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Sample records for chipmunks tamias sibiricus

  1. [Fleas community in introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus Laxmann) in Forest of Sénart, France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, B; Marmet, J; Beaucournu, J C; Chapuis, J L

    2008-03-01

    We examined the fleas community in an introduced population of Siberian chipmunks, Tamias sibiricus, between 2005 and 2007, in the Forest of Sénart (Essonne, France). We collected and identified 383 fleas on 463 chipmunks (total: 1,891 captures on 471 chipmunks). In 2005, 120 fleas were also collected on 65 bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, and on 25 wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, trapped within the same area. Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum formed 73.6% of the chipmunks' flea community, with an annual prevalence (P) ranging between 8 and 13% and a mean intensity (I) ranging between 1.1 and 1.6 fleas per individual. Among the six other species infecting this Sciurid, Ctenophthalmus agyrtes impavidus constituted 17.2% (P: 1.6-2.2%; I: 1.1-2.6), and Megabothris turbidus 8.1% (P: 0.8-1.9%; I: 1.0-1.4) of the flea community, respectively. These last two species represented respectively 60.8% and 36.6% of the flea community on the bank vole and the wood mouse. Originated from Asia, chipmunks did not import any flea species to Sénart, probably because they were used as pets before their release in the wild. Abundance in C. s. sciurorum increased with adult chipmunk density and with juvenile density in summer. On adult chipmunks C. s. sciurorum tented to decrease with increasing abundance of red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris]. Moreover, the two other flea species mainly infected young chipmunks during the fall, and their number was not related to chipmunk density. However, the distribution of species within the flea community became more balanced with increase juvenile chipmunk density. Overall, these results indicate that the close phyletic relationship between chipmunks and red squirrels contributed in the acquisition and the spread of fleas by chipmunks. Primary and secondary hosts densities, their habitat use, and more specifically burrowing activities and tree canopy use, also played a role in the spread of fleas on chipmunks.

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) introduced in suburban forests in France.

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    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Marmet, Julie; Chassagne, Michelle; Bord, Séverine; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Numerous vertebrate reservoirs have been described for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes the etiological agents of Lyme Borreliosis (LB). The Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) is a rodent originating from Asia, where it is suspected to be a B. burgdorferi reservoir. It has been intentionally released into the wild in Europe since the 1970s, but has not yet been subject to any study regarding its association with the LB agent. In this paper we studied Siberian chipmunk infestation with the LB vector (Ixodes ricinus) and infection prevalence by LB spirochetes in a suburban introduced population. We compared these findings with known competent reservoir hosts, the bank vole (Myodes [clethrionomys] glareolus) and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). All Siberian chipmunks were infested with larvae and larval abundance was higher in this species (mean number of larvae [95% Confidence Interval]: 73.5 [46.0, 117.2]) than in the two other rodent species (bank voles: 4.4 [3.0, 6.3] and wood mice: 10.2 [4.9, 21.2]). Significant factors affecting abundance of larvae were host species and sampling season. Nymphs were most prevalent on chipmunks (86.2%, mean: 5.1 [3.3, 8.0]), one vole carried only two nymphs, and none of the mice had any nymphs. Nymph abundance in chipmunks was affected by sampling season and sex. Furthermore, the infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in the Siberian chipmunk was the highest (33.3%) and predominantly of B. afzelii. The infection prevalence was 14.1% in bank voles, but no wood mouse was found to be infected. Our results suggest that the Siberian chipmunk may be an important reservoir host for LB.

  3. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) in Northeastern Asia and population substructure in South Korea.

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    Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lissovsky, Andrey A; Park, Sun-Kyung; Obolenskaya, Ekaterina V; Dokuchaev, Nikolay E; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Li; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Choi, Tae-Young; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang

    2008-12-31

    Twenty-five chipmunk species occur in the world, of which only the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus, inhabits Asia. To investigate mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of the Siberian chipmunk in northeastern Asia, we examined mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (1140 bp) from 3 countries. Analyses of 41 individuals from South Korea and 33 individuals from Russia and northeast China resulted in 37 haplotypes and 27 haplotypes, respectively. There were no shared haplotypes between South Korea and Russia--northeast China. Phylogenetic trees and network analysis showed 2 major maternal lineages for haplotypes, referred to as the S and R lineages. Haplotype grouping in each cluster was nearly coincident with its geographic affinity. In particular, 3 distinct groups were found that mostly clustered in the northern, central and southern parts of South Korea. Nucleotide diversity of the S lineage was twice that of lineage R. The divergence between S and R lineages was estimated to be 2.98-0.98 Myr. During the ice age, there may have been at least 2 refuges in South Korea and Russia--northeast China. The sequence variation between the S and R lineages was 11.3% (K2P), which is indicative of specific recognition in rodents. These results suggest that T. sibiricus from South Korea could be considered a separate species. However, additional information, such as details of distribution, nuclear genes data or morphology, is required to strengthen this hypothesis.

  4. Observations of Sympatric Populations of Least Chipmunks (Tamias minimus) and Hopi Chipmunks (Tamias rufus) in Western Colorado, 1995-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, J.B.; Root, J.J.; Calisher, C.H.; Root, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    From 1995 through 2006, we studied a rodent community in western Colorado, observing weather conditions and their effects on least chipmunk (Tamias minimus) and Hopi chipmunk (T. rufus) populations. There are few studies that have assessed relative abundances of chipmunks over long durations and none have been conducted on least chipmunks or Hopi chipmunks. This study is unique in that it assesses abundances of sympatric populations of these chipmunks over a 12-year period. We captured 116 least chipmunks and 62 Hopi chipmunks during 47,850 trap nights of effort. Results indicated that year-to-year precipitation and temperature fluctuations had little effect on these chipmunk populations. However, the relative abundances of Hopi chipmunks and least chipmunks appear to have an inverse relationship with each other, suggesting the potential for resource competition between these congeners.

  5. Biology of the eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, D.P.

    1976-08-01

    Major goals of this project were development of baseline ecological data for the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) over time and space; and determination of the effect of sublethal ionizing radiation on populations of this species. The study focussed on free-ranging populations in southern Vermont, was long term 1965-1973, and was simultaneously descriptive and experimental. Data were integrated with those from a concurrent similar study in Pennsylvania. The work has produced one of the most extensive sets of ecological data available on a native, free-ranging small mammal and makes the eastern chipmunk a useful and desirable species for experimental studies in physiology, behavior, ecology, and evolution. Eastern chipmunk densities are correlated in general with production of mast, their staple food. Variation in production of young from season to season is one of the major ways in which numbers are regulated. Single insults of 200 R or 400 R of gamma radiation decreased the rate of disappearance of individuals from the populations so treated. In a population in which average range size of males was quite large, irradiation resulted in reduction in home range in comparison to a control group

  6. Distribution and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in California chipmunks (Tamias spp..

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    Mary H Straub

    Full Text Available California, with 13 chipmunk (Tamias species, has more than any other state or country, occupying habitats ranging from chaparral to the high peaks of the Sierra Nevada. Chipmunks host zoonotic pathogens including Yersinia pestis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, relapsing fever (RF Borrelia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and spotted fever group (SFG Rickettsia species. Chipmunk species are often not differentiated by public health workers, yet different species utilize different ecological niches and may have intrinsically different capacities for maintaining vector-borne pathogens and infecting vectors. We surveyed over 700 individuals from nine species of chipmunks throughout California for exposure to and infection by Y. pestis, A. phagocytophilum, RF Borrelia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and SFG Rickettsia species. DNA of all five pathogens was found and all chipmunks except Merriam's chipmunk (T. merriami were PCR-positive for at least one of the pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was most common (40.0%, 2/5 in Sonoma chipmunks (T. sonomae from Marin county and B. burgdorferi most common (37.5%, 27/72 in redwood chipmunks (T. ochrogenys from Mendocino county. RF Borrelia spp. was detected in 2% (6/297 of redwood chipmunks in Mendocino county and 10% (1/10 of both least (T. minimus and lodgepole (T. speciosus chipmunks in the western Sierra. Exposure to SFG Rickettsia spp. was found in the Northern Coastal region (Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino counties and in the northern and western Sierra in several species of chipmunks. Y. pestis infection was found only in the western Sierra-in a yellow-pine (T. amoenus and a long-eared (T. quadrimaculatus chipmunk. Though more data are needed to thoroughly understand the roles that different chipmunk species play in disease transmission, our findings suggest that some chipmunk species may be more important to the maintenance of vector-borne diseases than others within each geographic area.

  7. Influence of canopy closure and shrub coverage on travel along coarse woody debris by Eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)

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    Patrick A. Zollner; Kevin J. Crane

    2003-01-01

    We investigated relationships between canopy closure, shrub cover and the use of coarse woody debris as a travel path by eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) in the north central United States. Fine scale movements of chipmunks were followed with tracking spools and the percentage of each movement path directly along coarse woody debris was recorded...

  8. Ecology, distribution, and predictive occurrence modeling of Palmers chipmunk (Tamias palmeri): a high-elevation small mammal endemic to the Spring Mountains in southern Nevada, USA

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    Lowrey, Chris E.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Riddle, Brett R.; Mantooth, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Although montane sky islands surrounded by desert scrub and shrub steppe comprise a large part of the biological diversity of the Basin and Range Province of southwestern North America, comprehensive ecological and population demographic studies for high-elevation small mammals within these areas are rare. Here, we examine the ecology and population parameters of the Palmer’s chipmunk (Tamias palmeri) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, and present a predictive GIS-based distribution and probability of occurrence model at both home range and geographic spatial scales. Logistic regression analyses and Akaike Information Criterion model selection found variables of forest type, slope, and distance to water sources as predictive of chipmunk occurrence at the geographic scale. At the home range scale, increasing population density, decreasing overstory canopy cover, and decreasing understory canopy cover contributed to increased survival rates.

