WorldWideScience

Sample records for chip system leads

  1. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in Plastic Leaded Chip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) package has been emerged a promising option to tackle the thermal management issue of micro-electronic devices. In the present study, three dimensional numerical analysis of heat and fluid flow through PLCC packages oriented in-line and mounted horizontally on a printed circuit ...

  2. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  3. Self-powered integrated systems-on-chip (energy chip)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-04-23

    In today\\'s world, consumer driven technology wants more portable electronic gadgets to be developed, and the next big thing in line is self-powered handheld devices. Therefore to reduce the power consumption as well as to supply sufficient power to run those devices, several critical technical challenges need to be overcome: a. Nanofabrication of macro/micro systems which incorporates the direct benefit of light weight (thus portability), low power consumption, faster response, higher sensitivity and batch production (low cost). b. Integration of advanced nano-materials to meet the performance/cost benefit trend. Nano-materials may offer new functionalities that were previously underutilized in the macro/micro dimension. c. Energy efficiency to reduce power consumption and to supply enough power to meet that low power demand. We present a pragmatic perspective on a self-powered integrated System on Chip (SoC). We envision the integrated device will have two objectives: low power consumption/dissipation and on-chip power generation for implementation into handheld or remote technologies for defense, space, harsh environments and medical applications. This paper provides insight on materials choices, intelligent circuit design, and CMOS compatible integration.

  4. Self-powered integrated systems-on-chip (energy chip)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Fahad, H.; Rojas, J.; Hasan, M.; Talukdar, A.; Oommen, J.; Mink, J.

    2010-04-01

    In today's world, consumer driven technology wants more portable electronic gadgets to be developed, and the next big thing in line is self-powered handheld devices. Therefore to reduce the power consumption as well as to supply sufficient power to run those devices, several critical technical challenges need to be overcome: a. Nanofabrication of macro/micro systems which incorporates the direct benefit of light weight (thus portability), low power consumption, faster response, higher sensitivity and batch production (low cost). b. Integration of advanced nano-materials to meet the performance/cost benefit trend. Nano-materials may offer new functionalities that were previously underutilized in the macro/micro dimension. c. Energy efficiency to reduce power consumption and to supply enough power to meet that low power demand. We present a pragmatic perspective on a self-powered integrated System on Chip (SoC). We envision the integrated device will have two objectives: low power consumption/dissipation and on-chip power generation for implementation into handheld or remote technologies for defense, space, harsh environments and medical applications. This paper provides insight on materials choices, intelligent circuit design, and CMOS compatible integration.

  5. Supply systems of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small-diameter thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2009. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2009 by these suppliers was 8,4 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected from March-May, 2010. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-diameter thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply system in Finland in 2009. The chipping at plant supply system was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. Nearly 70 % of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 28 % at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply system was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-diameter wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, similarly roughly 70 % of chips were comminuted at plants and 23 % at terminals. (orig.)

  6. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis...

  7. Microprocessors: From basic chips to complete systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    These lectures aim to present and explain in general terms some of the characteristics of microprocessor chips and associated components. They show how systems are synthesized from the basic integrated circuit building blocks which are currently available; processor, memory, input-output (I/0) devices, etc. (orig./HSI)

  8. On-chip digital power supply control for system-on-chip applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.; Otten, R.H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors presented an on-chip, fully-digital, power-supply control system. The scheme consists of two independent control loops that regulate power supply variations due to semiconductor process spread, temperature, and chip's workload. Smart power-switches working as linear voltage regulators

  9. The Advances, Challenges and Future Possibilities of Millimeter-Wave Chip-to-Chip Interconnections for Multi-Chip Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Ganguly

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With aggressive scaling of device geometries, density of manufacturing faults is expected to increase. Therefore, yield of complex Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chips (MP-SoCs will decrease due to higher probability of manufacturing defects especially, in dies with large area. Therefore, disintegration of large SoCs into smaller chips called chiplets will improve yield and cost of complex platform-based systems. This will also provide functional flexibility, modular scalability as well as the capability to integrate heterogeneous architectures and technologies in a single unit. However, with scaling of the number of chiplets in such a system, the shared resources in the system such as the interconnection fabric and memory modules will become performance bottlenecks. Additionally, the integration of heterogeneous chiplets operating at different frequencies and voltages can be challenging. State-of-the-art inter-chip communication requires power-hungry high-speed I/O circuits and data transfer over long wired traces on substrates. This increases energy consumption and latency while decreasing data bandwidth for chip-to-chip communication. In this paper, we explore the advances and the challenges of interconnecting a multi-chip system with millimeter-wave (mm-wave wireless interconnects from a variety of perspectives spanning multiple aspects of the wireless interconnection design. Our discussion on the recent advances include aspects such as interconnection topology, physical layer, Medium Access Control (MAC and routing protocols. We also present some potential paradigm-shifting applications as well as complementary technologies of wireless inter-chip communications.

  10. Synchronization of Integrated Systems on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Díaz O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the non-conventional interconnected and coupled ring oscillators approach working as clock distribution networks to synchronize electronic systems on a chip (SoC is proposed. Typical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor N-well 0.35 µm Austria Micro Systems process parameters were used for conventional and non-conventional clock distribution nets design and simulation. Experimental results from local and global clock distribution networks fabricated using a CMOS 0.35 µm process show that the use of interconnected rings arrays, as globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS clock distribution networks, represent an appropriate approach due to good performance regarding scalability, low clock-skew, high-speed, faults tolerant and robust under process variations, regularity, and modularity.

  11. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...

  12. Power and Thermal Management of System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei

    , are necessary at the chip design level. In this work, we investigate the power and thermal management of System-on- Chips (SoCs). Thermal analysis is performed in a SPICE simulation approach based on the electrical-thermal analogy. We investigate the impact of inter- connects on heat distribution...

  13. Development of a synchrotron timing system on a programmable chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feiyu; Qiao Weimin; Wang Yanyu; Guo Yuhui

    2009-01-01

    A synchrotron requires extremely high time constraints for timing signals, so timing system is very important for a synchrotron control system. A FPGA+ARM+Linux+DSP architecture has been mainly used in timing control of the HIRFL-CSR control system. In this paper, we report the development of the SOPC(System On a Programmable Chip) based on FPGA and uClinux.It can integrate all the functions of ARM+Linux in one single FPGA chip, hence no need of the dedicated ARM chip, and the reduced cost. The maximum operation frequency of this system is 185 MHz. The hardware consumes less than 4% of total resources of FPGA chip. And both the hardware system and the operating system of the SOPC are reconfigurable. The SOPC system has a wide prospect of applications in accelerator engineering and many fields of scientific research. (authors)

  14. An automatic chip structure optical inspection system for electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhichao; Xue, Bindang; Liang, Jiyuan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Junzhang; Liu, Yunhe

    2018-01-01

    An automatic chip structure inspection system based on machine vision is presented to ensure the reliability of electronic components. It consists of four major modules, including a metallographic microscope, a Gigabit Ethernet high-resolution camera, a control system and a high performance computer. An auto-focusing technique is presented to solve the problem that the chip surface is not on the same focusing surface under the high magnification of the microscope. A panoramic high-resolution image stitching algorithm is adopted to deal with the contradiction between resolution and field of view, caused by different sizes of electronic components. In addition, we establish a database to storage and callback appropriate parameters to ensure the consistency of chip images of electronic components with the same model. We use image change detection technology to realize the detection of chip images of electronic components. The system can achieve high-resolution imaging for chips of electronic components with various sizes, and clearly imaging for the surface of chip with different horizontal and standardized imaging for ones with the same model, and can recognize chip defects.

  15. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  16. A multi-chip data acquisition system based on a heterogeneous system-on-chip platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fiergolski, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The Control and Readout Inner tracking BOard (CaRIBOu) is a versatile readout system targeting a multitude of detector prototypes. It profits from the heterogeneous platform of the Zynq System-on-Chip (SoC) and integrates in a monolithic device front-end FPGA resources with a back-end software running on a hard-core ARM-based processor. The user-friendly Linux terminal with the pre-installed DAQ software is combined with the efficiency and throughput of a system fully implemented in the FPGA fabric. The paper presents the design of the SoC-based DAQ system and its building blocks. It also shows examples of the achieved functionality for the CLICpix2 readout ASIC.

  17. Handbook of VLSI chip design and expert systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, A F

    1993-01-01

    Handbook of VLSI Chip Design and Expert Systems provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of expert systems, which provides a knowledge-based approach to problem solving. This book discusses the use of expert systems in every possible subtask of VLSI chip design as well as in the interrelations between the subtasks.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of design automation, which can be identified as Computer-Aided Design of Circuits and Systems (CADCAS). This text then presents the progress in artificial intelligence, with emphasis on expert systems.

  18. Fluxless flip-chip bonding using a lead-free solder bumping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Kousar, S.; Pitzl, D.; Arab, S.

    2017-09-01

    With the LHC exceeding the nominal instantaneous luminosity, the current barrel pixel detector (BPIX) of the CMS experiment at CERN will reach its performance limits and undergo significant radiation damage. In order to improve detector performance in high luminosity conditions, the entire BPIX is replaced with an upgraded version containing an additional detection layer. Half of the modules comprising this additional layer are produced at DESY using fluxless and lead-free bumping and bonding techniques. Sequential solder-jetting technique is utilized to wet 40-μm SAC305 solder spheres on the silicon-sensor pads with electroless Ni, Pd and immersion Au (ENEPIG) under-bump metallization (UBM). The bumped sensors are flip-chip assembled with readout chips (ROCs) and then reflowed using a flux-less bonding facility. The challenges for jetting low solder volume have been analyzed and will be presented in this paper. An average speed of 3.4 balls per second is obtained to jet about 67 thousand solder balls on a single chip. On average, 7 modules have been produced per week. The bump-bond quality is evaluated in terms of electrical and mechanical properties. The peak-bump resistance is about 17.5 mΩ. The cross-section study revealed different types of intermetallic compounds (IMC) as a result of interfacial reactions between UBM and solder material. The effect of crystalline phases on the mechanical properties of the joint is discussed. The mean shear strength per bump after the final module reflow is about 16 cN. The results and sources of yield loss of module production are reported. The achieved yield is 95%.

  19. Single-chip serial channel enhances multi-processor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper multiprocessor systems are described and explained. The impact that VLSI advancements are having on multiprocessor design is pointed out. The TMS 7041 single-chip microcomputer is described briefly, highlighting its multiprocessor communication capability. And finally, a typical multiprocessor system is shown, implementing the TMS 7041.

  20. A single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongming; Wu Ruisheng; Li Bin

    1998-01-01

    The single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence is an intelligent analytic instrument, which is based on the principle that the liquid containing hydrocarbons can give out several characteristic fluorescences when irradiated by strong light. Besides a single-chip computer, the system makes use of the keyboard and the calculation and printing functions of a CASIO printing calculator. It combines optics, mechanism and electronics into one, and is small, light and practical, so it can be used for surface water sample analysis in oil field and impurity analysis of other materials

  1. On-Chip Bondwire Magnetics with Ferrite-Epoxy Glob Coating for Power Systems on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel concept of on-chip bondwire inductors and transformers with ferrite epoxy glob coating is proposed to offer a cost effective approach realizing power systems on chip (SOC. We have investigated the concept both experimentally and with finite element modeling. A Q factor of 30–40 is experimentally demonstrated for the bondwire inductors which represents an improvement by a factor of 3–30 over the state-of-the-art MEMS micromachined inductors. Transformer parameters including self- and mutual inductance and coupling factors are extracted from both modeled and measured S-parameters. More importantly, the bondwire magnetic components can be easily integrated into SOC manufacturing processes with minimal changes and open enormous possibilities for realizing cost-effective, high-current, high-efficiency power SOCs.

  2. Selective attention in multi-chip address-event systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the "Selective Attention Chip" (SAC), which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model.

  3. Neuromorphic VLSI Models of Selective Attention: From Single Chip Vision Sensors to Multi-chip Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo

    2008-09-03

    Biological organisms perform complex selective attention operations continuously and effortlessly. These operations allow them to quickly determine the motor actions to take in response to combinations of external stimuli and internal states, and to pay attention to subsets of sensory inputs suppressing non salient ones. Selective attention strategies are extremely effective in both natural and artificial systems which have to cope with large amounts of input data and have limited computational resources. One of the main computational primitives used to perform these selection operations is the Winner-Take-All (WTA) network. These types of networks are formed by arrays of coupled computational nodes that selectively amplify the strongest input signals, and suppress the weaker ones. Neuromorphic circuits are an optimal medium for constructing WTA networks and for implementing efficient hardware models of selective attention systems. In this paper we present an overview of selective attention systems based on neuromorphic WTA circuits ranging from single-chip vision sensors for selecting and tracking the position of salient features, to multi-chip systems implement saliency-map based models of selective attention.

  4. Neuromorphic VLSI Models of Selective Attention: From Single Chip Vision Sensors to Multi-chip Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Indiveri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological organisms perform complex selective attention operations continuously and effortlessly. These operations allow them to quickly determine the motor actions to take in response to combinations of external stimuli and internal states, and to pay attention to subsets of sensory inputs suppressing non salient ones. Selective attention strategies are extremely effective in both natural and artificial systems which have to cope with large amounts of input data and have limited computational resources. One of the main computational primitives used to perform these selection operations is the Winner-Take-All (WTA network. These types of networks are formed by arrays of coupled computational nodes that selectively amplify the strongest input signals, and suppress the weaker ones. Neuromorphic circuits are an optimal medium for constructing WTA networks and for implementing efficient hardware models of selective attention systems. In this paper we present an overview of selective attention systems based on neuromorphic WTA circuits ranging from single-chip vision sensors for selecting and tracking the position of salient features, to multi-chip systems implement saliency-map based models of selective attention.

  5. Essential issues in SOC design designing complex systems-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Youn-long Steve

    2007-01-01

    Covers issues related to system-on-chip (SoC) design. This book covers IP development, verification, integration, chip implementation, testing and software. It contains valuable academic and industrial examples for those involved with the design of complex SOCs.

  6. An FPGA design flow for reconfigurable network-based multi-processor systems on chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Hansson, M.A; Huisken, J.; Corporaal, H.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-processor systems on chip (MPSoC) platforms are becoming increasingly more heterogeneous and are shifting towards a more communication-centric methodology. Networks on chip (NoC) have emerged as the design paradigm for scalable on-chip communication architectures. As the system complexity

  7. Fully Automated On-Chip Imaging Flow Cytometry System with Disposable Contamination-Free Plastic Re-Cultivation Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kaneko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel imaging cytometry system using a poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA based microfluidic chip. The system was contamination-free, because sample suspensions contacted only with a flammable PMMA chip and no other component of the system. The transparency and low-fluorescence of PMMA was suitable for microscopic imaging of cells flowing through microchannels on the chip. Sample particles flowing through microchannels on the chip were discriminated by an image-recognition unit with a high-speed camera in real time at the rate of 200 event/s, e.g., microparticles 2.5 μm and 3.0 μm in diameter were differentiated with an error rate of less than 2%. Desired cells were separated automatically from other cells by electrophoretic or dielectrophoretic force one by one with a separation efficiency of 90%. Cells in suspension with fluorescent dye were separated using the same kind of microfluidic chip. Sample of 5 μL with 1 × 106 particle/mL was processed within 40 min. Separated cells could be cultured on the microfluidic chip without contamination. The whole operation of sample handling was automated using 3D micropipetting system. These results showed that the novel imaging flow cytometry system is practically applicable for biological research and clinical diagnostics.

  8. On-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometer for OCT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Akca, Imran B.; Angelou, Nikolaos; Weiss, Nicolas; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene G.

    2018-04-01

    By using integrated optics, it is possible to reduce the size and cost of a bulky optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. One of the OCT components that can be implemented on-chip is the interferometer. In this work, we present the design and characterization of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisting of the wavelength-independent splitters and an on-chip reference arm. The Si3N4 was chosen as the material platform as it can provide low losses while keeping the device size small. The device was characterized by using a home-built swept source OCT system. A sensitivity value of 83 dB, an axial resolution of 15.2 μm (in air) and a depth range of 2.5 mm (in air) were all obtained.

  9. 3D stacked chips from emerging processes to heterogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fettweis, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This book explains for readers how 3D chip stacks promise to increase the level of on-chip integration, and to design new heterogeneous semiconductor devices that combine chips of different integration technologies (incl. sensors) in a single package of the smallest possible size.  The authors focus on heterogeneous 3D integration, addressing some of the most important challenges in this emerging technology, including contactless, optics-based, and carbon-nanotube-based 3D integration, as well as signal-integrity and thermal management issues in copper-based 3D integration. Coverage also includes the 3D heterogeneous integration of power sources, photonic devices, and non-volatile memories based on new materials systems.   •Provides single-source reference to the latest research in 3D optoelectronic integration: process, devices, and systems; •Explains the use of wireless 3D integration to improve 3D IC reliability and yield; •Describes techniques for monitoring and mitigating thermal behavior in 3D I...

  10. On-Chip Correlator for Passive Wireless SAW Multisensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For decoding the asynchronous superposition of response signals from different sensors, it is a challenge to achieve correlation in a code division multiplexing (CDM based passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW multisensor system. Therefore, an on-chip correlator scheme is developed in this paper. In contrast to conventional CDM-based systems, this novel scheme enables the correlations to be operated at the SAW sensors, instead of the reader. Thus, the response signals arriving at the reader are the result of cross-correlation on the chips. It is then easy for the reader to distinguish the sensor that is matched with the interrogating signal. The operation principle, signal analysis, and simulation of the novel scheme are described in the paper. The simulation results show the response signals from the correlations of the sensors. A clear spike pulse is presented in the response signals, when a sensor code is matched with the interrogating code. Simulations verify the feasibility of the on-chip correlator concept.

  11. Design of Networks-on-Chip for Real-Time Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of networks-on-chips for use in multi-processor systems-on-chips - the hardware platforms used in embedded systems. These platforms typically have to guarantee real-time properties, and as the network is a shared resource, it has to provide service guarantees...... (bandwidth and/or latency) to different communication flows. The paper reviews some past work in this field and the lessons learned, and the paper discusses ongoing research conducted as part of the project "Time-predictable Multi-Core Architecture for Embedded Systems" (T-CREST), supported by the European...

  12. Design and Development of a Portable Metal Chip Baler using A System Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohd Fahrul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of metal chips at workplace will result in untidy and unsafe condition thus measurements of safety are needed in some industries, where the metal chips will be collected and put into a container until the volume is sufficient to be recycled. Due to that reason, the metal chips require a lot of spaces for storage before going to recycle. In this study, a portable metal chip baler as a device for compacting those metal chips is presented based on a system approach of engineering design. Basically, the system design evolves through four phases of development that are started from conceptual design, preliminary system design, detail design and development to system test and evaluation. The portable metal chip baler uses current technology such as pneumatic cylinder to compress the metal chips so that the system capable to operate efficiently. The output from this system is the metal chips are compacted into a block shape and a working prototype was developed to prove the concept of the system. As a summary, the conceptual design of portable metal chip baler was proven and was presented using the philosophy of the systems design approach. This tool may assists workers especially in the Small-Medium Enterprise (SME manufacturing industries, school or universities’ workshops for managing metal chips easily and systematically.

  13. Multicore systems on-chip practical software/hardware design

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, Abderazek Ben

    2013-01-01

    System on chips designs have evolved from fairly simple unicore, single memory designs to complex heterogeneous multicore SoC architectures consisting of a large number of IP blocks on the same silicon. To meet high computational demands posed by latest consumer electronic devices, most current systems are based on such paradigm, which represents a real revolution in many aspects in computing.The attraction of multicore processing for power reduction is compelling. By splitting a set of tasks among multiple processor cores, the operating frequency necessary for each core can be reduced, allowi

  14. Advancing Software Development for a Multiprocessor System-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bique

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A low-level language is the right tool to develop applications for some embedded systems. Notwithstanding, a high-level language provides a proper environment to develop the programming tools. The target device is a system-on-chip consisting of an array of processors with only local communication. Applications include typical streaming applications for digital signal processing. We describe the hardware model and stress the advantages of a flexible device. We introduce IDEA, a graphical integrated development environment for an array. A proper foundation for software development is a UML and standard programming abstractions in object-oriented languages.

  15. A system-level multiprocessor system-on-chip modeling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir; Madsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We present a system-level modeling framework to model system-on-chips (SoC) consisting of heterogeneous multiprocessors and network-on-chip communication structures in order to enable the developers of today's SoC designs to take advantage of the flexibility and scalability of network-on-chip and...... SoC design. We show how a hand-held multimedia terminal, consisting of JPEG, MP3 and GSM applications, can be modeled as a multiprocessor SoC in our framework....

  16. 3D printed nervous system on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Lancaster, Karen Z; Hogue, Ian B; Meng, Fanben; Kong, Yong Lin; Enquist, Lynn W; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-04-21

    Bioinspired organ-level in vitro platforms are emerging as effective technologies for fundamental research, drug discovery, and personalized healthcare. In particular, models for nervous system research are especially important, due to the complexity of neurological phenomena and challenges associated with developing targeted treatment of neurological disorders. Here we introduce an additive manufacturing-based approach in the form of a bioinspired, customizable 3D printed nervous system on a chip (3DNSC) for the study of viral infection in the nervous system. Micro-extrusion 3D printing strategies enabled the assembly of biomimetic scaffold components (microchannels and compartmented chambers) for the alignment of axonal networks and spatial organization of cellular components. Physiologically relevant studies of nervous system infection using the multiscale biomimetic device demonstrated the functionality of the in vitro platform. We found that Schwann cells participate in axon-to-cell viral spread but appear refractory to infection, exhibiting a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.4 genomes per cell. These results suggest that 3D printing is a valuable approach for the prototyping of a customized model nervous system on a chip technology.

  17. Selective Attention in Multi-Chip Address-Event Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Indiveri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the “Selective Attention Chip” (SAC, which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model.

  18. Endocrine system on chip for a diabetes treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dao Thi Thuy; van Noort, Danny; Jeong, In-Kyung; Park, Sungsu

    2017-02-21

    The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion. Thus, we constructed a co-culture of intestinal-pancreatic cells to measure the effect of glucose on the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the L-cell line (GLUTag) and insulin from the pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1). After three days of culture, both cell lines formed aggregates, exhibited 3D cell morphology, and showed good viability (>95%). We separately measured the dynamic profile of GLP-1 and insulin release at glucose concentrations of 0.5 and 20 mM, as well as the combined effect of GLP-1 on insulin production at these glucose concentrations. In response to glucose stimuli, GLUTag and INS-1 cells produced higher amounts of GLP-1 and insulin, respectively, compared to a static 2D cell culture. INS-1 combined with GLUTag cells exhibited an even higher insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. At higher glucose concentrations, the diabetes model on chip showed faster saturation of the insulin level. Our results suggest that the endocrine system developed in this study is a useful tool for observing dynamical changes in endocrine hormones (GLP-1 and insulin) in a glucose-dependent environment. Moreover, it can potentially be used to screen GLP-1 analogues and natural insulin and GLP-1 stimulants for diabetes treatment.

