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Sample records for chip-integrated confocal ultrasonic

  1. Selective Bioparticle Retention and Characterization in a Chip-Integrated Confocal Ultrasonic Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennebring, J.; Manneberg, O.; Skafte-Pedersen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate selective retention and positioning of cells or other bioparticles by ultrasonic manipulation in a microfluidic expansion chamber during microfluidic perfusion. The chamber is designed as a confocal ultrasonic resonator for maximum confinement of the ultrasonic force field at the c......We demonstrate selective retention and positioning of cells or other bioparticles by ultrasonic manipulation in a microfluidic expansion chamber during microfluidic perfusion. The chamber is designed as a confocal ultrasonic resonator for maximum confinement of the ultrasonic force field...... sample feeding, a set of several manipulation functions performed in series is demonstrated: sample bypass-injection-aggregation and retention-positioning. Finally, we demonstrate transillumination microscopy imaging Of Ultrasonically trapped COS-7 cell aggregates. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;103: 323-328....

  2. A Simple Model for Nonlinear Confocal Ultrasonic Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhou, Lin; Si, Li-Sheng; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2007-01-01

    A confocally and coaxially arranged pair of focused transmitter and receiver represents one of the best geometries for medical ultrasonic imaging and non-invasive detection. We develop a simple theoretical model for describing the nonlinear propagation of a confocal ultrasonic beam in biological tissues. On the basis of the parabolic approximation and quasi-linear approximation, the nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is solved by using the angular spectrum approach. Gaussian superposition technique is applied to simplify the solution, and an analytical solution for the second harmonics in the confocal ultrasonic beam is presented. Measurements are performed to examine the validity of the theoretical model. This model provides a preliminary model for acoustic nonlinear microscopy.

  3. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Kwak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. Materials and Methods The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.. The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1, J1 (JT-5B / Power-1, K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4, and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4. The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. Results There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05. The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Conclusions Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  4. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sang-Won; Moon, Young-Mi; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Lee, WooCheol; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan) or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.). The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1), J1 (JT-5B / Power-1), K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4), and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4). The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05). The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  5. Numerical study of a confocal ultrasonic setup for creation of cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafond, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.lafond@inserm.fr; Chavrier, Françoise; Prieur, Fabrice [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Mestas, Jean-Louis; Lafon, Cyril [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Caviskills SAS, Vaulx-En-Velin, F-69120 (France)

    2015-10-28

    Acoustic cavitation is used for various therapeutic applications such as local enhancement of drug delivery, histotripsy or hyperthermia. One of the utmost important parameter for cavitation creation is the rarefaction pressure. The typical magnitude of the rarefaction pressure required to initiate cavitation from gas dissolved in tissue is beyond the range of the megapascal. Because nonlinear effects need to be taken into account, a numerical simulator based on the Westervelt equation was used to study the pressure waveform and the acoustic field generated by a setup for creation of cavitation consisting of two high intensity focused ultrasound transducers mounted confocally. At constant acoustic power, simulations with only one and both transducers from the confocal setup showed that the distortion of the pressure waveform due to the combined effects of nonlinearity and diffraction is less pronounced when both confocal transducers are used. Consequently, the confocal setup generates a greater peak negative pressure at focus which is more favorable for cavitation initiation. Comparison between the confocal setup and a single transducer with the same total emitting surface puts in evidence the role of the spatial separation of the two beams. Furthermore, it has been previously shown that the location of the peak negative pressure created by a single transducer shifts from focus towards the transducers in the presence of nonlinear effects. The simulator was used to study a configuration where the acoustical axes of transducers intersect on the peak negative pressure instead of the geometrical focus. For a representative confocal setup, namely moderate nonlinear effects, a 2% increase of the peak negative pressure and 8% decrease of the peak positive pressure resulted from this configuration. These differences tend to increase by increasing nonlinear effects. Although the optimal position of the transducers varies with the nonlinear regimen, the intersection point

  6. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  7. Ultrasonically synthesized organic liquid-filled chitosan microcapsules: part 2: characterization using AFM (atomic force microscopy) and combined AFM-confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettu, Srinivas; Ye, Qianyu; Zhou, Meifang; Dagastine, Raymond; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2018-04-25

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used to measure the stiffness and Young's modulus of individual microcapsules that have a chitosan cross-linked shell encapsulating tetradecane. The oil filled microcapsules were prepared using a one pot synthesis via ultrasonic emulsification of tetradecane and crosslinking of the chitosan shell in aqueous solutions of acetic acid. The concentration of acetic acid in aqueous solutions of chitosan was varied from 0.2% to 25% v/v. The effect of acetic acid concentration and size of the individual microcapsules on the strength was probed. The deformations and forces required to rupture the microcapsules were also measured. Three dimensional deformations of microcapsules under large applied loads were obtained by the combination of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The stiffness, and hence the modulus, of the microcapsules was found to decrease with an increase in size with the average stiffness ranging from 82 to 111 mN m-1 and average Young's modulus ranging from 0.4 to 6.5 MPa. The forces required to rupture the microcapsules varied from 150 to 250 nN with deformations of the microcapsules up to 62 to 110% relative to their radius, respectively. Three dimensional images obtained using laser scanning confocal microscopy showed that the microcapsules retained their structure and shape after being subjected to large deformations and subsequent removal of the loads. Based on the above observations, the oil filled chitosan crosslinked microcapsules are an ideal choice for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries as they would be able to withstand the process conditions encountered.

  8. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  9. Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-12-01

    The confocal microscope is appropriate for imaging cells or the measurement of industrial artefacts. However, junior researchers and instrument users sometimes misuse imaging concepts and metrological characteristics, such as position resolution in industrial metrology and scale resolution in bio-imaging. And, metrological characteristics or influence factors in 3D measurement such as height assessment error caused by 3D coupling effect are so far not yet identified. In this book, the authors outline their practices by the working experiences on standardization and system design. This book assumes little previous knowledge of optics, but rich experience in engineering of industrial measurements, in particular with profile metrology or areal surface topography will be very helpful to understand the theoretical concerns and value of the technological advances. It should be useful for graduate students or researchers as extended reading material, as well as microscope users alongside their handbook.

  10. Chip-integrated plasmonic cavity-enhanced single nitrogen-vacancy center emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    High temporal stability and spin dynamics of individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond crystals make them one of the most promising quantum emitters operating at room temperature. We demonstrate a chip-integrated cavity-coupled emission into propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP...

  11. A polymer chip-integrable piezoelectric micropump with low backpressure dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, A. J.; Bianchetti, A.; Veiras, F. E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a piezoelectric micropump constructed in polymers with conventional machining methods. The micropump is self-contained and can be built as an independent device or as an on-chip module within laminated microfluidic chips. We demonstrate on-chip integrability by the fabrication and tes...

  12. Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Jun; Kuk, Jeong Han

    2002-02-15

    This book introduces ultrasonic testing, which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing, principle of ultrasonic testing, prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test, basic theory on ultrasonic testing, mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS(JIS) ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing, straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.V.Art.5 ASTMA 388 and KS B 0817 Korean industrial standard.

  13. Fluorescence (Multiwave) Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, J; Kästle, Raphaela; Sattler, Elke C

    2016-10-01

    In addition to reflectance confocal microscopy, multiwave confocal microscopes with different laser wavelengths in combination with exogenous fluorophores allow fluorescence mode confocal microscopy in vivo and ex vivo. Fluorescence mode confocal microscopy improves the contrast between the epithelium and the surrounding soft tissue and allows the depiction of certain structures, like epithelial tumors, nerves, and glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chip-integrated ultrawide-band all-optical logic comparator in plasmonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cuicui; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-27

    Optical computing opens up the possibility for the realization of ultrahigh-speed and ultrawide-band information processing. Integrated all-optical logic comparator is one of the indispensable core components of optical computing systems. Unfortunately, up to now, no any nanoscale all-optical logic comparator suitable for on-chip integration applications has been realized experimentally. Here, we report a subtle and effective technical solution to circumvent the obstacles of inherent Ohmic losses of metal and limited propagation length of SPPs. A nanoscale all-optical logic comparator suitable for on-chip integration applications is realized in plasmonic circuits directly. The incident single-bit (or dual-bit) logic signals can be compared and the comparison results are endowed with different logic encodings. An ultrabroad operating wavelength range from 700 to 1000 nm, and an ultrahigh output logic-state contrast-ratio of more than 25 dB are realized experimentally. No high power requirement is needed. Though nanoscale SPP light source and the logic comparator device are integrated into the same plasmonic chip, an ultrasmall feature size is maintained. This work not only paves a way for the realization of complex logic device such as adders and multiplier, but also opens up the possibility for realizing quantum solid chips based on plasmonic circuits.

  15. Virtual pinhole confocal microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group; Peterson, B. [SciLearn Inc. (United States); Kesteron, J. [VayTech Inc. (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

  16. Ultrasonic signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borloo, E.; Crutzen, S.

    1974-12-01

    The unique and tamperproof identification technique developed at Ispra is based on ultrasonic Non-Destructive-Techniques. Reading fingerprints with ultrasonic requires high reproducibility of standard apparatus and transducers. The present report gives an exhaustive description of the ultrasonic technique developed for identification purposes. Different applications of the method are described

  17. Sputtered Pd as hydrogen storage for a chip-integrated microenergy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavcheva, E; Ganske, G; Schnakenberg, U

    2014-01-01

    The work presents a research on preparation and physical and electrochemical characterisation of dc magnetron sputtered Pd films envisaged for application as hydrogen storage in a chip-integrated hydrogen microenergy system. The influence of the changes in the sputtering pressure on the surface structure, morphology, and roughness was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AMF). The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen adsorption/desorption and formation of PdH were investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 using the methods of cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic polarisation. The changes in the electrical properties of the films as a function of the sputtering pressure and the level of hydrogenation were evaluated before and immediately after the electrochemical charging tests, using a four-probe technique. The research resulted in establishment of optimal sputter regime, ensuring fully reproducible Pd layers with highly developed surface, moderate porosity, and mechanical stability. Selected samples were integrated as hydrogen storage in a newly developed unitized microenergy system and tested in charging (water electrolysis) and discharging (fuel cell) operative mode at ambient conditions demonstrating a stable recycling performance.

  18. Towards on-chip integration of brain imaging photodetectors using standard CMOS process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrani, Ehsan; Lesage, Frederic; Sawan, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    The main effects of on-chip integration on the performance and efficiency of silicon avalanche photodiode (SiAPD) and photodetector front-end is addressed in this paper based on the simulation and fabrication experiments. Two different silicon APDs are fabricated separately and also integrated with a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) front-end using standard CMOS technology. SiAPDs are designed in p+/n-well structure with guard rings realized in different shapes. The TIA front-end has been designed using distributed-gain concept combined with resistive-feedback and common-gate topology to reach low-noise and high gain-bandwidth product (GBW) characteristics. The integrated SiAPDs show higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity and detection efficiency comparing to the separate SiAPDs. The integration does not show a significant effect on the gain and preserves the low power consumption. Using APDs with p-well guard-ring is preferred due to the higher observed efficiency after integration.

  19. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  20. Confocal Raman microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Hollricher, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    This second edition provides a cutting-edge overview of physical, technical and scientific aspects related to the widely used analytical method of confocal Raman microscopy. The book includes expanded background information and adds insights into how confocal Raman microscopy, especially 3D Raman imaging, can be integrated with other methods to produce a variety of correlative microscopy combinations. The benefits are then demonstrated and supported by numerous examples from the fields of materials science, 2D materials, the life sciences, pharmaceutical research and development, as well as the geosciences.

  1. Confocal scanning microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    This report is based on a metrological investigation on confocal microscopy technique carried out by Uffe Rolf Arlø Theilade and Paolo Bariani. The purpose of the experimental activity was twofold a metrological instrument characterization and application to assessment of rough PP injection moulded...... replicated topography. Confocal microscopy is seen to be a promising technique in metrology of microstructures. Some limitations with respect to surface metrology were found during the experiments. The experiments were carried out using a Zeiss LSM 5 Pascal microscope owned by the Danish Polymer Centre...

  2. Confocal laser endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Săftoiu, Adrian; Brynskov, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has been shown to predict relapse in ulcerative colitis in remission, but little is currently known about its role in Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to identify reproducible CLE features in patients with Crohn's disease...

  3. Ultrasonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, E G

    1962-01-01

    Ultrasonic Physics, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of ultrasonic physics. The book opens with a discussion of the sources of ultrasound. This is followed by separate chapters on the properties and detection of ultrasonic radiation; measurement of propagation constants, i.e., the velocity and absorption, of ultrasound; ultrasound propagation in gases, liquids, and solids; and ultrasound propagation in aerosols, suspensions, and emulsions. The final chapter covers miscellaneous physical and physico-chemical actions, including dispersion and coagulation of

  4. Confocal Raman Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Toporski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy is a relatively new technique that allows chemical imaging without specific sample preparation. By integrating a sensitive Raman spectrometer within a state-of-the-art microscope, Raman microscopy with a spatial resolution down to 200nm laterally and 500nm vertically can be achieved using visible light excitation. Recent developments in detector and computer technology as well as optimized instrument design have reduced integration times of Raman spectra by orders of magnitude, so that complete images consisting of tens of thousands of Raman spectra can be acquired in seconds or minutes rather than hours, which used to be standard just one decade ago. The purpose of this book is to provide the reader a comprehensive overview of the rapidly developing field of Confocal Raman Microscopy and its applications.

  5. Package-friendly piezoresistive pressure sensors with on-chip integrated packaging-stress-suppressed suspension (PS3) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiachou; Li, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    An on-chip integrated packaging-stress-suppressed suspension (PS 3 ) technology for a packaging-stress-free pressure sensor is proposed and developed. With a MIS (microholes interetch and sealing) micromachining process implemented only from the front-side of a single-side polished (1 1 1) silicon wafer, a compact cantilever-shaped PS 3 is on-chip integrated surrounding a piezoresistive pressure-sensing structure to provide a packaging-process/substrate-friendly method for low-cost but high-performance sensor applications. With the MIS process, the chip size of the PS 3 -enclosed pressure sensor is as small as 0.8 mm × 0.8 mm. Compared with a normal pressure sensor without PS 3 (but with an identical pressure-sensing structure), the proposed pressure sensor has the same sensitivity of 0.046 mV kPa −1 (3.3 V) −1 . However, without using the thermal compensation technique, a temperature coefficient of offset of only 0.016% °C −1 FS is noted for the sensor with PS 3 , which is about 15 times better than that for the sensor without PS 3 . Featuring effective isolation and elimination of the influence from packaging stress, the PS 3 technique is promising to be widely used for packaging-friendly mechanical sensors. (paper)

  6. Molecular confocal laser endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Klausen, Pia Helene; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    While flexible endoscopy is essential for macroscopic evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has recently emerged as an endoscopic method enabling visualization at a cellular level. Two systems are currently available, one based on miniprobes that can be inserted via a conventional...... during on-going endoscopy), a novel world of molecular evaluation opens up. The method of molecular CLE could potentially be used for estimating the expression of important receptors in carcinomas, subsequently resulting in immediate individualization of treatment regimens, but also for improving...

  7. Ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satittada, Gannaga

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is one of the most widely used methods for nondestructive inspection. The beam of high-frequency sound wave, ultrasonic wave, is introduced into the material. It travels through the material with some attendant loss of energy and can be reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is detected and analyzed. Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect flaws in metal parts as well as in welded, brazed and bonded joints during research work and developing production and service. It is also used to detect and locate porosity, pipe, and flakes. In addition, it can be used for the measurement of metal thickness. Ultrasonic inspection is therefore used for quality control and material inspection in all major industries

  8. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puppels, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a technique that provides detailed structural information about molecules studied. In the field of molecular biophysics it has been extensively used for characterization of nucleic acids and proteins and for investigation of interactions between these molecules. It was felt that this technique would have great potential if it could be applied for in situ study of these molecules and their interactions, at the level of single living cell or a chromosome. To make this possible a highly sensitive confocal Raman microspectrometer (CRM) was developed. The instrument is described in detail in this thesis. It incorporates a number of recent technological developments. First, it employs a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD-camera. This type of detector, first used in astronomy, is the ultimate detector for Raman spectroscopy because it combines high quantum efficiency light detection with photon-noise limited operation. Second, an important factor in obtaining a high signal throughput of the spectrometer was the development of a new type of Raman notch filter. In the third place, the confocal detection principle was applied in the CRM. This limits the effective measuring volume to 3 . (author). 279 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Ultrasonic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueneke, B.

    1982-01-01

    608 women are examined by means of ultrasonic mammography during the period of 1 year. 432 patients were examined with the compound method with the U.I. Octoson, a water tank scanner, and 176 patients with the real time method with a directly connected linear-array-scanner. The following results were obtained at the end of the examination period: In the ultrasonic and also in the X-ray mammogram tumour diameters can be determined with an error rate of +- 30%. In the diagnosing of carcinomas, a significant dependence of the exactness on the sice of the tumour is found for the combination of the five methods tested (clinical examination, X-ray mammography, ultrasonic mammography, thermography, cytology). Classifying the individual methods with regard to their exactness, X-ray mammography ranks in front of ultrasonic mammography. Mastopathic changes in the breast can be screened by means of ultrasonic mammography. The structure of the changes can be determined more exactly than with an X-ray picture which is due to the possibility of differentiating solid and cystic structures. In diagnosing fibro-adenomas and establishing diagnoses on young women with dense gland bodies, ultrasonic mammography is superior to radiology both in the ability of screening a finding of a fibro-adenoma (US=88%, X-ray=75%) and in the possibility of classifying it as ''more benign than malignant''. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Fluorescence confocal microscopy for pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on

  11. Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com; Hosseini, Amir; Xu, Xiaochuan [Omega Optics, Inc., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Zhu, Liang; Zou, Yi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Omega Optics, Inc., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    We analyze the contributions of quality factor, fill fraction, and group index of chip-integrated resonance microcavity devices, to the detection limit for bulk chemical sensing and the minimum detectable biomolecule concentration in biosensing. We analyze the contributions from analyte absorbance, as well as from temperature and spectral noise. Slow light in two-dimensional photonic crystals provide opportunities for significant reduction of the detection limit below 1 × 10{sup −7} RIU (refractive index unit) which can enable highly sensitive sensors in diverse application areas. We demonstrate experimentally detected concentration of 1 fM (67 fg/ml) for the binding between biotin and avidin, the lowest reported till date.

  12. Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Hosseini, Amir; Xu, Xiaochuan; Zhu, Liang; Zou, Yi; Chen, Ray T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the contributions of quality factor, fill fraction, and group index of chip-integrated resonance microcavity devices, to the detection limit for bulk chemical sensing and the minimum detectable biomolecule concentration in biosensing. We analyze the contributions from analyte absorbance, as well as from temperature and spectral noise. Slow light in two-dimensional photonic crystals provide opportunities for significant reduction of the detection limit below 1 × 10 −7 RIU (refractive index unit) which can enable highly sensitive sensors in diverse application areas. We demonstrate experimentally detected concentration of 1 fM (67 fg/ml) for the binding between biotin and avidin, the lowest reported till date

  13. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  14. Ultrasonic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype ultrasonic flowmeter was assembled and tested. The theoretical basis of this prototype ultrasonic flowmeter is reviewed; the equipment requirements for a portable unit are discussed; the individual electronic modules contained in the prototype are described; the operating procedures and configuration are explained; and the data from preliminary calibrations are presented. The calibration data confirm that the prototype operates according to theoretical predictions and can indeed provide nonintrusive flow measurements to predicted accuracies for pipes larger than two inches, under single phase stable flow conditions

  15. Highly efficient capture and harvest of circulating tumor cells on a microfluidic chip integrated with herringbone and micropost arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Yafeng; Guo, Jinhong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-04-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are derived from primary tumor site and transported to distant organs, are considered as the major cause of metastasis. So far, various techniques have been applied for CTC isolation and enumeration. However, there exists great demand to improve the sensitivity of CTC capture, and it remains challenging to elute the cells efficiently from device for further biomolecular and cellular analyses. In this study, we fabricate a dual functional chip integrated with herringbone structure and micropost array to achieve CTC capture and elution through EpCAM-based immunoreaction. Hep3B tumor cell line is selected as the model of CTCs for processing using this device. The results demonstrate that the capture limit of Hep3B cells can reach up to 10 cells (per mL of sample volume) with capture efficiency of 80% on average. Moreover, the elution rate of the captured Hep3B cells can reach up to 69.4% on average for cell number ranging from 1 to 100. These results demonstrate that this device exhibits dual functions with considerably high capture rate and elution rate, indicating its promising capability for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  16. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Carl A.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  17. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, A; Mueller, C; Reinecke, H

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CIμ-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CIμ-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CIμ-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH 4 . Combining the CIμ-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CIμ-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CIμ-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CIμ-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 . The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm 2 ) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH 4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours

  18. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of emitted signals. The accuracy of these measurements demands that...

  19. Process monitoring using optical ultrasonic wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telschow, K.L.; Walter, J.B.; Garcia, G.V.; Kunerth, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Optical ultrasonic wave detection techniques are being developed for process monitoring. An important limitation on optical techniques is that the material surface, in materials processing applications, is usually not a specular reflector and in many cases is totally diffusely reflecting. This severely degrades the light collected by the detection optics, greatly reducing the intensity and randomly scattering the phase of the reflected light. A confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is sensitive to the Doppler frequency shift resulting from the surface motion and not to the phase of the collected light, is well suited to detecting ultrasonic waves in diffusely reflecting materials. This paper describes the application of this detector to the real-time monitoring of the sintering of ceramic materials. 8 refs., 5 figs

  20. On-chip integrated functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) photoreceiver for portable brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrani, Ehsan

    -consumption around 0.4 mW, transimpedance gain of 169 dBO, and input-output current/voltage noises in fA/pV range accompanied with ability to tune the gain, bandwidth and power-consumption in a wide range. The implemented mixed quench-reset circuit (MQC) and controllable MQC (CMQC) front-ends offer a quench-time of 10ns, a maximum power-consumption of 0.4 mW, with a controllable hold-off and reset-times. The on-chip integration of SiAPDs with TIA and photon-counting circuitries has been demonstrated showing improvement of the photodetection-efficiency, specially regarding to the sensitivity, power-consumption and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) characteristics.

  1. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  2. Confocal imaging of butterfly tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Craig R

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular events responsible for morphological change requires the ability to examine gene expression in a wide range of organisms in addition to model systems to determine how the differences in gene expression correlate with phenotypic differences. There are approximately 12,000 species of butterflies, most, with distinct patterns on their wings. The most important tool for studying gene expression in butterflies is confocal imaging of butterfly tissue by indirect immunofluorescence using either cross-reactive antibodies from closely related species such as Drosophila or developing butterfly-specific antibodies. In this report, we describe how indirect immunofluorescence protocols can be used to visualize protein expression patterns on the butterfly wing imaginal disc and butterfly embryo.

  3. Confocal Imaging of porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S.; Crawshaw, D.; Boek, D.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate rocks, which hold approximately 50% of the world's oil and gas reserves, have a very complicated and heterogeneous structure in comparison with sandstone reservoir rock. We present advances with different techniques to image, reconstruct, and characterize statistically the micro-geometry of carbonate pores. The main goal here is to develop a technique to obtain two dimensional and three dimensional images using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. CLSM is used in epi-fluorescent imaging mode, allowing for the very high optical resolution of features well below 1μm size. Images of pore structures were captured using CLSM imaging where spaces in the carbonate samples were impregnated with a fluorescent, dyed epoxy-resin, and scanned in the x-y plane by a laser probe. We discuss the sample preparation in detail for Confocal Imaging to obtain sub-micron resolution images of heterogeneous carbonate rocks. We also discuss the technical and practical aspects of this imaging technique, including its advantages and limitation. We present several examples of this application, including studying pore geometry in carbonates, characterizing sub-resolution porosity in two dimensional images. We then describe approaches to extract statistical information about porosity using image processing and spatial correlation function. We have managed to obtain very low depth information in z -axis (~ 50μm) to develop three dimensional images of carbonate rocks with the current capabilities and limitation of CLSM technique. Hence, we have planned a novel technique to obtain higher depth information to obtain high three dimensional images with sub-micron resolution possible in the lateral and axial planes.

  4. Ultrasonic horn design for ultrasonic machining technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naď M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of industrial applications and production technologies are based on the application of ultrasound. In many cases, the phenomenon of ultrasound is also applied in technological processes of the machining of materials. The main element of equipments that use the effects of ultrasound for machining technology is the ultrasonic horn – so called sonotrode. The performance of ultrasonic equipment, respectively ultrasonic machining technologies depends on properly designed of sonotrode shape. The dynamical properties of different geometrical shapes of ultrasonic horns are presented in this paper. Dependence of fundamental modal properties (natural frequencies, mode shapes of various sonotrode shapes for various geometrical parameters is analyzed. Modal analyses of the models are determined by the numerical simulation using finite element method (FEM design procedures. The mutual comparisons of the comparable parameters of the various sonotrode shapes are presented.

  5. Confocal Raman Microscopy; applications in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation describes the use of confocal Raman microscopy and spectroscopy in the field of tissue engineering. Moreover, it describes the combination of two already existing technologies, namely scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy in one apparatus for the enhancement

  6. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  7. Ultrasonic testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic transmitter made of polarized ferroelectric ceramic material (lead zirconate titanate) is arranged in a strip carrier which allows it to be introduced between the fuel elements of a fuel subassembly in a water cooled nuclear reactor. The ultrasonic transmitter is insulated relative to the carrier. The echo of the ra dal ultrasonic pulse is recorded which changes as faulty water filled fuel elements are detected. (RW) [de

  8. Submillimeter Confocal Imaging Active Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, John; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cwik, Thomas; Rowell, Mark; Hacker, John

    2009-01-01

    The term submillimeter confocal imaging active module (SCIAM) denotes a proposed airborne coherent imaging radar system that would be suitable for use in reconnaissance, surveillance, and navigation. The development of the SCIAM would include utilization and extension of recent achievements in monolithic microwave integrated circuits capable of operating at frequencies up to and beyond a nominal radio frequency of 340 GHz. Because the SCIAM would be primarily down-looking (in contradistinction to primarily side-looking), it could be useful for imaging shorter objects located between taller ones (for example, objects on streets between buildings). The SCIAM would utilize a confocal geometry to obtain high cross-track resolution, and would be amenable to synthetic-aperture processing of its output to obtain high along-track resolution. The SCIAM (see figure) would include multiple (two in the initial version) antenna apertures, separated from each other by a cross-track baseline of suitable length (e.g., 1.6 m). These apertures would both transmit the illuminating radar pulses and receive the returns. A common reference oscillator would generate a signal at a controllable frequency of (340 GHz + (Delta)f)/N, where (Delta)f is an instantaneous swept frequency difference and N is an integer. The output of this oscillator would be fed to a frequency- multiplier-and-power-amplifier module to obtain a signal, at 340 GHz + (Delta)f, that would serve as both the carrier signal for generating the transmitted pulses and a local-oscillator (LO) signal for a receiver associated with each antenna aperture. Because duplexers in the form of circulators or transmit/receive (T/R) switches would be lossy and extremely difficult to implement, the antenna apertures would be designed according to a spatial-diplexing scheme, in which signals would be coupled in and out via separate, adjacent transmitting and receiving feed horns. This scheme would cause the transmitted and received beams

  9. Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Ussui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micron scale via endoscopes. CLE has the potential to be a disruptive technology in that it can change the current algorithms that depend on biopsy to perform surveillance of high-risk conditions. Furthermore, it allows on-table decision making that has the potential to guide therapy in real time and reduce the need for repeated procedures. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. However, the imaging of living tissue allows more than just pragmatic convenience; it also allows imaging of living tissue such as active capillary circulation, cellular death, and vascular and endothelial translocation, thus extending beyond what is capable in traditional biopsy. Immediate potential applications of CLE are to guide biopsy sampling in Barrett's esophagus and inflammatory bowel disease surveillance, evaluation of colorectal polyps, and intraductal imaging of the pancreas and bile duct. Data on these applications is rapidly emerging, and more is needed to clearly demonstrate the optimal applications of CLE. In this paper, we will focus on the role of CLE as applied to colorectal polyps detected during colonoscopy.

  10. Whole-body ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography of small animals in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad R.; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Kun; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-05-01

    We report a novel small-animal whole-body imaging system called ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT). RC-PACT is based on a confocal design of free-space ring-shaped light illumination and 512-element full-ring ultrasonic array signal detection. The free-space light illumination maximizes the light delivery efficiency, and the full-ring signal detection ensures a full two-dimensional view aperture for accurate image reconstruction. Using cylindrically focused array elements, RC-PACT can image a thin cross section with 0.10 to 0.25 mm in-plane resolutions and 1.6 s/frame acquisition time. By translating the mouse along the elevational direction, RC-PACT provides a series of cross-sectional images of the brain, liver, kidneys, and bladder.

  11. Confocal scanning microscope for nuclear photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Soroko, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the confocal scanning microscope to the objects in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. An array of 27 microtomograms of single silver grain is shown. The cross sections of the same particle track of diameter 1 μm, detected by means of the confocal scanning microscope with open and annular apertures, are presented. It was shown that the confocal scanning microscope opens indeed new opportunities for the nuclear photoemulsion technique to get previously inaccessible information for physics of the short-living particles

  12. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  13. Ultrasonic decontamination robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic decontamination robot removes radioactive contamination from the internal surface of the inlet and outlet headers, divider plate, tube sheet, and lower portions of tubes of a nuclear power plant steam generator. A programmable microprocessor controller guides the movement of a robotic arm mounted in the header manway. An ultrasonic transducer having a solvent delivery subsystem through which ultrasonic action is achieved is moved by the arm over the surfaces. A solvent recovery suction tube is positioned within the header to remove solvent therefrom while avoiding interference with the main robotic arm. The solvent composition, temperature, pressure, viscosity, and purity are controlled to optimize the ultrasonic scrubbing action. The ultrasonic transducer is controlled at a power density, frequency, and on-off mode cycle such as to optimize scrubbing action within the range of transducer-to-surface distance and solvent layer thickness selected for the particular conditions encountered. Both solvent and transducer control actions are optimized by the programmable microprocessor. (author)

  14. Diffractive elements performance in chromatic confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, J; Duque, D; Alean, A; Toledo, M; Meneses, J; Gharbi, T

    2011-01-01

    The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry and biomedicine because of its depth discrimination capability. Subsequent to this technique has been developed in recent years Chromatic Confocal Microscopy. This method retains the same principle of confocal and offers the added advantage of removing the axial movement of the moving system. This advantage is usually accomplished with an optical element that generates a longitudinal chromatic aberration and a coding system that relates the axial position of each point of the sample with the wavelength that is focused on each. The present paper shows the performance of compact chromatic confocal microscope when some different diffractive elements are used for generation of longitudinal chromatic aberration. Diffractive elements, according to the process and manufacturing parameters, may have different diffraction efficiency and focus a specific wavelength in a specific focal position. The performance assessment is carried out with various light sources which exhibit an incoherent behaviour and a broad spectral width.

  15. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditlev Nytoft; Karstensen, John Gásdal; Riis, Lene Buhl

    2015-01-01

    included. Next, eligible studies were analysed with respect to several parameters, such as technique and clinical aim and definitions of outcomes. RESULTS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy has been used for a wide range of purposes in inflammatory bowel disease, covering assessment of inflammatory severity...... of confocal laser endomicroscopy for inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Available literature was searched systematically for studies applying confocal laser endomicroscopy in Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Relevant literature was reviewed and only studies reporting original clinical data were...... of histological features such as colonic crypts, epithelial gaps and epithelial leakiness to fluorescein. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy remains an experimental but emerging tool for assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is the only method that enables in vivo functional assessment...

  16. Aorta Fluorescence Imaging by Using Confocal Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun-Yang; Tsai, Jui-che; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The activated leukocyte attacked the vascular endothelium and the associated increase in VEcadherin number was observed in experiments. The confocal microscopic system with a prism-based wavelength filter was used for multiwavelength fluorescence measurement. Multiwavelength fluorescence imaging based on the VEcadherin within the aorta segment of a rat was achieved. The confocal microscopic system capable of fluorescence detection of cardiovascular tissue is a useful tool for measuring the bi...

  17. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...

  18. Microsphere imaging with confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Hyung Su; An, Kyung Won; Lee, Jai Hyung

    2002-01-01

    We have acquired images of polystyrene and fused-silica microsphere by using conventional optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy, and performed comparative analysis of these images. Different from conventional optical microscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy had good optical sectioning capability. In addition, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy had better lateral resolution than conventional optical microscopy. These results are attributed to confocality and nonlinearity of confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy, respectively.

  19. Application of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy in Biology and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Volkov; N. V. Frigo; L. F. Znamenskaya; O. R. Katunina

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy and reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy are up-to-date highend study methods. Confocal microscopy is used in cell biology and medicine. By using confocal microscopy, it is possible to study bioplasts and localization of protein molecules and other compounds relative to cell or tissue structures, and to monitor dynamic cell processes. Confocal microscopes enable layer-by-layer scanning of test items to create demonstrable 3D models. As...

  20. Ultrasonic testing X gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The experience of 10 years for substituting gammagraphy tests by ultrasonic tests is related. A comparative evaluation of data obtained from both techniques applied to welded butt joints is presented. (author)

  1. Ultrasonic grinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shuji.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic generator and a liquid supply nozzle are opposed to an object to be ground and a pump is started in this state to supply an organic solvent. Matters to be decontaminated which adheres to the surface of the object to be ground and are difficult to be removed by a mere mechanical removing method can be eliminated previously by the surface active effect of the organic solvent such as ethanol prior to the oscillation of the ultrasonic generator. Subsequently, when the ultrasonic generator is oscillated, scales in the floated state can be removed simply. Further, since the organic solvent can penetrate to provide the surface active effect even in such a narrow portion that the top end of the ultrasonic generator is difficult to the intruded at the surface of the object to be ground, the decontaminating treatment can be applied also to such a narrow portion. (T.M.)

  2. Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) improves the resolution of confocal microscopy and increases the sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Luca, Giulia; Breedijk, Ronald; Hoebe, Ron; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial

  3. Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) improves the resolution of confocal microscopy and increases the sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.; Breedijk, R.; Hoebe, R.; Stallinga, S.; Manders, E.

    Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial

  4. An Experimentation Platform for On-Chip Integration of Analog Neural Networks: A Pathway to Trusted and Robust Analog/RF ICs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliuk, Dzmitry; Makris, Yiorgos

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the design of an experimentation platform intended for prototyping low-cost analog neural networks for on-chip integration with analog/RF circuits. The objective of such integration is to support various tasks, such as self-test, self-tuning, and trust/aging monitoring, which require classification of analog measurements obtained from on-chip sensors. Particular emphasis is given to cost-efficient implementation reflected in: 1) low energy and area budgets of circuits dedicated to neural networks; 2) robust learning in presence of analog inaccuracies; and 3) long-term retention of learned functionality. Our chip consists of a reconfigurable array of synapses and neurons operating below threshold and featuring sub-μW power consumption. The synapse circuits employ dual-mode weight storage: 1) a dynamic mode, for fast bidirectional weight updates during training and 2) a nonvolatile mode, for permanent storage of learned functionality. We discuss a robust learning strategy, and we evaluate the system performance on several benchmark problems, such as the XOR2-6 and two-spirals classification tasks.

  5. Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Postema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    This book sets out the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications. It covers the basics of linear acoustics, wave propagation, non-linear acoustics, acoustic properties of tissue, transducer components, and ultrasonic imaging modes, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

  6. Assessing ultrasonic examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, V.; Vogt, M.

    1977-01-01

    Amongst nondestructive examination methods, the ultrasonic examination plays an important role. The reason why its scope of application is so wide is because the sound conducting capacity is the only property the material of a test specimen has to have. As the fields are so manifold, only main aspects can be described briefly. The list of references, however, is very extensive and gives plenty of information of all the problems concerning the assessment of ultrasonic examination results. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Confocal filtering in cathodoluminescence microscopy of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Angela C.; Weppelman, I. Gerward C.; Moerland, Robert J.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Kruit, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy allows optical characterization of nanostructures at high spatial resolution. At the nanoscale, a main challenge of the technique is related to the background CL generated within the sample substrate. Here, we implement confocal detection of the CL signal to minimize the background contribution to the measurement. Nano-phosphors were used as point sources to evaluate the filtering capabilities of our confocal CL system, obtaining an axial intensity profile with 2.7 μm full width at half maximum for the central peak, in good correspondence with theoretical expectations. Considering the electron interaction volume, we found that the confocal filter becomes effective for electron energies above 20 keV, when using a 25 μm pinhole (0.86 Airy units). To illustrate our approach, we present confocal CL imaging of gold nanowires and triangular shaped plates deposited on an indium-tin oxide covered glass substrate, comparing the images with those obtained in standard unfiltered CL detection. The results show that confocal CL microscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of nanostructures on highly cathodoluminescent substrates, widely used in biological and optical applications.

  8. Confocal filtering in cathodoluminescence microscopy of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narváez, Angela C., E-mail: a.c.narvaez@tudelft.nl, E-mail: j.p.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl; Weppelman, I. Gerward C.; Moerland, Robert J.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P., E-mail: a.c.narvaez@tudelft.nl, E-mail: j.p.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl; Kruit, Pieter [Imaging Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-06-23

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy allows optical characterization of nanostructures at high spatial resolution. At the nanoscale, a main challenge of the technique is related to the background CL generated within the sample substrate. Here, we implement confocal detection of the CL signal to minimize the background contribution to the measurement. Nano-phosphors were used as point sources to evaluate the filtering capabilities of our confocal CL system, obtaining an axial intensity profile with 2.7 μm full width at half maximum for the central peak, in good correspondence with theoretical expectations. Considering the electron interaction volume, we found that the confocal filter becomes effective for electron energies above 20 keV, when using a 25 μm pinhole (0.86 Airy units). To illustrate our approach, we present confocal CL imaging of gold nanowires and triangular shaped plates deposited on an indium-tin oxide covered glass substrate, comparing the images with those obtained in standard unfiltered CL detection. The results show that confocal CL microscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of nanostructures on highly cathodoluminescent substrates, widely used in biological and optical applications.

  9. Confocal microlaparoscope for imaging the fallopian tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Yu; Rouse, Andrew R.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ovarian cancer can originate in the fallopian tube. Unlike many other cancers, poor access to the ovary and fallopian tubes has limited the ability to study the progression of this deadly disease and to diagnosis it during the early stage when it is most amenable to therapy. A rigid confocal microlaparoscope system designed to image the epithelial surface of the ovary in vivo was previously reported. A new confocal microlaparoscope with an articulating distal tip has been developed to enable in vivo access to human fallopian tubes. The new microlaparoscope is compatible with 5-mm trocars and includes a 2.2-mm-diameter articulating distal tip consisting of a bare fiber bundle and an automated dye delivery system for fluorescence confocal imaging. This small articulating device should enable the confocal microlaparoscope to image early stage ovarian cancer arising inside the fallopian tube. Ex vivo images of animal tissue and human fallopian tube using the new articulating device are presented along with in vivo imaging results using the rigid confocal microlaparoscope system.

  10. Ultrasonic viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of reactor operation by enabling to detect the states and positions of fuel assemblies over a wide range with a set of ultrasonic viewing device comprising a rotatable ultrasonic transmitter-receiver and a reflector mounted with an adjustable angle. Constitution: A driving portion for a ultrasonic viewing device is provided to a rotary plug closing the opening of a reactor vessel and a guide pipe suspending below the coolant level is provided to the driving portion. An ultrasonic transmitter-receiver is provided at the end of the holder tube in the guide pipe. A reflector is provided at the upper position of the reactor core so as to correspond to the ultrasonic transmitter-receiver. The ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, positioned by the driving portion, performs horizontal movement for scanning the entire surface of the top of the reactor core, as well as vertical movement covering the gap between the upper mechanism on the reactor and the reactor core, whereby the confirmation for the separation of the control rod and the detection for the states of the reactor core can be conducted by the reflection waves from the reflector. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. ULTRASONIC ASSEMBLY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes the possibility of machine producesers to optimize the costs of clothes assembling. Ultrasonic systems being frequently utilized have many advantages on semi products of synthetic textile and technical textile. First of all, sewing – cutting process can be accomplished under high speeds and rate of losses can be minimized. Cutting seal applications are frequently used for underwear and sportswear. Slicing and unit cutting machines, as well as portable sealing machines are available for labeling sector. Products such as bag, pocket and cover can be sewed in a seamless manner for promotion purposes. All objects in terms of accessories are obtained in same standard. Our quilting machines are preferred in worldwide due to its threadless, high quality sealing. An alternative to the classic sewing assembly, with thread and needles is ultrasonic seaming. In ultrasonic welding, there are no connective bolts, nails, soldering materials, or adhesives necessary to bind the materials together. Ultrasonic is defined as acoustic frequencies above the range audible to the human ear. Ultrasonic frequencies are administered to the fabric from the sonotrode of bonding machine. The high frequency and powerful energy produced, when is release in one special environment, the ultrasound heating this environment. The ability to ultrasonic weld textiles and films depend on their thermoplastic contents and the desired end results. The paper defines the weld ability of more common textiles and films. The welding refers to all types of bonding and sealing, as in point bonding of fabric, or continuous sealing of film.

