deterioration of armor stones have been quantitatively monitored and characterized by the changes in dimensions measured. A degradation numerical model has been developed that relates the laboratory test results to the modification of the mass distribution and reduction at the project site. The paper presentation will describe and illustrate the latest results and developed tools for the armor stone evaluations. We will introduce new approaches that may be used to evaluate the quality and durability with reference to breakage and integrity.

  1. Investigating bone chip formation in craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiyu, He; Chengyong, Wang; Yue, Zhang; Yanbin, Zheng; Linlin, Xu; Guoneng, Xie; Danna, Zhao; Bin, Chen; Haoan, Chen

    2017-10-01

    In a craniotomy, the milling cutter is one of the most important cutting tools. The operating performance, tool durability and cutting damage to patients are influenced by the tool's sharpness, intensity and structure, whereas the cutting characteristics rely on interactions between the tool and the skull. In this study, an orthogonal cutting experiment during a craniotomy of fresh pig skulls was performed to investigate chip formation on the side cutting and face cutting of the skull using a high-speed camera. The cutting forces with different combinations of cutting parameters, such as the rake angle, clearance angle, depth of cut and cutting speed, were measured. The skull bone microstructure and cutting damage were observed by scanning electron microscope. Cutting models for different cutting approaches and various depths of cut were constructed and analyzed. The study demonstrated that the effects of shearing, tension and extrusion occur during chip formation. Various chip types, such as unit chips, splintering chips and continuous chips, were generated. Continuous pieces of chips, which are advisable for easy removal from the field of operation, were formed at greater depths of cut and tool rake angles greater than 10°. Cutting damage could be relieved with a faster recovery with clearance angles greater than 20°.

  2. Open stone surgery: a still-in-use approach for complex stone burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özer Ural; Ener, Kemal; Keske, Murat; Altinova, Serkan; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Aldemir, Mustafa; Ardicoglu, Arslan

    2017-06-30

    Urinary stone disease is a major urological condition. Endourologic techniques have influenced the clinical approach and outcomes. Open surgery holds a historic importance in the management of most conditions. However, complex kidney stone burden may be amenable to successful results with open stone surgery. In this article, we report our eighteen cases of complex urinary stone disease who underwent open stone removal. A total of 1701 patients have undergone surgical treatment for urinary stone disease in our clinic between July 2012 and July 2016, comprising eighteen patients who underwent open stone surgery. Patients' demographic data, stone analysis results, postoperative clinical data, and stone status were evaluated retrospectively. The choice of surgical approach is mostly dependent on the surgeon's preference. In two patients, open surgery was undertaken because of perioperative complications. We did not observe any Clavien-Dindo grade 4 or 5 complications. Three patients were managed with a course of antibiotics due to postoperative fever. One patient had postoperative pleurisy, one patient had urinoma, and two patients had postoperative ileus. Mean operation time was 84 (57-124) minutes and mean hospitalization time was 5.5 (3-8) days. Stone-free status was achieved in 15 patients (83.3%). Endourologic approaches are the first options for treatment of urinary stone disease. However, open stone surgery holds its indispensable position in complicated cases and in complex stone burden. Open stone surgery is also a valid alternative to endourologic techniques in all situations.

  3. Guideline of guidelines: kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R

    2015-08-01

    Several professional organizations have developed evidence-based guidelines for the initial evaluation, diagnostic imaging selection, symptomatic management, surgical treatment, medical therapy, and prevention of recurrence for both ureteric and renal stones. The purpose of this article is to summarize these guidelines with reference to the strength of evidence. All guidelines endorse an initial evaluation to exclude concomitant infection, imaging with a non-contrast computed tomography scan, and consideration of medical expulsive therapy or surgical intervention depending on stone size and location. Recommends for metabolic evaluation vary by guideline, but all endorse increasing fluid intake to reduce the risk of recurrence. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  5. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  6. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S

    2015-01-01

    Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Pubmed search was made using key words "Focused ultrasound" and "kidney stone". All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease.

  7. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Abrol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc. are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words "Focused ultrasound" and "kidney stone." All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease.

  8. Guaifenesin stone matrix proteomics: a protocol for identifying proteins critical to stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbach-Mandel, A M; Mandel, N S; Cohen, S R; Kleinman, J G; Ahmed, F; Mandel, I C; Wesson, J A

    2017-04-01

    Drug-related kidney stones are a diagnostic problem, since they contain a large matrix (protein) fraction and are frequently incorrectly identified as matrix stones. A urine proteomics study patient produced a guaifenesin stone during her participation, allowing us to both correctly diagnose her disease and identify proteins critical to this drug stone-forming process. The patient provided three random midday urine samples for proteomics studies; one of which contained stone-like sediment with two distinct fractions. These solids were characterized with optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immunoblotting and quantitative mass spectrometry were used to quantitatively identify the proteins in urine and stone matrix. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the sediment was 60 % protein and 40 % guaifenesin and its metabolite guaiacol. Of the 156 distinct proteins identified in the proteomic studies, 49 were identified in the two stone-components with approximately 50 % of those proteins also found in this patient's urine. Many proteins observed in this drug-related stone have also been reported in proteomic matrix studies of uric acid and calcium containing stones. More importantly, nine proteins were highly enriched and highly abundant in the stone matrix and 8 were reciprocally depleted in urine, suggesting a critical role for these proteins in guaifenesin stone formation. Accurate stone analysis is critical to proper diagnosis and treatment of kidney stones. Many matrix proteins were common to all stone types, but likely not related to disease mechanism. This protocol defined a small set of proteins that were likely critical to guaifenesin stone formation based on their high enrichment and high abundance in stone matrix, and it should be applied to all stone types.

  9. Stone composition among first-time symptomatic kidney stone formers in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prince; Enders, Felicity T.; Vaughan, Lisa E.; Bergstralh, Eric J; Knoedler, John J.; Krambeck, Amy E; Lieske, John C; Rule, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the variation in kidney stone composition and its relationship to risk factors and recurrence among first-time stone formers in the general population. Patients and Methods Medical records were manually reviewed and validated for symptomatic kidney stone episodes among Olmsted County, Minnesota residents from January 1, 1984 to December 31, 2012. Clinical and laboratory characteristics and the risk of symptomatic recurrence were compared between stone compositions. Results There were 2961 validated first-time symptomatic kidney stone formers. Stone composition analysis was obtained in 1508 (51%) at the first episode. Stone formers were divided into the following mutually exclusive groups: any brushite (0.9%), any struvite (0.9%), any uric acid (4.8%), majority calcium oxalate (76%) or majority hydroxyapatite (18%). Stone composition varied with clinical characteristics. A multivariable model had a 69% probability of correctly estimating stone composition, but assuming calcium oxalate monohydrate stone was correct 65% of the time. Symptomatic recurrence at 10 years was approximately 50% for brushite, struvite, and uric acid, but approximately 30% for calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite stones (Pcomposition, they are of limited utility for estimating stone composition. Rarer stone compositions are more likely to recur. PMID:26349951

  10. Dilation-assisted stone extraction: an alternative method for removal of common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guodong; Pang, Qiuping; Zhang, Xiujuan; Dong, Haiyan; Guo, Rong; Zhai, Hailan; Dong, Yanchun; Jia, Xinyong

    2014-04-01

    Dilation-assisted stone extraction, also termed small endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) plus endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation, is more efficient than EST alone for removal of large common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, whether this technique can be used for all stones is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and complications of dilation-assisted stone extraction for CBD stones. A total of 462 patients with CBD stones were randomized to undergo either dilation-assisted stone extraction (group A) or EST (group B). The efficacy and complications of the two techniques were compared. Groups A and B showed similar outcomes in terms of stone removal. The short-term and 1-year complication rates were also similar between the two groups. However, the first-session stone removal rate in group A was significantly higher than that in group B. Mechanical lithotripsy was required significantly more often in group B than in group A. The total procedure time and total fluoroscopy time in group A were significantly shorter than those in group B. Dilation-assisted stone extraction and EST are safe and effective techniques for the treatment of CBD stones. Dilation-assisted stone extraction has high efficiency. This technique is an alternative method for removal of CBD stones.

  11. Chips 2020

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising  Moore-like exponential g...

  12. [Intraoperative choledochoscopy usefulness in the treatment of difficult biliary stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuendis-Velázquez, A; Rojano-Rodríguez, M E; Morales-Chávez, C E; González Angulo-Rocha, A; Fernández-Castro, E; Aguirre-Olmedo, I; Torres-Ruiz, M F; Orellana-Parra, J C; Cárdenas-Lailson, L E

    2014-01-01

    Choledocholithiasis presents in 5-10% of the patients with biliary lithiasis. Numerous treatment algorithms have been considered for this disease, however, up to 10% of these therapeutic procedures may fail. Intraoperative choledochoscopy has become a useful tool in the treatment of patients with difficult-to-manage choledocholithiasis. To determine the usefulness of intraoperative choledochoscopy in the laparoendoscopic treatment of difficult stones that was carried out in our service. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The case records were reviewed of the patients that underwent intraoperative choledochoscopy during biliary tree exploration plus laparoscopic choledochoduodenal anastomosis within the time frame of March 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012, at the Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González. Transabdominal choledochoscopies were performed with active stone extraction when necessary, followed by peroral choledochoscopies through the recently formed bilioenteric anastomosis. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and measures of central tendency. The mean age was 71 years, 57% of the patients were women, and the ASA III score predominated. Active extraction of stones with 7 to 35mm diameters was carried out in 4 of the cases and the absence of stones in the biliary tract was corroborated in all the patients. The mean surgery duration was 18 minutes (range: 4 to 45min). Choledochoscopy is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for the definitive treatment of difficult stones. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, F. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: hameed@ati.ac.at; Schillinger, B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, FRM II and Physics Department E21, Garching (Germany); Rohatsch, A. [Institute for Engineering Geology, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-21

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  14. Definition and Facts for Kidney Stones in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Definition & Facts for Kidney Stones What are kidney stones? Kidney stones are hard, pebble-like pieces of ... stone may get stuck along the way. Do kidney stones have another name? The scientific name for a ...

  15. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Abrol; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at impr...

  17. Calcium Oxalate Stone Agglomeration Inhibition [tm] Reflects Renal Stone-Forming Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Jill S.; Cole, Francis E.; Romani, William; Husserl, Fred E.; Fuselier, Harold A.; Kok, Dirk J.; Erwin, Donald T.

    2000-01-01

    Louisiana and other Gulf South states comprise a “Stone Belt” where calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOx SFs) are found at a high rate of approximately 5%. In these patients, the agglomeration of small stone crystals, which are visible in nearly all morning urine collections, forms stones that can become trapped in the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. Without therapy, about half of CaOx SFs repeatedly form kidney stones, which can cause excruciating pain that can be relieved by passage, fragmentation (lithotripsy), or surgical removal. The absence of stones in “normal” patients suggests that there are stone inhibitors in “normal” urines. At the Ochsner Renal Stone Clinic, 24-hour urine samples are collected by the patient and sent to the Ochsner Renal Stone Research Program where calcium oxalate stone agglomeration inhibition [tm] measurements are performed. Urine from healthy subjects and inactive stone formers has demonstrated strongly inhibited stone growth [tm] in contrast to urine from recurrent CaOx SFs. [tm] data from 1500 visits of 700 kidney stone patients have been used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in Ochsner's CaOx SF patients. These data have also been used to demonstrate the interactive roles of certain identified urinary stone-growth inhibitors, citrate and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which can be manipulated with medication to diminish recurrent stone formation. Our goal is to offer patients both financial and pain relief by reducing their stones with optimized medication, using medical management to avoid costly treatments. PMID:21811395

  18. Ultracold atoms on atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.

    2005-01-01

    Miniaturized potentials near the surface of atom chips can be used as flexible and versatile tools for the manipulation of ultracold atoms on a microscale. The full scope of possibilities is only accessible if atom-surface distances can be reduced to microns. We discuss experiments in this regime...

  19. Determination of minor and trace elements concentration in kidney stones using elemental analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) experiments were performed and different kidney stones were analyzed. The interactions of X-ray photons and neutrons with matter are complementary in nature, resulting in distinctly different materials detection. This is the first approach to utilize combined X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis for a comprehensive analysis of the kideny stones. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. The use of open source program Python Multi-Channel Analyzer was utilized to unfold the XRF spectrum. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF and NAA analysis of the kidney stone. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF and NAA technique. The elements which were identified from XRF technique are Br, Cu, Ga, Ge, Mo, Nb, Ni, Rb, Se, Sr, Y, Zr. And, by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) are Au, Br, Ca, Er, Hg, I, K, Na, Pm, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Yb, Zn. This thesis presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF and NAA instrumental activation analysis techniques.

  20. Preventive Kidney Stones: Continue Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Farahnak; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh

    2017-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%-20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%. Stones smaller than 5 mm in diameter often pass the urinary tract system and rarely require surgical interventions. The main risk factors for stone formation are low urine output, high urinary concentrations of calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid compounded by a lower excretion of magnesium and citrate. A complete metabolic workup to identify the risk factors is highly recommended in patients who have passed multiple kidney stones or those with recurrent disease. Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones are treated by the use of thiazide diuretics, allopurinol, and potassium citrate. Strategies to prevent kidney stone recurrence should include the elimination of the identified risk factors and a dietary regimen low in salt and protein, rich in calcium and magnesium which is coupled with adequate fluid intake.

  1. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  2. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  3. Clinical characteristics of potential kidney donors with asymptomatic kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Elizabeth C; Lieske, John C; Vrtiska, Terri J; Krambeck, Amy E; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J; Melton, L Joseph; Rule, Andrew D

    2011-08-01

    Patients with symptomatic kidney stones are characterized by older age, male gender, white race, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Whether these characteristics differ in patients with asymptomatic kidney stones is unknown. All potential kidney donors who underwent protocol computed tomography angiograms/urograms (2000-08) at the Mayo Clinic were identified. Renal abnormalities, including kidney stones, were assessed radiographically. Comorbidities, including past symptomatic kidney stones, were abstracted from the medical record. Characteristics of persons with and without radiographic stones were compared. Stone burden among persons with and without past symptomatic stones was compared. Among 1957 potential kidney donors, 3% had past symptomatic stones and 11% had radiographic stones (10% had only asymptomatic radiographic stones). Asymptomatic stone formers were more likely to be of white race, have low urine volumes and have radiographic findings of renal parenchymal thinning, focal renal scarring, medullary sponge kidney and polycystic kidney disease. Asymptomatic stone formers were not characterized by older age, male gender, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome, abnormal kidney function, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia or hypophosphatemia. Among persons with radiographic stones, those with past symptomatic stones had a slightly higher number of stones (mean 2.7 versus 2.4; P = 0.04), but a much greater diameter for the largest stone (mean 4.8 versus 1.6 mm; P kidney stones. These findings suggest that different pathophysiologic mechanisms could be involved in asymptomatic stone formation versus symptomatic stone passage.

  4. Artificial stone silicosis [corrected]: disease resurgence among artificial stone workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Mordechai R; Blanc, Paul D; Fireman, Elizabeth; Amital, Anat; Guber, Alexander; Rhahman, Nader Abdul; Shitrit, David

    2012-08-01

    Silicosis is a progressive, fibrotic, occupational lung disease resulting from inhalation of respirable crystalline silica. This disease is preventable through appropriate workplace practices. We systematically assessed an outbreak of silicosis among patients referred to our center for lung transplant. This retrospective cohort analysis included all patients with a diagnosis of silicosis who were referred for evaluation to the National Lung Transplantation Program in Israel from January 1997 through December 2010. We also compared the incidence of lung transplantation (LTX) due to silicosis in Israel with that of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) registry. During the 14-year study period, 25 patients with silicosis were referred for evaluation, including 10 patients who went on to undergo LTX. All patients were exposed by dry cutting a relatively new, artificial, decorative stone product with high crystalline silica content used primarily for kitchen countertops and bathroom fixtures. The patients had moderate-to-severe restrictive lung disease. Two patients developed progressive massive fibrosis; none manifested acute silicosis (silicoproteinosis). Three patients died during follow-up, without LTX. Based on the ISHLT registry incidence, 0.68 silicosis cases would have been expected instead of the 10 observed (incidence ratio, 14.6; 95% CI, 7.02-26.8). This silicosis outbreak is important because of the worldwide use of this and similar high-silica-content, artificial stone products. Further cases are likely to occur unless effective preventive measures are undertaken and existing safety practices are enforced.

  5. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    in an overall success rate of 76%. There were no major complications. CONCLUSIONS: RIRS is a safe procedure with a high success rate and a low complication rate for ESWL-resistant renal stones. Patients with larger stones (> 10 mm), those with stones in the lower pole and those with an abnormal renal anatomy...... ranged in size from 3 to 20 mm (mean 9 mm). In 32 cases the stones were fragmented using a holmium YAG laser and in six the stones could be extracted using zero-tip Dormia baskets without fragmentation. Sixteen patients had lower calyceal calculi and eight had an abnormal anatomy of the upper urinary...

  6. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    OpenAIRE

    Basri Cakıroglu; Akif Nuri Dogan; Tuncay Tas; Ramazan Gozukucuk; Bekir Sami Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. Howeve...

  7. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on pancreatic duck stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis: evaluation of therapeutic results with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Gyu [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Suk [Gunpo Medical Center, Gunpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To demonstrate by CT scanning the effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on pancreatic duct stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic duct stones in 11 patients with chronic pancreatitis were subject to ESWL using an electrohydraulic lithotripter. Endoscopic stone removal using a basket had failed in ten patients, and in one, endoscopy was impossible due to a previous Whipple's operation. CT scans obtained before and after ESWL were evaluated by two radiologists: the longest and shortest diameters of the target stone were measured, and according to the degree of fragmentation, determined by comparing the area of the stone before and after ESWL, a grade (1-5) was assigned. In each case, the pre- and post- treatment diameter of the main pancreatic duct, measured at the pancreatic body, was also compared. Disintegration of the target stone was achieved in all patients: grade 1 (over 75% of the area remained, compared with that of the initial stone) was assigned in two patients; grade 2 (51-75% of the original area) in one; grade 3 (26-50%) in four; grade 4 (under 25%) in two; and grade 5 (complete clearance of the target stone) in two. The mean area decreased from 175 mm{sup 2} to 69 mm{sup 2} after ESWL (p<0.05); a decrease of more than 50% was observed in eight patients (73%). The mean diameter of the main pancreatic duct decreased from 7.36 to 4.81 mm (p<0.05). No severe adverse effects or complications were noted, and all patients showed clinical improvement. Follow-up studies indicated that pancreatic duct stones recurred in three patients. ESWL can cause the fragmentation of pancreatic duct stones without significant complications, and should be considered where endoscopic stone removal has failed. CT is a suitable non-invasive and accurate tool for evaluating the therapeutic results of ESWL.

  8. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Killilea

    Full Text Available One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease.

  9. Contribution of stone size to chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Etemadi, Samira Motedayen; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahbob; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Ayati, Mohsen; Mir, Alireza; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether stone burden correlates with the degree of chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers. A total of 97 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy candidates aged 18 years and older were included. Size, number and location of the kidney stones, along with cumulative stone size, defined as the sum of diameters of all stones) were determined. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration cystatin C/creatinine equation, and chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease. The relationship persisted even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, presence of microalbuminuria, history of renal calculi, history of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, number and location of the stones (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.52). The same was not observed for individuals with a cumulative stone size ≥ 20 mm. In kidney stone formers with a cumulative stone size up to 20 mm, estimated glomerular filtration rate linearly declines with increasing cumulative stone size. Additionally, cumulative stone size is an independent predictor of chronic kidney disease in this group of patients. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  11. Stone Formation in the Infected Pediatric Enterocystoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Proteus mirabilis is one of the most frequent bacterial agents that can induce infection stone formation by urease production. In recent years the influence of Proteus mirabilis on stone formation in enterocystoplasties has been primarily related to the presence of

  12. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Khalique

    2017-02-24

    Feb 24, 2017 ... Abstract. Objective: To determine the rate of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stones in adult patients with renal insufficiency. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 117 adult patients who underwent. ESWL. The indications for ESWL ...

  13. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  15. Factors affecting stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nahas, Ahmed R; Eraky, Ibrahim; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shoma, Ahmed M; el-Assmy, Ahmed M; el-Tabey, Nasr A; Soliman, Shady; Elshal, Ahmed M; el-Kappany, Hamdy A; el-Kenawy, Mahmoud R

    2012-06-01

    To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of protocol for determination of natural stone bioreceptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Mesojedec, Mojca; Zalar Serjun, Vesna; Mladenovič, Ana

    2017-04-01

    grain size is likely to be higher. Literature Guillitte, O. Bioreceptivity: a new concept for building ecology studies. Sci Total Environ 1995; 167: 215-220. Guillitte, O., Dreesen, R. Laboratory chamber studies and petrographical analysis as bioreceptivity assessment tools of building materials. Sci Total Environ 1995; 167: 365-374. Miller, A.Z., Sanmartin, P., Pereira-Pardo, L.,Dionisio, A., Saiz-jimenez, C., Macedo, M.F., Prieto, B. 2012, Bioreceptivity of building stones: A review. Science of The Total Enviroment, 426: 1-12. Acknwnoledgments This study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency under the project L1-5453.

  17. EFFECTIVE TOOL WEAR ESTIMATION THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using TiN .coated K20 cemented carbide tool inserts to monitor the tool wear. In the early research, tool wear ... deformation, crack initiation, crack propagation and chipping. Such changes in material behavior will ... the coated carbide experienced rapid tool wear (up to a flank wear land of 0.11 Smm), followed by a slow.

  18. Is in vivo analysis of urinary stone composition feasible? Evaluation of an experimental setup of a Raman system coupled to commercial lithotripsy laser fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Arkadiusz; Eilers, Yvan; Nuese, Christoph; Bolwien, Carsten; Lambrecht, Armin; Hesse, Albrecht; Rassweiler, Jens J; Schlager, Daniel; Wilhelm, Konrad; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Schoenthaler, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy allows immediate analysis of stone composition. In vivo stone analysis during endoscopic treatment may offer advantages concerning surgical strategy and metaphylaxis. Urinary stone components were evaluated utilizing an experimental setup of a Raman system coupled to commercial laser fibers. Samples of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and human urinary stones with known Raman spectra were analyzed using an experimental Raman system coupled to common commercial lithotripsy laser fibers (200 and 940 µm). Two different excitation lasers were used at wavelengths of 532 and 785 nm. Numerical aperture of the fibers, proportion of reflected light reaching the CCD chip, and integration times were calculated. Mathematical signal correction was performed. Both the laser beam profile and the quality of light reflected by the specimens were impaired significantly when used with commercial fibers. Acquired spectra could no longer be assigned to a specific stone composition. Subsequent measurements revealed a strong intrinsic fluorescence of the fibers and poor light acquisition properties leading to a significant decrease in the Raman signal in comparison with a free-beam setup. This was true for both investigated fiber diameters and both wavelengths. Microscopic examination showed highly irregular fiber tip surfaces (both new and used fibers). Our results propose that laser excitation and light acquisition properties of commercial lithotripsy fibers impair detectable Raman signals significantly in a fiber-coupled setting. This study provides essential physical and technological information for the development of an advanced fiber-coupled system able to be used for immediate stone analysis during endoscopic stone therapy.

  19. Neolithic Layer of the Kalmius Settlement in Mariupol. Stone Crafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnik Aleksandr V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The multilayer archaeological site Kalmius is situated on the right bank of the Kalmius river in historical center of Mariupol. The excavated area (2,8 m in depth contains cultural layers of the 20th-19th, 18th centuries, Early Middle Age, Late Bronze Age and Neolithic Age. The site was excavated in 2010-2012, 2014. The Neolithic layer includes numerous flint, stone, pottery artifacts, fragments of animal bones. The collection of stone crafts from 2014 excavation is under discussion in the article. It includes about 1200 flint crafts, unique pieces of slabe and sandstone. The flint industry was based on knapping of prismatic cores. The flint blades of middle size (100-120 mm are a framework of the industry. At the finish stage of exploitation the prismatic cores were modified as cuboid-sharped cores. Geometric microliths of various types, side-scrapers, “non-geometric microliths” and blade implements form the structures of tools assemblages. Burins and end-scrapers are absent. Abundant sources of a flint raw material are situated at the distance of about 120 km in the Southern Donbass (Krynka river basin. Flint raw materials are knapped completely. Non-utilized flint flakes more than 40 mm in size are rare. Intensive usage was provoked by a microlitism of a stone inventory. There are an “iron” and two sandstone plates among pieces of “soft” stone. Analogous complexes are famous in the basin of Lower Don region. The flint collection is similar to the flint complexes of the Mariupol burial place too.

  20. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  1. Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral Stones: Evaluation of Patient and Stone Related Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yazici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the patient and stone related factors which may influence the final outcome of SWL in the management of ureteral stones.Materials and Methods:Between October 2011 and October 2013, a total of 204 adult patients undergoing SWL for single ureteral stone sizing 5 to 15 mm were included into the study program. The impact of both patient (age, sex, BMI, and stone related factors (laterality, location, longest diameter and density as CT HU along with BUN and lastly SSD (skin to stone distance on fragmentation were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Stone free rates for proximal and distal ureteral stones were 68.8% and 72.7%, respectively with no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.7. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, while higher BMI (mean: 26.8 and 28.1, p=0.048 and stone density values (mean: 702 HU and 930 HU, p<0.0001 were detected as statistically significant independent predictors of treatment failure for proximal ureteral stones, the only statistically significant predicting parameter for the success rates of SWL in distal ureteral stones was the higher SSD value (median: 114 and 90, p=0.012.Conclusions:Our findings have clearly shown that while higher BMI and increased stone attenuation values detected by NCCT were significant factors influencing the final outcome of SWL treatment in proximal ureteral stones; opposite to the literature, high SSD was the only independent predictor of success for the SWL treatment of distal ureteral stones.

  2. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  3. Evaluating the Rate of Stone Art Deterioration in Wadi Maghara and Wadi Mukattab, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-06-01

    methodology used in this study can be utilized to evaluate the rate of decay of stone art and therefore a useful tool for determining priorities with regard to the conservation of the Wadi Maghara and Wadi Mukattab sites. In addition, the rate of deterioration is useful in evaluating and quantifying the contribution of stone weathering to landscape evolution.

  4. The Effect of Stone Composition on the Efficacy of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery: Kidney Stones 1 - 3 cm in Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuquan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xiaojie; Chong, Tie

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of stone composition on the efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) with kidney stones of 1-3 cm, 1-2 cm, and 2-3 cm in diameter. We undertook a retrospective analysis of 74 patients with kidney stones who underwent RIRS. The patients were divided into two groups based on stone composition: Group I (n=47) (calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate) was the hard to fragment stone group and group II (n=27) (calcium oxalate dihydrate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid) was the easy to fragment stone group. Forty-six patients with kidney stones 1 to 2 cm in diameter were divided into group A (n=30) (smaller than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group B (n=16) (smaller than 20 mm, easy to fragment stones). Twenty-eight patients with stones 2 to 3 cm in diameter were divided into group C (n=17) (larger than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group D (n=11) (larger than 20 mm, easy-to-crush stones). The stone clearance rates of group I and group II were 66.0% and 88.9%, respectively (Pkidney stones. For 2-3 cm calcium oxalate dihydrate stones, uric acid stones, and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones, the outcome of RIRS treatment was relatively good, and RIRS is recommended.