  19. A VLSI System-on-Chip for Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078019

    In this thesis I present a System-on-Chip (SoC) I designed to oer a self- contained, compact data acquisition platform for micromegas detector mon- itoring. I carried on my work within the RD-51 collab oration of CERN. With a companion ADC, my architecture is capable to acquire the signal from a detector electro de, pro cess the data and p erform monitoring tests. The SoC is built around on a custom 8-bit micropro cessor with internal mem- ory resources and emb eds the p eripherals to b e interf...

  20. System on chip module configured for event-driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Kevin; Brady, Charles E.; Ashlock, Tad A.

    2017-10-17

    A system on chip (SoC) module is described herein, wherein the SoC modules comprise a processor subsystem and a hardware logic subsystem. The processor subsystem and hardware logic subsystem are in communication with one another, and transmit event messages between one another. The processor subsystem executes software actors, while the hardware logic subsystem includes hardware actors, the software actors and hardware actors conform to an event-driven architecture, such that the software actors receive and generate event messages and the hardware actors receive and generate event messages.

  1. Enhanced Leads and Appointment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The data asset contains information on current or upcoming appointments, individuals who will be attending the appointment, potential intent to file a claim (lead),...

  2. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  3. Runtime adaptive multi-processor system-on-chip: RAMPSoC

    OpenAIRE

    Göhringer, D.; Hübner, M.; Schatz, V.; Becker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Current trends in high performance computing show, that the usage of multiprocessor systems on chip are one approach for the requirements of computing intensive applications. The multiprocessor system on chip (MPSoC) approaches often provide a static and homogeneous infrastructure of networked microprocessor on the chip die. A novel idea in this research area is to introduce the dynamic adaptivity of reconfigurable hardware in order to provide a flexible heterogeneous set of processing elemen...

  4. A Fully Integrated Humidity Sensor System-on-Chip Fabricated by Micro-Stamping Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Wei; Huang, Yu-Jie; Lu, Shey-Shi; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated humidity sensor chip was designed, implemented, and tested. Utilizing the micro-stamping technology, the pseudo-3D sensor system-on-chip (SSoC) architecture can be implemented by stacking sensing materials directly on the top of a CMOS-fabricated chip. The fabricated sensor system-on-chip (2.28 mm × 2.48 mm) integrated a humidity sensor, an interface circuit, a digital controller, and an On-Off Keying (OOK) wireless transceiver. With low power consumption, i.e., 750 μW without RF operation, the sensitivity of developed sensor chip was experimentally verified in the relative humidity (RH) range from 32% to 60%. The response time of the chip was also experimentally verified to be within 5 seconds from RH 36% to RH 64%. As a consequence, the implemented humidity SSoC paves the way toward the an ultra-small sensor system for various applications.

  5. Analysis of Minimal LDPC Decoder System on a Chip Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Palenik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical method of potential replacement of several different Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check (QC-LDPC codes with one, with the intention of saving as much memory as required to implement the LDPC encoder and decoder in a memory-constrained System on a Chip (SoC. The presented method requires only a very small modification of the existing encoder and decoder, making it suitable for utilization in a Software Defined Radio (SDR platform. Besides the analysis of the effects of necessary variable-node value fixation during the Belief Propagation (BP decoding algorithm, practical standard-defined code parameters are scrutinized in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed LDPC setup simplification. Finally, the error performance of the modified system structure is evaluated and compared with the original system structure by means of simulation.

  6. DAEDALUS: System-Level Design Methodology for Streaming Multiprocessor Embedded Systems on Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanov, T.; Pimentel, A.; Nikolov, H.; Ha, S.; Teich, J.

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of modern embedded systems, which are increasingly based on heterogeneous multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) architectures, has led to the emergence of system-level design. To cope with this design complexity, system-level design aims at raising the abstraction level of the design

  7. A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for mm sized beads on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Loes Irene; Koster, Maarten J.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact fluorescence detection system for on-chip analysis of beads, comprising a low-cost optical HD-DVD pickup. The complete system consists of a fluorescence detection unit, a control unit and a microfluidic chip containing microchannels and optical markers. With these

  8. An FPGA bridge preserving traffing quality of service for on-chip network-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejad, A.B.; Escudero Martinez, M.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2011-01-01

    FPGA prototyping of recent large Systems on Chip (SoCs) is very challenging due to the resource limitation of a single FPGA. Moreover, having external access to SoCs for verification and debug purposes is essential. In this paper, we suggest to partition a network-on-chip (NoC) based system into

  9. A High-Throughput, High-Accuracy System-Level Simulation Framework for System on Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's System-on-Chips (SoCs design is extremely challenging because it involves complicated design tradeoffs and heterogeneous design expertise. To explore the large solution space, system architects have to rely on system-level simulators to identify an optimized SoC architecture. In this paper, we propose a system-level simulation framework, System Performance Simulation Implementation Mechanism, or SPSIM. Based on SystemC TLM2.0, the framework consists of an executable SoC model, a simulation tool chain, and a modeling methodology. Compared with the large body of existing research in this area, this work is aimed at delivering a high simulation throughput and, at the same time, guaranteeing a high accuracy on real industrial applications. Integrating the leading TLM techniques, our simulator can attain a simulation speed that is not slower than that of the hardware execution by a factor of 35 on a set of real-world applications. SPSIM incorporates effective timing models, which can achieve a high accuracy after hardware-based calibration. Experimental results on a set of mobile applications proved that the difference between the simulated and measured results of timing performance is within 10%, which in the past can only be attained by cycle-accurate models.

  10. Fitting tissue chips and microphysiological systems into the grand scheme of medicine, biology, pharmacology, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David E; Hunziker, Rosemarie; Wikswo, John P

    2017-10-01

    Microphysiological systems (MPS), which include engineered organoids (EOs), single organ/tissue chips (TCs), and multiple organs interconnected to create miniature in vitro models of human physiological systems, are rapidly becoming effective tools for drug development and the mechanistic understanding of tissue physiology and pathophysiology. The second MPS thematic issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine comprises 15 articles by scientists and engineers from the National Institutes of Health, the IQ Consortium, the Food and Drug Administration, and Environmental Protection Agency, an MPS company, and academia. Topics include the progress, challenges, and future of organs-on-chips, dissemination of TCs into Pharma, children's health protection, liver zonation, liver chips and their coupling to interconnected systems, gastrointestinal MPS, maturation of immature cardiomyocytes in a heart-on-a-chip, coculture of multiple cell types in a human skin construct, use of synthetic hydrogels to create EOs that form neural tissue models, the blood-brain barrier-on-a-chip, MPS models of coupled female reproductive organs, coupling MPS devices to create a body-on-a-chip, and the use of a microformulator to recapitulate endocrine circadian rhythms. While MPS hardware has been relatively stable since the last MPS thematic issue, there have been significant advances in cell sourcing, with increased reliance on human-induced pluripotent stem cells, and in characterization of the genetic and functional cell state in MPS bioreactors. There is growing appreciation of the need to minimize perfusate-to-cell-volume ratios and respect physiological scaling of coupled TCs. Questions asked by drug developers are followed by an analysis of the potential value, costs, and needs of Pharma. Of highest value and lowest switching costs may be the development of MPS disease models to aid in the discovery of disease mechanisms; novel compounds including probes, leads, and clinical candidates

  11. Integrated lasers for polymer Lab-on-a-Chip systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mappes, Timo; Vannahme, Christoph; Grosmann, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    We develop optical Lab-on-a-Chips on different platforms for marker-based and label-free biophotonic sensor applications. Our chips are based on polymers and fabricated by mass production technologies to integrate microfluidic channels, optical waveguides and miniaturized lasers.......We develop optical Lab-on-a-Chips on different platforms for marker-based and label-free biophotonic sensor applications. Our chips are based on polymers and fabricated by mass production technologies to integrate microfluidic channels, optical waveguides and miniaturized lasers....

  12. [Effect of lead on the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa; Gajek, Jacek

    2004-11-01

    Lead is a metal widely spread in the natural environment. It is strongly toxic, particularly to the peripheral and central nervous systems. The toxic influence on the cardiovascular system is most pronounced in case of higher exposures, where myocardium and the renal circulation are affected, in consequence of which secondary arterial hypertension can develop. It seems that lead affects the cardiovascular system mainly by changing the peripheral autonomic nervous system and leading to chronic neuropathy. Chronic exposure, even to low doses of lead, can impair conduction in myocardium. In order to assess those changes thoroughly prospective studies involving newly employed workers with occupational exposure to toxic activity of lead will be necessary.

  13. Avoiding Message-Dependent Deadlock in Network-Based Systems on Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansson, A.; Goossens, K.; Rãdulescu, A.

    2007-01-01

    Networks on chip (NoCs) are an essential component of systems on chip (SoCs) and much research is devoted to deadlock avoidance in NoCs. Prior work focuses on the router network while protocol interactions between NoC and intellectual property (IP) modules are not considered. These interactions

  14. Single-Chip Computers With Microelectromechanical Systems-Based Magnetic Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carley, L. Richard; Bain, James A.; Fedder, Gary K.; Greve, David W.; Guillou, David F.; Lu, Michael S.C.; Mukherjee, Tamal; Santhanam, Suresh; Abelmann, Leon; Min, Seungook

    This article describes an approach for implementing a complete computer system (CPU, RAM, I/O, and nonvolatile mass memory) on a single integrated-circuit substrate (a chip)—hence, the name "single-chip computer." The approach presented combines advances in the field of microelectromechanical

  15. Hot Chips and Hot Interconnects for High End Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash

    2005-01-01

    I will discuss several processors: 1. The Cray proprietary processor used in the Cray X1; 2. The IBM Power 3 and Power 4 used in an IBM SP 3 and IBM SP 4 systems; 3. The Intel Itanium and Xeon, used in the SGI Altix systems and clusters respectively; 4. IBM System-on-a-Chip used in IBM BlueGene/L; 5. HP Alpha EV68 processor used in DOE ASCI Q cluster; 6. SPARC64 V processor, which is used in the Fujitsu PRIMEPOWER HPC2500; 7. An NEC proprietary processor, which is used in NEC SX-6/7; 8. Power 4+ processor, which is used in Hitachi SR11000; 9. NEC proprietary processor, which is used in Earth Simulator. The IBM POWER5 and Red Storm Computing Systems will also be discussed. The architectures of these processors will first be presented, followed by interconnection networks and a description of high-end computer systems based on these processors and networks. The performance of various hardware/programming model combinations will then be compared, based on latest NAS Parallel Benchmark results (MPI, OpenMP/HPF and hybrid (MPI + OpenMP). The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of general trends in the field of high performance computing, (quantum computing, DNA computing, cellular engineering, and neural networks).

  16. Addressing On-Chip Power Converstion and Dissipation Issues in Many-Core System-on-a-Chip Based on Conventional Silicon and Emerging Nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenafi, Emeshaw

    Integrated circuits (ICs) are moving towards system-on-a-chip (SOC) designs. SOC allows various small and large electronic systems to be implemented in a single chip. This approach enables the miniaturization of design blocks that leads to high density transistor integration, faster response time, and lower fabrication costs. To reap the benefits of SOC and uphold the miniaturization of transistors, innovative power delivery and power dissipation management schemes are paramount. This dissertation focuses on on-chip integration of power delivery systems and managing power dissipation to increase the lifetime of energy storage elements. We explore this problem from two different angels: On-chip voltage regulators and power gating techniques. On-chip voltage regulators reduce parasitic effects, and allow faster and efficient power delivery for microprocessors. Power gating techniques, on the other hand, reduce the power loss incurred by circuit blocks during standby mode. Power dissipation (Ptotal = Pstatic and Pdynamic) in a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit comes from two sources: static and dynamic. A quadratic dependency on the dynamic switching power and a more than linear dependency on static power as a form of gate leakage (subthreshold current) exist. To reduce dynamic power loss, the supply power should be reduced. A significant reduction in power dissipation occurs when portions of a microprocessor operate at a lower voltage level. This reduction in supply voltage is achieved via voltage regulators or converters. Voltage regulators are used to provide a stable power supply to the microprocessor. The conventional off-chip switching voltage regulator contains a passive floating inductor, which is difficult to be implemented inside the chip due to excessive power dissipation and parasitic effects. Additionally, the inductor takes a very large chip area while hampering the scaling process. These limitations make passive inductor based on-chip

  17. Technology Development of Salak (Salacca Zalacca) Chips With Vacuum Frying Machine Base On Expert System In Kramat-Bangkalan Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosida, D. F.; Happyanto; Anggraeni; Sugiarto; Hapsari

    2018-01-01

    Agropolitan Program is one form of regional development to improve agribusiness system and effort to improve the welfare of the community. One of the leading commodities in Bangkalan agroclimates is salak which is a potentially very large commodity to be developed. Salak commodities in Kramat Bangkalan Indonesia have developed varous salak produced such as dates of salak, syrup and dodol salak. Salak chips was the target of innovation from processed salak. The Production of salak chips using frying technology with vacuum system to obtain crunchy chips. To get the results need to be developed synergy technology to combine the process conditions and the right system in producing good quality salak chips. Bangkalan Regency is the potential to continue to develop products using a variety of salak to the processed form of vacuum frying machine based on expert system so that the resulting product would be great texture, aroma and taste. This will make the area of Bangkalan, Indonesia be more independent in producing and increasing revenue.

  18. An electrochemical pumping system for on-chip gradient generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Miao, Yunan; Shih, Jason; He, Qing; Liu, Jun; Tai, Yu-Chong; Lee, Terry D

    2004-07-01

    Within the context of microfluidic systems, it has been difficult to devise pumping systems that can deliver adequate flow rates at high pressure for applications such as HPLC. An on-chip electrochemical pumping system based on electrolysis that offers certain advantages over designs that utilize electroosmotic driven flow has been fabricated and tested. The pump was fabricated on both silicon and glass substrates using photolithography. The electrolysis electrodes were formed from either platinum or gold, and SU8, an epoxy-based photoresist, was used to form the pump chambers. A glass cover plate and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) gasket were used to seal the chambers. Filling of the chambers was accomplished by using a syringe to inject liquid via filling ports, which were later sealed using a glass cover plate. The current supplied to the electrodes controlled the rate of gas formation and, thus, the resulting fluid flow rate. At low backpressures, flow rates >1 microL/min have been demonstrated using polymer electrospray nozzle, we have confirmed the successful generation of a solvent gradient via a mass spectrometer.

  19. MEMS CHIP CO2 SENSOR FOR BUILDING SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Carl Greenwald

    2005-09-14

    The objective of this research was to develop an affordable, reliable sensor to enable demand controlled ventilation (DCV). A significant portion of total energy consumption in the United States is used for heating or air conditioning (HVAC) buildings. To assure occupant safety and fresh air levels in large buildings, and especially those with sealed windows, HVAC systems are frequently run in excess of true requirements as automated systems cannot now tell the occupancy level of interior spaces. If such a sensor (e.g. thermostat sized device) were available, it would reduce energy use between 10 and 20% in such buildings. A quantitative measure of ''fresh air'' is the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) present. An inert gas, CO{sub 2} is not easily detected by chemical sensors and is usually measured by infrared spectroscopy. Ion Optics research developed a complete infrared sensor package on a single MEMS chip. It contains the infrared (IR) source, IR detector and IR filter. The device resulting from this DOE sponsored research has sufficient sensitivity, lifetime, and drift rate to meet the specifications of commercial instrument manufacturers who are now testing the device for use in their building systems.

  20. Study on irradiation effects of nucleus electromagnetic pulse on single chip computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Minsheng; Liu Shanghe; Wang Shuping

    2001-01-01

    Intense electromagnetic pulse, namely nucleus electromagnetic pulse (NEMP), lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) and high power microwave (HPM), can disturb and destroy the single chip computer system. To study this issue, the authors made irradiation experiments by NEMPs generated by gigahertz transversal electromagnetic (GTEM) Cell. The experiments show that shutdown, restarting, communication errors of the single chip microcomputer system would occur when it was irradiated by the NEMPs. Based on the experiments, the cause on the effects on the single chip microcomputer system is discussed

  1. Multimedia Terminal System-on-Chip Design and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Ivano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design approach based on integrated architectural and system-on-chip (SoC simulations. The main idea is to have an efficient framework for the design and the evaluation of multimedia terminals, allowing a fast system simulation with a definable degree of accuracy. The design approach includes the simulation of very long instruction word (VLIW digital signal processors (DSPs, the utilization of a device multiplexing the media streams, and the emulation of the real-time media acquisition. This methodology allows the evaluation of both the multimedia algorithm implementations and the hardware platform, giving feedback on the complete SoC including the interaction between modules and conflicts in accessing either the bus or shared resources. An instruction set architecture (ISA simulator and an SoC simulation environment compose the integrated framework. In order to validate this approach, the evaluation of an audio-video multiprocessor terminal is presented, and the complete simulation test results are reported.

  2. System-Level Design Methodologies for Networked Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir

    2008-01-01

    is the first such attempt in the published literature. The second part of the thesis deals with the issues related to the development of system-level design methodologies for networked multiprocessor systems-on-chip at various levels of design abstraction with special focus on the modeling and design...... at the system-level. The multiprocessor modeling framework is then extended to include models of networked multiprocessor systems-on-chip which is then employed to model wireless sensor networks both at the sensor node level as well as the wireless network level. In the third and the final part, the thesis...... to the transaction-level model. The thesis, as a whole makes contributions by describing a design methodology for networked multiprocessor embedded systems at three layers of abstraction from system-level through transaction-level to the cycle accurate level as well as demonstrating it practically by implementing...

  3. A wearable 12-lead ECG acquisition system with fabric electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoshi Zhang; Lan Tian; Huiyang Lu; Ming Zhou; Haiqing Zou; Peng Fang; Fuan Yao; Guanglin Li

    2017-07-01

    Continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is significant for prevention of heart disease and is becoming an important part of personal and family health care. In most of the existing wearable solutions, conventional metal sensors and corresponding chips are simply integrated into clothes and usually could only collect few leads of ECG signals that could not provide enough information for diagnosis of cardiac diseases such as arrhythmia and myocardial ischemia. In this study, a wearable 12-lead ECG acquisition system with fabric electrodes was developed and could simultaneously process 12 leads of ECG signals. By integrating the fabric electrodes into a T-shirt, the wearable system would provide a comfortable and convenient user interface for ECG recording. For comparison, the proposed fabric electrode and the gelled traditional metal electrodes were used to collect ECG signals on a subject, respectively. The approximate entropy (ApEn) of ECG signals from both types of electrodes were calculated. The experimental results show that the fabric electrodes could achieve similar performance as the gelled metal electrodes. This preliminary work has demonstrated that the developed ECG system with fabric electrodes could be utilized for wearable health management and telemedicine applications.

  4. Hybrid Macro-Micro Fluidics System for a Chip-Based Biosensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamanaha, C. R; Whitman, L. J; Colton, R.J

    2002-01-01

    We describe the engineering of a hybrid fluidics platform for a chip-based biosensor system that combines high-performance microfluidics components with powerful, yet compact, millimeter-scale pump and valve actuators...

  5. A nuclear pulse amplitude acquisition system based on 80C31 single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuliang; Qu Guopu; Guo Lanying; Zhang Songbai

    1999-01-01

    A kind of multichannel nuclear pulse amplitude signal acquisition system is described, which is composed of pulse peak detector, integrated S/H circuit, A/D converter and 80C31 single-chip microcomputer

  6. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  7. Symmetric and Programmable Multi-Chip Module for Low-Power Prototyping System

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Mao-Hsu; Chen, Sao-Jie; Lan, Sanko H.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages of a Multi-Chip Module (MCM) product are its low-power and small-size. But the design of an MCM system usually requires weeks of engineering effort, thus we need a generic MCM substrate with programmable interconnections to accelerate system prototyping. In this paper, we propose a Symmetric and Programmable MCM (SPMCM) substrate for this purpose. This SPMCM substrate consists of a symmetrical array of slots for bare-chip attachment and Field Programmable Interco...

  8. Integration of microelectronic chips in microfluidic systems on printed circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdallo, I; Jimenez-Jorquera, C; Fernández-Sánchez, C; Baldi, A

    2012-01-01

    A new scheme for the integration of small semiconductor transducer chips with microfluidic structures on printed circuit board (PCB) is presented. The proposed approach is based on a packaging technique that yields a large and flat area with small and shallow (∼44 µm deep) openings over the chips. The photocurable encapsulant material used, based on a diacrylate bisphenol A polymer, enables irreversible bonding of polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic structures at moderate temperatures (80 °C). This integration scheme enables the insertion of transducer chips in microfluidic systems with a lower added volume than previous schemes. Leakage tests have shown that the bonded structures withstand more than 360 kPa of pressure. A prototype microfluidic system with two detection chips, including one inter-digitated electrode (IDE) chip for conductivity and one ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) chip for pH, has been implemented and characterized. Good electrical insulation of the chip contacts and silicon edge surfaces from the solution in the microchannels has been achieved. This integration procedure opens the door to the low-cost fabrication of complex analytical microsystems that combine the extraordinary potential of both the microfluidics and silicon microtechnology fields. (paper)

  9. Pavement system with rubber tire chips in subgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtakala, B.; Hoque, A.K.M.M. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A pavement design method was developed in which shredded rubber tire chips mixed with sand were used as a material for pavement subgrade. Rubber tire chips are highly compressible and produce both elastic and plastic deformations under the application of loads. Sand was added to fill the void between the tire chips and make the mixture a strong material. The design method considered the vertical compressive strain produced by the design life traffic load 18k (80 KN) repetitions. The equivalent thicknesses of the layers above the subgrade corresponding to this vertical compressive strain were determined using contour charts. From this equivalent thickness, the thicknesses for asphalt pavement, base, and sub-base were determined by Odemark`s method. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  10. Fully integrated optical system for lab-on-a-chip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Geschke, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We present a lab-on-a-chip device featuring a microfluidic dye laser, wave-guides, microfluidic components and photo-detectors integrated on the chip. The microsystem is designed for wavelength selective absorption measurements in the visible range on a fluidic sample, which can be prepared....../mixed on-chip. The laser structures, wave-guides and micro-fluidic handling system are defined in a single UV-lithography step on a 10 μm thick SU-8 layer on top of the substrate. The SU-8 structures are sealed by a Borofloat glass lid, using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) adhesive bonding....

  11. Single-chip RF communications systems in CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the state of the art of the Nordic mobile communication project ConFront. This is a cooperation project with 3 Nordic universities and local industry. The ultimate goal is to make a CMOS one-chip mobile phone.......The paper describes the state of the art of the Nordic mobile communication project ConFront. This is a cooperation project with 3 Nordic universities and local industry. The ultimate goal is to make a CMOS one-chip mobile phone....

  12. Laser isotope purification of lead for use in semiconductor chip interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibner, K.; Haynam, C.; Worden, E.; Esser, B.