  9. Habitat features and predictive habitat modeling for the Colorado chipmunk in southern New Mexico

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    Rivieccio, M.; Thompson, B.C.; Gould, W.R.; Boykin, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Two subspecies of Colorado chipmunk (state threatened and federal species of concern) occur in southern New Mexico: Tamias quadrivittatus australis in the Organ Mountains and T. q. oscuraensis in the Oscura Mountains. We developed a GIS model of potentially suitable habitat based on vegetation and elevation features, evaluated site classifications of the GIS model, and determined vegetation and terrain features associated with chipmunk occurrence. We compared GIS model classifications with actual vegetation and elevation features measured at 37 sites. At 60 sites we measured 18 habitat variables regarding slope, aspect, tree species, shrub species, and ground cover. We used logistic regression to analyze habitat variables associated with chipmunk presence/absence. All (100%) 37 sample sites (28 predicted suitable, 9 predicted unsuitable) were classified correctly by the GIS model regarding elevation and vegetation. For 28 sites predicted suitable by the GIS model, 18 sites (64%) appeared visually suitable based on habitat variables selected from logistic regression analyses, of which 10 sites (36%) were specifically predicted as suitable habitat via logistic regression. We detected chipmunks at 70% of sites deemed suitable via the logistic regression models. Shrub cover, tree density, plant proximity, presence of logs, and presence of rock outcrop were retained in the logistic model for the Oscura Mountains; litter, shrub cover, and grass cover were retained in the logistic model for the Organ Mountains. Evaluation of predictive models illustrates the need for multi-stage analyses to best judge performance. Microhabitat analyses indicate prospective needs for different management strategies between the subspecies. Sensitivities of each population of the Colorado chipmunk to natural and prescribed fire suggest that partial burnings of areas inhabited by Colorado chipmunks in southern New Mexico may be beneficial. These partial burnings may later help avoid a fire

  10. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  11. Genetic sampling of Palmer's chipmunks in the Spring Mountains, Nevada

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    Kevin S. McKelvey; Jennifer E. Ramirez; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    Palmer's chipmunk (Neotamias palmeri) is a medium-sized chipmunk whose range is limited to the higher-elevation areas of the Spring Mountain Range, Nevada. A second chipmunk species, the Panamint chipmunk (Neotamias panamintinus), is more broadly distributed and lives in lower-elevation, primarily pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) habitat...

  12. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stenger, B.L.S.; Clark, M.E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, E.; Giddings, C.W.; Dyer, N.W.; Schultz, J.L.; McEvoy, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, JUN 2015 (2015), s. 113-123 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * Paralogy * 18S rRNA * 18S rDNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2015

  13. 75 FR 34956 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Certification Office (ACO), 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, Georgia 30337; telephone: (404) 474-5543; fax..., FAA, Atlanta Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, Georgia 30337.... Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1 Chipmunk 22A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...

  14. Energetic cost of bot fly parasitism in free-ranging eastern chipmunks.

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    Careau, Vincent; Thomas, Donald W; Humphries, Murray M

    2010-02-01

    The energy and nutrient demands of parasites on their hosts are frequently invoked as an explanation for negative impacts of parasitism on host survival and reproductive success. Although cuterebrid bot flies are among the physically largest and most-studied insect parasites of mammals, the only study conducted on metabolic consequences of bot fly parasitism revealed a surprisingly small effect of bot flies on host metabolism. Here we test the prediction that bot fly parasitism increases the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of free-ranging eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), particularly in juveniles who have not previously encountered parasites and have to allocate energy to growth. We found no effect of bot fly parasitism on adults. In juveniles, however, we found that RMR strongly increased with the number of bot fly larvae hosted. For a subset of 12 juveniles during a year where parasite prevalence was particularly high, we also compared the RMR before versus during the peak of bot fly prevalence, allowing each individual to act as its own control. Each bot fly larva resulted in a approximately 7.6% increase in the RMR of its host while reducing juvenile growth rates. Finally, bot fly parasitism at the juvenile stage was positively correlated with adult stage RMR, suggesting persistent effects of bot flies on RMR. This study is the first to show an important effect of bot fly parasitism on the metabolism and growth of a wild mammal. Our work highlights the importance of studying cost of parasitism over multiple years in natural settings, as negative effects on hosts are more likely to emerge in periods of high energetic demand (e.g. growing juveniles) and/or in harsh environmental conditions (e.g. low food availability).

  15. 75 FR 57846 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, Georgia 30337; telephone: (404... Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1... the Docket Office (phone: 800-647-5527) is Document Management Facility, U.S. Department of...

  16. Natural infection of Cryptosporidium muris (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporiidae) in Siberian chipmunks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůrková, L.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Modrý, David

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2003), s. 441ů444 ISSN 0090-3558 Grant - others:GA FRVŠ(CZ) 1260/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 123100003; CEZ:MSM 161700001 Keywords : BALB/c mice * Cryptosporidium muris * Eutamias sibiricus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2003

  17. Differences in Townsend's chipmunk populations between second- and old-growth forests in western Oregon

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    D.K. Rosenberg; R.G. Anthony

    1993-01-01

    Because Townsend's chipmunks (Tomias townsendii) may be important in maintaining natural ecosystem processes in forests in the central Oregon Cascade Range, we compared their population characteristics in young second-growth and old-growth forests. We live-trapped Townsend's chipmunks in 5 young (30-60 yr old) second-growth and 5 old-...

  18. 75 FR 53861 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Robert E. Rust... CFR part 39) to include an AD that would apply to all Robert E. Rust, Jr. Models DeHavilland DH.C1...

  19. Extremely Low Genetic Diversity Indicating the Endangered Status of Ranodon sibiricus (Amphibia: Caudata) and Implications for Phylogeography

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    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Sun, Jian-Yun; Xue, Yan; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Background The Siberian salamander (Ranodon sibiricus), distributed in geographically isolated areas of Central Asia, is an ideal alpine species for studies of conservation and phylogeography. However, there are few data regarding the genetic diversity in R. sibiricus populations. Methodology/Principal Findings We used two genetic markers (mtDNA and microsatellites) to survey all six populations of R. sibiricus in China. Both of the markers revealed extreme genetic uniformity among these populations. There were only three haplotypes in the mtDNA, and the overall nucleotide diversity in the mtDNA was 0.00064, ranging from 0.00000 to 0.00091 for the six populations. Although we recovered 70 sequences containing microsatellite repeats, there were only two loci that displayed polymorphism. We used the approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method to study the demographic history of the populations. This analysis suggested that the extant populations diverged from the ancestral population approximately 120 years ago and that the historical population size was much larger than the present population size; i.e., R. sibiricus has experienced dramatic population declines. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that the genetic diversity in the R. sibiricus populations is the lowest among all investigated amphibians. We conclude that the isolation of R. sibiricus populations occurred recently and was a result of recent human activity and/or climatic changes. The Pleistocene glaciation oscillations may have facilitated intraspecies genetic homogeneity rather than enhanced divergence. A low genomic evolutionary rate and elevated inbreeding frequency may have also contributed to the low genetic variation observed in this species. Our findings indicate the urgency of implementing a protection plan for this endangered species. PMID:22428037

  20. Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT Markers to Estimate Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Chinese Elymus sibiricus Accessions

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    Junchao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elymus sibiricus as an important forage grass and gene pool for improving cereal crops, that is widely distributed in West and North China. Information on its genetic diversity and relationships is limited but necessary for germplasm collection, conservation and future breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT markers were used for studying the genetic diversity and relationships among 53 E. sibiricus accessions from its primary distribution area in China. A total of 173 bands were generated from 16 SCoT primers, 159 bands of which were polymorphic with the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB of 91.91%. Based upon population structure analysis five groups were formed. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into two major clusters and three sub-clusters, similar to results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA showed that genetic variation was greater within geographical regions (50.99% than between them (49.01%. Furthermore, the study also suggested that collecting and evaluating E. sibiricus germplasm for major geographic regions and special environments broadens the available genetic base and illustrates the range of variation. The results of the present study showed that SCoT markers were efficient in assessing the genetic diversity among E. sibiricus accessions.

  1. Assessing and Broadening Genetic Diversity of Elymus sibiricus Germplasm for the Improvement of Seed Shattering

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    Zongyu Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Siberian wild rye (Elymus sibiricus L. is an important native grass in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. It is difficult to grow for commercial seed production, since seed shattering causes yield losses during harvest. Assessing the genetic diversity and relationships among germplasm from its primary distribution area contributes to evaluating the potential for its utilization as a gene pool to improve the desired agronomic traits. In the study, 40 EST-SSR primers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 36 E. sibiricus accessions with variation of seed shattering. A total of 380 bands were generated, with an average of 9.5 bands per primer. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.23 to 0.50. The percentage of polymorphic bands (P for the species was 87.11%, suggesting a high degree of genetic diversity. Based on population structure analysis, four groups were formed, similar to results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA revealed the majority of genetic variation occurred within geographical regions (83.40%. Two genotypes from Y1005 and ZhN06 were used to generate seven F1 hybrids. The molecular and morphological diversity analysis of F1 population revealed rich genetic variation and high level of seed shattering variation in F1 population, resulting in significant improvement of the genetic base and desired agronomic traits.

  2. A long-living species of the hydrophiloid beetles: Helophorus sibiricus from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo (Siberia, Russia

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    Martin Fikácek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent hydrophiloid species Helophorus (Gephelophorus sibiricus (Motschulsky, 1860 is recorded from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo assigned to the Ombinsk Formation. A detailed comparison with recent specimens allowed a confident identification of the fossil specimen, which is therefore the oldest record of a recent species for the Hydrophiloidea. The paleodistribution as well as recent distribution of the species is summarized, and the relevance of the fossil is discussed. In addition, the complex geological settings of the Kartashevo area are briefly summarized.

  3. CHIPMUNK: A Virtual Synthesizable Small-Molecule Library for Medicinal Chemistry, Exploitable for Protein-Protein Interaction Modulators.

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    Humbeck, Lina; Weigang, Sebastian; Schäfer, Till; Mutzel, Petra; Koch, Oliver

    2018-03-20

    A common issue during drug design and development is the discovery of novel scaffolds for protein targets. On the one hand the chemical space of purchasable compounds is rather limited; on the other hand artificially generated molecules suffer from a grave lack of accessibility in practice. Therefore, we generated a novel virtual library of small molecules which are synthesizable from purchasable educts, called CHIPMUNK (CHemically feasible In silico Public Molecular UNiverse Knowledge base). Altogether, CHIPMUNK covers over 95 million compounds and encompasses regions of the chemical space that are not covered by existing databases. The coverage of CHIPMUNK exceeds the chemical space spanned by the Lipinski rule of five to foster the exploration of novel and difficult target classes. The analysis of the generated property space reveals that CHIPMUNK is well suited for the design of protein-protein interaction inhibitors (PPIIs). Furthermore, a recently developed structural clustering algorithm (StruClus) for big data was used to partition the sub-libraries into meaningful subsets and assist scientists to process the large amount of data. These clustered subsets also contain the target space based on ChEMBL data which was included during clustering. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France.

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    Axelle Marchant

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet. We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis.

  5. Camptosorus sibiricus rupr aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis via dual effects against ROS and DNA damage.