  12. Confocal laser endomicroscopy in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Săftoiu, Adrian; Brynskov, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy enables real-time in vivo microscopy during endoscopy and can predict relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission. However, little is known about how endomicroscopic features change with time. The aim of this longitudinal study...... was to correlate colonic confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in ulcerative colitis with histopathology and macroscopic appearance before and after intensification of medical treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical relapse and 7 control subjects referred for colonoscopy were...

  13. Model wavefront sensor for adaptive confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin J.; Neil, Mark A. A.; Wilson, Tony

    2000-05-01

    A confocal microscope permits 3D imaging of volume objects by the inclusion of a pinhole in the detector path which eliminates out of focus light. This configuration is however very sensitive to aberrations induced by the specimen or the optical system and would therefore benefit from an adaptive optics approach. We present a wavefront sensor capable of measuring directly the Zernike components of an aberrated wavefront and show that it is particularly applicable to the confocal microscope since only those wavefronts originating in the focal region contribute to the measured aberration.

  14. Confocal microscopy imaging of the biofilm matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Meyer, Rikke L

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is an integral part of microbial biofilms and an important field of research. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a valuable tool for the study of biofilms, and in particular of the biofilm matrix, as it allows real-time visualization of fully hydrated, living specimens...... the concentration of solutes and the diffusive properties of the biofilm matrix....

  15. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: LASER POWER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser power abstract The reliability of the confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) to obtain intensity measurements and quantify fluorescence data is dependent on using a correctly aligned machine that contains a stable laser power. The laser power test appears to be one ...

  16. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy: Three-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. August 2003 physics pp. 373–384. Fluorescence confocal polarizing ... and focal conic domains in flat samples of lamellar LCs are practically indistinguishable. ... or less) LC layer confined between two transparent plates. ... in studies of electro-optic effects such as the Frederiks effect, defects, surface anchoring,.

  17. Flip-chip integration of Si bare dies on polymeric substrates at low temperature using ICA vias made in dry film photoresist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez Quintero, Andrés; Briand, Danick; de Rooij, Nico F.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a low temperature flip-chip integration technique for Si bare dies is demonstrated on flexible PET substrates with screen-printed circuits. The proposed technique is based on patterned blind vias in dry film photoresist (DP) filled with isotropic conductive adhesive (ICA). The DP material serves to define the vias, to confine the ICA paste (80 µm-wide and potentially 25 µm-wide vias), as an adhesion layer to improve the mechanical robustness of the assembly, and to protect additional circuitry on the substrate. The technique is demonstrated using gold-bumped daisy chain chips (DCCs), with electrical vias resistances in the order to hundreds of milliohms, and peel/shear adhesion strengths of 0.7 N mm-1 and 3.2 MPa, respectively, (i.e. at 1.2 MPa of bonding pressure). Finally, the mechanical robustness to bending forces was optimized through flexural mechanics models by placing the neutral plane at the DCC/DP adhesive interface. The optimization was performed by reducing the Si thickness from 400 to 37 µm, and resulted in highly robust integrated assemblies withstanding 10 000 cycles of dynamic bending at 40 mm of radius, with relative changes in vias resistance lower than 20%. In addition, the electrical vias resistance and adhesion strengths were compared to samples integrated with anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACAs). Besides the low temperature and high integration resolution, the proposed method is compatible with large area fabrication and multilayer architectures on foil.

  18. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.; Ricks, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and for wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities

  19. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  20. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  1. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  2. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  3. Ultrasonic tests. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebbels, K.

    1980-01-01

    After a basic treatment of ultrasonic wave propagation, of the state-of-the-art methods and the technical background in the preceeding part, advanced ultrasonic NDT techniques are presented here. The discussion of new development includes - manipulation systems, - automation of ultrasonic testing methods, documentation and evaluation. In the middle of this part the main problem areas will be discussed: - detection of defects (e.g. in coarse grained structures and welds), - classification of defects (e.g. discrimination between crack-like and volumetric faults), - sizing of defects. Research in the field of acoustical holography, development of probes and phased arrays, electromagnetic acoustic transducers and signal enhancement are the main contributing parts to the report. (orig./RW)

  4. Confocal Microscopy of Unfixed Breast Needle Core Biopsies: A Comparison to Fixed and Stained Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavislan James M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Needle core biopsy, often in conjunction with ultrasonic or stereotactic guided techniques, is frequently used to diagnose breast carcinoma in women. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM is a technology that provides real-time digital images of tissues with cellular resolution. This paper reports the progress in developing techniques to rapidly screen needle core breast biopsy and surgical specimens at the point of care. CSLM requires minimal tissue processing and has the potential to reduce the time from excision to diagnosis. Following imaging, specimens can still be submitted for standard histopathological preparation. Methods Needle core breast specimens from 49 patients were imaged at the time of biopsy. These lesions had been characterized under the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS as category 3, 4 or 5. The core biopsies were imaged with the CSLM before fixation. Samples were treated with 5% citric acid and glycerin USP to enhance nuclear visibility in the reflectance confocal images. Immediately following imaging, the specimens were fixed in buffered formalin and submitted for histological processing and pathological diagnosis. CSLM images were then compared to the standard histology. Results The pathologic diagnoses by standard histology were 7 invasive ductal carcinomas, 2 invasive lobular carcinomas, 3 ductal carcinomas in-situ (CIS, 21 fibrocystic changes/proliferative conditions, 9 fibroadenomas, and 5 other/benign; two were excluded due to imaging difficulties. Morphologic and cellular features of benign and cancerous lesions were identified in the confocal images and were comparable to standard histologic sections of the same tissue. Conclusion CSLM is a technique with the potential to screen needle core biopsy specimens in real-time. The confocal images contained sufficient information to identify stromal reactions such as fibrosis and cellular proliferations such as intra-ductal and

  5. Confocal Microscopy of Unfixed Breast Needle Core Biopsies: A Comparison to Fixed and Stained Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Needle core biopsy, often in conjunction with ultrasonic or stereotactic guided techniques, is frequently used to diagnose breast carcinoma in women. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) is a technology that provides real-time digital images of tissues with cellular resolution. This paper reports the progress in developing techniques to rapidly screen needle core breast biopsy and surgical specimens at the point of care. CSLM requires minimal tissue processing and has the potential to reduce the time from excision to diagnosis. Following imaging, specimens can still be submitted for standard histopathological preparation. Methods Needle core breast specimens from 49 patients were imaged at the time of biopsy. These lesions had been characterized under the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS) as category 3, 4 or 5. The core biopsies were imaged with the CSLM before fixation. Samples were treated with 5% citric acid and glycerin USP to enhance nuclear visibility in the reflectance confocal images. Immediately following imaging, the specimens were fixed in buffered formalin and submitted for histological processing and pathological diagnosis. CSLM images were then compared to the standard histology. Results The pathologic diagnoses by standard histology were 7 invasive ductal carcinomas, 2 invasive lobular carcinomas, 3 ductal carcinomas in-situ (CIS), 21 fibrocystic changes/proliferative conditions, 9 fibroadenomas, and 5 other/benign; two were excluded due to imaging difficulties. Morphologic and cellular features of benign and cancerous lesions were identified in the confocal images and were comparable to standard histologic sections of the same tissue. Conclusion CSLM is a technique with the potential to screen needle core biopsy specimens in real-time. The confocal images contained sufficient information to identify stromal reactions such as fibrosis and cellular proliferations such as intra-ductal and infiltrating carcinoma, and

  6. Ultrasonic weld testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-12-01

    The study was broken down into two phases. Phase I consisted of a laboratory investigation of test specimens to determine the reliability of the ultrasonic equipment and testing procedure. Phase II was a field study where the knowledge, skills and ab...

  7. Ultrasonic leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning ultrasonic microphone was used to detect the presence and locate the sources of hydraulic noises in piping systems in a reactor environment. The intensity changes of the noises correspond to changes of flow conditions within the system caused by throttled valves, flow rate changes, and leaks. (author)

  8. Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Rominger, Kathryn M.

    2017-12-14

    The project objective was to advance the development and testing of an Near commercial bat-deterrent system with a goal to increase the current GE deterrent system effectiveness to over 50% with broad species applicability. Additionally, the research supported by this program has provided insights into bat behavior and ultrasonic deterrent design that had not previously been explored. Prior research and development had demonstrated the effectiveness of a commercial-grade, air-powered, ultrasonic bat deterrent to be between 30-50% depending upon the species of bat. However, the previous research provided limited insight into the behavioral responses of bats in the presence of ultrasonic deterrent sound fields that could be utilized to improve effectiveness. A unique bat flight room was utilized to observe the behavioral characteristics of bats in the presence of ultrasonic sound fields. Behavioral testing in the bat flight facility demonstrated that ultrasonic sounds similar to those produced by the GE deterrent influenced the activities and behaviors, primarily those associated with foraging, of the species exposed. The study also indicated that continuous and pulsing ultrasonic signals had a similar effect on the bats, and confirmed that as ultrasonic sounds attenuate, their influence on the bats’ activities and behavior decreases. Ground testing at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC and Shawnee National Forest assessed both continuous and pulsing deterrent signals emitted from the GE deterrent system and further enhanced the behavioral understanding of bats in the presence of the deterrent. With these data and observations, the existing 4-nozzle continuous, or steady, emission ultrasonic system was redesigned to a 6-nozzle system that could emit a pulsing signal covering a larger air space around a turbine. Twelve GE 1.6-100 turbines were outfitted with the deterrent system and a formal three-month field study was performed using daily carcass searches beneath the 12

  9. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Lentigo Maligna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, R; Pampín, A; Floristán, U

    2016-12-01

    Lentigo maligna is the most common type of facial melanoma. Diagnosis is complicated, however, as it shares clinical and dermoscopic characteristics with other cutaneous lesions of the face. Reflectance confocal microscopy is an imaging technique that permits the visualization of characteristic features of lentigo maligna. These include a disrupted honeycomb pattern and pagetoid cells with a tendency to show folliculotropism. These cells typically have a dendritic morphology, although they may also appear as round cells measuring over 20μm with atypical nuclei. Poorly defined dermal papillae and atypical cells may be seen at the dermal-epidermal junction and can form bridges resembling mitochondrial structures. Other characteristic findings include junctional swelling with atypical cells located around the follicles, resembling caput medusae. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a very useful tool for diagnosing lentigo maligna. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  11. Integrated Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Maslov, Konstantin; Kim, Chulhong; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a dual-modality imaging system by integrating optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy and fluorescence confocal microscopy to provide optical absorption and fluorescence contrasts simultaneously. By sharing the same laser source and objective lens, intrinsically registered photoacoustic and fluorescence images are acquired in a single scan. The micrometer resolution allows imaging of both blood and lymphatic vessels down to the capillary level. Simultaneous photoacoustic...

  12. Clinical applications of corneal confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Tavakoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitra Tavakoli1, Parwez Hossain2, Rayaz A Malik11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Manchester and Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK; 2University of Southampton, Southampton Eye Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: Corneal confocal microscopy is a novel clinical technique for the study of corneal cellular structure. It provides images which are comparable to in-vitro histochemical techniques delineating corneal epithelium, Bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet’s membrane and the corneal endothelium. Because, corneal confocal microscopy is a non invasive technique for in vivo imaging of the living cornea it has huge clinical potential to investigate numerous corneal diseases. Thus far it has been used in the detection and management of pathologic and infectious conditions, corneal dystrophies and ecstasies, monitoring contact lens induced corneal changes and for pre and post surgical evaluation (PRK, LASIK and LASEK, flap evaluations and Radial Keratotomy, and penetrating keratoplasty. Most recently it has been used as a surrogate for peripheral nerve damage in a variety of peripheral neuropathies and may have potential in acting as a surrogate marker for endothelial abnormalities.Keywords: corneal confocal microscopy, cornea, infective keratitis, corneal dystrophy, neuropathy

  13. A near-infrared confocal scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Yoo, Hongki

    2014-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) packages or 3D integrated circuits is a high-performance technique that requires combining several functions in a small volume. Through-silicon vias, which are vertical electrical connections extending through a wafer, can be used to direct signals between stacked chips, thus increasing areal density by stacking and connecting multiple patterned chips. While defect detection is essential in the semiconductor manufacturing process, it is difficult to identify defects within a wafer or to monitor the bonding results between bonded surfaces because silicon and many other semiconductor materials are opaque to visible wavelengths. In this context, near-infrared (NIR) imaging is a promising non-destructive method to detect defects within silicon chips, to inspect bonding between chips and to monitor the chip alignment since NIR transmits through silicon. In addition, a confocal scanner provides high-contrast, optically-sectioned images of the specimen due to its ability to reject out-of-focus noise. In this study, we report an NIR confocal scanner that rapidly acquires high-resolution images with a large field of view through silicon. Two orthogonal line-scanning images can be acquired without rotating the system or the specimen by utilizing two orthogonally configured resonant scanning mirrors. This NIR confocal scanner can be efficiently used as an in-line inspection system when manufacturing semiconductor devices by rapidly detecting defects on and beneath the surface. (paper)

  14. High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang [THz Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.

  15. Laser-Ultrasonic Testing and its Applications to Nuclear Reactor Internals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, M.; Miura, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2008-02-01

    A new nondestructive testing technique for surface-breaking microcracks in nuclear reactor components based on laser-ultrasonics is developed. Surface acoustic wave generated by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and detected by frequency-stabilized long pulse laser coupled with confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to detect and size the cracks. A frequency-domain signal processing is developed to realize accurate sizing capability. The laser-ultrasonic testing allows the detection of surface-breaking microcrack having a depth of less than 0.1 mm, and the measurement of their depth with an accuracy of 0.2 mm when the depth exceeds 0.5 mm including stress corrosion cracking. The laser-ultrasonic testing system combined with laser peening system, which is another laser-based maintenance technology to improve surface stress, for inner surface of small diameter tube is developed. The generation laser in the laser-ultrasonic testing system can be identical to the laser source of the laser peening. As an example operation of the system, the system firstly works as the laser-ultrasonic testing mode and tests the inner surface of the tube. If no cracks are detected, the system then changes its work mode to the laser peening and improves surface stress to prevent crack initiation. The first nuclear industrial application of the laser-ultrasonic testing system combined with the laser peening was completed in Japanese nuclear power plant in December 2004.

  16. Ultrasonic calibration assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducers for in-service inspection of nuclear reactor vessels have several problems associated with them which this invention seeks to overcome. The first is that of calibration or referencing a zero start point for the vertical axis of transducer movement to locate a weld defect. The second is that of verifying the positioning (vertically or at a predetermined angle). Thirdly there is the problem of ascertaining the speed per unit distance in the operating medium of the transducer beam prior to the actual inspection. The apparatus described is a calibration assembly which includes a fixed, generally spherical body having a surface for reflecting an ultrasonic beam from one of the transducers which can be moved until the reflection from the spherical body is the highest amplitude return signal indicating radial alignment from the body. (U.K.)

  17. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  18. Microscopia confocal en operados de queratoplastia perforante Confocal microscopy in patients operated from penetrating keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Gómez Castillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La microscopia confocal es un examen exploratorio, práctico y poco invasivo que permite conocer las características microscópicas del tejido corneal después del trasplante, por lo que constituye una herramienta muy útil en el manejo de los pacientes operados de queratoplastia. El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad describir las características del tejido corneal en pacientes operados de este tipo de trasplante, mediante la microscopia confocal in vivo. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, en 40 ojos de 40 pacientes operados de queratoplastia perforante, en el Servicio de Córnea del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", de marzo de 2006 a marzo de 2007. Se confeccionó una historia clínica oftalmológica y se les realizó a todos el examen de microscopia confocal en el injerto corneal con el microscopio confocal CONFOSCAN 4. RESULTADOS: La queratopatía bullosa pseudofáquica fue la afección más frecuente previa a la cirugía y estuvo presente en el 77,5 % de los pacientes. En el 72,5 % de los intervenidos se encontró una disminución del grosor corneal. El epitelio presentó alteraciones en el 62,5 % de los pacientes. Todos presentaron afectación de la forma y el tamaño celular endotelial. En el 82,5 % de los pacientes se observó ausencia de plexos nerviosos. CONCLUSIONES: La microscopia confocal como nueva ciencia en el campo de la oftalmología, favorece el seguimiento evolutivo de las queratoplastias perforantes y con esto no solo a prevenir la aparición de posibles complicaciones, sino además de garantizar el éxito de la cirugía y la función refractiva de la córnea.Confocal microscopy is a practical, exploratory and less invassive examination that allows finding out the microscopic characteristics of the corneal tissue after transplantation, so it is a very useful tool for the management of patients operated from keratoplasty. The present paper was aimed at describing

  19. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  20. Ultrasonic attenuation in superconducting zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S.

    1978-01-01

    The differences in the Zn ultrasonic attenuation data of different workers are analyzed. The superconducting energy gaps deduced from our analysis of the ultrasonic-attenuation data of Cleavelin and Marshall are consistent with the gaps deduced from the knowledge of the Fermi surface and the electron-phonon mass enhancement factor

  1. Lumber defect detection by ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonics, the technology of high-frequency sound, has been developed as a viable means for locating most defects In lumber for use in digital form in decision-making computers. Ultrasonics has the potential for locating surface and internal defects in lumber of all species, green or dry, and rough sawn or surfaced.

  2. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikie, B.L.; Wagg, A.R.; Whittle, M.J.; Yapp, D.

    1976-01-01

    The ultrasonic examination of austenitic stainless steel weld metal has always been regarded as a difficult proposition because of the large and variable ultrasonic attenuations and back scattering obtained from apparently similar weld deposits. The work to be described shows how the existence of a fibre texture within each weld deposit (as a result of epitaxial growth through successive weld beads) produces a systematic variation in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the velocity of sound, depending upon the angle between the ultrasonic beam and the fibre axis. Development work has shown that it is possible to adjust the welding parameters to ensure that the crystallographic texture within each weld is compatible with improved ultrasonic transmission. The application of the results to the inspection of a specific weld in type 316 weld metal is described

  3. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  4. Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy in biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Peter; Thomas, Steven; Allen, John; McLaren, Wendy; Murr, Elise; Harris, Martin

    2007-02-01

    In vivo fluorescence microscopic imaging of biological systems in human disease states and animal models is possible with high optical resolution and mega pixel point-scanning performance using optimised off-the-shelf turn-key devices. There are however various trade-offs between tissue access and instrument performance when miniaturising in vivo microscopy systems. A miniature confocal scanning technology that was developed for clinical human endoscopy has been configured into a portable device for direct hand-held interrogation of living tissue in whole animal models (Optiscan FIVE-1 system). Scanning probes of 6.3mm diameter with a distal tip diameter of 5.0mm were constructed either in a 150mm length for accessible tissue, or a 300mm probe for laparoscopic interrogation of internal tissues in larger animal models. Both devices collect fluorescence confocal images (excitation 488 nm; emission >505 or >550 nm) comprised of 1024 x 1204 sampling points/image frame, with lateral resolution 0.7um; axial resolution 7um; FOV 475 x 475um. The operator can dynamically control imaging depth from the tissue surface to approx 250um in 4um steps via an internally integrated zaxis actuator. Further miniaturisation is achieved using an imaging contact probe based on scanning the proximal end of a high-density optical fibre bundle (~30,000 fibres) of small animal organs, albeit at lower resolution (30,000 sampling points/image). In rodent models, imaging was performed using various fluorescent staining protocols including fluorescently labelled receptor ligands, labelled antibodies, FITC-dextrans, vital dyes and labelled cells administered topically or intravenously. Abdominal organs of large animals were accessed laparoscopically and contrasted using i.v. fluorescein-sodium. Articular cartilage of sheep and pigs was fluorescently stained with calcein-AM or fluorescein. Surface and sub-surface cellular and sub-cellular details could be readily visualised in vivo at high

  5. Confocal fluorescence techniques in industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeling, Christian; Gall, Karsten; Palo, Kaupo; Kask, Peet; Brand, Leif

    2003-06-01

    The FCS+plus family of evaluation tools for confocal fluorescence spectroscopy, which was developed during recent years, offers a comprehensive view to a series of fluorescence properties. Originating in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and using similar experimental equipment, a system of signal processing methods such as fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (FIDA) was created to analyze in detail the fluctuation behavior of fluorescent particles within a small area of detection. Giving simultaneous access to molecular parameters like concentration, translational and rotational diffusion, molecular brightness, and multicolor coincidence, this portfolio was enhanced by more traditional techniques of fluorescence lifetime as well as time-resolved anisotropy determination. The cornerstones of the FCS+plus methodology will be shortly described. The inhibition of a phosphatase enzyme activity gives a comprehensive industrial application that demonstrates FCS+plus' versatility and its potential for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  6. Advanced ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, S.

    1990-08-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) continuous monitoring and periodical inspections by advanced ultrasonic have been applied to evaluate defect evolution within a PWR reduced scale (1:5) pressure vessel subjected to cyclic mechanical fatigue test. This experimental activity has been carried out in the frame of the Primary Circuit Component Life Prediction programme. In the time period covered by this report actions were performed as following: (1) Ultrasonic examination by multifrequency acoustic holography to evaluate defect evolution subsequently repair and heat treatment of the R2 vessel carried out in March 1988. For the purpose, measurements were performed both at 0 and 200 bar of internal pressure. As uniformity of the procedures adopted, for calibration and testing, made the results comparable with the previous ones no evidence for significant growing of the examined defects has been found. (2) Acoustic emission monitoring has then been carried out during fatigue test from 416000 to 565000 fatigue cycles. Analysis of a large amount of data has been performed paying particular attention to the distinction between friction phenomena and crack growth in order to obtain a correct diagnosis of flaw evolution. The signal duration distribution and the correlation of AE appearance time versus load cycle phase were considered to characterise stick-slip processes. A general intensification of AE activity has been recorded during this last period of monitoring and previous known AE sources were confirmed together with the appearance of new AE sources some of them correlable with real defects

  7. System for ultrasonic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.A.; Kristensen, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized system for the recording of flaw images by ultrasonic examination according to the pulse-echo method includes at least one ultrasonic probe which can be moved in steps over the surface of an object along a rectilinear scanning path. Digital signals containing information on the successive positions of the sound beam, on echo amplitudes, and on the lengths of sound paths to reflectors inside the object, are processed and used for the accumulated storage of circular patterns of echo amplitude data in a matrix memory associated with a sectional plane through the object. A video screen terminal controls the system and transforms the accumulated data into displays of sectional flaw images of greatly improved precision and sharpness of definition. A gradual transfer of filtered data from a number of parallel sectional planes to three further matrix memories associated with projection planes at right angles to each other permits presentation in three dimensions of equally improved projection flaw images. (author) 2 figs

  8. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: Numerous factors to consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purchase of a confocal microscope can be a complex and difficult decision for an individual scientist, group or evaluation committee. This is true even for scientists that have used confocal technology for many years. The task of reaching the optimal decision becomes almost i...

  9. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These seminar proceedings contain 16 lectures on the following topics: 1. From imaging to quantification - ultrasound methods in medical diagnostics; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array - classical applications and recent developments in ultrasonic imaging; 3. Innovative ultrasonic imaging methods in research and application; 4. Industrial ultrasonic testing of fibre-reinforced structures of complex geometry; 5. Visualisation of crack tips in the inspection of wheel set shafts with longitudinal boreholes as a means of avoiding unnecessary wheel set changes; 6. Areal analysis of the propagation of Lamb waves on curved, anisotropic structures; 7. High-resolution representation in immersion technique testing; 8. Variants in generating images from phased array measurement data - practical examples involving copper, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic and other materials; 9. GIUM - an unconventional method of microstructure imaging using ultrasonic stimulation and laser vibrometry scanning; 10. Innovative air-ultrasonic testing concepts for improved imaging; 11. Use of imaging methods for improving the quality of test results from nondestructive testing; 12. Modelling and visualisation of EMUS stimulation for transducer optimisation; 13. Use of SAFT in the manufacture of energy conversion machines; 14. Ultrasonic imaging tests for improved defect characterisation during weld seam inspection on longitudinally welded large-diameter pipes; 15. SAFT reconstruction for testing austenitic weld seams and dissimilar metal weld seams for transverse cracks; 16. Imaging-based optimisation method for quantitative ultrasonic testing of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welded joints with determination and utilisation of their elastic properties. One contribution has been abstracted separately. [de

  10. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, J.; Rempe, J.; Palmer, J.; Tittmann, B.; Reinhardt, B.; Kohse, G.; Ramuhalli, P.; Montgomery, R.; Chien, H.T.; Villard, J.F.

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of numerous parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10 21 n/cm 2 (E> 0.1 MeV). This test will be an instrumented lead test; and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. By characterizing magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, test results will enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. (authors)

  11. Digital differential confocal microscopy based on spatial shift transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Wang, Y; Liu, C; Wilson, T; Wang, H; Tan, J

    2014-11-01

    Differential confocal microscopy is a particularly powerful surface profilometry technique in industrial metrology due to its high axial sensitivity and insensitivity to noise. However, the practical implementation of the technique requires the accurate positioning of point detectors in three-dimensions. We describe a simple alternative based on spatial transformation of a through-focus series of images obtained from a homemade beam scanning confocal microscope. This digital differential confocal microscopy approach is described and compared with the traditional Differential confocal microscopy approach. The ease of use of the digital differential confocal microscopy system is illustrated by performing measurements on a 3D standard specimen. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. 4Pi-confocal microscopy of live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Karsten; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W.

    2002-06-01

    By coherently adding the spherical wavefronts of two opposing lenses, two-photon excitation 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscopy has achieved three-dimensional imaging with an axial resolution 3-7 times better than confocal microscopy. So far this improvement was possible only in glycerol-mounted, fixed cells. Here we report 4Pi-confocal microscopy of watery objects and its application to the imaging of live cells. Water immersion 4Pi-confocal microscopy of membrane stained live Escherichia coli bacteria attains a 4.3 fold better axial resolution as compared to the best water immersion confocal microscope. The resolution enhancement results into a vastly improved three-dimensional representation of the bacteria. The first images of live biological samples with an all-directional resolution in the 190-280 nm range are presented here, thus establishing a new resolution benchmark in live cell microscopy.

  13. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  14. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  15. Computer automation of ultrasonic testing. [inspection of ultrasonic welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Kerlin, E. E.; Gardner, A. H.; Dunmyer, D.; Wells, T. G.; Robinson, A. R.; Kunselman, J. S.; Walker, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    Report describes a prototype computer-automated ultrasonic system developed for the inspection of weldments. This system can be operated in three modes: manual, automatic, and computer-controlled. In the computer-controlled mode, the system will automatically acquire, process, analyze, store, and display ultrasonic inspection data in real-time. Flaw size (in cross-section), location (depth), and type (porosity-like or crack-like) can be automatically discerned and displayed. The results and pertinent parameters are recorded.

  16. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.W.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Fassel, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus is described for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet

  17. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  18. Ultrasonic imaging in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribay, G.; Paris, O.; Rambach, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The third and final protection barrier confining nuclear reactors is usually a concrete containment structure. Monitoring the structural integrity of these barriers is critical in ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. The Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) in France in collaboration with the French Atomic commission (CEA/LIST) has developed an ultrasonic phased-array technique capable of inspecting thick concrete walls. The non-destructive method is dedicated to detect cracks and bulk defects. Given the thickness of the structure (1.2 m) undergoing inspection and the heterogeneity of the concrete, the optimal frequency lies in the 50-300 kHz range. At these frequencies, the ultrasonic beam profiles are widespread (non-directive) with poor signal-to-noise ratio. Previous studies have shown the potential of using phased-array techniques (i.e., beam focusing and beam steering) in order to improve detection resolution and sizing accuracy. In this paper we present experimental studies performed with array up to 16 transducers working at 200 kHz. Experiments are carried out on representative concrete blocks containing artificial defects. One is a reinforced mock-up representative of the first reinforcing mesh of wall containment. Experimental results show that in spite of the reinforcement, artificial defects deep as half a meter can be detected. Reconstructed images resulting from phased array acquisitions on an artificial crack embedded in a concrete block are also presented and discussed. The presented method allows detecting oriented defects in concrete with improved signal to noise ratio and sensibility. A simulation model of the interaction of ultrasound with a heterogeneous medium like concrete is briefly commented. (authors)

  19. Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy of Oral Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Brooke D.

    Raman spectroscopy has been used in a variety of applications throughout the field of biomedical optics. It has the ability to acquire chemically-specific information in a non-invasive manner, without the need for exogenous markers. This makes it useful in the identification of bacterial species, as well as in the study of tissues and other cells. In this work, a species identification model has been created in order to discriminate between the oral bacterial species Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans. These are two of the most prevalent species within the human mouth and their relative concentrations can be an indicator of a patient's oral health and risk of tooth decay. They are predominantly found within plaque on the tooth's surface. To study a simplified model for dental plaque, we have examined S. sanguinis and S. mutans grown in biofilm forms. Raman spectroscopy has been implemented here through a confocal microscope. The optical system has been equipped with computationally controlled stages to allow for automated scanning, including autofocusing to probe a consistent depth within a sample. A spectrum has been acquired from each position within a scan and sent for spectral preprocessing before being submitted for species identification. This preprocessing includes an algorithm that has been developed to remove fluorescence features from known contaminants within the confocal volume, to include signal from a fluorescent substrate. Species classification has been accomplished using a principal component score-fed logistic regression model constructed from a variety of biofilm samples that have been transferred and allowed to dry, as might occur with the study of plaque samples. This binary classification model has been validated on other samples with identical preparations. The model has also been transferred to determine the species of hydrated biofilms studied in situ. Artificially mixed biofilms have been examined to test the spatial

  20. Case studies in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Varde, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is widely used Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method and forms the essential part of In-service inspection programme of nuclear reactors. Main application of ultrasonic testing is for volumetric scanning of weld joints followed by thickness gauging of pipelines and pressure vessels. Research reactor Dhruva has completed the first In Service Inspection programme in which about 325 weld joints have been volumetrically scanned, in addition to thickness gauging of 300 meters of pipe lines of various sizes and about 24 nos of pressure vessels. Ultrasonic testing is also used for level measurements, distance measurements and cleaning and decontamination of tools. Two case studies are brought out in this paper in which ultrasonic testing is used successfully for identification of butterfly valve opening status and extent of choking in pipe lines in Dhruva reactor systems

  1. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  2. Ultrasonic extensometer measures bolt preload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Extensometer using ultrasonic pulse reflections to measure elongations in tightened belts and studs is much more accurate than conventional torque wrenches in application of specified preload to bolts and other threaded fasteners.

  3. Detailed simulation of ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, K.R.; Douglas, S.R.; Dunford, D.

    1997-01-01

    Simulation of ultrasonic inspection of engineering components have been performed at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL for over 10 years. The computer model, called EWE for Elastic Wave Equations, solves the Elastic Wave Equations using a novel finite difference scheme. It simulates the propagation of an ultrasonic wave from the transducer to a flaw, the scatter of waves from the flaw, and measurement of signals at a receive transducer. Regions of different materials, water and steel for example, can be simulated. In addition, regions with slightly different material properties from the parent material can be investigated. The two major types of output are displays of the ultrasonic waves inside the component and the corresponding A-scans. EPRI and other organizations have used ultrasonic models for: defining acceptable ultrasonic inspection procedures, designing and evaluating inspection techniques, and for quantifying inspection reliability. The EWE model has been applied to the inspection of large pipes in a nuclear plant, gas pipeline welds and steam generator tubes. Most recent work has dealt with the ultrasonic inspection of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. Pressure tube inspections can reliably detect and size defects; however, there are improvements that can be made. For example, knowing the sharpness of a flaw-tip is crucial for fitness for service assessments. Computer modelling of the ultrasonic inspection of flaws with different root radius has suggested inspection techniques that provide flaw tip radius information. A preliminary investigation of these methods has been made in the laboratory. The basis for the model will be reviewed at the presentation. Then the results of computer simulations will be displayed on a PC using an interactive program that analyzes simulated A-scans. This software tool gives inspection staff direct access to the results of computer simulations. (author)

  4. Ultrasonic measurements and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kočiš, Štefan

    1996-01-01

    An impulse for writing this book has originated from the effort to sum­ marize and publicise the acquired results of a research team at the De­ partment of Automation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and In­ formatics, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. The research team has been involved for a long time with control problems for machine production mechanisms and, in recent (approximately 15) years, its effort was aimed mostly at the control of electrical servosystems of robots. Within this scope, the members of the authors' staff solved the State Re­ search Task Ultrasonic sensing of the position of a robot hand, which was coordinated by the Institute of Technical Cybernetics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. The problem was solved in a complex way, i.e. from a conceptual de­ sign of the measurement, through the measurement and evaluation sys­ tem, up to connection to the control system of a robot. Compensation of the atmospheric influence on the precision of measurement,...

  5. Ultrasonic-testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, Paul.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a device adapted to the detection, by means of ultrasonic waves, of all the flaws and defects included in workpieces when only one face of the latter is accessible. A beam is directed towards the rear-face of the workpiece (e.g. a plate) on which it is reflected. The image thus reflected is fed into a receiver. The latter is under the control of the displacement of that image; simultaneously a transducer checks the condition of the mirror at the places where the beam is reflected. Whenever a flow or defect comes between, a silent zone is formed. By recording the silent zones with respect to the positions of several emitters, it is possible to locates a flaw and to define the outline thereof. The apparatus comprises several ''emitter-receiver'' groups intersecting over the emitter used in order to check the good conditions of the mirror. The invention can be used for searching and identifying flaws and defects in buildings which have to be of top quality (e.g., cofferdams, nuclear devices, shipbuilding yards, aeronautics) [fr

  6. Ultrasonic monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLain, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The ultrasonic monitoring system is used in LMFBR's, BWR's or PWR's. A remotely controlled, movable instrument carrier may be used which contains the piezo-electric transducer and is connected to the main control console by a transmission cable. An excitation pulse coming from a pulse generator is used to excite the transducer with a maximum of energy, independent of the length of the transmission line. Pulse width and pulse amplitude can be set without any direct interference into the transducer. For this purpose, a resistor whose impedance has been matched to that of the transmission line is connected to the input of the transmission line. Moreover, a capacitor for generation of the excitation pulse is coupled with the transmission line by means of a four-layer switching diode and is discharged. For termination of the excitation and the control pulses, respectively, another four-layer switching diode connected parallel to the capacitor quickly discharges the capacitor. The capacitor and the capacitance of the line constitute a voltage divider. In this way it is possible to change the length of the transmission line and, to safeguard the generation of a pulse of the desired amplitude, only vary the capacitance of the capacitor. (DG/RF) [de

  7. A New Multichannel Spectral Imaging Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new multichannel spectral imaging laser scanning confocal microscope for effective detection of multiple fluorescent labeling in the research of biological tissues. In this paper, the design and key technologies of the system are introduced. Representative results on confocal imaging, 3-dimensional sectioning imaging, and spectral imaging are demonstrated. The results indicated that the system is applicable to multiple fluorescent labeling in biological experiments.

  8. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip C; Bailey, Michael R; Harper, Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the ureteropelvic junction with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing ureteropelvic junction stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic.

  9. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  10. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  11. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  12. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to remove calculus deposits from teeth by application of an ultrasonic vibrating scaler tip to the teeth. (b...

  13. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  14. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  15. Ultrasonic inspection development at HEDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, C.K.; Mech, S.J.; Michaels, T.E.; Dixon, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing methods and equipment are being developed to support preservice and in-service inspection of selected FFTF welds. A digital computer system is employed in the analysis of both simulated FFTF pipe sections and plate specimens containing fatigue cracks. It is anticipated that test evaluation standards containing fatigue cracks will partially eliminate questions formerly associated with weld test calibration producers by providing natural cracks which follow grain boundaries and stress patterns resembling piping situ conditions. Studies have revealed that commercial transducers may satisfy LMFBR ultrasonic pipe inspection applications: The test system evaluation included transducers and wedge coupling and fluid coupling materials which exhibited acceptable performance at temperatures to 2300C. Results are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of ultrasonic inspection of components immersed in sodium at temperatures to 2600C. (UK)

  16. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  17. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, L.; Picano, E.; Mazzarisi, A.; Santarelli, F.; Benassi, A.; De Pieri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  18. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  19. Very high temperature ultrasonic thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorzik, E.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic thermometer comprises an electric pulse transducer head, a pulse transmission line, a notched sensor wire attached to and extending along the axis of said transmission line and a sheath enclosing the transmission line and the sensor wire, a portion of the interior face of the sheath being covered by a stuffing material along at least the length of the notched part of the sensor wire, such that contact between the sensor wire and the stuffing material does not substantially give rise to reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at the point of contact. (author)

  20. Measurement of a 3D Ultrasonic Wavefield Using Pulsed Laser Holographic Microscopy for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In ultrasonic array imaging, 3D ultrasonic wavefields are normally recorded by an ultrasonic piezo array transducer. Its performance is limited by the configuration and size of the array transducer. In this paper, a method based on digital holographic interferometry is proposed to record the 3D ultrasonic wavefields instead of the array transducer, and the measurement system consisting of a pulsed laser, ultrasonic excitation, and synchronization and control circuit is designed. A consecutive sequence of holograms of ultrasonic wavefields are recorded by the system. The interferograms are calculated from the recorded holograms at different time sequence. The amplitudes and phases of the transient ultrasonic wavefields are recovered from the interferograms by phase unwrapping. The consecutive sequence of transient ultrasonic wavefields are stacked together to generate 3D ultrasonic wavefields. Simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed technique, and preliminary results are presented.

  1. Dual filtered backprojection for micro-rotation confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laksameethanasan, Danai; Brandt, Sami S; Renaud, Olivier; Shorte, Spencer L

    2009-01-01

    Micro-rotation confocal microscopy is a novel optical imaging technique which employs dielectric fields to trap and rotate individual cells to facilitate 3D fluorescence imaging using a confocal microscope. In contrast to computed tomography (CT) where an image can be modelled as parallel projection of an object, the ideal confocal image is recorded as a central slice of the object corresponding to the focal plane. In CT, the projection images and the 3D object are related by the Fourier slice theorem which states that the Fourier transform of a CT image is equal to the central slice of the Fourier transform of the 3D object. In the micro-rotation application, we have a dual form of this setting, i.e. the Fourier transform of the confocal image equals the parallel projection of the Fourier transform of the 3D object. Based on the observed duality, we present here the dual of the classical filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and apply it in micro-rotation confocal imaging. Our experiments on real data demonstrate that the proposed method is a fast and reliable algorithm for the micro-rotation application, as FBP is for CT application

  2. Fused oblique incidence reflectometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Matthew D.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2011-03-01

    Confocal microendoscopy provides real-time high resolution cellular level images via a minimally invasive procedure, but relies on exogenous fluorophores, has a relatively limited penetration depth (100 μm) and field of view (700 μm), and produces a high rate of detailed information to the user. A new catheter based multi-modal system has been designed that combines confocal imaging and oblique incidence reflectometry (OIR), which is a non-invasive method capable of rapidly extracting tissue absorption, μa, and reduced scattering, μ's, spectra from tissue. The system builds on previous developments of a custom slit-scan multi-spectral confocal microendoscope and is designed to rapidly switch between diffuse spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging modes of operation. An experimental proof-of-principle catheter has been developed that consists of a fiber bundle for traditional confocal fluorescence imaging and a single OIR source fiber which is manually redirected at +/- 26 degrees. Diffusely scattered light from each orientation of the source fiber is collected via the fiber bundle, with a frame of data representing spectra collected at a range of distances from the OIR source point. Initial results with intralipid phantoms show good agreement to published data over the 550-650 nm spectral range. We successfully imaged and measured the optical properties of rodent cardiac muscle.

  3. Sub-Airy Confocal Adaptive Optics Scanning Ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredar, Nripun; Fagbemi, Oladipo E; Dubra, Alfredo

    2018-04-01

    To demonstrate the viability of improving transverse image resolution in reflectance scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy using sub-Airy disk confocal detection. The foveal cone mosaic was imaged in five human subjects free of known eye disease using two custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopes (AOSLOs) in reflectance with 7.75 and 4.30 mm pupil diameters. Confocal pinholes of 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 Airy disk diameters (ADDs) were used in a retinal conjugate plane before the light detector. Average cone photoreceptor intensity profile width and power spectrum were calculated for the resulting images. Detected energy using a model eye was recorded for each pinhole size. The cone photoreceptor mosaic is better resolved with decreasing confocal pinhole size, with the high spatial frequency content of the images enhanced in both the large- and small-pupil AOSLOs. The average cone intensity profile width was reduced by ∼15% with the use of a 0.5 ADD pinhole when compared to a 1.0 ADD, with an accompanying reduction in signal greater than a factor of four. The use of sub-Airy disk confocal pinhole detection without increasing retinal light exposure results in a substantial improvement in image resolution at the cost of larger than predicted signal reduction. Improvement in transverse resolution using sub-Airy disk confocal detection is a practical and low-cost approach that is applicable to all point- and line-scanning ophthalmoscopes, including optical coherence tomographers.