    1996-01-01

    Lead, used throughout the electronics industries, typically contains small amounts of radioactive 210 Pb (a daughter product of the planets ubiquitous 238 U) whose 210 Po daughter emits an α-particle that is known to cause soft errors in electronic circuits. The 210 Pb is not separable by chemical means. This paper describes the generic Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) over the last 20 years, with particular emphasis on recent efforts to develop the process physics and component technologies required to remove the offending 210 Pb using lasers. We have constructed a developmental facility that includes a process laser development area and a test bed for the vaporizer and ion and product collectors. We will be testing much of the equipment and demonstrating pilot scale AVLIS on a surrogate material later this year. Detection of the very low alpha emission even from commercially available low-alpha lead is challenging. LLNL's detection capabilities will be described. The goal of the development of lead purification technology is to demonstrate the capability in FY97, and to deploy a production machine capable of up to several MT/y of isotopically purified material, possible beginning in FY98

  13. Wireless Interconnect in Multilayer Chip-Area-Networks for Future Multimaterial High-Speed Systems Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole John Famoriji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless chip area network which enables wireless communication among chips fosters development in wireless communication and it is envisioned that future hardware system and developmental functionality will require multimaterial. However, the traditional system architecture is limited by channel bandwidth-limited interfaces, throughput, delay, and power consumption and as a result limits the efficiency and system performance. Wireless interconnect has been proposed to overcome scalability and performance limitations of multihop wired architectures. Characterization and modeling of channel become more important for specification of choice of modulation or demodulation techniques, channel bandwidths, and other mitigation techniques for channel distortion and interference such as equalization. This paper presents an analytical channel model for characterization, modeling, and analysis of wireless chip-to-chip or interchip interconnects in wireless chip area network with a particular focus on large-scale analysis. The proposed model accounts for both static and dynamic channel losses/attenuation in high-speed systems. Simulation and evaluation of the model with experimental data conducted in a computer desktop casing depict that proposed model matched measurement data very closely. The transmission of EM waves via a medium introduces molecular absorption due to various molecules within the material substance. This model is a representative of channel loss profile in wireless chip-area-network communication and good for future electronic circuits and high-speed systems design.

  14. 3D-SoftChip: A Novel Architecture for Next-Generation Adaptive Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mike Myung-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel architecture for next-generation adaptive computing systems, which we term 3D-SoftChip. The 3D-SoftChip is a 3-dimensional (3D vertically integrated adaptive computing system combining state-of-the-art processing and 3D interconnection technology. It comprises the vertical integration of two chips (a configurable array processor and an intelligent configurable switch through an indium bump interconnection array (IBIA. The configurable array processor (CAP is an array of heterogeneous processing elements (PEs, while the intelligent configurable switch (ICS comprises a switch block, 32-bit dedicated RISC processor for control, on-chip program/data memory, data frame buffer, along with a direct memory access (DMA controller. This paper introduces the novel 3D-SoftChip architecture for real-time communication and multimedia signal processing as a next-generation computing system. The paper further describes the advanced HW/SW codesign and verification methodology, including high-level system modeling of the 3D-SoftChip using SystemC, being used to determine the optimum hardware specification in the early design stage.

  15. A Wireless Biomedical Signal Interface System-on-Chip for Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei Wang; Guang-Zhong Yang; Jin Huang; Jinyong Zhang; Li Yu; Zedong Nie; Cumming, D R S

    2010-04-01

    Recent years have seen the rapid development of biosensor technology, system-on-chip design, wireless technology. and ubiquitous computing. When assembled into an autonomous body sensor network (BSN), the technologies become powerful tools in well-being monitoring, medical diagnostics, and personal connectivity. In this paper, we describe the first demonstration of a fully customized mixed-signal silicon chip that has most of the attributes required for use in a wearable or implantable BSN. Our intellectual-property blocks include low-power analog sensor interface for temperature and pH, a data multiplexing and conversion module, a digital platform based around an 8-b microcontroller, data encoding for spread-spectrum wireless transmission, and a RF section requiring very few off-chip components. The chip has been fully evaluated and tested by connection to external sensors, and it satisfied typical system requirements.

  16. CMOS active pixel sensor type imaging system on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A single chip camera which includes an .[.intergrated.]. .Iadd.integrated .Iaddend.image acquisition portion and control portion and which has double sampling/noise reduction capabilities thereon. Part of the .[.intergrated.]. .Iadd.integrated .Iaddend.structure reduces the noise that is picked up during imaging.

  17. Nano lab-on-chip systems for biomedical and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, nano lab-on-chip (NLOC) has emerged as a powerful tool for biosensing and an active area of research particularly in DNA genetic and genetic related investigations. Compared with conventional sensing techniques, distinctive advantages of using NLOC for biomedicine and other related area include ...

  18. Lab-on-a-chip devices and micro-total analysis systems a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Svendsen, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all the steps in order to fabricate a lab-on-a-chip device starting from the idea, the design, simulation, fabrication and final evaluation. Additionally, it includes basic theory on microfluidics essential to understand how fluids behave at such reduced scale. Examples of successful histories of lab-on-a-chip systems that made an impact in fields like biomedicine and life sciences are also provided.

  19. A Fully Integrated Humidity Sensor System-on-Chip Fabricated by Micro-Stamping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ting Lin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A fully integrated humidity sensor chip was designed, implemented, and tested. Utilizing the micro-stamping technology, the pseudo-3D sensor system-on-chip (SSoC architecture can be implemented by stacking sensing materials directly on the top of a CMOS-fabricated chip. The fabricated sensor system-on-chip (2.28 mm × 2.48 mm integrated a humidity sensor, an interface circuit, a digital controller, and an On-Off Keying (OOK wireless transceiver. With low power consumption, i.e., 750 μW without RF operation, the sensitivity of developed sensor chip was experimentally verified in the relative humidity (RH range from 32% to 60%. The response time of the chip was also experimentally verified to be within 5 seconds from RH 36% to RH 64%. As a consequence, the implemented humidity SSoC paves the way toward the an ultra-small sensor system for various applications.

  20. Programmable lab-on-a-chip system for single cell analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalhammer, S.

    2009-05-01

    The collection, selection, amplification and detection of minimum genetic samples became a part of everyday life in medical and biological laboratories, to analyze DNA-fragments of pathogens, patient samples and traces on crime scenes. About a decade ago, a handful of researchers began discussing an intriguing idea. Could the equipment needed for everyday chemistry and biology procedures be shrunk to fit on a chip in the size of a fingernail? Miniature devices for, say, analysing DNA and proteins should be faster and cheaper than conventional versions. Lab-on-a-chip is an advanced technology that integrates a microfluidic system on a microscale chip device. The "laboratory" is created by means of channels, mixers, reservoirs, diffusion chambers, integrated electrodes, pumps, valves and more. With lab-ona- chip technology, complete laboratories on a square centimetre can be created. Here, a multifunctional programmable Lab-on-a-Chip driven by nanofluidics and controlled by surface acoustic waves (SAW) is presented. This system combines serial DNA-isolation-, amplification- and array-detection-process on a modified glass-platform. The fluid actuation is controlled via SAW by interdigital transducers implemented in the chemical modified chip surface. The chemical surface modification allows fluid handling in the sub-microliter range. Minute amount of sample material is extracted by laser-based microdissection out of e.g. histological sections at the single cell level. A few picogram of genetic material are isolated and transferred via a low-pressure transfer system (SPATS) onto the chip. Subsequently the genetic material inside single droplets, which behave like "virtual" beaker, is transported to the reaction and analysis centers on the chip surface via surface acoustic waves, mainly known as noise dumping filters in mobile phones. At these "biological reactors" the genetic material is processed, e.g. amplified via polymerase chain reaction methods, and genetically

  1. Clean Lead Facility Inventory System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this user's manual is to provide instruction and guidance needed to enter and maintain inventory information for the Clean Lead Facility (CLF), PER-612. Individuals responsible for maintaining and using the system should study and understand the information provided. The user's manual describes how to properly use and maintain the CLF Inventory System. Annual, quarterly, monthly, and current inventory reports may be printed from the Inventory System for reporting purposes. Profile reports of each shipment of lead may also be printed for verification and documentation of lead transactions. The CLF Inventory System was designed on Microsoft Access version 2.0. Similar inventory systems are in use at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to facilitate site-wide compilations of mixed waste data. The CLF Inventory System was designed for inventorying the clean or non-radioactive contaminated lead stored at the CLF. This data, along with the mixed waste data, will be compiled into the Idaho Mixed Waste Information (IMWI) system for reporting to the Department of Energy Idaho Office, Department of Energy Headquarters, and/or the State of Idaho

  2. FE-I4 pixel chip characterization with USBpix3 test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonov, Viacheslav; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Janssen, Jens; Krueger, Hans; Pohl, David-Leon; Wermes, Norbert [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The USBpix readout system is a small and light weighting test system for the ATLAS pixel readout chips. It is widely used to operate and characterize FE-I4 pixel modules in lab and test beam environments. For multi-chip modules the resources on the Multi-IO board, that is the central control unit of the readout system, are coming to their limits, which makes the simultaneous readout of more than one chip at a time challenging. Therefore an upgrade of the current USBpix system has been developed. The upgraded system is called USBpix3 - the main focus of the talk. Characterization of single chip FE-I4 modules was performed with USBpix3 prototype (digital, analog, threshold and source scans; tuning). PyBAR (Bonn ATLAS Readout in Python scripting language) was used as readout software. PyBAR consists of FEI4 DAQ and Data Analysis Libraries in Python. The presentation describes the USBpix3 system, results of FE-I4 modules characterization and preparation for the multi-chip module and multi-module readout with USBpix3.

  3. Microfluidics Integrated Biosensors: A Leading Technology towards Lab-on-a-Chip and Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luka, George; Ahmadi, Ali; Najjaran, Homayoun; Alocilja, Evangelyn; DeRosa, Maria; Wolthers, Kirsten; Malki, Ahmed; Aziz, Hassan; Althani, Asmaa; Hoorfar, Mina

    2015-01-01

    A biosensor can be defined as a compact analytical device or unit incorporating a biological or biologically derived sensitive recognition element immobilized on a physicochemical transducer to measure one or more analytes. Microfluidic systems, on the other hand, provide throughput processing, enhance transport for controlling the flow conditions, increase the mixing rate of different reagents, reduce sample and reagents volume (down to nanoliter), increase sensitivity of detection, and utilize the same platform for both sample preparation and detection. In view of these advantages, the integration of microfluidic and biosensor technologies provides the ability to merge chemical and biological components into a single platform and offers new opportunities for future biosensing applications including portability, disposability, real-time detection, unprecedented accuracies, and simultaneous analysis of different analytes in a single device. This review aims at representing advances and achievements in the field of microfluidic-based biosensing. The review also presents examples extracted from the literature to demonstrate the advantages of merging microfluidic and biosensing technologies and illustrate the versatility that such integration promises in the future biosensing for emerging areas of biological engineering, biomedical studies, point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and precision agriculture. PMID:26633409

  4. Microfluidics Integrated Biosensors: A Leading Technology towards Lab-on-a-Chip and Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Luka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor can be defined as a compact analytical device or unit incorporating a biological or biologically derived sensitive recognition element immobilized on a physicochemical transducer to measure one or more analytes. Microfluidic systems, on the other hand, provide throughput processing, enhance transport for controlling the flow conditions, increase the mixing rate of different reagents, reduce sample and reagents volume (down to nanoliter, increase sensitivity of detection, and utilize the same platform for both sample preparation and detection. In view of these advantages, the integration of microfluidic and biosensor technologies provides the ability to merge chemical and biological components into a single platform and offers new opportunities for future biosensing applications including portability, disposability, real-time detection, unprecedented accuracies, and simultaneous analysis of different analytes in a single device. This review aims at representing advances and achievements in the field of microfluidic-based biosensing. The review also presents examples extracted from the literature to demonstrate the advantages of merging microfluidic and biosensing technologies and illustrate the versatility that such integration promises in the future biosensing for emerging areas of biological engineering, biomedical studies, point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and precision agriculture.

  5. Standardized and modular microfluidic platform for fast lab on chip system development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Stefan; van den Berg, Albert; Odijk, Mathieu; Lee, Abraham; DeVoe, Don

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a modular microfluidic system with standardized parts, enabling rapid prototyping of lab on chip systems. Herewith contributing to the technology transfer from academy to industry. The use of standardized parts also makes it possible to design a microfluidic systems in a top down

  6. Optimizing the on-chip communication architecture of low power Systems-on-Chip in Deep Sub-Micron technology

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Ce mémoire traite des systèmes intégrés sur puce (System-on-Chip) à faible consommation d'énergie tels que ceux qui seront utilisés dans les équipements portables de future génération (ordinateurs de poche (PDA), téléphones mobiles). S'agissant d'équipements alimentés par des batteries, la consommation énergétique est un problème critique. Ces plateformes contiendront probablement une douzaine de coeurs de processeur et une quantité importante de mémoire embarquée. Une architecture de communi...

  7. Systems Analysis of Ten Supply Chains for Whole Tree Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Belbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole trees from energy thinnings constitute one of many forest fuel sources, yet ten widely applied supply chains could be defined for this feedstock alone. These ten represent only a subset of the real possibilities, as felling method was held constant and only a single market (combustion of whole tree chips was considered. Stages included in-field, roadside landing, terminal, and conversion plant, and biomass states at each of these included loose whole trees, bundled whole trees or chipped material. Assumptions on prices, performances, and conversion rates were based on field trials and published literature in similar boreal forest conditions. The economic outcome was calculated on the basis of production, handling, treatment and storage costs and losses. Outcomes were tested for robustness on a range of object volumes (50–350 m3solid, extraction distances (50–550 m and transport distances (10–70 km using simulation across a set of discrete values. Transport was calculated for both a standard 19.5 m and an extended 24 m timber truck. Results showed that the most expensive chain (roadside bundling, roadside storage, terminal storage and delivery using a 19.5 m timber truck at 158 € td−1 was 23% more costly than the cheapest chain (roadside chipping and direct transport to conversion plant with container truck, at 128 € td−1. Outcomes vary at specific object volumes and transport distances, highlighting the need to verify assumptions, although standard deviations around mean supply costs for each chain were small (6%–9%. Losses at all stages were modelled, with the largest losses (23 € td−1 occurring in the chains including bundles. The study makes all methods and assumptions explicit and can assist the procurement manager in understanding the mechanisms at work.

  8. Rapid antibiotic efficacy screening with aluminum oxide nanoporous membrane filter-chip and optical detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Pei-Hsiang; Sreenivasappa, Harini; Hong, Sungmin; Yasuike, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Nakano, Keiyo; Misawa, Takeyuki; Kameoka, Jun

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a filter-chip and optical detection system for rapid antibiotic efficacy screening. The filter-chip consisted of a 1-mL reservoir and an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membrane. Sample solution with liquid growth media, bacteria, and antibiotics was incubated in the reservoir for a specific period of time. The number of live bacteria on the surface of membrane was counted after the incubation with antibiotics and filtration. Using this biosensing system, we have demonstrated a 1-h antibiotic screening for patients' clinical samples, significantly faster than the conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests that typically take more than 24h. This rapid screening nature makes the filter-chip and detection system ideal for tailoring antibiotic treatment to individual patients by reducing the microbial antibiotic resistance, and improving the survival rate for patients suffering from postoperative infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Polymer multilevel lab-on-chip systems for electrochemical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Garau, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    with depths as small as tens of nanometers and as big as hundreds of microns on the same polymer chip. The authors also describe in detail the fabrication procedure of polymer substrates with embedded Au and pedot:tosylate electrodes for electrochemical applications. The electrode fabrication process...... is simple and fit for integration in a production scheme. The electrode–substrates are then bonded to injection molded counterparts to be used for electrochemical applications. A dimensional and functional characterization of the electrodes is also presented here....

  10. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  11. Test-Access Planning and Test Scheduling for Embedded Core-Based System Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goel, Sandeep Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Advances in the semiconductor process technology enable the creation of a complete system on one single die, the so-called system chip or SOC. To reduce time-to-market for large SOCs, reuse of pre-designed and pre-veried blocks called cores is employed. Like the design style, testing of SOCs can be

  12. A Statically Scheduled Time-Division-Multiplexed Network-on-Chip for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Brandner, Florian; Sparsø, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the design of a circuit-switched network-on-chip (NoC) based on time-division-multiplexing (TDM) for use in hard real-time systems. Previous work has primarily considered application-specific systems. The work presented here targets general-purpose hardware platforms. We...

  13. Vertical Integration of System-on-Chip Concepts in the Digital Design Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Head, L. M.; Ramachandran, R. P.; Chatman, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid evolution of System-on-Chip (SoC) challenges academic curricula to keep pace with multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary system thinking. This paper presents a curricular prototype that cuts across artificial course boundaries and provides a meaningful exploration of diverse facets of SoC design. Specifically, experimental contents of a…

  14. Cache aware mapping of streaming apllications on a multiprocessor system-on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, A.J.M.; Bekooij, M.J.G.; Berg, van den R.M.J.; Meerbergen, van J.; Sciuto, D.; Peng, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Efficient use of the memory hierarchy is critical for achieving high performance in a multiprocessor system- on-chip. An external memory that is shared between processors is a bottleneck in current and future systems. Cache misses and a large cache miss penalty contribute to a low processor

  15. Monolithic Chip System with a Microfluidic Channel for In Situ Electron Microscopy of Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eric; Burrows, Andrew; Mølhave, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    sandwiched microchips with thin membranes. We report on a new microfabricated chip system based on a monolithic design that enables membrane geometry on the scale of a few micrometers. The design is intended to reduce membrane deflection when the system is under pressure, a micro fluidic channel for improved...

  16. Advanced Technology for Ultra-Low Power System-on-Chip (SoC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    was proposed for lower power applications with Ioff=10pA/μm and VDD=0.5V. In this project, the optimized structure shows great potential in both Lg...AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0115 ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR ULTRA-LOW POWER SYSTEM-ON-CHIP (SoC) Jason Woo, Weicong Li, and Peng Lu University of California...September 2015 – 31 March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR ULTRA-LOW POWER SYSTEM-ON- CHIP (SoC) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-1-7574 5b

  17. Wake on LAN over Internet as web service system on chip

    OpenAIRE

    Maciá Pérez, Francisco; Gil Martínez-Abarca, Juan Antonio; Ramos Morillo, Héctor; Mora Gimeno, Francisco José; Marcos Jorquera, Diego; Gilart Iglesias, Virgilio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a System on Chip (SoC) designed to run a particular Web Service (WS) in an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The system has been designed devoid of processor and software and conceived as a hardware pattern for a trouble-free design of network services offered as WS in Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). Therefore, the chip is not only able to act as SOAP Service Provider but, it is also capable of registering the service on its own in an external Bro...

  18. Test-Access Planning and Test Scheduling for Embedded Core-Based System Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Sandeep Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Advances in the semiconductor process technology enable the creation of a complete system on one single die, the so-called system chip or SOC. To reduce time-to-market for large SOCs, reuse of pre-designed and pre-veried blocks called cores is employed. Like the design style, testing of SOCs can be best approached in a core-based fashion. In order to enable core-based test development, an embedded core should be isolated from its surrounding circuitry and electrical test access from chip pins...

  19. Scalable Motion Estimation Processor Core for Multimedia System-on-Chip Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yeong-Kang; Hsieh, Tian-En; Chen, Lien-Fei

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a high-throughput and scalable motion estimation processor architecture for multimedia system-on-chip applications. The number of processing elements (PEs) is scalable according to the variable algorithm parameters and the performance required for different applications. Using the PE rings efficiently and an intelligent memory-interleaving organization, the efficiency of the architecture can be increased. Moreover, using efficient on-chip memories and a data management technique can effectively decrease the power consumption and memory bandwidth. Techniques for reducing the number of interconnections and external memory accesses are also presented. Our results demonstrate that the proposed scalable PE-ringed architecture is a flexible and high-performance processor core in multimedia system-on-chip applications.

  20. A High-Voltage SOI CMOS Exciter Chip for a Programmable Fluidic Processor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current, K W; Yuk, K; McConaghy, C; Gascoyne, P R C; Schwartz, J A; Vykoukal, J V; Andrews, C

    2007-06-01

    A high-voltage (HV) integrated circuit has been demonstrated to transport fluidic droplet samples on programmable paths across the array of driving electrodes on its hydrophobically coated surface. This exciter chip is the engine for dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based micro-fluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, creating field excitations that inject and move fluidic droplets onto and about the manipulation surface. The architecture of this chip is expandable to arrays of N X N identical HV electrode driver circuits and electrodes. The exciter chip is programmable in several senses. The routes of multiple droplets may be set arbitrarily within the bounds of the electrode array. The electrode excitation waveform voltage amplitude, phase, and frequency may be adjusted based on the system configuration and the signal required to manipulate a particular fluid droplet composition. The voltage amplitude of the electrode excitation waveform can be set from the minimum logic level up to the maximum limit of the breakdown voltage of the fabrication technology. The frequency of the electrode excitation waveform can also be set independently of its voltage, up to a maximum depending upon the type of droplets that must be driven. The exciter chip can be coated and its oxide surface used as the droplet manipulation surface or it can be used with a top-mounted, enclosed fluidic chamber consisting of a variety of materials. The HV capability of the exciter chip allows the generated DEP forces to penetrate into the enclosed chamber region and an adjustable voltage amplitude can accommodate a variety of chamber floor thicknesses. This demonstration exciter chip has a 32 x 32 array of nominally 100 V electrode drivers that are individually programmable at each time point in the procedure to either of two phases: 0deg and 180deg with respect to the reference clock. For this demonstration chip, while operating the electrodes with a 100-V peak-to-peak periodic waveform, the maximum HV electrode

  1. Neuromorphic VLSI Models of Selective Attention: From Single Chip Vision Sensors to Multi-chip Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Indiveri

    2008-01-01

    Biological organisms perform complex selective attention operations continuously and effortlessly. These operations allow them to quickly determine the motor actions to take in response to combinations of external stimuli and internal states, and to pay attention to subsets of sensory inputs suppressing non salient ones. Selective attention strategies are extremely effective in both natural and artificial systems which have to cope with large amounts of input data and have limited computation...

  2. Towards a Generic and Adaptive System-On-Chip Controller for Space Exploration Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Xabier; Keymeulen, Didier; Yiu, Patrick; Berisford, Dan; Hand, Kevin; Carlson, Robert; Ozer, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces one of the first efforts conducted at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a generic System-on-Chip (SoC) platform to control science instruments that are proposed for future NASA missions. The SoC platform is named APEX-SoC, where APEX stands for Advanced Processor for space Exploration, and is based on a hybrid Xilinx Zynq that combines an FPGA and an ARM Cortex-A9 dual-core processor on a single chip. The Zynq implements a generic and customizable on-chip infrastructure that can be reused with a variety of instruments, and it has been coupled with a set of off-chip components that are necessary to deal with the different instruments. We have taken JPL’s Compositional InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (CIRIS), which is proposed for NASA icy moons missions, as a use-case scenario to demonstrate that the entire data processing, control and interface of an instrument can be implemented on a single device using the on-chip infrastructure described in this paper. We show that the performance results achieved in this preliminary version of the instrumentation controller are sufficient to fulfill the science requirements demanded to the CIRIS instrument in future NASA missions, such as Europa.