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    He, Shugui; Ou, Rilan; Wang, Wensheng; Ji, Liyan; Gao, Hui; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Liu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Hongming; Liu, Zhongqiu; Wu, Peng; Lu, Linlin

    2018-06-28

    Camptosorus sibiricus Rupr (CSR) is a widely used herbal medicine with antivasculitis, antitrauma, and antitumor effects. However, the effect of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-initiated tumorigenesis and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Moreover, the compounds in CSR aqueous extract need to be identified and structurally characterized. We aim to investigate the chemopreventive effect of CSR and the underlying molecular mechanism. A B[a]P-stimulated normal cell model (BEAS.2B) and lung adenocarcinoma animal model were established on A/J mice. In B[a]P-treated BEAS.2B cells, the protective effects of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-induced DNA damage and ROS production were evaluated through flow cytometry, Western blot, real-time quantitative PCR, single-cell gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescence. Moreover, a model of B[a]P-initiated lung adenocarcinoma was established on A/J mice to determine the chemopreventive effect of CSR in vivo. The underlying mechanism was analyzed via immunohistochemistry and microscopy. Furthermore, the new compounds in CSR aqueous extract were isolated and structurally characterized using IR, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. CSR effectively suppressed ROS production by re-activating Nrf2-mediated reductases HO-1 and NQO-1. Simultaneously, CSR attenuated the DNA damage of BEAS.2B cells in the presence of B[a]P. Moreover, CSR at 1.5 and 3 g/kg significantly suppressed tumorigenesis with tumor inhibition ratios of 36.65% and 65.80%, respectively. The tumor volume, tumor size, and multiplicity of B[a]P-induced lung adenocarcinoma were effectively decreased by CSR in vivo. After extracting and identifying the compounds in CSR aqueous extract, three new triterpene saponins were isolated and characterized structurally. CSR aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis by exerting dual effects against ROS and DNA damage, suggesting that CSR is a novel and effective agent for B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis. Moreover, by isolating

  6. Chipmunk parvovirus is distinct from members in the genus Erythrovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The transcription profile of chipmunk parvovirus (ChpPV, a tentative member of the genus Erythrovirus in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, was characterized by transfecting a nearly full-length genome. We found that it is unique from the profiles of human parvovirus B19 and simian parvovirus, the members in the genus Erythrovirus so far characterized, in that the small RNA transcripts were not processed for encoding small non-structural proteins. However, like the large non-structural protein NS1 of the human parvovirus B19, the ChpPV NS1 is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Further phylogenetic analysis of ChpPV with other parvoviruses in the subfamily Parvovirinae indicates that ChpPV is distinct from the members in genus Erythrovirus. Thus, we conclude that ChpPV may represent a new genus in the family Parvoviridae.

  7. Spatial clustering of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within populations of Allen's chipmunks and dusky-footed woodrats in northwestern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Gregory M; Brown, Richard N; Fedorova, Natalia; Girard, Yvette A; Higley, Mark; Clueit, Bernadette; Lane, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    The ecology of Lyme borreliosis is complex in northwestern California, with several potential reservoir hosts, tick vectors, and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The primary objective of this study was to determine the fine-scale spatial distribution of different genospecies in four rodent species, the California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), and Allen's chipmunk (Neotamias senex). Rodents were live-trapped between June 2004 and May 2005 at the Hoopa Valley Tribal Reservation (HVTR) in Humboldt County, California. Ear-punch biopsies obtained from each rodent were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The programs ArcGIS and SaTScan were used to examine the spatial distribution of genospecies. Multinomial log-linear models were used to model habitat and host-specific characteristics and their effect on the presence of each borrelial genospecies. The Akaike information criterion (AICc) was used to compare models and determine model fit. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was primarily associated with chipmunks and B. bissettiae largely with woodrats. The top model included the variables "host species", "month", and "elevation" (weight = 0.84). Spatial clustering of B. bissettiae was detected in the northwestern section of the HVTR, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was clustered in the southeastern section. We conclude that the spatial distribution of these borreliae are driven at least in part by host species, time-of-year, and elevation.

  8. COMPLETE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF SPHEROIDIN GENES OF CALLIPTAMUS ITALICUS ENTOMOPOXVIRUS(CIEPV) AND GOMPHOCERUS SIBIRICUS ENTOMOPOXVIRUS(GSEPV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-danLi; Li-yingWang; Xi-wuGao; Chao-yangZhao; Zhao-fengTian

    2004-01-01

    The spheroidin genes of Calliptamus italicus entomopoxvirus (CiEPV) and Gomphocerus sibiricus entomopoxvirus (GsEPV) were obtained by PCR,and the fragments were cloned, sequenced and analyzed. The CiEPV and GsEPV spheroidin genes respectively harbored ORFs of 2 922 bps and 2 967 bps that were capable of coding polypeptides of 109.2 and 111.1 kDa. Computer analysis indicated that CiEPV and GsEPV spheroidins shared less than 20% amino acid identities with lepidopteran AmEPV and coleopteran AcEPV spheroidins, but more than 80% amino acid identities with orthopteran OaEPV, MsEPV and AaEPV spheroidins. The CiEPV and GsEPV spheroidins respectively contained 19 and 21 cysteine residues that were particularly abundant at the C-termini, as is the case with those of the other orthopteran EPV spheroidins. The numbers and locations of the cysteine residues of the spheroidins were most similar to those of the spheroidins of EPVs that are virulent on the same insect orders. The promoter regions of the two spheroidin genes were highly conserved (99%) among the orthopteran EPVs and also contained the typical very A+T rich and TAAATG signal mediating transcription of poxvirus late genes. We also sequenced an incomplete ORF downstream of the pheroidin gene of CiEPV and GsEPV. The ORF was in the opposite direction to the spheroidin gene and was homologous to MSV072 putative protein of MsEPV.

  9. Ecological scale and forest development: squirrels, dietary fungi, and vascular plants in managed and unmanaged forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.B. Carey; J. Kershner; B. Biswell; L.S. Dominguez de Toledo

    1999-01-01

    Understanding ecological processes and their spatial scales is key to managing ecosystems for biodiversity, especially for species associated with late-seral forest. We focused on 2 species of squirrel (Sciuridae: northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus, and Townsend's chipmunk, Tamias townsendii) in a crosssectional survey of managed and natural stands in...

  10. Serologic evidence for Borrelia hermsii infection in rodents on federally owned recreational areas in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Curtis L; Payne, Jessica R; Schwan, Tom G

    2013-06-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic in mountainous regions of the western United States. In California, the principal agent is the spirochete Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Humans are at risk of TBRF when infected ticks leave an abandoned rodent nest in quest of a blood meal. Rodents are the primary vertebrate hosts for B. hermsii. Sciurid rodents were collected from 23 sites in California between August, 2006, and September, 2008, and tested for serum antibodies to B. hermsii by immunoblot using a whole-cell sonicate and a specific antigen, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ). Antibodies were detected in 20% of rodents; seroprevalence was highest (36%) in chipmunks (Tamias spp). Seroprevalence in chipmunks was highest in the Sierra Nevada (41%) and Mono (43%) ecoregions and between 1900 and 2300 meters elevation (43%). The serological studies described here are effective in implicating the primary vertebrate hosts involved in the maintenance of the ticks and spirochetes in regions endemic for TBRF.

  11. Directional selection effects on patterns of phenotypic (co)variation in wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, A P A; Patton, J L; Hubbe, A; Marroig, G

    2016-11-30

    Phenotypic (co)variation is a prerequisite for evolutionary change, and understanding how (co)variation evolves is of crucial importance to the biological sciences. Theoretical models predict that under directional selection, phenotypic (co)variation should evolve in step with the underlying adaptive landscape, increasing the degree of correlation among co-selected traits as well as the amount of genetic variance in the direction of selection. Whether either of these outcomes occurs in natural populations is an open question and thus an important gap in evolutionary theory. Here, we documented changes in the phenotypic (co)variation structure in two separate natural populations in each of two chipmunk species (Tamias alpinus and T. speciosus) undergoing directional selection. In populations where selection was strongest (those of T. alpinus), we observed changes, at least for one population, in phenotypic (co)variation that matched theoretical expectations, namely an increase of both phenotypic integration and (co)variance in the direction of selection and a re-alignment of the major axis of variation with the selection gradient. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Environ: E00706 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00706 Leonurus fruit Crude drug ... Leonurus sibiricus [TAX:405945], Leonurus japoni...cus [TAX:4138] ... Lamiaceae (mint family) Leonurus sibiricus, Leonurus japonicus mature fruit (dried) ...

  13. Forest rodents provide directed dispersal of Jeffrey pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J.S.; Wall, S.B.V.; Jenkins, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Some species of animals provide directed dispersal of plant seeds by transporting them nonrandomly to microsites where their chances of producing healthy seedlings are enhanced. We investigated whether this mutualistic interaction occurs between granivorous rodents and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) in the eastern Sierra Nevada by comparing the effectiveness of random abiotic seed dispersal with the dispersal performed by four species of rodents: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine and long-eared chipmunks (Tamias amoenus and T. quadrimaculatus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). We conducted two caching studies using radio-labeled seeds, the first with individual animals in field enclosures and the second with a community of rodents in open forest. We used artificial caches to compare the fates of seeds placed at the range of microsites and depths used by animals with the fates of seeds dispersed abiotically. Finally, we examined the distribution and survival of naturally establishing seedlings over an eight-year period.Several lines of evidence suggested that this community of rodents provided directed dispersal. Animals preferred to cache seeds in microsites that were favorable for emergence or survival of seedlings and avoided caching in microsites in which seedlings fared worst. Seeds buried at depths typical of animal caches (5–25 mm) produced at least five times more seedlings than did seeds on the forest floor. The four species of rodents differed in the quality of dispersal they provided. Small, shallow caches made by deer mice most resembled seeds dispersed by abiotic processes, whereas many of the large caches made by ground squirrels were buried too deeply for successful emergence of seedlings. Chipmunks made the greatest number of caches within the range of depths and microsites favorable for establishment of pine seedlings. Directed dispersal is an important element of the population dynamics of Jeffrey pine, a

  14. SEARCH: Spatially Explicit Animal Response to Composition of Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Benjamin P; McCann, Nicholas P; Zollner, Patrick A; Cummings, Robert; Gilbert, Jonathan H; Gustafson, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Complex decisions dramatically affect animal dispersal and space use. Dispersing individuals respond to a combination of fine-scale environmental stimuli and internal attributes. Individual-based modeling offers a valuable approach for the investigation of such interactions because it combines the heterogeneity of animal behaviors with spatial detail. Most individual-based models (IBMs), however, vastly oversimplify animal behavior and such behavioral minimalism diminishes the value of these models. We present program SEARCH (Spatially Explicit Animal Response to Composition of Habitat), a spatially explicit, individual-based, population model of animal dispersal through realistic landscapes. SEARCH uses values in Geographic Information System (GIS) maps to apply rules that animals follow during dispersal, thus allowing virtual animals to respond to fine-scale features of the landscape and maintain a detailed memory of areas sensed during movement. SEARCH also incorporates temporally dynamic landscapes so that the environment to which virtual animals respond can change during the course of a simulation. Animals in SEARCH are behaviorally dynamic and able to respond to stimuli based upon their individual experiences. Therefore, SEARCH is able to model behavioral traits of dispersing animals at fine scales and with many dynamic aspects. Such added complexity allows investigation of unique ecological questions. To illustrate SEARCH's capabilities, we simulated case studies using three mammals. We examined the impact of seasonally variable food resources on the weight distribution of dispersing raccoons (Procyon lotor), the effect of temporally dynamic mortality pressure in combination with various levels of behavioral responsiveness in eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and the impact of behavioral plasticity and home range selection on disperser mortality and weight change in virtual American martens (Martes americana). These simulations highlight the relevance of

  15. Climate constraints for siberian moth distribution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Nadezda Tschebakova; Elena Parfenova; Natalia. Kirichenko

    2010-01-01

    A simplistic bioclimatic model of the Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtvrk. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is based on the moth's basic biological requirements, expressed through summer thermal conditions...