  5. Epidemiology of stone disease across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Igor; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Rodgers, Allen; Talati, Jamsheer; Lotan, Yair

    2017-09-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disease worldwide with rates ranging from 7 to 13% in North America, 5-9% in Europe, and 1-5% in Asia. Due to high rates of new and recurrent stones, management of stones is expensive and the disease has a high level of acute and chronic morbidity. The goal of this study is to review the epidemiology of stone disease in order to improve patient care. A review of the literature was conducted through a search on Pubmed ® , Medline ® , and Google Scholar ® . This review was presented and peer-reviewed at the 3rd International Consultation on Stone Disease during the 2014 Société Internationale d'Urologie Congress in Glasgow. It represents an update of the 2008 consensus document based on expert opinion of the most relevant studies. There has been a rising incidence in stone disease throughout the world with a narrowing of the gender gap. Increased stone prevalence has been attributed to population growth and increases in obesity and diabetes. General dietary recommendations of increased fluid, decreased salt, and moderate intake of protein have not changed. However, specific recommended values have either changed or are more frequently reported. Geography and environment influenced the likelihood of stone disease and more information is needed regarding stone disease in a large portion of the world including Asia and Africa. Randomized controlled studies are lacking but are necessary to improve recommendations regarding diet and fluid intake. Understanding the impact of associated conditions that are rapidly increasing will improve the prevention of stone disease.

  6. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  7. Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Ramdass

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition.

  8. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  9. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and methods: Between March 2001 and February 2004, 243 renal units in 239 patients with isolated lower calyceal stones were treated by ESWL. ... The effect of stone size on stone-free rate in two groups revealed better overall results in favorable anatomy group than in unfavorable group in stone sizes, 0.5–1.0 ...

  10. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    movements. Also tensile stresses occur, as a result of stone against stone impact are discussed in order to make a more close connection between wave climate, stone movements and abrasion/breakage. Finally, a comparison to selected prototype structures is made to compare the armour stone movement model...

  11. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  12. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakıroglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca. The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics.

  13. Technology and Parental Responsibility : The Case of the V-Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nihlen-Fahlquist, J.A.; Van de Poel, I.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the so-called V-chip is analysed from the perspective of responsibility. The V-chip is a technological tool used by parents, on a voluntary basis, to prevent children from watching violent television content. Since 1997 in the United States, the V-chip is installed in all new

  14. STONES ON A FORGOTTEN DOUBLE-J STENT: A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OF MULTIPLE STONES CASTING A MULTI-FRACTURED. URETERAL STENT. K. MURSI, A. FAYAD, I. GHONEIM AND H. EL—GHAMRAWY. Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. INTRODUCTION. The double-J ureteric stent has become one of the most basic and valuable tools in.

  15. On-chip cell analysis platform: Implementation of contact fluorescence microscopy in microfluidic chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Hiroaki; Kazutaka, Osawa; Haruta, Makito; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Although fluorescence microscopy is the gold standard tool for biomedical research and clinical applications, their use beyond well-established laboratory infrastructures remains limited. The present study investigated a novel on-chip cell analysis platform based on contact fluorescence microscopy and microfluidics. Combined use of a contact fluorescence imager based on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology and an ultra-thin glass bottom microfluidic chip enabled both to observe living cells with minimal image distortion and to ease controlling and handling of biological samples (e.g. cells and biological molecules) in the imaged area. A proof-of-concept experiment of on-chip detection of cellular response to endothelial growth factor demonstrated promising use for the recently developed on-chip cell analysis platform. Contact fluorescence microscopy has numerous desirable features including compatibility with plastic microfluidic chips and compatibility with the electrical control system, and thus will fulfill the requirements of a fully automated cell analysis system.

  16. IGCP 637 Heritage Stone Designation: A UNESCO and IUGS project on natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Cooper, Barry; Schouenborg, Björn; Marker, Brian; Kramar, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    IGCP 637 was approved in 2015 to facilitate establishment of a new international geological standard for building and ornamental stones. Formal international recognition of those natural stone types that have achieved widespread utilization in human culture is now underway and the term "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) has been proposed for this designation. Stones that have been used in heritage construction, sculptural masterpieces, as well as in utilitarian (yet culturally important) applications are obvious GHSR candidates. In co-ordination with these aims the project has an associated role to promote the adoption and use of the GHSR designation. Consequently an interim list of potential GHSRs is maintained and a register of GHSR approved stones is being created. IGCP 637 also enhances the capacity of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) in the realm of dimension stone and geological standards as it is the first IUGS involvement in this subject. As a consequence, the largest known international grouping of dimension stone professionals has been established. Within IGCP 637 a web page has been created at www.globalheritagestone.com, including information on the Working Group and also specific information on the evolution of the project. Several researchers were funded to attend the Heritage Stone working group activities, including researchers from Algeria, Malawi, India, Italy and Russia. We also have produced many publications, both as individual papers and special issues in journals included in the Journal Citation Reports. Monographs are being prepared at present. Hopefully, IGCP 637 will help to widen the circle of researchers interested in natural stones as part of our geoheritage. Heritage Stone references: articles and special issues - Pereira, D. and Marker, B. (2016) The value of original natural stone in the context of architectural heritage. Geosciences, 6, 13. - Heritage Stone 1. Ed. Pereira and Pratt. (2016). Geoscience

  17. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  18. Primary liquid intake and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R L; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1985-01-01

    This investigation indicates that there are important associations between urinary stone disease and a person's primary liquid intake. Based on data collected from 2295 caucasian male patients from two geographical regions, the Carolinas (both North and South) and the Rockies (including Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Utah and Wyoming) an important (p less than 0.01) positive association was found between urinary stone disease and soda (carbonated beverage) consumption within both geographical regions. It was also found that negative associations exist between urinary stone disease and both beer consumption and coffee consumption in the Rockies and that no important associations exist between urinary stone disease and any of milk, water, or tea, when these beverages represent a person's primary liquid intake. Moreover, soda can be viewed almost synonymously as sugared cola, since few subjects had diet sodas or sugared non-cola soda as primary fluid. No cause/effect relationships are implied in this paper.

  19. Hunting Plan : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge Hunting Plan provides guidance for the management of hunting on the refuge. Hunting program objectives include providing a...

  20. Stone structures in the Syrian Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    An arid land, known as the Syrian Desert, is covering a large part of the Middle East. In the past, this harsh environment, characterized by huge lava fields, the "harraat", was considered as a barrier between Levant and Mesopotamia. When we observe this desert from space, we discover that it is crossed by some stone structures, the "desert kites", which were the Neolithic traps for the game. Several stone circles are visible too, as many Stonehenge sites dispersed in the desert landscape.

  1. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  2. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  3. Is there a difference between presence of single stone and multiple stones in flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy for renal stone burden <300mm2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Ozgor

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we aim to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of flexible ureterorenoscopy (f-URS for solitary and multiple renal stones with <300 mm2 stone burden. Patients' charts who treated with f-URS for kidney stone between January 2010 and June 2015 were reviewed, retrospectively. Patients with solitary kidney stones (n:111 were enrolled in group 1. We selected 111 patients with multiple kidney stones to serve as the control group and the patients were matched at a 1:1 ratio with respect to the patient's age, gender, body mass index and stone burden. Additionally, patients with multiple stones were divided into two groups according to the presence or abscence of lower pole stones. Stone free status was accepted as complete stone clearence and presence of residual fragments < 2 mm. According to the study design; age, stone burden, body mass index were comparable between groups. The mean operation time was longer in group 2 (p= 0.229. However, the mean fluoroscopy screening time in group 1 and in group 2 was 2.1±1.7 and 2.6±1.5 min, respectively and significantly longer in patients with multiple renal stones (P=0.043. The stone-free status was significantly higher in patients with solitary renal stones after a single session procedure (p=0.02. After third month follow up, overall success rate was 92.7% in Group 1 and 86.4% in Group 2. Our study revealed that F-URS achieved better stone free status in solitary renal stones <300 mm2. However, outcomes of F-URS were acceptable in patients with multiple stones.

  4. The Role of Stone in Neolithic Monumental Art: case studies and methods of representation in Ireland and Brittany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Robin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, there has been a great deal of interest in the stone used as building material in megalithic monuments. Several studies have been carried out on the location of quarries and on the monumental and symbolic role of stones in various types of architecture (O'Sullivan 1996; 2006; Cooney 2000, 135-8. However, very few works exist on the relationship between the parietal art of these monuments and the materials that carry them (Shee 1973, 164; O'Sullivan 1997, 28. This is in contrast to work on the Upper Palaeolithic, where there have been several studies exploring the links between paintings and the relief of caves (Clottes 1996. In the case of Neolithic monumental art there are many questions left unanswered; is the stone only a support for the carved motifs? Is its role only practical, without significance? Or did it have a more developed function related to the symbolism of the carvings? In this article, we would like to show through different examples in Ireland and Brittany that the stone did have a role in Neolithic monumental art. Different case studies show that there are relationships between carvings and stone texture, stone colour and stone relief. After the presentation of these case studies we would like to show how three-dimensional modelling can be a relevant tool for this kind of archaeological question.

  5. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  6. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments...

  7. Stones on a forgotten double-j stent: a case report of multiple stones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stones on a forgotten double-j stent: a case report of multiple stones casting a multi-fractured ureteral stent. Khaled Mursi, A Fayad, I Ghoneim, H El-Ghamrawy. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Urology Vol. 11(3) 2005: 247-249. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  8. Facile residue analysis of recent and prehistoric cook-stones using handheld Raman spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Laura; Cao, Bin; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Joshi, Amitabh; Scully, Rob; Sanders, Virgil; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    We performed food residue analysis of cook-stones from experimental and prehistoric earth ovens using a handheld Raman spectrometry. Progress in modern optical technology provides a facile means of rapid non-destructive identification of residue artifacts from archaeological sites. For this study spectral signatures were obtained on sotol (Dasylirion spp.) experimentally baked in an earth oven as well as sotol residue on an experimentally used processing tool. Inulin was the major residue component. The portable handheld Raman spectrometer also detected traces of inulin on boiling stones used to boil commercially obtained inulin. The Raman spectra of inulin and sotol may be useful as signatures of wild plant residues in archaeology. Spectroscopic analysis of millennia-old cook-stones from prehistoric archaeological sites in Fort Hood, TX revealed the presence of residues whose further identification requires improvement of current optical methods.

  9. Improved Detection of Kidney Stones Using an Optimized Doppler Imaging Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunitz, Bryan; Dunmire, Barbrina; Paun, Marla; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; Kucewicz, John; Hsi, Ryan; Lee, Franklin; Sorensen, Matthew; Harper, Jonathan; Bailey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Kidney stones have been shown to exhibit a “twinkling artifact” (TA) under Color-Doppler ultrasound. Although this technique has better specificity than conventional Bmode imaging, it has lower sensitivity. To improve the overall performance of using TA as a diagnostic tool, Doppler output parameters were optimized in-vitro. The collected data supports a previous hypothesis that TA is caused by random oscillations of micron sized bubbles trapped in the cracks and crevices of kidney stones. A set of optimized parameters were implemented such that that the MI & TI remained within the FDA approved limits. Several clinical kidney scans were performed with the optimized settings and were able to detect stones with improved SNR relative to the default settings. PMID:26203346

  10. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  11. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies.

  12. Interisland and interarchipelago transfer of stone tools in prehistoric Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisler, M I; Kirch, P V

    1996-02-20

    Tracing interisland and interarchipelago movements of people and artifacts in prehistoric Polynesia has posed a challenge to archaeologists due to the lack of pottery and obsidian, two materials most readily used in studies of prehistoric trade or exchange. Here we report the application of nondestructive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis to the sourcing of Polynesian artifacts made from basalt, one of the most ubiquitous materials in Polynesian archaeological sites. We have compared excavated and surface-collected basalt adzes and adze flakes from two sites in Samoa (site AS-13-1) and the Cook Islands (site MAN-44), with source basalts from known prehistoric quarries in these archipelagoes. In both cases, we are able to demonstrate the importing of basalt adzes from Tutuila Island, a distance of 100 km to Ofu Island, and of 1600 km to Mangaia Island. These findings are of considerable significance for Polynesian prehistory, as they demonstrate the movement of objects not only between islands in the same group (where communities were culturally and linguistically related) but also between distant island groups. Further applications of EDXRF analysis should greatly aid archaeologists in their efforts to reconstruct ancient trade and exchange networks, not only in Polynesia but also in other regions where basalt was a major material for artifact production.

  13. Impact of stone density on outcomes in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Onal, Bulent; Modi, Pranjal

    2013-01-01

    were assigned to a low stone density [LSD, ≤ 1000 Hounsfield units (HU)] or high stone density (HSD, > 1000 HU) group based on the radiological density of the primary renal stone. Preoperative characteristics and outcomes were compared in the two groups. Results. Retreatment for residual stones...... was more frequent in the LSD group. The overall stone-free rate achieved was higher in the HSD group (79.3% vs 74.8%, p = 0.113). By univariate regression analysis, the probability of achieving a stone-free outcome peaked at approximately 1250 HU. Below or above this density resulted in lower treatment...

  14. Significance of lower-pole pelvicaliceal anatomy on stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy in nonobstructive isolated renal pelvic stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozen, Sinan; Kupeli, Bora; Acar, Cenk; Gurocak, Serhat; Karaoglan, Ustunol; Bozkirli, Ibrahim

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the probable effect of lower-pole pelvicaliceal anatomy on stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients with nonobstructive renal pelvic stones. The clinical records of patients with isolated renal pelvic stones who underwent SWL between 1996 and 2005 were reviewed. After excluding patients with obstruction leading to dilatation, major anatomic abnormalities, noncalcium stones, metabolic abnormalities, history of recurrent stone disease, multiple stones, and previous renal surgery, 153 patients were enrolled in the study. Lower pole infundibulopelvic angle (IPA) and infundibular length and width were measured from intravenous urography. Patients were classified into three groups according to stone burden (group 1, renal pelvis, and both in 50 (32.6%), 29 (18.9%), and 8 (5.2%) patients, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in pelvicaliceal anatomic features except narrower IPA (P=0.02) in group 1 patients with residual stones. The falling of stone fragments to the lower calix in spite of the ureter whether clinically significant or not after SWL of pelvic stones initially seems to be related to stone burden rather than lower caliceal anatomy. However, existence of a more narrow IPA in group 1 patients with residual fragments led us to believe that lower-pole IPA can play a role in stone clearance, especially for smaller stones, probably because of smaller residual fragment size or the more mobile nature of the primary stone.

  15. Flexible Ureterorenoscopy for Treatment of Kidney Stones: Establishment as Primary Standard Therapy in a Tertiary Stone Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, Stephan; Labenski, Heike; Baltes, Stefan; Khaffaf, Aso; Thomas, Christian; Wiesner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the primary stone free rate (pSFR) of flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) in the treatment of renal stones and to identify clinical predictors for the primary freedom from renal stones. Two hundred and seventy five patients, who underwent fURS for kidney stones were analyzed. Index stone size was 6 mm. The stone was located in the lower calyx in 48%. Ureteral access sheath was used in 97%. Operation time was 35 min and primary stone clearance was 83%. pSFR increased from 74% in 2012 to 83% in 2013 and 90% in 2014 (p = 0.001). Preoperative stenting, index stone size, cumulative stone size, lithotripsy, ureteral access sheath and operation time were significantly correlated with the pSFR by univariate analysis. Multivariate regression analysis showed index stone size, cumulative stone size, ureteral access sheath and operation time as independent parameters for pSFR. fURS for kidney stones is safe with a high pSFR. Clinical parameters for pSFR are stone size, use of ureteral access sheath and operation time. In future, the effective use of fURS for the removal of kidney stones needs to be checked by prospective randomized trials. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  17. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Paediatric Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Çelik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the outcomes and complications occurring following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL procedures performed in paediatric patients. There were 291 paediatric patients (293 renal units included in the current study and who underwent PCNL in our clinic between March 1999 and December 2014. We evaluated stone burden, duration of surgery and complications, success (stone-free rate, residual fragments and auxilliary procedures, and follow-up details. The stone-free rate following PCNL was 88.3%. Early postoperative complications included excessive bleeding and transfusion in nine patients, and prolonged urinary extravasation following removal of the nephrostomy tube and requiring JJ stent placement in eight patients. The mean time to catheter removal was 2.8 days and the mean hospitalisation time was 3.5 days. The aim of kidney stone treatment is to achieve minimal kidney damage with the highest success rate. Therefore, minimally invasive procedures are important in the paediatric age group where life expectancy is high. PCNL is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of kidney stones in children.

  18. The Torus Routing Chip

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dally, William J; Seitz, Charles L

    1986-01-01

    The torus routing chip (TRC) is a self-timed chip that performs deadlock-free cut-through routing in k-ary n-cube multiprocessor interconnection networks using a new method of deadlock avoidance called virtual channels...

  19. Is stone radiodensity a useful parameter for predicting outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for stones < 2 cm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina S. Krishnamurthy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Several factors determine the success of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL for kidney stones: stone size, stone location within the collecting system, stone type, and the SWL machine used. It has been suggested that stone radiodensity, as determined either by plain radiography or computed tomography attenuation values, may be an independent predictor of SWL success. We examined the outcome of SWL for solitary stones less than or equal to 2 cm located within the renal pelvis, based on their radiodensity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 211 patients with solitary renal pelvic stones measuring less than or equal to 2 cm were treated on a Dornier Doli 50 lithotriptor under general anesthesia. The radiodensity of the stone was determined to be either less than, equal to, or greater than the radiodensity of the ipsilateral 12th rib. Stone-free rates (SFR were determined at 3 months by kidney, ureters and bladder (KUB plain X-rays. Patients requiring re-treatment or auxiliary procedures were considered failures of SWL. RESULTS: Follow-up SFR information was available in all 211 patients. Stone composition was available in 158 (75% treated patients, but no correlation was found between stone radiodensity and stone composition. For stones 12th rib compared to a SFR of 71% if the stone radiodensity was < 12th rib. However, these differences in SFRs were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: On the Doli machine, stone radiodensity alone does not predict lithotripsy treatment outcome for stones < 1 cm within the renal pelvis. This parameter is probably only useful as the stone size becomes larger than 1 cm, and should be used in conjunction with other stone parameters to select appropriate therapy.

  20. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION: TREATMENT OF STONE PROCESSING ENTERPRISES WASTE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobiіchuk V. V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine Stone industry is undergoing dramatic changes. Today is a restructuring of the industry. In a market economy, modernization of existing stone processing enterprises, the use of new technologies in the production of stone products is actually. Analysis of stone processing enterprise activity shows a large variation in quantitative and qualitative indicators, low competitiveness. However, the demand for stone products with traditional characteristics is stored. Waste stone processing enterprises often exported to landfills that are not suited to the storage of waste or unauthorized, and remain there, taking up more and more land area. During the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro independent Ukraine declared its intention to be actively involved in global environmental policy and development strategy of sustainable development, implementing guidelines defining international instruments at the national level. Consequently, there is an urgent need for real action on comprehensive recycling stone processing enterprises to obtain a secondary product. It should be noted that the use of modern methods of stone processing enterprises will waste the protection of nature and natural resources, improve the quality of life, restore lost harmony between man and nature. This publication analyzes the level of recycling waste stone processing enterprises. These volumes of industrial waste stone processing enterprises and highlights stone processing companies hand waste I-IV classes of danger Zhitomir region (Ukraine. These waste composition and properties of stone processing enterprises. Principles of artificial and natural lighting water are noted. Mathematical and economical model of the stone processing enterprises are constructed.

  1. Treatment and prevention of kidney stones: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, Lynda; Kohlstadt, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved, urine pH and 24-hour urine assessment provide information about stone-forming factors that can guide prevention. Medications, such as protease inhibitors, antibiotics, and some diuretics, increase the risk of some types of kidney stones, and patients should be counseled about the risks of using these medications. Managing diet, medication use, and nutrient intake can help prevent the formation of kidney stones. Obesity increases the risk of kidney stones. However, weight loss could undermine prevention of kidney stones if associated with a high animal protein intake, laxative abuse, rapid loss of lean tissue, or poor hydration. For prevention of calcium oxalate, cystine, and uric acid stones, urine should be alkalinized by eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables, taking supplemental or prescription citrate, or drinking alkaline mineral waters. For prevention of calcium phosphate and struvite stones, urine should be acidified; cranberry juice or betaine can lower urine pH. Antispasmodic medications, ureteroscopy, and metabolic testing are increasingly being used to augment fluid and pain medications in the acute management of kidney stones.

  2. Large orthotopic reservoir stone burden: Role of open surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madbouly Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present our experience in open poucholithotomy as a primary management of large orthotopic reservoir stone burden and discuss different management options. Materials and Methods: Records of men underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion were retrospectively reviewed as regards pouch stone formation. Patients with large reservoir stone burden managed by open poucholithotomy were further selected. Results: Large reservoir stone burden was encountered in 12 post radical cystectomy men. All underwent open poucholithotomy as a primary management of their reservoir stones. Median age at cystectomy was 46 (range: 32-55 years with a median total follow up period of 214.15 (range: 147-257 months and a median interval to stone detection of 99 (range: 63-132 months. The median stone burden was 5260 (range: 3179-20410 mm 2 . All patients were continent during the day while 5 showed nocturnal enuresis; 2 of them became continent after removal of the stones. Post poucholithotomy, all patients had sterile urine cultures except one who showed occasional colonization. None of the 12 patients showed stone recurrence after poucholithotomy. Two patients underwent revision of a dessuscepted nipple valve in association with stone removal. Conclusions: Open poucholithotomy for large reservoir stone burden is a feasible and safe option. It saves the reservoir mesentery and adjacent bowel. It allows complete removal of the stone(s leaving no residual fragments. Furthermore, it permits correction of concomitant reservoir abnormalities.

  3. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  4. [12 years of endoscopic stone removal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, B; Schmassmann, A; Scheurer, U; Halter, F

    1993-05-29

    All 583 attempts at endoscopic clearance of biliary calculi, performed in the Gastrointestinal Unit, Inselspital Bern, were retrospectively analyzed from 1980 until 1991. The average age of the patients was 70; 56% were female and 44% male. In 1980, 26 ERCPs for bile duct stone removal were performed, whereas in 1991 the number had increased to 90. The substantial increase in 1991 occurred after introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Over the total period of 12 years all stones were removed endoscopically after papillotomy in 82%, while the success rate in 1991 was 90%. Morbidity was 5.4% and lethality 0.2%. Total morbidity did not change markedly. However, the number of severe complications requiring surgical repair was reduced from 1.7% between 1980 and 1986 to 0% between 1987 and 1991. These results suggest that endoscopic removal of bile duct stones is increasingly performed with high success and low complication rates.

  5. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    , between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment...... and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany...... of 75% of the maximum total points, i.e. 99 points. The methods of stone analysis used were infrared spectroscopy (n = 7), chemical analysis (n = 1) and X-ray diffraction (n = 1). In the present study only 56% of the laboratories, four using infrared spectroscopy and one using X-ray diffraction...

  6. Pyramidal anchor stone from Baga waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Underwater exploration in the coastal region off Baga (Goa, India) led to the recovery of an isolated stone artefact, which resembles a pyramidal type of anchor stone. This anchor stone is unlike to other pyramidal anchor stones found elsewhere...

  7. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  8. A case report of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Yung; Rhee, Song Joo; Choi, Ki Chul [School of Medicine, Jeongbug National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common disease of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women but rare in children and in blacks; a familial predisposition is often encountered. Ureteral stones originate in the kidney. Gravity and peristalis contribute to spontaneous passage into and down the ureter. Ureterovesical junction is the most frequent lodging site of stone. In our hospital one case of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone were found respectively and they were confirmed by radiological examination and surgery on Aug. 1978 and Jan. 1979. Ureteral cast stone which had been introduced and named first by Kiyonobu Tari and Kikjiro So in 1972 was very giant unusually. It may be the only one till now. Our patient was 36 years old female who has been suffered from intermittent right flank pain for 10 years. On KUB giant cylindrical radiopaque shadow was shown on RLQ extended to right minor pelvis and this was confirmed as a stone by retrograde ureteral catheterization. A stone measured 13cm x 1.5cm was found above the ureterovesical junction during operation. Follow up excretory urogram one year after operation showed no functional improvement of right kidney. Urethral stone is also unusual urinary lithiasis. This 60 years old male patient was been suffered from non-tender palpable hard mass on scrotal area and intermittent urinary retention. When urinary retention was occurred it was relieved by manipulation of the mass by himself. On plain film oval shaped giant radiopaque shadow was shown on cavernous urethral region. On urethrocystogram anterior urethra was opacified, but posterior urethra and bladder were not opacified and multiple fistulous leakage was identified. A stone measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm was found in cavernous urethra during operation.

  9. The use of stone at Ohalo II, a 23,000 year old site in the Jordan Valley, Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Polina Spivak; Dani Nadel

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of stones were found at the 22,000-24,000 year old lakeshore camp of Ohalo II, the Sea of Galilee, Israel. The well-preserved camp includes the floors of six brush huts, several open-air hearths, a grave, a midden, and small installations. Stones were found in all excavated loci. These include a small assemblage of basalt and limestone tools, among which bowls, grinding implements and weights are the most common. Use-wear analysis supports the identification of the grinding tools...

  10. Stone anchors from Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    mariners. The logo of the Nautical Archaeology Society, seen on the cover of IJNA, has been taken from a bichrome Cypriot jug of the 7th century BC. It depicts a vessel with two oars, with a helmsman at the stern, and another crewman raising or lowering... a ring-stone anchor at the bow (Fig. 9) (Fenwick, 2000). This anchor is tied with a rope, without a wooden stock, and the size of the hole appears to be wide. In the Maldives, such anchors are made of round coral stones with a forked timber...

  11. Strides in Preservation of Malawi's Natural Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanga, Tamara; Chisenga, Chikondi; Katonda, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The geology of Malawi is broadly grouped into four main lithological units that is the Basement Complex, the Karoo Super group, Tertiary to Quaternary sedimentary deposits and the Chilwa Alkaline province. The basement complex rocks cover much of the country and range in age from late Precambrian to early Paleozoic. They have been affected by three major phases of deformation and metamorphism that is the Irumide, Ubendian and The Pan-African. These rocks comprise gneisses, granulites and schists with associated mafic, ultramafic, syenites and granite rocks. The Karoo System sedimentary rocks range in age from Permian to lower Jurassic and are mainly restricted to two areas in the extreme North and extreme Alkaline Province - late Jurassic to Cretaceous in age, preceded by upper Karoo Dolerite dyke swarms and basaltic lavas, have been intruded into the Basement Complex gneisses of southern Malawi. Malawi is endowed with different types of natural stone deposits most of which remain unexploited and explored. Over twenty quarry operators supply quarry stone for road and building construction in Malawi. Hundreds of artisanal workers continue to supply aggregate stones within and on the outskirts of urban areas. Ornamental stones and granitic dimension stones are also quarried, but in insignificant volumes. In Northern Malawi, there are several granite deposits including the Nyika, which is the largest single outcrop occupying approximately 260.5 km2 , Mtwalo Amazonite an opaque to translucent bluish -green variety of microcline feldspar that occurs in alkali granites and pegmatite, the Ilomba granite (sodalite) occurring in small areas within biotite; apatite, plagioclase and calcite. In the Center, there are the Dzalanyama granites, and the Sani granites. In the South, there are the Mangochi granites. Dolerite and gabbroic rocks spread across the country, treading as black granites. Malawi is also endowed with many deposits of marble. A variety of other igneous

  12. Building stones of our Nation's Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withington, Charles F.

    1975-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

  13. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  14. Do You Have Symptoms of a Kidney Stone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Do You Have Symptoms of a Kidney Stone? Tweet Share Email ... the stone, the more symptoms the person will have. The symptoms could be one or more of ...