  3. Studies for an upgrade of ALICE Inner Tracking System: Pixel chip characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jonghan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inner Tracking System (ITS of ALICE is used for vertex determination and tracking. Future heavy-ion program at the LHC aims to run with high luminosity. To address this challenge, upgrade program of ITS is underway, which aims at better position resolution (factor of 3, high detection efficiency (>99%, high-rate readout capabilities (100 kHz for Pb-Pb and moderate radiation hardness (> 700 krad. The new ITS will be composed with 7 layers of silicon pixel chip based on Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS technology. The characterization test of various version of prototype chips at different phases of development has been performed. This contribution will provide the main characterization results obtained from the measurements performed at laboratories and using test beam for finalizing the pixel chip specification.

  4. Advanced Nanofabrication Process Development for Self-Powered System-on-Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2010-01-01

    In summary, by using a novel sustainable energy component and scalable nano-patterning for logic and computing module, this work has successfully collected the essential base knowledge and joined two different elements that synergistically will contribute for the future implementation of a Self-Powered System-on-Chip.

  5. Three-stage enzymatic digestive system for a gut-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Pim; Ianovska, Margaryta A.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Several different devices to model the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract have been developed, which may find applications as pharmacological or toxicological model systems.1 To create a fully functional gut-on-a-chip, it is essential to incorporate the digestive functions of the GI tract into such a

  6. Chips 2020

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising  Moore-like exponential g...

  7. A compact imaging spectroscopic system for biomolecular detections on plasmonic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shu-Cheng; Lin, En-Hung; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Tsai, Wan-Shao

    2016-10-17

    In this study, we demonstrate a compact imaging spectroscopic system for high-throughput detection of biomolecular interactions on plasmonic chips, based on a curved grating as the key element of light diffraction and light focusing. Both the curved grating and the plasmonic chips are fabricated on flexible plastic substrates using a gas-assisted thermal-embossing method. A fiber-coupled broadband light source and a camera are included in the system. Spectral resolution within 1 nm is achieved in sensing environmental index solutions and protein bindings. The detected sensitivities of the plasmonic chip are comparable with a commercial spectrometer. An extra one-dimensional scanning stage enables high-throughput detection of protein binding on a designed plasmonic chip consisting of several nanoslit arrays with different periods. The detected resonance wavelengths match well with the grating equation under an air environment. Wavelength shifts between 1 and 9 nm are detected for antigens of various concentrations binding with antibodies. A simple, mass-productive and cost-effective method has been demonstrated on the imaging spectroscopic system for real-time, label-free, highly sensitive and high-throughput screening of biomolecular interactions.

  8. An Associative Memory Chip for the Trigger System of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00380893; The ATLAS collaboration; Liberali, Valentino; Crescioli, Francesco; Beretta, Matteo; Frontini, Luca; Annovi, Alberto; Stabile, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The AM06 is the 6th version of a large associative memory chip designed in 65 nm CMOS tech- nology. The AM06 operates as a highly parallel ASIC processor for pattern recognition in the ATLAS experiment at CERN. It is the core of the Fast TracKer electronic system, which is tai- lored for on-line track finding in the trigger system of the ATLAS experiment. The Fast TracKer system is able to process events up to 100 MHz in real time. The AM06 is a complex chip, and it has been designed combining full-custom memory arrays, standard logic cells and IP blocks. It contains memory banks that store data organized in 18 bit words; a group of 8 words is called a pattern. The chip silicon area is 168 mm2; it contains 421 millions of transistors and it stores 217 patterns. Moreover, the associative memory is suitable also for other interdisciplinary appli- cations (i.e., general purpose image filtering and analysis). In the near future we plan to design a more powerful and flexible chip in 28 nm CMOS technology.

  9. Soft error evaluation and vulnerability analysis in Xilinx Zynq-7010 system-on chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xuecheng; He, Chaohui; Liu, Shuhuan, E-mail: liushuhuan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yao; Li, Yonghong; Xiong, Ceng; Tan, Pengkang

    2016-09-21

    Radiation-induced soft errors are an increasingly important threat to the reliability of modern electronic systems. In order to evaluate system-on chip's reliability and soft error, the fault tree analysis method was used in this work. The system fault tree was constructed based on Xilinx Zynq-7010 All Programmable SoC. Moreover, the soft error rates of different components in Zynq-7010 SoC were tested by americium-241 alpha radiation source. Furthermore, some parameters that used to evaluate the system's reliability and safety were calculated using Isograph Reliability Workbench 11.0, such as failure rate, unavailability and mean time to failure (MTTF). According to fault tree analysis for system-on chip, the critical blocks and system reliability were evaluated through the qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  10. Avatar DNA Nanohybrid System in Chip-on-a-Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Hwan; Han, Chang Jo; Shul, Yong-Gun; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2014-05-01

    Long admired for informational role and recognition function in multidisciplinary science, DNA nanohybrids have been emerging as ideal materials for molecular nanotechnology and genetic information code. Here, we designed an optical machine-readable DNA icon on microarray, Avatar DNA, for automatic identification and data capture such as Quick Response and ColorZip codes. Avatar icon is made of telepathic DNA-DNA hybrids inscribed on chips, which can be identified by camera of smartphone with application software. Information encoded in base-sequences can be accessed by connecting an off-line icon to an on-line web-server network to provide message, index, or URL from database library. Avatar DNA is then converged with nano-bio-info-cogno science: each building block stands for inorganic nanosheets, nucleotides, digits, and pixels. This convergence could address item-level identification that strengthens supply-chain security for drug counterfeits. It can, therefore, provide molecular-level vision through mobile network to coordinate and integrate data management channels for visual detection and recording.

  11. NI Based System for Seu Testing of Memory Chips for Avionics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruzdina Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of implementation of National Instrument based system for Single Event Upset testing of memory chips into neutron generator experimental facility, which used for SEU tests for avionics purposes. Basic SEU testing algorithm with error correction and constant errors detection is presented. The issues of radiation shielding of NI based system are discussed and solved. The examples of experimental results show the applicability of the presented system for SEU memory testing under neutrons influence.

  12. Optimization of Reliability and Power Consumption in Systems on a Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Simunic, Tajana; Mihic, Kresimir; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive transistor scaling, decreased voltage margins and increased processor power and temperature, have made reliability assessment a much more significant issue in design. Although reliability of devices and interconnect has been broadly studied, here we characterize reliability at the system level. Thus we consider component-based System on Chip designs. Reliability is strongly affected by system temperature, which is in turn driven by power consumption. Thus, component reliability and...

  13. μOrgano: A Lego®-Like Plug & Play System for Modular Multi-Organ-Chips.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Loskill

    Full Text Available Human organ-on-a-chip systems for drug screening have evolved as feasible alternatives to animal models, which are unreliable, expensive, and at times erroneous. While chips featuring single organs can be of great use for both pharmaceutical testing and basic organ-level studies, the huge potential of the organ-on-a-chip technology is revealed by connecting multiple organs on one chip to create a single integrated system for sophisticated fundamental biological studies and devising therapies for disease. Furthermore, since most organ-on-a-chip systems require special protocols with organ-specific media for the differentiation and maturation of the tissues, multi-organ systems will need to be temporally customizable and flexible in terms of the time point of connection of the individual organ units. We present a customizable Lego®-like plug & play system, μOrgano, which enables initial individual culture of single organ-on-a-chip systems and subsequent connection to create integrated multi-organ microphysiological systems. As a proof of concept, the μOrgano system was used to connect multiple heart chips in series with excellent cell viability and spontaneously physiological beat rates.

  14. μOrgano: A Lego®-Like Plug & Play System for Modular Multi-Organ-Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskill, Peter; Marcus, Sivan G; Mathur, Anurag; Reese, Willie Mae; Healy, Kevin E

    2015-01-01

    Human organ-on-a-chip systems for drug screening have evolved as feasible alternatives to animal models, which are unreliable, expensive, and at times erroneous. While chips featuring single organs can be of great use for both pharmaceutical testing and basic organ-level studies, the huge potential of the organ-on-a-chip technology is revealed by connecting multiple organs on one chip to create a single integrated system for sophisticated fundamental biological studies and devising therapies for disease. Furthermore, since most organ-on-a-chip systems require special protocols with organ-specific media for the differentiation and maturation of the tissues, multi-organ systems will need to be temporally customizable and flexible in terms of the time point of connection of the individual organ units. We present a customizable Lego®-like plug & play system, μOrgano, which enables initial individual culture of single organ-on-a-chip systems and subsequent connection to create integrated multi-organ microphysiological systems. As a proof of concept, the μOrgano system was used to connect multiple heart chips in series with excellent cell viability and spontaneously physiological beat rates.

  15. Legal Protection on IP Cores for System-on-Chip Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takahiko

    The current semiconductor industry has shifted from vertical integrated model to horizontal specialization model in term of integrated circuit manufacturing. In this circumstance, IP cores as solutions for System-on-Chip (SoC) have become increasingly important for semiconductor business. This paper examines to what extent IP cores of SoC effectively can be protected by current intellectual property system including integrated circuit layout design law, patent law, design law, copyright law and unfair competition prevention act.

  16. ASIC design of a digital fuzzy system on chip for medical diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Roy, Aniruddha; Saha, Hiranmay

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the ASIC design of a digital fuzzy logic circuit for medical diagnostic applications. The system on chip under consideration uses fuzzifier, memory and defuzzifier for fuzzifying the patient data, storing the membership function values and defuzzifying the membership function values to get the output decision. The proposed circuit uses triangular trapezoidal membership functions for fuzzification patients' data. For minimizing the transistor count, the proposed circuit uses 3T XOR gates and 8T adders for its design. The entire work has been carried out using TSMC 0.35 µm CMOS process. Post layout TSPICE simulation of the whole circuit indicates a delay of 31.27 ns and the average power dissipation of the system on chip is 123.49 mW which indicates a less delay and less power dissipation than the comparable embedded systems reported earlier.

  17. VLSI Design of SVM-Based Seizure Detection System With On-Chip Learning Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lichen; Li, Zunchao; Wang, Yuanfa

    2018-02-01

    Portable automatic seizure detection system is very convenient for epilepsy patients to carry. In order to make the system on-chip trainable with high efficiency and attain high detection accuracy, this paper presents a very large scale integration (VLSI) design based on the nonlinear support vector machine (SVM). The proposed design mainly consists of a feature extraction (FE) module and an SVM module. The FE module performs the three-level Daubechies discrete wavelet transform to fit the physiological bands of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal and extracts the time-frequency domain features reflecting the nonstationary signal properties. The SVM module integrates the modified sequential minimal optimization algorithm with the table-driven-based Gaussian kernel to enable efficient on-chip learning. The presented design is verified on an Altera Cyclone II field-programmable gate array and tested using the two publicly available EEG datasets. Experiment results show that the designed VLSI system improves the detection accuracy and training efficiency.

  18. Piezoresistive microcantilever based lab-on-a-chip system for detection of macronutrients in the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Rajul S.; Ashwin, Mamta; Rao, V. Ramgopal

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring of soil nutrients is very important in precision agriculture. In this paper, we have demonstrated a micro electro mechanical system based lab-on-a-chip system for detection of various soil macronutrients which are available in ionic form K+, NO3-, and H2PO4-. These sensors are highly sensitive piezoresistive silicon microcantilevers coated with a polymer matrix containing methyltridodecylammonium nitrate ionophore/ nitrate ionophore VI for nitrate sensing, 18-crown-6 ether for potassium sensing and Tributyltin chloride for phosphate detection. A complete lab-on-a-chip system integrating a highly sensitive current excited Wheatstone's bridge based portable electronic setup along with arrays of microcantilever devices mounted on a printed circuit board with a liquid flow cell for on the site experimentation for soil test has been demonstrated.

  19. Floating Chip Mounting System Driven by Repulsive Force of Permanent Magnets for Multiple On-Site SPR Immunoassay Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Tobita, Tatsuya; Miura, Toru; Iwasaki, Yuzuru; Seyama, Michiko; Inoue, Suzuyo; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Haga, Tsuneyuki; Tamechika, Emi

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a measurement chip installation/removal mechanism for a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay analysis instrument designed for frequent testing, which requires a rapid and easy technique for changing chips. The key components of the mechanism are refractive index matching gel coated on the rear of the SPR chip and a float that presses the chip down. The refractive index matching gel made it possible to optically couple the chip and the prism of the SPR instrument easily via elastic deformation with no air bubbles. The float has an autonomous attitude control function that keeps the chip parallel in relation to the SPR instrument by employing the repulsive force of permanent magnets between the float and a float guide located in the SPR instrument. This function is realized by balancing the upward elastic force of the gel and the downward force of the float, which experiences a leveling force from the float guide. This system makes it possible to start an SPR measurement immediately after chip installation and to remove the chip immediately after the measurement with a simple and easy method that does not require any fine adjustment. Our sensor chip, which we installed using this mounting system, successfully performed an immunoassay measurement on a model antigen (spiked human-IgG) in a model real sample (non-homogenized milk) that included many kinds of interfering foreign substances without any sample pre-treatment. The ease of the chip installation/removal operation and simple measurement procedure are suitable for frequent on-site agricultural, environmental and medical testing. PMID:23202030

  20. On-Chip Laser-Power Delivery System for Dielectric Laser Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tyler W.; Tan, Si; Zhao, Zhexin; Sapra, Neil V.; Leedle, Kenneth J.; Deng, Huiyang; Miao, Yu; Black, Dylan S.; Solgaard, Olav; Harris, James S.; Vuckovic, Jelena; Byer, Robert L.; Fan, Shanhui; England, R. Joel; Lee, Yun Jo; Qi, Minghao

    2018-05-01

    We propose an on-chip optical-power delivery system for dielectric laser accelerators based on a fractal "tree-network" dielectric waveguide geometry. This system replaces experimentally demanding free-space manipulations of the driving laser beam with chip-integrated techniques based on precise nanofabrication, enabling access to orders-of-magnitude increases in the interaction length and total energy gain for these miniature accelerators. Based on computational modeling, in the relativistic regime, our laser delivery system is estimated to provide 21 keV of energy gain over an acceleration length of 192 μ m with a single laser input, corresponding to a 108-MV/m acceleration gradient. The system may achieve 1 MeV of energy gain over a distance of less than 1 cm by sequentially illuminating 49 identical structures. These findings are verified by detailed numerical simulation and modeling of the subcomponents, and we provide a discussion of the main constraints, challenges, and relevant parameters with regard to on-chip laser coupling for dielectric laser accelerators.

  1. Embedded memory design for multi-core and systems on chip

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Baker

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the various tradeoffs systems designers face when designing embedded memory.  Readers designing multi-core systems and systems on chip will benefit from the discussion of different topics from memory architecture, array organization, circuit design techniques and design for test.  The presentation enables a multi-disciplinary approach to chip design, which bridges the gap between the architecture level and circuit level, in order to address yield, reliability and power-related issues for embedded memory.  ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of embedded memory design and associated challenges and choices; ·         Explains tradeoffs and dependencies across different disciplines involved with multi-core and system on chip memory design; ·         Includes detailed discussion of memory hierarchy and its impact on energy and performance; ·         Uses real product examples to demonstrate embedded memory design flow from architecture, to circuit ...

  2. Experimental single-chip color HDTV image acquisition system with 8M-pixel CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Takayuki; Funatsu, Ryohei; Mitani, Kohji; Nojiri, Yuji

    2006-02-01

    We have developed an experimental single-chip color HDTV image acquisition system using 8M-pixel CMOS image sensor. The sensor has 3840 × 2160 effective pixels and is progressively scanned at 60 frames per second. We describe the color filter array and interpolation method to improve image quality with a high-pixel-count single-chip sensor. We also describe an experimental image acquisition system we used to measured spatial frequency characteristics in the horizontal direction. The results indicate good prospects for achieving a high quality single chip HDTV camera that reduces pseudo signals and maintains high spatial frequency characteristics within the frequency band for HDTV.

  3. MACSYM. Towards a system of measurement and control on a single chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zannoli, S

    1984-03-01

    Since it is now possible to produce A/D and D/A integrated circuits on a single chip at a remarkably low cost, the production of an entire system for the acquisition of measurements and control of data on a single chip can be foreseen. The MACSYM (measurement and control system), produced by Analog Devices Inc., contains all its components on a single circuit board. The MACSYM 150 is a multiprocessor with separate analogue and digital buses. Because it contains three CPUS with special functions, it has high operating speeds and can handle a number of programs simultaneously. Since this model is designed for on line and real time measurements of physical quantities it has a number of different stores, including a central store, a store for graphs in colour and fast output and input stores for metered data. The author describes the interface provided and the terminals to which data can be supplied and mentions the programming language used.

  4. Apparatus, System and Method for Fast Detection of Genetic Information by PCR in an Interchangeable Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Weijia

    2011-03-03

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA includes an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component, and an optical detection system. The DNA amplification is performed on an interchangeable chip with volumes as small as 1.25 µl, while the heating and cooling rate may be as fast as 12.7 °C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 minutes to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. The PCR may be performed according to a two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific SRY gene marker by utilizing raw saliva may be achieved. The genetic identification may be in-situ detected after PCR by the optical detection system.

  5. Chip-Oriented Fluorimeter Design and Detection System Development for DNA Quantification in Nano-Liter Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The chip-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR system has been developed in recent years to achieve DNA quantification. Using a microstructure and miniature chip, the volume consumption for a PCR can be reduced to a nano-liter. With high speed cycling and a low reaction volume, the time consumption of one PCR cycle performed on a chip can be reduced. However, most of the presented prototypes employ commercial fluorimeters which are not optimized for fluorescence detection of such a small quantity sample. This limits the performance of DNA quantification, especially low experiment reproducibility. This study discusses the concept of a chip-oriented fluorimeter design. Using the analytical model, the current study analyzes the sensitivity and dynamic range of the fluorimeter to fit the requirements for detecting fluorescence in nano-liter volumes. Through the optimized processes, a real-time PCR on a chip system with only one nano-liter volume test sample is as sensitive as the commercial real-time PCR machine using the sample with twenty micro-liter volumes. The signal to noise (S/N ratio of a chip system for DNA quantification with hepatitis B virus (HBV plasmid samples is 3 dB higher. DNA quantification by the miniature chip shows higher reproducibility compared to the commercial machine with respect to samples of initial concentrations from 103 to 105 copies per reaction.

  6. Performance of Multithreaded Chip Multiprocessors And Implications for Operating System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorova, Alexandra; Seltzer, Margo I.; Small, Christopher A.; Nussbaum, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    An operating system’s design is often influenced by the architecture of the target hardware. While uniprocessor and multiprocessor architectures are well understood, such is not the case for multithreaded chip multiprocessors (CMT) – a new generation of processors designed to improve performance of memory-intensive applications. The first systems equipped with CMT processors are just becoming available, so it is critical that we now understand how to obtain the best performance from such syst...

  7. Integrated thermal control and system assessment in plug-chip spray cooling enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Wen-Long; Shao, Shi-Dong; Jiang, Li-Jia; Hong, Da-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-heat source plug-chip spray cooling enclosure was designed. • Enhanced surfaces with different geometric were analyzed in integrated enclosure. • Overall thermal control with adjustable parameters in enclosure was studied. • Temperature disequilibrium of multi-heat source in enclosure was tested. • A comprehensive assessment system used to evaluate the practicality was proposed. - Abstract: Practical and integrated spray cooling system is urgently needed for the cooling of high-performance electronic chips due to the growth requirements of thermal management in workstation. The integration of multi heat sources and the management of integral system are particularly lacking. In order to fill the vacancies in the study of plug-chip spray cooling, an integrated cooling enclosure was designed in this paper. Multi heat sources were placed in sealed space and the heat was removed by spray. The printed circuit board plug-ins and radio frequency resistors were used as analog motherboards and chips, respectively. The enhanced surfaces with four different geometries and the plain surface were studied under the conditions of different inclination angles. The results were compared and the maximum critical heat flux (CHF) was obtained. Moreover, with the intention of the overall management of multi-heat source in integrated enclosure, the effect of the flow rate and the temperature disequilibrium, and the pulse heating in the process of transient cooling were also analyzed. In addition, a comprehensive assessment system, used to evaluate the practicality of spray cooling experimental devices, was proposed and the performance of enclosure was evaluated.

  8. Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) Embedded Readout Designs for Liquid Helium Level Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasakthi, C; Gireesan, K; Usha Rani, R; Sheela, O K; Janawadkar, M P

    2014-08-01

    This article reports the development of programmable system-on-chip (PSoC)-based embedded readout designs for liquid helium level sensors using resistive liquid vapor discriminators. The system has been built for the measurement of liquid helium level in a concave-bottomed, helmet-shaped, fiber-reinforced plastic cryostat for magnetoencephalography. This design incorporates three carbon resistors as cost-effective sensors, which are mounted at desired heights inside the cryostat and were used to infer the liquid helium level by measuring their temperature-dependent resistance. Localized electrical heating of the carbon resistors was used to discriminate whether the resistor is immersed in liquid helium or its vapor by exploiting the difference in the heat transfer rates in the two environments. This report describes a single PSoC chip for the design and development of a constant current source to drive the three carbon resistors, a multiplexer to route the sensor outputs to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a buffer to avoid loading of the sensors, an ADC for digitizing the data, and a display using liquid crystal display cum light-emitting diode modules. The level sensor readout designed with a single PSoC chip enables cost-effective and reliable measurement system design. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Hybrid macro-micro fluidics system for a chip-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanaha, C. R.; Whitman, L. J.; Colton, R. J.

    2002-03-01

    We describe the engineering of a hybrid fluidics platform for a chip-based biosensor system that combines high-performance microfluidics components with powerful, yet compact, millimeter-scale pump and valve actuators. The microfluidics system includes channels, valveless diffuser-based pumps, and pinch-valves that are cast into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane and packaged along with the sensor chip into a palm-sized plastic cartridge. The microfluidics are driven by pump and valve actuators contained in an external unit (with a volume ~30 cm3) that interfaces kinematically with the PDMS microelements on the cartridge. The pump actuator is a simple-lever, flexure-hinge displacement amplifier that increases the motion of a piezoelectric stack. The valve actuators are an array of cantilevers operated by shape memory alloy wires. All components can be fabricated without the need for complex lithography or micromachining, and can be used with fluids containing micron-sized particulates. Prototypes have been modeled and tested to ensure the delivery of microliter volumes of fluid and the even dispersion of reagents over the chip sensing elements. With this hybrid approach to the fluidics system, the biochemical assay benefits from the many advantages of microfluidics yet we avoid the complexity and unknown reliability of immature microactuator technologies.