  16. Experimental ecology of selected vertebrate species. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, R.T.; Graybill, D.L.

    1976-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a long term (1960 to 1973) study designed to determine the suitability of various vertebrate species for experimental radioecology, to determine their individual and population characteristics under natural conditions, and to utilize these characteristics to gauge the effects of sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation. The study focused on free ranging populations of Tamias striatus in northwestern Pennsylvania and Thomomys talpoides in northwestern Wyoming. Results of the study were collated with those of a concurrent and cooperative study of populations of Tamias striatus in southern Vermont. Major achievements of the study included: the discovery that single insults of 200 R and 400 R of gamma radiation decreased the rate of disappearance of individuals from populations of Tamias striatus and Thomomys talpoides so treated, and resulted in a reduction in home range size in a population of Tamias striatus in which the average range of males was quite large; the construction and analysis of life tables which were based on more than 80,000 captures of Tamias striatus and Thomomys talpoides; and the construction and analysis of correlation coefficients relating annual mast production and Tamias striatus population parameters for 26 annual cycle/population combinations

  17. Exposure pathways and biological receptors: baseline data for the canyon uranium mine, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Darrah, Abigail J.; Drost, Charles A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Nowak, Erika M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; van Riper, Charles; Wolff, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    are the locally endemic Tusayan flameflower Phemeranthus validulus, the long-legged bat Myotis volans, and the Arizona bat Myotis occultus. The most common vertebrate species identified at the mine site included the Mexican spadefoot toad Spea multiplicata, plateau fence lizard Sceloporus tristichus, violetgreen swallow Tachycineta thalassina, pygmy nuthatch Sitta pygmaea, purple martin Progne subis, western bluebird Sialia mexicana, deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus, valley pocket gopher Thomomys bottae, cliff chipmunk Tamias dorsalis, black-tailed jackrabbit Lepus californicus, mule deer Odocoileus hemionus, and elk Cervus canadensis. A limited number of the most common species were collected for contaminant analysis to establish baseline contaminant and radiological concentrations prior to ore extraction. These empirical baseline data will help validate contaminant exposure pathways and potential threats from contaminant exposures to ecological receptors. Resource managers will also be able to use these data to determine the extent to which local species are exposed to chemical and radiation contamination once the mine is operational and producing ore. More broadly, these data could inform resource management decisions on mitigating chemical and radiation exposure of biota at high-grade uranium breccia pipes throughout the Grand Canyon watershed.

  18. Plague Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many other rodent species, for instance, prairie dogs, wood rats, chipmunks, and other ground squirrels and their ... or by citizens reporting rodents found sick or dead to local health departments. Use of appropriate and ...

  19. Competition and habitat selection in a forest-floor small mammal fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueser, R D [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville; Hallett, J G

    1980-01-01

    In a study of habitat exploitation in a forest-floor small mammal community, we have collected habitat and population data for Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, and Tamias striatus. Using multiple regression analysis, researchers estimate the effects of habitat selection and competition on the local distributions of these species during three seasons. Each of the partial regression coefficients relating the density of an independent species to the density of the dependent species is negative. This result indicates that competition is pervasive among these species. Competitive ability and habitat selectivity both increase in the order Peromyscus-Tamias-Ochrotomys. Peromyscus is a poorly competitive habitat generalist, Ochrotomys is a strongly competitive habitat specialist, and Tamias is intermediate in both respects. The competitive hierarchy is stable between seasons. These results both confirm the conclusions reached in previous studies of this small mammal community and suggest the design of experiments to further clarify the mode and consequences of interaction between these species.

  20. Gestion des forêts domaniales en période de conflits : cas de la forêt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gestion des forêts domaniales en période de conflits : cas de la forêt classée du Haut-Sassandra, Centre-Ouest de la Côte d'Ivoire. Akoua Tamia Madeleine Kouakou, Yao Sadaiou Sabas Barima, Souleymane Konate, Issouf Bamba, Justin Yatty Kouadio, Jan Bogaert ...

  1. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-12

    populations of the Chlorella vulgaris strain grown ex- ponentially in a Tamia medium. The results are compared with the effect of the chemical mutagen...OF CHEMICAL MUTAGENS ON CHLORELLA POPULATIONS Moscow GENETIKA in Russian Vol 14 No 7 Jul 78 pp 1221-1230 manuscript re- ceived 30 Jun 77 SHEVCHENKO

  2. Something All His Own: The NBA's Grant Hill Hopes His Collection of African American Art Will Inspire, Excite a Younger Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2004-01-01

    NBA star Grant Hill is known for his skills on the basketball court, his marriage to Grammy award-winning singer, Tamia, and, most recently, for his courageous comeback after several surgeries that jeopardized his professional basketball career. Yet, Hill's off-the-court activities currently are being considered as exemplary as his athletic…

  3. Genetic diversity among eight Dendrolimus species in Eurasia (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) inferred from mitochondrial COI and COII, and nuclear ITS2 markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, Alexander; Ustyantsev, Kirill; Wang, Baode; Mastro, Victor C; Fet, Victor; Blinov, Alexander; Baranchikov, Yuri

    2016-12-22

    Moths of genus Dendrolimus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) are among the major pests of coniferous forests worldwide. Taxonomy and nomenclature of this genus are not entirely established, and there are many species with a controversial taxonomic position. We present a comparative evolutionary analysis of the most economically important Dendrolimus species in Eurasia. Our analysis was based on the nucleotide sequences of COI and COII mitochondrial genes and ITS2 spacer of nuclear ribosomal genes. All known sequences were extracted from GenBank. Additional 112 new sequences were identified for 28 specimens of D. sibiricus, D. pini, and D. superans from five regions of Siberia and the Russian Far East to be able to compare the disparate data from all previous studies. In total, 528 sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis. Two clusters of closely related species in Dendrolimus were found. The first cluster includes D. pini, D. sibiricus, and D. superans; and the second, D. spectabilis, D. punctatus, and D. tabulaeformis. Species D. houi and D. kikuchii appear to be the most basal in the genus. Genetic difference among the second cluster species is very low in contrast to the first cluster species. Phylogenetic position D. tabulaeformis as a subspecies was supported. It was found that D. sibiricus recently separated from D. superans. Integration of D. sibiricus mitochondrial DNA sequences and the spread of this species to the west of Eurasia have been established as the cause of the unjustified allocation of a new species: D. kilmez. Our study further clarifies taxonomic problems in the genus and gives more complete information on the genetic structure of D. pini, D. sibiricus, and D. superans.

  4. First records of two species of mammals in the Huachuca Mountains: results of ecological stewardship at Fort Huachuca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnie Sidner; H. Sheridan Stone

    2005-01-01

    We report the first voucher of the cliff chipmunk (Neotamias dorsalis) and observations of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) from the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, where these species had not been documented. While presence of T. brasiliensis was expected on Fort Huachuca, N. dorsalis was a surprise after a century...

  5. Effects of new forest management strategies on squirrel populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Two strategies for managing forests for multiple values have achieved prominence in debates in the Pacific Northwest: (1) legacy retention with passive management and long rotations, and (2) intensive management for timber with commercial thinnings and long rotations. Northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), Townsend's chipmunks (

  6. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park is important because of its diversity of life on the surface and underground. Some of the plants in the park include trees such as oaks, hickories, tulip poplars, sycamores, and many types of bushes. The animal population is also very diverse and includes bats, squirrels, deer, raccoons, opossums, chipmunks,…

  7. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    following mammal species: white-tailed deer, moose, bear, chipmunk, squirrel, raccoon, porcupine , woodchuck, gopher, skunk, hare, cotton-tail rabbit...fauna, such as mammoth, mastodon, giant beaver; all presently extinct. Biomass was low Ij in the tundra so there were no large herds of these mammals

  8. [New species of the Rhinonyssid mites (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) from birds of Russia and neighboring countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, O M; Staniukovich, M K

    2001-01-01

    Four new species of the nasal mite family Rhinonyssidae collected in different regions of the former USSR are described: Neonyssus (Otocorinyssus) alaudae sp. n. from Alauda arvensis L. (Alaudidae, Passeriformes) from Turkmenistan; Rhinonyssus clangulae sp. n. from Clangula hyemalis (L.) (Anatidae, Anseriformes) from Yakutia; R. marilae sp. n. from Aythya marilae L. (Anatidae, Anseriformes) from the Russian Far East; Locustellonyssus sibiricus sp. n. from Locustella certhiola (Pall.) (Sylviidae, Passeriformes) from Siberia.

  9. [A comparative study on seed germination of 15 grass species in Keeqin Sandyland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Li, Xuehua; Li, Rongping; Jiang, Deming; Cao, Chengyou

    2003-09-01

    A laboratory study was made on the germination characteristics of freshly-collected seeds of grass species at the Wulanaodu area of Keeqin Sandyland in Eastern Inner-Mongolia. Of the 15 species examined, 8 species including Clinelymus dahuricus, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Pappophorum boreale, Spodiopogon sibiricus, Phragmites communis, Chloris virgata, Arundinella hirta, Pennisetum alopecuroides had a germination rate of over 80%, but 4 species including Echinochloa hispidula, Hemarthria compressa, Tragus berteronianus and Setaria viridis had a value of less than 10%. Spodiopogon sibiricus, Eragrostis pilosa, Phragmites communis, Chloris virgata, Clinelymus dahuricus, Pappophorum boreale, Digitaria cilliaris and Cleistogenes squrrosa began to germinate within 1-3 days after the test began, while Setaria viridis, Tragus berteronianus and Hemarthria compressa failed to germinate in a period of more than 10 days. For the species such as Digitaria cilliaris, Echinochloa hispidula, Phragmites communis, Eragrostis pilosa and Spodiopogon sibiricus, their germination period was less than 10 days, while Clinelymus dahuricus and Pappophorum boreale had a germination period of more than 20 days. The days required for half the final germination rate to be reached were: 2 days for Chloris virgata, 3 days for Phragmites communis, 4 days for Spodiopogon sibiricus, 5 days for Clinelymus dahuricus and Cleistogenes squarrosa, 7 days for Arundinella hirta and Pappophorum boreale, and 10 days for Pennisetum alopecuriodes. Compared with the Sheffield region in Britain, the Wulanaodu area of Kerqin Sandyland had a higher proportion of annul grasses with a low germination rate and a longer germination period, and the perennial grasses at the Wulanaodu area had an approximately same germination rate, but a longer germination period. During germination, ruderals showed the potential for risk-sharring, and thus, they had a relatively higher disturbance-resistance capacity.