  4. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikie, B.L.; Wagg, A.R.; Whittle, M.J.; Yapp, D.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and X-ray metallography combined with ultrasonic testing by compression waves was used for inspection of stainless steel weld metal produced by three different welding techniques. X-ray diffraction showed that each weld possessed a characteristic fibre textured structure which was shown by optical microscopy to be parallel to columnar grain boundaries. Metallographic evidence suggested that the development of fibre texture is due to the mechanism of competitive growth. From observations made as a result of optical metallographic examination the orientation of the fibre axis could be predicted if the weld geometry and welding procedure were known. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements as a continuous function of grain orientation, made on cylinders machined from weld samples, showed that attenuation was strongly orientation dependent. It was concluded that the sensitivity of ultrasonic inspection to small defects is unlikely to be as high for austenitic welds as for ferritic even when transmission is improved by modifying the welding procedure to improve the ultrasonic transmission. (U.K.)

  5. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  6. Automated evaluation of ultrasonic indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, M.K.T.; Stegemann, D.

    1994-01-01

    Future requirements of reliability and reproducibility in quality assurance demand computer evaluation of defect indications. The ultrasonic method with its large field of applications and a high potential for automation provides all preconditions for fully automated inspection. The survey proposes several desirable hardware improvements, data acquisition requirements and software configurations. (orig.) [de

  7. Ultrasonic flowmeters. Progress report II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    This progress report presents results of in-plant testing of the prototype ultrasonic flowmeter and describes modifications to the prototype as a result of these tests. The modified prototype, designated MOD-I, is described in detail including the principle of operation, equipment used and the results of both laboratory and in-plant demonstrations

  8. Calculations for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a boay which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation...

  9. Nano-displacement measurement based on virtual pinhole confocal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Long; Kuang, Cuifang; Xue, Yi; Liu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A virtual pinhole confocal system based on charge-coupled device (CCD) detection and image processing techniques is built to measure axial displacement with 10 nm resolution, preeminent flexibility and excellent robustness when facing spot drifting. Axial displacement of the sample surface is determined by capturing the confocal laser spot using a CCD detector and quantifying the energy collected by programmable virtual pinholes. Experiments indicate an applicable measuring range of 1000 nm (Gaussian fitting r = 0.9902) with a highly linear range of 500 nm (linear fitting r = 0.9993). A concentric subtraction algorithm is introduced to further enhance resolution. Factors affecting measuring precision, sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio are discussed using theoretical deductions and diffraction simulations. The virtual pinhole technique has promising applications in surface profiling and confocal imaging applications which require easily-customizable pinhole configurations. (paper)

  10. Spinning-disk confocal microscopy: present technology and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, John; Berman, Richard; Browne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Live-cell imaging requires not only high temporal resolution but also illumination powers low enough to minimize photodamage. Traditional single-point laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) is generally limited by both the relatively slow speed at which it can acquire optical sections by serial raster scanning (a few Hz) and the higher potential for phototoxicity. These limitations have driven the development of rapid, parallel forms of confocal microscopy, the most popular of which is the spinning-disk confocal microscope (SDCM). Here, we briefly introduce the SDCM technique, discuss its strengths and weaknesses against LSCM, and update the reader on some recent developments in SDCM technology that improve its performance and expand its utility for life science research now and in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabry-Perot confocal resonator optical associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J.; Rogers, Steven K.; Vogel, George A.

    1993-03-01

    A unique optical associative memory architecture is presented that combines the optical processing environment of a Fabry-Perot confocal resonator with the dynamic storage and recall properties of volume holograms. The confocal resonator reduces the size and complexity of previous associative memory architectures by folding a large number of discrete optical components into an integrated, compact optical processing environment. Experimental results demonstrate the system is capable of recalling a complete object from memory when presented with partial information about the object. A Fourier optics model of the system's operation shows it implements a spatially continuous version of a discrete, binary Hopfield neural network associative memory.

  12. Confocal Raman microscopy for identification of bacterial species in biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Brooke D.; Quivey, Robert G.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2011-03-01

    Implemented through a confocal microscope, Raman spectroscopy has been used to distinguish between biofilm samples of two common oral bacteria species, Streptococcus sanguinis and mutans, which are associated with healthy and cariogenic plaque, respectively. Biofilms of these species are studied as a model of dental plaque. A prediction model has been calibrated and validated using pure biofilms. This model has been used to identify the species of transferred and dehydrated samples (much like a plaque scraping) as well as hydrated biofilms in situ. Preliminary results of confocal Raman mapping of species in an intact two-species biofilm will be shown.

  13. Confocal microscopy as an early relapse marker for acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daas, Loay; Viestenz, Arne; Schnabel, Philipp Albert; Fries, Fabian N; Hager, Tobias; SzentmÁry, Nora; Seitz, Berthold

    2018-01-01

    Acanthameoba keratitis is a serious ophthalmological condition with a potentially vision-threatening prognosis. Early diagnosis and recognition of relapse, and the detection of persistent Acanthamoeba cysts, are essential for informing the prognosis and managing the condition. We suggest the use of in vivo confocal microscopy not only to identify the early signs of relapse after keratoplasty in patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis, but also as an additional follow-up tool after antimicrobial crosslinking. This study shows that in vivo confocal microscopy is, in experienced hands, a quick and reliable diagnostic tool. Clin. Anat. 31:60-63, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  15. Microscopia confocal in vivo na cistinose: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gustavo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A cistinose é doença autossômica recessiva rara caracterizada pelo acúmulo do aminoácido cistina livre dentro dos lisossomos e geralmente é fatal na primeira década de vida na ausência de transplante renal. O presente estudo tem por objetivo relatar os achados da microscopia confocal in vivo em paciente adulto com cistinose infantil. O exame de microscopia confocal in vivo revelou que há diferenças quanto à intensidade de acometimento, tamanho e forma dos depósitos nas diversas camadas corneanas.

  16. An invertebrate embryologist's guide to routine processing of confocal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dassow, George

    2014-01-01

    It is almost impossible to use a confocal microscope without encountering the need to transform the raw data through image processing. Adherence to a set of straightforward guidelines will help ensure that image manipulations are both credible and repeatable. Meanwhile, attention to optimal data collection parameters will greatly simplify image processing, not only for convenience but for quality and credibility as well. Here I describe how to conduct routine confocal image processing tasks, including creating 3D animations or stereo images, false coloring or merging channels, background suppression, and compressing movie files for display.

  17. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-09-01

    We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.

  18. Effect of Ultrasonic Frequency on Lactic Acid Fermentation Promotion by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tadayuki; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    The authors have been researching the promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation. In the past research, it was proven that ultrasonic irradiation is effective in the process of fermentation, and the production of yoghurt and kefir was promoted. In this study, the effect of the ultrasonic frequency in this fermentation process was examined. In the frequency range of this study, it was found that the action of fermentation promotion was exponentially proportionate to the irradiated ultrasonic frequency.

  19. Optomechatronics Design and Control for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoo, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is considered as one of the major advancements in microscopy in the last century and is widely accepted as a 3D fluorescence imaging tool for biological studies. For the emerging biological questions CLSM requires fast imaging to detect rapid biological

  20. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Chua, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The purchase of a confocal microscope is a difficult decision. Many factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, company, support, service, and price. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Confocal microscopy patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S; Sánchez, V; González-Rodríguez, A; Parrado, C; Ullrich, M

    2014-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is currently the most promising noninvasive diagnostic tool for studying cutaneous structures between the stratum corneum and the superficial reticular dermis. This tool gives real-time images parallel to the skin surface; the microscopic resolution is similar to that of conventional histology. Numerous studies have identified the main confocal features of various inflammatory skin diseases and tumors, demonstrating the good correlation of these features with certain dermatoscopic patterns and histologic findings. Confocal patterns and diagnostic algorithms have been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Possible present and future applications of this noninvasive technology are wide ranging and reach beyond its use in noninvasive diagnosis. This tool can also be used, for example, to evaluate dynamic skin processes that occur after UV exposure or to assess tumor response to noninvasive treatments such as photodynamic therapy. We explain the characteristic confocal features found in the main nonmelanoma skin tumors and discuss possible applications for this novel diagnostic technique in routine dermatology practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonlinear Image Restoration in Confocal Microscopy : Stability under Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we study the noise stability of iterative algorithms developed for attenuation correction in Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy using FT methods. In each iteration the convolution of the previous estimate is computed. It turns out that the estimators are robust to noise perturbation.

  3. Confocal stereology: an efficient tool for measurement of microscopic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 1 (2015), s. 13-28 ISSN 0302-766X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3-D images * confocal microscopy * geometrical characteristics * spatial probes * stereology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.948, year: 2015

  4. Improvement in volume estimation from confocal sections after image deconvolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Difato, Francesco; Mazzone, F.; Scaglione, S.; Fato, M.; Beltrame, F.; Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Ramoino, P.; Vicidomini, G.; Diaspro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2004), s. 151-155 ISSN 1059-910X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : confocal microscopy * image deconvolution * point spread function Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.609, year: 2004

  5. Analysis of endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco cells using confocal microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radochová, Barbora; Janáček, Jiří; Schwarzerová, K.; Demjénová, E.; Tomori, Z.; Karen, Petr; Kubínová, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 11 (2005), s. 181-185 ISSN 1580-3139 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6011309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : confocal microscopy * endoplasmic reticulum * image analysis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  6. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: SPECTROSCOPY AND FOUNDATIONS FOR QUANTITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The reliability of the CLSM to obtain specific measurements and quantify fluorescence data is dependent on using a correctly aligned machine that contains a stable laser power. For man...

  7. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: FOUNDATIONS FOR CALIBRATION, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of emitted signals. The accuracy of these measurements demands that...

  8. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: FOUNDATIONS FOR MEASUREMENTS, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of the emitted signal. The accuracy of these measurements demands t...

  9. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  10. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, J R; Wagg, A R; Whittle, M J [N.D.T. Applications Centre, CEGB, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    The metallurgical structure of austenitic welds is described and contrasted with that found in ferritic welds. It is shown that this structure imparts a marked elastic anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation parameters. Measurements of variations in the apparent attenuation of sound and deviations in the beam direction are described. The measurements are interpreted in terms of the measured velocity anisotropy. Two applications of the fundamental work are described. In the first it is shown how, by using short pulse compression wave probes, and with major modification of the welding procedure, a stainless steel fillet weld in an AGR boiler can be inspected. In the second application, alternative designs of a transition butt weld have been compared for ease of ultrasonic inspection. The effects of two different welding processes on such an inspection are described. Finally, the paper examines the prospects for future development of inspection and defect-sizing techniques for austenitic welds. (author)

  11. Proposed new ultrasonic test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxfield, B.W.

    1978-01-01

    Within the last four or five years, a great deal of progress has been made both here and in a number of other laboratories in developing techniques that will enable considerably more information to be obtained from the ultrasonic examination of an object. Some of these recent developments relate to information contained within the diffracted beam which does not return along the incident path. An ultrasonic examination based upon an evaluation of diffracted energy must use at least two transducers, one for transmission and the other for reception. Current indications are that even more reliable test results will be achieved using a receiving transducer that can scan a significant portion of the diffracted field including that portion which is back-reflected. In general, this scan can be interpreted most accurately if it follows a path related to the surface shape. If more than one region within the object is to be interrogated, then the transmitting transducer must also be scanned, again along a path related to the surface shape. The large quantity of information obtained as the result of such an examination must be subjected to sophisticated computer analysis in order to be displayed in a meaningful and intelligible manner. Although one motivation for building such an instrument is to explore new ultrasonic test procedures that are evolving from current laboratory research, this is neither the sole motivation nor the only use for this instrument. Such a mechanical and electronic device would permit conventional ultrasonic tests to be performed on parts of complex geometry without the expensive and time-consuming special fixturing that is currently required. May possible test geometries could be explored in practice prior to the construction of a specialized test apparatus. Hence, it would be necessary to design much, if any, flexibility into the special test apparatus

  12. Ultrasonic sizing of fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    Surface and buried fatigue cracks in steel plates have been sized using immersion probes as transmitters-receivers, angled to produce shear waves in the steel. Sizes have been estimated by identifying the ultrasonic waves diffracted from the crack tip and by measuring the time taken for a signal to travel to and from the crack tip. The effects of compression normal to a fatigue crack and of crack front curvature are discussed. Another diffraction technique, developed by UKAEA, Harwell, is reviewed

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    IZBAIM , DRIS; FAIZ , BOUAZZA; MOUDDEN , ALI; MALAININE , MOHAMED; ABOUDAOUD , Idriss

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this work is to characterize the fermentation of yogurt based on an ultrasonic technique. Conventionally, the acidity of the yogurt is measured by a pH meter to determine the progress of fermentation. However, the pH meter should be cleaned and calibrated for each measurement and, therefore, this method is not practical. In this regard, ultrasonic techniques are fast, non-invasive and inexpensive. The measurement of ultrasonic parameters such as amplit...

  14. Experimental investigation of ultrasonic velocity anisotropy in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/077/02/0345-0355. Keywords. Magnetic fluids; ultrasonic wave; sound velocity; anisotropy. Abstract. Magnetic field-induced dispersion of ultrasonic velocity in a Mn0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 fluid (applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the ultrasonic propagation vector) is ...

  15. Automated ultrasonic inspection using PULSDAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naybour, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    PULSDAT (Portable Ultrasonic Data Acquisition Tool) is a system for recording the data from single probe automated ultrasonic inspections. It is one of a range of instruments and software developed by Nuclear Electric to carry out a wide variety of high quality ultrasonic inspections. These vary from simple semi-automated inspections through to multi-probe, highly automated ones. PULSDAT runs under the control of MIPS software, and collects data which is compatible with the GUIDE data display system. PULSDAT is therefore fully compatible with Nuclear Electric's multi-probe inspection systems and utilises all the reliability and quality assurance of the software. It is a rugged, portable system that can be used in areas of difficult access. The paper discusses the benefits of automated inspection and gives an outline of the main features of PULSDAT. Since April 1990 PULSDAT has been used in several applications within Nuclear Electric and this paper presents two examples: the first is a ferritic set-through nozzle and the second is an austenitic fillet weld. (Author)

  16. Recent progress in online ultrasonic process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Szu-Sheng L.; Chen, Tzu-Fang; Ramos-Franca, Demartonne; Nguyen, Ky T.; Jen, Cheng-Kuei; Ihara, Ikuo; Derdouri, A.; Garcia-Rejon, Andres

    1998-03-01

    On-line ultrasonic monitoring of polymer co-extrusion and gas-assisted injection molding are presented. During the co- extrusion of high density polyethylene and Santoprene ultrasonic sensors consisting of piezoelectric transducers and clad ultrasonic buffer rods are used to detect the interface between these two polymers and the stability of the extrusion. The same ultrasonic sensor also measures the surface temperature of the extruded polymer. The results indicate that temperature measurements using ultrasound have a faster response time than those obtained by conventional thermocouple. In gas-assisted injection molding the polymer and gas flow front positions are monitored simultaneously. This information may be used to control the plunger movement.

  17. Internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, O. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway) Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics); Waag, T.I. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway))

    1993-10-01

    Methods for internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe have been investigated through experiments with a short sample of Coflexip pipe. Ultrasonic backscatter methods using normal and non-normal incidence have been used for qualitative high contrast ultrasonic imaging of the inner surface of the pipe. Analysis of the internal cross-section has been performed based on the use of a non-contact ultrasonic caliper, and processing procedures which enable calculation of, and compensation for, eccentricity of the tool in the pipe. The methods developed can be used to quantitatively estimate the thickness of the internal carcass, and perform high resolution topographic mapping of the inner surface. (Author)

  18. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  19. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, K; Mitrofanov, A V; Silberschmidt, V V; Baeker, M

    2009-01-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  20. Measurement of chemical and geometrical surface changes in a wear track by a confocal height sensor and confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winogrodzka, A.; Valefi, Mahdiar; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2014-01-01

    Geometrical and chemical changes in the wear track can cause a drift in friction level. In this paper, chemical and geometrical surface changes in wear tracks are analyzed. For this, a setup with a confocal height sensor was developed to measure the local height changes on the wear track, combined

  1. Effect of ultrasonic streaming on intra-dentinal disinfection and penetration of calcium hydroxide paste in endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Paola Castro ARIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The antimicrobial effect of ultrasonic agitation of calcium hydroxide (CH pastes in infected bovine dentin and their penetrability were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and microbiological culture. Material and Methods Fifty-two bovine teeth were infected with Enterococcus faecalis using a new contamination protocol; then they received CH paste and were divided into groups with or without ultrasound. Ultrasonic agitation was conducted for 1 min with a plain point insert. After 15 d, the CLSM analyzed the viable and dead bacteria with Live and Dead assay. The dentinal wall debris was collected by burs, and the colony forming units (CFU/mL were counted. The penetrability of the paste inside dentinal tubules was tested using the B-rodamine dye. Results The calcium hydroxide paste showed better results with the use of ultrasonic agitation (p<0.05. Conclusion The ultrasonic agitation of CH paste increased its antimicrobial action and was responsible for intradentinal penetration with the fulfilment of the tubules.

  2. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Interfacial Phenomena Using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Ian C.

    Surfactants play an integral role in numerous functions ranging from stabilizing the emulsion in a favorite salad dressing to organizing the cellular components that make life possible. We are interested in lung surfactant, which is a mixture of lipids and proteins essential for normal respiration because it modulates the surface tension of the air-liquid interface of the thin fluid lining in the lungs. Through this surface tension modulation, lung surfactant ensures effortless lung expansion and prevents lung collapse during exhalation, thereby effecting proper oxygenation of the bloodstream. The function of lung surfactant, as well as numerous interfacial lipid systems, is not solely dictated by the behavior of materials confined to the two-dimensional interface. Rather, the distributions of materials in the liquid subphase also greatly influence the performance of interfacial films of lung surfactant. Therefore, to better understand the behavior of lung surfactant and other interfacial lipid systems, we require a three-dimensional characterization technique. In this dissertation, we have developed a novel confocal microscopy methodology for investigating the interfacial phenomena of surfactants at the air-liquid interface of a Langmuir trough. Confocal microscopy provides the excellent combination of in situ, fast, three-dimensional visualization of multiple components of the lung surfactant system that other characterization techniques lack. We detail the solutions to the numerous challenges encountered when imaging a dynamic air-liquid interface with a high-resolution technique like confocal microscopy. We then use confocal microscopy to elucidate the distinct mechanisms by which a polyelectrolyte (chitosan) and nonadsorbing polymer (polyethylene glycol) restore the function of lung surfactant under inhibitory conditions mimicking the effects of lung trauma. Beyond this physiological model, we also investigate several one- and two-component interfacial films

  3. Optical sectioning using a digital Fresnel incoherent-holography-based confocal imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new type of confocal microscope using Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH). Presented here is a confocal configuration of FINCH using a phase pinhole and point illumination that is able to suppress out-of-focus information from the recorded hologram and hence combine the super-resolution capabilities of FINCH with the sectioning capabilities of confocal microscopy. PMID:26413560

  4. Optical sectioning using a digital Fresnel incoherent-holography-based confocal imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of confocal microscope using Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH). Presented here is a confocal configuration of FINCH using a phase pinhole and point illumination that is able to suppress out-of-focus information from the recorded hologram and hence combine the super-resolution capabilities of FINCH with the sectioning capabilities of confocal microscopy.

  5. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  6. Defect detection and sizing in ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, J.; Benoist, P.; Chapuis, N.; Magnin, I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces imaging processing developed with the SPARTACUS system in the field of ultrasonic testing. The aim of the imaging processing is to detect and to separate defects echoes from background noise. Image segmentation and particularities of ultrasonic images are the base of studied methods. 4 figs.; 6 refs [fr

  7. Reproducibility of the results in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalaye, M.; Launay, J.P.; Thomas, A.

    1980-12-01

    This memorandum reports on the conclusions of the tests carried out in order to evaluate the reproducibility of ultrasonic tests made on welded joints. FRAMATOME have started a study to assess the dispersion of results afforded by the test line and to characterize its behaviour. The tests covered sensors and ultrasonic generators said to be identical to each other (same commercial batch) [fr

  8. Backward ray tracing for ultrasonic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Focused ultrasonic beams frequently pass one or more media interfaces, strongly affecting the ultrasonic beamshape and focusing. A computer program, based on backward ray tracing was developed to compute the shape of a corrected focusing mirror. This shape is verified with another program; then the

  9. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  10. How the confocal laser scanning microscope entered biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, W B; White, J G

    2003-09-01

    A history of the early development of the confocal laser scanning microscope in the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge is presented. The rapid uptake of this technology is explained by the wide use of fluorescence in the 80s. The key innovations were the scanning of the light beam over the specimen rather than vice-versa and a high magnification at the level of the detector, allowing the use of a macroscopic iris. These were followed by an achromatic all-reflective relay system, a non-confocal transmission detector and novel software for control and basic image processing. This design was commercialized successfully and has been produced and developed over 17 years, surviving challenges from alternative technologies, including solid-state scanning systems. Lessons are pointed out from the unusual nature of the original funding and research environment. Attention is drawn to the slow adoption of the instrument in diagnostic medicine, despite promising applications.

  11. EUS-Guided Needle-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutani, Manoop S; Koduru, Pramoda; Joshi, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an excellent tool for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, as well as surrounding structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care for the tissue sampling of a variety of masses and lymph nodes within and around...... the gut, providing further diagnostic and staging information. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel endoscopic method that enables imaging at a subcellular level of resolution during endoscopy, allowing up to 1000-fold magnification of tissue and providing an optical biopsy. A new procedure...... that has been developed in the past few years is needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE), which involves a mini-CLE probe that can be passed through a 1 9-gauge needle during EUS-FNA. This enables the real-time visualization of tissue at a microscopic level, with the potential to further improve...

  12. Assessment of nerve ultrastructure by fibre-optic confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushway, T R; Lanzetta, M; Cox, G; Trickett, R; Owen, E R

    1996-01-01

    Fibre-optic technology combined with confocality produces a microscope capable of optical thin sectioning. In this original study, tibial nerves have been stained in a rat model with a vital dye, 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide, and analysed by fibre-optic confocal microscopy to produce detailed images of nerve ultrastructure. Schwann cells, nodes of Ranvier and longitudinal myelinated sheaths enclosing axons were clearly visible. Single axons appeared as brightly staining longitudinal structures. This allowed easy tracing of multiple signal axons within the nerve tissue. An accurate measurement of internodal lengths was easily accomplished. This technique is comparable to current histological techniques, but does not require biopsy, thin sectioning or tissue fixing. This study offers a standard for further in vivo microscopy, including the possibility of monitoring the progression of nerve regeneration following microsurgical neurorraphy.

  13. Inverted follicular keratosis: dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot-Carbo, M; Abrego, A; Gonzalez, T; Alarcon, I; Alos, L; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2013-01-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is a rare benign tumor which usually appears as a firm papule on the face. The diagnosis is generally made by histopathology because the clinical appearance is difficult to differentiate from other lesions. Dermoscopic features of IFK have not been established to date. Herein we describe the dermoscopic findings of 4 cases of IFK. Radial peripheral hairpin vessels surrounded by a whitish halo arranged around a central white-yellowish amorphous area were observed in 3 cases, and glomerular vessels were present in the central area of one of them. The fourth case also presented a central white amorphous area but showed arborizing vessels. Reflectance confocal microscopy (available in 1 case) revealed a broadened honeycomb pattern, epidermal projections and hairpin and glomerular vessels. To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the dermoscopic features of inverted follicular keratosis and the first confocal microscopy description of this entity.

  14. Confocal Microscope Alignment of Nanocrystals for Coherent Diffraction Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitra, Loren; Watari, Moyu; Matsuura, Takashi; Shimamoto, Naonobu; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    We have installed and tested an Olympus LEXT confocal microscope at the 34-ID-C beamline of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The beamline is for Coherent X-ray Diffraction (CXD) experiments in which a nanometre-sized crystal is aligned inside a focussed X-ray beam. The microscope was required for three-dimensional (3D) sample alignment to get around sphere-of-confusion issues when locating Bragg peaks in reciprocal space. In this way, and by use of strategic sample preparations, we have succeeded in measuring six Bragg peaks from a single 200 nm gold crystal and obtained six projections of its internal displacement field. This enables the clear identification of stacking-fault bands within the crystal. The confocal alignment method will allow a full determination of the strain tensor provided three or more Bragg reflections from the same crystal are found.

  15. Design considerations of a real-time clinical confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1991-06-01

    A real-time clinical confocal light microscope provides the ophthalmologist with a new tool for the observation of the cornea and the ocular lens. In addition, the ciliary body, the iris, and the sclera can be observed. The real-time light microscopic images have high contrast and resolution. The transverse resolution is about one half micron and the range resolution is one micron. The following observations were made with visible light: corneal epithelial cells, wing cells, basal cells, Bowman's membrane, nerve fibers, basal lamina, fibroblast nuclei, Descemet's membrane, endothelial cells. Observation of the in situ ocular lens showed lens capsule, lens epithelium, lens fibrils, the interior of lens fibrils. The applications of the confocal microscope include: eye banking, laser refractive surgery, observation of wound healing, observation of the iris, the sciera, the ciliary body, the ocular lens, and the intraocular lens. Digital image processing can produce three-dimensional reconstructions of the cornea and the ocular lens.

  16. The Dynamic Performance of Flexural Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Feeney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexural ultrasonic transducers are principally used as proximity sensors and for industrial metrology. Their operation relies on a piezoelectric ceramic to generate a flexing of a metallic membrane, which delivers the ultrasound signal. The performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers has been largely limited to excitation through a short voltage burst signal at a designated mechanical resonance frequency. However, a steady-state amplitude response is not generated instantaneously in a flexural ultrasonic transducer from a drive excitation signal, and differences in the drive characteristics between transmitting and receiving transducers can affect the measured response. This research investigates the dynamic performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers using acoustic microphone measurements and laser Doppler vibrometry, supported by a detailed mechanical analog model, in a process which has not before been applied to the flexural ultrasonic transducer. These techniques are employed to gain insights into the physics of their vibration behaviour, vital for the optimisation of industrial ultrasound systems.

  17. Multi-spectral confocal microendoscope for in-vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Andrew Robert

    The concept of in-vivo multi-spectral confocal microscopy is introduced. A slit-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope (MCME) was built to demonstrate the technique. The MCME employs a flexible fiber-optic catheter coupled to a custom built slit-scan confocal microscope fitted with a custom built imaging spectrometer. The catheter consists of a fiber-optic imaging bundle linked to a miniature objective and focus assembly. The design and performance of the miniature objective and focus assembly are discussed. The 3mm diameter catheter may be used on its own or routed though the instrument channel of a commercial endoscope. The confocal nature of the system provides optical sectioning with 3mum lateral resolution and 30mum axial resolution. The prism based multi-spectral detection assembly is typically configured to collect 30 spectral samples over the visible chromatic range. The spectral sampling rate varies from 4nm/pixel at 490nm to 8nm/pixel at 660nm and the minimum resolvable wavelength difference varies from 7nm to 18nm over the same spectral range. Each of these characteristics are primarily dictated by the dispersive power of the prism. The MCME is designed to examine cellular structures during optical biopsy and to exploit the diagnostic information contained within the spectral domain. The primary applications for the system include diagnosis of disease in the gastro-intestinal tract and female reproductive system. Recent data from the grayscale imaging mode are presented. Preliminary multi-spectral results from phantoms, cell cultures, and excised human tissue are presented to demonstrate the potential of in-vivo multi-spectral imaging.

  18. Reflectance confocal microscopy features of thin versus thick melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardynal, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Małgorzata; de Carvalho, Nathalie; Walecka, Irena; Pellacani, Giovanni; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2018-01-24

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) plays an increasingly important role in differential diagnosis of melanoma. The aim of the study was to assess typical confocal features of thin (≤1mm according to Breslow index) versus thick (>1mm) melanomas. 30 patients with histopathologically confirmed cutaneous melanoma were included in the study. Reflectance confocal microscopy was performed with Vivascope equipment prior to excision. Fifteen melanomas were thin (Breslow thickness ≤ 1mm) and 15 were thick melanomas (Breslow thickness >1mm). In the RCM examination, the following features were more frequently observed in thin compared to thick melanomas: edged papillae (26.7% vs 0%, p=0.032) and areas with honeycomb or cobblestone pattern (33.3% vs 6.7%, p=0.068). Both features are present in benign melanocytic lesions, so in melanoma are good prognostic factors. The group of thick melanomas compared to the group of thin melanomas in the RCM images presented with greater frequency of roundish cells (100% vs 40%, p=0.001), non-edged papillae (100% vs 60%, p=0.006), numerous pagetoid cells (73.3% vs 33.3%, p=0.028), numerous atypical cells at dermal-epidermal junction (53.3% vs 20%, p=0.058) and epidermal disarray (93.3% vs 66.7%, p=0.068). Non-invasive imaging methods helps in deepening of knowledge about the evolution and biology of melanoma. The most characteristic features for thin melanomas in confocal examination are: fragments of cobblestone or honeycomb pattern and edged papillae (as good prognostic factors). The features of thick melanomas in RCM examination are: roundish cells, non-edged papillae, numerous pagetoid cells at dermal-epidermal junction and epidermal disarray.

  19. Plasma Sterilizer with Ultrasonic Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyj, V.V.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Panasko, T.A.; Shvets, O.M.; Semenova, O.T.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    A sterilizer consists of ozone generator based on a barrier glow discharge with the flat electrodes covered with dielectric with a high-voltage pulsed power supply of up to 250 W (1). The sterilization camera is equipped with ultrasonic source with the power of 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. Ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 6 mg/liter with ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator 30 mg/liter. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min

  20. Confocal endomicroscopy: Is it time to move on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Medranda, Carlos

    2016-01-10

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy permits in-vivo microscopy evaluation during endoscopy procedures. It can be used in all the parts of the gastrointestinal tract and includes: Esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, biliary tract through and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and pancreas through needles during endoscopic ultrasound procedures. Many researches demonstrated a high correlation of results between confocal laser endomicroscopy and histopathology in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal lesions; with accuracy in about 86% to 96%. Moreover, in spite that histopathology remains the gold-standard technique for final diagnosis of any diseases; a considerable number of misdiagnosis rate could be present due to many factors such as interpretation mistakes, biopsy site inaccuracy, or number of biopsies. Theoretically; with the diagnostic accuracy rates of confocal laser endomicroscopy could help in a daily practice to improve diagnosis and treatment management of the patients. However, it is still not routinely used in the clinical practice due to many factors such as cost of the procedure, lack of codification and reimbursement in some countries, absence of standard of care indications, availability, physician image-interpretation training, medico-legal problems, and the role of the pathologist. These limitations are relative, and solutions could be found based on new researches focused to solve these barriers.

  1. Ultrafast superresolution fluorescence imaging with spinning disk confocal microscope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    Most current superresolution (SR) microscope techniques surpass the diffraction limit at the expense of temporal resolution, compromising their applications to live-cell imaging. Here we describe a new SR fluorescence microscope based on confocal microscope optics, which we name the spinning disk superresolution microscope (SDSRM). Theoretically, the SDSRM is equivalent to a structured illumination microscope (SIM) and achieves a spatial resolution of 120 nm, double that of the diffraction limit of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, the SDSRM is 10 times faster than a conventional SIM because SR signals are recovered by optical demodulation through the stripe pattern of the disk. Therefore a single SR image requires only a single averaged image through the rotating disk. On the basis of this theory, we modified a commercial spinning disk confocal microscope. The improved resolution around 120 nm was confirmed with biological samples. The rapid dynamics of micro-tubules, mitochondria, lysosomes, and endosomes were observed with temporal resolutions of 30-100 frames/s. Because our method requires only small optical modifications, it will enable an easy upgrade from an existing spinning disk confocal to a SR microscope for live-cell imaging. © 2015 Hayashi and Okada. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. The challenge of diagnosing seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, A; Chen, J; Yang, C; Ding, Y; Zeng, Q; Tan, L

    2018-05-24

    Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is one of the most common skin tumors seen by dermatologists. It should be differentiated with many diseases, especially skin tumors. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been applied for evaluation of SK. There are a few studies that describe the RCM of SK. The aim of the study was to find the challenge of diagnosing seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy. A total of 390 patients with a clinical suspicious diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis were enrolled in this study, and lesions from each patient were imaged with RCM. Thirty-seven of these patients performed a biopsy in order to be given a histological diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of RCM diagnosis and histological diagnosis, and then found the RCM characteristics of biopsy-proven lesions. According to RCM images, 258 of 390 (66.2%) patients were diagnosed with SK, 97 of 390 (24.9%) patients could not be diagnosed by the dermatologist according to RCM. Of all 37 biopsied lesions, 23 were SK, 6 were actinic keratosis, 2 were basal cell carcinoma, and 2 were squamous cell carcinoma. It is challenge to diagnose seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy. It may due to the variable clinical and RCM appearances of SK, and limited depth of RCM. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Parallel detection experiment of fluorescence confocal microscopy using DMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gui, Kun; Guo, Hanming; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-05-01

    Parallel detection of fluorescence confocal microscopy (PDFCM) system based on Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is reported in this paper in order to realize simultaneous multi-channel imaging and improve detection speed. DMD is added into PDFCM system, working to take replace of the single traditional pinhole in the confocal system, which divides the laser source into multiple excitation beams. The PDFCM imaging system based on DMD is experimentally set up. The multi-channel image of fluorescence signal of potato cells sample is detected by parallel lateral scanning in order to verify the feasibility of introducing the DMD into fluorescence confocal microscope. In addition, for the purpose of characterizing the microscope, the depth response curve is also acquired. The experimental result shows that in contrast to conventional microscopy, the DMD-based PDFCM system has higher axial resolution and faster detection speed, which may bring some potential benefits in the biology and medicine analysis. SCANNING 38:234-239, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quantification of Multilayer Samples by Confocal μXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R. Daniel; Sanchez, H. J.; Rubio, M.; Perez, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    The confocal setup consists of x-ray lenses in the excitation as well as in the detection channel. In this configuration, a micro volume defined by the overlap of the foci of both x-ray lenses is analyzed. Scanning this micro volume through the sample, 1-3 dimensional studies can be performed. For intermediate thin homogeneous layers a scanning in the normal direction to the surface sample provides information of its thickness and elemental composition. For multilayer samples it also provides the order of each layer in the stratified structure. For the confocal setup, we used a glass monocapillary in the excitation channel and a monolithic half polycapillary in the detection channel. The experiment was carried out at the D09B beamline of the LNLS using white beam. In the present work, a new algorithm was applied to analyze in detail by confocal μXRF a sample of three paint layers on a glass substrate. Using the proposed algorithm, information about thickness and elemental densities was obtained for each layer of these samples.

  5. Ex vivo confocal microscopy: a new diagnostic technique for mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, A; Cinotti, E; Labeille, B; Perrot, J L; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Skin-dedicated ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) has so far mainly been employed to identify cutaneous tumours on freshly excised samples. We present two cases where EVCM has been used to diagnose cutaneous mucormycosis. The skin biopsies were evaluated by the skin-dedicated ex vivo confocal microscope VivaScope 2500(®) (MAVIG GmbH, Munich Germany) under both reflectance and fluorescence mode. Conventional direct optical examination on skin scraping and histological examination were later performed. Mucormycetes observed by EVCM presented as hyper-reflective elongated 20 μm in diameter structures with perpendicular ramifications. Fungi were found both under reflectance and fluorescence mode and were better visible with acridine orange under fluorescence EVCM. Conventional direct optical examination on skin scraping and histological examination found the same elongated and branching structures confirming the presence of Mucormycetes. Ex vivo confocal microscopy has both the advantages of being fast as the direct optical examination, and to be able to show the localisation of the fungi in the tissue like the histological examination. In our cases, EVCM allowed to rapidly confirm the clinical diagnosis of mucormycosis, which is essential for the treatment of this fungal infection. Further studies are needed to compare the performance of EVCM with the findings of conventional histological and mycological examinations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Ultrasonic imaging of projected components of PFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvia, J.I., E-mail: sylvia@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeyan, M.R.; Anbucheliyan, M.; Asokane, C.; Babu, V. Rajan; Babu, B.; Rajan, K.K.; Velusamy, K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Under sodium ultrasonic scanner in PFBR is for detecting protruding objects. ► Feasibility study for detecting Absorber rods and its drive mechanisms. ► Developed in-house PC based ultrasonic imaging system. ► Different case studies were carried out on simulated ARDM's. ► Implemented the experimental results to PFBR application. -- Abstract: The 500 MWe, sodium cooled, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam in India. Opacity of sodium restricts visual inspection of components immersed in sodium by optical means. Ultrasonic wave passes through sodium hence ultrasonic techniques using under sodium ultrasonic scanners are developed to obtain under sodium images. The main objective of such an Under Sodium Ultrasonic Scanner (USUSS) for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is to detect and ensure that no core Sub Assembly (SA) or Absorber Rod or its Drive Mechanism is protruded in the above core plenum before starting the fuel handling operation. Hence, it is necessary to detect and locate the object, if it is protruding the above core plenum. To study the feasibility of detecting the absorber rods and their drive mechanisms using direct ultrasonic imaging technique, experiments were carried out for different orientations and profiles of the projected components in a 5 m diameter water tank. The in-house developed PC based ultrasonic scanning system is used for acquisition and analysis of data. The pseudo three dimensional color images obtained are discussed and the results are applicable for PFBR. This paper gives the details of the features of the absorber rods and their drive mechanisms, their orientation in the reactor core, experimental setup, PC based ultrasonic scanning system, ultrasonic images and the discussion on the results.

  7. 3D Image Analysis of Geomaterials using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulukutla, G.; Proussevitch, A.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is one of the most significant advances in optical microscopy of the last century. It is widely used in biological sciences but its application to geomaterials lingers due to a number of technical problems. Potentially the technique can perform non-invasive testing on a laser illuminated sample that fluoresces using a unique optical sectioning capability that rejects out-of-focus light reaching the confocal aperture. Fluorescence in geomaterials is commonly induced using epoxy doped with a fluorochrome that is impregnated into the sample to enable discrimination of various features such as void space or material boundaries. However, for many geomaterials, this method cannot be used because they do not naturally fluoresce and because epoxy cannot be impregnated into inaccessible parts of the sample due to lack of permeability. As a result, the confocal images of most geomaterials that have not been pre-processed with extensive sample preparation techniques are of poor quality and lack the necessary image and edge contrast necessary to apply any commonly used segmentation techniques to conduct any quantitative study of its features such as vesicularity, internal structure, etc. In our present work, we are developing a methodology to conduct a quantitative 3D analysis of images of geomaterials collected using a confocal microscope with minimal amount of prior sample preparation and no addition of fluorescence. Two sample geomaterials, a volcanic melt sample and a crystal chip containing fluid inclusions are used to assess the feasibility of the method. A step-by-step process of image analysis includes application of image filtration to enhance the edges or material interfaces and is based on two segmentation techniques: geodesic active contours and region competition. Both techniques have been applied extensively to the analysis of medical MRI images to segment anatomical structures. Preliminary analysis suggests that there is distortion in the

  8. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g., the...

  9. Imaging theory of nonlinear second harmonic and third harmonic generations in confocal microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhilie; XING Da; LIU Songhao

    2004-01-01

    The imaging theory of nonlinear second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) in confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. The nonlinear effect of SHG and THG on the imaging properties of confocal microscopy has been analyzed in detail by the imaging theory. It is proved that the imaging process of SHG and THG in confocal microscopy, which is different from conventional coherent imaging or incoherent imaging, can be divided into two different processes of coherent imaging. The three-dimensional point spread functions (3D-PSF) of SHG and THG confocal microscopy are derived based on the nonlinear principles of SHG and THG. The imaging properties of SHG and THG confocal microscopy are discussed in detail according to its 3D-PSF. It is shown that the resolution of SHG and THG confocal microscopy is higher than that of single-and two-photon confocal microscopy.

  10. Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices

  11. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Deconvolution algorithms applied in ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, P.

    1993-12-01

    In a complete system of acquisition and processing of ultrasonic signals, it is often necessary at one stage to use some processing tools to get rid of the influence of the different elements of that system. By that means, the final quality of the signals in terms of resolution is improved. There are two main characteristics of ultrasonic signals which make this task difficult. Firstly, the signals generated by transducers are very often non-minimum phase. The classical deconvolution algorithms are unable to deal with such characteristics. Secondly, depending on the medium, the shape of the propagating pulse is evolving. The spatial invariance assumption often used in classical deconvolution algorithms is rarely valid. Many classical algorithms, parametric and non-parametric, have been investigated: the Wiener-type, the adaptive predictive techniques, the Oldenburg technique in the frequency domain, the minimum variance deconvolution. All the algorithms have been firstly tested on simulated data. One specific experimental set-up has also been analysed. Simulated and real data has been produced. This set-up demonstrated the interest in applying deconvolution, in terms of the achieved resolution. (author). 32 figs., 29 refs

  13. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  14. Ultrasonic inspection of inpile tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.; Bossi, H.