  10. Models and formal verification of multiprocessor system-on-chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Madsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    present experimental results on rather small systems with high complexity, primarily due to differences between best-case and worst-case execution times. Considering worst-case execution times only, the system becomes deterministic and using a special version of {Uppaal}, where the no history is saved, we...

  11. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, R.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  12. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013–2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  13. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R. T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A. J.; Moschovakos, P.; Nelson, A.; Ntekas, K.; Ruckman, L.; Russell, J.; Schernau, M.; Schlenker, S.; Su, D.; Valderanis, C.; Wittgen, M.; Yildiz, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.

  14. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R.T.; Huffer, M.; Kocian, M.; Ruckman, L.; Russell, J.; Su, D.; Wittgen, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Moschovakos, P.; Ntekas, K.; Kwan, K.; Lankford, A.J.; Nelson, A.; Schernau, M.; Schlenker, S.; Valderanis, C.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2

  15. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, R., E-mail: claus@slac.stanford.edu

    2016-07-11

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013–2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  16. The impact of the new 36 V lead-acid battery systems on lead consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prengaman, R. David

    The production of vehicles utilizing 36 V battery systems has begun with the introduction of the Toyota Crown. Other vehicles with 36 V batteries are in the near horizon. These vehicles may contain single or dual battery systems. These vehicles will most likely contain valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The battery systems developed to date utilize significantly more lead than conventional 12 V batteries. This paper will evaluate the different proposed 36 V battery systems and estimate the lead requirements for each of the competing systems. It will also project the penetration of and resultant increased lead usage of these new batteries into the future.

  17. Debugging systems-on-chip communication-centric and abstraction-based techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This book describes an approach and supporting infrastructure to facilitate debugging the silicon implementation of a System-on-Chip (SOC), allowing its associated product to be introduced into the market more quickly.  Readers learn step-by-step the key requirements for debugging a modern, silicon SOC implementation, nine factors that complicate this debugging task, and a new debug approach that addresses these requirements and complicating factors.  The authors’ novel communication-centric, scan-based, abstraction-based, run/stop-based (CSAR) debug approach is discussed in detail, showing how it helps to meet debug requirements and address the nine, previously identified factors that complicate debugging silicon implementations of SOCs. The authors also derive the debug infrastructure requirements to support debugging of a silicon implementation of an SOC with their CSAR debug approach. This debug infrastructure consists of a generic on-chip debug architecture, a configurable automated design-for-debug ...

  18. High speed video recording system on a chip for detonation jet engine testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonov Alexander N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes system on a chip development for high speed video recording purposes. Current research was started due to difficulties in selection of FPGAs and CPUs which include wide bandwidth, high speed and high number of multipliers for real time signal analysis implementation. Current trend of high density silicon device integration will result soon in a hybrid sensor-controller-memory circuit packed in a single chip. This research was the first step in a series of experiments in manufacturing of hybrid devices. The current task is high level syntheses of high speed logic and CPU core in an FPGA. The work resulted in FPGA-based prototype implementation and examination.

  19. ASIC Wafer Test System for the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Front-End Chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghinolfi, F.; Bialas, W.; Busek, N.; Ciocio, A.; Cosgrove, D.; Fadeyev, V.; Flacco, C.; Gilchriese, M.; Grillo, A.A.; Haber, C.; Kaplon, J.; Lacasta, C.; Murray, W.; Niggli, H.; Pritchard, T.; Rosenbaum, F.; Spieler, H.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Wilder, M.; Yaver, H.; Zetti, F.

    2002-01-01

    An ASIC wafer test system has been developed to provide comprehensive production screening of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker front-end chip (ABCD3T). The ABCD3T[1] features a 128-channel analog front-end, a digital pipeline, and communication circuitry, clocked at 40 MHz, which is the bunch crossing frequency at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The tester measures values and tolerance ranges of all critical IC parameters, including DC parameters, electronic noise, time resolution, clock levels and clock timing. The tester is controlled by an FPGA (ORCA3T) programmed to issue the input commands to the IC and to interpret the output data. This allows the high-speed wafer-level IC testing necessary to meet the production schedule. To characterize signal amplitudes and phase margins, the tester utilizes pin-driver, delay, and DAC chips, which control the amplitudes and delays of signals sent to the IC under test. Output signals from the IC under test go through window comparator chips to measure their levels. A probe card has been designed specifically to reduce pick-up noise that can affect the measurements. The system can operate at frequencies up to 100 MHz to study the speed limits of the digital circuitry before and after radiation damage. Testing requirements and design solutions are presented

  20. A New ATLAS Muon CSC Readout System with System on Chip Technology on ATCA Platform

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)696050; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R.T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A.J.; Moschovakos, P.; Nelson, A.; Ntekas, K.; Ruckman, L.; Russell, J.; Schernau, M.; Schlenker, S.; Su, D.; Valderanis, C.; Wittgen, M.; Bartoldus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambe...

  1. A New ATLAS Muon CSC Readout System with System on Chip Technology on ATCA Platform

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS CSC Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgrade during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chamber...

  2. A New ATLAS Muon CSC Readout System with System on Chip Technology on ATCA Platform

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)664042

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf thr...

  3. A New ATLAS Muon CSC Readout System with System on Chip Technology on ATCA Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Claus, Richard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf thro...

  4. The system power control unit based on the on-chip wireless communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiefeng; Ma, Caiwen; Li, WenHua

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the on-chip wireless communication system (OWCS) includes 2nd-generation (2G), 3rd-generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) communication subsystems. To improve the power consumption of OWCS, a typical architecture design of system power control unit (SPCU) is given in this paper, which can not only make a 2G, a 3G, and an LTE subsystems enter sleep mode, but it can also wake them up from sleep mode via the interrupt. During the sleep mode period, either the real-time sleep timer or the global system for mobile (GSM) communication sleep timer can be used individually to arouse the corresponding subsystem. Compared to previous sole voltage supplies on the OWCS, a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem can be independently configured with three different voltages and frequencies in normal work mode. In the meantime, the voltage supply monitor, which is an important part in the SPCU, can significantly guard the voltage of OWCS in real time. Finally, the SPCU may implement dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) for a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem, which is automatically accomplished by the hardware.

  5. The System Power Control Unit Based on the On-Chip Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiefeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the on-chip wireless communication system (OWCS includes 2nd-generation (2G, 3rd-generation (3G, and long-term evolution (LTE communication subsystems. To improve the power consumption of OWCS, a typical architecture design of system power control unit (SPCU is given in this paper, which can not only make a 2G, a 3G, and an LTE subsystems enter sleep mode, but it can also wake them up from sleep mode via the interrupt. During the sleep mode period, either the real-time sleep timer or the global system for mobile (GSM communication sleep timer can be used individually to arouse the corresponding subsystem. Compared to previous sole voltage supplies on the OWCS, a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem can be independently configured with three different voltages and frequencies in normal work mode. In the meantime, the voltage supply monitor, which is an important part in the SPCU, can significantly guard the voltage of OWCS in real time. Finally, the SPCU may implement dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS for a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem, which is automatically accomplished by the hardware.

  6. 60 GHz system-on-chip (SoC) with built-in memory and an on-chip antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Arsalan, Muhammad; Cheema, Hammad; Salama, Khaled N.; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    A novel 60 GHz transmitter SoC with an on-chip antenna and integrated memory in CMOS 65 nm technology is presented in this paper. This highly integrated transmitter design can support a data rate of 2 GBPS with a transmission range of 1 m. The transmitter consists of a fundamental frequency 60 GHz PLL which covers the complete ISM band. The modulator following the PLL can support both BPSK and OOK modulation schemes. Both stored data on the integrated memory or directly from an external source can be transmitted. A tapered slot on chip antenna is integrated with the power amplifier to complete the front end of the transmitter design. Size of the complete transmitter with on-chip antenna is only 1.96 mm × 1.96 mm. The core circuits consume less than 100 mW of power. The high data rate capability of the design makes it extremely suitable for bandwidth hungry applications such as unencrypted HD video streaming and transmission.

  7. 60 GHz system-on-chip (SoC) with built-in memory and an on-chip antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2014-04-01

    A novel 60 GHz transmitter SoC with an on-chip antenna and integrated memory in CMOS 65 nm technology is presented in this paper. This highly integrated transmitter design can support a data rate of 2 GBPS with a transmission range of 1 m. The transmitter consists of a fundamental frequency 60 GHz PLL which covers the complete ISM band. The modulator following the PLL can support both BPSK and OOK modulation schemes. Both stored data on the integrated memory or directly from an external source can be transmitted. A tapered slot on chip antenna is integrated with the power amplifier to complete the front end of the transmitter design. Size of the complete transmitter with on-chip antenna is only 1.96 mm × 1.96 mm. The core circuits consume less than 100 mW of power. The high data rate capability of the design makes it extremely suitable for bandwidth hungry applications such as unencrypted HD video streaming and transmission.

  8. Micro, nanosystems and systems on chips modeling, control, and estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Voda, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Micro and nanosystems represent a major scientific and technological challenge, with actual and potential applications in almost all fields of the human activity. The aim of the present book is to present how concepts from dynamical control systems (modeling, estimation, observation, identification, feedback control) can be adapted and applied to the development of original very small-scale systems and of their human interfaces. The application fields presented here come from micro and nanorobotics, biochips, near-field microscopy (AFM and STM) and nanosystems networks. Alina Voda has drawn co

  9. AMINA-chip : a miniaturized measurement system for ambient ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Björn Herman

    2004-01-01

    The development of a miniaturized and integrated measurement system for gaseous ammonia is described in this thesis. The measuring principle, ¿AMINA¿, is an indirect method for selectively measuring ammonia that makes use of pH-transitions, electrolyte conductivity detection and phaseseparating

  10. A new intelligent curtain control system based on 51 single chip microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tuan; Wang, Yanhua; Wu, Mengmeng

    2017-04-01

    This paper uses 51 (single chip microcomputer) SCM as the operation and data processing center. According to the change of sunshine intensity and ambient temperature, a new type of intelligent curtain control system is designed by adopting photosensitive element and temperature sensor. In addition, the design also has a manual control mode. In the rain, when the light intensity is weak, the open position of the curtain can be set by the user. The system can maximize the user to provide user-friendly operation and comfortable living environment. The system can be applied to home or office environment, with a wide range of applications and simple operation and so on.

  11. Embedded 3D Graphics Core for FPGA-based System-on-Chip Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D graphics accelerator core for an FPGA based system, and illustrates how to build a System-on-Chip containing a Xilinx MicroBlaze soft-core CPU and our 3D graphics accelerator core. The system is capable of running uClinux and hardware accelerated 3D graphics applications......, and the video display which periodically reads from memory to display the final rendered graphics. The graphics core uses internal scratch-pad memory to reduce its external bandwidth requirement, this is achieved by implementing a tile-based rendering algorithm. Reduced external bandwidth means that the power...

  12. BER Performance Simulation of Generalized MC DS-CDMA System with Time-Limited Blackman Chip Waveform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Develi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple access interference encountered in multicarrier direct sequence-code division multiple access (MC DS-CDMA is the most important difficulty that depends mainly on the correlation properties of the spreading sequences as well as the shape of the chip waveforms employed. In this paper, bit error rate (BER performance of the generalized MC DS-CDMA system that employs time-limited Blackman chip waveform is presented for Nakagami-m fading channels. Simulation results show that the use of Blackman chip waveform can improve the BER performance of the generalized MC DS-CDMA system, as compared to the performances achieved by using timelimited chip waveforms in the literature.

  13. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  14. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  15. Experimental investigation on the high chip rate of 2D incoherent optical CDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guorui; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao; Wu, Weijiang

    2015-08-01

    An innovative approach to realise high chip rate in OCDMA transmission system is proposed and experimentally investigation, the high chip rate is achieved through a 2-D wavelength-hopping time-spreading en/decoder based on the supercontinuum light source. The source used in the experiment is generated by high nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF), Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) which output power is 26 dBm, and distributed feed-back laser diode which works in the gain switch state. The span and the flatness of the light source are 20 nm and 3 dB, respectively, after equalization of wavelength selective switch (WSS). The wavelength-hopping time-spreading coder can be changed 20 nm in the wavelength and 400 ps in the time, is consist of WSS and delay lines. Therefore, the experimental results show that the chip rate can achieve 500 Gchip/s, in the case of 2.5 Gbit/s, while keeping a bit error rate below forward error correction limit after 40 km transmission.

  16. Automated Lab-on-a-Chip Electrophoresis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter A.; Mora, Maria; Greer, Harold F.; Fisher, Anita M.; Bryant, Sherrisse

    2012-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is an analytical technique that can be used to detect and quantify extremely small amounts of various biological molecules. In the search for biochemical traces of life on other planets, part of this search involves an examination of amino acids, which are the building blocks of life on Earth. The most sensitive method for detecting amino acids is the use of laser induced fluorescence. However, since amino acids do not, in general, fluoresce, they first must be reacted with a fluorescent dye label prior to analysis. After this process is completed, the liquid sample then must be transported into the electrophoresis system. If the system is to be reused multiple times, samples must be added and removed each time. In typical laboratories, this process is performed manually by skilled human operators using standard laboratory equipment. This level of human intervention is not possible if this technology is to be implemented on extraterrestrial targets. Microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) combined with laser induced fluorescence detection (LIF) was selected as an extremely sensitive method to detect amino acids and other compounds that can be tagged with a fluorescent dye. It is highly desirable to package this technology into an integrated, autonomous, in situ instrument capable of performing CE-LIF on the surface of an extraterrestrial body. However, to be fully autonomous, the CE device must be able to perform a large number of sample preparation and analysis operations without the direct intervention of a human.

  17. The silicon chip: A versatile micro-scale platform for micro- and nano-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edward

    Cutting-edge advances in micro- and nano-scale technology require instrumentation to interface with the external world. While technology feature sizes are continually being reduced, the size of experimentalists and their instrumentation do not mirror this trend. Hence there is a need for effective application-specific instrumentation to bridge the gap from the micro and nano-scale phenomena being studied to the comparative macro-scale of the human interfaces. This dissertation puts forward the idea that the silicon CMOS integrated circuit, or microchip in short, serves as an excellent platform to perform this functionality. The electronic interfaces designed for the semiconductor industry are particularly attractive as development platforms, and the reduction in feature sizes that has been a hallmark of the industry suggests that chip-scale instrumentation may be more closely coupled to the phenomena of interest, allowing finer control or improved measurement capabilities. Compatibility with commercial processes will further enable economies of scale through mass production, another welcome feature of this approach. Thus chip-scale instrumentation may replace the bulky, expensive, cumbersome-to-operate macro-scale prototypes currently in use for many of these applications. The dissertation examines four specific applications in which the chip may serve as the ideal instrumentation platform. These are nanorod manipulation, polypyrrole bilayer hinge microactuator control, organic transistor hybrid circuits, and contact fluorescence imaging. The thesis is structured around chapters devoted to each of these projects, in addition to a chapter on preliminary work on an RFID system that serves as a wireless interface model. Each of these chapters contains tools and techniques developed for chip-scale instrumentation, from custom scripts for automated layout and data collection to microfabrication processes. Implementation of these tools to develop systems for the

  18. Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Amir H; Moazeni, Sajjad; Pavanello, Fabio; Gevorgyan, Hayk; Notaros, Jelena; Alloatti, Luca; Wade, Mark T; Sun, Chen; Kruger, Seth A; Meng, Huaiyu; Al Qubaisi, Kenaish; Wang, Imbert; Zhang, Bohan; Khilo, Anatol; Baiocco, Christopher V; Popović, Miloš A; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Ram, Rajeev J

    2018-04-01

    Electronic and photonic technologies have transformed our lives-from computing and mobile devices, to information technology and the internet. Our future demands in these fields require innovation in each technology separately, but also depend on our ability to harness their complementary physics through integrated solutions 1,2 . This goal is hindered by the fact that most silicon nanotechnologies-which enable our processors, computer memory, communications chips and image sensors-rely on bulk silicon substrates, a cost-effective solution with an abundant supply chain, but with substantial limitations for the integration of photonic functions. Here we introduce photonics into bulk silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips using a layer of polycrystalline silicon deposited on silicon oxide (glass) islands fabricated alongside transistors. We use this single deposited layer to realize optical waveguides and resonators, high-speed optical modulators and sensitive avalanche photodetectors. We integrated this photonic platform with a 65-nanometre-transistor bulk CMOS process technology inside a 300-millimetre-diameter-wafer microelectronics foundry. We then implemented integrated high-speed optical transceivers in this platform that operate at ten gigabits per second, composed of millions of transistors, and arrayed on a single optical bus for wavelength division multiplexing, to address the demand for high-bandwidth optical interconnects in data centres and high-performance computing 3,4 . By decoupling the formation of photonic devices from that of transistors, this integration approach can achieve many of the goals of multi-chip solutions 5 , but with the performance, complexity and scalability of 'systems on a chip' 1,6-8 . As transistors smaller than ten nanometres across become commercially available 9 , and as new nanotechnologies emerge 10,11 , this approach could provide a way to integrate photonics with state-of-the-art nanoelectronics.

  19. A Spacecraft Housekeeping System-on-Chip in a Radiation Hardened Structured ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, George; DuMonthier, Jeffrey J.; Sheikh, Salman S.; Powell, Wesley A.; King, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Housekeeping systems are essential to health monitoring of spacecraft and instruments. Typically, sensors are distributed across various sub-systems and data is collected using components such as analog-to-digital converters, analog multiplexers and amplifiers. In most cases programmable devices are used to implement the data acquisition control and storage, and the interface to higher level systems. Such discrete implementations require additional size, weight, power and interconnect complexity versus an integrated circuit solution, as well as the qualification of multiple parts. Although commercial devices are readily available, they are not suitable for space applications due the radiation tolerance and qualification requirements. The Housekeeping System-o n-A-Chip (HKSOC) is a low power, radiation hardened integrated solution suitable for spacecraft and instrument control and data collection. A prototype has been designed and includes a wide variety of functions including a 16-channel analog front-end for driving and reading sensors, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, on-chip temperature sensor, power supply current sense circuits, general purpose comparators and amplifiers, a 32-bit processor, digital I/O, pulse-width modulation (PWM) generators, timers and I2C master and slave serial interfaces. In addition, the device can operate in a bypass mode where the processor is disabled and external logic is used to control the analog and mixed signal functions. The device is suitable for stand-alone or distributed systems where multiple chips can be deployed across different sub-systems as intelligent nodes with computing and processing capabilities.

  20. Deepening system leadership : teachers leading from below

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of educational collaborations and networks that blur organizational boundaries requires conceptual developments in leadership theory. One approach to both theorizing and promoting such phenomena is through the idea of system leadership. Three different meanings of the term are identified: interschool leadership; a systemic leadership orientation and identity; and leadership of the school system as a whole. Previous descriptions of system leadership, and policy initia...

  1. Support for Programming Models in Network-on-Chip-based Many-core Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth

    This thesis addresses aspects of support for programming models in Network-on- Chip-based many-core architectures. The main focus is to consider architectural support for a plethora of programming models in a single system. The thesis has three main parts. The first part considers parallelization...... models to be supported by a single architecture. The architecture features a specialized network interface processor which allows extensive configurability of the memory system. Based on this architecture, a detailed implementation of the cache coherent shared memory programming model is presented...

  2. A primary battery-on-a-chip using monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iost, Rodrigo M.; Crespilho, Frank N.; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2016-07-01

    We present here a bottom-up approach for realizing on-chip on-demand batteries starting out with chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene. Single graphene monolayers contacted by electrode lines on a silicon chip serve as electrodes. The anode and cathode are realized by electrodeposition of zinc and copper respectively onto graphene, leading to the realization of a miniature graphene-based Daniell cell on a chip. The electrolyte is housed partly in a gel and partly in liquid form in an on-chip enclosure molded using a 3d printer or made out of poly(dimethylsiloxane). The realized batteries provide a stable voltage (∼1.1 V) for many hours and exhibit capacities as high as 15 μAh, providing enough power to operate a pocket calculator. The realized batteries show promise for deployment as on-chip power sources for autonomous systems in lab-on-a-chip or biomedical applications.

  3. Fast Prototyping of Sensorized Cell Culture Chips and Microfluidic Systems with Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Bonk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a confined microfluidic cell culture system with a bottom plate made of a microscopic slide with planar platinum sensors for the measurement of acidification, oxygen consumption, and cell adhesion. The slides were commercial slides with indium tin oxide (ITO plating or were prepared from platinum sputtering (100 nm onto a 10-nm titanium adhesion layer. Direct processing of the sensor structures (approximately three minutes per chip by an ultrashort pulse laser facilitated the production of the prototypes. pH-sensitive areas were produced by the sputtering of 60-nm Si3N4 through a simple mask made from a circuit board material. The system body and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS molding forms for the microfluidic structures were manufactured by micromilling using a printed circuit board (PCB milling machine for circuit boards. The microfluidic structure was finally imprinted in PDMS. Our approach avoided the use of photolithographic techniques and enabled fast and cost-efficient prototyping of the systems. Alternatively, the direct production of metallic, ceramic or polymeric molding tools was tested. The use of ultrashort pulse lasers improved the precision of the structures and avoided any contact of the final structures with toxic chemicals and possible adverse effects for the cell culture in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  4. Deepening System Leadership: Teachers Leading from Below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of educational collaborations and networks that blur organizational boundaries requires conceptual developments in leadership theory. One approach to both theorizing and promoting such phenomena is through the idea of system leadership. Three different meanings of the term are identified: interschool leadership; a…

  5. On-Chip Fluorescence Switching System for Constructing a Rewritable Random Access Data Storage Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Hiep; Park, Jeho; Hwang, Seungwoo; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo; Shin, Yong-Beom; Ha, Tai Hwan; Kim, Moonil

    2018-01-10

    We report the development of on-chip fluorescence switching system based on DNA strand displacement and DNA hybridization for the construction of a rewritable and randomly accessible data storage device. In this study, the feasibility and potential effectiveness of our proposed system was evaluated with a series of wet experiments involving 40 bits (5 bytes) of data encoding a 5-charactered text (KRIBB). Also, a flexible data rewriting function was achieved by converting fluorescence signals between "ON" and "OFF" through DNA strand displacement and hybridization events. In addition, the proposed system was successfully validated on a microfluidic chip which could further facilitate the encoding and decoding process of data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of DNA hybridization and DNA strand displacement in the field of data storage devices. Taken together, our results demonstrated that DNA-based fluorescence switching could be applicable to construct a rewritable and randomly accessible data storage device through controllable DNA manipulations.