  15. Prevention of Renal Stone Complications in Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIM 1. Refine ultrasound probes to detect, reposition, and fragment kidney stones. Task 1.1. Select imaging probe for stone repositioning. Clinical trials are...

  16. Clinical characteristics of potential kidney donors with asymptomatic kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Elizabeth C.; Lieske, John C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Rule, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with symptomatic kidney stones are characterized by older age, male gender, white race, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Whether these characteristics differ in patients with asymptomatic kidney stones is unknown.

  17. Postural therapy for renal stones in children: A Rolling Stones procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, A; Dicrocco, E; Hery, G; Boissier, R; Bienvenu, L; Thirakul, S; Maffei, P; Panait, N; Karsenty, G; Merrot, T; Alessandrini, P; Guys, J-M; Lechevallier, E

    2016-08-01

    Despite many advances, the management of renal stones - especially lower caliceal stones (LCS) - remains a challenge. The gravity-dependent location of the lower calices hinders the spontaneous clearance of fragments, which can be a nidus for future growth and symptomatic recurrence. Currently, there is no standard adjunctive therapy to facilitate fragment passage. To report the safety and effectiveness of mechanical percussion diuresis and inversion (PDI) therapy for eliminating renal stones in children. Since November 2013, children with residual fragments (after shock wave lithotripsy or flexible ureteroscopy) or native symptomatic renal stones were prospectively included in a protocol of four PDI sessions. After giving written consent, the children drank 10 ml/kg of water 30 min before therapy. They then laid in a prone Trendelenburg position on a couch angled at 45° and received continuous 10-min mechanical percussion applied over the affected flank by a physiotherapist (Figure summary). Tolerance stone burden reduction and stone clearance were documented with ultrasound 4 weeks after the last session. Seventeen participants, with a median age of 10.8 years (range 18 months to 18 years), received 82 PDI sessions performed over 22 months. The median stone diameter was 5 mm (range 3-9). All children tolerated the PDI therapy well. Over a median follow-up of 11 months (range 3-18), no significant adverse effects were noted. The overall stone-free rate was 65%. Four of the six patients with residual fragment passed their fragments. The patients who did not become stone free by PDI experienced a decrease in fragment size of 57% (range 34-71). The observance rate was 100%. Many studies have demonstrated that the gravity-dependent position of the lower calyces appears to be an important factor limiting the clearance of LCS. Positioning patients with a degree of inversion in order to put the collecting system beyond the horizontal plane affected the LCS

  18. The use of stone at Ohalo II, a 23,000 year old site in the Jordan Valley, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Spivak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of stones were found at the 22,000-24,000 year old lakeshore camp of Ohalo II, the Sea of Galilee, Israel. The well-preserved camp includes the floors of six brush huts, several open-air hearths, a grave, a midden, and small installations. Stones were found in all excavated loci. These include a small assemblage of basalt and limestone tools, among which bowls, grinding implements and weights are the most common. Use-wear analysis supports the identification of the grinding tools, suggesting that cereals were indeed processed with them, but not in an intensive manner. The presence of thousands of cereal grains as well as several sickle blades accord well these finds. Bowls were all shallow and only their fragments were found. Weights were likely used as fishing net sinkers. Limestone and basalt flakes indicate local knapping. Basalt and limestone fragments, shattered from heat, were abundant in all the excavated loci. Their original use is yet to be verified, but their shattering from heat was affirmed by a series of experiments. Stones were also used as wall supports. The range of types, contexts and activities reflected by stone tools and natural stones is unprecedented in other contemporaneous sites in the southern Levant.

  19. Salt damage of stone, plaster and painted layers at a medieval church, South-Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Galambos, Éva

    2016-04-01

    The Chapel of Pécsvárad is one of the best preserved and oldest medieval stone monument in South Hungary. It dates back to the 11th century. The interior of the chapel is decorated with wall paintings, which are later and probably originating from the late 12th century. The wall painting is partly preserved and it is located on an interior stone wall of the chapel facing to the East. The wall painting shows various forms of damage from salt efflorescence to chipping. The current research provides information on the in situ and laboratory analyses of salts, plasters, pigments and stone material suggesting mechanisms of decay that lead to partial loss of the painting. Both on site techniques and laboratory analyses were performed. Imaging techniques such as UV luminescence and IR thermography were used to identify the moist and salt covered zones on the wall surface. Portable moisture meter were also applied to map the wet zones in the interior and also at the external part of the chapel. Schmidt hammer and Duroscop were used for testing the surface strength of stone. Laboratory tests were focused on mineralogical and chemical compositional analyses. Small samples of stone, mortar, plaster and pigments were tested by optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, XRD and Thermogravimetric analyses. According to our tests the chapel was predominantly made of porous limestone and sandstone. Laboratory analyses proved that the major salt responsible for the damage of external walls are gypsum and halite, while in the interior part higher amount of halite and significant amount of sodium-nitrate were found besides gypsum. The painted layers are on Byzantine-type of plaster with organic compounds (plant fragments) and with a substrate layer rich in calcium carbonate. The identified pigments are dominantly earth pigments such as iron-oxide containing red and yellow (ochre) and green earth. A unique preservation of ultramarine blue in Hungary was found on the wall painting. The partial

  20. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D J; Vernon, D R; Toouli, J

    2006-01-01

    10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery.......10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery....

  1. Mold attack on frescoes and stone walls of Gradac monastery

    OpenAIRE

    Stupar Miloš Č.; Ljaljević-Grbić Milica V.; Vukojević Jelena B.; Jelikić Aleksa A.

    2011-01-01

    Microfungi can colonize stone surfaces and form sub-aerial biofilms which can lead to biodeterioration of historic monuments. In this investigation samples for mycological analyses were collected from stone material with visible alteration on stone walls of Gradac monastery exterior. The prevailing fungi found on stone walls were dematiaceous hyphomycetes with melanized hyphae and reproductive structures (Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium and Epicoccum species). The frescoes insid...

  2. Estimation of bearing capacity of floating group of stone columns

    OpenAIRE

    Fattah, Mohammed Y.; Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Shamel Al-Suhaily, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Stone column is one of the ground improvement techniques. This technique has a proven performance, short time schedule, durability, constructability and low costs. The stone column technique has been used as a method of reinforcement of soft ground over the past 30 years. The bearing capacity of the stone column still has high level of uncertainties because the existing formulas for the estimation of the bearing capacity are general and do not take into consideration the type of the stone col...

  3. Dynamics of rock-chip removal by turbulent jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, M.R.

    1989-06-01

    The efficiency of the drilling process is largely governed by the efficiency with which the available hydraulics remove rock chips created by the mechanical action of the bit. To date, a physical understanding of the process associated with the hydraulic removal of the chips remains unknown. Rock chips mechanically freed from the parent rock by the drilling action of the bit are generally held in place by overbearing pressures. These pressures must be overcome either by hydraulic action or by mechanical regrinding before the chip may be removed. This work presents the experimental results of a study designed to examine the effects of dynamic forces brought about by jet turbulence on the removal of loose rock chips. Synthetic chips of known shape and size, embedded in a simulated hole bottom and held in place by hydrostatic pressure, were removed solely by the jetting action of a vertically impinging jet. The synthetic chips were flush-mounted into the plate, rendering the shear forces on the surface of the chips at least two orders of magnitude less than the hold-down forces. Measurements of the static jet-impingement pressure and the dynamic fluctuating pressure caused by the jet turbulence were related to turbulent time-scale measurements made using a laser Doppler anemometer, producing an analytical tool to predict the necessary conditions for chip removal.

  4. Cover stones on liquefiable soil bed under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behavior of cover stones on a liquefiable soil bed exposed to a progressive wave. The soil was silt with d50=0.098mm. Stones, the size of 4cm, were used as cover material. The effect of packing density of stones, and that of number...

  5. Incidence and Distribution of Pulp Stones Found in Radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulp stones (PS) are discrete calcified masses found in the dental pulp, in the pulp tissue or become attached to or embedded into the dentine.[1] Structurally, pulp stones can be classified as true or false, the former being made of dentine and lined by odontoblasts, whereas false pulp stones are formed from degenerating ...

  6. Quantitative Prediction of Stone Fragility From Routine Dual Energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrero, Andrea; Montoya, Juan C; Vaughan, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated a qualitative relationship between stone fragility and internal stone morphology. The goal of this study was to quantify morphologic features from dual-energy computed tomography (CT) images and assess their relationship to stone fragil...

  7. Durability and Testing of Stone for use in Rubblemound structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magoon, O.T.; Baird, W.F.; Ahrends, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Rubblemound structures protected from wave action by a layer of quarried rock (stones) are the most common form of breakwaters. While extensive guidelines and procedures exist to select the size of stone there is very little information available on procedures to be followed to assure the quality...... of the in-place stone....

  8. Summary of: Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  9. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  10. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi is...

  11. An Unusually Large Submandibular Gland Stone. A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latter was incised and drained, while excision of the right submandibular gland and calculus was carried out three weeks later. 5.0cm - sized stone was excised. This turned out to be the second largest salivary gland stone recorded in literature. Conclusion Giant salivary gland stone which ( greater than 1.5cm) is rare.

  12. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Mafalda P; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Simões, Luciana; Grilo, Clara; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder; Bruford, Michael W; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS), a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA). Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive partitioning

  13. Noninvasive management of obstructing ureteral stones using electromagnetic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sighinolfi, M C; Chiara, S M; Micali, S; Salvatore, M; De Stefani, S; Stefano, D S; Saredi, G; Mofferdin, A; Grande, M; Bianchi, G; Giampaolo, B

    2008-05-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) represents noninvasive management of urolithiasis. Since the first HM3 model, technological progress has improved the efficacy and safety of this treatment. The current study aimed to evaluate the role of ESWL as a first-line emergency therapy of renal colic due to ureteral stone with impaired renal function. This prospective study enrolled all the patients admitted from the emergency room with acute renal colic meeting the following criteria: serum creatinine level ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 mg/dl, hydronephrosis, ureteral stones 6 to 15 mm in size, body mass index less than 30, normal renal function at baseline, and no evidence of urinary tract infection. The patients were submitted to a single-session emergency treatment using Dornier Litothripter S. Follow-up assessment, performed at 24 and 72 h, included radiologic and ultrasound examinations with renal function serum assessment. The end points were a decrease in creatinine level and a stone-free condition. A total of 40 patients were eligible for the study. The mean creatinine level at admission was 1.93 +/- 0.26 mg/dl. After the treatment, renal function recovery occurred for 34 subjects (85%), with a significant global decrease in creatinine levels (p = 0.00). The global stone-free rate 72 h after SWL was 67.5% (27/40). The patients with residual fragments were managed using re-SWL (n = 7) and endoscopic technique (n = 6). Emergency SWL represents an effective tool in the treatment of ureteral stones with hydronephrosis and slight renal impairment. Although complete stone clearance after one treatment still remains a difficult target, the actual role of SWL in the management of acute obstruction is to obtain ureteral canalization and renal function recovery.

  14. Online Discussion on #KidneyStones: A Longitudinal Assessment of Activity, Users and Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salem

    Full Text Available Twitter is a popular microblogging platform for the rapid dissemination of information and reciprocal exchange in the urological field. We aimed to assess the activity, users and content of the online discussion, #KidneyStones, on Twitter.We investigated the Symplur Signals analytics tool for Twitter data distributed via the #KidneyStones hashtag over a one year period. Activity analysis reflected overall activity and tweet enhancements. We assessed users' geolocations and performed an influencer analysis. Content analysis included the most frequently used words, tweet sentiment and shares for top tweets.3,426 users generated over 10,333 tweets, which were frequently accompanied by links (49%, mentions (30% and photos (13%. Users came from 106 countries across the globe and were most frequently from North America (63% and Europe (16%. Individual and organisational healthcare professionals made up 56% of the influencers of the Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones. Besides the words 'kidney' (used 4,045 times and 'stones' (3,335, 'pain' (1,233, 'urine' (1,158, and 'risk' (1,023 were the most frequently used words. 56% of tweets had a positive sentiment. The median (range number of shares was 85 (62-587 for the top 10 links, 45.5 (17-94 for the top 10 photos, and 44 (22-95 for the top 10 retweets.The rapidly growing Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones engaged multiple stakeholders in the healthcare sector on a global scale and reached both professionals and laypeople. When used effectively and responsibly, the Twitter platform could improve prevention and medical care of kidney stone patients.

  15. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda P Basto

    Full Text Available The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS, a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA. Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive

  16. The Role of Expertise in Tool Use: Skill Differences in Functional Action Adaptations to Task Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Blandine; Rein, Robert; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Wenban-Smith, Francis; Dietrich, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Tool use can be considered a particularly useful model to understand the nature of functional actions. In 3 experiments, tool-use actions typified by stone knapping were investigated. Participants had to detach stone flakes from a flint core through a conchoidal fracture. Successful flake detachment requires controlling various functional…

  17. MM98.19 An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Chiffre, Leonardo De

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  18. Microstructural characterization of stone wool fibre network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie; Brøndsted, Povl; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of fibrous network as complex as stone wool materials requires a relevant description of their microstructure and architecture. In this study, different methods have been proposed to characterize the fibre orientation, diameter and length of fibres as well ...

  19. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs | Stones | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 7 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs. DK Stones. Abstract.

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER ORIG ORIG Percutaneous stone removal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percutaneous tract was made by the interven- tional radiologist under ultrasound combined with. Percutaneous stone removal. M N van der Ness, MB ChB, DA (SA),. DRCOG (UK). C S de Vries, MB ChB, MMed (Rad). Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Universitas Hospital, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

  1. BLADDER AND URETHRAL STONES IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this series proved to be fragile, and a power stage from 500 ml to 1J was sufficient for complete fragmentation. It is noteworthy that electrohydraulic lithotripsy has been used since 1978 to fragment ureteral calculi with proved efficacy'? The single-shot mode was actually used to test the initial response of the stone to EHL.

  2. Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone.

  3. Systemic sclerosis in a stone cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna N

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several occupational hazards especially exposure to silica have been implicated as eliciting factors for the development of scleroderma-like disorders. We here report a case of manual stone-cutter who developed progressive scleroderma, interstitial lung disease and decreased oesophageal motility after several years of exposure to silica dust.

  4. 78 FR 34124 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan Department of Transportation, Van Wagoner Building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Community, Michigan; Delaware Nation, Oklahoma; Forest County Potawatomi Community, Wisconsin; Grand... stone flakes, 2 edge-damaged flake tools, 1 bipolar chipped stone tool, 1 bifacial chipped stone tool, 1..., Oklahoma; Fond du Lac Band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Minnesota; Forest County Potawatomi Community...

  5. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF SUPLIT STONE BREAKER WOMEN IN SUPPORTING FAMILY LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF INFORMAL SECTOR STONE BREAKER WORKER IN THE NORTH MORAMO, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambolong M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A socio-economic study of Suplit Stone breaker women In Supporting Family life is a study of the Informal Sector Workers carried out in the form of a survey. This study aims to assess the socio-economic level of the workers, educational level, results achieved, income levels, health effects, and household's social condition. This research will specifically study and analyze income received, identify and examine the issues that arise in performing stone breaker as an occupation: deficiencies, expectations, and negative impacts. Ten urban villages/villages in Moramo North District was taken as research population. Area samples taken were five (5 urban/rural where workers are concentrated in Lalowaru Village, Puasana Village, Mata Mawatu Village, Sanggula Village, and Lamokula Village. Samples community were 5 percent of all household. Therefore total samples taken were 93 people scattered in villages. Research informants are Head of North Morano district, Stone Processing owner, and stone carrier driver. Data collection was conducted by observation, interview using a list of questions, as well as documentation of objective conditions. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis techniques, which describe the objective conditions of the field in accordance with the purpose of research. Research result shows workers are housewives who help their husbands and families to supplement the household income to support family life. In general, socio-economic conditions of women suplit stone breaker is relatively low, their education level is generally elementary or none. The results achieved are still limited by an average of IDR 30,000, per day/worker is calculated based on the total stone yield. These women perform their work using simple tools such as hammer and gloves. The negative impact on eye health and breathing difficulty caused by inhaling stone dust every day. The problems faced by the workers is the lack of working capital to be trying to own

  6. Metabolic evaluation and medical management of upper urinary tract stone disease. Guidelines from the Scandinavian Cooperative Group for Urinary Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Grenabo, L; Haraldsson, G

    1999-01-01

    of the stone disease in the individual stone patient. The initial evaluation in all patients aims at diagnosing conditions with a definitive metabolic, infectious or anatomical/functional cause of stone formation (MIAF urolithiasis). Patients with MIAF urolithiasis are treated according to the nature...

  7. Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P A

    1961-04-21

    A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted.

  8. Ureteroscopy and stones: Current status and future expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anna E; Rukin, Nicholas J; Somani, Bhaskar K

    2014-11-06

    Urolithaisis is becoming an ever increasing urological, nephrological and primary care problem. With a lifetime prevalence approaching 10% and increasing morbidity due to stone disease, the role of ureteroscopy and stone removal is becoming more important. We discuss the current status of stone disease and review the ever increasing role that ureteroscopy has to play in its management. We discuss technological advances that have been made in stone management and give you an overview of when, how and why ureteroscopy is the most common treatment option for stone management. We touch on the role of robotic ureteroscopy and the future of ureteroscopy in the next 10 years.

  9. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for analysis of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Habib; Imran, Sheharbano; Talati, Jamsheer; Jafri, Lena

    2018-01-01

    To compare the results of a chemical method of kidney stone analysis with the results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Kidney stones collected between June and October 2015 were simultaneously analyzed by chemical and FT-IR methods. Kidney stones (n=449) were collected from patients from 1 to 81 years old. Most stones were from adults, with only 11.5% from children (aged 3-16 years) and 1.5% from children aged kidney stones can overcome many limitations associated with chemical analysis.

  10. Stone toolmaking and the evolution of human culture and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Dietrich

    2011-04-12

    Although many species display behavioural traditions, human culture is unique in the complexity of its technological, symbolic and social contents. Is this extraordinary complexity a product of cognitive evolution, cultural evolution or some interaction of the two? Answering this question will require a much better understanding of patterns of increasing cultural diversity, complexity and rates of change in human evolution. Palaeolithic stone tools provide a relatively abundant and continuous record of such change, but a systematic method for describing the complexity and diversity of these early technologies has yet to be developed. Here, an initial attempt at such a system is presented. Results suggest that rates of Palaeolithic culture change may have been underestimated and that there is a direct relationship between increasing technological complexity and diversity. Cognitive evolution and the greater latitude for cultural variation afforded by increasingly complex technologies may play complementary roles in explaining this pattern.

  11. Stone toolmaking and the evolution of human culture and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Although many species display behavioural traditions, human culture is unique in the complexity of its technological, symbolic and social contents. Is this extraordinary complexity a product of cognitive evolution, cultural evolution or some interaction of the two? Answering this question will require a much better understanding of patterns of increasing cultural diversity, complexity and rates of change in human evolution. Palaeolithic stone tools provide a relatively abundant and continuous record of such change, but a systematic method for describing the complexity and diversity of these early technologies has yet to be developed. Here, an initial attempt at such a system is presented. Results suggest that rates of Palaeolithic culture change may have been underestimated and that there is a direct relationship between increasing technological complexity and diversity. Cognitive evolution and the greater latitude for cultural variation afforded by increasingly complex technologies may play complementary roles in explaining this pattern. PMID:21357227

  12. CHIP Reporting in the CPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CHIP reporting in the CPS is unreliable. Only 10 to 30 percent of those with CHIP (but not Medicaid) report this type of coverage in the CPS. Many with CHIP report...

  13. Diversity in protein profiles of individual calcium oxalate kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Nobuaki; Tsujihata, Masao; Momohara, Chikahiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Suto, Kouzou; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko; Takao, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxalate kidney stones contain low amounts of proteins, some of which have been implicated in progression or prevention of kidney stone formation. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, we have characterized protein components of calcium oxalate kidney stones by proteomic approaches. Proteins extracted from kidney stones showed highly heterogeneous migration patterns in gel electrophoresis as reported. This was likely to be mainly due to proteolytic degradation and protein-protein crosslinking of Tamm-Horsfall protein and prothrombin. Protein profiles of calcium oxalate kidney stones were obtained by in-solution protease digestion followed by nanoLC-MALDI-tandem mass spectrometry, which resulted in identification of a total of 92 proteins in stones from 9 urolithiasis patients. Further analysis showed that protein species and their relative amounts were highly variable among individual stones. Although proteins such as prothrombin, osteopontin, calgranulin A and calgranulin B were found in most stones tested, some samples had high contents of prothrombin and osteopontin, while others had high contents of calgranulins. In addition, calgranulin-rich stones had various neutrophil-enriched proteins such as myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin. These proteomic profiles of individual kidney stones suggest that multiple systems composed of different groups of proteins including leucocyte-derived ones are differently involved in pathogenesis of individual kidney stones depending on situations.

  14. Approach to Residual Kidney Stone Fragments After Shock Wave Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumay Ižpekci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For kidney stones up to 2 cm in diameter shock wave therapy (SDT is safely applied and kidney stones smaller than 5mm remaining in the kidney after treatment are regarded as clinically insignificant. Management of this condition is still controversial among clinicians. These stones in the kidney may continue to persist without any clinical symptoms or begin to cause clinical signs. In the event that the clinical symptoms are present, it requires detailed urological examination and treatment. The aim in the surgical treatment of urinary tract stones is completely stone clearance but in stones that are not infected, not causing urinary tract obstruction and without clinical symptoms medical treatment is also beneficial fort he prevention of growth and recurrence. In addition, surgical intervention is also possible for the residual stone fragments which become symptomatic during follow-up.

  15. Automated analysis of urinary stone composition using Raman spectroscopy: pilot study for the development of a compact portable system for immediate postoperative ex vivo application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Arkadiusz; Eilers, Yvan; Bolwien, Carsten; Lambrecht, Armin; Hauschke, Dieter; Rebentisch, Gunter; Lossin, Phillipp S; Hesse, Albrecht; Rassweiler, Jens J; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Schoenthaler, Martin

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate a compact portable system for immediate automated postoperative ex vivo analysis of urinary stone composition using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of urinary stone composition provides essential information for the treatment and metaphylaxis of urolithiasis. Currently infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction are used for urinary stone analysis. However, these methods may require complex sample preparation and costly laboratory equipment. In contrast, Raman spectrometers could be a simple and quick strategy for immediate stone analysis. Pure samples of 9 stone components and 159 human urinary calculi were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy using a microscope coupled system at 2 excitation wavelengths. Signal-to-noise ratio, peak positions and the distinctness of the acquired Raman spectra were analyzed and compared. Background fluorescence was removed mathematically. Corrected Raman spectra were used as a reference library for automated classification of native human urinary stones (50). The results were then compared to standard infrared spectroscopy. Signal-to-noise ratio was superior at an excitation wavelength of 532 nm. An automated, computer based classifier was capable of matching spectra from patient samples with those of pure stone components. Consecutive analysis of 50 human stones demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to infrared spectroscopy (for components with more than 25% of total composition). Our pilot study indicates that Raman spectroscopy is a valid and reliable technique for determining urinary stone composition. Thus, we propose that the development of a compact and portable system based on Raman spectroscopy for immediate, postoperative stone analysis could represent an invaluable tool for the metaphylaxis of urolithiasis. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Charles D; Smith, Alexandria C; Hanley, Janet M; Saigal, Christopher S

    2012-07-01

    The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history. Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007-2010 NHANES (n=12 110). Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1-9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4-11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4-7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0-12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8-7.4], respectively; pkidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones. Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Dielectric non destructive testing for rock characterization in natural stone industry and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; García-Baños, Beatriz; Mar Urquiola, M.; Gutiérrez, José D.; Catalá-Civera, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric constant measurement has been used in rocks characterization, mainly for exploration objective in geophysics, particularly related to ground penetration radar characterization in ranges of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. However, few data have been collected for loss factor. Complex permittivity (dielectric constant and loss factor) characterization in rock provide information about mineralogical composition as well as other petrophysic parameters related to the quality, such as fabric parameters, mineralogical distribution, humidity. A study was performed in the frequency of 2,45GHz by using a portable kit for dielectric device based on an open coaxial probe. In situ measurements were made of natural stone marble and granite on selected industrial slabs and building stone. A mapping of their complex permittivity was performed and evaluated, and variations in composition and textures were identified, showing the variability with the mineral composition, metal ore minerals content and fabric. Dielectric constant was a parameter more sensible to rock forming minerals composition, particularly in granites for QAPF-composition (quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclases-feldspathoids) and in marbles for calcite-dolomite-silicates. Loss factor shown a high sensibility to fabric and minerals of alteration. Results showed that the dielectric properties can be used as a powerful tool for petrographic characterization of building stones in two areas of application: a) in cultural heritage diagnosis to estimate the quality and alteration of the stone, an b) in industrial application for quality control and industrial microwave processing.

  18. TEST ON ABCD CHIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrère, D; Zsenei, A; Kaplon, J; Lacasta, C; Dabrowski, W; Kudlaty, J; Wolter, M; Azman, S

    1998-01-01

    The ABCD chip is one of the two technological options for the binary readout architecture under development for the Silicon Tracker (SCT) in ATLAS. The chip is realised in the DMILL technology (a 0.8 mum BICMOS trench isolation process). This note reports on the first results obtained at CERN on the p-type ABCD chips of the first batch delivered by TEMIC in February 1998.

  19. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  20. Withdraw of the Ureteroscope Causes Fragmented Ureter Stones to Disperse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Canguven

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ureteroscopy has improved from the first use of ureteroscope in the 1970's. Although the success rate increased in the last years, (1 new treatment techniques are being developed for impacted and large proximal ureter stones (2. Pneumatic lithotripsy has high efficiency with low complication rates (2. However, in case of steinstrasse and large (> 1 cm ureter stones, fragmented small stones may obstruct insertion of a ureteroscope after initial lithotripsy. In order to triumph over this issue, multiple ureteroscopic passages and manipulations needed for extraction of these small stones by forceps or basket catheters. The overall incidence of stricture was found upto 14.2% when the fragments were removed with a grasping forceps or a basket (3. We present our technique to disperse small fragmented stones in order to contact non-fragmented rest stone. Materials and Methods Ureteral lithotripsy was performed with an 8-9.8F semirigid ureteroscope using a pneumatic lithotripter (Swiss LithoClast, EMS, Nyon, Switzerland. The stone was fragmented into small pieces as small as 2-3 mm. by pneumatic lithotripter. Eventually, these fragmented stones interfered with vision and the lithotripter to get in touch with the rest stone. After fragmenting distal part of the large stone, the ureteroscope was pulled back out of ureter. While pulling back, the operating channel was closed and irrigation fluid was flowing in order not to decrease pressure behind the stones. Simultaneously, a person tilted the operating table to about 30° in reverse Trendelenburg position. When the ureteroscope was out of ureteral orifice, the operating channel was opened and irrigation fluid was stopped. This maneuver aided decreasing pressure in the bladder more rapidly in addition to feeding tube. Stone dust and antegrade fluid flow were easily seen out of the ureteral orifice. Ureteroscope was re-inserted after 30-60 seconds. While reaching the rest of the stone, small

  1. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich; Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III) and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physica...