  10. Environmental Statement, Oswego Steam Station, Unit Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-29

    Tamias striatus) muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) woodchuck (Marmota monax) Rept ile s eastern painted turtle (Chrysemys pi~cta) Amphibians grass frog (Rana...Terrestrial Ecoloqy The analysis presented on terrestrial ecology is somewhat nebulous due to the fact that the location of the generating facility is in...The analysis presented on terrestrial ecology is somewhat nebulous due to the - fact that the location of the generating facility is in an industrial

  11. Revision of the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig from eastern Asia (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Bin; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Nishikawa, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    The species belonging to the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig, 1795 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) from eastern Asia are assigned to three species groups. Group yasutoshii has a single species: P. (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 from Taiwan, China. Group nepalensis with three species: P. (s. str.) nepalensis Perreau, 1988 from Nepal and P. (s. str.) masumotoi Nishikawa, 2011 from Thailand are redescribed, and P. (s. str.) piccoloi Wang, Růžička, Nishikawa, Perreau & Hayashi, 2016 is recorded for the first time from China (Zhejiang). Group sibiricus with seven species, including two newly described Chinese ones P. (s. str.) funiu sp. n. from Henan, and P. (s. str.) haba sp. n. from Yunnan, and five known species: P. (s. str.) chenggongi Wang, Nishikawa, Perreau, Růžička & Hayashi, 2016, P. (s. str.) hayashii Wang, Růžička, Perreau, Nishikawa & Park, 2016, P. (s. str.) kuntzeni Sokolowski, 1957 (distribution records from Myanmar excluded), P. (s. str.) sibiricus Jeannel, 1934 and P. (s. str.) tingtingtae Wang, Nishikawa, Perreau, Růžička & Hayashi, 2016. Specimens of other undescribed species of the group sibiricus are also recorded, revealing a high diversity of this genus in eastern Asia, especially in central and north Sichuan, China, which essentially remains to be investigated. Relevant morphological characters of the examined species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. A key to species of Ptomaphagus from eastern Asia is provided.

  12. Wildlife feeding in parks: methods for monitoring the effectiveness of educational interventions and wildlife food attraction behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Dvorak, Robert G.; Manning, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Opportunities to view and interact with wildlife are often an important part of high quality recreational experiences. Such interactions frequently include wildlife feeding, resulting in food-conditioned behaviors that may cause harm to both wildlife and visitors. This study developed and applied efficient protocols for simultaneously evaluating wildlife feeding-related behaviors of visitors and related foraging behaviors of chipmunks along a trail in Zion National Park. Unobtrusive observation protocols permitted an evaluation of educational messages delivered, and documentation of wildlife success in obtaining human food and the strength of their food attraction behavior. Significant improvements were documented for some targeted visitor behaviors and human food available to chipmunks, with minor differences between treatments. Replication of these protocols as part of a long-term monitoring program can help protected area managers evaluate and improve the efficacy of their interventions and monitor the strength of food attraction behavior in wildlife.

  13. The Bear Facts: Implications of Whitebark Pine Loss for Yellowstone Grizzlies

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    Whitebark pine is a foundation species, and barometer of the health of high elevation forests ecosystems in the West. It provides food and cover for numerous wildlife species, including the Clark’s nutcracker, crossbill, grosbeak, red squirrel and chipmunk. Whitebark pine is particularly important in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), where it provides an essential food source for the imperiled Yellowstone grizzly bear. We will review the current scientific knowledge about the relations...

  14. Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R; Haddad, N M

    1993-01-01

    Species in a Colorado subalpine ecosystem show subtle interdependences. Red-naped sapsuckers play two distinct keystone roles. They excavate nest cavities in fungus-infected aspens that are required as nest sites by two species of swallows, and they drill sap wells into willows that provide abundant nourishment for themselves, hummingbirds, orange-crowned warblers, chipmunks, and an array of other sap robbers. The swallows thus depend on, and the sap robbers benefit from, a keystone species c...

  15. Love’s Labour’s Lost and Much Ado About Nothing: An Early Dipt

    OpenAIRE

    Chiari, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In his Palladis Tamia published in 1598, Francis Meres gave a list of popular plays, already a fairly long one, written by a young playwright aged 34, William Shakespeare. In Meres’s inventory, an intriguing, unknown play called Love’s Labour’s Won is paired with Love’s Labour’s Lost, a mention which has so far remained a complete mystery. This paper aims at reconsidering the hypothesis according to which Much Ado About Nothing might be the comedy designated under the title of Love’s Labour’s...

  16. Human bartonellosis: seroepidemiological and clinical features with an emphasis on data from Brazil - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lamas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bartonellae are fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that are widespread in nature with several animal reservoirs (mainly cats, dogs, and rodents and insect vectors (mainly fleas, sandflies, and human lice. Thirteen species or subspecies of Bartonella have been recognized as agents causing human disease, including B. bacilliformis, B. quintana, B. vinsonii berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. elizabethae, B. grahamii, B. washoensis, B. koehlerae, B. rocha-limaea, and B. tamiae. The clinical spectrum of infection includes lymphadenopathy, fever of unknown origin, endocarditis, neurological and ophthalmological syndromes, Carrion's disease, and others. This review provides updated information on clinical manifestations and seroepidemiological studies with an emphasis on data available from Brazil.

  17. HIPPOCAMPAL ADULT NEUROGENESIS: ITS REGULATION AND POTENTIAL ROLE IN SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001

  18. Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R; Haddad, N M

    1993-01-15

    Species in a Colorado subalpine ecosystem show subtle interdependences. Red-naped sapsuckers play two distinct keystone roles. They excavate nest cavities in fungus-infected aspens that are required as nest sites by two species of swallows, and they drill sap wells into willows that provide abundant nourishment for themselves, hummingbirds, orange-crowned warblers, chipmunks, and an array of other sap robbers. The swallows thus depend on, and the sap robbers benefit from, a keystone species complex comprised of sapsuckers, willows, aspens, and a heartwood fungus. Disappearance of any element of the complex could cause an unanticipated unraveling of the community.

  19. Hibernation Control Mechanism and Possible Applications to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.

    Mammalian hibernation, characterized by the ability to survive temporarily at low body temperatures close to 0oC, has been reported to increase resistance to various lethal events such as low body temperature, severe ischemia, bacterial infection and irradiation, and to prolong the life span. The application of this physiological phenomenon to space life has been dreamed of. However, realization of this dream has been prevented by a poor understanding of the control mechanisms of hibernation. Recent findings of a novel and unique protein complex (HP) in the blood of chipmunks, a rodent hibernator, which is controlled by the endogenous circannual rhythm of hibernation, allowed new developments in understanding the molecular mechanism of hibernation and its physiological significance. From these studies, two hormones regulated by the brain were identified as promising candidate molecules controlling HP production in the liver, assuming that hibernation is controlled via the neuroendocrine system and regulated by the endogenous circannual rhythm in the brain. A circannual HP rhythm was observed in chipmunks maintaining euthermia under conditions of constant warmth, suggesting that the physiological control of hibernation progresses without a lowering of body temperature. Furthermore, the study of HP rhythm on longevity revealed that a circannual rhythm plays an essential role in the much longer life span of hibernators. The present progress in hibernation research may open a new pathway for manipulating a circannual rhythm controlling hibernation in humans. In the future, this will make it feasible to take advantage of hibernation in space life.

  20. Seasonal oscillation of liver-derived hibernation protein complex in the central nervous system of non-hibernating mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Marcus M.; Byerly, Mardi S.; Petersen, Pia S.; Swanson, Roy; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Groschup, Martin H.; Wong, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian hibernation elicits profound changes in whole-body physiology. The liver-derived hibernation protein (HP) complex, consisting of HP-20, HP-25 and HP-27, was shown to oscillate circannually, and this oscillation in the central nervous system (CNS) was suggested to play a role in hibernation. The HP complex has been found in hibernating chipmunks but not in related non-hibernating tree squirrels, leading to the suggestion that hibernation-specific genes may underlie the origin of hibernation. Here, we show that non-hibernating mammals express and regulate the conserved homologous HP complex in a seasonal manner, independent of hibernation. Comparative analyses of cow and chipmunk HPs revealed extensive biochemical and structural conservations. These include liver-specific expression, assembly of distinct heteromeric complexes that circulate in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and the striking seasonal oscillation of the HP levels in the blood and CNS. Central administration of recombinant HPs affected food intake in mice, without altering body temperature, physical activity levels or energy expenditure. Our results demonstrate that HP complex is not unique to the hibernators and suggest that the HP-regulated liver–brain circuit may couple seasonal changes in the environment to alterations in physiology. PMID:25079892

  1. What triggers colour change? Effects of background colour and temperature on the development of an alpine grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, J Pablo; Schielzeth, Holger

    2015-08-21

    Colour polymorphisms are a fascinating facet of many natural populations of plants and animals, and the selective processes that maintain such variation are as relevant as the processes which promote their development. Orthoptera, the insect group that encompasses grasshoppers and bush crickets, includes a particularly large number of species that are colour polymorphic with a marked green-brown polymorphism being particularly widespread. Colour polymorphism has been associated with the need for crypsis and background matching and background-dependent homochromy has been described in a few species. However, when and how different environmental conditions influence variation in colour remains poorly understood. Here we test for effects of background colour and ambient temperature on the occurrence of colour morph switches (green to brown or brown to green) and developmental darkening in the alpine dwelling club-legged grasshopper Gomphocerus sibiricus. We monitored individually housed nymphae across three of their four developmental stages and into the first week after final ecdysis. Our data show an absence of colour morph switches in G. sibiricus, without a single switch observed in our sample. Furthermore, we test for an effect of temperature on colouration by manipulating radiant heat, a limiting factor in alpine habitats. Radiant heat had a significant effect on developmental darkening: individuals under low radiant heat tended to darken, while individuals under high radiant heat tended to lighten within nymphal stages. Young imagoes darkened under either condition. Our results indicate a plastic response to a variable temperature and indicate that melanin, a multipurpose pigment responsible for dark colouration and presumed to be costly, seems to be strategically allocated according to the current environmental conditions. Unlike other orthopterans, the species is apparently unable to switch colour morphs (green/brown) during development, suggesting that

  2. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  3. Ecological considerations for Project Wagon Wheel and hydraulic fracturing activities. Phase II(a). Annual summary report for 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Alldredge, A.W.; Fisser, H.G.; Post, G.