  6. Implementing oxygen control in chip-based cell and tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Pieter E; Skolimowski, Maciej D; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2016-09-21

    Oxygen is essential in the energy metabolism of cells, as well as being an important regulatory parameter influencing cell differentiation and function. Interest in precise oxygen control for in vitro cultures of tissues and cells continues to grow, especially with the emergence of the organ-on-a-chip and the desire to emulate in vivo conditions. This was recently discussed in this journal in a Critical Review by Brennan et al. (Lab Chip (2014). DOI: ). Microfluidics can be used to introduce flow to facilitate nutrient supply to and waste removal from in vitro culture systems. Well-defined oxygen gradients can also be established. However, cells can quickly alter the oxygen balance in their vicinity. In this Tutorial Review, we expand on the Brennan paper to focus on the implementation of oxygen analysis in these systems to achieve continuous monitoring. Both electrochemical and optical approaches for the integration of oxygen monitoring in microfluidic tissue and cell culture systems will be discussed. Differences in oxygen requirements from one organ to the next are a challenging problem, as oxygen delivery is limited by its uptake into medium. Hence, we discuss the factors determining oxygen concentrations in solutions and consider the possible use of artificial oxygen carriers to increase dissolved oxygen concentrations. The selection of device material for applications requiring precise oxygen control is discussed in detail, focusing on oxygen permeability. Lastly, a variety of devices is presented, showing the diversity of approaches that can be employed to control and monitor oxygen concentrations in in vitro experiments.

  7. A UHF RFID system with on-chip-antenna tag for short range communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qi; Zhang Chun; Zhao Xijin; Wang Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A UHF RF identification system based on the 0.18 μm CMOS process has been developed for short range and harsh size requirement applications, which is composed of a fully integrated tag and a special reader. The whole tag chip with the antenna takes up an area of 0.36 mm 2 , which is smaller than other reported tags with an on-chip antenna (OCA) using the standard CMOS process. A self-defined protocol is proposed to reduce the power consumption, and minimize the size of the tag. The specialized SOC reader system consists of the RF transceiver, digital baseband, MCU and host interface. Its power consumption is about 500 mW. Measurement results show that the system's reading range is 2 mm with 20 dBm reader output power. With an inductive antenna printed on a paper substrate around the OCA tag, the reading range can be extended from several centimeters to meters, depending on the shape and size of the inductive antenna. (paper)

  8. An Implantable Cardiovascular Pressure Monitoring System with On-Chip Antenna and RF Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An implantable wireless system with on-chip antenna for cardiovascular pressure monitor is studied. The implantable device is operated in a batteryless manner, powered by an external radio frequency (RF power source. The received RF power level can be sensed and wirelessly transmitted along with blood pressure signal for feedback control of the external RF power. The integrated electronic system, consisting of a capacitance-to-voltage converter, an adaptive RF powering system, an RF transmitter and digital control circuitry, is simulated using a TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The implanted RF transmitter circuit is combined with a low power voltage-controlled oscillator resonating at 5.8 GHz and a power amplifier. For the design, the simulation model is setup using ADS and HFSS software. The dimension of the antenna is 1 × 0.6 × 4.8 mm3 with a 1 × 0.6 mm2 on-chip circuit which is small enough to place in human carotid artery.

  9. TrackCC: A Practical Wireless Indoor Localization System Based on Less-Expensive Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at proposing a new wireless indoor localization system (ILS, called TrackCC, based on a commercial type of low-power system-on-chip (SoC, nRF24LE1. This type of chip has only l output power levels and acute fluctuation for a received minimum power level in operation, which give rise to many practical challenges for designing localization algorithms. In order to address these challenges, we exploit the Markov theory to construct a ( l + 1 × ( l + 1 -sized state transition matrix to remove the fluctuation, and then propose a priority-based pattern matching algorithm to search for the most similar match in the signal map to estimate the real position of unknown nodes. The experimental results show that, compared to two existing wireless ILSs, LANDMARC and SAIL, which have meter level positioning accuracy, the proposed TrackCC can achieve the decimeter level accuracy on average in both line-of-sight (LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS senarios.

  10. Moving-part-free microfluidic systems for lab-on-a-chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J K; Fu, Y Q; Du, X Y; Flewitt, A J; Milne, W I; Li, Y; Walton, A J

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic systems are part of an emerging technology which deals with minute amounts of liquids (biological samples and reagents) on a small scale. They are fast, compact and can be made into a highly integrated system to deliver sample purification, separation, reaction, immobilization, labelling, as well as detection, thus are promising for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and handheld healthcare devices. Miniaturized micropumps typically consist of a moving-part component, such as a membrane structure, to deliver liquids, and are often unreliable, complicated in structure and difficult to be integrated with other control electronics circuits. The trend of new-generation micropumps is moving-part-free micropumps operated by advanced techniques, such as electrokinetic force, surface tension/energy, acoustic waves. This paper reviews the development and advances of relevant technologies, and introduces electrowetting-on-dielectrics and acoustic wave-based microfluidics. The programmable electrowetting micropump has been realized to dispense and manipulate droplets in 2D with up to 1000 addressable electrodes and electronics built underneath. The acoustic wave-based microfluidics can be used not only for pumping, mixing and droplet generation but also for biosensors, suitable for single-mechanism-based lab-on-a-chip applications

  11. SAD-Based Stereo Vision Machine on a System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Zhangwei

    2013-01-01

    This paper, proposes a novel solution for a stereo vision machine based on the System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC) architecture. The SOPC technology provides great convenience for accessing many hardware devices such as DDRII, SSRAM, Flash, etc., by IP reuse. The system hardware is implemented in a single FPGA chip involving a 32-bit Nios II microprocessor, which is a configurable soft IP core in charge of managing the image buffer and users' configuration data. The Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD) algorithm is used for dense disparity map computation. The circuits of the algorithmic module are modeled by the Matlab-based DSP Builder. With a set of configuration interfaces, the machine can process many different sizes of stereo pair images. The maximum image size is up to 512 K pixels. This machine is designed to focus on real time stereo vision applications. The stereo vision machine offers good performance and high efficiency in real time. Considering a hardware FPGA clock of 90 MHz, 23 frames of 640 × 480 disparity maps can be obtained in one second with 5 × 5 matching window and maximum 64 disparity pixels. PMID:23459385

  12. Dry Electrode Harness System For Wireless 12-LEAD ECG

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Human spaceflight requires the ability to obtain diagnostic quality 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs). Current systems require significant upmass, volume, and crew...

  13. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogation System Based on a Linearly Wavelength-Swept Thermo-Optic Laser Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Hwi Don; Kim, Hyo Jin; Cho, Jae Du; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2014-01-01

    A linearized wavelength-swept thermo-optic laser chip was applied to demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system. A broad tuning range of 11.8 nm was periodically obtained from the laser chip for a sweep rate of 16 Hz. To measure the linear time response of the reflection signal from the FBG sensor, a programmed driving signal was directly applied to the wavelength-swept laser chip. The linear wavelength response of the applied strain was clearly extracted with an R-squared value of 0.99994. To test the feasibility of the system for dynamic measurements, the dynamic strain was successfully interrogated with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz by using this FBG sensor interrogation system. PMID:25177803

  14. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  15. Modeling stochastic lead times in multi-echelon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, E.B.; Heijden, van der M.C.

    1996-01-01

    In many multi-echelon inventory systems the lead times are random variables. A common and reasonable assumption in most models is that replenishment orders do not cross, which implies that successive lead times are correlated. However, the process which generates such lead times is usually not

  16. Modeling stochastic lead times in multi-echelon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, E.B.; van der Heijden, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In many multi-echelon inventory systems, the lead times are random variables. A common and reasonable assumption in most models is that replenishment orders do not cross, which implies that successive lead times are correlated. However, the process that generates such lead times is usually not well

  17. Advances in Sensors-Centric Microprocessors and System-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Gómez-Pulido

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensors-based systems are nowadays an extended technology for many markets due to their great potential in the collection of data from the environment and the processing of such data for different purposes. A typical example is the wireless sensor devices, where the outer temperature, humidity, luminosity and many other parameters can be acquired, measured and processed in order to build useful and fascinating applications that contribute to human welfare. In this scenario, the processing architectures of the sensors-based systems play a very important role. The requirements that are necessary for many such applications (real-time processing, low-power consumption, reduced size, reliability, security and many others means that research on advanced architectures of Microprocessors and System-on-Chips (SoC is needed to design and implement a successful product. In this sense, there are many challenges and open questions in this area that need to be addressed. [...

  18. Implementation of neuromorphic systems: from discrete components to analog VLSI chips (testing and communication issues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, V; Del Giudice, P; Mattia, M

    2001-01-01

    We review a series of implementations of electronic devices aiming at imitating to some extent structure and function of simple neural systems, with particular emphasis on communication issues. We first provide a short overview of general features of such "neuromorphic" devices and the implications of setting up "tests" for them. We then review the developments directly related to our work at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS): a pilot electronic neural network implementing a simple classifier, autonomously developing internal representations of incoming stimuli; an output network, collecting information from the previous classifier and extracting the relevant part to be forwarded to the observer; an analog, VLSI (very large scale integration) neural chip implementing a recurrent network of spiking neurons and plastic synapses, and the test setup for it; a board designed to interface the standard PCI (peripheral component interconnect) bus of a PC with a special purpose, asynchronous bus for communication among neuromorphic chips; a short and preliminary account of an application-oriented device, taking advantage of the above communication infrastructure.

  19. Priming nanoparticle-guided diagnostics and therapeutics towards human organs-on-chips microphysiological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Ha; Lee, Jaewon; Shin, Woojung; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-10-01

    Nanotechnology and bioengineering have converged over the past decades, by which the application of multi-functional nanoparticles (NPs) has been emerged in clinical and biomedical fields. The NPs primed to detect disease-specific biomarkers or to deliver biopharmaceutical compounds have beena validated in conventional in vitro culture models including two dimensional (2D) cell cultures or 3D organoid models. However, a lack of experimental models that have strong human physiological relevance has hampered accurate validation of the safety and functionality of NPs. Alternatively, biomimetic human "Organs-on-Chips" microphysiological systems have recapitulated the mechanically dynamic 3D tissue interface of human organ microenvironment, in which the transport, cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and therapeutic efficacy of NPs and their conjugates may be more accurately validated. Finally, integration of NP-guided diagnostic detection and targeted nanotherapeutics in conjunction with human organs-on-chips can provide a novel avenue to accelerate the NP-based drug development process as well as the rapid detection of cellular secretomes associated with pathophysiological processes.

  20. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  1. Development of RI protein chip system for measurement of ADMA as risk factor of liver disease, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gil Hong; An, Sin Ae; Choi, Hyun Mi; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Chang, Yeon Soo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine) is an endogenous competitive NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibitor. Elevation of ADMA level in body fluid is related to various diseases including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, chronic heart failure, and hypertension. Our goal was to elucidate the role for ADMA and protein arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of diabetes and develop RI protein chip system for easy determination of ADMA levels in blood or tissues. As a result, ADMA regulated by protein arginine methylation, DDAH1, and NOS was demonstrated to play some role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, and arginine methylation of some proteins indicated their possible involvement in the change in ADMA levels. The concept of the RI protein chip system was devised such that firstly, ADMA was acylated by radio-labelled succinic acid, and followed by binding of the complex to anti-acyl ADMA-specific antibody coated on chip. Acylation condition of ADMA with radio-labelled succinic acid was established

  2. An integrated one-chip-sensor system for microRNA quantitative analysis based on digital droplet polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Masahiko; Wiederkehr, Rodrigo Sergio; Cai, Qing; Majeed, Bivragh; Fiorini, Paolo; Stakenborg, Tim; Matsuno, Toshinobu

    2016-04-01

    A silicon microfluidic chip was developed for microRNA (miRNA) quantitative analysis. It performs sequentially reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in a digital droplet format. Individual processes take place on different cavities, and reagent and sample mixing is carried out on a chip, prior to entering each compartment. The droplets are generated on a T-junction channel before the polymerase chain reaction step. Also, a miniaturized fluorescence detector was developed, based on an optical pick-up head of digital versatile disc (DVD) and a micro-photomultiplier tube. The chip integrated in the detection system was tested using synthetic miRNA with known concentrations, ranging from 300 to 3,000 templates/µL. Results proved the functionality of the system.

  3. Development of RI protein chip system for measurement of ADMA as risk factor of liver disease, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gil Hong; An, Sin Ae; Choi, Hyun Mi; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Chang, Yeon Soo

    2010-05-01

    ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine) is an endogenous competitive NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibitor. Elevation of ADMA level in body fluid is related to various diseases including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, chronic heart failure, and hypertension. Our goal was to elucidate the role for ADMA and protein arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of diabetes and develop RI protein chip system for easy determination of ADMA levels in blood or tissues. As a result, ADMA regulated by protein arginine methylation, DDAH1, and NOS was demonstrated to play some role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, and arginine methylation of some proteins indicated their possible involvement in the change in ADMA levels. The concept of the RI protein chip system was devised such that firstly, ADMA was acylated by radio-labelled succinic acid, and followed by binding of the complex to anti-acyl ADMA-specific antibody coated on chip. Acylation condition of ADMA with radio-labelled succinic acid was established

  4. An Asynchronous Time-Division-Multiplexed Network-on-Chip for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasapaki, Evangelia

    is an important part of the T-CREST paltform and used in a number of configurations. The flexible timing organization of Argo combines asynchronous routers with mesochronous NIs, which are connected to individually clocked cores, supporting a GALS system organization. The mesochronous NIs operate at the same......Multi-processor architectures using networks-on-chip (NOCs) for communication are becoming the standard approach in the development of embedded systems and general purpose platforms. Typically, multi-processor platforms follow a globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) timing organization....... This thesis focuses on the design of Argo, a NOC targeted at hard real-time multi-processor platforms with a GALS timing organization. To support real-time communication, NOCs establish end-to-end connections and provide latency and throughput guarantees for these connections. Argo uses time division...

  5. A System on Chip approach to enhanced learning in interdisciplinary robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Falsig, Simon

    2011-01-01

    the framework in an embedded systems course and various student projects, and have found that it greatly enhance the students abilities to control hardware from software, and dramatically reduce the time spent on software $\\leftrightarrow$ hardware interfacing. As the framework is also scalable, it can support......p, li { white-space: pre-wrap; } To sustain interdisciplinary teaching and learning in the rapidly growing and diversifying field of robotics, we have successfully employed FPGA based System on Chip (SoC) technology to provide abstraction between high level software and low level IO/ and control...... hardware. Our approach is to provides students with a simple FPGA based framework for hardware access, and hardware I/O development, which is independent of computer platform and programming language, and enable the students to add to, or change I/O hardware in accordance with their skills. We have tested...

  6. Smart vision chips: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  7. Lab-On-Chip Clinorotation System for Live-Cell Microscopy Under Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Atencia, Javier; Chinn, Ben; Hsieh, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Cells in microgravity are subject to mechanical unloading and changes to the surrounding chemical environment. How these factors jointly influence cellular function is not well understood. We can investigate their role using ground-based analogues to spaceflight, where mechanical unloading is simulated through the time-averaged nullification of gravity. The prevailing method for cellular microgravity simulation is to use fluid-filled containers called clinostats. However, conventional clinostats are not designed for temporally tracking cell response, nor are they able to establish dynamic fluid environments. To address these needs, we developed a Clinorotation Time-lapse Microscopy (CTM) system that accommodates lab-on- chip cell culture devices for visualizing time-dependent alterations to cellular behavior. For the purpose of demonstrating CTM, we present preliminary results showing time-dependent differences in cell area between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under modeled microgravity and normal gravity.

  8. Embedded software design and programming of multiprocessor system-on-chip simulink and system C case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Popovici, Katalin; Jerraya, Ahmed A; Wolf, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Current multimedia and telecom applications require complex, heterogeneous multiprocessor system on chip (MPSoC) architectures with specific communication infrastructure in order to achieve the required performance. Heterogeneous MPSoC includes different types of processing units (DSP, microcontroller, ASIP) and different communication schemes (fast links, non standard memory organization and access).Programming an MPSoC requires the generation of efficient software running on MPSoC from a high level environment, by using the characteristics of the architecture. This task is known to be tediou

  9. On-chip microreactor system for the production of nano-emulsion loaded liposomes: towards targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, M.L.P.; Emmelkamp, J.; Segers, M.J.A.; Lenting, H.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    An on-chip microreactor system for the production of novel nano-biodevices is presented. This nano-biodevice consists of a nano-emulsion loaded with lipophilic drugs, entrapped in liposomes. These nano-biodevices can be equipped with targeting molecules for higher drug efficiency. The microreactor

  10. Advanced Nanofabrication Process Development for Self-Powered System-on-Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2010-11-01

    In this work the development of a Self-Powered System-On-Chip is explored by examining two components of process development in different perspectives. On one side, an energy component is approached from a biochemical standpoint where a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is built with standard microfabrication techniques, displaying a novel electrode based on Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). The fabrication process involves the formation of a micrometric chamber that hosts an enhanced CNT-based anode. Preliminary results are promising, showing a high current density (113.6mA/m2) compared with other similar cells. Nevertheless many improvements can be done to the main design and further characterization of the anode will give a more complete understanding and bring the device closer to a practical implementation. On a second point of view, nano-patterning through silicon nitride spacer width control is developed, aimed at producing alternative sub-100nm device fabrication with the potential of further scaling thanks to nanowire based structures. These nanostructures are formed from a nano-pattern template, by using a bottom-up fabrication scheme. Uniformity and scalability of the process are demonstrated and its potential described. An estimated area of 0.120μm2 for a 6T-SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) bitcell (6 devices) can be achieved. In summary, by using a novel sustainable energy component and scalable nano-patterning for logic and computing module, this work has successfully collected the essential base knowledge and joined two different elements that synergistically will contribute for the future implementation of a Self-Powered System-on-Chip.

  11. Enabling rapid behavioral ecotoxicity studies using an integrated lab-on-a-chip systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral ecotoxicity tests are gaining an increasing recognition in environmental toxicology. Behavior of sensitive bioindicator species can change rapidly in response to an acute exposure to contaminants and thus has a much higher sensitivity as compared to conventional LC50 mortality tests. Furthermore, behavioral endpoints seems to be very good candidates to develop early-warning biomonitoring systems needed for rapid chemical risk assessment. Behavioral tests are non-invasive, fast, do not harm indicator organisms (behavioural changes are very rapid) and are thus fully compatible with 3R (Replacement - Reduction - Refinement) principle encouraging alternatives to conventional animal testing. These characteristics are essential when designing improved ecotoxicity tests for chemical risk assessment. In this work, we present a pilot development of miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for studying toxin avoidance behaviors of small aquatic crustaceans. As an investigative tool, LOCs represent a new direction that may miniaturize and revolutionize behavioral ecotoxicology. Specifically our innovative microfluidic prototype: (i) enables convening "caging" of specimens for real-time videomicroscopy; (ii) eliminates the evaporative water loss thus providing an opportunity for long-term behavioral studies; (iii) exploits laminar fluid flow under low Reynolds numbers to generate discrete domains and gradients enabling for the first time toxin avoidance studies on small aquatic crustaceans; (iv) integrates off-the-chip mechatronic interfaces and video analysis algorithms for single animal movement analysis. We provide evidence that by merging innovative bioelectronic and biomicrofluidic technologies we can deploy inexpensive and reliable systems for culture, electronic tracking and complex computational analysis of behavior of bioindicator organisms.

  12. STUDY OF CHIP IGNITION AND CHIP MORPHOLOGY AFTER MILLING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Zagórski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the impact of specified technological parameters of milling (vc, fz, ap on time to ignition. Stages leading to chip ignition were analysed. Metallographic images of magnesium chip were presented. No significant difference was observed in time to ignition in different chip fractions. Moreover, the surface of chips was free of products of ignition and signs of strong oxidation.

  13. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  14. An optimized lead system for long-term esophageal electrocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhauser, T; Haeberlin, A; Vogel, R; Marisa, T; Goette, J; Jacomet, M; Mattle, D; Abächerli, R

    2014-01-01

    Long-term electrocardiography (ECG) featuring adequate atrial and ventricular signal quality is highly desirable. Routinely used surface leads are limited in atrial signal sensitivity and recording capability impeding complete ECG delineation, i.e. in the presence of supraventricular arrhythmias. Long-term esophageal ECG might overcome these limitations but requires a dedicated lead system and recorder design. To this end, we analysed multiple-lead esophageal ECGs with respect to signal quality by describing the ECG waves as a function of the insertion level, interelectrode distance, electrode shape and amplifier's input range. The results derived from clinical data show that two bipolar esophageal leads, an atrial lead with short (15 mm) interelectrode distance and a ventricular lead with long (80 mm) interelectrode distance provide non-inferior ventricular signal strength and superior atrial signal strength compared to standard surface lead II. High atrial signal slope in particular is observed with the atrial esophageal lead. The proposed esophageal lead system in combination with an increased recorder input range of ±20 mV minimizes signal loss due to excessive electrode motion typically observed in esophageal ECGs. The design proposal might help to standardize long-term esophageal ECG registrations and facilitate novel ECG classification systems based on the independent detection of ventricular and atrial electrical activity. (paper)

  15. Integration of systems biology with organs-on-chips to humanize therapeutic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, Collin D.; Cirit, Murat; Chen, Wen Li Kelly; Clark, Amanda M.; Wells, Alan; Trumper, David L.; Griffith, Linda G.

    2017-02-01

    "Mice are not little people" - a refrain becoming louder as the gaps between animal models and human disease become more apparent. At the same time, three emerging approaches are headed toward integration: powerful systems biology analysis of cell-cell and intracellular signaling networks in patient-derived samples; 3D tissue engineered models of human organ systems, often made from stem cells; and micro-fluidic and meso-fluidic devices that enable living systems to be sustained, perturbed and analyzed for weeks in culture. Integration of these rapidly moving fields has the potential to revolutionize development of therapeutics for complex, chronic diseases, including those that have weak genetic bases and substantial contributions from gene-environment interactions. Technical challenges in modeling complex diseases with "organs on chips" approaches include the need for relatively large tissue masses and organ-organ cross talk to capture systemic effects, such that current microfluidic formats often fail to capture the required scale and complexity for interconnected systems. These constraints drive development of new strategies for designing in vitro models, including perfusing organ models, as well as "mesofluidic" pumping and circulation in platforms connecting several organ systems, to achieve the appropriate physiological relevance.