    1985-01-01

    The in-service inspection (ISI) of inpile tubes can be performed accurately and safely with a semiautomatic ultrasonic inspection system. The ultrasonic technique uses a set of multiple transducers to detect and size cracks, voids, and laminations radially and circumferentially. Welds are also inspected for defects. The system is designed to inspect stainless steel and Inconel tubes ranging from 53.8 mm (2.12 in.) to 101.6 mm (4 in.) inner diameter with wall thickness on the order of 5 mm. The inspection head contains seven transducers mounted in a surface-following device. Six angle-beam transducers generate shear waves in the tubes. Two of the six are oriented to detect circumferential cracks, and two detect axial cracks. Although each of these four transducers is used in the pulse-echo mode, they are oriented in aligned sets so pitch-catch operation is possible if desired. The remaining angle-beam transducers are angulated to detect flaws that are off axial or circumferential orientation. The seventh transducer is used for longitudinal inspection and detects and sizes laminar-type defects

  15. Calculations for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.

    1986-05-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a body which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation losses as well as internal losses may be important. Due to the complexity of the problem, a closed form solution is the exception rather than the rule. For this reason, it is necessary to use approximate methods for the analysis. Equivalent circuits, the Rayleigh-Ritz method, Mindlin plate theory and in particular the finite element method are considered. The finite element method is utilized for analysis of axisymmetric transducers. An explicit, fully piezoelectric, triangular ring element, with linear variations in displacement and electric potential is given. The influence of a fluid half-space is also given, in the form of a complex stiffness matrix. A special stacking procedure, for analysis of the backing has been developed. This procedure gives a saving, which is similar to that of the fast fourier transform algorithm, and is also wellsuited for analysis of finite and infinite waveguides. Results obtained by the finite element method are shown and compared with measurements and exact solutions. Good agreement is obtained. It is concluded that the finite element method can be a valueable tool in analysis and design of ultrasonic transducers. (author)

  16. Quality control of disinfection in ultrasonic baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, H. [Technical University Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Jatzwauk, L. [University Hospital of the Technical University Dresden (Germany). Abt. Krankenhaushygiene

    2002-07-01

    Numerous investigations under laboratory conditions confirmed the microbicidal efficacy of ultrasonication. Morphological destruction was shown on bacteria and fungi as well as on different virus species. Ultrasonic treatment seems to increase the effect of different antibiotics and disinfectants. Reasons for this synergism are largely unknown and uninvestigated, but the active principle seems to bee the dispersing effect of ultrasonication in combination with the destruction of cell wall or cell membrane. Unfortunately no validation of test conditions exists for most of these investigations, regarding intensity and frequency of ultrasonic waves, temperature of liquid medium and measurement of cavitation which is an essential part of physical and chemical effects in ultrasonic baths. In contrast to most laboratory experiments sound density of ultrasound for treatment of medical instruments is below 1 W/cm{sup 2} because instruments will be destroyed under stronger ultrasonic conditions. The frequency is below 50 KHz. This paper describes bactericidal and fungicidal effects of low- intensity-ultrasonication and its synergistical support to chemical disinfection. (orig.)

  17. Ultrasonic tests on materials with protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Protective coatings are applied to some nuclear components such as reactor vessels to inhibit surface corrosion. Since in-service ultrasonic inspection is required for such components, a study was performed to determine whether the use of protective coatings can affect ultrasonic tests. Two 2 in. thick steel plates were uniformly machined, sandblasted, and used as bases for two types of protective coatings. The type and thickness of the coating and the presence of contamination, such as fingerprints or mild oxidation under the paint, were the independent variables associated with the coating. Tests were run to determine the effects of the protective coatings on ultrasonic tests conducted on the steel plates. Significant variations in ultrasonic test sensitivity occurred as a function of the type and thickness of protective coating, couplant (material that conducts the ultrasound from the transducer into the test part, normally water or some type of oil), transducer wear plate, and ultrasonic test frequency. Ultrasonic tests can be strongly affected by a protective coating on the component to be inspected. As compared to the test sensitivity for an uncoated reference sample, the sensitivity may be dramatically shifted up or down on the coated surface. In certain coating thickness ranges, the sensitivity can fluctuate widely with small changes in coating thickness. If a coating is chosen properly, however, components with protective coatings can be tested ultrasonically with valid results. These results are for the case of ultrasonic input on the coated surface. It is not expected that an ultrasonic test conducted from the front surface would be appreciably affected by a coating on the rear surface

  18. Computer simulation of ultrasonic waves in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.A.; Chaplin, K.

    1992-01-01

    A computer model that simulates the propagation of ultrasonic waves has been developed at AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories. This program is called EWE, short for Elastic Wave Equations, the mathematics governing the propagation of ultrasonic waves. This report contains a brief summary of the use of ultrasonic waves in non-destructive testing techniques, a discussion of the EWE simulation code explaining the implementation of the equations and the types of output received from the model, and an example simulation showing the abilities of the model. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  19. Ultrasonic characterization of vegetable oil product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek Hj Abd Aziz; Chow Sai Pew; Abdul Halim Shaari; Nor Azizah Shaari

    1992-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation of a number vegetable oil products were measured using an ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique from room temperature up to 90 0 C. Among the liquid samples studied were refined bleach deodorized (RED) palm oil, palm olein, coconut oil, corn oil and soya bean oil. The velocity of sound in vegetable oil products varies from about 1200 to 200 ms-1 and decrease linearly as the temperature increases. The ultrasonic properties of the oil are much dependent on their viscosity, density, relaxation effect and vibrational anharmonicity

  20. On-line ultrasonic gas entrainment monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, C.K.; Pedersen, H.N.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus employing ultrasonic energy for detecting and measuring the quantity of gas bubbles present in liquids being transported through pipes is described. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned along the longitudinal axis of a fluid duct, oriented to transmit acoustic energy radially of the duct around the circumference of the enclosure walls. The back-reflected energy is received centrally of the duct and interpreted as a measure of gas entrainment. One embodiment employs a conical reflector to direct the transmitted acoustic energy radially of the duct and redirect the reflected energy back to the transducer for reception. A modified embodiment employs a cylindrical ultrasonic transducer for this purpose

  1. Fundamentals and applications of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonics. A subject with applications across all the basic sciences, engineering, medicine, and oceanography, yet even the broader topic of acoustics is now rarely offered at undergraduate levels. Ultrasonics is addressed primarily at the doctoral level, and texts appropriate for beginning graduate students or newcomers to the field are virtually nonexistent.Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves fills that void. Designed specifically for senior undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and those just entering the field, it begins with the fundamentals, but goes well beyond th

  2. In vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, N J; Hendrikse, F; March, W F

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a confocal Raman spectroscopic technique for the noninvasive assessment of corneal hydration in vivo in two legally blind subjects. A laser beam (632.8 nm; 15 mJ) was maintained on the cornea by using a microscope objective lens (x25 magnification, NA = 0.5, f = 10 mm) both for focusing the incident light as well as collecting the Raman backscattered light, in a 180 degrees backscatter configuration. An optical fiber, acting as the confocal pinhole for elimination of light from out-of-focus places, was coupled to a spectrometer that dispersed the collected light onto a sensitive array detector for rapid spectral data acquisition over a range from 2,890 to 3,590/cm(-1). Raman spectra were recorded from the anterior 100-150 microm of the cornea over a period before and after topical application of a mild dehydrating solution. The ratio between the amplitudes of the signals at 3,400/cm(-1) (OH-vibrational mode of water) and 2,940/cm(-1) (CH-vibrational mode of proteins) was used as a measure for corneal hydration. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR = 25) Raman spectra were obtained from the human corneas by using 15 mJ of laser light energy. Qualitative changes in the hydration of the anteriormost part of the corneas could be observed as a result of the dehydrating agent. With adequate improvements in system safety, confocal Raman spectroscopy could potentially be applied clinically as a noninvasive tool for the assessment of corneal hydration in vivo.

  3. Track type ultrasonic inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Shigeru; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Takahisa, Kazuo.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns an improvement of a scanning device disposed near an object to be inspected such as a nuclear pressure vessel and having an ultrasonic probe, mounted thereon that travel along a running track. Specifically, one of wheel supports on both sides is attached being secured to the scanning device. The other of the supports is capable of fixing and releasing, as well as providing and releasing pressure to and from wheels upon mounting and detachment. This enables to provide a structure capable of pressing the wheels of the running device to the plane of the track and release thereof. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the running performance, reduce the size and weight and shorten the time for mounting and detachment of the running inspection device. (I.S.)

  4. Cracks assessment using ultrasonic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria Pia; Tomasella, Marcelo [OLDELVAL S.A. Oleoductos del Valle, Rio Negro (Argentina). Pipeline Integrity Dept.

    2005-07-01

    The goal of Oldelval Integrity Program is to prevent ruptures and leaks, developing strategies for a better handling of the integrity of our pipelines. In order to achieve it we have studied and modeled each process that involved in the integrity pipeline. Those processes are mainly based on defects reported by an internal inspection tool and supplied with field inspection and monitoring data. Years of evaluation, study and the continuous effort overturned towards a phenomenon that worries to the industry, as it is the SCC. Since 1998 up to 2004 SCC was included in the integrity program with some preventive maintenance programs. The accomplishment of the inspection based on ultrasound tools, is the culmination of years of evaluation and investigations supported by field digs and materials susceptibility. This paper describes Oldelval's results with ultrasonic crack detection tool, and how it can be reliably to detect SCC. (author)

  5. Integrated Ultrasonic-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva

    in channel waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Numerical models are developed based on the finite element method, and applied to several scenarios, such as optimization of the geometrical parameters of waveguides, use of slow light in photonic crystal waveguides and use of Lamb waves in membranized......This thesis deals with the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of integrated ultrasonic-photonic devices, with particular focus on the use of standard semiconductor materials such as GaAs and silicon. The devices are based on the use of guided acoustic waves to modulate the light...... investigated. Comparisons are made with the numerical and experimental results, and they validate the obtained response of the acoustic and photonic components of the device. Finally, a new design for an optical frequency shifter is proposed, posing several advantages over existing devices in terms of size...

  6. In vitro confocal imaging of the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B R; Paddock, S

    1990-05-01

    We were able to observe in vitro the fine structure of the rabbit cornea using a laser scanning confocal microscope, especially in the regions between Descemet's membrane and the epithelial basal lamina. We observed submicrometre filaments throughout the stroma with high concentrations adjacent to Descemet's membrane, and found extensive interconnecting processes between stromal keratocytes. There are numerous regions containing nerve plexuses in the stroma. We found a deeply convoluted basal lamina adjacent to the epithelium, and observed regions containing junctions between endothelial cells in fluorescent images of rabbit corneas stained with the actin-specific compound fluorescein phalloidin.

  7. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  8. 3D Volumetric Analysis of Fluid Inclusions Using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, A.; Mulukutla, G.; Sahagian, D.; Bodnar, B.

    2009-05-01

    Fluid inclusions preserve valuable information regarding hydrothermal, metamorphic, and magmatic processes. The molar quantities of liquid and gaseous components in the inclusions can be estimated from their volumetric measurements at room temperatures combined with knowledge of the PVTX properties of the fluid and homogenization temperatures. Thus, accurate measurements of inclusion volumes and their two phase components are critical. One of the greatest advantages of the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) in application to fluid inclsion analsyis is that it is affordable for large numbers of samples, given the appropriate software analysis tools and methodology. Our present work is directed toward developing those tools and methods. For the last decade LSCM has been considered as a potential method for inclusion volume measurements. Nevertheless, the adequate and accurate measurement by LSCM has not yet been successful for fluid inclusions containing non-fluorescing fluids due to many technical challenges in image analysis despite the fact that the cost of collecting raw LSCM imagery has dramatically decreased in recent years. These problems mostly relate to image analysis methodology and software tools that are needed for pre-processing and image segmentation, which enable solid, liquid and gaseous components to be delineated. Other challenges involve image quality and contrast, which is controlled by fluorescence of the material (most aqueous fluid inclusions do not fluoresce at the appropriate laser wavelengths), material optical properties, and application of transmitted and/or reflected confocal illumination. In this work we have identified the key problems of image analysis and propose some potential solutions. For instance, we found that better contrast of pseudo-confocal transmitted light images could be overlayed with poor-contrast true-confocal reflected light images within the same stack of z-ordered slices. This approach allows one to narrow

  9. Confocal laser feedback tomography for skin cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowla, Alireza; Du, Benjamin Wensheng; Taimre, Thomas; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen; Soyer, H Peter; Rakić, Aleksandar D

    2017-09-01

    Tomographic imaging of soft tissue such as skin has a potential role in cancer detection. The penetration of infrared wavelengths makes a confocal approach based on laser feedback interferometry feasible. We present a compact system using a semiconductor laser as both transmitter and receiver. Numerical and physical models based on the known optical properties of keratinocyte cancers were developed. We validated the technique on three phantoms containing macro-structural changes in optical properties. Experimental results were in agreement with numerical simulations and structural changes were evident which would permit discrimination of healthy tissue and tumour. Furthermore, cancer type discrimination was also able to be visualized using this imaging technique.

  10. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  11. Volume visualization of biological tissue specimens using confocal microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Martin; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Smrčka, P.; Hána, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2006), s. 240-244 ISSN 0301-5491. [Biomedical Engineering Conference of Young Biomedical Engineers and Researchers /2./. Kladno, 19.07.2006-21.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500200510; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 3D reconstruction * confocal microscopy Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  12. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahk, K. J.; Dhar, D. K.; Malago, M.; Saffari, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  13. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahk, K J; Saffari, N; Dhar, D K; Malago, M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  14. Ultrasonically-assisted Thermal Stir Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A welding head assembly has a work piece disposed between its containment plates' opposing surfaces with the work piece being maintained in a plastic state thereof at least in a vicinity of the welding head assembly's stir rod as the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis. The welding head assembly and the work piece experience relative movement there between in a direction perpendicular to the rod's longitudinal axis as the work piece is subjected to a compressive force applied by the containment plates. A first source coupled to the first containment plate applies a first ultrasonic wave thereto such that the first ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement. A second source coupled to the second containment plate applies a second ultrasonic wave thereto such that the second ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.

  15. Ultrasonic determination of the size of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterwall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents results from a study of ultrasonic testing of materials. The main topic has been the determination of the size, length and deep, of cracks or defects in stainless steel plates. (K.A.E)

  16. Advanced ultrasonic technology for natural gas measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, due to rising environmental and safety concerns, increasing commodity prices, and operational inefficiencies, a paradigm shift has been taking place with respect to gas measurement. The price of natural gas depends on the location, time of the year, and type of consumer. There is wide uncertainty associated with an orifice meter. This paper presents the use of advanced ultrasonic technology for the measurement of natural gas. For many years, multi-path ultrasonic meters with intelligent sensor technology have been used for gas measurement. This paper gives the various applications of ultrasonic technology along with their advantages and a draws a comparison with orifice meters. From the study it can be concluded that extensive advances in the use of ultrasonic technology for gas measurement have widened the areas of application and that varying frequencies combined with sealed transducer designs make it possible to measure atmospheric and sour gas in custody transfer process control and flaring accurately.

  17. Ultrasonic assisted hot metal powder compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Hot pressing of metal powders is used in production of parts with similar properties to wrought materials. During hot pressing processes, particle rearrangement, plastic deformation, creep, and diffusion are of the most effective powder densification mechanisms. Applying ultrasonic vibration is thought to result in great rates of densification and therefore higher efficiency of the process is expected. This paper deals with the effects of power ultrasonic on the densification of AA1100 aluminum powder under constant applied stress. The effects of particle size and process temperature on the densification behavior are discussed. The results show that applying ultrasonic vibration leads to an improved homogeneity and a higher relative density. Also, it is found that the effect of ultrasonic vibration is greater for finer particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-01-01

    estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized

  19. Ultrasonic Morphological Analyzers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lizzi, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve ultrasonic classification of breast lesions and guide decisions regarding biopsy requirements, especially for small lesions and those in young, dense breasts...

  20. Rail inspection using noncontact laser ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyeon; Sohn, Hoon; Han, Soon Woo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a noncontact laser ultrasonic system is proposed for rail defect detection. An Nd Yag pulse laser is used for generation of ultrasonic waves, and the corresponding ultrasonic responses are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. For the detection of rail surface damages, the shape of the excitation laser beam is transformed into a line. On the other hand, a point source laser beam is used for the inspection of defects inside a rail head. Then, the interactions of propagating ultrasonic waves with defects are examined using actual rail specimens. Amplitude attenuation was mainly observed for a surface crack, and reflections were most noticeable from an internal damage. Finally, opportunities and challenges associated with real time rail inspection from a high speed train are discussed

  1. Nondestructive control of materials by ultrasonic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, Noelle.

    1974-01-01

    A bibliographic study of nondestructive control methods of solids by ultrasonic tests, and of the ultrasonic emission of a transducer of finite dimension, is first presented. The principle of two of these methods is verified experimentally; they should permit the measurement of various physical parameters of solids, and the detection of local inhomogeneities. The first method calls upon the analysis of the ultrasonic signal (amplitude and phase), after it has crossed a constant thickness of a metallic specimen. This analysis reveals variations of attenuation and of ultrasonic propagation velocity within the specimen. A good spatial resolution is obtained by using 1mm-diameter probes. The second method leads, thanks to a test rig equipped with broad frequency band electrostatic transducers, to the knowledge of the attenuation law of the specimens as a function of frequency (present range: 5 to 15MHz); from this a classification of these specimens as regards their granulometry is deduced [fr

  2. Ultrasonic testing of materials at level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which high frequency sound waves are introduced into the material being inspected. Ultrasonic testing has a superior penetrating power to radiography and can detect flaws deep in the test specimen (say up to about 6 to 7 meters of steel). It is quite sensitive to small flaws and allows the precise determination of the location and size of the flaws. Basic ultrasonic test methods such as the through transmission method and the resonance method, sensors and testing techniques are described. Pulse echo type flaw detectors and their applications for inspection of welds are surveyed. Ultrasonic standards, calibration of the equipment and evaluation methods are presented. Examples of practical applications in welding, casting and forging processes are given. Figs and tabs

  3. Improvement of Ultrasonic Distance Measuring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduces a kind of ultrasonic distance measuring system with AT89C51 single chip as the core component. The paper expounds the principle of ultrasonic sensor and ultrasonic ranging, hardware circuit and software program, and the results of experiment and analysis.The hardware circuit based on SCM, the software design adopts the advanced microcontroller programming language.The amplitude of the received signal and the time of ultrasonic propagation are regulated by closed loop control. [1,2]The double closed loop control technology for amplitude and time improves the measuring accuracy of the instrument. The experimental results show that greatly improves the measurement accuracy of the system.

  4. Ultrasonic Generation and Optimization for EMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, X.; Dixon, Steve; Edwards, Rachel S.

    2005-01-01

    A model for transient ultrasonic wave generation by EMATs in non-magnetic metals is presented. It combines analytical solutions currently available and FEM to calculate ultrasonic bulk and Rayleigh waves generated by the EMAT. Analytical solutions are used as they can be calculated quickly on a standard mathematical computer package. Calculations agree well with the experimental measurement. The model can be used to optimize EMAT design, and has explained some of the results from our previous published measurements

  5. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot ultrasonic detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, J. J.; Berthold, John W., III

    1996-10-01

    We characterized the performance of a commercial fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer for use as an ultrasonic sensor, and compared the performance with a standard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) detector. The interferometer was unstabilized. The results showed that the fiber sensor was about 12 times less sensitive than the PZT detector. Ultrasonic frequency response near 100 kHz was demonstrated. We describe the design of the fiber sensor, the details of the tests performed, and potential applications.

  6. An advanced system for automated ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, K.

    1989-01-01

    As the main component of the AUP system, an ALOK ultrasonic unit has been chosen as it allows for testing of large component areas both search for defects and description of defect geometries. All data required for fault analysis can be obtained by one measuring run. For inspection of primary circuit components in nuclear power stations, the manipulator control and the ultrasonic probe are installed behind the first sufficient shielding. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Ultrasonic flow measurements for irrigation process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Elmostafa; Bennouna, Mustapha; Boissier, Raymond

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the general principle of liquid flow measurements by ultrasonic method, and problems of flow measurements. We present an ultrasonic flowmeter designed according to smart sensors concept, for the measurement of irrigation water flowing through pipelines or open channels, using the ultrasonic transit time approach. The new flowmeter works on the principle of measuring time delay differences between sound pulses transmitted upstream and downstream in the flowing liquid. The speed of sound in the flowing medium is eliminated as a variable because the flowrate calculations are based on the reciprocals of the transmission times. The transit time difference is digitally measured by means of a suitable, microprocessor controlled logic. This type of ultrasonic flowmeter will be widely used in industry and water management, it is well studied in this work, followed by some experimental results. For pressurized channels, we use one pair of ultrasonic transducer arranged in proper positions and directions of the pipe, in this case, to determine the liquid velocity, a real time on-line analysis taking account the geometries of the hydraulic system, is applied to the obtained ultrasonic data. In the open channels, we use a single or two pairs of ultrasonic emitter-receiver according to the desired performances. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  8. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2012-01-01

    Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition begins with fundamentals and quickly advances beyond general wave concepts into an in-depth treatment of ultrasonic waves in isotropic media. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, their propagation, technology, and applications, this accessible overview of ultrasonics includes accounts of viscoelasticity and multiple scattering. It examines new technologies, including atomic force acoustic microscopy, lasers, micro-acoustics, and nanotechnology. In addition, it highlights both direct and indirect applicati

  9. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  10. Smartphone confocal microscopy for imaging cellular structures in human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Esther E; Semeere, Aggrey; Osman, Hany; Peterson, Gary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; González, Salvador; Martin, Jeffery N; Anderson, R Rox; Tearney, Guillermo J; Kang, Dongkyun

    2018-04-01

    We report development of a low-cost smartphone confocal microscope and its first demonstration of in vivo human skin imaging. The smartphone confocal microscope uses a slit aperture and diffraction grating to conduct two-dimensional confocal imaging without using any beam scanning devices. Lateral and axial resolutions of the smartphone confocal microscope were measured as 2 and 5 µm, respectively. In vivo confocal images of human skin revealed characteristic cellular structures, including spinous and basal keratinocytes and papillary dermis. Results suggest that the smartphone confocal microscope has a potential to examine cellular details in vivo and may help disease diagnosis in resource-poor settings, where conducting standard histopathologic analysis is challenging.

  11. Ultrasonic Characterization of Superhard Material: Osmium Diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadawa, P K

    2012-01-01

    Higher order elastic constants have been calculated in hexagonal structured superhard material OsB 2 at room temperature following the interaction potential model. The temperature variation of the ultrasonic velocities is evaluated along different angles with unique axis of the crystal using the second order elastic constants. The ultrasonic velocity decreases with the temperature along particular orientation with the unique axis. Temperature variation of the thermal relaxation time and Debye average velocities are also calculated along the same orientation. The temperature dependency of the ultrasonic properties is discussed in correlation with elastic, thermal and electrical properties. It has been found that the thermal conductivity is the main contributor to the behaviour of ultrasonic attenuation as a function of temperature and the responsible cause of attenuation is phonon-phonon interaction. The mechanical properties of OsB 2 at low temperature are better than at high temperature, because at low temperature it has low ultrasonic velocity and ultrasonic attenuation. Superhard material OsB 2 has many industrial applications, such as abrasives, cutting tools and hard coatings.

  12. Microscopia confocal en córneas de cien ojos sanos Confocal microscopy results of one hundred healthy eye corneas

    OpenAIRE

    Zulema Gómez Castillo; Keyly Fernández García; Alain Pérez Tejeda; Susana Márquez Villalón; Madelyn Jareño Ochoa; Judith Cuevas Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar las estructuras celulares por microscopia confocal, Confoscan 4, en córneas sanas en nuestro medio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal a 100 ojos sanos de médicos que trabajan en nuestra institución, y pacientes que asistieron al servicio de córnea. Esta investigación fue desde mayo de 2007 a mayo 2008, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", La Habana. En los médicos se examinaron ambos ojos y en los pacientes el ojo no afectado. S...

  13. Microscopia confocal de la córnea en facoemulsificación Confocal microscopy of the cornea on phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Raúl Hernández Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los cambios estructurales de la córnea en la cirugía de catarata por facoemulsificación sin complicaciones. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de pacientes operados de catarata por facoemulsificación coaxial por la técnica de pre chop sin complicaciones. A estos se les realizó microscopia confocal de la córnea con el CONFOSCAN 4 (Nidek Technologies con el objetivo de 40x y adaptador Z-Ring. Se realizó el estudio en el preoperatorio y en el posoperatorio (a las 24 horas, después de una semana, de un mes y a los tres meses. Resultados: Se demostraron cambios estructurales en la córnea como células epiteliales con núcleos hiperreflectivos alargadas en ocasiones y áreas de hiperreflectividad anómala a las 24 horas del posoperatorio. Persistieron queratocitos activados y la disminución de la hiperreflectividad de la matriz extracelular que desapareció al mes. Conclusiones: Aunque por biomicroscopia no se observen alteraciones corneales en el posoperatorio de la cirugía de catarata por facoemulsificación, sí se pueden demostrar por microscopia confocal de la córnea. Estas variaciones no influyen en la recuperación visual óptima de los pacientes.Objective: To determine the structural changes in the cornea in the cataract surgery using phacoemulsification without complications. Methods: A prospective study of patients operated on from cataract using the coaxial phacoemulsification (Pre Chop technique without complications was carried out. These patients also underwent confocal microscopy of the cornea with Confoscan4 (Nidek Technologies with 40x target and Z - Ring adapter. The study was performed in the preoperative period and postoperative period for 24 hours, one week, one month and three months after surgery. Results: Structural changes were observed in the cornea such as epithelial cells with hypereflectivity nucleus, occasionally elongated, , areas of anomalous hypereflectivity 24 hours after

  14. Confocal stereology and image analysis: methods for estimating geometrical characteristics of cells and tissues from three-dimensional confocal images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Karen, Petr; Radochová, Barbora; Difato, Francesco; Krekule, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl.1 (2004), s. S47-S55 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/01/0257; GA ČR GA310/02/1470; GA AV ČR KJB6011309; GA AV ČR KJB5039302 Grant - others:SI - CZ(CZ) KONTAKT 001/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : confocal microscopy * image analysis * stereology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  15. Embryonic Heart Morphogenesis from Confocal Microscopy Imaging and Automatic Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongda Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart morphogenesis (EHM is a complex and dynamic process where the heart transforms from a single tube into a four-chambered pump. This process is of great biological and clinical interest but is still poorly understood for two main reasons. On the one hand, the existing imaging modalities for investigating EHM suffered from either limited penetration depth or limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, current works typically adopted manual segmentation, which was tedious, subjective, and time consuming considering the complexity of developing heart geometry and the large size of images. In this paper, we propose to utilize confocal microscopy imaging with tissue optical immersion clearing technique to image the heart at different stages of development for EHM study. The imaging method is able to produce high spatial resolution images and achieve large penetration depth at the same time. Furthermore, we propose a novel convex active contour model for automatic image segmentation. The model has the ability to deal with intensity fall-off in depth which is characterized by confocal microscopy images. We acquired the images of embryonic quail hearts from day 6 to day 14 of incubation for EHM study. The experimental results were promising and provided us with an insight view of early heart growth pattern and also paved the road for data-driven heart growth modeling.

  16. CCDiode: an optimal detector for laser confocal microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawley, James B.; Blouke, Morley M.; Janesick, James R.

    1996-04-01

    The laser confocal microscope (LCM) is now an established research tool in biology and materials science. In biological applications, it is usually employed to detect the location of fluorescent market molecules and, under these conditions, signal levels from bright areas are often digitizer. To maintain the desired +/- 3 e noise level at the relatively high data rate of 1 MHz, our new device utilizes 64 separate readout amplifier/digitizer systems, operating in sequence. The resulting detector is more compact, efficient and reliable than the PMT it replaces but as its sensitive area is smaller than that of a PMT, it will require auxiliary optics when used with any LCM having a large (mm) pinhole. As the signal light is parallel, a simple lens mounted axially and with the CCDiode at its focus would suffice. Future versions may use 3 X 3 or 5 X 5 arrays of sensors to `track' the confocal spot as it is deflected by inhomogeneities of the specimen, change its effective size or shape or detect system misalignment.

  17. The confocal plane grating spectrometer at BESSY II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Könnecke, R.; Follath, R.; Pontius, N.; Schlappa, J.; Eggenstein, F.; Zeschke, T.; Bischoff, P.; Schmidt, J.-S.; Noll, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► At the electron storage ring BESSY II a confocal plane grating RIXS endstation with a spot size of 4 μm × 1 μm is presently being installed. ► A resolving power above 10,000 is expected for low energy excitations below 500 eV. ► The sample will be excited with a photon flux up to 10 15 photons/(s 300 mA 0.1%bandwidth). ► Sample environments for solid, gaseous and liquid samples will be provided. ► A fast detecting system is being set up for future pump-probe experiments. -- Abstract: At BESSY II a confocal plane grating spectrometer for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is currently under commissioning. The new endstation operates with a source size of 4 × 1 μm 2 provided by its dedicated beamline. The RIXS-spectrometer covers an energy range from 50 eV to 1000 eV, providing a resolving power E/ΔE of 5000–15,000. The beamline allows full polarization control and gives a photon flux of up to 7 × 10 14 photons/s/0.1 A/0.1%bandwidth by offering a resolving power E/ΔE of 4000–12,000

  18. Fluorescent ligands for studying neuropeptide receptors by confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beaudet

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of confocal microscopy as it pertains to the identification of G-protein coupled receptors and the study of their dynamic properties in cell cultures and in mammalian brain following their tagging with specific fluorescent ligands. Principles that should guide the choice of suitable ligands and fluorophores are discussed. Examples are provided from the work carried out in the authors' laboratory using custom synthetized fluoresceinylated or BODIPY-tagged bioactive peptides. The results show that confocal microscopic detection of specifically bound fluorescent ligands permits high resolution appraisal of neuropeptide receptor distribution both in cell culture and in brain sections. Within the framework of time course experiments, it also allows for a dynamic assessment of the internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking of bound fluorescent molecules. Thus, it was found that neurotensin, somatostatin and mu- and delta-selective opioid peptides are internalized in a receptor-dependent fashion and according to receptor-specific patterns into their target cells. In the case of neurotensin, this internalization process was found to be clathrin-mediated, to proceed through classical endosomal pathways and, in neurons, to result in a mobilization of newly formed endosomes from neural processes to nerve cell bodies and from the periphery of cell bodies towards the perinuclear zone. These mechanisms are likely to play an important role for ligand inactivation, receptor regulation and perhaps also transmembrane signaling.

  19. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  20. Live Imaging of Shoot Meristems on an Inverted Confocal Microscope Using an Objective Lens Inverter Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchuk, Zachary L.; Perdue, Tony D.

    2017-01-01

    Live imaging of above ground meristems can lead to new insights in plant development not possible from static imaging of fixed tissue. The use of an upright confocal microscope offers several technical and biological advantages for live imaging floral or shoot meristems. However, many departments and core facilities possess only inverted confocal microscopes and lack the funding for an additional upright confocal microscope. Here we show that imaging of living apical meristems can be performed on existing inverted confocal microscopes with the use of an affordable and detachable InverterScope accessory. PMID:28579995

  1. Live Imaging of Shoot Meristems on an Inverted Confocal Microscope Using an Objective Lens Inverter Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchuk, Zachary L; Perdue, Tony D

    2017-01-01

    Live imaging of above ground meristems can lead to new insights in plant development not possible from static imaging of fixed tissue. The use of an upright confocal microscope offers several technical and biological advantages for live imaging floral or shoot meristems. However, many departments and core facilities possess only inverted confocal microscopes and lack the funding for an additional upright confocal microscope. Here we show that imaging of living apical meristems can be performed on existing inverted confocal microscopes with the use of an affordable and detachable InverterScope accessory.

  2. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  3. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  4. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-04-01

    Gesturing is a natural way of communication between people and is used in our everyday conversations. Hand gesture recognition systems are used in many applications in a wide variety of fields, such as mobile phone applications, smart TVs, video gaming, etc. With the advances in human-computer interaction technology, gesture recognition is becoming an active research area. There are two types of devices to detect gestures; contact based devices and contactless devices. Using ultrasonic waves for determining gestures is one of the ways that is employed in contactless devices. Hand gesture recognition utilizing ultrasonic waves will be the focus of this thesis work. This thesis presents a new method for detecting and classifying a predefined set of hand gestures using a single ultrasonic transmitter and a single ultrasonic receiver. This method uses a linear frequency modulated ultrasonic signal. The ultrasonic signal is designed to meet the project requirements such as the update rate, the range of detection, etc. Also, it needs to overcome hardware limitations such as the limited output power, transmitter, and receiver bandwidth, etc. The method can be adapted to other hardware setups. Gestures are identified based on two main features; range estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized simple hardware setup was used to classify a set of hand gestures with high accuracy. The detection and classification were done using methods of low computational cost. This makes the proposed method to have a great potential for the implementation in many devices including laptops and mobile phones. The predefined set of gestures can be used for many control applications.

  5. Using Photoshop with images created by a confocal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Many pure colors and grayscales tones that result from confocal imaging are not reproducible to output devices, such as printing presses, laptop projectors, and laser jet printers. Part of the difficulty in predicting the colors and tones that will reproduce lies in both the computer display, and in the display of unreproducible colors chosen for fluorophores. The use of a grayscale display for confocal channels and a LUT display to show saturated (clipped) tonal values aids visualization in the former instance and image integrity in the latter. Computer monitors used for post-processing in order to conform the image to the output device can be placed in darkened rooms, and the gamma for the display can be set to create darker shadow regions, and to control the display of color. These conditions aid in visualization of images so that blacks are set to grayer values that are more amenable to faithful reproduction. Preferences can be set in Photoshop for consistent display of colors, along with other settings to optimize use of memory. The Info window is opened so that tonal information can be shown via readouts. Images that are saved as indexed color are converted to grayscale or RGB Color, 16-bit is converted to 8-bit when desired, and colorized images from confocal software is returned to grayscale and re-colorized according to presented methods so that reproducible colors are made. Images may also be sharpened and noise may be reduced, or more than one image layered to show colocalization according to specific methods. Images are then converted to CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) for consequent assignment of pigment percentages for printing presses. Changes to single images and multiple images from image stacks are automated for efficient and consistent image processing changes. Some additional changes are done to those images destined for 3D visualization to better separate regions of interest from background. Files are returned to image stacks, saved and

  6. Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780 nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate

  7. A Laser-based Ultrasonic Inspection System to Detect Micro Fatigue Cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Park, Moon Cheol; Lim, Chang Hwan; Cha, Hyung Ki

    2005-01-01

    Laser-based ultrasonic techniques have been established as a viable non-contact alternative to piezoelectric transducers for generating and receiving ultrasound. Laser-based ultrasonic inspection system provides a number of advantages over the conventional generation by piezoelectric transducers, especially a non-contact generation and detection of ultrasonic waves, high spatial scanning resolution, controllable narrow-band and wide-band spectrum, absolute measurements of the moving distance, use of fiber optics, and an ability to operate on curved and rough surfaces and at hard-to-access locations like a nuclear power plant. Ochiai and Miura used the laser-based ultrasound to detect micro fatigue cracks for the inspection of a material degradation in nuclear power plants. This widely applicable laser-based ultrasonic inspection system is comparatively expensive and provides low signal-to-noise ratio to measure ultrasound by using the laser interferometer. Many studies have been carried out to improve the measuring efficiency of the laser interferometer. One of the widely used laser interferometer types to measure the ultrasound is the Confocal Fabry-Perot Interferometer(CFPI). The measurement gain of the CFPI is slightly and continually varied according to the small change of the cavity length and the fluctuations of the measuring laser beam frequency with time. If we continually adjust the voltage of a PZT which is fixed to one of the interferometer mirrors, the optimum working point of the CFPI can be fixed. Though a static stabilizer can fix the gain of the CFPI where the CW laser beam is targeted at one position, it can not be used when the CW laser beam is scanned like a scanning laser source(SLS) technique. A dynamic stabilizer can be used for the scanning ultrasonic inspection system. A robust dynamic stabilizer is needed for an application to the industrial inspection fields. Kromine showed that the SLS technique is effective to detect small fatigue cracks

  8. Ultrasonic monitoring of pitting corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, A. J. C.; Cegla, F. B.; Bazaz, H.; Lozev, M.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to corrosive substances in high temperature environments can cause damage accumulation in structural steels, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The interaction mechanisms are complex and varied; however initial damage propagation often manifests itself in the form of localized areas of increased material loss. Recent development of an ultrasonic wall thickness monitoring sensor capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 500°C has allowed permanent monitoring within such hostile environments, providing information on how the shape of a pulse which has reflected from a corroding surface can change over time. Reconstructing localized corrosion depth and position may be possible by tracking such changes in reflected pulse shape, providing extra information on the state of the backwall and whether process conditions should be altered to increase plant life. This paper aims to experimentally investigate the effect certain localized features have on reflected pulse shape by `growing' artificial defects into the backwall while wall thickness is monitored using the sensor. The size and complexity of the three dimensional scattering problem lead to the development of a semi-analytical simulation based on the distributed point source method (DPSM) which is capable of simulating pulse reflection from complex surfaces measuring approximately 17×10λ Comparison to experimental results show that amplitude changes are predicted to within approximately 1dB and that pulse shape changes are accurately modelled. All experiments were carried out at room temperature, measurements at high temperature will be studied in the future.

  9. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  10. Integrated Confocal and Scanning Probe Microscopy for Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Haupt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM continues to be developed, not only in design, but also in application. The new focus of using AFM is changing from pure material to biomedical studies. More frequently, it is being used in combination with other optical imaging methods, such as confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and fluorescent imaging, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of biological systems. To date, AFM has been used increasingly as a precise micromanipulator, probing and altering the mechanobiological characteristics of living cells and tissues, in order to examine specific, receptor-ligand interactions, material properties, and cell behavior. In this review, we discuss the development of this new hybrid AFM, current research, and potential applications in diagnosis and the detection of disease.

  11. Materials and corrosion characterization using the confocal resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigges, C.P.; Sorensen, N.R.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Improved characterization and process control is important to many Sandia and DOE programs related to manufacturing. Many processes/structures are currently under-characterized including thin film growth, corrosion and semiconductor structures, such as implant profiles. A sensitive tool is required that is able to provide lateral and vertical imaging of the electromagnetic properties of a sample. The confocal resonator is able to characterize the surface and near-surface impedance of materials. This device may be applied to a broad range of applications including in situ evaluation of thin film processes, physical defect detection/characterization, the characterization of semiconductor devices and corrosion studies. In all of these cases, the technology should work as a real-time process diagnostic or as a feedback mechanism regarding the quality of a manufacturing process. This report summarizes the development and exploration of several diagnostic applications.

  12. Confocal mapping of myelin figures with micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jung-Ren; Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Hung Ji; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2018-01-01

    We employ confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (CMRS) with submicron spatial resolution to study the myelin structures (cylindrical lamellae) composed of nested surfactant C12E3 or lipid DMPC bilayers. The CMRS mapping indicates that for a straight C12E3 myelin, the surfactant concentration increases with the myelin width and is higher in the center region than in the peripheral region. For a curved C12E3 myelin, the convex side has a higher surfactant concentration than the corresponding concave side. The spectrum of DMPC myelins undergoes a qualitative change as the temperature increases above 60 °C, suggesting that the surfactant molecules may be damaged. Our work demonstrates the utility of CMRS in bio-soft material research.

  13. Confocal imaging of protein distributions in porous silicon optical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefano, Luca; D'Auria, Sabato

    2007-01-01

    The performances of porous silicon optical biosensors depend strongly on the arrangement of the biological probes into their sponge-like structures: it is well known that in this case the sensing species do not fill the pores but instead cover their internal surface. In this paper, the direct imaging of labelled proteins into different porous silicon structures by using a confocal laser microscope is reported. The distribution of the biological matter in the nanostructured material follows a Gaussian behaviour which is typical of the diffusion process in the porous media but with substantial differences between a porous silicon monolayer and a multilayer such as a Bragg mirror. Even if semi-quantitative, the results can be very useful in the design of the porous silicon based biosensing devices

  14. Signal and noise modeling in confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberich, Gerlind; Windoffer, Reinhard; Leube, Rudolf E; Aach, Til

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has revolutionized imaging of subcellular structures in biomedical research by enabling the acquisition of 3D time-series of fluorescently-tagged proteins in living cells, hence forming the basis for an automated quantification of their morphological and dynamic characteristics. Due to the inherently weak fluorescence, CLSM images exhibit a low SNR. We present a novel model for the transfer of signal and noise in CLSM that is both theoretically sound as well as corroborated by a rigorous analysis of the pixel intensity statistics via measurement of the 3D noise power spectra, signal-dependence and distribution. Our model provides a better fit to the data than previously proposed models. Further, it forms the basis for (i) the simulation of the CLSM imaging process indispensable for the quantitative evaluation of CLSM image analysis algorithms, (ii) the application of Poisson denoising algorithms and (iii) the reconstruction of the fluorescence signal.