    1975-08-01

    Vegetation studies were conducted to obtain data on production and biomass of shrubs and mat-forming woody plants. Tables are presented to show data for various species of plants. Aquatic studies were conducted to obtain data on benthic fauna and physical water conditions. Tables are presented to show classification of organisms per square foot of river bottom, ice thickness at water sampling locations, and stream velocities along the base of each study bluff. Mammalian studies were conducted to obtain population data on deer, mice, least chipmunk, northern grasshopper, mouse, ground squirrels, and prairie dogs. Observations were also made on antelope, moose, and mule deer. Hydraulic fracturing activities included studies on physical perturbations, vegetation documentation, and small mammal documentation

  4. A contribution to mayfly studies of Western Mongolia (Insecta, Ephemeroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolortsetseg Erdenee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Streams in the Mongolian Altai Mountains are mostly fed from glaciers and are extreme conditions for mayflies because of high elevation, low temperatures and low annual precipitation. Previous information about mayflies of Western Mongolia is scarce, but with this study a total of 38 species belonging to 26 genera and subgenera and 8 families of mayflies has been recorded in the Mongolian Altai region. Study material was entirely imagos and collected from 78 sites during expeditions led by the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Raptobaetopus tenellus, Caenis luctuosa and C. rivulorum are recorded as new to the fauna of Mongolia, and there are new distribution records for Ameletus montanus, Baetis (Acentrella lapponica, Baetis sibiricus, Baetis (Labiobaetis attrebatinus, Centroptilum luteolum, Procloeon pennulatum, Ephemerella aurivillii, Serratella setigera, Ephemera sachalinensis, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus abracadabrus, Cinygmula kurenzovi, Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus vicinus and Epeorus (Belovius pellucidus from the Mongolian Altai region. Baetis vernus and Ephemerella aurivillii are the most frequently encountered species in this region.

  5. Murcha do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum no Brasil: agente causal, círculo de plantas hospedeiras e transmissão via semente Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum wilt in Brazil: causal agent, host range and seed transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é uma hortaliça da família Lamiaceae, utilizada na culinária ou como matéria prima para a indústria de fármacos e óleos essenciais. Amostras de plantas de manjericão apresentando sintomas de murcha, seca de hastes e podridão de colo foram coletadas na área rural de Brazlândia (DF durante a estação chuvosa de 2005. Outras duas amostras foram coletadas em plantas cultivadas em campo aberto e casas de vegetação na região de Ponte Alta (DF. Isolados de um fungo, identificado como Fusarium oxysporum, foram obtidos em todas as amostras. Testes de patogenicidade foram conduzidos com mudas das cultivares O. basilicum 'Dark Opal' e 'Italian Large Leaf', e de acessos das espécies O. americanum L. (manjericão de folha miúda, O. campechianum Mill. (alfavaca, Origanum manjorana L. (manjerona, Origanum vulgare L. (orégano, Mentha arvensis L. (menta, Coleus blumei Benth. (tapete, Leonorus sibiricus L. (rubim e Leonotis nepetaefolia (L. W.T. Aiton (cordão-de-frade. Todos os isolados fúngicos mostraram-se altamente virulentos sobre as duas cultivares de manjericão. Em O. campechianum e O. americanum os isolados causaram apenas suave escurecimento vascular e leve redução de crescimento, sendo avirulentos sobre acessos das espécies O. manjorana, O. vulgare, M. arvensis, C. blumei, L. sibiricus e L. nepetaefolia. Este conjunto de dados indicou que o agente causal da doença é o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici, constituindo-se no primeiro registro formal deste patógeno no Brasil. Os lotes de sementes utilizados nas áreas de ocorrência da doença foram submetidos a um teste de sanidade visando verificar a presença do patógeno. O fungo F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici foi detectado em quatro dos seis lotes e os isolados obtidos das sementes contaminadas mostraram similar sintomatologia e um idêntico perfil de virulência aos verificados em campo e casa de vegetação, sugerindo que as sementes

  6. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na comunidade quilombola Carreiros, Mercês – Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia M. C. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar as espécies medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade quilombola Carreiros, bem como traçar o perfil social das famílias desta comunidade. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas da comunidade, sendo um representante de cada família. Para fins de registro foram coletados dois exemplares de cada espécie medicinal identificada, os quais foram conservados na forma de exsicatas e mantidos no Laboratório de Ecologia do IF Sudeste MG – Campus Rio Pomba. As mulheres aparentemente desempenham importante papel social e estão bastante envolvidas no conhecimento das plantas medicinais. Nota-se, que o conhecimento existente foi adquirido de forma empírica e éevidente entre as famílias a preocupação em repassar os conhecimentos tradicionais sobre o uso das plantas medicinais aos jovens. Dentre as principais espécies utilizadas pela comunidade estão: Citrus Sinensis L., Psidium guajava L., Leonurus sibiricus L., Citrus Limonia (Osbeck, Carica sp., Vernonia condensataBacker, Sechuium edule (Jacq. Sw, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, Malpighia glabra L., e Saccharum zofficinarum L..

  7. Ethnopharmacological studies of antimicrobial remedies in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, G Coelho; Haas, A P S; von Poser, G L; Schapoval, E E S; Elisabetsky, E

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the species most commonly used in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. A four-stage process of documentation and evaluation was conducted: (a). review of RS ethnobotanical studies; (b). analysis of traditional uses; (c). literature survey on phytochemical and pharmacological data; (d). microbiological screening of selected plants. From the 149 species initially identified, 49 were cited as being used for microbial associated conditions in at least two other regions in RS, and 18 were further selected for screening. The crude methanol extract of these 18 plants were evaluated against seven microorganisms using the diffusion agar test. Extracts from Chaptalia nutans, Cordia monosperma, Echinodorus grandiflorus, Eugenia uniflora, Leonurus sibiricus, Luehea divaricata, Malva sylvestris, Ocotea odorifera, Parapiptadenia rigida, Pluchea sagittalis, Psidium cattleyanum and Senna neglecta were active against at least one microorganism. Although preliminary, these results are useful for rationalizing the use of medicinal plants in established systems of traditional medicine in primary health care.

  8. System of forest insect pheromone communication: stability of «information» molecules to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Soukhovolsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of external environmental factors (such as electromagnetic radiation in certain spectral bands influencing pheromone molecules, which are carriers of information for forest insects in the search of the opposite sex, were examined. Stability of pheromone molecules for external influences has been studied for siberian moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus Tschetv., pine moth Dendrilimus pini L., gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., for xylophages Ips typographus L., Monochamus urussovi Fish. and Monochamus galloprovincialis Oliv. Properties of pheromone molecules were evaluated by calculations using quantum-chemical method B3LYP. Existing methods of quantum-chemical calculations are useful for analyzing the properties of quite small and uncomplicated molecules of forest insect pheromones. The calculations showed that the molecules of insect pheromones are able to absorb light in the ultraviolet range and move into an excited state. The values of dipole moments, the wavelengths of the absorption, atomic and molecular electronic properties of pheromones in the ground and excited states were calculated. The calculations showed that for the reaction of pheromones with oxygen an energy barrier is somewhat higher than for reactions of pheromones with water vapor. The worst reaction of pheromones with water molecules likely to pheromones such molecules whose dipole moment is comparable to the dipole moment of water. Quantum-chemical characteristics of the pheromone molecules can be linked to specific behavior of the insects.

  9. New data on agaricoid fungi of the Katunsky State Nature Reserve and rare fungi of the Republic of Altai (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Gorbunova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents new data on agaricoid basidiomycetes of the Katunsky State Nature Reserve (Republic of Altai, Russia, including data on rare species. Besides the paper contains characteristics of some rare ascomycetes and basidiomycetes found in the Katunsky Reserve and in the Republic of Altai as well as about species recommended for inclusion in the new edition of the Red Data Book of the Republic of Altai. In total descriptions of 17 species of macromycetes are presented. These are Chroogomphus sibiricus, Cortinarius violaceus, Floccularia luteovirens, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Lactarius lignyotus, Leucoagaricus nympharum, Leucopholiota lignicola, Gastrosporium simplex, Gyromitra sphaerospora, Laricifomes officinalis, Bovista acuminata, Hydropus atramentosus, Leucopaxillus rhodoleucus, Phallus costatus, Polyozellus multiplex and Polyporus rhizophilus. We present data on species' distribution throughout the Republic of Altai, Russia and the world; some ecological and biological features of species; major threats and their conservation status. Arguments for exclusion of Amanita echinocephala, Hericium coralloides, Cystoderma rugosoreticulatum, Leccinum percandidum, Mutinus caninus from the list of rare species of the region are presented.

  10. Nebula--a web-server for advanced ChIP-seq data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeva, Valentina; Lermine, Alban; Barette, Camille; Guillouf, Christel; Barillot, Emmanuel

    2012-10-01

    ChIP-seq consists of chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing of the extracted DNA fragments. It is the technique of choice for accurate characterization of the binding sites of transcription factors and other DNA-associated proteins. We present a web service, Nebula, which allows inexperienced users to perform a complete bioinformatics analysis of ChIP-seq data. Nebula was designed for both bioinformaticians and biologists. It is based on the Galaxy open source framework. Galaxy already includes a large number of functionalities for mapping reads and peak calling. We added the following to Galaxy: (i) peak calling with FindPeaks and a module for immunoprecipitation quality control, (ii) de novo motif discovery with ChIPMunk, (iii) calculation of the density and the cumulative distribution of peak locations relative to gene transcription start sites, (iv) annotation of peaks with genomic features and (v) annotation of genes with peak information. Nebula generates the graphs and the enrichment statistics at each step of the process. During Steps 3-5, Nebula optionally repeats the analysis on a control dataset and compares these results with those from the main dataset. Nebula can also incorporate gene expression (or gene modulation) data during these steps. In summary, Nebula is an innovative web service that provides an advanced ChIP-seq analysis pipeline providing ready-to-publish results. Nebula is available at http://nebula.curie.fr/ Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    RECORD CLUB

    2010-01-01

    NEW SUMMER SELECTION At the end of June we added another 20 or so DVDs and a few CDs to the Club shelves. Among the DVDs you will find a number aimed at the younger generation including Alvin and the Chipmunks 2 and The Princess and the Frog. Moving up a register, we added Avatar (but only the 2D version is available), Lucky Luke, and Invictus, the story of how South Africa won the World Cup, the rugby version. And if you’re into biographies, we have the story of the mysterious Carlos (the Venezuelan revolutionary who founded a worldwide terrorist organization) in three parts and a Life of Serge Gainsbourg. We only bought a few CDs this month but they include the re-release of the Rolling Stones Exile on Main Street with many new tracks, and the AC/DC soundtrack of the Ironman 2 film. The full list can be consulted at : http://cern.ch/crc Select “Discs of the Month” from the menu on the left of the screen and then “June 2010”.   We remind you t...