  2. Sharka (Plum pox virus) of stone fruits

    OpenAIRE

    JAKUBÍKOVÁ, Hedvika

    2017-01-01

    Plum pox virus causes one of the most devastating stone fruit diseases. The main target of this thesis is a detection of Plum pox virus in infected leaf tissue of Prunus domestica.. The presence of the virus in a plant material was confirmed by the RNA isolation and its use as a template for RT-PCR. Furthermore, the basic information about properties of the virus, common methods of the virus detection and protection possibilities against the virus is are included.

  3. Pneumatic v electrokinetic lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorreuther, R; Klotz, T; Heidenreich, A; Nayal, W; Engelmann, U

    1998-06-01

    Recently, a new device (Combilith) for electrokinetic lithotripsy (EKL) has become available which is very similar to the well-known device for pneumatic (ballistic) lithotripsy (Swiss Lithoclast). The Lithoclast uses air pressure to push a projectile within the handpiece against the end of a metal probe, which is thereby accelerated and thrown like a jackhammer against the stone. In principle, the same stroking movement of a small metal probe is provided by EKL; the difference is that instead of a projectile, a magnetic core within the handpiece is accelerated by the electromagnetic principle. This paper compares the clinical efficacy and the features of the two devices. Testing the devices on a stone model, taking into account stone propulsion, the systems turned out to equally effective regarding stone disintegration. However, stone displacement was more pronounced with the Lithoclast applied on easily breaking stones. In a second experiment, an optoelectronic movement-measuring apparatus (Zimmer camera) was employed to measure the range and velocity of the movement of the probe tip without any contact. The linear acceleration velocity ranged from 5 to a maximum of 12.5 m/sec with both systems, but the maximum height of the stroke was 2.5 mm with the Lithoclast and 1 mm with EKL. After the initial break-up of soft stones, further impact of the probe tip against the stone resulted merely in propulsion; thus, the greater probe stroke height is the cause of the stone displacement. In a clinical trial, 22 ureteral stones were treated with the Lithoclast and 35 with the EKL. The two devices were equally effective in terms of stone disintegration and safety margin. Fixation using a Dormia basket was necessary in 12 cases (8 Lithoclast, 4 EKL). Although a difference in probe stroke height was noted when comparing pneumatic and electrokinetic lithotripsy, there were no clinically significant differences in the efficacy of stone fragmentation or stone-free rates. At the

  4. Field measurement of erosion rates: time-lapse monitoring of rapid stone flaking at Howden Minster, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.

    2012-04-01

    The use of a solar-powered, field time-lapse camera and environmental monitoring system enabled measurements of the pattern and rate of loss of stone from the surface of Howden Minster, an abandoned monastery in Yorkshire dating to 1380 AD. Acquiring a photograph every 1-3 hours allowed the stone damage to be correlated with local environmental conditions. Image comparison techniques borrowed from observational astronomy, such as blink comparison, were used to determine what elements had changed from image to image. Results indicate that loss is episodic rather than continuous and in several cases is related to specific environmental conditions, such as condensation/dew formation or high winds. Damage was found also to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time on different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from magnesium sulfate phase transitions appear to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces. Significant variation in surface loss rates was observed and appears to be related to variations in salt concentration. An examination of stone texture by ESEM/EDS revealed signification variations and suggests that salt concentrations are controlled in part by stone micromorphology. Quantitative data on rates of surface loss are not available from most monuments. Time-lapse methods permit the relatively inexpensive acquisition of this type of data, which is needed to aid conservation decision-making and the evaluation of interventions. Such tools should also prove useful to geomorphologists studying honeycomb weathering, the moving rocks on Death Valley's Racetrack Playa, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to study. Context: The rapid deterioration of magnesian limestone structures in the north of England has been a serious problem for more than one hundred years. While air quality in England has improved during this period, the rate of stone loss in these carved stone

  5. Diagnosing stone decay in built heritage. Facts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodola, Stefania

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Stone and other materials used for the construction of historic buildings, memorial statues, gravestones and similar are exposed to weathering and polluting agents and, therefore, progressive decay. Such deterioration, whether physical, chemical or biological, involves mineral phases and their interrelationships (structure and texture.A review of the analytical procedures applied in scientific research on stone damage has revealed the need for appropriate tools and tests (each with a specific scope, depending on the extant damage to identify decay processes and apply the correct “therapy”, i.e. temporary and/or permanent protection (cleaning, protection, reinforcement, repair and/or replacement. A number of case histories of famous components of the Italian built heritage are discussed in the context of the use of integrated methodologies for researching decay in different kinds of stone.La piedra y otros materiales utilizados para construir edificios históricos, estatuas conmemorativas, lápidas, etc. sufren la acción de los agentes atmosféricos y contaminantes y, por tanto, a una degradación progresiva. En dicha degradación, ya sea física, química o biológica, intervienen las fases minerales de la piedra y sus correspondientes interrelaciones (estructura y textura.Un análisis de los procedimientos analíticos aplicados en la investigación científica sobre los daños en la piedra ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de herramientas y pruebas adecuadas (cada una con un objetivo concreto, según el daño existente para identificar los procesos de degradación y aplicar la «terapia» adecuada; es decir, una protección provisional o definitiva (limpieza, protección, refuerzo, reparación o sustitución.Se comentan varios casos prácticos relacionados con conocidos elementos del patrimonio construido italiano en el contexto del empleo de metodologías integradas para la investigación de la degradación en distintos tipos

  6. Efficacy of surgical techniques and factors affecting residual stone rate in the treatment of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Hüseyin; Budak, Salih; Kumsar, Şükrü; Köse, Osman; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate, the efficacy of surgical methods and the factors affecting the residual stone rate by scrutinizing retrospectively the patients who had undergone renal stone surgery. Records of 109 cases of kidney stones who had been surgically treated between January 2010, and July 2013 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups in terms of surgical treatment; open stone surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Patients' history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological images and operative and postoperative data were recorded. The patients had undergone PNL (n=74; 67.9%), RIRS (n=22;20.2%), and open renal surgery (n=13; 11.9%). The mean and median ages of the patients were 46±9, 41 (21-75) and, 42 (23-67) years, respectively. The mean stone burden was 2.6±0.7 cm(2) in the PNL, 1.4±0.1 cm(2) in the RIRS, and 3.1±0.9 cm(2) in the open surgery groups. The mean operative times were 126±24 min in the PNL group, 72±12 min in the RIRS group and 82±22 min in the open surgery group. The duration of hospitalisation was 3.1±0.2 days, 1.2±0.3 days and 3.4±1.1 days respectively. While the RIRS group did not need blood transfusion, in the PNL group blood transfusions were given in the PNL (n=18), and open surgery (n=2) groups. Residual stones were detected in the PNL (n=22), open surgery (n=2), and RIRS (n=5) groups. PNL and RIRS have been seen as safe and effective methods in our self application too. However, it should not be forgotten that as a basical method, open surgery may be needed in cases of necessity.

  7. ALICE chip processor

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This tiny chip provides data processing for the time projection chamber on ALICE. Known as the ALICE TPC Read Out (ALTRO), this device was designed to minimize the size and power consumption of the TPC front end electronics. This single chip contains 16 low-power analogue-to-digital converters with six million transistors of digital processing and 8 kbits of data storage.

  8. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted......; 13 had incomplete and 1 had complete distal RTA. Distal RTA was found particularly in recurrent stone formers (17%), and especially in those with bilateral stone disease, where a distal renal tubular acidification defect was found in 50%. We have been unable to differentiate primary from secondary...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  9. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...... (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  10. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available......Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...

  11. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Azab

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: There is no statistically significant effect of stone size, anatomy of the lower calyx and BMI on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal stones. However, small stone size (≤2 cm, a shorter and wider infundibulum and a larger lower-pole infundibulopelvic angle seem to promote a more rapid and more complete stone clearance.

  12. Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like stone technology of the Bose basin, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamei, H; Potts, R; Baoyin, Y; Zhengtang, G; Deino, A; Wei, W; Clark, J; Guangmao, X; Weiwen, H

    2000-03-03

    Stone artifacts from the Bose basin, South China, are associated with tektites dated to 803,000 +/- 3000 years ago and represent the oldest known large cutting tools (LCTs) in East Asia. Bose toolmaking is compatible with Mode 2 (Acheulean) technologies in Africa in its targeted manufacture and biased spatial distribution of LCTs, large-scale flaking, and high flake scar counts. Acheulean-like tools in the mid-Pleistocene of South China imply that Mode 2 technical advances were manifested in East Asia contemporaneously with handaxe technology in Africa and western Eurasia. Bose lithic technology is associated with a tektite airfall and forest burning.

  13. CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

  14. Mold attack on frescoes and stone walls of Gradac monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Miloš Č.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfungi can colonize stone surfaces and form sub-aerial biofilms which can lead to biodeterioration of historic monuments. In this investigation samples for mycological analyses were collected from stone material with visible alteration on stone walls of Gradac monastery exterior. The prevailing fungi found on stone walls were dematiaceous hyphomycetes with melanized hyphae and reproductive structures (Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium and Epicoccum species. The frescoes inside the monastery building were also analyzed for the presence of mycobiota. The predominant fungi found on frescoes were osmophilic species from genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The significant result is identification of human pathogen species Aspergillus fumigatus on frescoes.

  15. Internet program for facilitating dietary modifications limiting kidney stone risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jessica N; Easter, Linda; Amoroso, Robert; Benfield, Debra; Mufarri, Patrick W; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P; Assimos, Dean G

    2013-10-01

    Certain dietary modifications limit the risk of stone recurrence. Compliance is an important component of dietary therapy for stone prevention, and self-efficacy is an important ingredient of compliance. We developed an internet program to facilitate dietary compliance for stone prevention and performed a pilot study to assess its effectiveness. The internet program provides information regarding dietary modifications including increased fluid consumption, limited animal protein, sodium, and oxalate intake, and adequate calcium consumption. Participants record their daily food and fluid intake and receive immediate feedback as to whether they were compliant or not. Five adult calcium stone formers collected three 24 hour urine specimens on self-selected diets, three 24 hour urine specimens while on a stone preventive metabolic diet, and three 24 hour urine specimens after utilizing the internet program for 1 month. Urinary stone risk parameters were measured, and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t test. All participants recorded their meals and snacks for each day and found the program easy to navigate. The mean time in hours from food consumption to log in was 35.25 +/- 70.8 hours. There were no statistically significant differences in stone risk factors between the controlled and internet dietary phases. Oxalate excretion was significantly higher during the self-selected dietary intake (p = 0.03). This pilot study demonstrates that subjects appear to be compliant with utilization of an interactive internet program for stone prevention with dietary modifications. In addition, improvement in certain stone risk parameters occurred.

  16. Can Hounsfield Unit Value Predict Type of Urinary Stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of this study is to determine the role of Hounsfield unit (HU in predicting results of stone analysis. Material and Method: This study included 199 patients to whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL procedures were applied between January 2008 and May 2011 in our clinic. Before the procedure HU values of kidney stones were measured using non-contrast computed tomography. After the operation, obtained stone samples were analysed using X-ray diffraction technique. HU values were compared with stone analysis results. Results: Stone analysis revealed eight different stone types. Distribution of stone types and HU value ranges were as follows: 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate, 730-1130 HU; 38% calcium oxalate dihydrate, 510-810 HU; 21% uric acid, 320-550 HU; 23% struvite, 614-870 HU; 7% calcium hydrogene phosphate, 1100-1365 HU; 3% cystine, 630-674 HU; 15% mixed uric acid plus calcium oxalate, 499-840 HU; and 7% mixed cystine plus calcium phosphate, 430-520 HU. HU values of all stone types ranged between 320 and 1365. There was a statistically significant relation between HU values of uric acid and non uric acid stones (p

  17. Ultrasound Use in Urinary Stones: Adapting Old Technology for a Modern-Day Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, David T; Usawachintachit, Manint; Taguchi, Kazumi; Chi, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Ultrasound has become a mainstay tool in urologists' armamentarium for the diagnosis and management of nephrolithiasis. From starting as a rudimentary form of imaging, it has come to play a more prominent role over time, paralleling evolution in ultrasound technology. Throughout the medical community there is a growing emphasis on reducing the amount of ionizing radiation delivered to patients during routine imaging. As such there has been a resurgence of interest in ultrasound given its lack of associated radiation exposure and proven effectiveness as a diagnostic and therapeutic imaging modality. Herein, we provide a review of the history of ultrasound, how the use of ultrasound is expanding in both diagnosis and treatment of urinary stone disease, and finally how promising applications of ultrasound are shaping the future of kidney stone management.

  18. Humidity sorption on natural building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, C.; Mirwald, P.

    2003-04-01

    processes, physical, chemical or biological, depend on the presence of water. Like most porous materials building stone respond on humidity by water uptake. The sorption isotherm represents the equilibrium moisture, specific for each material. The determination of the isotherm for stone of low and small porosity like marble is difficult. With the help of a newly developed water sorption analysis chamber [2], which allows the simultaneous measurement of 11 samples, good results on stone/rock samples have been obtained. Even at marble species with pore volumes lower than 0.4 % isotherms are measured. This analytical method offers new insights in the pore behaviour of low porosity materials. The advantages of this technique which supplements other techniques (e.g. BET, Hg-porosimetry) are: i) the testing agent is identical to the weathering agent, water; ii) the atmospheric parameters at the measurement reflect the natural conditions - thus no changes to the material properties have to be considered; iii) due to the small diameter of the water molecule (~0.28 nm), smaller pores are reached than e.g. with N2 (~0.31 nm). Sorption isotherms of sandstone (Baumberg, Obernkirchen, Groeden), granite (Brixen), and marble (Sterzing, Laas) are presented. Particular as to marbles the resolution is considerably higher. A previously observed negative hysteresis [3] seems an effect due to limited data resolution. [1] Snethlage, R. (1984) Steinkonservierung, Bayer. LA Denkmalpflege, Ah. 22, 203 S. [2] Griesser, U.J., Dillenz, J. (2002) Neuartiges, vollautomatisches Feuchtesorptionsprüfgerät mit hohem Probendurchsatz, Feuchtetag 2002, Weimar, 85-93. [3] Fimmel, R. (1996) Verwitterungsverhalten der alpinen Marmore von Laas und Sterzing, Diss. Univ. Ibk, 116 S.

  19. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    groups. Group I: Ring-stone numbered 25 (P1. 1), 26, 31-33, 35 and 42 are made of basalt. Most of them were lying exposed on the sea-bed, a few of them lay partially buried, viz., no. 1. This is upside down. The exposed por- tions of these ring...

  20. "Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

  1. Comparison of Different Methods of Denim Stone Washing by Pumice Stone, Acid Cellulases and Neutral Cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montazer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Denim is a casual garment normally used by young people and extremely influential in shaping the fashion industry. Among various garments, these garments are subjected to innovations. This work is an attempt to compare the different methods of stone washing using pumice stones, acid cellulases and neutral cellulases or in combination of these methods. The effects of different processing conditions on the garment are compared and reported. Color differences of samples are probed by reflective colorimeter on the front side as well as the backside and also the white pocket of the garment.The abrasion resistance, tensile strength and crease recovery angle of samples are also reported. The XRD spectra are used to calculate the crystalline degrees of the selected samples. Moreover, fiber surfaces of some treated samples have been observed by SEM. The results indicate that treatment of denim with pumice stone with equal weight of garment causes a small color differences. The addition of cellulases to the washing, however, accelerates the color fading. Also, lower staining observed on the white pocket when the garment was treated with cellulases. However, the neutralcellulases increase the garment fading and decrease the staining on the white pocket. It is also observed that pumice stone with cellulases damages the fabric surface, although it is of a minimal damage.

  2. The Invention of I.F. Stone: the early life and career of I.F. Stone 1907-1953.

    OpenAIRE

    Guttenplan, D. D.

    2006-01-01

    When I.F. Stone died in June 1989 the Daily Telegraph described him as "the most notable radical publicist of his time" the Guardian called I.F. Stone's Weekly "essential reading for two generations of opinion makers" the Independent eulogized "the most famous crusading journalist in the United States." Stone's death made the front page of the New York Times and the Washington Post. It was also on all three U.S. network news broadcasts. Yet today I.F. Stone is practically a forgotten figure...

  3. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Spinelli Sanchez, Océane; Kind, Claus-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600-7100 BC), is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1) what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2) how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb.

  4. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    Full Text Available The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600-7100 BC, is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1 what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2 how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb.

  5. Stars and Stones on Emperor Elagabalus' Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeron, F.

    Several series of coins and medals issued under the reign of Roman Emperor Elagabalus (AD 218-222) refer to the ceremony of his entry in Rome, in which the baetyl of Emesa played a central role. This baetyl, a cone-shaped black stone of likely meteoritic origin, represents the solar divinity Baal, whose cult was introduced in Rome by Elagabalus. Worship of baetyls is common in ancient near-Eastern cultures, in which meteorites are believed to have a celestial origin, as opposed to the Aristotelian theory prevalent in the Roman culture at the epoch.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

  7. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt T.O.B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets (TEPs observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs, the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young or accretion growth (being smaller when young. We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

  8. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that lower infundibular length and width are significant anatomical factors in determining stone clearance following ESWL treatment of lower calyceal stones and these should be assessed before planning the treatment for lower calyceal stones.

  9. Prevalence of renal uric acid stones in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted. Out of them, 79 papers were selected after the reading of the titles and of the abstracts. For ten countries, papers relating to both the renal stone prevalence in the general population and the frequency of uric stones were available. Additional search produced 13 papers that completed information on 11 more countries in 5 continents. Estimated prevalence rate of uric acid stones was >0.75% in Thailand, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, South Africa (white population), United States and Australia; ranged 0.50-0.75% in Turkey, Israel, Italy, India (Southern), Spain, Taiwan, Germany, Brazil; and uric acid stone formation. A hot and dry climate increases fluid losses reducing urinary volume and urinary pH. A diet rich in meat protein causes low urinary pH and increased uric acid excretion. On the other hand, uric acid stone formation is frequently associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2 that are linked to dietary energy excess mainly from carbohydrate and saturated fat and also present with low urine pH values. An epidemic of uric acid stone formation could be if current nutritional trends will be maintained both in developed countries and in developing countries and the areas of greater climatic risk for the formation of uric acid stones will enlarge as result of the "global warming".

  10. Microfluidic Gel Patterning Method by Use of a Temporary Membrane for Organ-On-Chip Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, Martijn Peter; Leferink, Anne Marijke; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Segerink, Loes

    2018-01-01

    Organ-on-chip systems promise to be useful tools for disease modeling and drug testing. These systems focus on the separation of the parenchymal tissue from endothelial cells, which form the vasculature. Previous organ-on-chip models make use of artificial membranes to separate two fluidic channels

  11. Omphale: Streamlining the Communication for Jobs in a Multi Processor System on Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, T.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    Our Multi Processor System on Chip (MPSoC) template provides processing tiles that are connected via a network on chip. A processing tile contains a processing unit and a Scratch Pad Memory (SPM). This paper presents the Omphale tool that performs the first step in mapping a job, represented by a

  12. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stone disease: clinical experience with the electromagnetic lithotriptor 'Lithostar'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J; Corbusier, A; Mendes Leal, A; Van den Bossche, M; Wespes, E; Van Regemorter, G; Schulman, C C

    1989-01-01

    400 urinary stone patients were treated with the electromagnetic lithotriptor Siemens 'Lithostar': 66.3% had renal stones and 33.7% had ureteral stones. Ninety percent of the treatments were performed under intravenous sedation only: 14.5% of the patients had more than one session. After 3 months more than 80% of the patients with a single stone smaller than 1.5 cm and 46% of the patients with stones larger than 2.5 cm were 'stone-free'.

  13. VIZARD: analysis of Affymetrix Arabidopsis GeneChip data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseyko, Nick; Feldman, Lewis J.

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY: The Affymetrix GeneChip Arabidopsis genome array has proved to be a very powerful tool for the analysis of gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, the most commonly studied plant model organism. VIZARD is a Java program created at the University of California, Berkeley, to facilitate analysis of Arabidopsis GeneChip data. It includes several integrated tools for filtering, sorting, clustering and visualization of gene expression data as well as tools for the discovery of regulatory motifs in upstream sequences. VIZARD also includes annotation and upstream sequence databases for the majority of genes represented on the Affymetrix Arabidopsis GeneChip array. AVAILABILITY: VIZARD is available free of charge for educational, research, and not-for-profit purposes, and can be downloaded at http://www.anm.f2s.com/research/vizard/ CONTACT: moseyko@uclink4.berkeley.edu.

  14. River pollution caused by natural stone industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktriani, Ani; Darmajanti, Linda; Soesilo, Tri Edhi Budhi

    2017-03-01

    The natural stone industry is classified as small industry. Current wastewater treatment still causes pollution in the river. This thesis aims to analyze the performance of wastewater treatment in natural stones industry. The data was collected from water quality test (parameters: temperature, pH, DO, and TSS). The wastewater treatment performance was in a slightly higher position compared to the 2nd class quality standards of Government Regulation No. 82/2001. The parameter that exceeded quality standards was the concentration of TSS, which was up to 240.8 mg/l. The high concentration of TSS was affected by the absence of sludge management schedule, which resulted in non-optimal precipitation. Besides that, the design of sedimentation basin was still not adapted with wastewater debit. Referring to the results, this study suggests the government of Cirebon District to provide wastewater treatment development through the village staff. Furthermore, the government also needs to give strict punishment to business owner who does not treat waste correctly and does not have a business license. Moreover, the sale value of sludge as byproduct of wastewater treatment needs to be increased.

  15. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  16. On-chip cell analysis platform: Implementation of contact fluorescence microscopy in microfluidic chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Takehara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although fluorescence microscopy is the gold standard tool for biomedical research and clinical applications, their use beyond well-established laboratory infrastructures remains limited. The present study investigated a novel on-chip cell analysis platform based on contact fluorescence microscopy and microfluidics. Combined use of a contact fluorescence imager based on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology and an ultra-thin glass bottom microfluidic chip enabled both to observe living cells with minimal image distortion and to ease controlling and handling of biological samples (e.g. cells and biological molecules in the imaged area. A proof-of-concept experiment of on-chip detection of cellular response to endothelial growth factor demonstrated promising use for the recently developed on-chip cell analysis platform. Contact fluorescence microscopy has numerous desirable features including compatibility with plastic microfluidic chips and compatibility with the electrical control system, and thus will fulfill the requirements of a fully automated cell analysis system.

  17. MAPPING AND MODELLING FRACTURES USING GROUND PENETRATING RADAR FOR ORNAMENTAL STONE ASSESSMENT AND RECOVERY OPTIMIZATION: TWO CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkarmoty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock mass is typically characterized by inherent fractures that cause natural blocks of rocks. Unplanned cutting of stone deposits in quarries may lead to over-producing waste (rock debris or extracting unfit (fractured stone blocks. This paper presents two case studies through the use of low and high frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR antennas to detect fractures in two benches of a quarry. In the first case study, a high frequency GPR antenna was used aiming to: (i compare the GPR results with a map of the out-cropping fracture intensity in the bench surface, developed using the data of the GPR survey marks and interpolated by the Ordinary Kriging technique, and (ii present how sub-vertical fractures can be numerically modelled in three dimensions from the GPR results. The second case study was focused on using a low frequency antenna to detect large aperture size of fracture surfaces as deep as possible in order to evaluate a deposit stratum before quarrying. This could be done through studying the reflections from a 3D cross-sectional GPR model and a 3D transparent GPR model. In the discussion section, an exploitation planning approach, based on modelling fractures as 3D surfaces, is theoretically and graphically proposed to optimize the stone production recovery. The two case studies showed that GPR is a successful tool for the assessment of ornamental stone deposits and a promising tool for recovery optimization.

  18. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Various types of stone anchors have been observed during inshore and offshore explorations along the east and west coasts of India. The earliest stone anchors of India have been recorded from the Harappan sites (3rd millennium BC), but their shape...

  19. Incidence and Distribution of Pulp Stones Found in Radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Enes Tan,. Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kırıkkale University,. Kırıkkale, Turkey. E-mail: dentistan@yahoo.com. Introduction. Pulp stones (PS) are discrete calcified masses found in the dental pulp, in the pulp tissue or become attached to or embedded into the dentine.[1] Structurally, pulp stones can be.

  20. Production of concrete using laterite, periwinkle shell and river stone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the success recorded in producing concrete using laterite, periwinkle shell and river stone. Laterite was used to replace 100% of sand. Periwinkle shell replaces 50% by volume of the total coarse aggregate, while river stone made up the rest 50%. Sixteen mix ratios were used, and a total of 96 cubes ...

  1. Patient with Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy and Two Giant Stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare; very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. Multiple giant bladder stones are extremely rare; no single case report has been found documenting this occasion. This report presents a patient of benign prostatic hypertrophy with two giant ...

  2. Dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was two‑fold: (1) To assess the incidence of dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment, and (2) to determine the correlations between the presence of dental pulp stones and age, gender, and dental arches. Materials and Methods: A sample of 545 patients (334 girls and 211 ...

  3. Stone artefact production and exchange among the northern Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, Sebastiaan

    2006-01-01

    This work discusses the exchange of stone materials and artefacts among the northern Lesser Antilles during the Ceramic Age (500 BC - AD 1492). Through the systematic analysis of source materials and a comparison of these with lithic artefacts, the provenance of a significant portion of stone

  4. Medical comorbidities associated with pediatric kidney stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Anthony J; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J; Mathews, Ranjiv I; Neu, Alicia M; Gearhart, John P; Matlaga, Brian R

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the relationship between pediatric kidney stone disease and the presence of hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), and obesity. In adults, kidney stone disease has been associated with medical comorbidities such as HTN, DM, and obesity. Similar analyses have never been performed for the pediatric population. The 2003 and 2006 Kids' Inpatient Databases were queried to identify subjects treated for kidney stone disease ("International Classification of Diseases" codes 9592.0 and 592.1). The comorbidities of HTN, DM, and obesity were identified using the provided comorbidity software. The risk of kidney stone disease associated with age, sex, and comorbidity status was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 6,115,443 subjects were evaluated. Of these, 14,245 (0.2%) had a diagnosis of upper tract calculus (4092 boys and 10,045 girls, sex unavailable for 108). Age was the strongest independent predictor of stone risk (P children ≤10 years old and DM for children ≤5 years old. Stone risk was not affected by obesity in any age group. The results of our study have shown that kidney stone disease is significantly associated with age among all children and both HTN and DM for young children. Although exploratory, these findings are novel and suggest that kidney stone disease among young children might be associated with nonrenal, systemic disease states. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M. E.; Rauws, E. A.; Tytgat, G. N.; Huibregtse, K.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term results of endoscopic pancreatic stone removal in patients with chronic pancreatitis. We retrospectively included 53 patients with chronic pancreatitis, in whom an attempt was made at endoscopic stone removal between 1984 and 1993. Patients

  6. Kidney Stones and the Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rule, Andrew D.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Li, Xujian; Weaver, Amy L.; Lieske, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Kidney stones lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with rare hereditary disorders (e.g., primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria), but it is unknown whether kidney stones are an important risk factor for CKD in the general population.

  7. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  8. Urinary stones in children | Mshelbwala | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary stones were previously thought to be uncommon in the paediatric age however this may be due to differences in presentation and evaluation of children with stones. There are variations in the incidence worldwide; affected by diet and climate. Common aetiological factors are metabolic changes, urinary tract ...

  9. Urinary Exertion Of Calcium By Urinary Stone Disease Patients And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the urinary excretion of calcium by subjects in a known area of high incidence of urinary stone disease, and a known area of low incidence, 12 adult male patients with idiopathic calcigerous urinary stone disease in south-East Nigeria and 55 similar patients from Scotland, United Kingdom were analyzed ...