  15. Ex vivo confocal microscopy: an emerging technique in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Jean Luc; Labeille, Bruno; Cambazard, Frédéric; Rubegni, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to give an overview of the current available applications of ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) in dermatology. EVCM is a relatively new imaging technique that allows microscopic examination of freshly excised unfixed tissue. It enables a rapid examination of the skin sample directly in the surgery room and thus represents an alternative to the intraoperative micrographic control of the surgical margins of cutaneous tumors by standard microscopic examination on cryopreserved sections during Mohs surgery. Although this technique has mainly been developed for the margin’s control of basal cell carcinoma, many other skin tumors have been studied, including melanoma. Use of EVCM is continuing to evolve, and many possible applications are under investigation, such as the study of nails and hair diseases and the diagnosis of skin infections. PMID:29785327

  16. The digital ultrasonic test unit for automatic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, T.; Matsuyama, H.

    1976-01-01

    The operations and features of the ultrasonic test unit used and the digital data processing techniques employed are described. This unit is used for a few hundred multi-channel automatic ultrasonic test equipment

  17. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir; El Sayed, Tamer

    2012-01-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects

  18. P-Scan provides accuracy and repeatability in ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The P-Scan (Projection image scanning technique) is an automated ultrasonic inspection technique, developed to overcome the problems with accuracy and repeatability experienced with manual ultrasonic systems. The equipment and its applications are described. (author)

  19. Method and apparatus to characterize ultrasonically reflective contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for characterizing the time and frequency response of an ultrasonically reflective contrast agent is disclosed. An ultrasonically reflective contrast agent is injected, under constant pressure, into a fluid flowing through a pump flow circuit. The fluid and the ultrasonically reflective contrast agent are uniformly mixed in a mixing chamber, and the uniform mixture is passed through a contrast agent chamber. The contrast agent chamber is acoustically and axially interposed between an ultrasonic transducer chamber and an acoustic isolation chamber. A pulse of ultrasonic energy is transmitted into the contrast agent chamber from the ultrasonic transducer chamber. An echo waveform is received from the ultrasonically reflective contrast agent, and it is analyzed to determine the time and frequency response of the ultrasonically reflective contrast agent.

  20. Automated electronic intruder simulator for evaluation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    An automated electronic intruder simulator for testing ultrasonic intrusion detectors is described. This simulator is primarily intended for use in environmental chambers to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on the operation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

  1. Development and Application of an Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Ho; Jeong, Hee Don; Park, Sang Gug; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the field application of the ultrasonic gas flowmeter for accurate measurement of the volumetric flow rate of gases in a harsh environmental conditions in iron and steel making company. This ultrasonic flowmeter is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. This is a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have developed the transmitting and receiving algorithm of ultrasonic wave and the ultrasonic signal processing algorithm to develope a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have evaluated the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter by the calibration system with Venturi type standard flowmeter. We has confirmed its reliability by extensive field tests for a year in POSCO, iron and steel making company. Now we have developed the commercial model of ultrasonic flowmeter and applied to the POSCO gas line

  2. Study on electrical impedance matching for broadband ultrasonic transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Woo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Bok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Safety Measurement, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kwang Sae [Elache Co., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Ultrasonic transducers with high resolution and resonant frequency are required to detect small defects (less than hundreds of μm) by ultrasonic testing. The resonance frequency and resolution of an ultrasonic transducer are closely related to the thickness of piezo-electric materials, backing materials, and the electric impedance matching technique. Among these factors, electrical impedance matching plays an important role because it can reduce the loss and reflection of ultrasonic energy differences in electrical impedance between an ultrasonic transducer and an ultrasonic defects detecting system. An LC matching circuit is the most frequently used electric matching method. It is necessary for the electrical impedance of an ultrasonic transducer to correspond to approximately 50 Ω to compensate the difference in electrical impedance between both connections. In this study, a 15 MHz immersion ultrasonic transducer was fabricated and an LC electrical impedance circuit was applied to that for having broad-band frequency characteristic.

  3. Ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids and phenolics from loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... ultrasonic pharmaceutical managing machine (Sinobest electronic. Co. Ltd., Jining, Shangdong ... During the ultrasonic treatment, the temperature ..... essential oil extraction by a hydrodistillation process using a 2(4) complete ...

  4. Electrocautery causes more ischemic peritoneal tissue damage than ultrasonic dissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R.P.G ten; Wilbers, J.; Goor, H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing peritoneal tissue injury during abdominal surgery has the benefit of reducing postoperative inflammatory response, pain, and adhesion formation. Ultrasonic dissection seems to reduce tissue damage. This study aimed to compare electrocautery and ultrasonic dissection in terms

  5. Studies on Section XI ultrasonic repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, T.D.; McDearman, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    A block representative of a nuclear component has been welded containing intentional defects. Acoustic emission data taken during the welding correlate well with ultrasonic data. Repetitive ultrasonic examinations have been performed by skilled operators using a procedure based on that desribed in ASME Section XI. These examinations were performed by different examination teams using different ultrasonic equipment in such a manner that the effects on the repeatability of the ultrasonic test method caused by the operator and by the use of different equipment could be estimated. It was tentatively concluded that when considering a large number of inspections: (1) there is no significant difference in indication sizing between operators, and (2) there is a significant difference in amplitude and defect sizing when instruments having different, Code acceptable operating characteristics are used. It was determined that the Section XI sizing parameters follow a bivariate normal distribution. Data derived from ultrasonically and physically sizing indications in nuclear components during farication show that the Section XI technique tends to overestimate the size of the reflectors

  6. Further Investigations on Simultaneous Ultrasonic Coal Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Gokhan Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flotation performance of a representative hard coal slime sample (d80 particle size of minus 0.2 mm obtained from the Prosper-Haniel coal preparation plant located in Bottrop, Germany. Flotation was carried out with a newly designed flotation cell refurbished from an old ultrasonic cleaning bath (2.5 L volume equipped with a single frequency (35 kHz and two different power levels (80–160 W and a sub-aeration-type flotation machine operating at a stable impeller speed (1200 rpm and air rate (2.5 L/min. The reagent combination for conventional and simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation tests was Ekofol-440 at variable dosages (40–300 g/t with controlling water temperature (20–25 °C at natural pH (6.5–7.0. The batch coal flotation results were analyzed by comparing the combustible recovery (% and separation efficiency (% values, taking mass yield and ash concentrations of the froths and tailings into account. It was found that simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation increased yield and recovery values of the floated products with lower ash values than the conventional flotation despite using similar reagent dosages. Furthermore, particle size distribution of the ultrasonically treated and untreated coals was measured. Finely distributed coal particles seemed to be agglomerated during the ultrasonic treatment, while ash-forming slimes were removed by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  7. Standard practice for leaks using ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Practice A, Pressurization—This practice covers procedures for calibration of ultrasonic instruments, location, and estimated measurements of gas leakage to atmosphere by the airborne ultrasonic technique. 1.2 In general practice this should be limited to leaks detected by two classifications of instruments, Class I and Class II. Class I instruments should have a minimum detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−7 mol/s (1.5 × 10−2 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Class II instruments should have a minimal detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−6 mol/s (1.5 × 10−1 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Refer to Guide E432 for additional information. 1.3 Practice B, Ultrasonic Transmitter—For object under test not capable of being pressurized but capable of having ultrasonic tone placed/injected into the test area to act as an ultrasonic leak trace source. 1.3.1 This practice is limited to leaks producing leakage o...

  8. Ultrasonic imaging in LMFBRs using digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fothergill, J.R.; McKnight, J.A.; Barrett, L.M.

    Ultrasonic technology for providing images of components immersed in the opaque sodium of LMFBRs is being developed at RNL. For many years the application has been restricted by the unavailability of convenient ultrasonic sources and receivers capable of withstanding the reactor environment. Until recently, for example, important ultrasonic instrument design, such as for future sweep arms, had to be based on waveguided ultrasonics. RNL have developed an economic immersible transducer that can be deployed during reactor shut-down, when many demands for ultrasonic imaging are made. The transducer design is not suited at present to the sophisticated techniques of phased arrays; consequently image formation must depend on the physical scanning of a target using one or more transducers in pulse-echo mode. The difficulties of access into a fast reactor impose further restrictions. Some applications may involve easy scanning sequences, thus the sweep arm requires only a rotation to provide a map of the reactor core area. For a more detailed examination of the same area, however, special engineering solutions are needed to provide a more satisfactory scanning sequence. A compromise solution involving the rotating shield movement is being used for a PFR experiment to examine a limited area of the core. (author)

  9. Uncertainty estimation of ultrasonic thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassir Yassen, Abdul Razak Daud; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail; Abdul Aziz Jemain

    2009-01-01

    The most important factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting ultrasonic thickness measurement technique is its reliability. Only when the uncertainty of a measurement results is known, it may be judged if the result is adequate for intended purpose. The objective of this study is to model the ultrasonic thickness measurement function, to identify the most contributing input uncertainty components, and to estimate the uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement results. We assumed that there are five error sources significantly contribute to the final error, these sources are calibration velocity, transit time, zero offset, measurement repeatability and resolution, by applying the propagation of uncertainty law to the model function, a combined uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement was obtained. In this study the modeling function of ultrasonic thickness measurement was derived. By using this model the estimation of the uncertainty of the final output result was found to be reliable. It was also found that the most contributing input uncertainty components are calibration velocity, transit time linearity and zero offset. (author)

  10. Ultrasonic scanner for stainless steel weld inspections. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D. S.; Reimann, K. J.

    1978-09-01

    The large grain size and anisotropic nature of stainless steel weld metal make conventional ultrasonic testing very difficult. A technique is evaluated for minimizing the coherent ultrasonic noise in stainless steel weld metal. The method involves digitizing conventional ''A-scan'' traces and averaging them with a minicomputer. Results are presented for an ultrasonic scanner which interrogates a small volume of the weld metal while averaging the coherent ultrasonic noise.

  11. Training methods in non-destructive examination with ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walte, F.

    1986-01-01

    German concept for inspection of LWR, leak before break, basic safety; General inspection methods; Ultrasonic inspection - basic principle, generation of ultrasound, bulk and surface waves, piezo electric and electromagnetic transducers, energy balance, scattering and adsorption, divergence; Ultra techniques in compliance with KTA-rules - pulse-echo, tandem, throughtransmission; Valuation of ultrasonic indications; Pre- and in-service inspection; Practical part - ultrasonic equipment, ultrasonic piezo electric transducers, wall thickness measurement, crack depth measurement with potential drop technique. (orig.)

  12. Ultrasonic Cleaning of Nuclear Steam Generator by Micro Bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Tae [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Tae; Yoon, Sang Jung [Sae-An Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present ultrasonic cleaning technology for a nuclear steam generator using micro bubble. We could extend the boundary of ultrasonic cleaning by using micro bubbles in water. Ultrasonic energy measured was increased about 5 times after the generation of micro bubbles in water. Furthermore, ultrasound energy was measured to be strong enough to create cavitation even though the ultrasound sensor was about 2 meters away from the ultrasonic transducer

  13. Transient gels in colloid-polymer mixtures studied with fluorescence confocal scanning laser microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, N.A.M.; Asnaghi, D.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1999-01-01

    We study the structure and the time evolution of transient gels formed in colloid-polymer mixtures, by means of uorescence Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM). This technique is used in conjunction with novel colloidal silica particles containing a uorescent core. The confocal micrographs

  14. Configurations of the Re-scan Confocal Microscope (RCM) for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Luca, G. M. R.; Desclos, E.; Breedijk, R. M. P.; Dolz-Edo, L.; Smits, G. J.; Bielefeld, P.; Picavet, L.; Fitzsimons, C. P.; Hoebe, R.; Manders, E. M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The new high-sensitive and high-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), is based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan detection unit. The re-scan unit includes a pair of re-scanning mirrors that project the emission light onto a camera in a scanning manner. The

  15. Configurations of the Re-scan Confocal Microscope (RCM) for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.M.R.; Desclos, E.; Breedijk, R.M.P.; Dolz-Edo, L.; Smits, G.J.; Nahidiazar, L.; Bielefeld, P.; Picavet, L.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; Hoebe, R.; Manders, E.M.M.

    The new high-sensitive and high-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), is based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan detection unit. The re-scan unit includes a pair of re-scanning mirrors that project the emission light onto a camera in a scanning manner. The

  16. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy Imaging-Guided Confocal Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Desheng; Kaldaras, Leonora; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an integrated spectroscopy system combining total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging with confocal single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy for two-dimensional interfaces. This spectroscopy approach is capable of both multiple molecules simultaneously sampling and in situ confocal fluorescence dynamics analyses of individual molecules of interest. We have demonstrated the calibration with fluorescent microspheres, and carried out single-molecule spectroscop...

  17. Improved axial resolution of FINCH fluorescence microscopy when combined with spinning disk confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Nisan; Brooker, Gary

    2014-09-22

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. Addition of a Nipkow disk real-time confocal image scanner is shown to reduce the FINCH depth of focus while improving transverse confocal resolution in a combined method called "CINCH".

  18. Contact-free ultrasonic testing: applications to metrology and NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, A.

    1988-01-01

    In some cases classical ultrasonic testing is impossible because of adverse environment (high temperature, ionizing radiations, etc). Ultrasonic waves are created by laser impact and detected by electromagneto-acoustic transducers or laser interferometry. Association of ultrasonics generation by photoacoustic effect and reception by heterodyne interferometer is promising for the future [fr

  19. Experiences in using ultrasonic holography with numerical and optical reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, V.; Wosnitza, M.

    1978-01-01

    At present, ultrasonic holography can resolve and image faults of 1 mm and more and with distances of one ultrasonic wavelength. The main field of application is for thick-walled structural components. Depending on the expected orientation, test probe arrangements as in standard ultrasonic testing are chosen. (orig./RW) [de

  20. Microscopia confocal en córneas de cien ojos sanos Confocal microscopy results of one hundred healthy eye corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Gómez Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar las estructuras celulares por microscopia confocal, Confoscan 4, en córneas sanas en nuestro medio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal a 100 ojos sanos de médicos que trabajan en nuestra institución, y pacientes que asistieron al servicio de córnea. Esta investigación fue desde mayo de 2007 a mayo 2008, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", La Habana. En los médicos se examinaron ambos ojos y en los pacientes el ojo no afectado. Se recopilaron un total de 50 casos sin afección corneal. Resultados: De los 100 ojos estudiados, 64 tenían paquimetrías por encima del valor medio. Estuvieron presentes los tres tipos de células epiteliales en casi la totalidad de los pacientes; así como los queratocitos en las diferentes profundidades del estroma corneal. La mayoría de los ojos tenían un conteo celular endotelial por encima de 2 500, cifra comprendida dentro de los valores normales. Se encontraron fibras nerviosas en cada una de sus capas. Conclusiones: La microscopia confocal se presenta como una nueva herramienta que permite observar en vivo la histología corneal y complementar las observaciones de la biomicroscopia convencional. Esto constituye un reto para el mejor entendimiento de la histopatología corneal. De esta manera podemos actuar de forma profiláctica y terapéutica, en el seguimiento y evolución de patologías corneales.Objective: This paper is aimed at analyzing the corneal cellular structures through Confoscan S4-aided confocal microscopy in apparently healthy corneas. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study of 100 healthy eyes from practicing doctors, and from patients who had attended the corneal service at “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in Havana since May 2007 was conducted. Both eyes of participating doctors were examined whereas the non-affected eye was examined in the patients. A total of 50 cases with no corneal

  1. Estudio del endotelio corneal en el queratocono por microscopia confocal Study of the corneal endothelium confocal microscopy in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Benítez Merino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos morfométricos del endotelio corneal por microscopia confocal con CONFOSCAN S-4. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de 102 ojos con queratocono en el período de septiembre de 2008 a septiembre 2009. A estos pacientes se les realizó microscopia confocal con CosfoscanS-4 para el estudio del endotelio corneal atendiendo el grado de queratocono. Se analizó el comportamiento de la evolución del queratocono según edad y sexo. Las imágenes fueron analizadas y procesadas mediante un programa informático diseñado específicamente para esto. Resultados: Fueron semejantes las edades de los pacientes con queratocono grado I y II, (35,2 y 34,7 años, los grado III presentaron una edad promedio mayor (38,4 años, sin diferencias significativas (p= 0,279. El sexo femenino predominó en 80,4 % de los pacientes. El 100 % de los queratoconos grado III tuvieron endotelios patológicos. Los valores promedios de la densidad celular en los queratoconos grado III (2585,9 células/mm² resultó no significativo (p= 0,339. El polimegatismo en los queratoconos grado III para un 48,69 % fue significativo (p= 0,002. En el pleomorfismo resultó significativo las diferencias observadas entre los tres grados (p= 0,002. Conclusión: Predominó el queratocono grado II para las mujeres y el grado I para los hombres. Los hallazgos morfológicos se manifestaron en la forma y tamaño de las células endoteliales. En córneas con queratocono grado II y III confluyeron células de mediano y gran tamaño con pérdida de su hexagonalidad. La densidad celular se mantuvo dentro del rango de valores normales para cualquier grado de queratocono.Objective: To describe the morphometric findings of the corneal endothelium confocal microscopy with CONFOSCAN S-4 Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 102 eyes with keratoconus performed from September 2008 to September 2009. The study patients had undergone confocal microscopy with

  2. The application of confocal technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics in surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangcui; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yude; Liu, Hehe; Zhao, Weigang; Zhang, Ruixia; Min, Qin; Peng, Song

    2013-01-01

    A confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics was proposed for determining surface topography. This confocal topography method involves elemental sensitivity and can be used to classify the objects according to their elemental composition while obtaining their surface topography. To improve the spatial resolution of this confocal topography technology, the center of the confocal micro-volume was overlapped with the output focal spot of the polycapillary X-ray, focusing the lens in the excitation channel. The input focal spot of the X-ray lens parallel to the detection channel was used to determine the surface position of the sample. The corresponding surface adaptive algorithm was designed to obtain the surface topography. The surface topography of a ceramic chip was obtained. This confocal MXRF surface topography method could find application in the materials sciences

  3. Numerical shaping of the ultrasonic wavelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonis, M.

    1991-01-01

    Improving the performance and the quality of ultrasonic testing requires the numerical control of the shape of the driving signal applied to the piezoelectric transducer. This allows precise shaping of the ultrasonic field wavelet and corrections for the physical defects of the transducer, which are mainly due to the damper or the lens. It also does away with the need for an accurate electric matching. It then becomes feasible to characterize, a priori, the ultrasonic wavelet by means of temporal and/or spectral specifications and to use, subsequently, an adaptative algorithm to calculate the corresponding driving wavelet. Moreover, the versatility resulting from the numerical control of this wavelet allows it to be changed in real time during a test

  4. Method of noncontacting ultrasonic process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel V.; Walter, John B.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    A method of monitoring a material during processing comprising the steps of (a) shining a detection light on the surface of a material; (b) generating ultrasonic waves at the surface of the material to cause a change in frequency of the detection light; (c) detecting a change in the frequency of the detection light at the surface of the material; (d) detecting said ultrasonic waves at the surface point of detection of the material; (e) measuring a change in the time elapsed from generating the ultrasonic waves at the surface of the material and return to the surface point of detection of the material, to determine the transit time; and (f) comparing the transit time to predetermined values to determine properties such as, density and the elastic quality of the material.

  5. Determine bond strength by ultrasonic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Application of ultrasonic methods for the evaluation and measurement of bond strength has been the object of numerous investigations in the last fifteen years. Some investigators have reported good success (in limited application) while others have experienced dismal failure. One problem common to all investigations was the difficulty in extracting and isolating the many components which comprise the ultrasonic signal reflected from a bonded interface. Part of this problem was due to manually extracting individual parameters from large volumes of raw data. However, with the vast technology now available in the field of signal analysis and computerized data processing, it is feasible to isolate and analyze individual parameters within the ultrasonic signal for great volumes of raw data

  6. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  7. Ultrasonic grinding of optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael; Bechtold, Michael; Fess, Edward; Stephan, Thomas; Bechtold, Rob

    2017-10-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, PCA, or Silicon Carbide can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Slow processing speeds, premature tool wear, and poor surface quality are common results of the tough mechanical properties of these materials. Often, as a preparatory stage for polishing, the finish of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. To overcome these challenges, OptiPro Systems has developed an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has been designed for the precision optics and ceramics industry. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations, in microns of amplitude, in line with the rotating spindle. A software package, IntelliSonic, is integral to the function of this platform. IntelliSonic can automatically characterize tooling during setup to identify and select the ideal resonant peak which to operate at. Then, while grinding, IntelliSonic continuously adjusts the output frequency for optimal grinding efficiency while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more precise surface. Utilizing a variety of instruments, tests have proven to show a reduction in force between tool and part by up to 50%, while increasing the surface quality and reducing tool wear. This paper will present the challenges associated with these materials and solutions created to overcome them.

  8. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  10. Development of coaxial ultrasonic probe for fatty liver diagnostic system using ultrasonic velocity change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Makoto; Yokota, Daiki; Aotani, Yuhei; Kumagai, Yuta; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2017-07-01

    A diagnostic system for fatty liver at an early stage is needed because fatty liver is linked to metabolic syndrome. We have already proposed a fatty liver diagnosis method based on the temperature coefficient of ultrasonic velocity. In this study, we fabricated a coaxial ultrasonic probe by integrating two kinds of transducers for warming and signal detection. The diagnosis system equipped with the coaxial probe was applied to tissue-mimicking phantoms including the fat area. The fat content rates corresponding to the set rates of the phantoms were estimated by the ultrasonic velocity-change method.

  11. Ultrasonic unit for line-by-line ultrasonic scanning of bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldner, R.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic unit for medical diagnostics operates by the sectorial scanning principle, which avoids direct coupling of the transducer head to the surface of the body. For this purpose, several transmitter/receiver units (approx. 100) are arranged on a partial ring of a circular arc and the ultrasonic beams, which can be triggered sequentially in time, are directed at a common intersection behind the ultrasonic window of the unit, i.e., outside the unit. A mechanical system is employed to set and adjust the partial ring carrying the transmitter/receiver units. (DG) [de

  12. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented

  13. Absorption and dispersion of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Herzfeld, Karl F; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1959-01-01

    Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves focuses on the influence of ultrasonics on molecular processes in liquids and gases, including hydrodynamics, energy exchange, and chemical reactions. The book first offers information on the Stokes-Navier equations of hydrodynamics, as well as equations of motion, viscosity, formal introduction of volume viscosity, and linearized wave equation for a nonviscous fluid. The manuscript then ponders on energy exchange between internal and external degrees of freedom as relaxation phenomenon; effect of slow energy exchange on sound propagation; differe

  14. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  15. Ultrasonic process for detoxification of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an investigation of the ultrasonic irradiation of carbon tetrachloride at various pH values, temperatures, and power intensities. Kinetic data and selected chemical mechanism are discussed and proposed. To study oxidant efficiency, chemical oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, are also considered. This work is part of a project entitled ''Ultrasonic Process for Detoxification of Groundwater and Soil,'' sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to develop an innovative process for the effective destruction of chlorinated organics in soil and groundwater

  16. Ultrasonic Ranging System With Increased Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William E.; Johnson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Master-oscillator frequency increased. Ultrasonic range-measuring system with 0.1-in. resolution provides continuous digital display of four distance readings, each updated four times per second. Four rangefinder modules in system are modified versions of rangefinder used for automatic focusing in commercial series of cameras. Ultrasonic pulses emitted by system innocuous to both people and equipment. Provides economical solutions to such distance-measurement problems as posed by boats approaching docks, truck backing toward loading platform, runway-clearance readout for tail of airplane with high angle attack, or burglar alarm.

  17. Control of hydrodynamic cavitation using ultrasonic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dhiman; Arakeri, Vijay H.

    2003-11-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation is known to have many harmful effects like surface damage and generation of noise. We investigated the use of ultrasonics to control traveling bubble cavitation. Ultrasonic pressure field, produced by a piezoelectric crystal, was applied to modify the nuclei size distribution. Effects of continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed excitations were studied. At low dissolved gas content the CW-mode performed better than the pulsed one, whereas for high gas content the pulsed one was more effective. The dominant mechanisms were Bjerknes force and rectified diffusion in these two cases. Simultaneous excitation by two crystals in CW and pulsed modes was seen to control cavitation better.

  18. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  19. Laser ultrasonic receivers based on photorefractive materials in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamiri Hosseinzadeh, S.

    2014-01-01

    The field of laser ultrasonics is one of the most interesting topics in which laser light is used for the generation and the detection of ultrasound waves in materials. This contactless method is extremely useful for materials inspection being nondestructive and contactless, especially for hazardous environments. In this method a pulsed laser with a short pulse length of e.g. nano- or even picoseconds is focused on the surface of a specimen and then ultrasonic waves, nanometer vibrations, such as surface and bulk waves are generated and propagate in all directions on to the material. For contactless detection of ultrasonic waves several interferometers such as confocal Fabry-Perot, Michelson, and long path difference interferometers have been applied. Each of them has its individual advantages and disadvantages concerning, e.g., frequency responses and sensitivity. However, most of these interferometers work best on mirror-like surfaces and exhibit reduced sensitivity on rough surfaces. Also these kinds of interferometer are sensible to external noise as air fluctuations, sample vibrations or thermal deformations, thus requiring relatively complex stabilization techniques. This hinders their applicability in industrial applications with harsh environmental conditions. As an alternative to the before mentioned techniques interferometers based on photorefractive materials (PR) have been established. A typical two wave mixing interferometer (TWMI) configuration enables broadband ultrasonic measurements on rough surfaces. These types of interferometers have a good sensitivity up to 3e-7 nm(W/Hz) 1/2 spatially for samples with a high rough surface unlike the Michelson interferometer. By using ferroelectric photorefractive crystals such as LiNbO:Fe+2, sensitivity even is enhanced to 4e-8 nm(W/Hz) 1/2 but response time in these crystals is slower. In this work, contactless interferometer set ups based on photorefractive materials such as BSO (Bismuth Silicon Oxide: Bi 12

  20. Ultrasonic Tomography Imaging for Liquid-Gas Flow Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jaysuman PUSPPANATHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to measure two-phase liquid – gas flow regime by using a dual functionality ultrasonic transducer. Comparing to the common separated transmitter–receiver ultrasonic pairs transducer, the dual functionality ultrasonic transceiver is capable to produce the same measurable results hence further improvises and contributes to the hardware design improvement and system accuracy. Due to the disadvantages and the limitations of the separated ultrasonic transmitter–receiver pair, this paper presents a non-invasive ultrasonic tomography system using ultrasonic transceivers as an alternative approach. Implementation of ultrasonic transceivers, electronic measurement circuits, data acquisition system and suitable image reconstruction algorithms, the measurement of a liquid/gas flow was realized.

  1. Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Caterina; Lallas, Aimilios; Kyrgidis, Athanassios; Rabinovitz, Harold; Moscarella, Elvira; Ciardo, Silvana; Zalaudek, Iris; Oliviero, Margaret; Losi, Amanda; Gonzalez, Salvador; Guitera, Pascale; Piana, Simonetta; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    The current guidelines for the management of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) suggest a different therapeutic approach according to histopathologic subtype. Although dermatoscopic and confocal criteria of BCC have been investigated, no specific studies were performed to evaluate the distinct reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) aspects of BCC subtypes. To define the specific dermatoscopic and confocal criteria for delineating different BCC subtypes. Dermatoscopic and confocal images of histopathologically confirmed BCCs were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of predefined criteria. Frequencies of dermatoscopic and confocal parameters are provided. Univariate and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Discriminant analyses were performed to define the independent confocal criteria for distinct BCC subtypes. Eighty-eight BCCs were included. Dermatoscopically, superficial BCCs (n=44) were primarily typified by the presence of fine telangiectasia, multiple erosions, leaf-like structures, and revealed cords connected to the epidermis and epidermal streaming upon RCM. Nodular BCCs (n=22) featured the classic dermatoscopic features and well outlined large basaloid islands upon RCM. Infiltrative BCCs (n=22) featured structureless, shiny red areas, fine telangiectasia, and arborizing vessels on dermatoscopy and dark silhouettes upon RCM. The retrospective design. Dermatoscopy and confocal microscopy can reliably classify different BCC subtypes. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Research and application on imaging technology of line structure light based on confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenfeng; Xiao, Zexin; Wang, Xiaofen

    2009-11-01

    In 2005, the theory of line structure light confocal microscopy was put forward firstly in China by Xingyu Gao and Zexin Xiao in the Institute of Opt-mechatronics of Guilin University of Electronic Technology. Though the lateral resolution of line confocal microscopy can only reach or approach the level of the traditional dot confocal microscopy. But compared with traditional dot confocal microscopy, it has two advantages: first, by substituting line scanning for dot scanning, plane imaging only performs one-dimensional scanning, with imaging velocity greatly improved and scanning mechanism simplified, second, transfer quantity of light is greatly improved by substituting detection hairline for detection pinhole, and low illumination CCD is used directly to collect images instead of photoelectric intensifier. In order to apply the line confocal microscopy to practical system, based on the further research on the theory of the line confocal microscopy, imaging technology of line structure light is put forward on condition of implementation of confocal microscopy. Its validity and reliability are also verified by experiments.

  3. Enhancement of fluorescence confocal scanning microscopy lateral resolution by use of structured illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taejoong; Gweon, DaeGab; Lee, Jun-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging technique used to reconstruct three-dimensional images without physical sectioning. As with other optical microscopes, the lateral resolution of the confocal microscope cannot surpass the diffraction limit. This paper presents a novel imaging system, structured illumination confocal scanning microscopy (SICSM), that uses structured illumination to improve the lateral resolution of the confocal microscope. The SICSM can easily be implemented by introducing a structured illumination generating optics to conventional line-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy. In this paper, we report our analysis of the lateral and axial resolutions of the SICSM by use of mathematical imaging theory. Numerical simulation results show that the lateral resolution of the SICSM is 1.43-fold better than that of the confocal microscope. In the axial direction, however, the resolution of the SICSM is ∼15% poorer than that of the confocal microscope. This deterioration arises because of a decrease in the axial cut-off frequency caused by the process of generating structured illumination. We propose the use of imaging conditions under which a compromise between the axial and lateral resolutions is chosen. Finally, we show simulated images of diversely shaped test objects to demonstrate the lateral and axial resolution performance of the SICSM

  4. Intravital Confocal and Two-photon Imaging of Dual-color Cells and Extracellular Matrix Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ufuk; Andresen, Volker; Baggett, Brenda; Utzinger, Urs

    2013-01-01

    To optimize imaging of cells in three dimensional culture we studied confocal backscattering, Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and autofluorescence as source of contrast in extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics and evaluated the attenuation as well as bleaching of endogenous cellular fluorescence signals. All common ECM mimics exhibit contrast observable with confocal reflectance microscopy. SHG imaging on collagen I based hydrogels provides high contrast and good optical penetration depth. Agarose is a useful embedding medium because it allows for large optical penetration and exhibits minimal autofluorescence while still providing good reflectance to detect voids in the embedding medium. We labeled breast cancer cells’ outline with DsRed2 and nucleus with eGFP. DsRed2 can be excited with confocal imaging at 568nm, and with two photon excitation (TPE) in the red and longer NIR. eGFP was excited at 488nm for confocal and in the NIR for TPE. While there is small difference in the bleaching rate for eGFP between confocal and TPE we observed significant difference for DsRed2 where bleaching is strongest during TPE in the red wavelengths and smallest during confocal imaging. After a few hundred microns depth in a collagen I hydrogel, TPE fluorescence becomes twice as strong compared to confocal imaging. PMID:23380006

  5. Conversion efficiency of implanted ions by confocal micro-luminescence mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshko, Y.; Huang, Mengbing; Gorokhovsky, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the further development of the statistical approach to determine the conversion efficiency of implanted ions into emitting centers and present the measurement method based on the confocal micro-luminescence mapping. It involves the micro-luminescence mapping with a narrow-open confocal aperture, followed by the statistical analysis of the photoluminescence signal from an ensemble of emitting centers. The confocal mapping method has two important advantages compared to the recently discussed aperture-free method (J. Lumin. 131 (2011) 489): it is less sensitive to errors in the laser spot size and has a well defined useful area. The confocal mapping has been applied to the Xe center in diamond. The conversion efficiency has been found to be about 0.28, which is in good agreement with the results of the aperture-free method. - Highlights: ► Conversion efficiency of implanted ions into emitting centers – statistical approach. ► Micro-luminescence mapping with open and narrow confocal aperture – comparison. ► Advantages of the confocal micro-luminescence mapping. ► Confocal micro-luminescence mapping has been applied to the Xe center in diamond. ► The conversion efficiency has been found to be about 0.28.

  6. Ultrasonic Low-Friction Containment Plate for Thermal and Ultrasonic Stir Weld Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Karl; Short, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The thermal stir welding (TSW) process is finding applications in fabrication of space vehicles. In this process, workpieces to be joined by TSW are drawn, by heavy forces, between "containment plates," past the TSW tool that then causes joining of the separate plates. It is believed that the TSW process would be significantly improved by reducing the draw force, and that this could be achieved by reducing the friction forces between the workpieces and containment plates. Based on use of high-power ultrasonics in metal forming processes, where friction reduction in drawing dies has been achieved, it is believed that ultrasonic vibrations of the containment plates could achieve similar friction reduction in the TSW process. By applying ultrasonic vibrations to the containment plates in a longitudinal vibration mode, as well as by mounting and holding the containment plates in a specific manner such as to permit the plates to acoustically float, friction between the metal parts and the containment plates is greatly reduced, and so is the drawing force. The concept was to bring in the ultrasonics from the sides of the plates, permitting the ultrasonic hardware to be placed to the side, away from the equipment that contains the thermal stir tooling and that applies clamping forces to the plates. Tests demonstrated that one of the major objectives of applying ultrasonics to the thermal stir system, that of reducing draw force friction, should be achievable on a scaled-up system.

  7. Radial vibration and ultrasonic field of a long tubular ultrasonic radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuyu, Lin; Zhiqiang, Fu; Xiaoli, Zhang; Yong, Wang; Jing, Hu

    2013-09-01

    The radial vibration of a metal long circular tube is studied analytically and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. Based on the equivalent circuit, the radial resonance frequency equation is derived. The theoretical relationship between the radial resonance frequency and the geometrical dimensions is studied. Finite element method is used to simulate the radial vibration and the radiated ultrasonic field and the results are compared with those from the analytical method. It is concluded that the radial resonance frequency for a solid metal rod is larger than that for a metal tube with the same outer radius. The radial resonance frequencies from the analytical method are in good agreement with those from the numerical method. Based on the acoustic field analysis, it is concluded that the long metal tube with small wall thickness is superior to that with large wall thickness in producing radial vibration and ultrasonic radiation. Therefore, it is expected to be used as an effective radial ultrasonic radiator in ultrasonic sewage treatment, ultrasonic antiscale and descaling and other ultrasonic liquid handling applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasonic sensor for sodium perspective device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Fujio; Onuki, Koji.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns an ultrasonic wave sensor for a sodium perspective device disposed in an FBR type reactor, which can change the directing angle of the ultrasonic sensor irrespective of the external conditions in liquid sodium. Namely, the sensor comprises (1) a sensor main body, (2) a diaphragm disposed on an oscillating surface of ultrasonic waves generated from the sensor main body, (3) a pressurizing and depressurizing nozzle connected to the sensor main body, and (4) a pressure detector disposed to these nozzles. A gas is charged/discharged to and from the sensor main body to control a gas pressure in the main body. If the gas pressure is made higher, the diaphragm is deformed convexly. If the gas pressure is lowered, the diaphragm is deformed concavely. The directing angle is greater when it is deformed a convexly, and it is smaller when it is deformed concavely. Accordingly, ultrasonic wave receiving/sending range in the sodium can be varied optionally by controlling the gas pressure in the main body. (I.S.)

  9. Development of ultrasonic instrument 'UT1000 Series'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Yukio; Ikeda, Toshimichi

    1984-01-01

    The ultrasonic flaw detectors with 'A-scope indication' have been frequently used as the means for confirming the soundness of structures and equipments, but there are problems in their operational, quantifying and recording capabilities. Recently, the digital ultrasonic measuring instrument of touch panel type ''UT 1000 Series'' has been developed, which resolves these problems by a single effort. This measuring instrument is that of portable type, which gives the digital output of measured results in real time only by lightly touching the peak point of an echo on the Brown tube. This instrument contains the rich software for measurement, and can measure the positions and dimensions of defects and the pressure on contact surfaces with high accuracy. 'A-scope indication' is the indication with an oscilloscope taking the intensity of echo and the propagation time of ultrasonic waves on the ordinate and abscissa, respectively. There are three types of the instrument, that is, for detecting defects, for measuring contact surface pressure and for both purposes. The size of the instrument is 240 mm width, 350 mm length and 175 mm height, and the weight is 8.5 kgf. The specification, function and features of the ultrasonic flaw detector, touch panel, gain setter, key board, microcomputer and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Ultrasonic attenuation in rare-earth monoarsenides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Ultrasonic attenuation in rare-earth monoarsenides .... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag ...

  11. An ultrasonic waveguide for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.D.; Gillespie, A.B.; Deighton, M.O.; Pike, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The value of ultrasonic techniques in nuclear plants is well established. However, in most cases nuclear power plants present an extremely hostile environment for an ultrasonic transducer. The paper presents a novel technique for introducing an ultrasound into hostile liquid environments using a new form of ultrasonic waveguide. Using this approach, a standard transducer arrangement is sited in a hospitable area and conveys the ultrasound along the guide to the required beam-emission collection position. The design of a single-mode ultrasonic waveguide is described. The ultrasound is conveyed along a stainless steel strip of rectangular cross-section. The transference of energy between the strip and the liquid is achieved through a highly efficient mode-conversion process. This process overcomes the usual problems of mis-match of acoustic impedances of stainless steel and liquids, and also produces a highly collimated beam of ultrasound. Tests of a 10-m-long waveguide using these techniques are described, achieving signal-to-noise ratios in the region of 40 dB. (author)

  12. Coded ultrasonic remote control without batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardy, C; Burlage, K; Schomburg, W K

    2009-01-01

    A concept for battery-less remote controls has been developed based on mechanically actuated beams and micro whistles generating ultrasound signals. These signals need to be frequency or time coded to increase the number of signals which can be distinguished from each other and environmental ultrasound. Several designs for generating coded ultrasonic signals have been investigated

  13. Automated ultrasonic inspection of nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.A.; Dolbey, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    For reasons of safety and efficiency, automated systems are used in performing ultrasonic inspection of nuclear components. An automated system designed specifically for the inspection of headers in a nuclear plant is described. In-service inspection results obtained with this system are shown to correlate with pre-service inspection results obtained by manual methods

  14. Applications of precision ultrasonic thickness gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.A.; Elfbaum, G.M.; Husarek, V.; Castel, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness gauging is now recognized as an accurate method of measuring thickness of a product from one side when the velocity of ultrasound in the material is known. The advantages and present limitation of this gauging technique are presented, together with several applications of industrial interest [fr

  15. Auto-positioning ultrasonic transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Randy K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer apparatus and process for determining the optimal transducer position for flow measurement along a conduit outer surface. The apparatus includes a transmitting transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal, said transducer affixed to a conduit outer surface; a guide rail attached to a receiving transducer for guiding movement of a receiving transducer along the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer receives an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer and sends a signal to a data acquisition system; and a motor for moving the receiving transducer along the guide rail, wherein the motor is controlled by a controller. The method includes affixing a transmitting transducer to an outer surface of a conduit; moving a receiving transducer on the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer is moved along a guide rail by a motor; transmitting an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer that is received by the receiving transducer; communicating the signal received by the receiving transducer to a data acquisition and control system; and repeating the moving, transmitting, and communicating along a length of the conduit.

  16. Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Döring, J.; Bartusch, J.; Beck, U.; Erhard, A.; Yakymenko, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2007), s. 737-743 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectrets * polymers * ultrasonic transducers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2007

  17. Experimental development of an ultrasonic linear motor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    M'Boungui, G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available the stator structure. In contrast to traditional travelling wave ultrasonic motors, which require two modes to be driven 90° out of phase, only one amplifier is required to drive the proposed device. A prototype device was characterised experimentally...

  18. Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Fetal Ascites and Toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan

    1986-01-01

    The ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal ascites caused by Toxoplasma Gondii is presented. When a diagnosis of fetal ascites without obvious etiological malformation is established, toxoplasmosis should be suspected. A serological test should be performed, in view of the possibility of antenatal treatme...

  19. Repartition of ultrasonic energies at the interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, M.; Bourdarios, M.; Lepoutre, M.