  12. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Outbreak Among a High School Football Team at an Outdoor Education Camping Trip, Arizona, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Hranac, Carter R; Schumacher, Mare; Horn, Kim; Lee, Darlene M; Terriquez, Joel; Engelthaler, David M; Peoples, Marie; Corrigan, Jennifer; Replogle, Adam; Souders, Nina; Komatsu, Kenneth K; Nieto, Nathan C

    2016-09-07

    During August 2014, five high school students who had attended an outdoor education camp were hospitalized with a febrile illness, prompting further investigation. Ten total cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were identified-six cases confirmed by culture or visualization of spirochetes on blood smear and four probable cases with compatible symptoms (attack rate: 23%). All patients had slept in the campsite's only cabin. Before the camp, a professional pest control company had rodent proofed the cabin, but no acaricides had been applied. Cabin inspection after the camp found rodents and Ornithodoros ticks, the vector of TBRF. Blood samples from a chipmunk trapped near the cabin and from patients contained Borrelia hermsii with identical gene sequences (100% over 630 base pairs). Health departments in TBRF endemic areas should consider educating cabin owners and pest control companies to apply acaricides during or following rodent proofing, because ticks that lack rodents for a blood meal might feed on humans. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. HOCOMOCO: a comprehensive collection of human transcription factor binding sites models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Schaefer, Ulf; Kasianov, Artem S.; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site (TFBS) models are crucial for computational reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. In existing repositories, a TF often has several models (also called binding profiles or motifs), obtained from different experimental data. Having a single TFBS model for a TF is more pragmatic for practical applications. We show that integration of TFBS data from various types of experiments into a single model typically results in the improved model quality probably due to partial correction of source specific technique bias. We present the Homo sapiens comprehensive model collection (HOCOMOCO, http://autosome.ru/HOCOMOCO/, http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hocomoco/) containing carefully hand-curated TFBS models constructed by integration of binding sequences obtained by both low- and high-throughput methods. To construct position weight matrices to represent these TFBS models, we used ChIPMunk software in four computational modes, including newly developed periodic positional prior mode associated with DNA helix pitch. We selected only one TFBS model per TF, unless there was a clear experimental evidence for two rather distinct TFBS models. We assigned a quality rating to each model. HOCOMOCO contains 426 systematically curated TFBS models for 401 human TFs, where 172 models are based on more than one data source. PMID:23175603

  14. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti, rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A. Sweitzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]. Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus] ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii], gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat. Keywords: Carnivores, Competition, Distribution, Foraging guild, Predation, Tree squirrels

  15. Occurrence and abundance of ants, reptiles, and mammals: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)- associated wildlife are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation and by impacts associated with anthropogenic disturbances, including energy development. Understanding how species of concern as well as other wildlife including insects, reptiles, and mammals respond to type and spatial scale of disturbance is critical to managing future land uses and identifying sites that are important for conservation. We developed statistical models to describe species occurrence or abundance, based on area searches in 7.29-ha survey blocks, across the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) area for six shrub steppe-associated species: harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex spp.), thatch ant (Formica spp.), short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma hernandesi), white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii), cottontail (Sylvilagus spp.) and least chipmunk (Tamius minimus). We modeled patterns in occupancy or abundance relative to multi-scale measures of vegetation type and pattern, abiotic site characteristics, and anthropogenic disturbance factors. Sagebrush habitat was a strong predictor of occurrence for shorthorned lizards and white-tailed jackrabbits, but weak for the other four species. Vegetation and abiotic characteristics were strong determinants of species occurrence, although the scale of response was not consistent among species. All species, with the exception of the short-horned lizard, responded to anthropogenic disturbance, although responses again varied as a function of scale and direction (negative and positive influences). Our results improve our understanding of how environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species distributions across the WBEA area and facilitate a multi-species approach to management of this sagebrush ecosystem.

  16. HOCOMOCO: A comprehensive collection of human transcription factor binding sites models

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Schaefer, Ulf; Kasianov, Artem S.; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site (TFBS) models are crucial for computational reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. In existing repositories, a TF often has several models (also called binding profiles or motifs), obtained from different experimental data. Having a single TFBS model for a TF is more pragmatic for practical applications. We show that integration of TFBS data from various types of experiments into a single model typically results in the improved model quality probably due to partial correction of source specific technique bias. We present the Homo sapiens comprehensive model collection (HOCOMOCO, http://autosome.ru/HOCOMOCO/, http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/ hocomoco/) containing carefully hand-curated TFBS models constructed by integration of binding sequences obtained by both low- and high-throughput methods. To construct position weight matrices to represent these TFBS models, we used ChIPMunk software in four computational modes, including newly developed periodic positional prior mode associated with DNA helix pitch. We selected only one TFBS model per TF, unless there was a clear experimental evidence for two rather distinct TFBS models. We assigned a quality rating to each model. HOCOMOCO contains 426 systematically curated TFBS models for 401 human TFs, where 172 models are based on more than one data source. The Author(s) 2012.

  17. HOCOMOCO: A comprehensive collection of human transcription factor binding sites models

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.

    2012-11-21

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site (TFBS) models are crucial for computational reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. In existing repositories, a TF often has several models (also called binding profiles or motifs), obtained from different experimental data. Having a single TFBS model for a TF is more pragmatic for practical applications. We show that integration of TFBS data from various types of experiments into a single model typically results in the improved model quality probably due to partial correction of source specific technique bias. We present the Homo sapiens comprehensive model collection (HOCOMOCO, http://autosome.ru/HOCOMOCO/, http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/ hocomoco/) containing carefully hand-curated TFBS models constructed by integration of binding sequences obtained by both low- and high-throughput methods. To construct position weight matrices to represent these TFBS models, we used ChIPMunk software in four computational modes, including newly developed periodic positional prior mode associated with DNA helix pitch. We selected only one TFBS model per TF, unless there was a clear experimental evidence for two rather distinct TFBS models. We assigned a quality rating to each model. HOCOMOCO contains 426 systematically curated TFBS models for 401 human TFs, where 172 models are based on more than one data source. The Author(s) 2012.

  18. Phenotype- and SSR-Based Estimates of Genetic Variation between and within Two Important Elymus Species in Western and Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyu Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elymus nutans and Elymus sibiricus are two important perennial forage grasses of the genus Elymus, widely distributed in high altitude regions of Western and Northern China, especially on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Information on phenotypic and genetic diversity is limited, but necessary for Elymus germplasm collection, conservation, and utilization. In the present study, the phenotypic and genetic differentiation of 73 accessions of the two species were evaluated using 15 phenotypic traits and 40 expressed sequence tag derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs. The results showed that only 7.23% phenotypic differentiation (Pst existed between the two Elymus species based on fifteen quantitative traits. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that leaf traits, spike traits, and some seed traits were dominant factors in phenotypic variation. Moreover, 396 (97.8% and 331 (87.1% polymorphic bands were generated from 40 EST-SSR primers, suggesting high levels of genetic diversity for the two species. The highest genetic diversity was found in the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau groups. Clustering analysis based on molecular data showed that most accessions of each Elymus species tended to group together. Similar results were described by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA and structure analysis. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA revealed that 81.47% and 89.32% variation existed within the geographical groups for the two species, respectively. Pearson’s correlation analyses showed a strong positive correlation between Nei’s genetic diversity and annual mean temperature. These results could facilitate Elymus germplasm collection, conservation, and future breeding.

  19. Climate impact on the tree growth, vigor and productivity in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Im, S.; Petrov, I.; Dvinskaya, M.

    2017-12-01

    Changing climate has an impact on the Siberian taiga forests. We analyzed GPP and NPP trends, growth index, and stands mortality within the Central Siberia (48°- 75°N/80°-115°E). Considered forests included larch-dominant (Larix sibirica, L. dahurica) and "dark needle conifer" (DNC: Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata) stands. GPP and NPP trends calculated based on the Terra/MODIS products. Growth index calculations based on dendrochronology data. Water stress analysis based on the gravimetric and microwave satellite data and MERRA-2 database. Analyzed variables included precipitation, air temperature, VPD, drought index SPEI, and root zone wetness. We found positive GPP trends within majority (>90%) of larch-dominant and DNC ranges, whereas NPP trends are positive on the +10C°) temperatures and vegetation period length. During recent years larch experience water stress in the beginning of vegetation period. Tree decline and mortality observed within DNC stands, and that phenomenon regularly coincided with zones of negative NPP trends. Mortality correlated with VPD, SPEI, and root zone moisture content. Bark beetles (including aggressive species Polygraphus proximus, similar to Dendroctonus ponderosae in American forests) attacked water-stressed trees. Geographically, mortality began on the margins of the DNC range (e.g., within the forest-steppe ecotone) and on terrain features with maximal water stress risk (narrow-shaped hilltops, convex steep south facing slopes, shallow well-drained soils). Currently, Siberian pine and fir decline observed within southern range of these species. In addition, air temperature and aridity increase promotes Siberian silkmoth (Dendrolimus sibiricus) outbreak that occurred about one degree northward of formerly range. Observing and predicting aridity increase will lead to the replacement of Siberian pine and fir within southern range of these species with more tolerant species (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Larix spp.).

  20. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Zinovyev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”.

  1. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas".