  10. Effect of Ferrous Additives on Magnesia Stone Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimich, V.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the modification of the magnesia binder with additives containing two- and three-valent iron cations which could be embedded in the chloromagnesium stone structure and also increase the strength from 60 MPa in a non-additive stone to 80MPa, water resistance from 0.58 for clear stone to 0.8 and reduce the hygroscopicity from 8% in the non-additive stone to 2% in the modified chloromagnesium stone. It is proposed to use the iron hydroxide sol as an additive in the quantities of up to 1% of the weight of the binder. The studies were carried out using the modern analysis methods: the differentialthermal and X-ray phase analysis. The structure was studied with an electron microscope with an X-ray microanalyzer. A two-factor plan-experiment was designed which allowed constructing mathematical models characterizing the influence of variable factors, such as the density of the zatcher and the amount of sol in the binder, on the basic properties of the magnesian stone. The result of the research was the magnesia stone with the claimed properties and formed from minerals characteristic for magnesian materials as well as additionally formed from amachenite and goethite. It has been established that a highly active iron hydroxide sol the ion sizes of which are commensurate with magnesium ions is actively incorporated into the structure of pentahydroxychloride and magnesium hydroxide changing the habit of crystals compacting the structure of the stone and changing its hygroscopicity.

  11. Chronic dehydration and symptomatic upper urinary tract stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic dehydration and symptomatic upper urinary tract stones in young adults in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home ... Patients and Methods: We reviewed all cases of renal stones referred to a single Consultant in a Teaching Hospital in Southwestern Nigeria over a two year period.

  12. In vitro study of transmission of bacteria from contaminated metal models to stone models via impressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofou, A.; Larsen, T.; Öwall, B.

    2002-01-01

    Dental impression, stone model, bacterial contamination, cross-infection, dental clinic, dental laboratory......Dental impression, stone model, bacterial contamination, cross-infection, dental clinic, dental laboratory...

  13. Incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Mao, Michael A; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Jaffer Sathick, Insara J; Dhondup, Tsering; Erickson, Stephen B

    2016-12-24

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the inception of the databases through March 2016. Studies assessing the incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients were included. We applied a random-effects model to estimate the incidence of kidney stones. Twenty one studies with 64416 kidney transplant patients were included in the analyses to assess the incidence of kidney stones after kidney transplantation. The estimated incidence of kidney stones was 1.0% (95%CI: 0.6%-1.4%). The mean duration to diagnosis of kidney stones after kidney transplantation was 28 ± 22 mo. The mean age of patients with kidney stones was 42 ± 7 years. Within reported studies, approximately 50% of kidney transplant recipients with kidney stones were males. 67% of kidney stones were calcium-based stones (30% mixed CaOx/CaP, 27%CaOx and 10%CaP), followed by struvite stones (20%) and uric acid stones (13%). The estimated incidence of kidney stones in patients after kidney transplantation is 1.0%. Although calcium based stones are the most common kidney stones after transplantation, struvite stones (also known as "infection stones") are not uncommon in kidney transplant recipients. These findings may impact the prevention and clinical management of kidney stones after kidney transplantation.

  14. Provenance analysis of Roman stone artefacts from sedimentary rocks from the archaeological site near Mošnje, NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Miletić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the macroscopic and microfacies characterisation of Roman stone artefacts excavated in 2006 from a Roman villa rustica near Mošnje (NW Slovenia with the aim of defiing their provenance. A total of 28 representative fids (querns, mortars, whetstones, tooled and rounded stones, a fragment of stone slab, mosaic tesserae and two architectural elements - one with a relief made of clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks were examined. Comparison was made with rock samples taken from quarries and gravel bars close to the archaeological site, as well as from larger distance to the site. The majority of artefact sampled is composed of Upper Palaeozoic quartz sandstones, which are found as pebbles in gravel bars close to the archaeological site; while 2 samples were from Quaternary coarse grained clastic rocks which can be found in local glacio-flvial sediments. Other fids were made of four different Mesozoic shallow-water limestones which outcrop in different areas of Central and SW Slovenia. The nearest Lower Jurassic biopelmicritic limestones are found at the western periphery of Ljubljana in Podutik. Cretaceous miliolid limestones and biocalcarenitic limestones with rudists are common in the successions of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform in SW Slovenia (for example, on the Trieste-Komen Plateau, NE Italy and SW Croatia. This indicates that the limestones for architectural elements, stone mortars and tesserae were brought to Mošnje from distant locations. Smaller stone tools are likely to have been made at the location of the archaeological site from material gathered locally, mostly pebbles from clastic rocks, which were accessible and suitable for tooling.

  15. Lioz: The Stone that made Lisbon reborn - A Global Heritage Stone Resource Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Lioz: The Stone that made Lisbon reborn - A Global Heritage Stone Resource Proposal Explored since the Roman Period, the Lioz (Cenomanian age microcrystalline fossiliferous limestone) is the main stone used in the buildings and monuments of Lisbon. After the great cataclysm of 1755 (earthquake, tsunami and fire) of 1755, the already known great quality and the near occurrence of these limestones were wisely used in the great reconstruction of the "Capital do Império" (Capital of the Empire). At the time, Lisbon was one of the largest European cities and great business center of the World, so the necessary and urgent reconstruction was not so difficult to start. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, better known as "Marquês de Pombal", Secretary of King José I, successfully took up the challenge of rebuilding Lisbon. Inside the actual Portuguese capital geographical limits, several quarries of the Cretaceous limestone were explored; some still exist and are classified as geomonuments (i.e., Rio Seco Geomonument, 38 ° 42'21 .67''N; 9 ° 11 '30.37''W). As the City boundaries expanded, the quarries stopped and now there is no one asset in Lisbon. The most important exploitation and processing Lioz stone center was situated in Pêro Pinheiro, 20 km NW of Lisbon. Most of the stones used in the National Palace-Convent of Mafra (1717) belongs to the four main types of Lioz (the cream/white "Abancado", the pink/dark pink "Encarnadão", the yellow "Amarelo de Negrais" and the blueish grey "Azulino"), either cut "against" (perpendicular to the bedding plane) or "along" (parallel to the bedding plane). The orientation stone cut deeply controls texture and mechanical properties of the rocks that behaves as different ones were considered. In the last two decades, the Lioz extraction was almost extinguished. However, some of the old quarries was reactivated and produces first quality blocks needed both for new works and restoration of historic buildings and monuments. The

  16. Method of proportioning stone to stowing installations underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szafarczyk, J.; Kubek, F.

    1992-07-01

    Reviews types of stowing intallations and the technology of supplying after-washing stone used. It is recommended to take advantage of downward inclined stowing pipeline sections for underground feeding of the stowing stone. Calculation of the mass of stone fed to a stowing pipeline is explained. First experience of using the method in the Jankowice black coal mine in 1991 is reported on. About 8,000 t of stone were stowed using the method during 7 months. The stowing installation consists of a tippler, a belt conveyor and a batcher of about 10 m[sup 3]. The capacity of the installation is 30 m[sup 3]/h. Suitable proportions of slag-crushed stone mixtures are recommended.

  17. Lacrimal gland duct stones: misdiagnosed as chalazion in 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Lee, Kook; Lee, Sang Un

    2014-02-01

    To report 3 cases of lacrimal gland duct stones misdiagnosed as chalazion. Retrospective case series. Three patients with lacrimal gland duct stones misdiagnosed as chalazion at a local clinic between 2010 and 2012. A thorough review of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic manifestations. Clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland duct stones included conjunctival injection, lid swelling, tenderness, and ocular discharge, which are similar to chalazion symptoms. Computed tomography revealed a relatively well-defined, high-density mass near the lacrimal gland. Histopathologic examination of excised material revealed calcified amorphous stones. Intractable chalazion-like lesions at the lateral canthal area near the lacrimal gland should be carefully examined; imaging studies are required to confirm the presence of lacrimal gland duct stones, which require surgical removal. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Stone Resource Assignment Model under the Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yao

    2012-01-01

    to tackle a stone resource assignment problem with the aim of decreasing dust and waste water emissions. On the upper level, the local government wants to assign a reasonable exploitation amount to each stone plant so as to minimize total emissions and maximize employment and economic profit. On the lower level, stone plants must reasonably assign stone resources to produce different stone products under the exploitation constraint. To deal with inherent uncertainties, the object functions and constraints are defuzzified using a possibility measure. A fuzzy simulation-based improved simulated annealing algorithm (FS-ISA is designed to search for the Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the model. Results and a comparison analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, which proves to be very efficient compared with other algorithms.

  19. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate-stone relationships in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    negatively related to density and positively related to number of families. Patterns were less clear for richness residuals. Simple linear regressions of fauna vs. stone parameters generally confirmed the results reached by the PLS analysis, although few of the regressions were significant. For all fauna......) multiple regression analyses showed high temporal variability between sampling dates in factor loadings of specific stone micro habitat variables. In spite of this, there was a clear negative effect of depth and a positive effect of current on density and number of families. Stone size was consistently...... of fauna parameter and stone variable from different sampling dates (n=9-11) were rarely correlated to any of the measures of stream stability, this study has demonstrated high temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships (CV's of regression slopes). Consequently, temporally un-replicated studies...

  20. Medicaid CHIP ESPC Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Scanning and Program Characteristic (ESPC) Database is in a Microsoft (MS) Access format and contains Medicaid and CHIP data, for the 50 states and...

  1. Berroqueña stone of Madrid (Spain). A traditional and contemporary building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; Varas Muriel, Ma José

    2014-05-01

    In the Alpedrete monzogranite to granodiorite pluton (350 km2) at 45 km north of the city of Madrid, there are several quarries of Berroqueña stone.This stone has been widely used as building stone in well-preserved and significant buildings of the central area of Spain, such as the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción in Alpedrete (16th century), Royal Palace and Alcalá Gate in Madrid (18th century). This building stone is used, both for new construction and restoration work, like headquarter of the Banco de España in Madrid (19th century) and its restoration (20th century). Alpedrete granite is compositionally classified as monzogranite. Petrographically, it is a medium (1-5 mm) grained subidiomorphic, and equigranular. This mineralogy consists chiefly of quartz (2-3 mm and 40-50% vol.), plagioclase (1-3 mm and 25-30% vol.), K-feldspar (microcline; 2-4 mm and 10-15% vol.) and biotite (1- 2 mm and 10-15% vol.). Its accessory minerals are cordierite, apatite, zircon and monazite. This grey granite has low amount of cracks, its open porosity (accessible to water) is 0,8 % and accessible to mercury is 0,50 %, with a diameter ranging mostly from 0.01 to 0.1 µm. Water absortion is 0,3%. Its bulk density is 2668 kg/m3 and its anisotropy grade (dM) is 6,5 %. its ultrasound propagation velocity (Vp) is 4626 m/s and microhardness of Knoop test 4544 Mpa. Pressure strenght ,and flexure strength 136.9 Mpa and 8.88 Mpa, respectiverly. Measurements obtained of petrophysical properties make this granite a high quality building material. Petrological and petrophysical characteristics of Berroqueña stone, with which have been used for many buildings from 16th century to present, provide a good answer to the decay agents, and therefore durability, possibility of differents finishes and good cleaning. Currently widely used in restoration and paving streets, outdoor tiling and funerary art. Acknowledgments: Special thanks are given to the Geomaterials (S2009/MAT 1629) and CONSOLIDER

  2. Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Nick A; Viles, Heather A; Ahmad, Samin; McCabe, Stephen; Smith, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    In humid, temperate climates, green algae can make a significant contribution to the deterioration of building stone, both through unsightly staining ('greening') and, possibly, physical and chemical transformations. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the deteriorative impact and spatial distribution of green algal biofilms, hindering attempts to model the influence of climate change on building conservation. To address this problem, we surveyed four sandstone heritage structures in Belfast, UK. Our research had two aims: 1) to investigate the relationships between greening and the deterioration of stone structures and 2) to assess the impacts of environmental factors on the distribution of green biofilms. We applied an array of analytical techniques to measure stone properties indicative of deterioration status (hardness, colour and permeability) and environmental conditions related to algal growth (surface and sub-surface moisture, temperature and surface texture). Our results indicated that stone hardness was highly variable but only weakly related to levels of greening. Stone that had been exposed for many years was, on average, darker and greener than new stone of the same type, but there was no correlation between greening and darkening. Stone permeability was higher on 'old', weathered stone but not consistently related to the incidence of greening. However, there was evidence to suggest that thick algal biofilms were capable of reducing the ingress of moisture. Greening was negatively correlated with point measurements of surface temperature, but not moisture or surface texture. Our findings suggested that greening had little impact on the physical integrity of stone; indeed the influence of algae on moisture regimes in stone may have a broadly bioprotective action. Furthermore, the relationship between moisture levels and greening is not straightforward and is likely to be heavily dependent upon temporal patterns in moisture

  3. Nanobacteria: An Infectious Cause for Salivary Stone Formation and Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A El Badry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobacteria (NB contribute to pathological calcification in the human and animal body. It has been isolated from salivary stones and suggested that it may act as a nucleus for the initiation of these stones. In the present study, we examined its role in the recurrent salivary gland stones using immunodetection with NB-specific monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM hoping to provide a method for preventing the recurrence of these stones in the patient that has suffered from salivary stones. Our study comprised 30 patients with recurrent salivary gland stones (group I and 30 patients with salivary gland stones for the first time (group II, in addition to 30 normal controls (group III. We could detect 100–500 nm nanoparticles in 24/30 (80% cases in group I with significant difference <0.05 and <0.01 when compared with group II and group III in which they were detected in 19/30 (63.3% and 6/30 (20% respectively. Also there was a significant difference <0.05 between group II and group III. We proposed that salivary stone formation is a nanobacterial disease initiated by bacterial infection. This bacteria may play an important role in the recurrence of salivary stone. So the use of calcium chelator, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, before or in combination with the suitable antibiotic that is given in an amount effective to inhibit or prevent the growth and development of nanobacteria may eradicate these stones and prevent their recurrence.

  4. Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R Todd; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Wiebe, Natasha; Bello, Aminu; Morgan, Catherine; Samuel, Susan; Klarenbach, Scott W; Curhan, Gary C

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the presence of kidney stones increase the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or other adverse renal outcomes. Design A registry cohort study using validated algorithms based on claims and facility utilisation data. Median follow-up of 11 years. Setting Alberta, Canada, between 1997 and 2009. Participants 3 089 194 adult patients without ESRD at baseline or a history of pyelonephritis. Of these, 1 954 836 had outpatient serum creatinine measurements and were included in analyses of chronic kidney disease and doubling of serum creatinine level. Exposure One or more kidney stones during follow-up. Main outcome measures Incident ESRD, development of stage 3b–5 chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate kidney stones during follow-up. The excess risk of adverse outcomes associated with at least one episode of stones seemed greater in women than in men, and in people aged <50 years than in those aged ≥50. However, the risks of all three adverse outcomes in those with at least one episode of stones were significantly higher than in those without stones in both sexes and age strata. The absolute increase in the rate of adverse renal outcomes associated with stones was small: the unadjusted rate of ESRD was 2.48 per million person days in people with one or more episodes of stones versus 0.52 per million person days in people without stones. Conclusion Even a single kidney stone episode during follow-up was associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of adverse renal outcomes including ESRD. However, the increases were small in absolute terms. PMID:22936784

  5. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  6. Design and Development of a Portable Metal Chip Baler using A System Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohd Fahrul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of metal chips at workplace will result in untidy and unsafe condition thus measurements of safety are needed in some industries, where the metal chips will be collected and put into a container until the volume is sufficient to be recycled. Due to that reason, the metal chips require a lot of spaces for storage before going to recycle. In this study, a portable metal chip baler as a device for compacting those metal chips is presented based on a system approach of engineering design. Basically, the system design evolves through four phases of development that are started from conceptual design, preliminary system design, detail design and development to system test and evaluation. The portable metal chip baler uses current technology such as pneumatic cylinder to compress the metal chips so that the system capable to operate efficiently. The output from this system is the metal chips are compacted into a block shape and a working prototype was developed to prove the concept of the system. As a summary, the conceptual design of portable metal chip baler was proven and was presented using the philosophy of the systems design approach. This tool may assists workers especially in the Small-Medium Enterprise (SME manufacturing industries, school or universities’ workshops for managing metal chips easily and systematically.

  7. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for Environmental Assessment...

  8. The effect of inclined position on stone free rates in patients with lower caliceal stones during SWL session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the outcomes of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL combined with inclined position and SWL alone in patients with lower pole calyx stones. Methods: Seven hundred forty patients who underwent SWL treatment for lower pole renal stones with a total diameter of 2 cm or less were prospectively randomized into two groups. They were comparable in terms of age, sex, and stone diameters. Patients with lower calyceal stones (4-20 mm were randomized to SWL (368 patients or SWL with simultaneous inclination (372 patients with 30o head down Trendelenburg position. Shock wave and session numbers were standardized according to stone size. Additional standardized shock waves were given to patients with stone fragments determined by kidney urinary bladder film and ultrasound at weeks 1, 4, 10. Results: The overall stone free rate (SFR was 73% (268/368 in patients with SWL alone and 81% (300/372 in SWL with inclination at the end of 12th week (p = 0.015. No significant adverse events were noted in both treatment groups. Conclusion: Simultaneous inclination of patients during SWL session increase SFR in lower caliceal stones significantly compared to SWL treatment alone.

  9. Using a three-dimensional computer assisted stone volume estimates to evaluate extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy treatment of kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Lene Hyldgaard; Ulriksen, Peter Sommer; Omar, Omar Salah

    2016-01-01

    This study describes and evaluates the use of non-contrast enhanced computerized tomography (NCCT) before and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Computer measured stone volume was used as an exact measurement for treatment response. 81 patients received SWL of kidney stones at Herlev...

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  11. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  12. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  13. A correlation for predicting the abrasive water jet cutting depth for natural stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan C. Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The abrasive water jet (AWJ cutting method has been used widely for the cutting and processing of materials because of its cool, damage-free, and precise cutting technique. Nowadays, the use of AWJ cutting in the natural stone industry is increasing. However, the effectiveness of AWJ cutting of natural stones is dependent on the rock properties and machine operating parameters. In this study, injection-type AWJ cutting was applied to 42 different types of natural stones to investigate the effects of rock properties and operating parameters on the cutting depth. Shore hardness, Bohme surface abrasion resistance and the density of the rocks were the most significant rock properties affecting the cutting depth. The working pump pressure and traverse velocity were the most significant operating parameters affecting cutting, as has been shown previously. The relationships between the rock properties or operating parameters and the cutting depth were evaluated using multiple linear and nonlinear regression analyses, and estimation models were developed. Some of the models included only rock properties under fixed operating conditions, and others included both rock properties and operating parameters to predict cutting depth. The models allow for the preselection of particular operating parameters for the cutting of specific rocks types. The prediction of cutting depth is a valuable tool for the controlled surface machining of rock materials.

  14. A comparative study of mud-like and coralliform calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Qiao, Tie; Huang, Hai-Yi; Zhong, Hai-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    To gain insight to underlying mechanism of the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) gallbladder stones, we did comparative study of stones with mud appearance and those with coralliform appearance. A total of 93 gallbladder stones with mud appearance and 50 stones with coralliform appearance were analyzed. The appearance, color, texture, and the detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs by microscopic examination were compared between the two groups. Then, the material compositions of stones were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the spectrogram characteristics were compared. Moreover, microstructure characteristics of the two kinds of stones were observed and compared with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Mud-like gallbladder stones were mainly earthy yellow or brown with brittle or soft texture, while coralliform stones were mainly black with extremely hard texture, the differences between the two groups was significant (p mud-like gallbladder stones were CaCO3 stones, and mainly aragonite; while all of the coralliform stones were CaCO3 stones, and mainly calcite (p mud-like CaCO3 stones was lower than that in coralliform CaCO3 stones (p Mud-like CaCO3 stones mainly happened to patients with cystic duct obstruction. Clonorchis sinensis infection was mainly associated with coralliform (calcite) CaCO3 stones. Cystic duct obstruction was mainly associated with mud-like (aragonite) CaCO3 stones. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Measuring stone volume - three-dimensional software reconstruction or an ellipsoid algebra formula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Johnston, Richard; Shaida, Nadeem; Winterbottom, Andrew; Wiseman, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    To determine the optimal method for assessing stone volume, and thus stone burden, by comparing the accuracy of scalene, oblate, and prolate ellipsoid volume equations with three-dimensional (3D)-reconstructed stone volume. Kidney stone volume may be helpful in predicting treatment outcome for renal stones. While the precise measurement of stone volume by 3D reconstruction can be accomplished using modern computer tomography (CT) scanning software, this technique is not available in all hospitals or with routine acute colic scanning protocols. Therefore, maximum diameters as measured by either X-ray or CT are used in the calculation of stone volume based on a scalene ellipsoid formula, as recommended by the European Association of Urology. In all, 100 stones with both X-ray and CT (1-2-mm slices) were reviewed. Complete and partial staghorn stones were excluded. Stone volume was calculated using software designed to measure tissue density of a certain range within a specified region of interest. Correlation coefficients among all measured outcomes were compared. Stone volumes were analysed to determine the average 'shape' of the stones. The maximum stone diameter on X-ray was 3-25 mm and on CT was 3-36 mm, with a reasonable correlation (r = 0.77). Smaller stones (15 mm towards scalene ellipsoids. There was no difference in stone shape by location within the kidney. As the average shape of renal stones changes with diameter, no single equation for estimating stone volume can be recommended. As the maximum diameter increases, calculated stone volume becomes less accurate, suggesting that larger stones have more asymmetric shapes. We recommend that research looking at stone clearance rates should use 3D-reconstructed stone volumes when available, followed by prolate, oblate, or scalene ellipsoid formulas depending on the maximum stone diameter. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  16. MONITORING THE DETERIORATION OF STONE AT MINDENER MUSEUM'S LAPIDARIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pomaska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mindener Museum's Lapidarium incorporates a collection of stone work like reliefs, sculptures and inscriptions from different time epochs as advices of the city's history. These gems must be protected against environmental influences and deterioration. In advance of the measures a 3D reconstruction and detailed documentation has to be taken. The framework to establish hard- and software must match the museum's infrastructure. Two major question will be answered. Are low-cost scanning devices like depth cameras and digital of the shelf cameras suitable for the data acquisition? Does the functionality of open source and freeware covers the demand on investigation and analysis in this application? The working chain described in this contribution covers the structure from motion method and the reconstruction with RGB-D cameras. Mesh processing such as cleaning, smoothing, poisson surface reconstruction and texturing will be accomplished with MeshLab. Data acquisition and modelling continues in structure analysis. Therefore the focus lies as well on latest software developments related to 3D printing technologies. Repairing and finishing of meshes is a task for MeshMixer. Netfabb as a tool for positioning, dimensioning and slicing enables virtual handling of the items. On the Sketchfab web site one can publish and share 3D objects with integration into web pages supported by WebGL. Finally if a prototype is needed, the mesh can be uploaded to a 3D printing device provided by an online service.

  17. The Impact Of Surface Shape Of Chip-Breaker On Machined Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šajgalík, Michal; Czán, Andrej; Martinček, Juraj; Varga, Daniel; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David

    2015-12-01

    Machined surface is one of the most used indicators of workpiece quality. But machined surface is influenced by several factors such as cutting parameters, cutting material, shape of cutting tool or cutting insert, micro-structure of machined material and other known as technological parameters. By improving of these parameters, we can improve machined surface. In the machining, there is important to identify the characteristics of main product of these processes - workpiece, but also the byproduct - the chip. Size and shape of chip has impact on lifetime of cutting tools and its inappropriate form can influence the machine functionality and lifetime, too. This article deals with elimination of long chip created when machining of shaft in automotive industry and with impact of shape of chip-breaker on shape of chip in various cutting conditions based on production requirements.

  18. Stone material of regional provenance from Sirmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rižnar Igor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stone artefacts from Sirmium, held at the Museum of Srem, were sampled and analyzed in order to establish an archaeological database connected with Roman quarries and possible transport routes along the Sava and Danube Rivers. Of the artefacts made of Neogene limestone three lithotypes were identified. Two of them were determined as originating from the known Roman quarry in the Drina Valley (NE Bosnia. For the third lithotype and its subtypes a model of the hypothetical quarry is proposed, the location of which is suggested to be outside the Drina river basin. Beside limestone, the sampled artefacts also revealed two types of porous volcanoclastic rocks of andesitic composition, which supposedly originate from two different microlocations in the Drina river basin.

  19. Laser cleaning of graffiti on stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Victoria; Kostadinov, Ivan; Zahariev, Peter; Grozeva, Margarita; Miloushev, Ilko

    2016-01-01

    In present days graffiti is a common problem that many restorers have to deal with due to both its unaesthetic appearance and damaging nature for the surface beneath. We report laser cleaning of graffiti paints (black, white, blue, green and red) on limestone and granite. The efficiency of two laser systems is compared: high repetition rate (20 kHz) Copper Bromide Vapor Laser (CuBrVL) generating wavelength 510.6 nm and low repetition rate (up to 10 Hz) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generating fundamental wavelength 1064 nm and its second harmonic 532 nm. The surface condition of the stone samples before and after cleaning is evaluated by means of optical microscopy. On that base, suitable working parameters are chosen in order to avoid under- or over-cleaning.

  20. Stone mortars in Roman Cisalpine: new specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caffini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mortar, made of stone or marble, represents artifact in Cisalpine widespread elsewhere in the Roman world. the morphologies are substantially grouped into two basic shapes: type 1 presents a hemispherical bowl more or less flattened, Type 2 is characterized by a conical reverse body, more or less flared. In the mortars were subjected to pounding and grinding, using a pestle driven by hand, raw materials of various origin. The fields of application were mainly three: alimentary, officinal and cosmetic. In some cases the generic definition of mortar is applied improperly to marble containers probably only be used for ornamental. It 'also demonstrated the use of artifacts attributable to type 2 as a function of urns. Therefore, in reference to decontextualized pieces, you should use a definition not unique, reflecting the different possible meanings of the artifact.

  1. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  2. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations

  3. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is

  4. Simple and practical nomograms for predicting the stone-free rate after shock wave lithotripsy in patients with a solitary upper ureteral stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Naoya; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Miyahara, Makoto; Omura, Minami; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Miyata, Kazutoyo; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-09-01

    To develop practical nomograms for predicting the stone-free rate after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients with a solitary stone in the proximal ureter. Between July 2006 and June 2015, 319 patients with a proximal ureteral stone who underwent preoperative non-contrast enhanced computed tomography (NCCT) and subsequently received SWL were identified. Patients' age, gender, laterality, stone size, mean and maximum Hounsfield Unit (HU) of the stone, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were assessed. The stone-free status was defined as no radiopacity detected on the 3-month follow-up plain radiography or NCCT. Mean stone size was 10 mm (range 3-20 mm). Mean and maximum HU of the stone ranged from 115 to 1447 (mean 701) and from 265 to 1881 (mean 1062), respectively. The overall stone-free rate was 70%. Multivariate analyses identified stone size (p < 0.001), maximum HU (p < 0.001), and SSD at 90° (p = 0.038) as independent predictive factors for the stone-free status after SWL. Nomograms could be constructed for predicting the probability of stone-free status after SWL corresponding to SSD of 8, 10, and 12 cm using maximum HU and stone size. This study demonstrated that stone size, maximum HU of the stone, and SSD at 90° are significant predictors of successful SWL outcome in patients with a proximal ureteral stone. We have developed simple and practical nomograms corresponding to three different SSDs for predicting the stone-free rate after SWL.