    1983-06-01

    Energy repartition of ultrasonic waves at the interfaces is studied as a function of incidence angle of the acoustic beam in immersion testing. For each interface type mathematical relations give the ratio of incident energy and energy of the wave reemitted by the interface. As an example curves for the interfaces water-uranium are given [fr

  20. Advanced ultrasonic field system: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikesell, C.R.; Beller, L.S.

    1984-02-01

    An advanced ultrasonic system was developed to obtain highly reproducible inspection data and to overcome certain limitations encountered with the manual scanning method. Experience from field operations from 1976 through 1980 is discussed. The scope includes a description of the computer controlled system, personnel training, inservice inspections, data analysis, and current upgrading of the system

  1. Ultrasonic thermometry for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravana Kumar, S.; Arunraj, A.L.R.; Swaminathan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducer provides a method of measurement of temperature in industrial tanks and boilers containing different liquids with varied salt content. This method is used to measure the average temperature continuously where other traditional methods available do not offer. Traditional methods used for temperature measurement like infrared thermometers, thermocouples, measures temperature at a single location. Numerous thermocouples are to be fixed at various part of the boiler in order to measure the temperature of the entire boiler, which incurs high cost. Reliability of the system decreases, with increasing number of thermocouples. When they fail at a point, the time incurred in finding the faulty part or faulty thermocouple is high. Ultrasonic transducer provides continuous measurement for all different characteristic liquids with higher accuracy and lesser response time. Fault location and clearance time is also less in ultrasonic measurement method, since only a couple of transducers used for the entire boiler structure. Additionally ultrasonic thermometry along support measuring electronic system can be built of low cost. (author)

  2. Reduction of aerosols produced by ultrasonic scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrel, S K; Barnes, J B; Rivera-Hidalgo, F

    1996-01-01

    There is concern with decreased air quality and potential aerosol contamination in the dental operatory. This problem has been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recommends that all sources of blood-contaminated splatter and aerosols be minimized. One of the major sources of potential aerosol contamination in the dental setting is the ultrasonic scaler. This study looks at the use of a high volume evacuator attachment for the ultrasonic scaler handpiece. Artificial teeth were mock-scaled for 1 minute with and without the evacuator attachment. The mock scaling was performed within a plastic enclosure that had a 1 cm grid laid out on 4 sides. Scaling was performed 10 times each by 2 operators. An erythrosin solution was used for the ultrasonic scaler coolant with a coolant volume of 17.5 ml/min. The number of squares containing a red erythrosin spot were counted and considered to represent aerosol contamination. The high volume evacuator attachment produced a 93% reduction in the number of contaminated squares (chi squared significant at P < 0.05). There was no increase in heat transfer to a tooth analogue when the high volume evacuator attachment was used with the ultrasonic scaler as compared to the scaler without the evacuator attachment. It is felt that the high volume evacuator attachment is capable of significantly reducing the amount of aerosol contamination produced within the test system without increased heat transfer to the tooth.

  3. Application of function-oriented roughness parameters using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Klauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical measuring instruments are widely used for the functional characterization of surface topography. However, due to the interaction of the surface with the incident light, effects occur that can influence the measured topography height values and the obtained surface texture parameters. Therefore, we describe a systematic investigation of the influences of optical surface topography measurement on the acquisition of function-oriented roughness parameters. The same evaluation areas of varying cylinder liners which represent a typical application of function-oriented roughness parameters were measured with a confocal microscope and a stylus instrument. Functional surface texture parameters as given in the standards ISO 13565–2, ISO 13565–3 and ISO 25178–2 were evaluated for both measurement methods and compared. The transmission of specific surface features was described and a correlation analysis for the surface topographies obtained with the different measurement methods and their resulting functional roughness parameters was carried out. Keywords: Functional surface characterization, Optical metrology, Topography measurement, Roughness

  4. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-12-01

    Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  5. Application of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Dermatology Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is a non-invasive method, imaging cellular structures in living skin at a level close to the histological resolution. It is easier to diagnose melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin tumors especially in difficult cases when RCM features have been identified. Determination of the cellular features, presence of cellular and structural atypia with RCM allows the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions. Preoperative differential diagnosis of malignant lesions, determining preoperative lesion borders in complicated cases, identification of local recurrence after excision of malignant lesions, monitoring the treatment efficacy in patients using topical treatment and who can not be operated, are the main areas of RCM in tumoral lesions. Besides, RCM is helpful in the establishing the diagnosis of inflammatory disease like psoriasis, contact dermatitis, lichen planus and in evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, detecting of infestation like tinea, skabiyes, demodicosis and determining the level of bullae in bullous disease. Due to being noninvasive, RCM is preferred in cosmetology, in clinical research and practice for the evaluation of the effectiveness of cosmetic products and cosmetic procedures.

  6. Confocal fluorescence microscopy for minimal-invasive tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenzinger, M.; Bille, J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the project ''stereotactic laser-neurosurgery'' is the development of a system for careful and minimal-invasive resection of brain tumors with ultrashort laser pulses through a thin probe. A confocal laser-scanning-microscope is integrated in the probe. In this paper, the simulation of its optical properties by a laboratory setup and the expansion by the ability for fluorescence microscopy are reported. For a valuation of the imaging properties, the point-spread-function in three dimensions and the axial depth-transfer-function were measured and thus, among other things, the resolving power and the capacity for depth discrimination were analysed. The microscope will enable intra-operative detection of tumor cells by the method of immunofluorescence. As a first model of the application in the brain, cell cultures, that fluorescein-labelled antibodies were bound to specifically, were used in this work. Due to the fluorescence signal, it was possible to detect and identify clearly the areas that had been marked in this manner, proving the suitability of the setup for minimal-invasive tumor diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. A new method for depth profiling reconstruction in confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Rosario; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Mensitieri, Giuseppe

    2018-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is commonly used to reconstruct depth profiles of chemical species in multicomponent systems and to image nuclear and cellular details in human tissues via image intensity measurements of optical sections. However, the performance of this technique is reduced by inherent effects related to wave diffraction phenomena, refractive index mismatch and finite beam spot size. All these effects distort the optical wave and cause an image to be captured of a small volume around the desired illuminated focal point within the specimen rather than an image of the focal point itself. The size of this small volume increases with depth, thus causing a further loss of resolution and distortion of the profile. Recently, we proposed a theoretical model that accounts for the above wave distortion and allows for a correct reconstruction of the depth profiles for homogeneous samples. In this paper, this theoretical approach has been adapted for describing the profiles measured from non-homogeneous distributions of emitters inside the investigated samples. The intensity image is built by summing the intensities collected from each of the emitters planes belonging to the illuminated volume, weighed by the emitters concentration. The true distribution of the emitters concentration is recovered by a new approach that implements this theoretical model in a numerical algorithm based on the Maximum Entropy Method. Comparisons with experimental data and numerical simulations show that this new approach is able to recover the real unknown concentration distribution from experimental profiles with an accuracy better than 3%.

  8. Ultrasonic Communication Project, Phase 1, FY1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, H.D.; Akerman, M.A.; Baylor, V.M.

    2000-06-01

    This Phase 1 project has been successful in identifying, exploring, and demonstrating methods for ultrasonic-based communication with an emphasis on the application of digital signal processing techniques. During the project, at the direction of the agency project monitor, particular attention was directed at sending and receiving ultrasonic data through air and through pipes that would be commonly found in buildings. Efforts were also focused on development of a method for transmitting computer files ultrasonically. New methods were identified and evaluated for ultrasonic communication. These methods are based on a technique called DFS. With DFS, individual alphanumeric characters are broken down into a sequence of bits, and each bit is used to generate a discrete ultrasonic frequency. Characters are then transmitted one-bit-at-a-time, and reconstructed by the receiver. This technique was put into practice through the development of LabVIEW{trademark}VIs. These VIs were integrated with specially developed electronic circuits to provide a system for demonstrating the transmission and reception/reconstruction of typed messages and computer files. Tests were performed to determine the envelope for ultrasound transmission through pipes (with and without water) versus through air. The practical aspects of connections, efficient electronics, impedance matching, and the effect of damping mechanisms were all investigated. These tests resulted in a considerable number of reference charts that illustrate the absorption of ultrasound through different pipe materials, both with and without water, as a function of distance. Ultrasound was found to be least attenuated by copper pipe and most attenuated by PVC pipe. Water in the pipe provides additional damping and attenuation of ultrasonic signals. Dramatic improvements are observed, however, in ultrasound signal strength if the transducers are directly coupled to the water, rather than simply attaching them to the outside of

  9. [Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on drying characteristics of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Dong; Yang, Yu-Ting; Li, Yan-Long; Niu, Hui-Chang; Wei, Li-Hong; Sun, Yang; Ke, Xin

    2009-11-01

    The high water content of sewage sludge has engendered many inconveniences to its treatment and disposal. While ultrasonic takes on unique advantages on the sludge drying because of its high ultrasonic power, mighty penetrating capability and the ability of causing cavitations. Thus this research studies the characteristics influences of ultrasonic bring to the sludge drying and effects of the exposure time, ultrasonic generator power, temperatures of ultrasonic and drying temperature on the drying characteristics of dewatered sludge. Results indicate that ultrasonic pretreatment could speed up evaporation of the free water in sludge surface and help to end the drying stage with constant speed. In addition, ultrasonic treatment can effectively improve the sludge drying efficiency which could be more evident with the rise of the ultrasonic power (100-250 W), ultrasonic temperature and drying temperature. If dried under low temperature such as 105 degrees C, sludge will have premium drying characteristics when radiated under ultrasound for a shorter time such as 3 min. In the end, the ultrasonic treatment is expected to be an effective way to the low-cost sludge drying and also be an important reference to the optimization of the sludge drying process because of its effects on the increase of sludge drying efficiency.

  10. Remote consulting based on ultrasonic digital immages and dynamic ultrasonic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margan, Anamarija; Rustemović, Nadan

    2006-03-01

    Telematic ultrasonic diagnostics is a relatively new tool in providing health care to patients in remote, islolated communities. Our project facility, "The Virtual Polyclinic - A Specialists' Consulting Network for the Islands", is located on the island of Cres in the Adriatic Sea in Croatia and has been extending telemedical services to the archipelago population since 2000. Telemedicine applications include consulting services by specialists at the University Clinical Hospital Center Rebro in Zagreb and at "Magdalena", a leading cardiology clinic in Croatia. After several years of experience with static high resolution ultrasonic digital immages for referral consulting diagnostics purposes, we now also use dynamic ultrasonic sequences in a project with the Department of Emmergency Gastroenterology at Rebro in Zagreb. The aim of the ongoing project is to compare the advantages and shortcomings in transmitting static ultrasonic digital immages and live sequences of ultrasonic examination in telematic diagnostics. Ultrasonic examination is a dynamic process in which the diagnostic accuracy is highly dependent on the dynamic moment of an ultrasound probe and signal. Our first results indicate that in diffuse parenchymal organ pathology the progression and the follow up of a disease is better presented to a remote consulting specialist by dynamic ultrasound sequences. However, the changes that involve only one part of a parenchymal organ can be suitably presented by static ultrasonic digital images alone. Furthermore, we need less time for digital imaging and such tele-consultations overall are more economical. Our previous telemedicine research and practice proved that we can greatly improve the level of medical care in remote healthcare facilities and cut healthcare costs considerably. The experience in the ongoing project points to a conclusion that we can further optimize remote diagnostics benefits by a right choice of telematic application thus reaching a

  11. Mitochondrial behavior during oogenesis in zebrafish: a confocal microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Zhong; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The behavior of mitochondria during early oogenesis remains largely unknown in zebrafish. We used three mitochondrial probes (Mito Tracker Red CMXRos, Mito Tracker Green FM, and JC-1) to stain early zebrafish oocyte mitochondria, and confocal microscopy to analyze mitochondrial aggregation and distribution. By using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we traced mitochondrial movement. The microtubule assembly inhibitor nocodazole and microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB) were used to analyze the role of microtubules and microfilaments on mitochondrial movement. By using the dual emission probe, JC-1, and oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), we determined the distribution of active and inactive (low-active) mitochondria. Green/red fluorescence ratios of different sublocations in different oocyte groups stained by JC-1 were detected in merged (green and red) images. Our results showed that mitochondria exhibited a unique distribution pattern in early zebrafish oocytes. They tended to aggregate into large clusters in early stage I oocytes, but in a threadlike state in latter stage I oocytes. We detected a lower density mitochondrial area and a higher density mitochondrial area on opposite sides of the germinal vesicle. The green/red fluorescence ratios in different sublocations in normal oocytes were about 1:1. This implies that active mitochondria were distributed in all sublocations. FCCP treatment caused significant increases in the ratios. CB and nocodazole treatment caused an increase of the ratios in clusters and mitochondrial cloud, but not in dispersed areas. Mitochondria in different sublocations underwent fast dynamic movement. Inhibition or disruption of microtubules or microfilaments resulted in even faster mitochondrial free movement.

  12. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari, E-mail: tetsu-n@cc.osaka-dent.ac.jp [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Koichi [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, Akio [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-magnification images with depth selection, and thin sections were observed using CLSM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The direction and velocity of calcification of the bone was observed by administration of 2 fluorescent dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In dog femora grafted with coral blocks, newly-formed bone was observed in the coral block space with a rough surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twelve weeks after dental implant was grafted in dog femora, the space between screws was filled with newly-formed bones. - Abstract: Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 {mu}m/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  13. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High-magnification images with depth selection, and thin sections were observed using CLSM. ► The direction and velocity of calcification of the bone was observed by administration of 2 fluorescent dyes. ► In dog femora grafted with coral blocks, newly-formed bone was observed in the coral block space with a rough surface. ► Twelve weeks after dental implant was grafted in dog femora, the space between screws was filled with newly-formed bones. - Abstract: Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  14. Aqueous Colloid + Polymer Depletion System for Confocal Microscopy and Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Umanzor, Esmeralda J.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2018-05-01

    We developed a model depletion system with colloidal particles that were refractive index- and density-matched to 80 (w/w)% glycerol in water, and characterized the effect of interparticle interactions on the structure and dynamics of non-equilibrium phases. 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate copolymer particles were synthesized following Kodger et al. (Sci. Rep. 5, 14635 (2015)). Particles were dispersed in glycerol/water solutions to generate colloidal suspensions with good control over electrostatic interactions and a moderately high background viscosity of 55 mPa-s. To probe the effects of charge screening and depletion attractions on the suspension phase behavior, we added NaCl and polyacrylamide (M_w = 186 kDa) at various concentrations to particle suspensions formulated at volume fractions of phi = 0.05 and 0.3 and imaged the suspensions using confocal microscopy. The particles were nearly hard spheres at a NaCl concentration of 20 mM, but aggregated when the concentration of NaCl was further increased. Changes in the particle structure and dynamics with increasing concentration of the depletant polyacrylamide followed the trends expected from earlier experiments on depletion-driven gelation. Additionally, we measured the viscosity and corrected first normal stress difference of suspensions formulated at phi = 0.4 with and without added polymer. The solvent viscosity was suitable for rheology measurements without the onset of instabilities such as secondary flows or edge fracture. These results validate this system as an alternative to one common model system, suspensions of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles and polystyrene depletants in organic solvents, for investigating phase behavior and flow properties in attractive colloidal suspensions.

  15. Confocal examination of subsurface cracking in ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etman, Maged K

    2009-10-01

    The original ceramic surface finish and its microstructure may have an effect on crack propagation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between crack propagation and ceramic microstructure following cyclic fatigue loading, and to qualitatively evaluate and quantitatively measure the surface and subsurface crack depths of three types of ceramic restorations with different microstructures using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Twenty (8 x 4 x 2 mm(3)) blocks of AllCeram (AC), experimental ceramic (EC, IPS e.max Press), and Sensation SL (SSL) were prepared, ten glazed and ten polished of each material. Sixty antagonist enamel specimens were made from the labial surfaces of permanent incisors. The ceramic abraders were attached to a wear machine, so that each enamel specimen presented at 45 degrees to the vertical movement of the abraders, and immersed in artificial saliva. Wear was induced for 80K cycles at 60 cycles/min with a load of 40 N and 2-mm horizontal deflection. The specimens were examined for cracks at baseline, 5K, 10K, 20K, 40K, and 80K cycles. Twenty- to 30-microm deep subsurface cracking appeared in SSL, with 8 to 10 microm in AC, and 7 microm close to the margin of the wear facets in glazed EC after 5K cycles. The EC showed no cracks with increasing wear cycles. Seventy-microm deep subsurface cracks were detected in SSL and 45 microm in AC after 80K cycles. Statistically, there was significant difference among the three materials (p 0.05) in crack depth within the same ceramic material with different surface finishes. The ceramic materials with different microstructures showed different patterns of subsurface cracking.

  16. A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for retinal vessel oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lompado, Arthur

    Measurement of a person's blood oxygen saturation has long been recognized as a useful metric for the characterizing ailments ranging from chronic respiratory disorders to acute, potentially life threatening, traumas. The ubiquity of oxygen saturation monitors in the medical field, including portable pulse oximeters and laboratory based CO-oximeters, is a testament to the importance of this technique. The work presented here documents the design, fabrication and development of a unique type of oxygen saturation monitor, a confocal scanning retinal vessel oximeter, with the potential to expand the usefulness of the present devices. A large part of the knowledge base required to construct the instrument comes from the consideration of light scattering by red blood cells in a blood vessel. Therefore, a substantial portion of this work is devoted to the process of light scattering by whole human blood and its effects on the development of a more accurate oximeter. This light scattering effect has been both measured and modeled stochastically to determine its contribution to the measured oximeter signal. It is shown that, although well accepted in the published literature, the model only correlates marginally to the measurements due to inherent limitations imposed by the model assumptions. Nonetheless, enough material has been learned about the scattering to allow development of a mathematical model for the interaction of light with blood in a vessel, and this knowledge has been applied to the data reduction of the present oximeter. This data reduction technique has been tested in a controlled experiment employing a model eye with a blood filled mock retinal vessel. It will be shown that the presently developed technique exhibited strong correlation between the known blood oxygen saturation and that calculated by the new system.

  17. RELIABILITY OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEMS: USE OF MULTISPECTRAL BEADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is a need for a standardized, impartial calibration, and validation protocol on confocal spectral imaging (CSI) microscope systems. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have testing tools to provide a reproducible way to evaluate instrument performance. ...

  18. A four-phase strategy for the implementation of reflectance confocal microscopy in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogedoorn, L.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Wolberink, E.A.W.; Peppelman, M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is gradually implemented in dermatology. Strategies for further implementation and practical 'hands on' guidelines are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The primary outcome was to conduct a general strategy for further implementation of RCM. The secondary outcome

  19. Characterization of the main error sources of chromatic confocal probes for dimensional measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouira, H; El-Hayek, N; Yuan, X; Anwer, N

    2014-01-01

    Chromatic confocal probes are increasingly used in high-precision dimensional metrology applications such as roughness, form, thickness and surface profile measurements; however, their measurement behaviour is not well understood and must be characterized at a nanometre level. This paper provides a calibration bench for the characterization of two chromatic confocal probes of 20 and 350 µm travel ranges. The metrology loop that includes the chromatic confocal probe is stable and enables measurement repeatability at the nanometer level. With the proposed system, the major error sources, such as the relative axial and radial motions of the probe with respect to the sample, the material, colour and roughness of the measured sample, the relative deviation/tilt of the probe and the scanning speed are identified. Experimental test results show that the chromatic confocal probes are sensitive to these errors and that their measurement behaviour is highly dependent on them. (paper)

  20. Visualization of carbon nanotubes dispersion in composite by using confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ilčíková, M.; Danko, M.; Doroshenko, M.; Best, A.; Mrlík, M.; Csomorová, K.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Chorvát Jr., D.; Koynov, K.; Mosnáček, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, June (2016), s. 187-197 ISSN 0014-3057 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : confocal laser scanning microscopy * composites * carbon nanotubes dispersion Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  1. Ex Vivo (Fluorescence) Confocal Microscopy in Surgical Pathology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta

    2016-05-01

    First developed in 1957, confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging tool that can be used to obtain near real-time reflected light images of untreated human tissue with nearly histologic resolution. Besides its research applications, in the last decades, confocal microscopy technology has been proposed as a useful device to improve clinical diagnosis, especially in ophthalmology, dermatology, and endomicroscopy settings, thanks to advances in instrument development. Compared with the wider use of the in vivo tissue assessment, ex vivo applications of confocal microscopy are not fully explored. A comprehensive review of the current literature was performed here, focusing on the reliable applications of ex vivo confocal microscopy in surgical pathology and on some potential evolutions of this new technique from pathologists' viewpoint.

  2. Dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy: fluorescence axial imaging without axial scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ryoung; Kim, Young-Duk; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Yoo, Hongki

    2013-07-29

    We propose a new method for high-speed, three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging, which we refer to as dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy (DDCFM). In contrast to conventional beam-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy, where the focal spot must be scanned either optically or mechanically over a sample volume to reconstruct a 3-D image, DDCFM can obtain the depth of a fluorescent emitter without depth scanning. DDCFM comprises two photodetectors, each with a pinhole of different size, in the confocal detection system. Axial information on fluorescent emitters can be measured by the axial response curve through the ratio of intensity signals. DDCFM can rapidly acquire a 3-D fluorescent image from a single two-dimensional scan with less phototoxicity and photobleaching than confocal fluorescence microscopy because no mechanical depth scans are needed. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method by phantom studies.

  3. Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanai, Nader; Snyder, Laura A; Honea, Norissa J; Coons, Stephen W; Eschbacher, Jennifer M; Smith, Kris A; Spetzler, Robert F

    2011-10-01

    Greater extent of resection (EOR) for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) corresponds with improved clinical outcome, yet remains a central challenge to the neurosurgical oncologist. Although 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced tumor fluorescence is a strategy that can improve EOR in gliomas, only glioblastomas routinely fluoresce following 5-ALA administration. Intraoperative confocal microscopy adapts conventional confocal technology to a handheld probe that provides real-time fluorescent imaging at up to 1000× magnification. The authors report a combined approach in which intraoperative confocal microscopy is used to visualize 5-ALA tumor fluorescence in LGGs during the course of microsurgical resection. Following 5-ALA administration, patients with newly diagnosed LGG underwent microsurgical resection. Intraoperative confocal microscopy was conducted at the following points: 1) initial encounter with the tumor; 2) the midpoint of tumor resection; and 3) the presumed brain-tumor interface. Histopathological analysis of these sites correlated tumor infiltration with intraoperative cellular tumor fluorescence. Ten consecutive patients with WHO Grades I and II gliomas underwent microsurgical resection with 5-ALA and intraoperative confocal microscopy. Macroscopic tumor fluorescence was not evident in any patient. However, in each case, intraoperative confocal microscopy identified tumor fluorescence at a cellular level, a finding that corresponded to tumor infiltration on matched histological analyses. Intraoperative confocal microscopy can visualize cellular 5-ALA-induced tumor fluorescence within LGGs and at the brain-tumor interface. To assess the clinical value of 5-ALA for high-grade gliomas in conjunction with neuronavigation, and for LGGs in combination with intraoperative confocal microscopy and neuronavigation, a Phase IIIa randomized placebo-controlled trial (BALANCE) is underway at the authors' institution.

  4. Bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy using a double aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Behan, Gavin; Kirkland, Angus I. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nellist, Peter D., E-mail: peter.nellist@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Cosgriff, Eireann C.; D' Alfonso, Adrian J.; Morgan, Andrew J.; Allen, Leslie J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Hashimoto, Ayako [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Takeguchi, Masaki [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); High Voltage Electron Microscopy Station, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Mitsuishi, Kazutaka [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Quantum Dot Research Center, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Shimojo, Masayuki [High Voltage Electron Microscopy Station, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Laboratory, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusaiji, Fukaya 369-0293 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) offers a mechanism for three-dimensional imaging of materials, which makes use of the reduced depth of field in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The simplest configuration of SCEM is the bright-field mode. In this paper we present experimental data and simulations showing the form of bright-field SCEM images. We show that the depth dependence of the three-dimensional image can be explained in terms of two-dimensional images formed in the detector plane. For a crystalline sample, this so-called probe image is shown to be similar to a conventional diffraction pattern. Experimental results and simulations show how the diffracted probes in this image are elongated in thicker crystals and the use of this elongation to estimate sample thickness is explored. -- Research Highlights: {yields} The confocal probe image in a scanning confocal electron microscopy image reveals information about the thickness and height of the crystalline layer. {yields} The form of the contrast in a three-dimensional bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy image can be explained in terms of the confocal probe image. {yields} Despite the complicated form of the contrast in bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy, we see that depth information is transferred on a 10 nm scale.

  5. Development of an add-on kit for scanning confocal microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaikai; Zheng, Guoan

    2017-03-01

    Scanning confocal microscopy is a standard choice for many fluorescence imaging applications in basic biomedical research. It is able to produce optically sectioned images and provide acquisition versatility to address many samples and application demands. However, scanning a focused point across the specimen limits the speed of image acquisition. As a result, scanning confocal microscope only works well with stationary samples. Researchers have performed parallel confocal scanning using digital-micromirror-device (DMD), which was used to project a scanning multi-point pattern across the sample. The DMD based parallel confocal systems increase the imaging speed while maintaining the optical sectioning ability. In this paper, we report the development of an add-on kit for high-speed and low-cost confocal microscopy. By adapting this add-on kit to an existing regular microscope, one can convert it into a confocal microscope without significant hardware modifications. Compared with current DMD-based implementations, the reported approach is able to recover multiple layers along the z axis simultaneously. It may find applications in wafer inspection and 3D metrology of semiconductor circuit. The dissemination of the proposed add-on kit under $1000 budget could also lead to new types of experimental designs for biological research labs, e.g., cytology analysis in cell culture experiments, genetic studies on multicellular organisms, pharmaceutical drug profiling, RNA interference studies, investigation of microbial communities in environmental systems, and etc.

  6. Computer simulation of ultrasonic testing for aerospace vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamawaki, H [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, 305-0047 Tsukuba (Japan); Moriya, S; Masuoka, T [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 1 Koganesawa, Kimigawa, 981-1525 Kakuda (Japan); Takatsubo, J, E-mail: yamawaki.hisashi@nims.go.jp [Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, 305-8568 Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive testing techniques are developed to secure reliability of aerospace vehicles used repetitively. In the case of cracks caused by thermal stress on walls in combustion chambers of liquid-fuel rockets, it is examined by ultrasonic waves visualization technique developed in AIST. The technique is composed with non-contact ultrasonic generation by pulsed-laser scanning, piezoelectric transducer for the ultrasonic detection, and image reconstruction processing. It enables detection of defects by visualization of ultrasonic waves scattered by the defects. In NIMS, the condition of the detection by the visualization is investigated using computer simulation for ultrasonic propagation that has capability of fast 3-D calculation. The simulation technique is based on finite-difference method and two-step elastic wave equations. It is reported about the investigation by the calculation, and shows availability of the simulation for the ultrasonic testing technique of the wall cracks.

  7. Development of an intelligent ultrasonic welding defect classification software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Jeong, Hee Don

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic pattern recognition is the most effective approach to the problem of discriminating types of flaws in weldments based on ultrasonic flaw signals. In spite of significant progress in the research on this methodology, it has not been widely used in many practical ultrasonic inspections of weldments in industry. Hence, for the convenient application of this approach in many practical situations, we develop an intelligent ultrasonic signature classification software which can discriminate types of flaws in weldments based on their ultrasonic signals using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. This software shows the excellent performance in an experimental problem where flaws in weldments are classified into two categories of cracks and non-cracks. This performance demonstrates the high possibility of this software as a practical tool for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments.

  8. Reconstruction from gamma radiography and ultrasonic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, S.; Lavayssiere, B.; Idier, J.; Mohammad-Djafari, A.

    1998-02-01

    This work deals with the three-dimensional reconstruction from gamma radiographic and ultrasonic images. Such an issue belongs to the field of data fusion since the data provide complementary information. The two sets of data are independently related to two sets of parameters: gamma ray attenuation and ultrasonic reflectivity. The fusion problem is addressed in a Bayesian framework; the kingpin of the task is then to define a joint a priori model for both attenuation and reflectivity. Thus, the developing of this model and the entailed joint estimation constitute the principal contribution of this work. The results of real data treatments demonstrate the validity of this method as compared to a sequential approach of the two sets of data

  9. Embedded fiber optic ultrasonic sensors and generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighi, John F.; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar; Achenbach, Jan D.

    1995-04-01

    Ultrasonic sensors and generators based on fiber-optic systems are described. It is shown that intrinsic fiber optic Fabry-Perot ultrasound sensors that are embedded in a structure can be stabilized by actively tuning the laser frequency. The need for this method of stabilization is demonstrated by detecting piezoelectric transducer-generated ultrasonic pulses in the presence of low frequency dynamic strains that are intentionally induced to cause sensor drift. The actively stabilized embedded fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor is also shown to have sufficient sensitivity to detect ultrasound that is generated in the interior of a structure by means of a high-power optical fiber that pipes energy from a pulsed laser to an embedded generator of ultrasound.

  10. Industrial Applications of High Power Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patist, Alex; Bates, Darren

    Since the change of the millennium, high-power ultrasound has become an alternative food processing technology applicable to large-scale commercial applications such as emulsification, homogenization, extraction, crystallization, dewatering, low-temperature pasteurization, degassing, defoaming, activation and inactivation of enzymes, particle size reduction, extrusion, and viscosity alteration. This new focus can be attributed to significant improvements in equipment design and efficiency during the late 1990 s. Like most innovative food processing technologies, high-power ultrasonics is not an off-the-shelf technology, and thus requires careful development and scale-up for each and every application. The objective of this chapter is to present examples of ultrasonic applications that have been successful at the commercialization stage, advantages, and limitations, as well as key learnings from scaling up an innovative food technology in general.

  11. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  12. Automated ultrasonic pipe weld inspection. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Deutsch, W.A.; Schulte, P.; Joswig, M.; Kattwinkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article contains a brief overview on automated ultrasonic welded inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable test equipment (e.g. pipe and test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specification must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the pipe usage determine the number of required probes. Recent updates for some test specifications enforce a large number of ultrasonic probes, e.g. the Shell standard. Since seamless pipes are sometimes replaced by ERW pipes and LSAW pipes (in both cases to save production cost), the inspection methods change gradually between the various pipe types. Each testing system is unique and shows its specialties which have to be discussed by supplier, testing system user and final customer of the pipe. (author)

  13. Ultrasonic transducer design for uniform insonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.H.; Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K.; McCulloch, D.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques used in transducer development for acoustical imaging have been evaluated for the purpose of producing broad, uniform ultrasonic fields from planar radiators. Such fields should be useful in hyperthermia, physical therapy, and ultrasonic bioeffects studies. Fourier inversion of the circ function yielded a source velocity distribution proportional to (P/r) exp ((-ik/2Z) (2Z/sup 2/+r/sup 2/)) J/sub 1/(krP/Z), where r is the radial source coordinate, k is the wave number, and P is the desired radius of uniform insonation at a depth Z in water. This source distribution can be truncated without significantly degrading the solution. A simpler solution consists of exponentially shading the edge of an otherwise uniformly excited disk transducer. This approach was successfully approximated experimentally

  14. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  15. Ultrasonic identity data storage and archival system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Kenzie, J.M.; Self, B.G.; Walker, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonic seals are being used to determine if an underwater stored spent fuel container has been compromised and can be used to determine if a nuclear material container has been compromised. The Seal Pattern Reader (SPAR) is a microprocessor controlled instrument which interrogates an ultrasonic seal to obtain its identity. The SPAR can compare the present identity with a previous identity, which it obtains from a magnetic bubble cassette memory. A system has been developed which allows an IAEA inspector to transfer seal information obtained at a facility by the SPAR to an IAEA-based data storage and retrieval system, using the bubble cassette memory. Likewise, magnetic bubbles can be loaded at the IAEA with seal signature data needed at a facility for comparison purposes. The archived signatures can be retrieved from the data base for relevant statistical manipulation and for plotting

  16. Ultrasonic examination of stainless steel weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. have specified a combination of liquid penetrant, radiography and ultrasonic examination of welds in austenitic stainless steel. In the past, angle wedges attached to ultrasonic transducers have been designed so that only shear waves are propagated in the medium. Shear waves, however, do not penetrate one half inch of weld metal without high transmission losses, so that the signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Canadian Vickers have therefore developed a method using longitudinal waves at 45 deg in the material. The presence also of a shear wave at an angle of 19 deg does not cause confusion, because the shear wave travels slower, and has farther to travel. Some considerations for the design of transducers and wedges are outlined. (N.D.H.)

  17. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation systems industrial application issues

    CERN Document Server

    Callegari, Sergio; Montisci, Augusto; Ricci, Marco; Versaci, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the practical implementation of ultrasonic NDT techniques in an industrial environment, discussing several issues that may emerge and proposing strategies for addressing them successfully.  It aims to bridge advanced academic research results and their application to industrial procedures. The topics covered in the text range from the basic operation of an ultrasonic NDT system to the simulation of the measurement operations; from the choice and generation of the signals energizing the system to the different ways of exploiting the probes and their output signals; and from quality assessment evaluation to the use of soft computing techniques for classification. Throughout the text, an effort is made to embrace a system view where the physical and technological aspects of sensing are addressed together with higher abstraction levels, such as signal and information processing. Consequently, the book aims at guiding the reader through the various tasks requested for developing a complete ultras...

  18. Microcomputer-controlled ultrasonic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.A. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    The large volume of ultrasonic data generated by computer-aided test procedures has necessitated the development of a mobile, high-speed data acquisition and storage system. This approach offers the decided advantage of on-site data collection and remote data processing. It also utilizes standard, commercially available ultrasonic instrumentation. This system is controlled by an Intel 8080A microprocessor. The MCS80-SDK microcomputer board was chosen, and magnetic tape is used as the storage medium. A detailed description is provided of both the hardware and software developed to interface the magnetic tape storage subsystem to Biomation 8100 and Biomation 805 waveform recorders. A boxcar integrator acquisition system is also described for use when signal averaging becomes necessary. Both assembly language and machine language listings are provided for the software

  19. Nondestructive evaluation ultrasonic methods for construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilibon, I.; Zisu, T.; Raetchi, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some ultrasonic methods for evaluation of physical-mechanical properties of construction materials (bricks, concrete, BCA), such as: pulse method, examination methods, and direct measurement of the propagation velocity and impact-echo method. Utilizing these nondestructive evaluation ultrasonic methods it can be determined the main material parameters and material characteristics (elasticity coefficients, density, propagation velocity, ultrasound attenuation, etc.) of construction materials. These method are suitable for construction materials because the defectoscopy methods for metallic materials cannot be utilized, due to its rugged and non-homogeneous structures and grate attenuation coefficients of ultrasound propagation through materials. Also, the impact-echo method is a technique for flaw detection in concrete based on stress wave propagation. Studies have shown that the impact-echo method is effective for locating voids, honeycombing, delaminating, depth of surface opening cracks, and measuring member thickness

  20. An ultrasonic inspection tool for production tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, K; Martin, R; Ravenscroft, F [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1994-06-01

    Advances in ultrasonic technology, high temperature techniques and remote processing power are enabling a new generation of inspection tools to be developed. This paper describes a particular new ultrasonic caliper system, developed by AEA Technology, with the aim of providing improved information about the condition of production tubulars of oil and gas wells. The system is designed to provide enhanced surface area coverage compared to the current devices, which are typically mechanical 'finger' calipers. It also provides a non-contacting measure of corrosion and wear together with direct on-line output and automated data analysis. The new tool is designed to operate in oil and gas, vertical or deviated wells and has the potential for modification to inspect small diameter pipes in topside or other plant. (author)

  1. Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shunichi; Hida, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Michio; Ando, Tomozumi; Shirai, Tasuku.

    1982-05-01

    Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds has been considered difficult because of the high noise level and remarkable attenuation of ultrasonic waves. To improve flaw detectability in this kind of steel, various inspection techniques have been studied. A series of tests indicated: (1) The longitudinal angle beam transducers newly developed during this study can detect 4.8 mm dia. side drilled holes in dissimilar metal welds (refraction angle: 55 0 from SUS side, 45 0 from CS side) and in cast stainless steel welds (refraction angle: 45 0 , inspection frequency: 1 MHz). (2) Cracks more than 5% t in depth in the heat affected zones of fine-grain stainless steel pipe welds can be detected by the 45 0 shear wave angle beam method (inspection frequency: 2 MHz). (3) The pattern recognition method using frequency analysis technology was presumed useful for discriminating crack signals from spurious echoes. (author)

  2. Ultrasonic cleaning of electrodes of wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Razin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    A technological process of cleaning electrodes and working volume surfaces of wire chambers from contaminations by the simultaneous mechanical action of the energy of ultrasonic oscillations and the chemical action of detergents is discussed. A device for cleaning wire electrodes of proportional chambers of 0.3x0.4 m is described. The device uses two ultrasonic generators with a total power of 0.5 kW. As a detergent use is made of a mixture of ethyl alcohol, gasoline and freon. In the process of cleaning production defects can be detected in the wire chambers which makes it possible to timely remove the defects. Measurements of the surface resistance of fiberglass laminate of printed drift chamber electrodes at a voltage of 2 kV showed that after completing the cleaning process the resistance increases 15-20%

  3. Updated Results of Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 4112, Idaho Falls, ID, 38415-3840 (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland, WA, 99354 (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States); Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian [Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth and Engr. Sciences Building, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave. Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rempe, Joy [Rempe and Associates, LLC, 360 Stillwater, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States); Villard, J.F. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives, Centre d' etudes de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. A multi-National Laboratory collaboration funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (NEET-ASI) program also provided initial support for this effort. This irradiation, which started in February 2014, is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data are collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The irradiation is ongoing and will continue to approximately mid-2015. To date, very encouraging results have been attained as several transducers continue to operate under irradiation. (authors)

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  5. Cavitation occurrence around ultrasonic dental scalers

    OpenAIRE

    Felver, Bernhard; King, David C; Lea, Simon C; Price, Gareth J; Damien Walmsley, A

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic scalers are used in dentistry to remove calculus and other contaminants from teeth. One mechanism which may assist in the cleaning is cavitation generated in cooling water around the scaler. The vibratory motion of three designs of scaler tip in a water bath has been characterised by laser vibrometry, and compared with the spatial distribution of cavitation around the scaler tips observed using sonochemiluminescence from a luminol solution. The type of cavitation was confirmed by a...

  6. Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng SiXian; Qiu TaiQiu; Xie XiongFei; Hu SongQing

    1998-01-01

    A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

  7. Ultrasonic imaging with a fixed instrument configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, A.; Tuggle, J.; Waag, R.C.

    1988-07-04

    Diffraction tomography is a technique based on an inversion of the wave equation which has been proposed for high-resolution ultrasonic imaging. While this approach has been considered for diagnostic medical applications, it has, until recently, been limited by practical limitations on the speed of data acquisition associated with instrument motions. This letter presents the results of an experimental study directed towards demonstrating tomography utilizing a fixed instrument configuration.

  8. Ultrasonic evaluation of local human skin anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokar, Daniel; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Hradilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anisotropy * ultrasonic testing * human skin in-vivo * fabric-fiber composite * signal processing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/324_Tokar.pdf

  9. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  10. Ewe: a computer model for ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.; Chaplin, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The computer program EWE simulates the propagation of elastic waves in solids and liquids. It has been applied to ultrasonic testing to study the echoes generated by cracks and other types of defects. A discussion of the elastic wave equations is given, including the first-order formulation, shear and compression waves, surface waves and boundaries, numerical method of solution, models for cracks and slot defects, input wave generation, returning echo construction, and general computer issues

  11. On multiple crack identification by ultrasonic scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigante, M.; Sumbatyan, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    The present work develops an approach which reduces operator equations arising in the engineering problems to the problem of minimizing the discrepancy functional. For this minimization, an algorithm of random global search is proposed, which is allied to some genetic algorithms. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the solving problem of simultaneous identification of several linear cracks forming an array in an elastic medium by using the circular Ultrasonic scanning.

  12. Ultrasonication and food technology: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ishrat Majid; Gulzar Ahmad Nayik; Vikas Nanda

    2015-01-01

    With increasing consumers demand and tightening of food and environmental regulations, traditional food-processing techniques have lost their optimum performance which gave rise to new and powerful technologies. Ultrasonic is a one of the fast, versatile, emerging, and promising non-destructive green technology used in the food industry from last few years. The ultrasound is being carried out in various areas of food technology namely crystallization, freezing, bleaching, degassing, extractio...

  13. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  14. Research of the ultrasonic testing parts reconditioned by welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Petriceanu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained following the nondestructive ultrasonic testing of crankpin shaft of a crankshaft that were reconditioned by welding. After the ultrasonic testing, the reconditioned samples were cut and subjected to visual testing and microstructure examination. When the results obtained following the nondestructive tests were analyzed, it was observed that the ultrasonic nondestructive testing method is an efficient way to determine the conformity of the areas that were reconditioned by welding.

  15. Quality assurance of brazed copper plates through advanced ultrasonic NDE

    OpenAIRE

    Segreto, T.; Caggiano, A.; Teti, R.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive methods have demonstrated great potential for the detection of flaws in a material under examination. In particular, discontinuities produced by welding, brazing, and soldering are regularly inspected through ultrasonic techniques. In this paper, an advanced ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation technique is applied for the quality control of brazed copper cells in order to realize an accelerometer prototype for cancer proton therapy. The cells are composed of two h...