  16. Lab-on-a-Chip Systems for Biomedical and Environmental Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, pocket-size analytical equipment based on the "lab-on-a-chip" approach has become available. These chips, in combination with portable electronic equipment, are applicable in e.g. "point-of-care" ion analysis of body fluids, forensics, identification of explosives, tracking

  17. Lab-on-a-Chip systems for biomedical and environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, pocket-sized analytical equipment based on the lab-on-a-chip approach has become available. These chips, in combination with portable electronic equipment, are applicable in, for example, point-of-care ion analysis of body fluids, forensics, identification of explosives,

  18. A systems approach to risk management through leading safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of leading indicators for safety is to identify the potential for an accident before it occurs. Past efforts have focused on identifying general leading indicators, such as maintenance backlog, that apply widely in an industry or even across industries. Other recommendations produce more system-specific leading indicators, but start from system hazard analysis and thus are limited by the causes considered by the traditional hazard analysis techniques. Most rely on quantitative metrics, often based on probabilistic risk assessments. This paper describes a new and different approach to identifying system-specific leading indicators and provides guidance in designing a risk management structure to generate, monitor and use the results. The approach is based on the STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes) model of accident causation and tools that have been designed to build on that model. STAMP extends current accident causality to include more complex causes than simply component failures and chains of failure events or deviations from operational expectations. It incorporates basic principles of systems thinking and is based on systems theory rather than traditional reliability theory. - Highlights: • Much effort has gone into developing leading indicators with only limited success. • A systems-theoretic, assumption-based approach may be more successful. • Leading indicators are warning signals of an assumption’s changing vulnerability. • Heuristic biases can be controlled by using plausibility rather than likelihood

  19. Interference control by best-effort process duty-cycling in chip multi-processor systems for real-time medical image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westmijze, M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    Systems with chip multi-processors are currently used for several applications that have real-time requirements. In chip multi-processor architectures, many hardware resources such as parts of the cache hierarchy are shared between cores and by using such resources, applications can significantly

  20. Optical Characterization of Tissue Phantoms Using a Silicon Integrated fdNIRS System on Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthalekar, Chirag C; Miao, Yun; Koomson, Valencia Joyner

    2017-04-01

    An interface circuit with signal processing and digitizing circuits for a high frequency, large area avalanche photodiode (APD) has been integrated in a 130 nm BiCMOS chip. The system enables the absolute oximetry of tissue using frequency domain Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fdNIRS). The system measures the light absorbed and scattered by the tissue by measuring the reduction in the amplitude of signal and phase shift introduced between the light source and detector which are placed a finite distance away from each other. The received 80 MHz RF signal is downconverted to a low frequency and amplified using a heterodyning scheme. The front-end transimpedance amplifier has a 3-level programmable gain that increases the dynamic range to 60 dB. The phase difference between an identical reference channel and the optical channel is measured with a 0.5° accuracy. The detectable current range is [Formula: see text] and with a 40 A/W reponsivity using the APD, power levels as low as 500 pW can be detected. Measurements of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of solid tissue phantoms using this system are compared with those using a commercial instrument with differences within 30%. Measurement of a milk based liquid tissue phantom show an increase in absorption coefficient with addition of black ink. The miniaturized circuit serves as an efficiently scalable system for multi-site detection for applications in neonatal cerebral oximetry and optical mammography.

  1. Body-on-a-chip systems for animal-free toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Gretchen J; Esch, Mandy B; Stokol, Tracy; Hickman, James J; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Body-on-a-chip systems replicate the size relationships of organs, blood distribution and blood flow, in accordance with human physiology. When operated with tissues derived from human cell sources, these systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a prodrug to its effective metabolite, as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side-effects. The system also permits the measurement of human tissue electrical and mechanical reactions, which provide a measure of functional response. Since these devices can be operated with human tissue samples or with in vitro tissues derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), they can play a significant role in determining the success of new pharmaceuticals, without resorting to the use of animals. By providing a platform for testing in the context of human metabolism, as opposed to animal models, the systems have the potential to eliminate the use of animals in preclinical trials. This article will review progress made and work achieved as a direct result of the 2015 Lush Science Prize in support of animal-free testing. 2016 FRAME.

  2. Real-time PCR Machine System Modeling and a Systematic Approach for the Robust Design of a Real-time PCR-on-a-Chip System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chip-based DNA quantification systems are widespread, and used in many point-of-care applications. However, instruments for such applications may not be maintained or calibrated regularly. Since machine reliability is a key issue for normal operation, this study presents a system model of the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR machine to analyze the instrument design through numerical experiments. Based on model analysis, a systematic approach was developed to lower the variation of DNA quantification and achieve a robust design for a real-time PCR-on-a-chip system. Accelerated lift testing was adopted to evaluate the reliability of the chip prototype. According to the life test plan, this proposed real-time PCR-on-a-chip system was simulated to work continuously for over three years with similar reproducibility in DNA quantification. This not only shows the robustness of the lab-on-a-chip system, but also verifies the effectiveness of our systematic method for achieving a robust design.

  3. Renovate Right: Important Lead Hazard Information for Families, Child Care Providers and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Lead can affect children's brains and developing nervous systems, causing reduced IQ, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems. Lead is also harmful to adults. Lead in dust is the most common way people are exposed to lead. People can also get lead in their bodies from lead in soil or paint chips. Lead dust is often invisible. Lead-based…

  4. System on chip thermal vacuum sensor based on standard CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinfeng; Tang Zhenan; Wang Jiaqi

    2009-01-01

    An on-chip microelectromechanical system was fabricated in a 0.5 μm standard CMOS process for gas pressure detection. The sensor was based on a micro-hotplate (MHP) and had been integrated with a rail to rail operational amplifier and an 8-bit successive approximation register (SAR) A/D converter. A tungsten resistor was manufactured on the MHP as the sensing element, and the sacrificial layer of the sensor was made from polysilicon and etched by surface-micromachining technology. The operational amplifier was configured to make the sensor operate in constant current mode. A digital bit stream was provided as the system output. The measurement results demonstrate that the gas pressure sensitive range of the vacuum sensor extends from 1 to 10 5 Pa. In the gas pressure range from 1 to 100 Pa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.23 mV/ Pa, the linearity is 4.95%, and the hysteresis is 8.69%. The operational amplifier can drive 200 ω resistors distortionlessly, and the SAR A/D converter achieves a resolution of 7.4 bit with 100 kHz sample rate. The performance of the operational amplifier and the SAR A/D converter meets the requirements of the sensor system.

  5. Toyota's new single-chip microcomputer based engine and transmission control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Kawai, M.; Aoki, K.; Tamaki, K.; Sugawara, M.

    1985-01-01

    Toyota succeeded in the fall of 1984 in manufacturing a complex engine and transmission control system using a newly developed single-chip microcomputer. This microcomputer, equipped with an 8K-byte ROM (Read Only Memory) and a 256-byte RAM (Random Access Memory), a powerful real time processing function, and a high-speed optimum instruction set, is better suited for automobiles. Application of the latest CMOS technology has enabled lower power consumption and improved noise immunity. The new system, which includes a new function; the electronic spark advance with knock control in addition to the conventional sophisticated system, has greatly improved the performance and driveability of vehicles. The newly designed electronic control unit (ECU) has been greatly improved in reliability and has not changed in its size with the adoption of the highly integrated new microcomputer, which is due to the fact that it uses fewer LSIs (Large Scale Integrated circuits) than the conventional ECU, although it includes the great additional function.

  6. Parametric dense stereovision implementation on a system-on chip (SoC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, Alfredo; Montejo, Pablo; García, Jorge; Bravo, Ignacio; Lázaro, José L

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hardware implementation of a dense recovery of stereovision 3D measurements. Traditionally 3D stereo systems have imposed the maximum number of stereo correspondences, introducing a large restriction on artificial vision algorithms. The proposed system-on-chip (SoC) provides great performance and efficiency, with a scalable architecture available for many different situations, addressing real time processing of stereo image flow. Using double buffering techniques properly combined with pipelined processing, the use of reconfigurable hardware achieves a parametrisable SoC which gives the designer the opportunity to decide its right dimension and features. The proposed architecture does not need any external memory because the processing is done as image flow arrives. Our SoC provides 3D data directly without the storage of whole stereo images. Our goal is to obtain high processing speed while maintaining the accuracy of 3D data using minimum resources. Configurable parameters may be controlled by later/parallel stages of the vision algorithm executed on an embedded processor. Considering hardware FPGA clock of 100 MHz, image flows up to 50 frames per second (fps) of dense stereo maps of more than 30,000 depth points could be obtained considering 2 Mpix images, with a minimum initial latency. The implementation of computer vision algorithms on reconfigurable hardware, explicitly low level processing, opens up the prospect of its use in autonomous systems, and they can act as a coprocessor to reconstruct 3D images with high density information in real time.

  7. Recombinant drugs-on-a-chip: The usage of capillary electrophoresis and trends in miniaturized systems – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbioli, Giorgio Gianini; Mazzu-Nascimento, Thiago; Aquino, Adriano [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cervantes, Cesar [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Carrilho, Emanuel, E-mail: emanuel@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-07

    We present here a critical review covering conventional analytical tools of recombinant drug analysis and discuss their evolution towards miniaturized systems foreseeing a possible unique recombinant drug-on-a-chip device. Recombinant protein drugs and/or pro-drug analysis require sensitive and reproducible analytical techniques for quality control to ensure safety and efficacy of drugs according to regulatory agencies. The versatility of miniaturized systems combined with their low-cost could become a major trend in recombinant drugs and bioprocess analysis. Miniaturized systems are capable of performing conventional analytical and proteomic tasks, allowing for interfaces with other powerful techniques, such as mass spectrometry. Microdevices can be applied during the different stages of recombinant drug processing, such as gene isolation, DNA amplification, cell culture, protein expression, protein separation, and analysis. In addition, organs-on-chips have appeared as a viable alternative to testing biodrug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, demonstrating the capabilities of the miniaturized systems. The integration of individual established microfluidic operations and analytical tools in a single device is a challenge to be overcome to achieve a unique recombinant drug-on-a-chip device. - Highlights: • Principal analytical tools for analysis of recombinant drugs are presented. • A critical comparison among different substrates for fabrication of miniaturized systems is made. • Applications of miniaturized systems to produce recombinant drugs are shown. • Future trends of miniaturized systems capable of integrating analytical and proteomic tools in a single device are envisioned.

  8. Recombinant drugs-on-a-chip: The usage of capillary electrophoresis and trends in miniaturized systems – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbioli, Giorgio Gianini; Mazzu-Nascimento, Thiago; Aquino, Adriano; Cervantes, Cesar; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    We present here a critical review covering conventional analytical tools of recombinant drug analysis and discuss their evolution towards miniaturized systems foreseeing a possible unique recombinant drug-on-a-chip device. Recombinant protein drugs and/or pro-drug analysis require sensitive and reproducible analytical techniques for quality control to ensure safety and efficacy of drugs according to regulatory agencies. The versatility of miniaturized systems combined with their low-cost could become a major trend in recombinant drugs and bioprocess analysis. Miniaturized systems are capable of performing conventional analytical and proteomic tasks, allowing for interfaces with other powerful techniques, such as mass spectrometry. Microdevices can be applied during the different stages of recombinant drug processing, such as gene isolation, DNA amplification, cell culture, protein expression, protein separation, and analysis. In addition, organs-on-chips have appeared as a viable alternative to testing biodrug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, demonstrating the capabilities of the miniaturized systems. The integration of individual established microfluidic operations and analytical tools in a single device is a challenge to be overcome to achieve a unique recombinant drug-on-a-chip device. - Highlights: • Principal analytical tools for analysis of recombinant drugs are presented. • A critical comparison among different substrates for fabrication of miniaturized systems is made. • Applications of miniaturized systems to produce recombinant drugs are shown. • Future trends of miniaturized systems capable of integrating analytical and proteomic tools in a single device are envisioned.

  9. A novel magnetic lead screw active suspension system for vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses a detailed study of the redesign of a novel Magnetic Lead Screw (MLS) active suspension system for possible regeneration of the energy dispatched in the suspension system and active control of vehicle body movement. The MLS converts a low speed high force linear motion...... of a translator into a high speed low torque rotational motion of a rotor through helically shaped magnets. The paper describes the drawback of the first MLS prototype v1.0 developed for active suspension system, which lead to a new design of the MLS prototype named v1.5. Furthermore the paper introduces detailed...

  10. Lab-on-a-chip systems with integrated optics for biochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Gustafsson, O; Nunes, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Two different applications that take advantage of integrated planar waveguides will be shown. The first example is a silicon chips for capillary electrochromatography (CEC), where the fluidic part contains electrically insulated channels with an injection cross and a chromatography column...

  11. Cumulant generating function formula of heat transfer in ballistic systems with lead-lead coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Based on a two-time observation protocol, we consider heat transfer in a given time interval tM in a lead-junction-lead system taking coupling between the leads into account. In view of the two-time observation, consistency conditions are carefully verified in our specific family of quantum histories. Furthermore, its implication is briefly explored. Then using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we obtain an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two leads, valid in both transient and steady-state regimes. Also, a compact formula for the cumulant generating function in the long-time limit is derived, for which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is explicitly verified. In addition, we briefly discuss Di Ventra's repartitioning trick regarding whether the repartitioning procedure of the total Hamiltonian affects the nonequilibrium steady-state current fluctuation. All kinds of properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations, such as the fluctuation theorem in different time regimes, could be readily given according to these exact formulas.

  12. Systems-on-Chip (SoC) for applications in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Gaspari, Massimiliano; Fischer, Peter

    In view of the Time Projection Chamber for the future Linear Collider (LCTPC), a new front-end Application-Specic Integrated Circuit has been developed: the 16 channels Super-Altro Demonstrator. Given the small pad area of $1 \\times 4mm^{2}$, the chip is a compact integrated system, including signal preamplifcation/shaping, 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing. Adequate design techniques were used to reduce noise coupling between analog and digital parts of the system. The bunch train structure of the linear collider is exploited by the introduction of power pulsing features in the design, which result in a signicant reduction of the power consumption. The tests carried out show noise as low as 316 electrons and effectiveness of the power pulsing approach. Super-Altro can be used for studies of gaseous detector readout with classical wire chambers as well as modern GEMs and MicroMegas. This thesis also studies Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) suitable for integration in High-Ene...

  13. Sputtered Pd as hydrogen storage for a chip-integrated microenergy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavcheva, E; Ganske, G; Schnakenberg, U

    2014-01-01

    The work presents a research on preparation and physical and electrochemical characterisation of dc magnetron sputtered Pd films envisaged for application as hydrogen storage in a chip-integrated hydrogen microenergy system. The influence of the changes in the sputtering pressure on the surface structure, morphology, and roughness was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AMF). The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen adsorption/desorption and formation of PdH were investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 using the methods of cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic polarisation. The changes in the electrical properties of the films as a function of the sputtering pressure and the level of hydrogenation were evaluated before and immediately after the electrochemical charging tests, using a four-probe technique. The research resulted in establishment of optimal sputter regime, ensuring fully reproducible Pd layers with highly developed surface, moderate porosity, and mechanical stability. Selected samples were integrated as hydrogen storage in a newly developed unitized microenergy system and tested in charging (water electrolysis) and discharging (fuel cell) operative mode at ambient conditions demonstrating a stable recycling performance.

  14. A System on a Programmable Chip Architecture for Data-Dependent Superimposed Training Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martín del Campo

    2009-01-01

    with the information, a series of known symbols, whose analysis is used to define the parameters of the filters that remove the distortion of the data. Nevertheless, a part of the available bandwidth has to be destined to these symbols. Until now, no alternative solution has demonstrated to be fully satisfying for commercial use, but one technique that looks promising is superimposed training (ST. This work describes a hybrid software-hardware FPGA implementation of a recent algorithm that belongs to the ST family, known as Data-dependent Superimposed Training (DDST, which does not need extra bandwidth for its training sequences (TS as it adds them arithmetically to the data. DDST also adds a third sequence known as data-dependent sequence, that destroys the interference caused by the data over the TS. As DDST's computational burden is too high for the commercial processors used in mobile systems, a System on a Programmable Chip (SOPC approach is used in order to solve the problem.

  15. ROLE OF DISCRETE NATURE OF CHIP FORMATION AND NATURAL VIBRATIONS OF SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN CHATTER FORMATION DURING METAL CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Nurulamin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a review of the existing theories of chatter formation has been conducted and the weaknesses of the most widely accepted ‘Regenerative Chatter theory’ in explaining various phenomena related to chatter formation have been identified. An attempt has been made in this work to determine the common causes of chatter formation in different metal cutting operations, namely, turning, thread cutting and end milling conducted on plain carbon steel AISI 1040. Experimental investigations have been conducted during the above types of machining processes to identify the marks of instability and chatter on the formed chips. It has been identified that in all the three machining operations the chips formed show a common type of discreteness in the form of secondary saw teeth, which appear at the free edge of the chip. Mechanism of formation of these teeth has been studied and the frequencies of their formation have been determined for different cutting conditions. Apart from the secondary saw teeth primary saw teeth have also been identified at the main section of the chip and their frequencies were also determined. At the same time the natural vibrations of the main system components have been identified and the acceleration amplitudes at the prominent natural frequencies during actual machining were recoded using a dedicated vibration monitoring system. The frequencies of secondary chip serration and the natural frequencies of the system components were plotted against cutting speed. Acceleration amplitudes at the prominent natural frequencies were also plotted separately against cutting force. Based on comparison and analysis of these two frequency and amplitude graphs it was concluded that chatter (vibration with relatively high amplitude appears in the system when the frequency of secondary saw teeth approaches values equal to half or integer multiple of a prominent natural frequency of the system resulting in resonance. In the

  16. Property-driven functional verification technique for high-speed vision system-on-chip processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshunguyimfura, Victor; Yang, Jie; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of functional verification in a fast, reliable, and effective manner is a challenging task in a vision chip verification process. The main reason for this challenge is the stepwise nature of existing functional verification techniques. This vision chip verification complexity is also related to the fact that in most vision chip design cycles, extensive efforts are focused on how to optimize chip metrics such as performance, power, and area. Design functional verification is not explicitly considered at an earlier stage at which the most sound decisions are made. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic property-driven verification technique. The implementation of all verification components is based on design properties. We introduce a low-dimension property space between the specification space and the implementation space. The aim of this technique is to speed up the verification process for high-performance parallel processing vision chips. Our experimentation results show that the proposed technique can effectively improve the verification effort up to 20% for the complex vision chip design while reducing the simulation and debugging overheads.

  17. The composing technique of fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system with single chip microcomputers and PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zurun; Wu Shiying; Liu Haitao; Yao Yangsen; Wang Yingguan; Yang Chaowen

    1998-01-01

    The technique of employing single-chip microcomputers and PC computers to compose a fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system was discussed in detail. The optimum composition mode of this kind of system, the acquisition and control circuit unit based on single-chip microcomputers, the real-time communication methods and the software composition under the Windows 3.2 were also described. One, two and three dimensional spectra measured by this system were demonstrated

  18. The composing technique of fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system with single chip microcomputers and PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zurun; Wu Shiying; Liu Haitao; Yao Yangsen; Wang Yingguan; Yang Chaowen

    1997-01-01

    The technique of employing single-chip microcomputers and PC computers to compose a fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system was discussed in detail. The optimum composition mode of this kind of system, the acquisition and control circuit unit based on single-chip microcomputers, the real-time communication methods and the software composition under the Windows 3.2 were also described. One, two and three dimensional spectra measured by this system were demonstrated

  19. A One Chip Hardened Solution for High Speed SpaceWire System Implementations. Session: Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joseph R.; Berger, Richard W.; Rakow, Glenn P.

    2007-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that implements the SpaceWire protocol has been developed in a radiation hardened 0.25 micron CMOS technology. This effort began in March 2003 as a joint development between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and BAE Systems. The BAE Systems SpaceWire ASIC is comprised entirely of reusable core elements, many of which are already flight-proven. It incorporates a router with 4 SpaceWire ports and two local ports, dual PC1 bus interfaces, a microcontroller, 32KB of internal memory, and a memory controller for additional external memory use. The SpaceWire cores are also reused in other ASICs under development. The SpaceWire ASIC is planned for use on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and other missions. Engineering and flight parts have been delivered to programs and users. This paper reviews the SpaceWire protocol and those elements of it that have been built into the current and next SpaceWire reusable cores and features within the core that go beyond the current standard and can be enabled or disabled by the user. The adaptation of SpaceWire to BAE Systems' On Chip Bus (OCB) for compatibility with the other reusable cores will be reviewed and highlighted. Optional configurations within user systems and test boards will be shown. The physical implementation of the design will be described and test results from the hardware will be discussed. Application of this ASIC and other ASICs containing the SpaceWire cores and embedded microcontroller to Plug and Play and reconfigurable implementations will be described. Finally, the BAE Systems roadmap for SpaceWire developments will be updated, including some products already in design as well as longer term plans.

  20. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  1. NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration, Continuum Magazine: Issue 4 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    Continuum Magazine showcases NREL's latest and most impactful clean energy innovations. This issue, 'NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration' explores the discipline of energy systems integration, in particular the role of the laboratory's new, one-of-a-kind Energy System Integration Facility. NREL scientists, engineers, and analysts deeply understand the fundamental science and technologies underpinning major energy producing and consuming systems, as well as the transmission infrastructure and communications and data networks required to integrate energy systems at all scales.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Lead Oxidation in Controlled Lead Bismuth Eutectic Systems: Chemical Kinetics and Hydrodynamic Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chao; Kanthi Kiran Dasika; Chen, Yitung; Moujaes, Samir

    2002-01-01

    Using liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant in nuclear systems has been studied for more than 50 years. And LBE has many unique nuclear, thermo physical and chemical attributes which are attractive for practical application. But, corrosion is one of the greatest concerns in using liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as spallation target in the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and built the Liquid Lead-Bismuth Materials Test Loop (MTL) to study the materials behavior in a flow of molten LBE. A difference of 100 deg. C was designed between the coldest and the hottest parts at a nominal flow rate of 8.84 GPM. Liquid LBE flow was activated by a mechanical sump pump or by natural convection. In order to maintain a self-healing protective film on the surface of the stainless steel pipe, a certain concentration of oxygen has to be maintained in the liquid metal. Therefore, it is of importance to understand what the oxygen concentrations are in the LBE loop related to the corrosion effects on the metal surface, the temperature profiles, the flow rates, and diffusion rates through the metal surface. The chemical kinetics also needs to be fully understood in the corrosion processes coupled with the hydrodynamics. The numerical simulation will be developed and used to analyze the system corrosion effects with different kind of oxygen concentrations, flow rates, chemical kinetics, and geometries. The hydrodynamics modeling of using computational fluid dynamics will provide the necessary the levels of oxygen and corrosion products close to the boundary or surface. This paper presents an approach towards the above explained tasks by analyzing the reactions between the Lead and oxygen at a couple of sections in the MTL. Attempt is also made to understand the surface chemistry by choosing an example model and estimating the near wall surface concentration values for propane and oxygen. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of Complexation Ability Using a Sensor Electrode Chip Equipped with a Wireless Screening System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Isoda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated an electrode chip with a structure coated by an insulation layer that contains dispersed SiO2 adsorbent particles modified by an amino-group on a source-drain electrode. Voltage changes caused by chelate molecule adsorption onto electrode surfaces and by specific cation interactions were investigated. The detection of specific cations without the presence of chelate molecules on the free electrode was also examined. By comparing both sets of results the complexation ability of the studied chelate molecules onto the electrode was evaluated. Five pairs of source-drain electrodes (×8 arrays were fabricated on a glass substrate of 20 × 30 mm in size. The individual Au/Cr (1.0/0.1 μm thickness electrodes had widths of 50 μm and an inter-electrode interval of 100 μm. The fabricated source-drain electrodes were further coated with an insulation layer comprising a porous SiO2 particle modified amino-group to adsorb the chelate molecules. The electrode chip was equipped with a handy-type sensor signal analyzer that was mounted on an amplifier circuit using a MinishipTM or a system in a packaged LSI device. For electrode surfaces containing different adsorbed chelate molecules an increase in the sensor voltage depended on a combination of host-guest reactions and generally decreased in the following order: 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl-21H,23H-porphine, tetrakis(p-toluenesulfonate (TMPyP as a Cu2+ chelator and Cu2+ > 2-nitroso-5-[N-n-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropylamino]phenol (nitroso-PSAP as an Fe2+ chelator and Fe2+ > 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (BPDSA as an Fe2+ chelator and Fe2+ > 3-[3-(2,4-dimethylphenylcarbamoyl-2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-yl-azo]-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt (XB-1 as a Mg2+ chelator

  4. Design of a one-chip board microcontrol unit for active vibration control of a naval ship mounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Han, Young-Min; Nguyen, Vien-Quoc; Moon, Seok-Jun

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an experimental implementation of a user-tunable one-chip board microcontrol unit which is specifically designed for vibration control of the active mounting system for naval ships. The proposed mounting system consists of four active mounts supporting vibration-sensitive equipment. Each active mount constitutes a rubber element, an inertial mass and the piezostack actuator. It is designed for particular applications that require effective isolation performance against wide frequency ranges, such as naval ship equipment. After describing the configuration of the active mount, dynamic characteristics of the rubber element and the piezostack actuator are experimentally identified. Accordingly, the proposed mounting system is constructed and the governing equations of motion are formulated. In order to attenuate the unwanted vibrations transferred from the upper mass, a feedforward controller with fast Fourier algorithm is designed and experimentally realized using the one-chip microcontrol board which is specially made for this practical application. In order to evaluate the performance of the one-chip microcontrol unit, vibration control results of the proposed active mounting system are presented in the frequency domain. (technical note)

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of separating lead and antimony in chloride system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-zhong; CAO Hua-zhen; LI Bo; YUAN Hai-jun; ZHENG Guo-qu; YANG Tian-zu

    2009-01-01

    In chloride system, thermodynamic analysis is a useful guide to separate lead and antimony as well as to understand the separation mechanism. An efficient and feasible way for separating lead and antimony was discussed. The relationships of [Pb2+][Cl-]2-lg[Cl]T and E-lg[Cl]T in Pb-Sb-Cl-H2O system were studied, and the solubilities of lead chloride at different antimony concentrations were calculated based on principle of simultaneous equilibrium. The results show that insoluble salt PbCl2 will only exist stably in a certain concentration range of chlorine ion. This concentration range of chlorine ion expands a little with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system while narrows as the system acidity increases. The solubility of Pb2+ in solution decreases with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system, whereas increases with increasing the concentration of total chlorine. The concentration range of total chlorine causing lead solubility less than 0.005 mol/L increases monotonically.