  5. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  6. Metabolic syndrome and the genesis of uric acid stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Naim M

    2011-01-01

    Uric acid stones are significantly more common among nephrolithiasis patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and/or the metabolic syndrome. The principal metabolic feature responsible for this association is an overly acidic urine, which leads to the precipitation of sparingly soluble uric acid crystals in urine and subsequent development of stones. The unduly acidic urine in uric acid stone formers is caused by a combination of excessive dietary intake of animal proteins and a defect in renal ammoniagenesis and/or excretion that leads to impaired buffering and amplifies the acidic urine caused by an increased acid excretion. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, The article presents numerical analyses of an underground stone quarry made using of the finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Rapa Nui (Easter Island’s Stone Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Hamilton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the spatial, architectural and conceptual relationships between landscape places, stone quarrying, and stone moving and building during Rapa Nui’s statue-building period. These are central themes of the ‘Rapa Nui Landscapes of Construction Project’ and are discussed using aspects of the findings of our recent fieldwork. The different scales of expression, from the detail of the domestic sphere to the monumental working of quarries, are considered. It is suggested that the impressiveness of Rapa Nui’s stone architecture is its conceptual coherence at the small scale as much as at the large scale.

  9. Stone/ureter identification during alexandrite laser lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheu, M.; Flemming, Gabriela; Engelhardt, Ralf

    1991-07-01

    A spectroscopic stone/ureter identification system is already in clinical use for pulsed dye laser lithotripters (590 nm). Alexandrite lasers are believed to be a solid-state laser alternative to pulsed dye lasers in lithotripsy. We investigated different spectroscopic stone/ureter detection schemes for the q-switched alexandrite laser (750 nm and 375 nm), including plasma detection, spectral LIF analysis, and time resolved LIF intensity analysis. Additionally, we investigated the possibility to identify different stone types using laser induced fluorescence exited at UV wavelengths.

  10. Pumice stones as potential in-situ burning enhancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Alva, U.; Andersen, Bjørn Skjønning; Jomaas, Grunde

    2018-01-01

    Small-scale and mid-scale experiments were conducted in order to evaluate pumice stones as a potential enhancement for in-situ burning (ISB). Four oil types, several emulsification degrees of one crude oil were studied. In general, it was observed that the pumice stones did not improve the burning...... and after the burn, thus bringing the oil into the water column. Finally, the species production of CO and CO2 was not reduced. Based on the presented results, pumice stones have a negative impact on the efficiency of ISB, and they are ruled out as an ISB enhancer and should not be used in relation to ISB....

  11. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Small Renal Calyx Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Sener

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lower pole kidney stones are one of the most common problems is urology practice. For this group of patients, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS are established treatments with low morbidity and high efficacy. SWL has relatively lower success rates for lower pole stones. On the other hand, RIRS has as high as 100% success rates for lower pole stones. With advances in technology and experience we believe RIRS may be the first treatment option over SWL in the following years.

  12. The growing prevalence of kidney stones and opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Katherine; O'Bell, John; Pareek, Gyan

    2014-12-02

    The prevalence of kidney stones is climbing in the United States. Several investigators have demonstrated an association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stones and some have proposed a causal link. Risk factors for nephrolithiasis can be identified with a 24-hour urine collection and preventive measures can be customized to meet the needs of individual patients. Dietary and pharmacologic interventions are available to address urinary risk factors such as inadequate urine volume, hypercalcuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hypocitraturia. Given that morbidity and healthcare costs associated with nephrolithiasis are on the rise, deterring stone formation is increasingly important. Multidisciplinary clinics that foster collaboration between urologists, nephrologists and dieticians offer patients effective prevention and treatment strategies.

  13. [Solitary stones of the lower renal calyx: how to treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martov, A G; Ergakov, D V; Andronov, A S; Dutov, S V; Takhaev, R A; Kil'chukov, Z I; Moskalenko, S A

    2017-06-01

    The choice of treatment for the stones of the lower renal calyx is one of the challenging issues of modern urology. The aim of this retrospective and prospective study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of 3 modern minimally invasive techniques for treating renal stones: percutaneous (PNL) and transurethral (TNL) nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in patients with solitary lower calyx stones sized from 10 to 15 mm. The study included 136 patients with symptomatic stones of the lower calyces, who underwent ESWL, PNL and TNL from November 2010 to the present day. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: the presence of a solitary stone of the lower calyx, the stone size of 10 mm to 15 mm, the performance of the classical (standard) PNL in the prone position (puncture access 28-30 Fr) and the follow-up examination at 3 months after the operation. Forty-six patients underwent ESWL, 49 - PNL, and 41 - TNL. Postoperative follow-up was done at 3 months and included a plain radiography, ultrasound and non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The stone free rate (SFR) was used as a criterion for the effectiveness of the intervention, where the stone size of 3 mm was taken as the upper limit for the possible presence of fragments. Besides, the rate of repeat interventions, complications and subjective assessment of patients treatment satisfaction (0 to 10) by using visual analogue scale (VAS) were investigated. The effectiveness analysis of the three methods for treating the lower calyx stones sized 10-15 mm showed that PNL was no more effective than TNL (SFR 95.9% and 85.4%, respectively), but both methods were significantly more effective than ESWL (SFR 69.5%). 29.3% of patients who underwent TNL required repeat interventions (TNL or ESWL), while among those treated with ESWL, 45.6% required repeat ESWL sessions. PNL resulted in stone clearance in one stage. Postoperative inflammatory complications were most

  14. "Piedra Franca": the same name for many different natural stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Navarro, Rafael; Baltuille, Jose Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Spanish name "Piedra Franca" refers to all the stones of sedimentary origin that have uniform coloration and easeof cutting/carving in order to obtain dimensional blocks for construction. The first references to this denomination occurred during medieval times, when builders had to choose the best materials to construct magnificent cathedrals. The largest volume of such natural stones were extracted from Caen, northern France, and historic records use the English term, "freestone", ie stone easy to cut, and to work by the masons dedicated to build cathedrals ("freemasons") in contrast to the "roughstone", hard stones worked by the hard hewers or "rough masons". The original French name referred to the limestones extracted at Caen, but over time, the original meaning expanded to include other natural stones with similar coloration and ease to carve. Notably this included many sandstones that were used in adjacent countries such as Spain. In the latter, although the most popular for its importance in architectural heritage is the Villamayor sandstone from Salamanca, other historically important natural stones are also known as "Piedra Franca" including the calcarenite from Santa Pudia (Granada), the limestone from Alava, the sandstone from Jaen and the sandstone from Cádiz. All of them were used in the construction of Spanish architectonic heritage and share similar exterior characteristics. In fact, several are known as golden stones. However when conservation and restoration of architectonic heritage is involved, the correct and original material should be used. The existence of national networks (e.g. CONSTRUROCK) and international task groups (e.g. IUGS Heritage Stone Task Group) can help to properly characterize, document, and differentiate between the varieties of "Piedra Franca" and they should be consulted by builders, architects and any other stone professsionals involved in such activities. An error in choosing the natural stone can result in

  15. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Allison; Rohrlack, Thomas; Bellouard, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae detection and monitoring. We start with an overview of the detection methods currently used for algae monitoring, followed by a review of lab on a chip devices for algae detection and classification, and then discuss a case study based on our own research activities. We conclude with a discussion on future challenges and motivations for algae-oriented lab on a chip technologies. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Using bones to shape stones: MIS 9 bone retouchers at both edges of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Blasco

    Full Text Available A significant challenge in Prehistory is to understand the mechanisms involved in the behavioural evolution of human groups. The degree of technological and cultural development of prehistoric groups is assessed mainly through stone tools. However, other elements can provide valuable information as well. This paper presents two bone retouchers dated to the Middle Pleistocene MIS 9 used for the shaping of lithic artefacts. Originating from Bolomor Cave (Spain and Qesem Cave (Israel, these two bone retouchers are among the earliest of the Old World. Although the emergence of such tools might be found in the latest phases of the Acheulean, their widespread use seems to coincide with independently emergent post-Acheulean cultural complexes at both ends of the Mediterranean Sea: the post-Acheulean/pre-Mousterian of Western Europe and the Acheulo Yabrudian Cultural Complex of the Levant. Both entities seem to reflect convergent processes that may be viewed in a wider cultural context as reflecting new technology-related behavioural patterns as well as new perceptions in stone tool manufacturing.

  17. Multiple bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozturk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex renal stones are staghorn calculi stones >2 cm and most calculus are calcium stones. In patients found with obstruction may need an emergency intervention. Three patients with multiple stones causing bilateral renal obstruction were operated.

  18. Evaluation and medical management of kidney stones in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Copelovitch, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    We review the current literature on the diagnostic evaluation and dietary and pharmacological management of children with nephrolithiasis. We searched MEDLINE(®), Embase(®) and the Cochrane Library from their inceptions to March 2014 for published articles in English on kidney stones and therapy in children 0 to 18 years old. Based on review of the titles and abstracts, 110 of the 1,014 articles (11%) were potentially relevant to the diagnostic evaluation and medical management of nephrolithiasis in children. We summarized this literature and drew on studies performed in adult populations to augment areas in which no studies of sufficient quality have been performed in children, and to highlight areas in need of research. During the last 25 years the incidence of nephrolithiasis in children has increased by approximately 6% to 10% annually and is now 50 per 100,000 adolescents. Kidney stones that form during childhood have a similar composition to those that form in adulthood. Approximately 75% to 80% of stones are composed of predominantly calcium oxalate, 5% to 10% are predominantly calcium phosphate, 10% to 20% are struvite and 5% are pure uric acid. The recurrence rate of nephrolithiasis in patients with stones that form during childhood is poorly defined. Ultrasound should be used as the initial imaging study to evaluate children with suspected nephrolithiasis, with noncontrast computerized tomography reserved for those in whom ultrasound is nondiagnostic and the suspicion of nephrolithiasis remains high. Current treatment strategies for children with kidney stone disease are based largely on extrapolation of studies performed in adult stone formers and single institution cohort or case series studies of children. Tamsulosin likely increases the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in children. Increased water intake and reduction of salt consumption should be recommended for all children with a history of kidney stones. Potassium citrate is a

  19. Influence of Pelvicaliceal Anatomy on Stone Clearance After Flexible Ureteroscopy and Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Large Renal Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takaaki; Murota, Takashi; Okada, Shinsuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Muguruma, Kouei; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of pelvicaliceal anatomy on stone clearance in patients with remnant fragments in the lower pole after flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy (fURSL) for renal stones >15 mm. This retrospective study included 67 patients with radiopaque residual fragments (>2 mm) in the lower pole after fURSL for large renal stones (>15 mm). The preoperative infundibular length (IL), infundibular width (IW), infundibulopelvic angle (IPA), and caliceal pelvic height (CPH) were measured using intravenous urography. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine whether any of these measurements affected stone clearance. Of the 67 patients, 55 (82.1%) were stone free (SF) 3 months after fURSL. The anatomic factors significantly favorable for an SF status were a short IL, broad IW, wide IPA, and low CPH. On multivariate analysis, the IPA had a significant influence on an SF status after fURSL (p=0.010). An IPA renal stones according to our multivariate analysis. Additional studies are required to further evaluate the characteristics of the pelvicaliceal anatomy influencing stone clearance.

  20. Nanoslits in silicon chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Thomas; Brenner, Matthew; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2009-01-28

    Potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching of a patterned [100] oriented silicon wafer produces V-shaped etch pits. We demonstrate that the remaining thickness of silicon at the tip of the etch pit can be reduced to approximately 5 microm using an appropriately sized etch mask and optical feedback. Starting from such an etched chip, we have developed two different routes for fabricating 100 nm scale slits that penetrate through the macroscopic silicon chip (the slits are approximately 850 microm wide at one face of the chip and gradually narrow to approximately 100-200 nm wide at the opposite face of the chip). In the first process, the etched chips are sonicated to break the thin silicon at the tip of the etch pit and then further KOH etched to form a narrow slit. In the second process, focused ion beam milling is used to etch through the thin silicon at the tip of the etch pit. The first method has the advantage that it uses only low-resolution technology while the second method offers more control over the length and width of the slit. Our slits can be used for preparing mechanically stable, transmission electron microscopy samples compatible with electrical transport measurements or as nanostencils for depositing nanowires seamlessly connected to their contact pads.

  1. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis......This review with 239 references has as its aim to give the reader an introduction to the kinds of methods used for developing microchip based electrode systems as well as to cover the existing literature on electroanalytical systems where microchips play a crucial role for 'nondestructive...... studies and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies of living cells have been omitted. Included is also a discussion about some future and emerging nano tools and considerations that might have an impact on the future of "nondestructive" chip based electroanalysis of living cells....

  2. On-chip positionable photonic waveguides for chip-to-chip optical interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.J.; Tichem, M.; Vivien, Laurent; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Pelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress related to a multichannel photonic alignment concept, aiming for sub-micrometer precision in the alignment of the waveguides of two photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The concept consists of two steps: chip-to-chip positioning and chip bonding provide a coarse

  3. Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Henrik Loft; Vilmann, Peter; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Management strategy for common bile duct (CBD) stones is controversial with several treatment options if stones in the CBD are recognized intraoperatively. The aim of this study was to report our experience with same-session combined endoscopic-laparoscopic treatment of gallbladder and CBD stones....... We retrospectively evaluated 31 patients with cholecystolithiasis and CBD stones undergoing same-session combined endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and endoscopic stone extraction and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Same-session ERCP and sphincterotomy were...... pancreatitis postoperatively and no other morbidity or mortality. In conclusion, same-session ERCP with stone extraction and laparoscopic cholecystectomy seems to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for CBD stones....

  4. A volumetric meter chip for point-of-care quantitative detection of bovine catalase for food safety control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xingye; Hu, Jie; Choi, Jane Ru; Huang, Yalin; Wang, Xuemin [The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Lu, Tian Jian, E-mail: tjlu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Xu, Feng, E-mail: fengxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China)

    2016-09-07

    A volumetric meter chip was developed for quantitative point-of-care (POC) analysis of bovine catalase, a bioindicator of bovine mastitis, in milk samples. The meter chip displays multiplexed quantitative results by presenting the distance of ink bar advancement that is detectable by the naked eye. The meter chip comprises a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer, a double-sided adhesive (DSA) layer and a glass slide layer fabricated by the laser-etching method, which is typically simple, rapid (∼3 min per chip), and cost effective (∼$0.2 per chip). Specially designed “U shape” reaction cells are covered by an adhesive tape that serves as an on-off switch, enabling the simple operation of the assay. As a proof of concept, we employed the developed meter chip for the quantification of bovine catalase in raw milk samples to detect catalase concentrations as low as 20 μg/mL. The meter chip has great potential to detect various target analytes for a wide range of POC applications. - Highlights: • The meter chip is a standalone point-of-care diagnostic tool with visible readouts of quantification results. • A fast and low cost fabrication protocol (~3 min and ~$0.2 per chip) of meter chip was proposed. • The chip may hold the potential for rapid scaning of bovine mastitis in cattle farms for food safety control.

  5. An effective sensor for tool wear monitoring in face milling: Acoustic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... since tool condition will affect the part size, quality and an unexpected tool failure may damage the tool, work-piece and sometimes the machine tool itself. AE can be effectively used for tool condition monitoring applications because the emissions from process changes like tool wear, chip formation i.e. plastic deformation, ...

  6. Urinary bladder stone extraction and instruments compared in textbooks of Abul-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Alzahrawi (Albucasis) (930-1013) and Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu (1385-1470).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcioglu, Omur; Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Kabay, Sahin

    2010-09-01

    We investigated urinary bladder stone, surgical tools, and procedures in urologic sections of textbooks of Abul-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Alzahrawi (Albucasis) and Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu. In addition, we compared the relation of their textbooks with urologic surgery. Al-Tasreef Liman Aajaz Aan Al-Taaleef (Al-Tasreef), a surgery textbook written by Alzahrawi (who lived in Endulus between 930 and 1013) and Cerrahiyyetu'l-Haniyye, written by Sabuncuoglu (who lived in Turkey between 1385 and 1470) were evaluated with regard to urinary bladder stone and surgical instruments. The textbooks give information about urinary bladder stones. They include definitions of diseases, etiologies, and surgical techniques, and describe surgical tools. Cerrahiyyetu'l Haniyye is a colorful miniaturized textbook. The urinary bladder stone section in Cerrahiyyetu'l Haniyye is the translation of Al-Tasreef with some additional information and illustrations. Surgical tools and procedures described by the two physicians have reached to our century. Tools and procedures invented by Alzahrawi come to the present day in similar or developed styles.

  7. Reuse of residual sludge from stone-processing: differences and similarities between sludge coming from carbonate and silicate stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careddu, Nicola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimension stone working activities represents a serious environmental and economic problem both for Stone Industry and citizens. Indeed, most of time, residual sludge is landfilled because of the difficulties to recover it; such difficulties are mainly connected to local legislation and a lack of proper protocols. In general, it is possible to individuate two different categories of sludge: residual sludge coming from carbonate rocks (CS) and those coming from silicate rocks (SS). Both of them are characterised by a very fine size distribution. CS is composed mainly by the same compounds of the processed stones (marble, limestone, travertine). The reason of this is related to the very slow wear of diamond tools during processing which entails a negligible content of heavy metals. CS becomes very interesting, from an economic point of view, when it has a CaCO3 grade > 95 %. On the contrary, SS is characterised by high heavy metal and TPH content. Residual sludge from the processing of silicate rocks can be split in three different sub-categories, depending on the way they are produced, and in particular: sludge from gangsaw using abrasive steel shot (GSS), sludge from multi diamond-saw block cutter (DBC), and mixed sludge (MS) from gangsaw and block cutter. These three sub-categories show different problems connected to heavy metal content, indeed on the one hand GSS is characterised by a high percentage of Ni, Cr, Cu, etc., on the other hand DBC is characterised by Co and Cu high content. In general, sludge, management of which in Italy is administered in accordance with the Italian Legislative Decree 152/06, can be used as waste from for environmental restoration or for cement plants. Several researches investigate the possible reuse of these materials but, at present time, there is no evidence of its systematic recovery as "recycled product" or "by-product". On the basis of the results of these researches it is possible to highlight

  8. State of Arts of Monumental Stones Diagnosis and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, P.; Riminesi, C.

    2017-08-01

    The conservation and maintenance of a monumental stone building is a complex aim where different disciplines are involved. First step is concerning the determination of the state of conservation of stone material present, than determine its modification on time, as such and after conservation treatments applied on: cleaning, protecting, strengthening. In order to fulfill such objectives suitable parameters must be selected and the most appropriate diagnostic techniques for their quantitative evaluation operated. In this context, the determination of the surface water absorption, moisture content, colour variation and mechanical properties are important parameters for the control, and the monitoring over time, of the state of conservation of the monumental stone surfaces. These parameters are strongly related not only to the stone characteristics but also to the evaluation of products's performance: efficiency and durability. Their rate of variation, determined in monitoring campaigns, is fundamental for elaborate by properly predictive model a schedule maintenance protocol.

  9. Stone ingestion causing obstructed inguinal hernia with perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiboon Sookpotarom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of obstructed right inguinal hernia caused by ingested stones. A 2 year-old boy from Northern Thailand was transferred to our hospital with low-grade fever, vomiting, and acute painful swelling at his right hemiscrotum for one day. The physical examination revealed marked enlargement with inflammation in his right hemiscrotum. The radiological findings showed huge number of stones in the right hemiscrotum. At surgery, the content of hernia sac was ascending colon, which was full of hard masses. With the help of additional lower transverse abdominal incision, the obstructed segment was successfully reduced and revealed a perforation. Most of the stones were removed through the perforation. The colonic wound was primarily repaired and both incisions were primarily closed. Although he developed post-operative wound infection, the boy had uneventfully recovered. The psychological exploration in this "stone pica" revealed no other psychological disorders.

  10. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    During marine archaeological explorations since 1983, off Dwarka, a large number of stone anchors were discovered and dated to 1400 BC, comparing with anchors found in Mediterranean waters. In recent archaeological explorations off Dwarka, Bet...

  11. CONSOLIDATION RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF STONE COLUMN REINFORCED GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. NG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stone column is an effective ground improvement method to improve the weak ground. This paper describes the implementation of reliability based analysis on the consolidation behaviour of stone column reinforced ground. Hasofer-Lind reliability index is computed involving non-correlated normal random variables which include stone column diameter, coefficient of volume compressibility, coefficient of consolidation and stress concentration ratio. The sensitivity of these variables on the effect of consolidation settlement is investigated in this study. Results show the importance of considering spatial variability in design and analysis of stone column reinforced ground. The probabilities of failure inferred from reliability indices are compared with Monte Carlo simulation where good agreements are obtained.

  12. Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Guillermo; Lama, Antonio; Rodríguez, Rocío; Jiménez, Ana; Guillén, Rafael; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2008-09-01

    The olive stone and seed are an important byproduct generated in the olive oil extraction and pitted table olive industries. As a lignocellulosic material, the hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are the main components of olive stone as wells as protein, fat, phenols, free sugars and poliols composition. The main use of this biomass is as combustion to produce electric energy or heat. Other uses such as activated carbon, furfural production, plastic filled, abrasive and cosmetic or other potential uses such as biosorbent, animal feed or resin formation have been cited. In this article, an overview of the characterization and main uses of olive stone and seed are described for the first time. Also, this review discusses the potential use of this material based on each component. In this way, a new approach to the olive stone and seed by pretreating with a steam explosion followed by chemical fractionation is described.

  13. Cropland Management Plan : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The cropland program on Big Stone NWR will be accomplished each year with a combination of: (1) force account farming of permanent farm units where there is no...

  14. Minimally invasive treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Wurijile

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous improvement of endoscopic technology and equipment, minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones becomes increasingly diversified. In this paper, the concept of minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones, surgical indications and contraindications, surgical methods, and the advantages and disadvantages of surgical methods are introduced. It is shown that the application of laparoscope has laid the foundation for the minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones, and the combined application of choledochoscope and endoscope has brought new ideas for minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones. The combination of three endoscopes avoids the disadvantages of traditional open surgery: large trauma and long operation time, and reduces the patient′s pain and complications. In the near future, the combination of three endoscopes still has much room for growth. As long as the indications for several surgeries are mastered and the safety and efficacy are evaluated objectively, the combination of three endoscopes will play the biggest role.

  15. EAARL Topography-Thomas Stone National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of Thomas Stone National Historic Site was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  16. Fisheries Management Recommendations : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides objectives and recommendations which are intended to improve the fishery resources and enhance quality fishing opportunities. Big Stone National...

  17. Edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Meyer, Knud Erik

    The present paper reports some early results of an experimental investigation of edge scour in currents. Two kinds of measurements are made (1) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of secondary currents that take place near a junction between the stone cover and the sand bed in a clear...... the sediment and puts into suspension, and the secondary flow carries it away from the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed, resulting in a scour hole forming adjacent to the toe of the stone layer.......-water experiment; and (2) scour measurements in actual scour experiment in the live-bed regime. The early results indicate that edge scour in a steady current propagating in-line with a stone layer is caused by the combined action of two effects; (1) Primary flow and (2) Secondary flow. The primary flow stirs up...

  18. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  19. GeneChip Resequencing of the Smallpox Virus Genome Can Identify Novel Strains: a Biodefense Application▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Irshad M.; Tang, Kevin; Osborne, John; Sammons, Scott; Wohlhueter, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a set of seven resequencing GeneChips, based on the complete genome sequences of 24 strains of smallpox virus (variola virus), for rapid characterization of this human-pathogenic virus. Each GeneChip was designed to analyze a divergent segment of approximately 30,000 bases of the smallpox virus genome. This study includes the hybridization results of 14 smallpox virus strains. Of the 14 smallpox virus strains hybridized, only 7 had sequence information included in the design of the smallpox virus resequencing GeneChips; similar information for the remaining strains was not tiled as a reference in these GeneChips. By use of variola virus-specific primers and long-range PCR, 22 overlapping amplicons were amplified to cover nearly the complete genome and hybridized with the smallpox virus resequencing GeneChip set. These GeneChips were successful in generating nucleotide sequences for all 14 of the smallpox virus strains hybridized. Analysis of the data indicated that the GeneChip resequencing by hybridization was fast and reproducible and that the smallpox virus resequencing GeneChips could differentiate the 14 smallpox virus strains characterized. This study also suggests that high-density resequencing GeneChips have potential biodefense applications and may be used as an alternate tool for rapid identification of smallpox virus in the future. PMID:17182757

  20. Compression Debarking of Stored Wood Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Mattson

    1974-01-01

    Two 750 ft. piles of unbarked chips were stored for 1 year to evaluate the effect of chip storage on the effectiveness of bark-chip separations-segregation methods under study. in processing stored chips suffered more wood loss than fresh chips.

  1. Development, Exploitation, and Transition of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Harold W

    2003-01-01

    .... Tasks include CMOS-based microwave component design and fabrication, parallel and mixed-signal VHDL and VBHDL-AMS simulator algorithms, conversion tools for VHDL-AMS models, System-on-a-Chip methods...

  2. Nano lab-on-chip systems for biomedical and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, nano lab-on-chip (NLOC) has emerged as a powerful tool for biosensing and an active area of research particularly in DNA genetic and genetic related investigations. Compared with conventional sensing techniques, distinctive advantages of using NLOC for biomedicine and other related area include ...

  3. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...

  4. Getter Incorporation into Cast Stone and Solid State Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Du, Yingge [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pearce, Carolyn I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is collecting relevant available data on waste forms for use as a supplemental immobilization technology, to provide the additional capacity needed to treat low-activity waste (LAW) in Hanford Site tanks and complete the tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost-effective manner. One candidate supplemental waste form, fabricated using a low-temperature process, is a cementitious grout called Cast Stone. Cast Stone has been under investigation for this application at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since initial screening tests in FY13. This report is the culmination of work to lower the diffusivities of Tc and I from Cast Stone using getters. Getters are compounds added to a system designed to selectively sequester a species of interest to provide increased stability to the species. The work contained within this report is related to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment. However, this work contains valuable information which may be used in performance assessment maintenance past FY17, and in future waste form development. This report on performance characterization of Tc and I getters in Cast Stone fabricated with simulated LAW covers several areas of interest and major findings to WRPS: investigating performance of potassium metal sulfide (KMS-2-SS) and tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) as Tc getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; investigating performance of silver exchanged zeolite (Ag-Z) and argentite (Arg) as I getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; utilizing sequential addition of Tc and I getters to overcome any deleterious interactions between the getters in solution; determining, for the first time, Tc distribution within the cured Cast Stone and its evolution during leaching; and performing solid state characterization of getters and Cast Stone samples to support leach test findings and develop a

  5. Mitigation of Liquefaction in Sandy Soils Using Stone Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Levent; Kayabalı, Kamil

    2010-05-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the leading causes of earthquake-induced damage to structures. Soil improvement methods provide effective solutions to reduce the risk of soil liquefaction. Thus, soil ground treatments are applied using various techniques. However, except for a few ground treatment methods, they generally require a high cost and a lot of time. Especially in order to prevent the risk of soil liquefaction, stone columns conctructed by vibro-systems (vibro-compaction, vibro-replacement) are one of the traditional geotechnical methods. The construction of stone columns not only enhances the ability of clean sand to drain excess pore water during an earthquake, but also increases the relative density of the soil. Thus, this application prevents the development of the excess pore water pressure in sand during earthquakes and keeps the pore pressure ratio below a certain value. This paper presents the stone column methods used against soil liquefaction in detail. At this stage, (a) the performances of the stone columns were investigated in different spacing and diameters of columns during past earthquakes, (b) recent studies about design and field applications of stone columns were presented, and (c) a new design method considering the relative density of soil and the capacity of drenage of columns were explained in sandy soil. Furthermore, with this new method, earthquake performances of the stone columns constructed at different areas were investigated before the 1989 Loma Prieta and the 1994 Northbridge earthquakes, as case histories of field applications, and design charts were compiled for suitable spacing and diameters of stone columns with consideration to the different sandy soil parameters and earhquake conditions. Key Words: Soil improvement, stone column, excess pore water pressure

  6. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  7. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the e...