  16. Bulk viscosity and ultrasonic attenuation in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, O.N.; Murthy, B.V.S.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation in simple liquid metals has been investigated using the thermodynamic theory of relaxation processes incorporating the concept of a two state model for the liquid near the melting point. Agreement of the results with the experimental values of the ultrasonic attenuation and bulk viscosity indicates that this might be an appropriate approach to explain the excess attenuation of ultrasonic waves in liquid metals. (author)

  17. Manufacturing technologies for ultrasonic transducers in a broad frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt, Sylvia; Hohlfeld, Kai; Günther, Paul; Neubert, Holger

    2018-01-01

    According to the application field, working frequency of ultrasonic transducers needs to be tailored to a certain value. Low frequency ultrasonic transducers with working frequencies of 1 kHz to 1 MHz are especially interesting for sonar applications, whereas high frequency ultrasonic transducers with working frequencies higher than 15 MHz are favorable for high-resolution imaging in biomedical and non-destructive evaluation. Conventional non-destructive testing devices and clinical ultrasoun...

  18. Ultrasonic guided wave for monitoring corrosion of steel bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Qin, Lei; Huang, Bosheng

    2018-01-01

    Steel corrosion of reinforced concrete structures has become a serious problem all over the word. In this paper, the work aims at monitoring steel corrosion using ultrasonic guided wave (UGW). Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring is a dynamic and non-destructive testing technology. The advantages of ultrasonic guided wave monitoring for reinforcement corrosion are real-time, online and continuous. In addition, it can judge the different stages of steel bar corrosion, which achieved non-destructive detection.

  19. Miniaturized and general purpose fiber optic ultrasonic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, E.; Fontani, S.; Masotti, L.; Pieraccini, M.

    1997-01-01

    Innovative photoacoustic sources for ultrasonic NDE, smart structure, and clinical diagnosis are proposed. The working principle is based on thermal conversion of laser pulses into a metallic film evaporated directly onto the tip of a fiber optic. Unique features of the proposed transducers are very high miniaturization and potential easy embedding in smart structure. Additional advantages, high bedding in smart structure. Additional advantages, high ultrasonic frequency, large and flat bandwidth. All these characteristics make the proposed device an ideal ultrasonic source

  20. Influence of Ultrasonic Surface Rolling on Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Selective Laser Melted Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article studied the effect of ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP on the microstructure and wear behavior of a selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Surface characteristics were investigated using optical microscope, nano-indentation, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. Results indicated that the thickness of pore-free surfaces increased to 100~200 μm with the increasing ultrasonic surface rolling numbers. Severe work hardening occurred in the densified layer, resulting in the formation of refined grains, dislocation walls and deformation twins. After 1000 N 6 passes, about 15.5% and 14.1% increment in surficial Nano-hardness and Vickers-hardness was obtained, respectively. The hardness decreased gradually from the top surface to the substrate. Wear tests revealed that the friction coefficient declined from 0.74 (polished surface to 0.64 (USRP treated surface and the wear volume reduced from 0.205 mm−3 to 0.195 mm−3. The difference in wear volume between USRP treated and polished samples increased with sliding time. The enhanced wear resistance was concluded to be associated with the improvement of hardness and shear resistance and also the inhibition of delamination initiation.

  1. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K; Paget, C

    2011-01-01

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  2. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 2AA (United Kingdom); Paget, C, E-mail: kurala@cardiff.ac.uk [Airbus Operations Ltd, New Filton Road, BS99 7AR Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  3. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  5. Ultrasonic NDE Simulation for Composite Manufacturing Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of composites in aerospace components is expected to continue into the future. The large scale use of composites in aerospace necessitates the development of composite-appropriate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to quantitatively characterize defects in as-manufactured parts and damage incurred during or post manufacturing. Ultrasonic techniques are one of the most common approaches for defect/damage detection in composite materials. One key technical challenge area included in NASA's Advanced Composite's Project is to develop optimized rapid inspection methods for composite materials. Common manufacturing defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include fiber waviness (in-plane and out-of-plane), porosity, and disbonds; among others. This paper is an overview of ongoing work to develop ultrasonic wavefield based methods for characterizing manufacturing waviness defects. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with in-plane fiber waviness (also known as marcelling). Wavefield data processing methods are applied to the simulation data to explore possible routes for quantitative defect characterization.

  6. Underwater detection by using ultrasonic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, S. A. A.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    This paper described the low cost implementation of hardware and software in developing the system of ultrasonic which can visualize the feedback of sound in the form of measured distance through mobile phone and monitoring the frequency of detection by using real time graph of Java application. A single waterproof transducer of JSN-SR04T had been used to determine the distance of an object based on operation of the classic pulse echo detection method underwater. In this experiment, the system was tested by placing the housing which consisted of Arduino UNO, Bluetooth module of HC-06, ultrasonic sensor and LEDs at the top of the box and the transducer was immersed in the water. The system which had been tested for detection in vertical form was found to be capable of reporting through the use of colored LEDs as indicator to the relative proximity of object distance underwater form the sensor. As a conclusion, the system can detect the presence of an object underwater within the range of ultrasonic sensor and display the measured distance onto the mobile phone and the real time graph had been successfully generated.

  7. Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuecheng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. They offer performance advantages of wide bandwidth and sensitivity that have heretofore been attainable. In addition, micromachining technology, which has benefited from the fast-growing microelectronics industry, enables cMUT array fabrication and electronics integration. This thesis describes the design and fabrication of micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer arrays. The basic transducer electrical equivalent circuit is derived from Mason's theory. The effects of Lamb waves and Stoneley waves on cross coupling and acoustic losses are discussed. Electrical parasitics such as series resistance and shunt capacitance are also included in the model of the transducer. Transducer fabrication technology is systematically studied. Device dimension control in both vertical and horizontal directions, process alternatives and variations in membrane formation, via etch and cavity sealing, and metalization as well as their impact on transducer performance are summarized. Both 64 and 128 element 1-D array transducers are fabricated. Transducers are characterized in terms of electrical input impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, impulse response and angular response, and their performance is compared with theoretical simulation. Various schemes for cross coupling reduction is analyzed, implemented, and verified with both experiments and theory. Preliminary results of immersion imaging are presented using 64 elements 1-D array transducers for active source imaging.

  8. STADUS - Ultrasonic data acquisition and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, Robert; Birac, A.M.; Frappier, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    The CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has developed a system for the acquisition and analysis of data recorded during ultrasonic testing. Initially this system was designed and built for the needs of in-service inspection of PWR type power reactors. It is in far wider use today for miscellaneous automatic ultrasonic inspection procedures. This system records, in digital form, the ultrasonic data supplied by the transducers (maximum 16 simultaneous channels), and the geometric coordinates defining the position of the inspection tool. Based on these data, which are recorded on floppy disk, this system helps to display data in the form of A SCAN, B SCAN and C SCAN images. In addition, processing programs of data transfer from the STADUS floppy disks have been developed and inserted on computers more powerful than the one used in the STADUS system. These programs serve to obtain different fault charts on an adjustable scale, as well as listings concerning the defect positions and dimensions [fr

  9. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-01-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  10. Ultrasonic Study of Dislocation Dynamics in Lithium -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myeong-Deok

    1987-09-01

    Experimental studies of dislocation dynamics in LiF single crystals, using ultrasonic techniques combined with dynamic loading, were performed to investigate the time evolution of the plastic deformation process under a short stress pulse at room temperature, and the temperature dependence of the dislocation damping mechanism in the temperature range 25 - 300(DEGREES)K. From the former, the time dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation was understood as resulting from dislocation multiplication followed by the evolution of mobile dislocations to immobile ones under large stress. From the latter, the temperature dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation was interpreted as due to the motion of the dislocation loops overcoming the periodic Peierls potential barrier in a manner analogous to the motion of a thermalized sine-Gordon chain under a small stress. The Peierls stress obtained from the experimental results by application of Seeger's relaxation model with exponential dislocation length distribution was 4.26MPa, which is consistent with the lowest stress for the linear relation between the dislocation velocity and stress observed by Flinn and Tinder.

  11. Ultrasonic flow-meter test in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Uno, O.; Kamei, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the R and D programme for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, an ultrasonic flow-meter (USFM) test is being carried out in sodium in the O-Arai Engineering Center of PNC. Prior to the present test, an in-water test was done at the manufacturer's as a preliminary investigation. The results reported here are the results up to the present. Calibration tests using the actual fluid were conducted on a 12-inch ultrasonic flow-meter with guide rods fabricated for sodium flow measurement. The test conditions in sodium were a temperature of 200 approximately 400 0 C and flow-rates of 0 approximately 6m/s. The main results are: (1) The linearity of output signal was good and accuracy was within 1%; (2) The alternating type of the USFM was much better than the fixed type in temperature change; (3) 2MHz of transducer frequency was better than 3MHz in sodium; (4) The S/N ratio of the ultrasonic signal and the length/diameter effect in a wide range in sodium surpassed the in-water test. (author)

  12. Reactor Coolant Temperature Measurement using Ultrasonic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, YongSun; Bechue, Nicholas [Krohne Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    In NPP, the primary piping temperature is detected by four redundant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) installed 90 degrees apart on the RCS (Reactor Coolant System) piping circumferentially. Such outputs however, if applied to I and C systems would not give balanced results. The discrepancy can be explained by either thermal stratification or improper arrangement of thermo-wells and RTDs. This phenomenon has become more pronounced in the hot-leg piping than in the cold-leg. Normally, the temperature difference among channels is in the range of 1°F in Korean nuclear power Plants. Consequently, a more accurate pipe average temperate measurement technique is required. Ultrasonic methods can be used to measure average temperatures with relatively higher accuracy than RTDs because the sound wave propagation in the RCS pipe is proportional to the average temperature around pipe area. The inaccuracy of RCS temperature measurement worsens the safety margin for both DNBR and LPD. The possibility of this discrepancy has been reported with thermal stratification effect. Proposed RCS temperature measurement system based on ultrasonic technology offers a countermeasure to cope with thermal stratification effect on hot-leg piping that has been an unresolved issue in NPPs. By introducing ultrasonic technology, the average internal piping temperature can be measured with high accuracy. The inaccuracy can be decreased less than ±1℉ by this method.

  13. Ultrasonic boiler inspection and economic analysis guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Boiler tube failures cause approximately 6% availability loss of large fossil-fired power generating plants. This loss can be reduced by systematic approaches using ultrasonic examination and root cause failure analysis methods. Two projects sponsored by EPRI have provided utility engineers with guidelines for performing ultrasonic examinations and with details on 22 types of tube failure mechanisms. A manual has been published that provides descriptions of typical locations, superficial appearances, damage mechanisms, metallurgy, microstructural changes, likely root causes, and potential corrective actions. Application of the principles in the manual is being demonstrated in an EPRI-funded project at 10 electric utilities over the next two years. Guidelines have been published that prescribe the activities necessary for ultrasonic examinations of boiler tubes. Eight essential elements of a boiler examination should be performed to assure that possible economic benefits are obtained. Work was supported by EPRI under RP 1890 and RP 1865. A software package has been developed for effectively planning inspections for wall thinning in fossil-fired boiler tubing. The software assists in minimizing costs associated with maintenance, such as inspection and repair, while the life of the boiler is maximized

  14. Clinical applications of in vivo fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chilhwan; Park, Sangyong; Kim, Junhyung; Ha, Seunghan; Park, Gyuman; Lee, Gunwoo; Lee, Onseok; Chun, Byungseon; Gweon, Daegab

    2008-02-01

    Living skin for basic and clinical research can be evaluated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) non-invasively. CLSM imaging system can achieve skin image its native state either "in vivo" or "fresh biopsy (ex vivo)" without fixation, sectioning and staining that is necessary for routine histology. This study examines the potential fluorescent CLSM with a various exogenous fluorescent contrast agent, to provide with more resolution images in skin. In addition, in vivo fluorescent CLSM researchers will be extended a range of potential clinical application. The prototype of our CLSM system has been developed by Prof. Gweon's group. The operating parameters are composed of some units, such as illuminated wavelength 488 nm, argon illumination power up to 20mW on the skin, objective lens, 0.9NA oil immersion, axial resolution 1.0μm, field of view 200μm x 100μm (lateral resolution , 0.3μm). In human volunteer, fluorescein sodium was administrated topically and intradermally. Animal studies were done in GFP transgenic mouse, IRC mouse and pig skin. For imaging of animal skin, fluorescein sodium, acridine orange, and curcumine were used for fluorescein contrast agent. We also used the GFP transgenic mouse for fluorescein CLSM imaging. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. Curcumin is a yellow food dye that has similar fluorescent properties to fluorescein sodium. Acridin Orange can be highlight nuclei in viable keratinocyte. In vivo CLSM of transgenic GFP mouse enable on in vivo, high resolution view of GFP expressing skin tissue. GFP signals are brightest in corneocyte, kertinocyte, hair and eccrine gland. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. In

  15. Improved sampling and analysis of images in corneal confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaldemose, E L; Fontain, F I; Karlsson, P; Nyengaard, J R

    2017-10-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive clinical method to analyse and quantify corneal nerve fibres in vivo. Although the CCM technique is in constant progress, there are methodological limitations in terms of sampling of images and objectivity of the nerve quantification. The aim of this study was to present a randomized sampling method of the CCM images and to develop an adjusted area-dependent image analysis. Furthermore, a manual nerve fibre analysis method was compared to a fully automated method. 23 idiopathic small-fibre neuropathy patients were investigated using CCM. Corneal nerve fibre length density (CNFL) and corneal nerve fibre branch density (CNBD) were determined in both a manual and automatic manner. Differences in CNFL and CNBD between (1) the randomized and the most common sampling method, (2) the adjusted and the unadjusted area and (3) the manual and automated quantification method were investigated. The CNFL values were significantly lower when using the randomized sampling method compared to the most common method (p = 0.01). There was not a statistical significant difference in the CNBD values between the randomized and the most common sampling method (p = 0.85). CNFL and CNBD values were increased when using the adjusted area compared to the standard area. Additionally, the study found a significant increase in the CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method compared to the automatic method (p ≤ 0.001). The study demonstrated a significant difference in the CNFL values between the randomized and common sampling method indicating the importance of clear guidelines for the image sampling. The increase in CNFL and CNBD values when using the adjusted cornea area is not surprising. The observed increases in both CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method of nerve quantification compared to the automatic method are consistent with earlier findings. This study underlines the importance of improving the analysis of the

  16. Confocal Microscopy of Jammed Matter: From Elasticity to Granular Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjadze, Ivane

    Packings of particles are ubiquitous in nature and are of interest not only to the scientific community but also to the food, pharmaceutical, and oil industries. In this thesis we use confocal microscopy to investigate packing geometry and stress transmission in 3D jammed particulate systems. By introducing weak depletion attraction we probe the accessible phase-space and demonstrate that a microscopic approach to jammed matter gives validity to statistical mechanics framework, which is intriguing because our particles are not thermally activated. We show that the fluctuations of the local packing parameters can be successfully captured by the recently proposed 'granocentric' model, which generates packing statistics according to simple stochastic processes. This model enables us to calculate packing entropy and granular temperature, the so-called 'compactivity', therefore, providing a basis for a statistical mechanics of granular matter. At a jamming transition point at which there are formed just enough number of contacts to guarantee the mechanical stability, theoretical arguments suggest a singularity which gives rise to the surprising scaling behavior of the elastic moduli and the microstructure, as observed in numerical simulations. Since the contact network in 3D is typically hidden from view, experimental test of the scaling law between the coordination number and the applied pressure is lacking in the literature. Our data show corrections to the linear scaling of the pressure with density which takes into account the creation of contacts. Numerical studies of vibrational spectra, in turn, reveal sudden features such as excess of low frequency modes, dependence of mode localization and structure on the pressure. Chapter four describes the first calculation of vibrational density of states from the experimental 3D data and is in qualitative agreement with the analogous computer simulations. We study the configurational role of the pressure and demonstrate

  17. Method and system having ultrasonic sensor movable by translation device for ultrasonic profiling of weld samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyard, James; Potter, Timothy; Charron, William; Hopkins, Deborah; Reverdy, Frederic

    2010-04-06

    A system for ultrasonic profiling of a weld sample includes a carriage movable in opposite first and second directions. An ultrasonic sensor is coupled to the carriage to move over the sample as the carriage moves. An encoder determines the position of the carriage to determine the position of the sensor. A spring is connected at one end of the carriage. Upon the carriage being moved in the first direction toward the spring such that the carriage and the sensor are at a beginning position and the spring is compressed the spring decompresses to push the carriage back along the second direction to move the carriage and the sensor from the beginning position to an ending position. The encoder triggers the sensor to take the ultrasonic measurements of the sample when the sensor is at predetermined positions while the sensor moves over the sample between the beginning and positions.

  18. Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.

  19. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2012-04-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects and then utilized to account for instantaneous softening when ultrasonic energy is applied during deformation. Material model parameters are identified via inverse modeling, i.e. by using experimental data. The versatility and predictive ability of the model are demonstrated and the effect of ultrasonic intensity on the manufacturing process at hand is investigated and compared qualitatively with experimental results reported in the literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan W.; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-05-01

    Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements.

  1. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J [Richland, WA; Diaz, Aaron A [W. Richland, WA; Judd, Kayte M [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA; Cliff, William C [Richland, WA; Pfund, David M [Richland, WA; Morgen, Gerald P [Kennewick, WA

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  2. An intelligent software approach to ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Hyun

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic pattern recognition is the most effective approach to the problem of discriminating types of flaws in weldments based on ultrasonic flaw signals. In spite of significant progress on this methodology, it has not been widely used in practical ultrasonic inspection of weldments in industry. Hence, for the convenient application of this approach in many practical situations, we develop an intelligent ultrasonic signature classification software which can discriminate types of flaws in weldments using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. This software shows excellent performances in an experimental problem where flaws in weldments are classified into two categories of cracks and non-cracks.

  3. Ultrasonic sectional imaging for crack identification. Part 1. Confirmation test of essential factors for ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasahara, Toshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Since the first reports of inter-granular stress corrosion crack (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) pipe in the 1970s, nuclear power industry has focused considerable attention on service induced crack detection and sizing using ultrasonic examination. In recent years, phased array systems, those reconstruct high quality flaw images at real time are getting to apply for crack detection and sizing. But because the price of phased array systems are expensive for inspection vendors, field application of phased array systems are limited and reliable ultrasonic imaging systems with reasonable price are expected. This paper will discuss cost effective ultrasonic equipment with sectional image (B-scan) presentation as the simplified imaging system for assisting ultrasonic examination personnel. To develop the simplified B-scan imaging system, the frequency characteristics of IGSCC echoes and neighboring geometry echoes such as base-metal to weld interface and inner surface of a pipe are studied. The experimental study confirmed the reflectors have different frequency characteristics and 2MHz is suitable to visualize IGSCC and 5MHz and higher frequency are suitable to reconstruct geometry images. The other study is the amplifier selection for the imaging system. To reconstruct images of IGSCC and geometry echoes, the ultrasonic imaging instrument with linear amplifier has to adjust gain setting to the target. On the other hand, the ultrasonic imaging instrument with logarithmic amplifier can collect and display wider dynamic range on a screen and this wider dynamic range are effective to visualize IGSCC and geometry echoes on a B-scan presentation at a time. (author)

  4. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  5. Overview of the ultrasonic instrumentation research in the MYRRHA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, M.; Leysen, W.; Van Dyck, D. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN is in the process of developing MYRRHA, a new generation IV fast flux research reactor to replace the aging BR2. MYRRHA is conceptualized as an accelerator driven system cooled with lead bismuth eutectic mixture (LBE). As LBE is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are employed as the main technology to provide feedback where needed. This paper we will give an overview of the R and D at SCK.CEN with respect to ultrasonic instrumentation in heavy liquid metals. High temperature ultrasonic transducers are deployed into the reactor to generate and receive the required ultrasonic signals. The ultrasonic waves are generated and sensed by means of a piezo-electric disc at the heart of the transducer. The acoustic properties of commonly used piezo-electric materials match rather well with the acoustic properties of heavy liquid metals, simplifying the design and construction of high bandwidth ultrasonic transducers for use in heavy liquid metals. The ultrasonic transducers will operate in a liquid metal environment, where radiation and high temperature limit the choice of materials for construction. Moreover, the high surface tension of the liquid metal hinders proper wetting of the transducer, required for optimal transmission and reception of the ultrasonic waves. In a first part of the paper, we will discuss the effect of these parameters on the performance of the overall ultrasonic system. In the second part of the paper, past, present and future ultrasonic experiments in LBE will be reviewed. We will show the results of an experiment where a transducer is scanned near the free surface of an LBE pool to render ultrasonic images of objects submerged in the heavy liquid metal. Additionally, the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment that measures the evolution of LBE wetting on different types of metals and various surface conditions will be reported. The evolution of wetting is an important

  6. A new improved protocol for in vitro intratubular dentinal bacterial contamination for antimicrobial endodontic tests: standardization and validation by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Bombarda de ANDRADE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To compare three methods of intratubular contamination that simulate endodontic infections using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Material and Methods Two pre-existing models of dentinal contamination were used to induce intratubular infection (groups A and B. These methods were modified in an attempt to improve the model (group C. Among the modifications it may be included: specimen contamination for five days, ultrasonic bath with BHI broth after specimen sterilization, use of E. faecalis during the exponential growth phase, greater concentration of inoculum, and two cycles of centrifugation on alternate days with changes of culture media. All specimens were longitudinally sectioned and stained with of LIVE/DEAD® for 20 min. Specimens were assessed using CLSM, which provided images of the depth of viable bacterial proliferation inside the dentinal tubules. Additionally, three examiners used scores to classify the CLSM images according to the following parameters: homogeneity, density, and depth of the bacterial contamination inside the dentinal tubules. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests were used to evaluate the live and dead cells rates, and the scores obtained. Results The contamination scores revealed higher contamination levels in group C when compared with groups A and B (p0.05. The volume of live cells in group C was higher than in groups A and B (p<0.05. Conclusion The new protocol for intratubular infection resulted in high and uniform patterns of bacterial contamination and higher cell viability in all specimens when compared with the current methods.

  7. Latest developments and opportunities for 3D analysis of biological samples by confocal μ-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Roberto D.; Sanchez, Hector J.; Perez, Carlos A.; Rubio, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis performed with a primary radiation focused in the micrometer range is known as micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). It is characterized by a penetration depth higher than other micro-analytical methods, reaching hundreds of micrometers in biological samples. This characteristic of the X-ray beam can be employed in 3D analysis. An innovative method to perform 3D analysis by μ-XRF is the so-called confocal setup. The confocal setup consists of X-ray lenses in the excitation as well as in the detection channel. In this configuration, a micro-volume defined by the overlap of the foci of both X-ray lenses is analyzed. Scanning this micro-volume through the sample can be used to perform a study in three dimensions. At present, X-ray lenses used in confocal μ-XRF experiments are mainly glass capillaries and polycapillaries. Glass capillaries are used in the excitation channel with sources of high photon flux like synchrotron radiation. Half polycapillaries or conical polycapillary concentrators are used almost exclusively in the detection channel. Spatial resolution of the confocal μ-XRF depends on the dimensions of the foci of both X-ray lenses. The overlap of these foci forms an ellipsoid which is the probing volume of the confocal setup. The axis length of the probing volume reported in confocal μ-XRF experiments are of order of few tens of micrometer. In our confocal setup, we used a commercial glass monocapillary in the excitation channel and a monolithic half polycapillary in the detection channel. The polycapillary was home-made by means of drawing of multibundles of glass capillaries in a heating furnace. The experiment was carried out at the beamline D09B-XRF of the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, LNLS) using white beam. A model for the theoretical description of X-ray fluorescence intensity registered by confocal μ-XRF was introduced by Malzer and Kanngieβer [2005. A model for the

  8. In situ protein expression in tumour spheres: development of an immunostaining protocol for confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiswald, Louis-Bastien; Guinebretière, Jean-Marc; Richon, Sophie; Bellet, Dominique; Saubaméa, Bruno; Dangles-Marie, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    Multicellular tumour sphere models have been shown to closely mimic phenotype characteristics of in vivo solid tumours, or to allow in vitro propagation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are usually characterized by the expression of specific membrane markers using flow cytometry (FC) after enzymatic dissociation. Consequently, the spatial location of positive cells within spheres is not documented. Confocal microscopy is the best technique for the imaging of thick biological specimens after multi-labelling but suffers from poor antibody penetration. Thus, we describe here a new protocol for in situ confocal imaging of protein expression in intact spheroids. Protein expression in whole spheroids (150 μm in diameter) from two human colon cancer cell lines, HT29 and CT320X6, has been investigated with confocal immunostaining, then compared with profiles obtained through paraffin immunohistochemistry (pIHC) and FC. Target antigens, relevant for colon cancer and with different expression patterns, have been studied. We first demonstrate that our procedure overcomes the well-known problem of antibody penetration in compact structures by performing immunostaining of EpCAM, a membrane protein expressed by all cells within our spheroids. EpCAM expression is detected in all cells, even the deepest ones. Likewise, antibody access is confirmed with CK20 and CD44 immunostaining. Confocal imaging shows that 100% of cells express β-catenin, mainly present in the plasma membrane with also cytoplasmic and nuclear staining, in agreement with FC and pIHC data. pIHC and confocal imaging show similar CA 19-9 cytoplasmic and membranar expression profile in a cell subpopulation. CA 19-9 + cell count confirms confocal imaging as a highly sensitive method (75%, 62% and 51%, for FC, confocal imaging and pIHC, respectively). Finally, confocal imaging reveals that the weak expression of CD133, a putative colon CSC marker, is restricted to the luminal cell surface of colorectal cancer acini

  9. Site-specific confocal fluorescence imaging of biological microstructures in a turbid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloma, Caesar; Palmes-Saloma, Cynthia; Kondoh, Hisato

    1998-01-01

    Normally transparent biological structures in a turbid medium are imaged using a laser confocal microscope and multiwavelength site-specific fluorescence labelling. The spatial filtering capability of the detector pinhole in the confocal microscope limits the number of scattered fluorescent photons that reach the photodetector. Simultaneous application of different fluorescent markers on the same sample site minimizes photobleaching by reducing the excitation time for each marker. A high-contrast grey-level image is also produced by summing confocal images of the same site taken at different fluorescence wavelengths. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to obtain the quantitative behaviour of confocal fluorescence imaging in turbid media. Confocal images of the following samples were also obtained: (i) 15 μm diameter fluorescent spheres placed 1.16 mm deep beneath an aqueous suspension of 0.0823 μm diameter polystyrene latex spheres, and (ii) hindbrain of a whole-mount mouse embryo (age 10 days) that was stained to fluoresce at 515 nm and 580 nm peak wavelengths. Expression of RNA transcripts of a gene within the embryo hindbrain was detected by a fluorescence-based whole-mount in situ hybridization procedure that we recently tested. (author)

  10. Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youmin; Raj, Milan; McGuff, H. Stan; Bhave, Gauri; Yang, Bin; Shen, Ting; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a MEMS micromirror enabled handheld confocal imaging probe for portable oral cancer detection, where a comparatively large field of view (FOV) was generated through the programmable Lissajous scanning pattern of the MEMS micromirror. Miniaturized handheld MEMS confocal imaging probe was developed, and further compared with the desktop confocal prototype under clinical setting. For the handheld confocal imaging system, optical design simulations using CODE VR® shows the lateral and axial resolution to be 0.98 µm and 4.2 µm, where experimental values were determined to be 3 µm and 5.8 µm, respectively, with a FOV of 280 µm×300 µm. Fast Lissajous imaging speed up to 2 fps was realized with improved Labview and Java based real-time imaging software. Properties such as 3D imaging through autofocusing and mosaic imaging for extended lateral view (6 mm × 8 mm) were examined for carcinoma real-time pathology. Neoplastic lesion tissues of giant cell fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma, the fibroma inside the paraffin box and ex vivo gross tissues were imaged by the bench-top and handheld imaging modalities, and further compared with commercial microscope imaging results. The MEMS scanner-based handheld confocal imaging probe shows great promise as a potential clinical tool for oral cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Youmin; Raj, Milan; Bhave, Gauri; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaojing; McGuff, H. Stan; Shen, Ting

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a MEMS micromirror enabled handheld confocal imaging probe for portable oral cancer detection, where a comparatively large field of view (FOV) was generated through the programmable Lissajous scanning pattern of the MEMS micromirror. Miniaturized handheld MEMS confocal imaging probe was developed, and further compared with the desktop confocal prototype under clinical setting. For the handheld confocal imaging system, optical design simulations using CODE V R® shows the lateral and axial resolution to be 0.98 µm and 4.2 µm, where experimental values were determined to be 3 µm and 5.8 µm, respectively, with a FOV of 280 µm×300 µm. Fast Lissajous imaging speed up to 2 fps was realized with improved Labview and Java based real-time imaging software. Properties such as 3D imaging through autofocusing and mosaic imaging for extended lateral view (6 mm × 8 mm) were examined for carcinoma real-time pathology. Neoplastic lesion tissues of giant cell fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma, the fibroma inside the paraffin box and ex vivo gross tissues were imaged by the bench-top and handheld imaging modalities, and further compared with commercial microscope imaging results. The MEMS scanner-based handheld confocal imaging probe shows great promise as a potential clinical tool for oral cancer diagnosis and treatment. (paper)

  12. Association between dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopy features of cutaneous melanoma with BRAF mutational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombonato, C; Ribero, S; Pozzobon, F C; Puig-Butille, J A; Badenas, C; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Moscarella, E; Lallas, A; Piana, S; Puig, S; Argenziano, G; Longo, C

    2017-04-01

    Melanomas harbouring common genetic mutations might share certain morphological features detectable with dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy. BRAF mutational status is crucial for the management of metastatic melanoma. To correlate the dermoscopic characteristics of primary cutaneous melanomas with BRAF mutational status. Furthermore, a subset of tumours has also been analysed for the presence of possible confocal features that might be linked with BRAF status. Retrospectively acquired dermoscopic and confocal images of patients with melanoma in tertiary referral academic centres: Skin Cancer Unit in Reggio Emilia and at the Melanoma Unit in Barcelona. Kruskal-Wallis test, logistic regressions, univariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to find dermoscopic and confocal features significantly correlated with BRAF mutational status. Dermoscopically, the presence of irregular peripheral streaks and ulceration were positive predictors of BRAF-mutated melanomas with a statistically significance value, while dotted vessels were more represented in wild-type melanomas. None of the evaluated reflectance confocal microscopy features were correlated with genetic profiling. Ulceration and irregular peripheral streaks represent dermoscopic feature indicative for BRAF-mutated melanoma, while dotted vessels are suggestive for wild-type melanoma. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra E. Beltran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients’ outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine. The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10% for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (. Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia.

  14. Superresolution upgrade for confocal spinning disk systems using image scanning microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaner, Sebastian; Hähnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Confocal Spinning Disk Systems are widely used for 3D cell imaging because they offer the advantage of optical sectioning at high framerates and are easy to use. However, as in confocal microscopy, the imaging resolution is diffraction limited, which can be theoretically improved by a factor of 2 using the principle of Image Scanning Microscopy (ISM) [1]. ISM with a Confocal Spinning Disk setup (CSDISM) has been shown to improve contrast as well as lateral resolution (FWHM) from 201 +/- 20 nm to 130 +/- 10 nm at 488 nm excitation. A minimum total acquisition time of one second per ISM image makes this method highly suitable for 3D live cell imaging [2]. Here, we present a multicolor implementation of CSDISM for the popular Micro-Manager Open Source Microscopy platform. Since changes in the optical path are not necessary, this will allow any researcher to easily upgrade their standard Confocal Spinning Disk system at remarkable low cost ( 5000 USD) with an ISM superresolution option. [1]. Müller, C.B. and Enderlein, J. Image Scanning Microscopy. Physical Review Letters 104, (2010). [2]. Schulz, O. et al. Resolution doubling in fluorescence microscopy with confocal spinning-disk image scanning microscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, 21000-5 (2013).

  15. Confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes for high speed measurements and better imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Wanhee; Lee, SeungWoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2008-02-01

    Confocal scanning microscopy (CSM) needs a scanning mechanism because only one point information of specimen can be obtained. Therefore the speed of the confocal scanning microscopy is limited by the speed of the scanning tool. To overcome this limitation from scanning tool we propose another scanning mechanism. We make three optical probes in the specimen under confocal condition of each point. Three optical probes are moved by beam scanning mechanism with shared resonant scanning mirror (RM) and galvanometer driven mirror (GM). As each optical probe scan allocated region of the specimen, information from three points is obtained simultaneously and image acquisition time is reduced. Therefore confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is expected to have three times faster speed of the image acquisition than conventional one. And as another use, multiple optical probes to which different light wavelength is applied can scan whole same region respectively. It helps to obtain better contrast image in case of specimens having different optical characteristics for specific light wavelength. In conclusion confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is useful technique for views of image acquisition speed and image quality.

  16. An interactive visualization tool for multi-channel confocal microscopy data in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Yong Wan,

    2009-11-01

    Confocal microscopy is widely used in neurobiology for studying the three-dimensional structure of the nervous system. Confocal image data are often multi-channel, with each channel resulting from a different fluorescent dye or fluorescent protein; one channel may have dense data, while another has sparse; and there are often structures at several spatial scales: subneuronal domains, neurons, and large groups of neurons (brain regions). Even qualitative analysis can therefore require visualization using techniques and parameters fine-tuned to a particular dataset. Despite the plethora of volume rendering techniques that have been available for many years, the techniques standardly used in neurobiological research are somewhat rudimentary, such as looking at image slices or maximal intensity projections. Thus there is a real demand from neurobiologists, and biologists in general, for a flexible visualization tool that allows interactive visualization of multi-channel confocal data, with rapid fine-tuning of parameters to reveal the three-dimensional relationships of structures of interest. Together with neurobiologists, we have designed such a tool, choosing visualization methods to suit the characteristics of confocal data and a typical biologist\\'s workflow. We use interactive volume rendering with intuitive settings for multidimensional transfer functions, multiple render modes and multi-views for multi-channel volume data, and embedding of polygon data into volume data for rendering and editing. As an example, we apply this tool to visualize confocal microscopy datasets of the developing zebrafish visual system.

  17. Lateral resolution testing of a novel developed confocal microscopic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yunhai; Chang, Jian; Huang, Wei; Xue, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yun

    2015-10-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscope has been widely used in biology, medicine and material science owing to its advantages of high resolution and tomographic imaging. Based on a set of confirmatory experiments and system design, a novel confocal microscopic imaging system is developed. The system is composed of a conventional fluorescence microscope and a confocal scanning unit. In the scanning unit a laser beam coupling module provides four different wavelengths 405nm 488nm 561nm and 638nm which can excite a variety of dyes. The system works in spot-to-spot scanning mode with a two-dimensional galvanometer. A 50 microns pinhole is used to guarantee that stray light is blocked and only the fluorescence signal from the focal point can be received . The three-channel spectral splitter is used to perform fluorescence imaging at three different working wavelengths simultaneously. The rat kidney tissue slice is imaged using the developed confocal microscopic imaging system. Nucleues labeled by DAPI and kidney spherule curved pipe labeled by Alexa Fluor 488 can be imaged clearly and respectively, realizing the distinction between the different components of mouse kidney tissue. The three-dimensional tomographic imaging of mouse kidney tissue is reconstructed by several two-dimensional images obtained in different depths. At last the resolution of the confocal microscopic imaging system is tested quantitatively. The experimental result shows that the system can achieve lateral resolution priority to 230nm.

  18. Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM): Combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaberg, Emilie; Sabelström, Per; Strandh, Christer; Szekely, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized cell biology. However, the technique has major limitations in speed and sensitivity due to the fact that a single laser beam scans the sample, allowing only a few microseconds signal collection for each pixel. This limitation has been overcome by the introduction of parallel beam illumination techniques in combination with cold CCD camera based image capture. Using the combination of microlens enhanced Nipkow spinning disc confocal illumination together with fully automated image capture and large scale in silico image processing we have developed a system allowing the acquisition, presentation and analysis of maximum resolution confocal panorama images of several Gigapixel size. We call the method Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM). We show using the EFLCM technique that it is possible to create a continuous confocal multi-colour mosaic from thousands of individually captured images. EFLCM can digitize and analyze histological slides, sections of entire rodent organ and full size embryos. It can also record hundreds of thousands cultured cells at multiple wavelength in single event or time-lapse fashion on fixed slides, in live cell imaging chambers or microtiter plates. The observer independent image capture of EFLCM allows quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensities and morphological parameters on a large number of cells. EFLCM therefore bridges the gap between the mainly illustrative fluorescence microscopy and purely quantitative flow cytometry. EFLCM can also be used as high content analysis (HCA) instrument for automated screening processes

  19. Confocal soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy: setup, alignment procedure and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Späth, Andreas; Raabe, Jörg; Fink, Rainer H.

    2015-01-01

    A conventional STXM setup has been upgraded with a second micro zone plate and aligned to confocal geometry. Two confocal geometries (in-line and off-axis) have been evaluated and a discussion on prospects and limitations is presented. Zone-plate-based scanning transmission soft X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) is a well established technique for high-contrast imaging of sufficiently transparent specimens (e.g. ultrathin biological tissues, polymer materials, archaeometric specimens or magnetic thin films) with spatial resolutions in the regime of 20 nm and high spectroscopic or chemical sensitivity. However, due to the relatively large depth of focus of zone plates, the resolution of STXM along the optical axis so far stays unambiguously behind for thicker X-ray transparent specimens. This challenge can be addressed by the implementation of a second zone plate in the detection pathway of the beam, resulting in a confocal arrangement. Within this paper a first proof-of-principle study for a confocal STXM (cSTXM) and an elaborate alignment procedure in transmission and fluorescence geometry are presented. Based on first confocal soft X-ray micrographs of well known specimens, the advantage and limitation of cSTXM as well as further development potentials for future applications are discussed

  20. Confocal soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy: setup, alignment procedure and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Späth, Andreas [Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Raabe, Jörg [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Fink, Rainer H., E-mail: rainer.fink@fau.de [Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    A conventional STXM setup has been upgraded with a second micro zone plate and aligned to confocal geometry. Two confocal geometries (in-line and off-axis) have been evaluated and a discussion on prospects and limitations is presented. Zone-plate-based scanning transmission soft X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) is a well established technique for high-contrast imaging of sufficiently transparent specimens (e.g. ultrathin biological tissues, polymer materials, archaeometric specimens or magnetic thin films) with spatial resolutions in the regime of 20 nm and high spectroscopic or chemical sensitivity. However, due to the relatively large depth of focus of zone plates, the resolution of STXM along the optical axis so far stays unambiguously behind for thicker X-ray transparent specimens. This challenge can be addressed by the implementation of a second zone plate in the detection pathway of the beam, resulting in a confocal arrangement. Within this paper a first proof-of-principle study for a confocal STXM (cSTXM) and an elaborate alignment procedure in transmission and fluorescence geometry are presented. Based on first confocal soft X-ray micrographs of well known specimens, the advantage and limitation of cSTXM as well as further development potentials for future applications are discussed.

  1. Ultrasonic force microscopy: detection and imaging of ultra-thin molecular domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinelli, Franco; Albonetti, Cristiano; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2011-03-01

    The analysis of the formation of ultra-thin organic films is a very important issue. In fact, it is known that the properties of organic light emitting diodes and field effect transistors are strongly affected by the early growth stages. For instance, in the case of sexithiophene, the presence of domains made of molecules with the backbone parallel to the substrate surface has been indirectly evidenced by photoluminescence spectroscopy and confocal microscopy. On the contrary, conventional scanning force microscopy both in contact and intermittent contact modes have failed to detect such domains. In this paper, we show that Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM), sensitive to nanomechanical properties, allows one to directly identify the structure of sub-monolayer thick films. Sexithiophene flat domains have been imaged for the first time with nanometer scale spatial resolution. A comparison with lateral force and intermittent contact modes has been carried out in order to explain the origins of the UFM contrast and its advantages. In particular, it indicates that UFM is highly suitable for investigations where high sensitivity to material properties, low specimen damage and high spatial resolution are required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge by aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Cheng, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Sonication is an effective way for sludge disintegration, which can significantly improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion to reduce and recycle use of sludge. But high energy consumption limits the wide application of sonication. In order to improve ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency and reduce energy consumption, aeration was introduced. Results showed that sludge disintegration efficiency was improved significantly by combining aeration with ultrasound. The aeration flow rate, gas bubble size, ultrasonic density and aeration timing had impacts on sludge disintegration efficiency. Aeration that used in later stage of ultrasonic irradiation with low aeration flow rate, small gas bubbles significantly improved ultrasonic disintegration sludge efficiency. At the optimal conditions of 0.4 W/mL ultrasonic irradiation density, 30 mL/min of aeration flow rate, 5 min of aeration in later stage and small gas bubbles, ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency was increased by 45% and one third of ultrasonic energy was saved. This approach will greatly benefit the application of ultrasonic sludge disintegration and strongly promote the treatment and recycle of wastewater sludge. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Methodic recommendations on ultrasonic testing of pipeline austenitic butt joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebennik, V.S.; Lantukh, V.M.; Tajts, M.Z.; Ermolov, I.N.; Volkov, A.S.; Vyatskov, I.A.; Kesler, N.A.; Shchedrin, I.F.