  2. The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm induced by stachydrine hydrochloride reduces uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Wang, Bin; Li, Yuzhu; Wang, Li; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhou, Xianbin; Guo, Yuqi; Jiang, Guosheng; Yao, Chengfang

    2013-01-09

    The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm plays an important role in achieving maternal-fetal immunotolerance and participates in RU486-induced abortion. Excessive uterine bleeding is the most common side effect of RU486-induced abortion; however, its etiopathogenesis has not been fully understood. Therefore, elucidating the correlation between the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm and the volume of uterine bleeding may offer novel therapeutic target for reducing uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion. Leonurus sibiricus has been used in clinics to reduce postpartum hemorrhage with low toxicity and high efficiency; however, the effective constituents and therapeutic mechanism have not been described. Stachydrine hydrochloride is the main constituent of L. sibiricus, therefore L. sibiricus is regarded as a candidate for reducing uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice by regulating the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm. The purpose of this study was to determine the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in uterine bleeding of RU486-induced abortion mice and to elucidate the immunopharmacologic effects of stachydrine hydrochloride on inducing the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in reducing the uterine bleeding volume in RU486-induced abortion mice. To investigate the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in uterine bleeding during RU486-induced abortion mice, pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high- and low-dose RU486 (1.5mg/kg and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively), and the serum progesterone (P(4)) protein level, uterine bleeding volume, and proportions of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cells in mice at the maternal-fetal interface were detected by ELISA assay, alkaline hematin photometric assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. To determine the regulatory effect of stachydrine hydrochloride on the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in vitro, splenocytes of non-pregnant mice were separated and treated with P(4,) RU486, and/or stachydrine hydrochloride (10(-5)M, 10(-4)M, and 10(-3)M, respectively). The proportions of Th1/Th2/Th17

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this CAP is to provide the plan for implementation of the recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for CAU 568. Site characterization activities were performed in 2014, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the CAU 568 CADD. The CAAs were recommended in the CADD. The scope of work required to implement the recommended CAAs of closure in place and clean closure at 11 of the 14 CASs includes the following: The installation of physical barriers over the nine safety experiment ground zeroes to cover contamination at CASs 03-23-20 (Otero), 03-23-23 (San Juan and Pascal-C), 03-23-31 (Pascal-B, Luna, Colfax), 03-23-32 (Pascal-A), 03-23-33 (Valencia), and 03-23-34 (Chipmunk); the characterization and removal of three soil and debris piles at CAS 03-08-04, and one HCA soil pile at CAS 03-23-30; the removal of three steel well head covers (PSM) from CASs 03-23-20 (Otero), 03-23-31 (Luna), and 03-23-33 (Valencia); the removal of soil and lead PSM from two locations at CAS 03-26-04; Implementation of FFACO use restrictions at nine safety experiment ground zeroes at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, 03-23-32, 03-23-33, and 03-23-34; the steel well head cover at CAS 03-23-23; the areas meeting HCA conditions at CASs 03-23-19 and 03-23-31; and the Boomer crater area at CAS 03-45-01. The FFACO use restriction boundaries will be presented in the CAU 568 closure report.

  4. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro Nevada Environmental Services, NV (United States); Burmeister, Mark [Navarro Nevada Environmental Services, NV (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this CAP is to provide the plan for implementation of the recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for CAU 568. Site characterization activities were performed in 2014, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the CAU 568 CADD. The CAAs were recommended in the CADD. The scope of work required to implement the recommended CAAs of closure in place and clean closure at 11 of the 14 CASs includes the following: The installation of physical barriers over the nine safety experiment ground zeroes to cover contamination at CASs 03-23-20 (Otero), 03-23-23 (San Juan and Pascal-C), 03-23-31 (Pascal-B, Luna, Colfax), 03-23-32 (Pascal-A), 03-23-33 (Valencia), and 03-23-34 (Chipmunk); the characterization and removal of three soil and debris piles at CAS 03-08-04, and one HCA soil pile at CAS 03-23-30; the removal of three steel well head covers (PSM) from CASs 03-23-20 (Otero), 03-23-31 (Luna), and 03-23-33 (Valencia); the removal of soil and lead PSM from two locations at CAS 03-26-04; Implementation of FFACO use restrictions at nine safety experiment ground zeroes at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, 03-23-32, 03-23-33, and 03-23-34; the steel well head cover at CAS 03-23-23; the areas meeting HCA conditions at CASs 03-23-19 and 03-23-31; and the Boomer crater area at CAS 03-45-01. The FFACO use restriction boundaries will be presented in the CAU 568 closure report.

  5. Influence of product placement in children's movies on children's snack choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Matherne, Camden E; Bulik, Cynthia M; Howard, Janna B; Ravanbakht, Sophie N; Skinner, Asheley C; Wood, Charles T; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Brown, Jane D; Perrin, Andrew J; Levine, Cary; Steiner, Michael J; Perrin, Eliana M

    2017-07-01

    Media exposure affects health, including obesity risk. Children's movies often contain food placements-frequently unhealthy foods. However, it is not known if these cues influence children's food choices or consumption after viewing. We explored whether children's snack choices or consumption differs based on: 1) recent exposure to movies with high versus low product placement of unhealthy foods; and 2) children's weight status. Children ages 9-11 were assigned to watch a high ("Alvin and the Chipmunks," n = 54) or low ("Stuart Little," n = 60) product-placement movie. After viewing, participants selected a snack choice from each of five categories, several of which were specifically featured in "Alvin." Uneaten snacks from each participant were weighed upon completion. Snack choice and amount consumed by movie were compared by t-tests, and differences in snack choices by movie were tested with logistic regression. Participants consumed an average of 800.8 kcal; mean kcal eaten did not vary by movie watched. Participants who watched the high product-placement movie had 3.1 times the odds (95% CI 1.3-7.2) of choosing cheese balls (most featured snack) compared to participants who watched the low product-placement movie. Children who were overweight or obese consumed a mean of 857 kcal (95% CI: 789-925) compared to 783 kcal (95% CI: 742-823, p = 0.09) for children who were underweight or healthy weight. Children's weight status did not significantly affect their choice of snack. Branding and obesogenic messaging in children's movies influenced some choices that children made about snack foods immediately following viewing, especially food with greatest exposure time in the film, but did not affect total calories consumed. Future studies should examine how the accumulation of these messages affects children's long-term food choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiocobalt cycling in a small mammal food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    Cobalt-60 seeping from a nearby radioactive liquid waste trench on the Oak Ridge reservation into a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem provided a source of environmental contamination where its dispersion through a small mammal food web could be studied. Maximum radiocobalt concentrations in the soil were found in the upper 5 cm of 15 cm cores. Transient mammals such as the opossum and the raccoon had small amounts of 60 Co in their tissues (0.5 and 1.0 pCi/gm, respectively), while the permanent mammal residents including the short-tailed shrew (80 pCi/g), white-footed mouse (50 pCi/g), golden mouse (50 pCi/g) and the eastern chipmunk (20 pCi/g) had from 27 to more than 100 times that of the transient mammals. The persistent occurrence of 60 Co in the small mammals tissues indicated its importance in the food web. Of the potential mammalian food items present in the area, only earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) contained high levels of 60 Co activity (greater than 56 nCi/gm dry wt.). Earthworms collected from the seepage channel eliminated 70 percent of their body burden (gut contents) of 60 Co during the first 24-hour period, but retained the remaining 30 percent (tissue accumulation) for more than 11 weeks. Tissue retention by earthworms and the utilization of numerous burrows by mammals along the seepage channel during the summer months suggested that earthworms constituted a major link in the small mammal food chain. (U.S.)

  7. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. by culture, PCR and serology, in veterinary personnel from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Oteo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Bartonella includes fastidious, facultative intracellular bacteria mainly transmitted by arthropods and distributed among mammalian reservoirs. Bartonella spp. implicated as etiological agents of zoonoses are increasing. Apart from the classical Bartonella henselae, B. bacilliformis or B. quintana, other species (B. elizabethae, B. rochalimae, B. vinsonii arupensis and B. v. berkhoffii, B. tamiae or B. koehlerae, among others have also been associated with human and/or animal diseases. Laboratory techniques for diagnosis (culture, PCR assays and serology usually show lack of sensitivity. Since 2005, a method based on a liquid enrichment Bartonella alphaproteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM followed by PCRs for the amplification of Bartonella spp. has been developed. We aimed to assess culture, molecular and serological prevalence of Bartonella infections in companion animal veterinary personnel from Spain. Methods Each of 89 participants completed a questionnaire. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA using B. vinsonii berkhoffii (genotypes I, II and III, B. henselae, B. quintana and B. koehlerae as antigens were performed. A cut-off of 1:64 was selected as a seroreactivity titer. Blood samples were inoculated into BAPGM and subcultured onto blood agar plates. Bartonella spp. was detected using conventional and quantitative real-time PCR assays and DNA sequencing. Results Among antigens corresponding to six Bartonella spp. or genotypes, the lowest seroreactivity was found against B. quintana (11.2% and the highest, against B. v. berkhoffii genotype III (56%. A total of 27% of 89 individuals were not seroreactive to any test antigen. Bartonella spp. IFA seroreactivity was not associated with any clinical sign or symptom. DNA from Bartonella spp., including B. henselae (n = 2, B. v. berkhoffii genotypes I (n = 1 and III (n = 2, and B. quintana (n = 2 was detected in 7/89 veterinary personnel. PCR and DNA sequencing

  8. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  9. Modular organization of proteins containing C1q-like globular domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, U; Reid, K B

    1999-05-01

    The first step in the activation of the classical pathway of complement cascade by immune complexes involves the binding of the six globular heads of C1q to the Fc regions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin M (IgM). The globular heads of C1q are located C-terminal to the six triple-helical stalks present in the molecule, each head is considered to be composed of the C-terminal halves (3 x 135 residues) of one A-, one B- and one C-chain. It is not known if the C-terminal globular regions, present in each of the three types of chains, are independently folded modules (with each chain having distinct binding properties towards immunoglobulins) or whether the different binding functions of C1q are dependent upon a globular structure which relies on contributions from all three chains. Recent reports of recombinant production and characterisation of soluble globular head regions of all the three chains indicate that the globular regions of C1q may adopt a modular organization, i.e., each globular head of C1q may be composed of three, structurally and functionally, independent domains, thus retaining multivalency in the form of a heterotrimer. Modules of the same type as the C1q C-terminal module are also found in a variety of noncomplement proteins that include the C-terminal regions of the human type VIII and type X collagens, precerebellin, the chipmunk hibernation proteins, the human endothelial cell protein, multimerin, the serum protein, Acrp-30 which is secreted from mouse adipocytes, and the sunfish inner-ear specific structural protein. The C1q molecule is the only one of these proteins for which, to date, a function has been ascribed to the module. The existence of a shared structural region between C1q and certain collagens may suggest an evolutionarily common ancestral precursor. Various structural and biochemical data suggest that these modules may be responsible for multimerisation through patches of aromatic residues within them.

  10. Possible climate warming effects on vegetation, forests, biotic (insect, pathogene) disturbances and agriculture in Central Siberia for 1960- 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.; Lysanova, G. I.; Baranchikov, Y. N.; Kuzmina, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional Siberian studies have already registered climate warming over the last half a century (1960-2010). Our analysis showed that winters are already 2-3°C warmer in the north and 1-2°C warmer in the south by 2010. Summer temperatures increased by 1°C in the north and by 1-2°C in the south. Change in precipitation is more complicated, increasing on average 10% in middle latitudes and decreasing 10-20% in the south, promoting local drying in already dry landscapes. Our goal was to summarize results of research we have done for the last decade in the context of climate warming and its consequences for biosystems in Central Siberia. We modeled climate change effects on vegetation shifts, on forest composition and agriculture change, on the insect Siberian moth (Dendrolimus suprans sibiricus Tschetv) and pathogene (Lophodermium pinastri Chev) ranges in Central Siberia for a century (1960-2050) based on historical climate data and GCM-predicted data. Principal results are: In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over 50% of central Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats; At least half of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture at the end of the century although potential croplands would be limited by the availability of suitable soils agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming Crop production may twofold increase as climate warms during the century; traditional crops (grain, potato