  8. Detecting strategic moves in HearthStone matches

    OpenAIRE

    Doux, Boris; Gautrais, Clément; Negrevergne, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we demonstrate how to extract strategic knowledge from gaming data collected among players of the popular video game HearthStone. Our methodology is as follows. First we train a series of classifiers to predict the outcome of the game during a match, then we demonstrate how to spot key strategic events by tracking sudden changes in the classifier prediction. This methodology is applied to a large collection of HeathStone matches that we have collected fr...

  9. The Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities for Ureteral Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ji-Yuen Siu MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Additional intervention and medical treatment of complications may follow the primary treatment of a ureteral stone. We investigated the cost of the treatment of ureteral stone(s within 45 days after initial intervention by means of retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. All patients of ages ≥20 years diagnosed with ureteral stone(s( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification/ICD-9-CM: 592.1 from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled. We included a comorbidity code only if the diagnosis appeared in at least 2 separate claims in a patient’s record. Treatment modalities (code included extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL; 98.51, ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL; 56.31, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL; 55.04, (open ureterolithotomy (56.20, and laparoscopy (ie, laparoscopic ureterolithotomy; 54.21. There were 28 513 patients with ureteral stones (13 848 men and 14 665 women in the randomized sample of 1 million patients. The mean cost was 526.4 ± 724.1 United States Dollar (USD. The costs of treatment were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities. The costs of treatment among each primary treatment modalities were 1212.2 ± 627.3, 1146.7 ± 816.8, 2507.4 ± 1333.5, 1533.3 ± 1137.1, 2566.4 ± 2594.3, and 209.8 ± 473.2 USD in the SWL, URSL, PNL, (open ureterolithotomy, laparoscopy (laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, and conservative treatment group, respectively. In conclusion, URSL was more cost-effective than SWL and PNL as a primary treatment modality for ureteral stone(s when the possible additional costs within 45 days after the initial operation were included in the calculation.

  10. Impact of Lower Pole Anatomy on Stone Clearance After Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shun Juan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This study retrospectively analyzed patients treated with shock wave ithotripsy (SWL for lower calyceal stones, to determine the influence of the lower pole anatomy and stone size in predicting the clearance of fragments. Between June 2000 and March 2002, we reviewed excretory urography (IVU of 59 patients with isolated lower pole stones treated with SWL. A total of 44 men and 15 women, with an age ranging between 23 and 78 years (mean, 55 years, were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, either a stone-free group or residual-stone group. After SWL, overall stone rate was 57.6%, and clearance for stones less than 10 mm in diameter was 64.5%, whereas clearance was 50% for stones between 10 and 20 mm in diameter. Intrarenal anatomy on IVU, such as infundibular width and infundibulopelvi-ureteric angle showed no significant difference between the stone-free and residual-stone groups. Our analysis showed that three significant variables were relevant to stone clearance: infundibular length, stone size and stone burden. We conclude that SWL is the best treatment for lower pole kidney stones 10 mm or less in diameter, showing lower complication and acceptable stone-free rates.

  11. Fracture toughness estimation of ballast stone used in Iranian railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ferestade

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ballast is a layer composed of crushed stone basically with diameters of 20–60 mm, on which sleepers and rails are set. Ballast is used to withstand vertical, horizontal and lateral forces applied on sleepers and to hold the line in operative conditions. Ballast deterioration induced by crashed stones is a major issue of track instability as the ballast layer quality depending on the materials used and their densities should be focused on. Therefore, ballast should be resistant against loads applied, and the fracture toughness of ballast stone is of great importance. For this purpose, the fracture toughness of two kinds of ballast stones used in Iranian railway, i.e. Gaduk (limestone and Anjylavnd (andesite, is investigated experimentally in this paper. The quality of ballast stone is evaluated in different weather conditions. Numerical results shown that the Anjylavnd stone is more appropriate for rainy and cold weather when there is a probability of fracturing due to frozen water captured in ballast.

  12. The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tefekli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of “perineal lithotomy” were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as “litholopaxy”. Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929. With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to “cut” our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives.

  13. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  14. The history of urinary stones: in parallel with civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

    2013-11-20

    The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of "perineal lithotomy" were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as "litholopaxy"). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to "cut" our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives.

  15. The Stones and the Stars Building Scotland's Newest Megalith

    CERN Document Server

    Lunan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    There are at least 48 identified prehistoric stone circles in Scotland.  In truth, very little is known about the people who erected them, and ultimately about what the stone circles were for.  Most stone circles are astronomically aligned, which has led to the modern debate over the significance of the alignments.  The megaliths certainly represented an enormous cooperative effort, would at the very least have demonstrated power and wealth, and being set away from any dwellings probably served a ceremonial, or perhaps religious, purpose. Observations at the site of the stone circles, of solar, lunar, and stellar events, have already cast light on some of the questions about the construction and use of ancient megalithic observatories. In his capacity as manager of the Glasgow Parks Department Astronomy Project, author Duncan Lunan designed and built in the late 1970s Sighthill, the first astronomically aligned stone circle in Britain in over 3,000 years.  The Stones and the Stars examines the case for as...

  16. A heuristic model of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan B; Zhong, Pei

    2013-08-01

    A heuristic model is presented to describe the overall progression of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), accounting for the effects of shock wave dose and the average peak pressure, P+(avg), incident on the stone during the treatment. The model is developed through adaptation of the Weibull theory for brittle fracture, incorporating threshold values in dose and P+(avg) that are required to initiate fragmentation. The model is validated against experimental data of stone comminution from two stone types (hard and soft BegoStone) obtained at various positions in lithotripter fields produced by two shock wave sources of different beam width and pulse profile both in water and in 1,3-butanediol (which suppresses cavitation). Subsequently, the model is used to assess the performance of a newly developed acoustic lens for electromagnetic lithotripters in comparison with its original counterpart both under static and simulated respiratory motion. The results have demonstrated the predictive value of this heuristic model in elucidating the physical basis for improved performance of the new lens. The model also provides a rationale for the selection of SWL treatment protocols to achieve effective stone comminution without elevating the risk of tissue injury.

  17. Urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder Diverticulum stones: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke Linus I

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary urethral stone although rare, commonly arises from the kidneys, bladder or are seen in patients with urethral stricture. These stones are either found in the posterior or anterior urethra and do result in acute urinary retention. We report urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder diverticulum stones. This to our knowledge is the first report from Nigeria and in English literature. Case presentation A 69 year old, male, Nigerian with clinical and radiological features of acute urinary retention, benign prostate enlargement and bladder diverticulum. He had a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP and was lost to follow up. He re-presented with retained urethral catheter of 4months duration. The catheter was removed but attempt at re-passing the catheter failed and a suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Clinical examination and plain radiograph of the penis confirmed anterior and posterior urethral stones. He had meatotomy and antegrade manual stone extraction with no urethra injury. Conclusions Urethral obstruction can result from inadequate treatment of patient with benign prostate enlargement and bladder diverticulum stones. Surgeons in resource limited environment should be conversant with transurethral resection of the prostate and cystolithotripsy or open prostatectomy and diverticulectomy.

  18. Development of latent fingermarks from rocks and stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefetz, Ido; Cohen, Amit; Cohen, Yaron; Chaikovsky, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, stones have been used in the commission of crimes due to their widespread availability. Stones can be used as a lethal weapon that sometimes might be the only evidence in a serious case. The common perception, even in professional fingermark circles, is that stones do not yield identifiable latent fingermarks. The authors of this research paper examined the feasibility of developing fingermarks from seven types of stones using three latent fingermark techniques: magnetic powder, cyanoacrylate fuming, and ninhydrin. The paper will demonstrate that by classifying stones and rocks according to their natural properties (porosity, permeability, and the nature of surface area), even application of the simplest development techniques can produce good results. In conclusion, chert and limestone yielded the most qualitative and quantitative results using magnetic powder. The time factor is also important in recovering latent fingermarks on stones and rocks. 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  19. Stone Metaphors about a Village: a “Stone Vessel” or “The Most Portuguese”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the literary landscape of Monsanto. It confronts the discourse produced by the writer, Fernando Namora (1819-1989—a pioneer of the Neo-Realistic literature in Portugal—and the literary production of other contemporary authors related with the ideological bases of “Estado Novo” (“New State”, the dictatorial regime that held the government in Portugal from 1933 to 1974.In the writings analysed, the representation of the landscapes of Monsanto entails powerful ideological messages. For Namora, the village was a “stone vessel,” a metaphor about the hard life of its inhabitants, victims of social injustices and lacking of resources. For the “Estado Novo,” that place was the symbol of the national identity (“the most Portuguese village,” as was stated in 1938. The metaphors of the stone, the strong substrata and the raw material used for shelters, stressed the value of preservation of Tradition, History, Religion and Work. Although very different, both discourses attach great value to the productive and dominated rural landscape of Monsanto, and to the human role in the transformation of its soil.At the present time, even if population has decreased drastically and agriculture has been abandoned, local authorities and tourist agents alike try to conciliate the “stone vessel” with “the most Portuguese village.” In this context, the options for the management and valorisation of the landscape of Monsanto shall be discussed.

  20. Experiment list: SRX122496 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available || chip antibody=Rel || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip ant...ibody catalog number 1=sc-71 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc

  1. Cytometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the

  2. Soap-stone in architecture of North European cities. A nomination as a candidate for a Global Heritage Stones Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Soap stone represents soft Proterozoic rock type from the deposit Nunnalahti situated on the western shore of the big Lake Pielinen in Eastern Finland. It consists of talc (40 - 50 %), magnesite MgCO3 (40 - 50 %), chlorite (5 - 8 %), dolomite, calcite, etc. The colour of the stone is very spectacular and varies from yellow and brownish-yellow to grey, greenish grey. The soft stone is a highly workable material for a sculptor's chisel. It was one of the most popular ornamental rocks used architecture of the Modern style in St Petersburg, Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and other North European cities lately in the XIX-th centuries. Examples are given and discussed. References: Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English).

  3. Investigation of waterbird deformities recently observed at North Stone Lakes, Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Draft final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We measured standard water quality parameters and collected water, sediment, and biota samples from Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas during...

  4. Behind the scenes of GS: precious stones

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Since the laying of the foundation stone for the Synchrocyclotron in June 1954, CERN has been expanding constantly to reach a current constructed surface area of 580,000 m2 covered by some 650 buildings (just 125 of which account for 70% of this area).   This year, while CERN’s 60th anniversary is an important milestone in the Laboratory’s history, it also highlights another reality: CERN is a collection of ageing buildings, no less than 60% of which are more than 40 years old. “Of the 580,000 m2 of buildings, around 52,000 m2 are nearing the end of their useful life and 140,000 m2 are in need of extensive renovations,” says Natacha Lopez, GS-SE-PO Section Leader. “Of course, we’ve already started several renovation projects, but it's a huge challenge as we have to renovate buildings constructed in the 1960s and 70s while complying with modern standards, which are very different from those that were in force when they were bu...

  5. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  6. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  7. Impact of high-pressure coolant supply on chip formation in milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Döbbeler, B.; Lakner, T.

    2017-10-01

    Machining of titanium alloys is considered as difficult, because of their high temperature strength, low thermal conductivity and low E-modulus, which contributes to high mechanical loads and high temperatures in the contact zone between tool and workpiece. The generated heat in the cutting zone can be dissipated only in a low extent. When cutting steel materials, up to 75% of the process heat is transported away by the chips, contrary to only 25% when machining titanium alloys. As a result, the cutting tool heats up, which leads to high tool wear. Therefore, machining of titanium alloys is only possible with relatively low cutting speeds. This leads to low levels of productivity for milling processes with titanium alloys. One way to increase productivity is to use more cutting edges in tools with the same diameter. However, the limiting factor of adding more cutting edges to a milling tool is the minimum size of the chip spaces, which are sufficient for a stable chip evacuation. This paper presents experimental results on the chip formation and chip size influenced by high-pressure coolant supply, which can lead to smaller chips and to smaller sizes of the chip spaces, respectively. Both influences, the pressure of the supplied coolant and the volumetric flow rate were individually examined. Alpha-beta annealed titanium TiAl6V4 was examined in relation to the reference material quenched and tempered steel 42CrMo4+QT (AISI 4140+QT). The work shows that with proper chip control due to high-pressure coolant supply in milling, the number of cutting edges on the same diameter tool can be increased, which leads to improved productivity.

  8. [Composition analyses of urinary microcrystalline in urine of magnesium ammonium phosphate stones formers and its relationship with the stones formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Huang, Zhi-Jie; Hou, Shan-Hua; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2011-01-01

    By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nano-particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the composition, morphology, particle size and zeta potential of urinary microcrystalline in urine of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone formers were investigated. The components of stones were also analyzed. The results showed that there was a close relationship among stone components, urinary microcrystalline composition and urine pH. A high pH value of 6.5 or more usually appeared in the urine of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone formers. The main component of urine microcrystalline was magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals with different crystal water such as monohydrate or hexahydrate. Magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals are mainly petal-shaped, crosswise shape. These microcrystalline have an uneven particle size distribution, a wider distribution range, and apparent aggregation. There is no significant difference in the zeta potential between the magnesium ammonium phosphate stone formers (mean (-9.83 +/- 0.66) mV) and healthy control subjects (mean (-10.74 +/- 0.25) mV). This study can help predict the occurrence of urolithiasis, and provide inspiration to the prediction of the type of urinary stones.

  9. Radiometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2009-01-01

    The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

  10. Mikrofluidik-Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, E.; Lichtenberg, J.

    2000-01-01

    Microfluidic chips are becoming the new paradigm for chemical processing and analysis in the laboratory. Hair-fine channels made in planar substrates using silicon processing technologies replace beakers and tubing for automated liquid transport and handling on a sub-μ L scale. Reduced conduit

  11. Novelda Stone: widely used within the Spanish architectural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Novelda Stone is a calcareous rock, of the biocalcarenite type. It is extracted from the «Vinalopó Medio» area (Alicante, eastern Spain. Novelda stone is known as construction material from the 13th century. From final of the 19th century until the present time, it has been used in Madrid, Valencia and Alicante. In the past, the main quarries from which this type of rock was extracted were located in the municipal districts of Monóvar (Almorquí Stone, Sax (Portazgo Stone and Elda (Bateig Stone. Nowadays, the main active extraction site is situated in the Bateig Hill quarries. The rock extracted is known commercially as Bateig Stone. The main varieties of this Bateig Stone are: White, Blue, Layer and Fantasy. Each variety of Novelda stone has different durability rate and different pathology depending on their characteristics, particularly on their hydric behaviour patterns. Layer Bateig and Portazgo stone undergo granular disintegration and alveolization and are less durable than the rest. White and Blue Bateig, as well as Almorquí stone, only develop fissures or scaling under extreme conditions.

    La Piedra de Novelda es una roca carbonática del tipo biocalcarenita. Se extrae del área de Vinalopó Medio (Alicante, España oriental. La piedra de Novelda es conocida como material de construcción desde el siglo XIII. Desde finales del siglo XIX hasta la actualidad, se ha utilizado en edificios y monumentos de Madrid y Valencia, así como Alicante. En el pasado, las canteras principales donde se extrajo este tipo de piedra se localizaban en los distritos municipales de Monóvar (Piedra Almorquí, Sax (Piedra Portazgo y El da (Piedra Bateig. Hoy en día, la actividad principal se sitúa en las canteras de Bateig. La piedra extraída es conocida comercialmente como Piedra Bateig. Las variedades principales de esta Piedra Bateig son: Blanco, Azul, Llano y Fantasía. Consecuencia de las diferentes propiedades y en especial de los

  12. Thickness effect on flexural strength of natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola; Castelletto, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    Few scientific works deal with size effect on mechanical resistance in the case of stone, but for the concrete size effect has been widely verified. In fact, the stone size effect is not always ruled by well-known statistical laws as Weibull because of the intrinsic complex structure and features of the materials analysed. Previous studies on natural stone size effect have been made mainly taking into account compression strength. However, flexural strength test under concentrated load, according EN12372, is applied to assess the mechanical resistance of stone and it is well correlated with the petrographic properties of stone. For this reason, to further investigate the size effect on stone , this research analyses the variation of mechanical resistance in relation to thickness of the specimens, taking into account the petrographic characteristics (mineralogical composition, heterogeneity, anisotropy, porosity)of different kinds of rock. From previous studies on 15 different stones (Bellopede et al. 2015) it was observed a negligible values variation for different thickness and a data scattering caused by: intrinsic properties (porosity and structure), defects distribution (fractures, cracks, voids), heterogeneity characterizing each specimen. According to EN 12372:2006, the suggested dimensions for the determination of flexural strength under concentrated load are 50x50x300mm. Other dimensions are possible, but the following requirement need to be fulfilled. The thickness should be minimum 25mm and maximum 100 mm, the width should be within 50 mm and 3 times the thickness and the distance between the supporting rollers span should be 5 times the thickness. In this research, in order to further investigate the thickness effect even in relation with the stone structure and heterogeneity, eight different stones have been tested: four with anisotropic features and four homogeneous. The distance between the support knife was equal to 2/3 to specimens length. The

  13. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  14. [Wood chip alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wening, D; Renck, T; Neuhauss, M

    1999-07-01

    A 52 year old farmer was referred to us for investigation of suspected farmer's lung. For many years the farmer had been exposed to hay, straw, pigeons, and fuel chip dust. Under exertion he suffered from shortness of breath. In the farmer's own fuel chips we could identify Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Mucor species. In the farmer's blood we found IgG-antibodies against his own fuel chips, thermophilic actinomycetes, Penicillium species, Mucor species and Aspergillus fumigatus. We did not detect any IgG-antibodies against pigeon serum or pigeon faeces. In order to determine the responsible allergen we performed two challenge tests. In the first test the farmer had to inhale his own hay and straw dust for one hour. This provocation was negative. A second one-hour inhalative challenge was carried out 16 days later using his own fuel chips. This time he experienced significant pulmonary and systemic reactions: body temperature rose by 3.3 degrees C, leucocytes by 12,200/mm3; PO2 fell by 39.4 mmHg, vital capacity by 52%, DLCO by 36%. After the challenge the farmer complained of coughing and dyspnoea. Rales could be heard on auscultation, and an interstitial infiltrate was seen to develop on chest x-rays. After the challenge the patient had to be treated with oxygen and systemic corticosteroids. We diagnosed a fuel chip-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). Eight days later the parameters were back to normal and the farmer was discharged from our hospital with further corticosteroid medication. This method of inhalative provocation is very important in diagnosing an EAA. Problems arise when the mode and duration of exposure to substances has to be chosen. Because of the risk of severe reactions, inhalative provocations relating to EAAs should only be performed in special centres with an intensive care unit. In this paper we present a diagnosis of fuel chip lung, which is rarely seen in Germany. However, with the rising use of fuel chips as

  15. On-chip photonic tweezers for photonics, microfluidics, and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Christophe; Renaut, Claude; Tardif, Manon; Jager, Jean-Baptiste; Delamadeleine, Eric; Picard, Emmanuel; Peyrade, David; Hadji, Emmanuel; de Fornel, Frédérique; Cluzel, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    Near-field optical forces arise from evanescent electromagnetic fields and can be advantageously used for on-chip optical trapping. In this work, we investigate how evanescent fields at the surface of photonic cavities can efficiently trap micro-objects such as polystyrene particles and bacteria. We study first the influence of trapped particle's size on the trapping potential and introduce an original optofluidic near-field optical microscopy technique. Then we analyze the rotational motion of trapped clusters of microparticles and investigate their possible use as microfluidic micro-tools such as integrated micro-flow vane. Eventually, we demonstrate efficient on-chip optical trapping of various kinds of bacteria.

  16. Renal geology (quantitative renal stone analysis) by 'Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    To prospectively determine the precise stone composition (quantitative analysis) by using infrared spectroscopy in patients with urinary stone disease presenting to our clinic. To determine an ideal method for stone analysis suitable for use in a clinical setting. After routine and a detailed metabolic workup of all patients of urolithiasis, stone samples of 50 patients of urolithiasis satisfying the entry criteria were subjected to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis after adequate sample homogenization at a single testing center. Calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate stone mixture was most commonly encountered in 35 (71%) followed by calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite, magnesium ammonium hexahydrate and xanthine stones. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy allows an accurate, reliable quantitative method of stone analysis. It also helps in maintaining a computerized large reference library. Knowledge of precise stone composition may allow the institution of appropriate prophylactic therapy despite the absence of any detectable metabolic abnormalities. This may prevent and or delay stone recurrence.

  17. Urinary Stone Analysis of 1,000 Patients in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Her Chou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common urologic disease. Stones may occur in the kidney, ureter, or urinary bladder. We collected 1,000 stone samples in the subtropical area of southern Taiwan. Stone components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mixed components of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate were the most common form of stones (52.3%, followed by calcium oxalate (27.8% and calcium phosphate (9.3%. Uric acid stones accounted for 7.6%. Magnesium ammonium phosphate stones accounted for 3.0%. Only one cystine stone was found. In the study of urinary stone formation mechanism and prevention of recurrent urolithiasis, knowing the stone composition is important.

  18. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Cho, Cheong Chan; Ryu, Meung Sun [AMC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Kwang-Ju Health College, Kwang-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously.

  19. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  20. Soda and other beverages and the risk of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2013-08-01

    Not all fluids may be equally beneficial for reducing the risk of kidney stones. In particular, it is not clear whether sugar and artificially sweetened soda increase the risk. We prospectively analyzed the association between intake of several types of beverages and incidence of kidney stones in three large ongoing cohort studies. Information on consumption of beverages and development of kidney stones was collected by validated questionnaires. The analysis involved 194,095 participants; over a median follow-up of more than 8 years, 4462 incident cases occurred. There was a 23% higher risk of developing kidney stones in the highest category of consumption of sugar-sweetened cola compared with the lowest category (P for trend=0.02) and a 33% higher risk of developing kidney stones for sugar-sweetened noncola (P for trend=0.003); there was a marginally significant higher risk of developing kidney stones for artificially sweetened noncola (P for trend=0.05). Also, there was an 18% higher risk for punch (P for trend=0.04) and lower risks of 26% for caffeinated coffee (P for trend<0.001), 16% for decaffeinated coffee (P for trend=0.01), 11% for tea (P for trend=0.02), 31%-33% for wine (P for trend<0.005), 41% for beer (P for trend<0.001), and 12% for orange juice (P for trend=0.004). Consumption of sugar-sweetened soda and punch is associated with a higher risk of stone formation, whereas consumption of coffee, tea, beer, wine, and orange juice is associated with a lower risk.

  1. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts

  2. Flaked stones and old bones: biological and cultural evolution at the dawn of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The appearance of Oldowan sites ca. 2.6 million years ago (Ma) may reflect one of the most important adaptive shifts in human evolution. Stone artifact manufacture, large mammal butchery, and novel transport and discard behaviors led to the accumulation of the first recognized archaeological debris. The appearance of the Oldowan sites coincides with generally cooler, drier, and more variable climatic conditions across Africa, probably resulting in a net decrease in woodland foods and an increase in large mammal biomass compared to the early and middle Pliocene. Shifts in plant food resource availability may have provided the stimulus for incorporating new foods into the diet, including meat from scavenged carcasses butchered with stone tools. Oldowan artifact form varies with clast size, shape, raw material physical properties, and flaking intensity. Oldowan hominins preferred hard raw materials with good fracture characteristics. Habitual stone transport is evident from technological analysis, and raw material sourcing to date suggests that stone was rarely moved more than 2-3 km from source. Oldowan debris accumulation was spatially redundant, reflecting recurrent visitation of attractive points on the landscape. Thin archaeological horizons from Bed I Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, were probably formed and buried in less than 10 years and document hominin processing of multiple carcasses per year. Transport beyond simple refuging behavior is suggested by faunal density at some site levels. By 2.0 Ma, hominin rank within the predatory guild may have been moderately high, as they probably accessed meaty carcasses through hunting and confrontational scavenging, and hominin-carnivore competition appears minimal at some sites. It is likely that both Homo habilis sensu stricto and early African H. erectus made Oldowan tools. H. habilis sensu stricto was more encephalized than Australopithecus and may foreshadow H. erectus in lower limb elongation and some thermoregulatory

  3. Slates from Uruguay: a traditional natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Demarco, M.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Stein, K.-J.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Slates were traditionally used as roofing material or for cladding worldwide and also in Uruguay. In regions where this resource was easily mined, the widespread application of slates in constructions resulted in the development of characteristic cultural landscapes. The application of slates in a wider sense is nowadays open for all uses of dimensional stone, compared to the restricted use as roofing or cladding material in the past. This has been achieved by the discovery and mining of new deposits within the last 25 years worldwide. Furthermore, the optimization of mining techniques that allows the excavation of larger blocks and the technical development for further handling of the blocks has contributed to an open spectrum of applications. The slate deposits from Uruguay are associated with the Neoproterozoic thrust and fold belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The slates are linked to calc-silicate strata in a greenschist facies volcano-sedimentary sequence and the deposits are located in the limb of a regional fold, where bedding and cleavage are parallel. The main lithotype is a layered and fine-grained calcareous phyllite with a quite diverse palette of colors: light green, grey, dark grey, reddish and black. The mined slate is split into slabs 0.5 - 2cm thick. The technical properties were investigated in a very systematic way with respect to the new European standards, showing values comparable to those registered for internationally known slates. In the past, the average production in Uruguay was around 4000 tons/year and a historical maximum of 13,000 tons was reached in 1993. The oscillations in the regional demand were the cause of several flourishing and decay cycles in the activity, but our investigation shows a considerable volume of indicated resources and therefore a very good potential. Exploration for colors and qualities and quantification of reserves is a prerequisite for the development of the sector.