    1989-01-01

    Recommendations for the application of ultrasonic testing of austenitic welded joints of the Du 500 pipelines with the walls 32-34 mm thick made of steel Kh18N10T are developed. The optimal values of the main parameters of ultrasonic testing are determined experimentally. Principles of calculation of the optimal parameters are considered. 1 ref.; 4 figs

  4. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  5. Degradation of acephate using combined ultrasonic and ozonation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of acephate in aqueous solutions was investigated with the ultrasonic and ozonation methods, as well as a combination of both. An experimental facility was designed and operation parameters such as the ultrasonic power, temperature, and gas flow rate were strictly controlled at constant levels. The frequency of the ultrasonic wave was 160 kHz. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used in the experiment. The UV-Vis spectroscopic results show that ultrasonication and ozonation have a synergistic effect in the combined system. The degradation efficiency of acephate increases from 60.6% to 87.6% after the solution is irradiated by a 160 kHz ultrasonic wave for 60 min in the ozonation process, and it is higher with the combined method than the sum of the separated ultrasonic and ozonation methods. Raman spectra studies show that degradation via the combined ultrasonic/ozonation method is more thorough than photocatalysis. The oxidability of nitrogen atoms is promoted under ultrasonic waves. Changes of the inorganic ions and degradation pathway during the degradation process were investigated in this study. Most final products are innocuous to the environment.

  6. Ultrasonic testing device having an adjustable water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Neidigk, Stephen O.; Rackow, Kirk A.; Duvall, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    An ultrasonic testing device having a variable fluid column height is disclosed. An operator is able to adjust the fluid column height in real time during an inspection to to produce optimum ultrasonic focus and separate extraneous, unwanted UT signals from those stemming from the area of interest.

  7. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system is a device that combines the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550... include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports, component parts, and...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system is a device intended to project a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560... receiver. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and...

  9. A Comparative Analysis of the Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents a study on the comparison between some non-destructive testing tech-niques (Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity). Tests were performed to com-pare the accuracy between the rebound hammer and the ultrasonic pulse velocity methodin estimating the strength of concrete. Eighty samples ...

  10. Monitoring of PHWR end cap weld quality by ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxminarayana, B.

    1996-01-01

    In Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor fuel fabrication, the end cap welding is an important process. Till date about 16,000 welds have been studied ultrasonically. This paper discusses the experimental results and the design of a semi automatic ultrasonic equipment incorporating features for both backward and forward integration. (author)

  11. Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor with a Layer-Structured Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2010-01-01

    In-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors had developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In the previous studies, the Ultrasonic waveguide sensor module had been designed and manufactured. And the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been performed. To Improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module in the under-sodium application, the dispersion effect due to the 10 m long distance propagation of the A 0 -mode Lamb wave should be minimized and the longitudinal leaky wave in a liquid sodium should be generated within the range of the effective radiation angle. In this study, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a layered-structured plate is suggested for the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the effective generation of leaky wave in a liquid sodium

  12. Ultrasonicly identified seals for safeguards and physical protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.

    The paper provides a general review of an ultrasonic technique available for sealing, marking or otherwise identifying material in such a way that its recognition and guarantee of integrity are inequivocally ensured. Development work on several types of seals and their ultrasonic identification has been performed at Ispra in collaboration with external companies for application to MTRs, HWRs and FBRs

  13. Ultrasonic two-dimensional imaging of the heart with multiscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandt, J.R.T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the author was to present the implementation into cardiology of the ultrasonic linear array scanner. The first clinical results, the progress in examination technique and potential applications are described. One method which complements the ultrasonic imaging capabilities is the use of the echo contrast. (Auth.)

  14. Automated ultrasonic testing--capabilities, limitations and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, L.S.; Mikesell, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The requirements for precision and reproducibility of ultrasonic testing during inservice inspection of nuclear reactors are both quantitatively and qualitatively more severe than most current practice in the field can provide. An automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) system, which provides a significant advancement in field examination capabilities, is described. Properties of the system, its application, and typical results are discussed

  15. Broadband phase difference method for ultrasonic velocimetry in molten glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikura, Hiroshige; Ihara, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry in molten glass. Realization of such a technique has two difficulties: ultrasonic transmission into molten salt and Doppler signal processing. Buffer rod technique was developed in our research to transmit ultrasound into high temperature molten glass. This article discusses newly developed signal processing technique named broadband phase difference method. (J.P.N.)

  16. System of acquisition and analysis of ultrasonic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaubert, Y.; Birac, A.M.; Saglio, R.

    1982-08-01

    An original system of acquisition and analysis of ultrasonic data collected during examinations named STADUS-PRODUS has been developed by C.E.A. in Saclay. First developed for the needs of in-service inspection of PWR vessels, it is now used for the different automatic ultrasonic controls with various tools

  17. Debridement of vaginal radiation ulcers using the surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderburgh, E.; Nahhas, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator (USA) is a fairly new surgical instrument used for an increasingly wide range of procedures. This paper introduces a new application: debridement of vulvovaginal necrotic ulcers resulting from intracavitary radiation therapy. The ultrasonic aspirator allowed removal of the soft, necrotic tissue while preserving underlying healthy, firm tissue and blood vessels

  18. Development of phased-array ultrasonic testing probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Seiichi; Kurokawa, Masaaki; Taniguchi, Masaru; Tada, Yoshihisa

    2001-01-01

    Phased-array ultrasonic testing was developed for nondestructive evaluation of power plants. Phased-array UT scans and focuses an ultrasonic beam to inspect areas difficult to inspect by conventional UT. We developed a highly sensitive piezoelectric composite, and designed optimized phased-array UT probes. We are applying our phased-array UT to different areas of power plants. (author)

  19. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and enzyme activity was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the increase of ultrasonic specific energy in the range of 0 - 90000 kJ/kg dried sludge (DS) benefited WAS particle size reduction and the solubilization ...

  20. Small scale imaging using ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Z.; Abdul Rahim, R.; Megat Ali, M.S.A.; Baharuddin, M.Y.; Jahidin, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound technology progressed through the 1960 from simple A-mode and B-mode scans to today M-mode and Doppler two dimensional (2-D) and even three dimensional (3-D) systems. Modern ultrasound imaging has its roots in sonar technology after it was first described by Lord John Rayleigh over 100 years ago on the interaction of acoustic waves with media. Tomography technique was developed as a diagnostic tool in the medical area since the early of 1970s. This research initially focused on how to retrieve a cross sectional images from living and non-living things. After a decade, the application of tomography systems span into the industrial area. However, the long exposure time of medical radiation-based method cannot tolerate the dynamic changes in industrial process two phase liquid/ gas flow system. An alternative system such as a process tomography systems, can give information on the nature of the flow regime characteristic. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a small scale ultrasonic tomography method based on ultrasonic transmission mode tomography for online monitoring of liquid/ gas flow in pipe/ vessel system through ultrasonic transceivers application. This non-invasive technique applied sixteen transceivers as the sensing elements to cover the pipe/ vessel cross section. The paper also details the transceivers selection criteria, hardware setup, the electronic measurement circuit and also the image reconstruction algorithm applied. The system was found capable of visualizing the internal characteristics and provides the concentration profile for the corresponding liquid and gas phases. (author)

  1. Ultrasonic Detectors Safely Identify Dangerous, Costly Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 1990, NASA grounded its space shuttle fleet. The reason: leaks detected in the hydrogen fuel systems of the Space Shuttles Atlantis and Columbia. Unless the sources of the leaks could be identified and fixed, the shuttles would not be safe to fly. To help locate the existing leaks and check for others, Kennedy Space Center engineers used portable ultrasonic detectors to scan the fuel systems. As a gas or liquid escapes from a leak, the resulting turbulence creates ultrasonic noise, explains Gary Mohr, president of Elmsford, New York-based UE Systems Inc., a long-time leader in ultrasonic detector technologies. "In lay terms, the leak is like a dog whistle, and the detector is like the dog ear." Because the ultrasound emissions from a leak are highly localized, they can be used not only to identify the presence of a leak but also to help pinpoint a leak s location. The NASA engineers employed UE s detectors to examine the shuttle fuel tanks and solid rocket boosters, but encountered difficulty with the devices limited range-certain areas of the shuttle proved difficult or unsafe to scan up close. To remedy the problem, the engineers created a long-range attachment for the detectors, similar to "a zoom lens on a camera," Mohr says. "If you are on the ground, and the leak is 50 feet away, the detector would now give you the same impression as if you were only 25 feet away." The enhancement also had the effect of reducing background noise, allowing for a clearer, more precise detection of a leak s location.

  2. Signal analysis approach to ultrasonic evaluation of diffusion bond quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Graham; Chinn, Diane

    1999-01-01

    Solid state bonds like the diffusion bond are attractive techniques for joining dissimilar materials since they are not prone to the defects that occur with fusion welding. Ultrasonic methods can detect the presence of totally unbonded regions but have difficulty sensing poor bonded areas where the substrates are in intimate contact. Standard ultrasonic imaging is based on amplitude changes in the signal reflected from the bond interface. Unfortunately, amplitude alone is not sensitive to bond quality. We demonstrated that there is additional information in the ultrasonic signal that correlates with bond quality. In our approach, we interrogated a set of dissimilar diffusion bonded samples with broad band ultrasonic signals. The signals were digitally processed and the characteristics of the signals that corresponded to bond quality were determined. These characteristics or features were processed with pattern recognition algorithms to produce predictions of bond quality. The predicted bond quality was then compared with the destructive measurement to assess the classification capability of the ultrasonic technique

  3. Ultrasonic imaging of metastatic carcinoma in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the ultrasonic findings of metastatic thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic imaging for patients with metastatic thyroid neoplasm. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of ten patients who were diagnosed with metastatic thyroid carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. In all the cases, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid was performed during the clinical diagnosis. Results: The ultrasonic images of the ten patients fell into four types: multiple nodules in the thyroid, single nodule in the thyroid, diffuse calcification and heterogeneous echo. Seven cases showed speckled calcific foci. Abnormal blood flow signal was found in 9 cases. Conclusion: The ultrasonic findings of metastatic carcinoma in the thyroid gland are various and non-specific. Color Doppler ultrasound may provide ample evidence. The diagnosis depends on FNAC. (authors)

  4. Detecting accuracy of flaws by manual and automatic ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.

    1988-01-01

    As the final stage work in the nine year project on proving tests of the ultrasonic inspection technique applied to the ISI of LWR plants, automatic ultrasonic inspection tests were carried out on EDM notches, surface fatigue cracks, weld defects and stress corrosion cracks, which were deliberately introduced in full size structural components simulating a 1,100 MWe BWR. Investigated items are the performance of a newly assembled automatic inspection apparatus, detection limit of flaws, detection resolution of adjacent collinear or parallel EDM notches, detection reproducibility and detection accuracy. The manual ultrasonic inspection of the same flaws as inspected by the automatic ultrasonic inspection was also carried out in order to have comparative data. This paper reports how it was confirmed that the automatic ultrasonic inspection is much superior to the manual inspection in the flaw detection rate and in the detection reproducibility

  5. Ultrasonic hot powder compaction of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-07-01

    Power ultrasonic has been recently employed in a wide variety of manufacturing processes among which ultrasonic assisted powder compaction is a promising powder materials processing technique with significant industrial applications. The products manufactured by the powder metallurgy commonly consist of residual porosities, material impurities, structural non-homogeneities and residual stress. In this paper, it is aimed to apply power ultrasonic to the hot consolidation process of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy powder in order to improve mechanical properties. To do this, the effects of ultrasonic power and process temperature and pressure were considered and then deeply studied through a series of experiments. It was shown that the addition of ultrasonic vibration leads to a significant improvement in the consolidation performance and the mechanical strength of the fabricated specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The ultrasonic shop map and its use in preservice inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of Section X1 of the ASME Code on Inservice Inspection, a plan was introduced by Westinghouse to perform ultrasonic examinations of areas of high stress and high fluence of reactor pressure vessels in the manufacturer's shop and subsequent to the shop hydrostatic test. The tests provided a shop reference map of ultrasonic responses to use in subsequent preservice and inservice inspections, and attempted to locate any ultrasonic reflections beyond the acceptance standards of ASME Section III and, later, of Section X1. The history of the program is reviewed. Thirty-six vessels were examined during 1970 to 1973. As a result of indications discovered during ultrasonic examination repairs were carried out on five of these. Details are given of inspections and repairs. A summary is also given of the indications detected and of the correlations between the ultrasonic evaluation and actual flow characteristics. (U.K.)

  7. Effect of decision making on ultrasonic examination performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    A decision aid was developed to overcome examiner limitations in information processing and decision making during ultrasonic examinations. The aid provided a means of noting signal characteristics as they were observed during the examination, and of presenting them simultaneously for decision making. The aid also served as a way of providing detailed feedback on examination performance during training. The aid was incorporated into worksheets used for the conduct of practice examinations during ultrasonic examination training. To support the introduction and use of the decision aid, one hour of supplementary training was inserted in an existing 64-hour training course on ultrasonic detection of defects. This study represented a modest step in improving the performance of ultrasonic examinations in nuclear power plants. Findings indicated that aided decision making supported by limited training can significantly improve ultrasonic detection performance

  8. A Miniature Probe for Ultrasonic Penetration of a Single Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfei Xiao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although ultrasound cavitation must be avoided for safe diagnostic applications, the ability of ultrasound to disrupt cell membranes has taken on increasing significance as a method to facilitate drug and gene delivery. A new ultrasonic resonance driving method is introduced to penetrate rigid wall plant cells or oocytes with springy cell membranes. When a reasonable design is created, ultrasound can gather energy and increase the amplitude factor. Ultrasonic penetration enables exogenous materials to enter cells without damaging them by utilizing instant acceleration. This paper seeks to develop a miniature ultrasonic probe experiment system for cell penetration. A miniature ultrasonic probe is designed and optimized using the Precise Four Terminal Network Method and Finite Element Method (FEM and an ultrasonic generator to drive the probe is designed. The system was able to successfully puncture a single fish cell.

  9. Application of the laser scanning confocal microscope in fluorescent film sensor research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Liu, Wei-Min; Zhao, Wen-Wen; Dai, Qing; Wang, Peng-Fei

    2010-10-01

    Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over conventional optical microscopy; we show an experimental investigation laser scanning confocal microscope as a tool to be used in cubic boron nitride (cBN) film-based fluorescent sensor research. Cubic boron nitride cBN film sensors are modified with dansyl chloride and rhodamine B isothiocyanate respectively. Fluorescent modification quality on the cubic boron nitride film is clearly express and the sensor ability to Hg2+ cations and pH are investigated in detail. We evidence the rhodamine B isothiocyanate modified quality on cBN surface is much better than that of dansyl chloride. And laser scanning confocal microscope has potential application lighttight fundus film fluorescent sensor research.

  10. Confocal detection of Rayleigh scattering for residual stress measurement in chemically tempered glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hödemann, S., E-mail: siim.hodemann@ut.ee; Möls, P.; Kiisk, V.; Saar, R.; Kikas, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Wilhelm Ostwald st., Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Murata, T. [Nippon Electric Glass Co., 7-1 Seiran 2-chome, Otsu-shi, Shiga 520-8639 (Japan)

    2015-12-28

    A new optical method is presented for evaluation of the stress profile in chemically tempered (chemically strengthened) glass based on confocal detection of scattered laser beam. Theoretically, a lateral resolution of 0.2 μm and a depth resolution of 0.6 μm could be achieved by using a confocal microscope with high-NA immersion objective. The stress profile in the 250 μm thick surface layer of chemically tempered lithium aluminosilicate glass was measured with a high spatial resolution to illustrate the capability of the method. The confocal method is validated using transmission photoelastic and Na{sup +} ion concentration profile measurement. Compositional influence on the stress-optic coefficient is calculated and discussed. Our method opens up new possibilities for three-dimensional scattered light tomography of mechanical imaging in birefringent materials.

  11. Emulation and design of terahertz reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy based on virtual pinhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-fa; Li, Qi

    2014-12-01

    In the practical application of terahertz reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy, the size of detector pinhole is an important factor that determines the performance of spatial resolution characteristic of the microscopic system. However, the use of physical pinhole brings some inconvenience to the experiment and the adjustment error has a great influence on the experiment result. Through reasonably selecting the parameter of matrix detector virtual pinhole (VPH), it can efficiently approximate the physical pinhole. By using this approach, the difficulty of experimental calibration is reduced significantly. In this article, an imaging scheme of terahertz reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy that is based on the matrix detector VPH is put forward. The influence of detector pinhole size on the axial resolution of confocal scanning microscopy is emulated and analyzed. Then, the parameter of VPH is emulated when the best axial imaging performance is reached.

  12. Performance verification of focus variation and confocal microscopes measuring tilted ultra-fine surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of two optical instruments, scilicet a laser scanning confocal microscope and a focus-variation microscope, was investigated considering measurements of tilted surfaces. The measured samples were twelve steel artefacts for mould surface finish reference, covering Sa roughness...... parameter in the range (101—103) nm. The 3D surface texture parameters considered were Sa, Sq and Sdq. The small working distance of the confocal microscope objectives influenced the measurement setup, preventing from selecting a high tilting angle. The investigation was carried out comparing measurements...... of flat surfaces (0° tilt) with measurements of 12.5° tilted surfaces. The confocal microscope results showed a high sensitivity to tilting due to the laser beam reflection on the metal surfaces. The focus variation microscope results were more robust with respect to the considered angular variation...

  13. Development of confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy at the Cornell high energy synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, A.R.; Huang, R.; Mass, J.; Bisulca, C.; Bilderback, D.H.; Gruner, S.; Gao, N.

    2006-01-01

    A confocal X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) to obtain compositional depth profiles of historic paintings. The microscope consists of a single-bounce, borosilicate monocapillary optic to focus the incident beam onto the painting and a commercial borosilicate polycapillary lens to collect the fluorescent X-rays. The resolution of the microscope was measured by scanning a variety of thin metal films through this confocal volume while monitoring the fluorescence signal. The capabilities of the technique were then probed using test paint microstructures with up to four distinct layers, each having a thickness in the range of 10-80 microns. Results from confocal XRF were compared with those from stand-alone XRF and visible light microscopy of the paint cross-sections. A large area, high-resolution scanner is currently being built to perform 3D scans on moderately sized paintings. (orig.)

  14. CINCH (confocal incoherent correlation holography) super resolution fluorescence microscopy based upon FINCH (Fresnel incoherent correlation holography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Nisan; Storrie, Brian; Bruce, Marc; Brooker, Gary

    2015-02-07

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates high resolution super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. The simple addition of a real-time Nipkow disk confocal image scanner in a conjugate plane of this incoherent holographic system is shown to reduce the depth of focus, and the combination of both techniques provides a simple way to enhance the axial resolution of FINCH in a combined method called "CINCH". An important feature of the combined system allows for the simultaneous real-time image capture of widefield and holographic images or confocal and confocal holographic images for ready comparison of each method on the exact same field of view. Additional GPU based complex deconvolution processing of the images further enhances resolution.

  15. Parallel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime confocal microscopy for live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Li, Yu; Peng, Leilei

    2014-05-05

    We present a novel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) method that surpasses current FLIM techniques in multiplexing capability. The method employs Fourier multiplexing to simultaneously acquire confocal fluorescence lifetime images of multiple excitation wavelength and emission color combinations at 44,000 pixels/sec. The system is built with low-cost CW laser sources and standard PMTs with versatile spectral configuration, which can be implemented as an add-on to commercial confocal microscopes. The Fourier lifetime confocal method allows fast multiplexed FLIM imaging, which makes it possible to monitor multiple biological processes in live cells. The low cost and compatibility with commercial systems could also make multiplexed FLIM more accessible to biological research community.

  16. Speckle-illuminated fluorescence confocal microscopy, using a digital micro-mirror device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shi-Hong; Walker, John G

    2009-01-01

    An implementation of a speckle-illuminated fluorescence confocal microscope using a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) is described. The DMD not only projects a sequence of imaged binary speckle patterns onto the specimen at a very high frame rate but also operates as a spatial light modulator to perform real-time optical data processing. Frame averaging is accomplished by CCD charge accumulation during a single exposure. The recorded time-averaged image is a confocal image plus an unwanted non-confocal image which can be removed by recording a separate image. Experimental results with image acquisition within a fraction of a second are shown. Images of a thin biological sample are also shown to demonstrate practical application of the technique

  17. A novel method for enhancing the lateral resolution and image SNR in confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Zhu, Dazhao; Fang, Yue; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2017-12-01

    There is always a tradeoff between the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in confocal microscopy. In particular, the pinhole size is very important for maintaining a balance between them. In this paper, we propose a method for improving the lateral resolution and image SNR in confocal microscopy without making any changes to the hardware. By using the fluorescence emission difference (FED) approach, we divide the images acquired by different pinhole sizes into one image acquired by the central pinhole and several images acquired by ring-shaped pinholes. Then, they are added together with the deconvolution method. Simulation and experimental results for fluorescent particles and cells show that our method can achieve a far better resolution than a large pinhole and a higher SNR than a small pinhole. Moreover, our method can improve the performance of classic confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to a certain extent, especially CLSM with a continuously variable pinhole.

  18. Longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection of austenitic weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.S.; Hudgell, R.J.; Seed, H.

    1980-01-01

    Successful volumetric inspection of LMFBR primary circuits, and also much of the secondary circuit, is dependent on the availability of satisfactory examination procedures for austenitic welds. Application of conventional ultrasonic techniques is hampered by the anisotropic, textured structure of the weld metal and this paper describes development work on the use of longitudinal wave techniques. In addition to confirming the dominant effects of the weld structure on ultrasound propagation some results are given of studies utilising deliberately induced defects in Manual Metal Arc Welds in 50 mm plate together with preliminary work on the inspection of narrow austenitic welds fabricated by automatic processes. (author)

  19. Numerical processing of ultrasonic holographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberg, K.J.; Kiefer, R.; Wosnitza, M.; Schmitz, V.; Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V., Saarbruecken

    1980-01-01

    Reconstructing ultrasonic holographic data numerically, the well-known Fresnel approximation is a first step in evaluating the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula, that is to say, a one- or two-dimensional Fourier-transform of the holographic data multiplied by a complex phase factor has to be computed. The present contribution investigates the relation between flaw depth and aperture size yielding the more advantageous use of the spatial frequency approach where the advantage is in terms of the number of samples and hence computation time in evaluating Fourier transforms numerically. (orig.) [de

  20. A thinker's guide to ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powis, R.L.; Powis, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Bridging the gap between elementary physics and advanced ultrasonographic theory, this book provides the clinician with an indispensable tool for the most effective use of ultrasound equipment. It is directed to every individual who must take a transducer in hand, make an ultrasonic study, and interpret the visual results. It stands between the very rudimentary texts that provide simple basics and texts in advanced ultrasound science and applications. It is designed to provide an intermediate step in the continuing education of both physician and sonographer. Each chapter stands alone, yet is connected with the others by reference and suggested readings

  1. Near-infrared-excited confocal Raman spectroscopy advances in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a unique optical technique that can probe the changes of vibrational modes of biomolecules associated with tissue premalignant transformation. This study evaluates the clinical utility of confocal Raman spectroscopy over near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy and composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy for improving early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at colposcopy. A rapid NIR Raman system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic confocal Raman probe was utilized for in vivo NIR AF/Raman spectral measurements of the cervix. A total of 1240 in vivo Raman spectra [normal (n=993), dysplasia (n=247)] were acquired from 84 cervical patients. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with a leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation method were used to extract the diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic modalities. The diagnostic ability of confocal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated using the PCA-LDA model developed from the significant principal components (PCs) [i.e., PC4, 0.0023%; PC5, 0.00095%; PC8, 0.00022%, (p<0.05)], representing the primary tissue Raman features (e.g., 854, 937, 1095, 1253, 1311, 1445, and 1654 cm(-1)). Confocal Raman spectroscopy coupled with PCA-LDA modeling yielded the diagnostic accuracy of 84.1% (a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 87.1%) for in vivo discrimination of dysplastic cervix. The receiver operating characteristic curves further confirmed that the best classification was achieved using confocal Raman spectroscopy compared to the composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This study illustrates that confocal Raman spectroscopy has great potential to improve early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopy.

  2. Localizing Proteins in Fixed Giardia lamblia and Live Cultured Mammalian Cells by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Skalli, Omar; Estraño, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with a construct encoding a protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein tag allows live cell studies of the subcellular localization of that protein and the monitoring in real time of its trafficking. Immunostaining methods for confocal fluorescence microscopy are also faster and less involved than those for EM allowing rapid optimization of the antibody dilution needed and a determination of whether protein antigenicity is maintained under fixation conditions used for EM immunogold labeling. This chapter details a method to determine by confocal fluorescence microscopy the intracellular localization of a protein by transfecting the organism of interest, in this case Giardia lamblia, with the cDNA encoding the protein of interest and then processing these organisms for double label immunofluorescence staining after chemical fixation. Also presented is a method to identify the organelle targeting information in the presequence of a precursor protein, in this case the presequence of the precursor to the Euglena light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II precursor (pLHCPII), using live cell imaging of mammalian COS7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding a pLHCPII presequence fluorescent protein fusion and stained with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes.

  3. Quantification of confocal fluorescence microscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Fahime; Ward, Rabab K; Carraro, Anita; Chen, Zhao Yang; van Niekerk, Dirk; Miller, Dianne; Ehlen, Tom; MacAulay, Calum E; Follen, Michele; Lane, Pierre M; Guillaud, Martial

    2015-10-24

    Cervical cancer remains a major health problem, especially in developing countries. Colposcopic examination is used to detect high-grade lesions in patients with a history of abnormal pap smears. New technologies are needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of this technique. We propose to test the potential of fluorescence confocal microscopy to identify high-grade lesions. We examined the quantification of ex vivo confocal fluorescence microscopy to differentiate among normal cervical tissue, low-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), and high-grade CIN. We sought to (1) quantify nuclear morphology and tissue architecture features by analyzing images of cervical biopsies; and (2) determine the accuracy of high-grade CIN detection via confocal microscopy relative to the accuracy of detection by colposcopic impression. Forty-six biopsies obtained from colposcopically normal and abnormal cervical sites were evaluated. Confocal images were acquired at different depths from the epithelial surface and histological images were analyzed using in-house software. The features calculated from the confocal images compared well with those features obtained from the histological images and histopathological reviews of the specimens (obtained by a gynecologic pathologist). The correlations between two of these features (the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and the average of three nearest Delaunay-neighbors distance) and the grade of dysplasia were higher than that of colposcopic impression. The sensitivity of detecting high-grade dysplasia by analysing images collected at the surface of the epithelium, and at 15 and 30 μm below the epithelial surface were respectively 100, 100, and 92 %. Quantitative analysis of confocal fluorescence images showed its capacity for discriminating high-grade CIN lesions vs. low-grade CIN lesions and normal tissues, at different depth of imaging. This approach could be used to help clinicians identify high-grade CIN in clinical

  4. Adipocyte size and cellular expression of caveolar proteins analyzed by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulstrøm, Veronica; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Vinten, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Caveolae are abundant in adipocytes and are involved in the regulation of lipid accumulation, which is the main volume determinant of these cells. We have developed and applied a confocal microscopic technique for measuring individual cellular expression of the caveolar proteins cavin-1 and caveo......Caveolae are abundant in adipocytes and are involved in the regulation of lipid accumulation, which is the main volume determinant of these cells. We have developed and applied a confocal microscopic technique for measuring individual cellular expression of the caveolar proteins cavin-1...

  5. Improved signal model for confocal sensors accounting for object depending artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Florian; Lyda, Wolfram; Gronle, Marc; Osten, Wolfgang

    2012-08-27

    The conventional signal model of confocal sensors is well established and has proven to be exceptionally robust especially when measuring rough surfaces. Its physical derivation however is explicitly based on plane surfaces or point like objects, respectively. Here we show experimental results of a confocal point sensor measurement of a surface standard. The results illustrate the rise of severe artifacts when measuring curved surfaces. On this basis, we present a systematic extension of the conventional signal model that is proven to be capable of qualitatively explaining these artifacts.

  6. A confocal optical microscope for detection of single impurities in a bulk crystal at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    A compact sample-scanning confocal optical microscope for detection of single impurities below the surface of a bulk crystal at cryogenic temperatures is described. The sample, lens, and scanners are mounted inside a helium bath cryostat and have a footprint of only 19 × 19 mm. Wide field imaging and confocal imaging using a Blu-ray lens immersed in liquid helium are demonstrated with excitation at 370 nm. A spatial resolution of 300 nm and a detection efficiency of 1.6% were achieved.

  7. Comparison between optical techniques and confocal microscopy for defect detection on thin wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, Philip; Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Martinez-Anton, Juan Carlos; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2004-01-01

    Conventional microscopy techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CM) are not suitable for on-line surface inspection of fine metallic wires. In the recent years, some optical techniques have been developed to be used for those tasks. However, they need a rigorous validation. In this work, we have used confocal microscopy to obtain the topography z(x,y) of wires with longitudinal defects, such as dielines. The topography has been used to predict the light scattered by the wire. These simulations have been compared with experimental results, showing a good agreement

  8. Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neauport, J.; Cormont, P.; Destribats, J.; Legros, P.; Ambard, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation of fluorescence confocal microscopy as a tool to measure subsurface damage on grinded fused silica optics. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was performed with an excitation at the wavelength of 405 nm on fixed abrasive diamond grinded fused silica samples. We detail the measured fluorescence spectrums and compare them to those of oil based coolants and grinding slurries. We evidence that oil based coolant used in diamond grinding induces a fluorescence that marks the subsurface damages and eases its observation. Such residual traces might also be involved in the laser damage process. (authors)

  9. Method of case hardening depth testing by using multifunctional ultrasonic testing instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salchak, Y A; Sednev, D A; Ardashkin, I B; Kroening, M

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes usability of ultrasonic case hardening depth control applying standard instrument of ultrasonic inspections. The ultrasonic method of measuring the depth of the hardened layer is proposed. Experimental series within the specified and multifunctional ultrasonic equipment are performed. The obtained results are compared with the results of a referent method of analysis. (paper)

  10. Three-dimensional measurement and visualization of internal flow of a moving droplet using confocal micro-PIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Haruyuki; Kaneda, Shohei; Fujii, Teruo; Oshima, Marie

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a micro-flow diagnostic technique, 'high-speed confocal micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV)', and its application to the internal flow measurement of a droplet passing through a microchannel. A confocal micro-PIV system has been successfully constructed wherein a high-speed confocal scanner is combined with the conventional micro-PIV technique. The confocal micro-PIV system enables us to obtain a sequence of sharp and high-contrast cross-sectional particle images at 2000 frames s(-1). This study investigates the confocal depth, which is a significant parameter to determine the out-of-plane measurement resolution in confocal micro-PIV. Using the present confocal micro-PIV system, we can measure velocity distributions of micro-flows in a 228 microm x 171 microm region with a confocal depth of 1.88 microm. We also propose a three-dimensional velocity measurement method based on the confocal micro-PIV and the equation of continuity. This method enables us to measure three velocity components in a three-dimensional domain of micro flows. The confocal micro-PIV system is applied to the internal flow measurement of a droplet. We have measured three-dimensional distributions of three-component velocities of a droplet traveling in a 100 microm (width) x 58 microm (depth) channel. A volumetric velocity distribution inside a droplet is obtained by the confocal micro-PIV and the three-dimensional flow structure inside the droplet is investigated. The measurement results suggest that a three-dimensional and complex circulating flow is formed inside the droplet.

  11. Nonlinear ultrasonics for material state awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, L. J.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive health monitoring of structural components will require the development of advanced sensing techniques capable of providing quantitative information on the damage state of structural materials. By focusing on nonlinear acoustic techniques, it is possible to measure absolute, strength based material parameters that can then be coupled with uncertainty models to enable accurate and quantitative life prediction. Starting at the material level, this review will present current research that involves a combination of sensing techniques and physics-based models to characterize damage in metallic materials. In metals, these nonlinear ultrasonic measurements can sense material state, before the formation of micro- and macro-cracks. Typically, cracks of a measurable size appear quite late in a component's total life, while the material's integrity in terms of toughness and strength gradually decreases due to the microplasticity (dislocations) and associated change in the material's microstructure. This review focuses on second harmonic generation techniques. Since these nonlinear acoustic techniques are acoustic wave based, component interrogation can be performed with bulk, surface and guided waves using the same underlying material physics; these nonlinear ultrasonic techniques provide results which are independent of the wave type used. Recent physics-based models consider the evolution of damage due to dislocations, slip bands, interstitials, and precipitates in the lattice structure, which can lead to localized damage.

  12. Ultrasonic effects on titanium tanning of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Biyu; Shi, Bi; Sun, Danhong; Chen, Yaowen; Shelly, Dennis C

    2007-03-01

    The effects of ultrasound on titanium tanning of leather were investigated. Either 20 or 40 kHz ultrasound was applied to the titanium tanning of pigskins. Five different treatment conditions were carried out and the effects were examined, such as leather shrinkage temperature (T(s)), titanium content and titanium distribution in the leather. Overall heat loading was carefully controlled. Results showed that 20 kHz ultrasound effectively improves titanium agent penetration into the hide and increases the leather's shrinkage temperature. Doubling the frequency to 40 kHz produced negligible enhancements. An impressive 105.6 degrees C T(s) was achieved using 20 kHz ultrasound pretreatment of the tanning liquor followed by 20 kHz ultrasound in the tanning mixture (liquor plus pigskins) in a special salt-free medium. Finally, using a unique ultrasonic tanning drum with 26.5 kHz ultrasound, the T(s) reached a record level of 106.5 degrees C, a value not achieved in conventional (no ultrasound) titanium tanning. The ultrasonic effects on titanium tanning of leather are judged to make a superior mineral tanned leather.

  13. Acoustic leak detection and ultrasonic crack detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.; Groenwald, R.

    1983-10-01

    A program is under way to assess the effectiveness of current and proposed techniques for acoustic leak detection (ALD) in reactor coolant systems. An ALD facility has been constructed and tests have begun on five laboratory-grown cracks (three fatigue and two thermal-fatigue and two field-induced IGSCC specimens. After ultrasonic testing revealed cracks in the Georgia Power Co. HATCH-1 BWR recirculation header, the utility installed an ALD system. Data from HATCH-1 have given an indication of the background noise level at a BWR recirculation header sweepolet weld. The HATCH leak detection system was tested to determine the sensitivity and dynamic range. Other background data have been acquired at the Watts Bar Nuclear Reactor in Tennessee. An ANL waveguide system, including transducer and electronics, was installed and tested on an accumulator safety injection pipe. The possibility of using ultrasonic wave scattering patterns to discriminate between IGSCCs and geometric reflectors has been explored. Thirteen reflectors (field IGSCCs, graphite wool IGSCCs, weld roots, and slits) were examined. Work with cast stainless steel (SS) included sound velocity and attenuation in isotropic and anisotropic cast SS. Reducing anisotropy does not help reduce attenuation in large-grained material. Large artificial flaws (e.g., a 1-cm-deep notch with a 4-cm path) could not be detected in isotropic centrifugally cast SS (1 to 2-mm grains) by longitudinal or shear waves at frequencies of 1 MHz or greater, but could be detected with 0.5-MHz shear waves. 13 figures

  14. Ultrasonic assessment of shrinkage type discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubber, John

    2010-01-01

    This investigation into ultrasonic internal discontinuities is intended to demonstrate typical examples of internal 'shrinkage' type discontinuities and its connection with the casting suitability, integrity and reliability in service. This type of discontinuity can be misinterpreted by ultrasonic technicians and can lead to the rejection of castings unnecessarily, due to the mis-characterization of fine shrinkage - discrete porosity. The samples for this investigation were taken from thirty ton heavy section ductile iron mill flange castings, manufactured by Graham Campbell Ferrum International. The sampled area was of discontinuities that were recorded for sizing on an area due to loss of back wall echo, but had acceptable reflectivity. A comparative sample was taken adjacent to the area of discrete porosity. The discontinuities found by this investigation are of a 'spongy' type, gaseous in appearance and are surrounded by acoustically sound material. All discontinuities discussed in this paper are centrally located in the through thickness of the casting. The porous nature of this type of discontinuity consisting of approximately 80-90% metal has its own residual strength, as indicated by the proof stress results which reveal a residual strength of up to 50-60% of that of the unaffected area of the casting. The affected areas are elliptical in shape and vary in density and through thickness throughout.

  15. Innovative ultrasonics for power plant commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.V.; Alikhan, S.

    1983-05-01

    During the commissioning of a nuclear power plant, the usual role of ultrasonics is associated with nondestructive testing of welds. There is, however, a variety of undesirable conditions associated with the fluids carried through the various reactor systems which may be just as important to station operation. A variety of unusual ultrasonic techniques has been developed for testing fluid systems at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. This paper uses the experience gained at the Point Lepreau reactor to illustrate the valuable information which can be gained from these measurements, such as: fluid level in pipes and headers; fluid level in pressure vessels; detection, and sizing of debris in pipes; in situ measurement and verification of orifice condition; detection and location of cavitation, water hammer, valve leakage; quantitative measurement of gate movement within the body of an inservice valve; determination of valve position; detection and imaging of flow separation; detection and location of leaks in concrete containment structures; verification of design flows; balancing of loop flows; and detection of low flow. The application of these techniques at other reactor sites is also discussed

  16. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  17. Real-time ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Gopichand; Nair, Satish; Liu, Harry; Brown, Lawrence M.

    1996-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing techniques are currently used as an alternative to radiography for detecting, classifying,and sizing weld defects, and for evaluating weld quality. Typically, ultrasonic weld inspections are performed manually, which require significant operator expertise and time. Thus, in recent years, the emphasis is to develop automated methods to aid or replace operators in critical weld inspections where inspection time, reliability, and operator safety are major issues. During this period, significant advances wee made in the areas of weld defect classification and sizing. Very few of these methods, however have found their way into the market, largely due to the lack of an integrated approach enabling real-time implementation. Also, not much research effort was directed in improving weld acceptance criteria. This paper presents an integrated system utilizing state-of-the-art techniques for a complete automation of the weld inspection procedure. The modules discussed include transducer tracking, classification, sizing, and weld acceptance criteria. Transducer tracking was studied by experimentally evaluating sonic and optical position tracking techniques. Details for this evaluation are presented. Classification is obtained using a multi-layer perceptron. Results from different feature extraction schemes, including a new method based on a combination of time and frequency-domain signal representations are given. Algorithms developed to automate defect registration and sizing are discussed. A fuzzy-logic acceptance criteria for weld acceptance is presented describing how this scheme provides improved robustness compared to the traditional flow-diagram standards.

  18. Ultrasonic level, temperature, and density sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, S.C.; Miller, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    A sensor has been developed to measure simultaneously the level, temperature, and density of the fluid in which it is immersed. The sensor is a thin, rectangular stainless steel ribbon which acts as a waveguide and is housed in a perforated tube. The waveguide is coupled to a section of magnetostrictive magnetic-coil transducers. These tranducers are excited in an alternating sequence to interrogate the sensor with both torsional ultrasonic waves, utilizing the Wiedemann effect, and extensional ultrasonic waves, using the Joule effect. The measured torsional wave transit time is a function of the density, level, and temperature of the fluid surrounding the waveguide. The measured extensional wave transit time is a function of the temperature of the waveguide only. The sensor is divided into zones by the introduction of reflecting surfaces at measured intervals along its length. Consequently, the transit times from each reflecting surface can be analyzed to yield a temperature profile and a density profile along the length of the sensor. Improvements in acoustic wave dampener and pressure seal designs enhance the compatibility of the probe with high-temperature, high-radiation, water-steam environments and increase the likelihood of survival in such environments. Utilization of a microcomputer to automate data sampling and processing has resulted in improved resolution of the sensor

  19. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, D.N.

    1998-04-14

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

  20. Ultrasonic Examination of Jet Pump Diffuser Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.; Levesque, M.; Whitman, G.

    1998-01-01

    In October 1997 the Boiling Water REactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP) issued the BWR Jet Pump Assembly Inspection and Flaw Evaluation Guidelines (BWRVIP-41). This document identified several welds on the jet pump diffuser assembly that are susceptible to Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) or fatigue, and whose failure could result in jet pump disassembly. Based on the potential for failures, the document recommends inspection of 50% of the high priority welds at the next refueling outage for each BWR, with 100% expansion if flaws are identified. Because each diffuser assembly contains as many as six high priority welds, and access to these welds from the annulus is very restricted, implementing these recommendations can have a significant impact on outage critical path. In an effort to minimize the impact of implementing these recommendations, Framatome Technologies, Inc (FTI) developed a method to perform ultrasonic examinations of the jet pump diffuser assembly welds utilizing remotely operated equipment from the inner diameter (ID) of the diffuser assembly. This paper will discuss the tooling, ultrasonic methods, and delivery techniques used to perform the examinations, as well as the results obtained from a spring 1998 deployment of the system at a U.S. Nuclear Generating Plant. (Author)