  4. Context: The strategic management Rosetta Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Weeks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse context as a means for interpreting and making sense of evolving strategic management theory and practice. Problem investigated: Traditional strategic management theory based on rational deductive methodologies assumes contextual predictability, yet contemporary conditions tend to contradict this assumption. In response, alternative theories and practices for dealing with complex contexts have emerged (Brews & Purohit, 2006; Grant, 2003; Kurt & Snowden, 2003and Stacey, 1995. Methodology: A literature study was undertaken to determine the nature of emergent strategic management theory and practice, in response to contextual complexity and how it differs from traditional practice (Mintzberg, 1994 and Weeks &Lessing, 1993. Findings: An important conclusion drawn from the study is that context acts as a determinant for making sense of the evolution of strategic management theory and practice. While traditional strategic management practice still assumes relevance in contexts of linear causality, it breaks down in complex contexts. Emergent strategic management theory, based on complex adaptive systems, is increasingly assuming relevance. Notably, many institutions are still attempting to make use of scenario planning in an attempt to deal with contextual complexity, a practice not supported by leading researchers(Stacey, 1995 and Kurt & Snowden, 2003. Value of the research: The insights gained from the study assume relevance, in view of the contextual complexity confronting modern-day institutions. The findings suggest that emergent strategy based on complex adaptive system theory needs to be considered as a means for dealing with increasing environmental turbulence. Conclusion: It is concluded that context serves as the Rosetta stone for making sense of strategic management theory and practice. In view of the research findings, as reflected in the literature, it would seem that the use of complex

  5. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock

    2006-12-01

    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning

  6. SU-8 cantilever chip interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Janting, Jakob; Schultz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The polymer SU-8 is becoming widely used for all kinds of micromechanical and microfluidic devices, not only as a photoresist but also as the constitutional material of the devices. Many of these polymeric devices need to include a microfluidic system as well as electrical connection from...... the electrodes on the SU-8 chip to a printed circuit board. Here, we present two different methods of electrically connecting an SU-8 chip, which contains a microfluidic network and free-hanging mechanical parts. The tested electrical interconnection techniques are flip chip bonding using underfill or flip chip...... bonding using an anisotropic conductive film (ACF). These are both widely used in the Si industry and might also be used for the large scale interconnection of SU-8 chips. The SU-8 chip, to which the interconnections are made, has a microfluidic channel with integrated micrometer-sized cantilevers...

  7. Ceremony and Carpentry? Neolithic Stone Axeheads in an East Yorkshire (UK Lowland Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Halkon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey and research undertaken of a 20x30km study area in the Foulness Valley, East Yorkshire, has resulted in the location of over 70 polished stone and flint axeheads. Examination of many of these tools suggests heavy use and reworking, yet a number, the most impressive in terms of workmanship and aesthetics, remain in pristine condition. This contribution discusses the significance of the distribution of these tools and considers possible explanations for their condition, in terms of what is known about the Neolithic landscape of this region. Recent palaeoenvironmental investigation shows that in the Neolithic the Foulness Valley was a mosaic of heavily wooded areas and wetland, dominated in the south by a tidal estuarine inlet of the River Humber, contrasting with the rolling chalk hills of the Yorkshire Wolds to the north and east. The inlet and its associated waterways may have provided a means of communication and exchange for some of the axeheads.

  8. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Turney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Materials and Methods Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. Results At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77% had a high PSF score (> 0.5. Of the 26 patients, 17 (65% showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42% changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5 to a low risk (PSF 0.5 during both assessments. Conclusions The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  9. Mud dome, stone dome and mud and stone dome in the rural buildings of vernacular architecture in center of Castilla y León (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abril Revuelta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the center of Castilla y León there are few examples of old rural buildings linked to economic activities that have developed in the agrarian field. These are known chozos and casetas, and they have been built with dome-shaped solutions using autochthon materials: mud and stone. The influence of traditional techniques of both elements has generated a singular typological rarely seen in the rest of the Iberian Peninsula. Different types of domes have been analyzed in situ. And they have been contrasted by documentary sources and it has significantly expanded the information published of them, especially about their typological variety and their construction process. This research aims to provide tools to restore a constructive knowledge that is forgotten in place, to value its architectural wealth, which can encourage their rehabilitation.

  10. Ornamental Stones and Gemstones: The limits of heritage stone designation: The case for and against Australian Precious Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry

    2015-04-01

    When the international designation of natural stone types was first mooted in 2007, stones that were utilised in building and construction were the primary focus of attention. However following public discussion it soon became apparent that sculptural stones, stone used for utilitarian purposes such as millstones, as well as archaeological materials including stones used by early man could all be positively assessed as a potential Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR). Over the past 2 years it has been realised there is also a range of ornamental and semi-precious stones that may also be considered in the same international context. Examples in this respect include Imperial Porphyry sourced from Egypt that was much prized in the ancient world and "Derbyshire Blue John" a variety of fluorspar from central England that was used for vases, chalices, urns, candle sticks, jars, bowls door, jewellery and fire-place surrounds, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is at this point that rock materials, sometimes used as gemstones, impinge on the domain of typical heritage stones. In Australia, the gemstone most identifiable with the country is precious opal formed by sedimentary processes in the Great Artesian Basin. In this paper the question is asked whether "Australian Precious Opal" could be or should be considered as a heritage stone of international significance. Immediately Australian Precious Opal satisfies several GHSR criteria including historic use for more than 50 years and wide-ranging utilisation for prestige jewellery around the world. It is also recognised as a cultural icon including association with national identity in Australia as it is legally defined as Australia's "National Gemstone" as well as being the "Gemstone Emblem" for the State of South Australia. Opal continues to be mined. Designation of Australian Precious Opal as a Global Heritage Stone Resource would likely involve formal international recognition of Australian opal in the

  11. Terahertz meets sculptural and architectural art: Evaluation and conservation of stone objects with T-ray technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügener, K.; Schwerdtfeger, M.; Busch, S. F.; Soltani, A.; Castro-Camus, E.; Koch, M.; Viöl, W.

    2015-10-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage is an area where novel scientific techniques are having enormous impact. Given the value and uniqueness of art pieces, non-invasive diagnostic methods are highly appreciated by conservators. Terahertz radiation has shown enormous potential as non-contact probe that can be used for the three-dimensional reconstruction of internal structure of stone-made objects. In this article we report the evaluation of the internal damage state of two art pieces, a medallion from the Castle of Celle and a window sill from the St. Peter of Trier Cathedral. We also used terahertz radiation to follow and assess the restoration process of the window sill. We found that terahertz spectroscopy is an excellent non-destructive evaluation method for stone artwork that shows enormous potential as a tool for conservation.

  12. Terahertz meets sculptural and architectural art: Evaluation and conservation of stone objects with T-ray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügener, K; Schwerdtfeger, M; Busch, S F; Soltani, A; Castro-Camus, E; Koch, M; Viöl, W

    2015-10-07

    Conservation of cultural heritage is an area where novel scientific techniques are having enormous impact. Given the value and uniqueness of art pieces, non-invasive diagnostic methods are highly appreciated by conservators. Terahertz radiation has shown enormous potential as non-contact probe that can be used for the three-dimensional reconstruction of internal structure of stone-made objects. In this article we report the evaluation of the internal damage state of two art pieces, a medallion from the Castle of Celle and a window sill from the St. Peter of Trier Cathedral. We also used terahertz radiation to follow and assess the restoration process of the window sill. We found that terahertz spectroscopy is an excellent non-destructive evaluation method for stone artwork that shows enormous potential as a tool for conservation.

  13. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  14. Digital Power Consumption Estimations for CHIPIX65 Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotulli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    New hybrid pixel detectors with improved resolution capable of dealing with hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2 will be required for future High Energy Physics experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Given this, the RD53 collaboration works on the design of the next generation pixel readout chip needed for both the ATLAS and CMS detector phase 2 pixel upgrades. For the RD53 demonstrator chip in 65nm CMOS technology, different architectures are considered. In particular the purpose of this work is estimating the power consumption of the digital architecture of the readout ASIC developed by CHIPIX65 project of the INFN National Scientific Committee. This has been done with modern chip design tools integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework that has been developed within the RD53 collaboration in order to assess the performance of the system in very high rate, high energy physics experiments.

  15. Thermo-Mechanical Compatibility of Viscoelastic Mortars for Stone Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Demoulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the thermal stresses that originate in an acrylic-based repair material used for the reprofiling of natural sandstone is analyzed. This kind of artificial stone was developed in the late 1970s for its peculiar property of reversibility in an organic solvent. However, it displays a high thermal expansion coefficient, which can be a matter of concern for the durability either of the repair or of the underlying original stone. To evaluate this risk we propose an analytical solution that considers the viscoelasticity of the repair layer. The temperature profile used in the numerical evaluation has been measured in a church where artificial stone has been used in a recent restoration campaign. The viscoelasticity of the artificial stone has been characterized by stress relaxation experiments. The numerical analysis shows that the relaxation time of the repair mortar, originating from a low T g , allows relief of most of the thermal stresses. It explains the good durability of this particular repair material, as observed by the practitioners, and provides a solid scientific basis for considering that the problem of thermal expansion mismatch is not an issue for this type of stone under any possible conditions of natural exposure.

  16. Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2014-12-01

    Although caffeine intake may increase urine calcium excretion, caffeine-containing beverages have been associated with a lower risk of nephrolithiasis. We sought to determine the association between caffeine intake and the risk of incident kidney stones in 3 large prospective cohorts. We prospectively analyzed the association between intake of caffeine and incidence of kidney stones in 3 large ongoing cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II. Information on the consumption of caffeine and the incidence of kidney stones was collected by validated questionnaires. The analysis included 217,883 participants; over a median follow-up of >8 y, 4982 incident cases occurred. After multivariate adjustment for age, BMI, fluid intake, and other factors, participants in the highest quintile of caffeine intake had a 26% (95% CI: 12%, 38%) lower risk of developing stones in the HPFS cohort, a 29% lower risk (95% CI: 15%, 41%) in the NHS I cohort, and a 31% lower risk (95% CI: 18%, 42%) in the NHS II cohort (P-trend kidney stones. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although caffeine intake may increase urine calcium excretion, caffeine-containing beverages have been associated with a lower risk of nephrolithiasis. Objective: We sought to determine the association between caffeine intake and the risk of incident kidney stones in 3 large prospective cohorts. Design: We prospectively analyzed the association between intake of caffeine and incidence of kidney stones in 3 large ongoing cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS) I and II. Information on the consumption of caffeine and the incidence of kidney stones was collected by validated questionnaires. Results: The analysis included 217,883 participants; over a median follow-up of >8 y, 4982 incident cases occurred. After multivariate adjustment for age, BMI, fluid intake, and other factors, participants in the highest quintile of caffeine intake had a 26% (95% CI: 12%, 38%) lower risk of developing stones in the HPFS cohort, a 29% lower risk (95% CI: 15%, 41%) in the NHS I cohort, and a 31% lower risk (95% CI: 18%, 42%) in the NHS II cohort (P-trend kidney stones. PMID:25411295

  18. Sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical removal of parotid stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Pasquale, Capaccio; Gaffuri, Michelle; Michele, Gaffuri; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Pignataro

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgical approaches to parotid stones (such as extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and sialendoscopy) have proved to be effective in a high percentage of cases, although success depends on factors such as the localisation of the stone, its size and its mobility. The failure rate of 10% is largely due to large and impacted stones and, in such cases, a combined external and sialendoscopic approach can be used to avoid morbidity and the risks of more invasive superficial parotidectomy. We treated eight patients with large parotid stones (>7 mm) using a sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical approach that was effective in all but one case, which was successfully solved by combining this procedure with extra-corporeal lithotripsy and operative sialendoscopy. Our results confirm that the combined approach is a valid alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones and should be added to other minimally invasive techniques aimed at restoring the function of the affected parotid gland. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Border Cave and the beginning of the Later Stone Age in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Paola; Soriano, Sylvain; Tsanova, Tsenka; Degano, Ilaria; Higham, Thomas F G; d'Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Colombini, Maria Perla; Beaumont, Peter B

    2012-08-14

    The transition from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to the Later Stone Age (LSA) in South Africa was not associated with the appearance of anatomically modern humans and the extinction of Neandertals, as in the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Europe. It has therefore attracted less attention, yet it provides insights into patterns of technological evolution not associated with a new hominin. Data from Border Cave (KwaZulu-Natal) show a strong pattern of technological change at approximately 44-42 ka cal BP, marked by adoption of techniques and materials that were present but scarcely used in the previous MSA, and some novelties. The agent of change was neither a revolution nor the advent of a new species of human. Although most evident in personal ornaments and symbolic markings, the change from one way of living to another was not restricted to aesthetics. Our analysis shows that: (i) at Border Cave two assemblages, dated to 45-49 and >49 ka, show a gradual abandonment of the technology and tool types of the post-Howiesons Poort period and can be considered transitional industries; (ii) the 44-42 ka cal BP assemblages are based on an expedient technology dominated by bipolar knapping, with microliths hafted with pitch from Podocarpus bark, worked suid tusks, ostrich eggshell beads, bone arrowheads, engraved bones, bored stones, and digging sticks; (iii) these assemblages mark the beginning of the LSA in South Africa; (iv) the LSA emerged by internal evolution; and (v) the process of change began sometime after 56 ka.

  20. Success of rigid ureteroscopy according to the stone localization in the ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Üçer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We retrospectively evaluated our rigid ureteroscopy(URS treatment results in ureteric stones andassessed its effectiveness concerning ureteric stone localisation.Materials and methods: Overall, 101 patients were retrospectivelyevaluated including lower (n=69, mid (n=23and upper ureteric (n=9 stones which were treated withrigid URS (Wolf 8.0-9.8Fr, Germany in our hospital betweenJanuary 2007- June 2009. Stones were removedby stone forceps/basket catheter either as single pieceor fragmented by pneumatic lithotripsy (EMS-Swisslithoclast-Master.Results: Mean patient age was 45.1 (19-78 years.Stones were located in the right (n=52 and left (n=49 ureters,respectively. Mean stone size was 7,4 mm (5-15. Ofthe 9 patients with upper ureteric stones, 7 were (77.8%stone-free. However, stone migrated into renal pelvis intwo patients but passed into ureter again in the follow-upand removed by URS. Of the 23 patients with mid-uretericstones, 22 were (95.7% stone-free. Ureter perforationoccurred in one patient and ureteroneocystostomy wasperformed. Of the 69 patients with lower ureteric stones,68 were (98.6% stone-free. Ureter perforation occurredin one patient and healed spontaneously by ureter catheterreplacement. Stone was removed afterwards by URS.Overall (n=101, ureter perforation occurred in 1.9% (n=2in our series. Resistant urinary tract infection developedin one patient (0.9% (P.aeroginosa.Conclusion: Due to results of this preliminary study, rigidURS and pneumatic lithotripsy can be performed successfullyparticularly in lower ureteric stones. However,as stone location shifts to upper ureter, success rate decreases.Although URS can be performed safely with lowcomplication rates in the treatment of ureteric stones, severecomplications like ureter perforation might occur.

  1. [Factors affecting residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with renal calculus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingzhou; Zhang, Haifang; Zhou, Chenlong

    2015-11-24

    To explore the factors affecting the residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with renal calculus. A retrospective analysis was performed for 1 200 patients who were affected by renal calculus and treated with PCNL between Jan 2008 and May 2014 in People's Hospital of Anyang City. Among those patients, 16 were diagnosed as bilateral renal stone and had two successive operations. The size, location and number of stones, previous history of surgery, the degree of hydronephrosis, urinary infection were included in the univariate analysis. Significant factors in univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis to determine factors affecting stone residual. A total of 385 cases developed stone residual after surgery. The overall residual rate was 31.7%. In univariate analysis, renal pelvis combined with caliceal calculus (P=0.006), stone size larger than 4 cm (P=0.005), stone number more than 4 (P=0.002), the amount of bleeding more than 200 ml (P=0.025), operation time longer than 120 minutes (P=0.028) were associated with an increased rate of stone residual. When subjected to the Cox multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for residual stones were renal pelvis combined with caliceal calculus (P=0.049), stone size larger than 4 cm (P=0.038) and stone number more than 4 (P=0.018). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PCNL are the size, location and number of stones. Larger size stone and the presence of renal pelvis combined with caliceal calculus are significantly associated with residual stones. Nevertheless, stone number less than 4 indicates an increased stone clearance rate.

  2. Modeling and analysis of the chip formation and transient cutting force during elliptical vibration cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jieqiong; Guan, Liang; Lu, Mingming; Han, Jinguo; Kan, Yudi

    2017-12-01

    In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It's difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.

  3. Modeling and analysis of the chip formation and transient cutting force during elliptical vibration cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It’s difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.

  4. Resource depletion through primate stone technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amanda; Haslam, Michael; Kulik, Lars; Proffitt, Tomos; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Tool use has allowed humans to become one of the most successful species. However, tool-assisted foraging has also pushed many of our prey species to extinction or endangerment, a technology-driven process thought to be uniquely human. Here, we demonstrate that tool-assisted foraging on shellfish by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park, Thailand, reduces prey size and prey abundance, with more pronounced effects where the macaque population size is larger. We compared availability, sizes and maturation stages of shellfish between two adjacent islands inhabited by different-sized macaque populations and demonstrate potential effects on the prey reproductive biology. We provide evidence that once technological macaques reach a large enough group size, they enter a feedback loop – driving shellfish prey size down with attendant changes in the tool sizes used by the monkeys. If this pattern continues, prey populations could be reduced to a point where tool-assisted foraging is no longer beneficial to the macaques, which in return may lessen or extinguish the remarkable foraging technology employed by these primates. PMID:28884681

  5. Chip formation in turning S45C medium carbon steel in cryogenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaharah A. Ghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tribology issue regarding the chip formation in machining medium carbon steel (S45C using a coated and uncoated carbide tools. The machining parameters under investigation were cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut under dry and cryogenic cutting condition using coated and uncoated carbide tools. The chip shape was largely depended on the combination of machining parameters, especially at high depth of cut and feed rate; the favorable chip was produced. Larger value of shear angle results in smaller shear plane area that provides benefits of lower cutting force needed to shear off the chips and lower cutting temperature being generated during the machining process.

  6. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  7. Renal pelvic stones: choosing shock wave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Marcovich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the surgical management of renal calculi. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are now both well-established procedures. Each modality has advantages and disadvantages, and the application of each should be based on well-defined factors. These variables include stone factors such as number, size, and composition; factors related to the stone's environment, including the stone's location, spatial anatomy of the renal collecting system, presence of hydronephrosis, and other anatomic variables, such as the presence of calyceal diverticula and renal anomalies; and clinical or patient factors like morbid obesity, the presence of a solitary kidney, and renal insufficiency. The morbidity of each procedure in relation to its efficacy should be taken in to account. This article will review current knowledge and suggest an algorithm for the rational management of renal calculi with shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  8. Pulp Stones, Prevalence and Distribution in an Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzekanani, Maryam; Haghani, Jahangir; Walsh, Laurence J; Estabragh, Mohammad Am

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence and distribution of pulp stones in the permanent dentition of an adult population using their periapical radiographs. The study followed a cross-sectional design. A total of 800 periapical radiographs collected from 412 patients attending dental clinics in Kerman, Islamic Republic of Iran, were examined using magnification. Pulp stones were present in 9.6% of all permanent teeth examined, being most common in maxillary first and second molars, followed by mandibular first and second molars. They were present in 31.5% of all adult patients, with a significantly increased prevalence in females compared with males (40.5 vs 23.9%, chi-squared test p endodontic treatment. They obstruct access to the canal orifices and thus complicate endodontic treatment. Knowing where and when pulp stones are likely to occur improves the quality of root canal treatments.

  9. Stone Formation and Fragmentation in Forgotten Ureteral Double J Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Bas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nowadays, ureteral stents play an essential role in various endourological and open surgical procedures and common procedures performed in daily urological practice. However, stents can cause significant complications such as migration, infection, fragmentation, stone formation and encrustation, especially when forgotten for a long period. Objectives: We present our experience in endoscopic management of forgotten ureteral stents with a brief review of current literature. Case presentation: A total of 2 patients with forgotten ureteral stents were treated with endourological approaches in our department. Indwelling durations were 18 months and 36 months. After treatment both patients were stone and stent free. Conclusion: An endourological approach is effective for stent and stone removal after a single anesthesia session with minimal morbidity and short hospital stay. However, therapeutic strategy is also determined by the technology available. The best treatment would be the prevention of this complication by providing detailed patient education.

  10. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF EXPANDER TO PREVENT CONTRACTION OF CEMENT STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenova Aurika Almazovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the results of studies of the use of additives containing crystallization components significantly affecting the curing of cement, improving the structure of cement stone and concrete. The crystalline component is obtained using the rotary-pulse unit, which provides not only the grinding of agents, but their interaction with each other as well in order to accelerate the hydration and structure formation in cement stone. The degree, and kinetics of hydration, the composition of hydrated phases, the structure of the additives and cement stone was studied using the following methods: x-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mechanical properties of cement were determined by standard methods and techniques. The expander produced by means of hydrodynamic activation of the sulfoaluminate clinker (SAC consists of ettringite and hydrated calcium silicates, which are characterized by high dispersion rate (less than 10 µm and reactivity as the seed for the crystallization of hydrated compounds. The introduction of the ultrafine additives of the crystalline SAC (within 1-5% was discovered to cause expansion of the cement stone. Implementation of the additives increases cement hydration and contributes to the formation of active centers of crystallization that lead to the fast formation of ettringite, hydrated calcium aluminates and calcium silicates. The activated crystalline additive provides for significant reduction of porosity, initial curing, and high strength of cement stone. In addition, the additive is an expansive component, forming needle-like crystals of ettringite during hydration. These microcrystals grow in the capillaries of cement stone, filling them, and create conditions for improving the crack resistance of cement concrete.

  12. Coincidence symptomatic gall stone and helicobacter pylori: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Nezam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: On of the most common gasterointrestinal disease is gallstone disease and it`s prevalence is 11%-36%in autopsies. If gallstone leads to symptoms and side effect cholecystectomy will be inevitable. Gastric infection due to H.P will cause several symptoms of which dyspepsia and epigastric pain are outstanding .Gall stones also usually causes epigastric and/or right upper quadrant pain. Pain in other abdominal quadrant is less common. In this study we investigated the coincidence of gall stone and gastro intestinal H.P regarding the common symptom, between these two conditions to prevent unnecessary operation.Methods: The cases were adopted from cholecystectomy candidates due to gall stone disease (proved by ultrasonography. The control group were normal people who proved to be gall stone free ultrasonographicly. Serum IgG anti H.P was checked and compared between the two groups.Results: Seventy percent of patients entered into the study which consisted of 35 case and 35 controls. The two groups were not significantly different in age and gender. There were 22 (68.8% and 10 (31.2% H.P positive cases in case and control groups respectively. Thirteen (34.2% and 25 (65.8% cases were H.P negative in case and control groups respectively. Comparing these results will reveal a statistically significant difference (P=0.004.Conclusion: The relationship between gastric H.P and gall stone in this study supports the role of H.P in gall stone formation. According to our results and the common symptoms of two conditions specially in atypic biliary colic, it seems that in many cases gastrointestinal H.P causes the pain. Prospective studies are recommended.

  13. Screening and Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.

  14. Emergency department revisits for patients with kidney stones in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Charles D; Lin, Li; Saigal, Christopher S; Bennett, Carol J; Ponce, Ninez A; Mangione, Carol M; Litwin, Mark S

    2015-04-01

    Kidney stones affect nearly one in 11 persons in the United States, and among those experiencing symptoms, emergency care is common. In this population, little is known about the incidence of and factors associated with repeat emergency department (ED) visits. The objective was to identify associations between potentially mutable factors and the risk of an ED revisit for patients with kidney stones in a large, all-payer cohort. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients in California initially treated and released from EDs for kidney stones between February 2008 and November 2009. A multivariable regression model was created to identify associations between patient-level characteristics, area health care resources, processes of care, and the risk of repeat ED visits. The primary outcome was a second ED visit within 30 days of the initial discharge from emergent care. Among 128,564 patients discharged from emergent care, 13,684 (11%) had at least one additional emergent visit for treatment of their kidney stone. In these patients, nearly one in three required hospitalization or an urgent temporizing procedure at the second visit. On multivariable analysis, the risk of an ED revisit was associated with insurance status (e.g., Medicaid vs. private insurance; odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43 to 1.61; p kidney stones. Access to urologic care and processes of care are associated with lower risk of repeat emergent encounters. Efforts are indicated to identify preventable causes of ED revisits for kidney stone patients and design interventions to reduce the risk of high-cost, high-acuity, repeat care. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  15. Mother goddesses with boat motifs on stone sculptures from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, R.; Gaur, A.S.

    , and the port's extent is only now being revealed. Archaeologists call it the "Port of Theodosius", after the emperor of Rome and Byzantium who died in 395 AD. They expect to gain insights into ancient commercial life in the city, once called Constantinople..., seals, on the hero-stones, rock caves and coins have been amply found in the Indian subcontinent, some dating back to the prehistoric period, to the modern times. Archaeological Museum at Old Goa housed two hero-stones, one of which depicts a naval...

  16. Prevention of recurrent calcium stones: diet versus drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, P

    1994-01-01

    Excessive intakes of meat protein, oxalate and potentially sodium, as well as insufficient intakes of vegetables fibers, calcium and fluid all lead to increased urinary crystallization. Renal stone disease, however, does not have to ensue. The underlying condition in a given patient is of paramount importance to allow 'bad eating habits' to lead to nephrolithiasis. Several of these underlying abnormalities have been detected so far from which we recently derived the powder keg and tinderbox theory. Most of the time, the dietary approach to nephrolithiasis allows recurrence of renal stone formation to be prevented. The pharmacological approach should be reserved for refractory cases.

  17. Gazetteer of Stone Quarries in the Roman World

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The Stone Quarries Database was compiled by Ben Russell as part of his research project on Sculpted Stone and the Roman Economy. The database comes in two forms - an online version that can be queried through the above table view, and a downloadable PDF including a full gazetteer of quarry sites, and some introductory notes. The database includes all those quarries at which activity in the Roman period is proven or suspected. As such it builds on the ground-breaking studies of A. Dworakowska ...

  18. Diabetic severity and risk of kidney stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Aviva E; Patel, Chirag J; Chertow, Glenn M; Leppert, John T

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is rising along with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome. To investigate the associations among the presence and severity of T2DM, glycemic control, and insulin resistance with kidney stone disease. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of all adult participants in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A history of kidney stone disease was obtained by self-report. T2DM was defined by self-reported history, T2DM-related medication usage, and reported diabetic comorbidity. Insulin resistance was estimated using fasting plasma insulin (FPI) levels and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) definition. We classified glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting plasma-glucose levels (FPG). Odds ratios (OR) for having kidney stone disease were calculated for each individual measure of T2DM severity. Logistic regression models were fitted adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking history, and the Quételet index (body mass index), as well as laboratory values and components of metabolic syndrome. Correlates of kidney stone disease included a self-reported history of T2DM (OR: 2.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84-3.25) and history of insulin use (OR: 3.31; 95% CI, 2.02-5.45). Persons with FPG levels 100-126 mg/dl and >126 mg/dl had increased odds of having kidney stone disease (OR 1.28; 95% CI, 0.95-1.72; and OR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.68-3.12, respectively). Corresponding results for persons with HbA1c 5.7-6.4% and ≥ 6.5% were OR 1.68 (95% CI, 1.17-2.42) and OR 2.82 (95% CI, 1.98-4.02), respectively. When adjusting for patient factors, a history of T2DM, the use of insulin, FPI, and HbA1c remained significantly associated with kidney stone disease. The cross-sectional design limits causal inference. Among persons with T2DM, more-severe disease is associated with a heightened risk of kidney

  19. Treatment Approaches to Urinary Stones Caused by Forgotten DJ Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergun Alma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral DJ stents have been used widely for years in urology practice. With increased use, complications have been increased and forgotton stents have started to cause problems. The most common complications are early pain and irritative symptoms. Late complications are bacterial colonization and stone formation because of the biofilm covering the stents. Treatment for a forgotten stent varies on many factors, such as stent localization and stone formation. In this article, we aimed to discuss our clinic approach on two different cases in light to current literature. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 58-63

  20. Historical period stone anchors from Vijaydurg on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Stone anchors are the primary antiquites in marine archaeological studies. Evidences of their evolution are noticed in India since 2500 B.C. A number of stone anchors have been recovered during the recent marine archaeological explorations at Dwarka...