  6. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  7. Systems-on-chip approach for real-time simulation of wheel-rail contact laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, T. X.; Zhou, Y. J.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a systems-on-chip approach to speed up the simulation of wheel-rail contact laws, which can be used to reduce the requirement for high-performance computers and enable simulation in real time for the use of hardware-in-loop for experimental studies of the latest vehicle dynamic and control technologies. The wheel-rail contact laws are implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device with a design that substantially outperforms modern general-purpose PC platforms or fixed architecture digital signal processor devices in terms of processing time, configuration flexibility and cost. In order to utilise the FPGA's parallel-processing capability, the operations in the contact laws algorithms are arranged in a parallel manner and multi-contact patches are tackled simultaneously in the design. The interface between the FPGA device and the host PC is achieved by using a high-throughput and low-latency Ethernet link. The development is based on FASTSIM algorithms, although the design can be adapted and expanded for even more computationally demanding tasks.

  8. Introduction to Open Core Protocol Fastpath to System-on-Chip Design

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaderer, W David

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces Open Core Protocol (OCP), not as a conventional hardware communications protocol but as a meta-protocol: a means for describing and capturing the communications requirements of an IP core, and mapping them to a specific set of signals with known semantics.  Readers will learn the capabilities of OCP as a semiconductor hardware interface specification that allows different System-On-Chip (SoC) cores to communicate.  The OCP methodology presented enables intellectual property designers to design core interfaces in standard ways. This facilitates reusing OCP-compliant cores across multiple SoC designs which, in turn, drastically reduces design times, support costs, and overall cost for electronics/SoCs. Provides a comprehensive introduction to Open Core Protocol, which is more accessible than the full specification; Designed as a hands-on, how-to guide to semiconductor design; Includes numerous, real “usage examples” which are not available in the full specification; Integrates coverag...

  9. Performance analysis of general purpose and digital signal processor kernels for heterogeneous systems-on-chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Sydow

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reasons like technology progress, flexibility demands, shortened product cycle time and shortened time to market have brought up the possibility and necessity to integrate different architecture blocks on one heterogeneous System-on-Chip (SoC. Architecture blocks like programmable processor cores (DSP- and GPP-kernels, embedded FPGAs as well as dedicated macros will be integral parts of such a SoC. Especially programmable architecture blocks and associated optimization techniques are discussed in this contribution. Design space exploration and thus the choice which architecture blocks should be integrated in a SoC is a challenging task. Crucial to this exploration is the evaluation of the application domain characteristics and the costs caused by individual architecture blocks integrated on a SoC. An ATE-cost function has been applied to examine the performance of the aforementioned programmable architecture blocks. Therefore, representative discrete devices have been analyzed. Furthermore, several architecture dependent optimization steps and their effects on the cost ratios are presented.

  10. Atmel's New Rad-Hard Sparc V8 Processor 200Mhz & Low Power System on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganry, Nicolas; Mantelet, Guy; Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris

    2014-08-01

    The AT6981 is a new generation of processor designed for critical spaceflight applications, which combines a high-performance SPARC® V8 radiation hard processor, with enough on-chip memory for many aerospace applications and state-of-the-art SpaceWire networking technology from STAR- Dundee. The AT6981 is implemented in Atmel 90nm rad-hard technology, enabling 200 MHz operating speed for the processor with power consumption levels around 1W. This advanced technology allows strong system integration in a SoC with embedded peripherals like CAN, 1553, Ethernet, DDR and embedded memory with 1Mbytes SRAM. The device is ITAR- free and is developed in France by Atmel Aerospace having more than of 30years space experience. This paper describes this new SoC architecture and technical options considered to insure the best performances, the minimum power consumption and high reliability. This device will be available on the market in H2 2014 for evaluation with first flight models targeted end 2015.

  11. System-on-a-Chip Based Nano Star Tracker and Its Real-Time Image Processing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Minsong; Bao, Jingyu; Xing, Fei; Liu, Zengyi; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The star tracker is one of the most accurate components for satellite attitude determination. With the development of the nano star tracker, it is compatible for application on small satellites. However, the drawback in dynamic property of nano star tracker has limited its extensive applications. The principal objective of this study is to introduce a system-on-a-chip (SOC) based nano star tracker with enhanced dynamic property. A morphology based image processing approach was realized based ...

  12. Paper-Based Digital Microfluidic Chip for Multiple Electrochemical Assay Operated by a Wireless Portable Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruecha, Nipapan; Lee, Jumi; Chae, Heedo

    2017-01-01

    for multiple analysis assays are fabricated by affordable printing techniques. For enhanced sensitivity of the sensor, the working electrode is modified through the electrochemical method, namely by reducing graphene with voltammetry and coating gold nanoparticles by amperometry. Detachable sensor and absorber...... designed portable power supply and wireless control system, the active paper-based chip platform can be utilized as an advanced point-of-care device for multiple assays in digital microfluidics....

  13. Preliminary Radiation Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm CMOS Processor/System-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Kay, Matt; Bruner, Pat; Krzesniak, Mike; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hardness assurance test results of Intel state-of-the-art 14nm “Broadwell” U-series processor / System-on-a-Chip (SoC) for total ionizing dose (TID) are presented, along with exploratory results from trials at a medical proton facility. Test method builds upon previous efforts [1] by utilizing commercial laptop motherboards and software stress applications as opposed to more traditional automated test equipment (ATE).

  14. Preliminary Radiation Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm CMOS Processor - System-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Kay, Matt; Bruner, Pat; Krzesniak, Mike; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hardness assurance test results of Intel state-of-the-art 14nm Broadwell U-series processor System-on-a-Chip (SoC) for total dose are presented, along with first-look exploratory results from trials at a medical proton facility. Test method builds upon previous efforts by utilizing commercial laptop motherboards and software stress applications as opposed to more traditional automated test equipment (ATE).

  15. Leadership Theory for School Psychologists: Leading for Systems Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Preast, June L.; Kilpatrick, Kayla D.; Taylor, Crystal N.; Young, Helen; Aguilar, Lisa; Allen, Amanda; Copeland, Christa; Haider, Aqdas; Henry, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    School psychologists are often seen as leaders in schools. They lead data teams, problem-solving teams, multidisciplinary evaluation teams, and crisis response teams. They are also perceived as leaders regarding intervention, multitiered systems of support, behavior support, collaboration, consultation, special education, assessment, and…

  16. Cell Monitoring and Manipulation Systems (CMMSs based on Glass Cell-Culture Chips (GC3s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Buehler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed different types of glass cell-culture chips (GC3s for culturing cells for microscopic observation in open media-containing troughs or in microfluidic structures. Platinum sensor and manipulation structures were used to monitor physiological parameters and to allocate and permeabilize cells. Electro-thermal micro pumps distributed chemical compounds in the microfluidic systems. The integrated temperature sensors showed a linear, Pt1000-like behavior. Cell adhesion and proliferation were monitored using interdigitated electrode structures (IDESs. The cell-doubling times of primary murine embryonic neuronal cells (PNCs were determined based on the IDES capacitance-peak shifts. The electrical activity of PNC networks was detected using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs. During seeding, the cells were dielectrophoretically allocated to individual MEAs to improve network structures. MEA pads with diameters of 15, 20, 25, and 35 µm were tested. After 3 weeks, the magnitudes of the determined action potentials were highest for pads of 25 µm in diameter and did not differ when the inter-pad distances were 100 or 170 µm. Using 25-µm diameter circular oxygen electrodes, the signal currents in the cell-culture media were found to range from approximately −0.08 nA (0% O2 to −2.35 nA (21% O2. It was observed that 60-nm thick silicon nitride-sensor layers were stable potentiometric pH sensors under cell-culture conditions for periods of days. Their sensitivity between pH 5 and 9 was as high as 45 mV per pH step. We concluded that sensorized GC3s are potential animal replacement systems for purposes such as toxicity pre-screening. For example, the effect of mefloquine, a medication used to treat malaria, on the electrical activity of neuronal cells was determined in this study using a GC3 system.

  17. Design methodology and results evaluation of a heating functionality in modular lab-on-chip systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Petra; Nestler, Joerg; Shaporin, Alexey; Graunitz, Jenny; Otto, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) systems offer the opportunity of fast and customized biological analyses executed at the ‘point-of-need’ without expensive lab equipment. Some biological processes need a temperature treatment. Therefore, it is important to ensure a defined and stable temperature distribution in the biosensor area. An integrated heating functionality is realized with discrete resistive heating elements including temperature measurement. The focus of this contribution is a design methodology and evaluation technique of the temperature distribution in the biosensor area with regard to the thermal-electrical behaviour of the heat sources. Furthermore, a sophisticated control of the biosensor temperature is proposed. A finite element (FE) model with one and more integrated heat sources in a polymer-based LoC system is used to investigate the impact of the number and arrangement of heating elements on the temperature distribution around the heating elements and in the biosensor area. Based on this model, various LOC systems are designed and fabricated. Electrical characterization of the heat sources and independent temperature measurements with infrared technique are performed to verify the model parameters and prove the simulation approach. The FE model and the proposed methodology is the foundation for optimization and evaluation of new designs with regard to temperature requirements of the biosensor. Furthermore, a linear dependency of the heater temperature on the electric current is demonstrated in the targeted temperature range of 20 °C to 70 °C enabling the usage of the heating functionality for biological reactions requiring a steady-state temperature up to 70 °C. The correlation between heater and biosensor area temperature is derived for a direct control through the heating current.

  18. Parametric Dense Stereovision Implementation on a System-on Chip (SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Montejo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel hardware implementation of a dense recovery of stereovision 3D measurements. Traditionally 3D stereo systems have imposed the maximum number of stereo correspondences, introducing a large restriction on artificial vision algorithms. The proposed system-on-chip (SoC provides great performance and efficiency, with a scalable architecture available for many different situations, addressing real time processing of stereo image flow. Using double buffering techniques properly combined with pipelined processing, the use of reconfigurable hardware achieves a parametrisable SoC which gives the designer the opportunity to decide its right dimension and features. The proposed architecture does not need any external memory because the processing is done as image flow arrives. Our SoC provides 3D data directly without the storage of whole stereo images. Our goal is to obtain high processing speed while maintaining the accuracy of 3D data using minimum resources. Configurable parameters may be controlled by later/parallel stages of the vision algorithm executed on an embedded processor. Considering hardware FPGA clock of 100 MHz, image flows up to 50 frames per second (fps of dense stereo maps of more than 30,000 depth points could be obtained considering 2 Mpix images, with a minimum initial latency. The implementation of computer vision algorithms on reconfigurable hardware, explicitly low level processing, opens up the prospect of its use in autonomous systems, and they can act as a coprocessor to reconstruct 3D images with high density information in real time.

  19. Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-02-28

    A high-performance waveguide photodetector (WPD) integrated with a laser diode (LD) sharing the single InGaN/GaN quantum well active region is demonstrated on a semipolar GaN substrate. The photocurrent of the integrated WPD is effectively tuned by the emitted optical power from the LD. The responsivity ranges from 0.018 to 0.051 A/W with increasing reverse bias from 0 to 10 V. The WPD shows a large 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 230 MHz. The integrated device, being used for power monitoring and on-chip communication, paves the way towards the eventual realization of a III–nitride on-chip photonic system.

  20. Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Lee, Changmin; Stegenburgs, Edgars; Lerma, Jorge Holguin; Ng, Tien Khee; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    A high-performance waveguide photodetector (WPD) integrated with a laser diode (LD) sharing the single InGaN/GaN quantum well active region is demonstrated on a semipolar GaN substrate. The photocurrent of the integrated WPD is effectively tuned by the emitted optical power from the LD. The responsivity ranges from 0.018 to 0.051 A/W with increasing reverse bias from 0 to 10 V. The WPD shows a large 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 230 MHz. The integrated device, being used for power monitoring and on-chip communication, paves the way towards the eventual realization of a III–nitride on-chip photonic system.

  1. The RD53 Collaboration's SystemVerilog-UVM Simulation Framework and its General Applicability to Design of Advanced Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Marconi, S.; Placidi, P.; Christiansen, J.; Hemperek, T.

    2014-01-01

    The foreseen Phase 2 pixel upgrades at the LHC have very challenging requirements for the design of hybrid pixel readout chips. A versatile pixel simulation platform is as an essential development tool for the design, verification and optimization of both the system architecture and the pixel chip building blocks (Intellectual Properties, IPs). This work is focused on the implemented simulation and verification environment named VEPIX53, built using the SystemVerilog language and the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) class library in the framework of the RD53 Collaboration. The environment supports pixel chips at different levels of description: its reusable components feature the generation of different classes of parameterized input hits to the pixel matrix, monitoring of pixel chip inputs and outputs, conformity checks between predicted and actual outputs and collection of statistics on system performance. The environment has been tested performing a study of shared architectures of the trigger late...

  2. Object Recognition System-on-Chip Using the Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzet Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this work is to propose the design of a system-on-chip (SoC platform dedicated to digital image and signal processing, which is tuned to implement efficiently multiply-and-accumulate (MAC vector/matrix operations. The second aim of this work is to implement a recent promising neural network method, namely, the support vector machine (SVM used for real-time object recognition, in order to build a vision machine. With such a reconfigurable and programmable SoC platform, it is possible to implement any SVM function dedicated to any object recognition problem. The final aim is to obtain an automatic reconfiguration of the SoC platform, based on the results of the learning phase on an objects' database, which makes it possible to recognize practically any object without manual programming. Recognition can be of any kind that is from image to signal data. Such a system is a general-purpose automatic classifier. Many applications can be considered as a classification problem, but are usually treated specifically in order to optimize the cost of the implemented solution. The cost of our approach is more important than a dedicated one, but in a near future, hundreds of millions of gates will be common and affordable compared to the design cost. What we are proposing here is a general-purpose classification neural network implemented on a reconfigurable SoC platform. The first version presented here is limited in size and thus in object recognition performances, but can be easily upgraded according to technology improvements.

  3. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-01

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  4. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-15

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  5. Integration of the Omega-3 readout chip into a high energy physics experimental data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beker, H.; Chesi, E.; Martinengo, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Omega-3 readout chip is presented in detail elsewhere in the same proceedings. We here describe the integration of the chip into present and future experiments describing both hardware and software aspects. We cover preliminary tests in the laboratory and on the beam. The WA97 experiment has already used a pixel telescope in the past and intends to upgrade to the Omega-3 chip. A newly proposed experiment at CERN studying strangeness production in heavy ion collisions also plans to use a similar telescope. Finally, we give an outlook on the ongoing developments in the pixel readout architecture in the context of ALICE, the heavy ion experiment at the LHC collider. (orig.)

  6. Design of the ANTARES LCM-DAQ board test bench using a FPGA-based system-on-chip approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvar, S. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kestener, P. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: pierre.kestener@cea.fr; Le Provost, H. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-15

    The System-on-Chip (SoC) approach consists in using state-of-the-art FPGA devices with embedded RISC processor cores, high-speed differential LVDS links and ready-to-use multi-gigabit transceivers allowing development of compact systems with substantial number of IO channels. Required performances are obtained through a subtle separation of tasks between closely cooperating programmable hardware logic and user-friendly software environment. We report about our experience in using the SoC approach for designing the production test bench of the off-shore readout system for the ANTARES neutrino experiment.

  7. Single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS front-end system for real-time volumetric IVUS and ICE imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, Gokce; Tekes, Coskun; Zahorian, Jaime; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Karaman, Mustafa; Hasler, Jennifer; Degertekin, F Levent

    2014-02-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echography (ICE) catheters with real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging capability can provide unique benefits to many interventional procedures used in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary and structural heart diseases. Integration of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays with front-end electronics in single-chip configuration allows for implementation of such catheter probes with reduced interconnect complexity, miniaturization, and high mechanical flexibility. We implemented a single-chip forward-looking (FL) ultrasound imaging system by fabricating a 1.4-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array using CMUT-on-CMOS technology on a front-end IC implemented in 0.35-μm CMOS process. The dual-ring array has 56 transmit elements and 48 receive elements on two separate concentric annular rings. The IC incorporates a 25-V pulser for each transmitter and a low-noise capacitive transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for each receiver, along with digital control and smart power management. The final shape of the silicon chip is a 1.5-mm-diameter donut with a 430-μm center hole for a guide wire. The overall front-end system requires only 13 external connections and provides 4 parallel RF outputs while consuming an average power of 20 mW. We measured RF A-scans from the integrated single- chip array which show full functionality at 20.1 MHz with 43% fractional bandwidth. We also tested and demonstrated the image quality of the system on a wire phantom and an ex vivo chicken heart sample. The measured axial and lateral point resolutions are 92 μm and 251 μm, respectively. We successfully acquired volumetric imaging data from the ex vivo chicken heart at 60 frames per second without any signal averaging. These demonstrative results indicate that single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS systems have the potential to produce realtime volumetric images with image quality and speed suitable for catheter-based clinical applications.

  8. Thermal-Aware Scheduling for Future Chip Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Trancoso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased complexity and operating frequency in current single chip microprocessors is resulting in a decrease in the performance improvements. Consequently, major manufacturers offer chip multiprocessor (CMP architectures in order to keep up with the expected performance gains. This architecture is successfully being introduced in many markets including that of the embedded systems. Nevertheless, the integration of several cores onto the same chip may lead to increased heat dissipation and consequently additional costs for cooling, higher power consumption, decrease of the reliability, and thermal-induced performance loss, among others. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of the thermal issues for the future chip multiprocessor architectures and show that as the number of on-chip cores increases, the thermal-induced problems will worsen. In addition, we present several scenarios that result in excessive thermal stress to the CMP chip or significant performance loss. In order to minimize or even eliminate these problems, we propose thermal-aware scheduler (TAS algorithms. When assigning processes to cores, TAS takes their temperature and cooling ability into account in order to avoid thermal stress and at the same time improve the performance. Experimental results have shown that a TAS algorithm that considers also the temperatures of neighboring cores is able to significantly reduce the temperature-induced performance loss while at the same time, decrease the chip's temperature across many different operation and configuration scenarios.

  9. Heat management in integrated circuits on-chip and system-level monitoring and cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ogrenci-Memik, Seda

    2016-01-01

    This essential overview covers the subject of thermal monitoring and management in integrated circuits. Specifically, it focuses on devices and materials that are intimately integrated on-chip (as opposed to in-package or on-board) for the purposes of thermal monitoring and thermal management.

  10. Integrated lab-on-chip biosensing systems based on magnetic particle actuation : a comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van A.; Jong, de A.M.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; Prins, M.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    The demand for easy to use and cost effective medical technologies inspires scientists to develop inno-vative lab-on-chip technologies for in-vitro diagnostic testing. To fulfill the medical needs, the tests should be rapid, sensitive, quantitative, miniaturizable, and need to integrate all steps

  11. 3D-TV Rendering on a Multiprocessor System on a Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijndhoven, J.T.J.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the issue of mapping 3D-TV rendering applications to a multiprocessor platform. The target platform aims to address tomorrow's multi-media consumer market. The prototype chip, called Wasabi, contains a set of TriMedia processors that communicate viaa shared memory, fast

  12. A System-on-Chip Solution for Point-of-Care Ultrasound Imaging Systems: Architecture and ASIC Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeeun; Yoon, Changhan; Lee, Jaejin; Kye, Sang-Bum; Lee, Yongbae; Chang, Jin Ho; Kim, Gi-Duck; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-kyong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel system-on-chip (SOC) solution for a portable ultrasound imaging system (PUS) for point-of-care applications. The PUS-SOC includes all of the signal processing modules (i.e., the transmit and dynamic receive beamformer modules, mid- and back-end processors, and color Doppler processors) as well as an efficient architecture for hardware-based imaging methods (e.g., dynamic delay calculation, multi-beamforming, and coded excitation and compression). The PUS-SOC was fabricated using a UMC 130-nm NAND process and has 16.8 GFLOPS of computing power with a total equivalent gate count of 12.1 million, which is comparable to a Pentium-4 CPU. The size and power consumption of the PUS-SOC are 27×27 mm(2) and 1.2 W, respectively. Based on the PUS-SOC, a prototype hand-held US imaging system was implemented. Phantom experiments demonstrated that the PUS-SOC can provide appropriate image quality for point-of-care applications with a compact PDA size ( 200×120×45 mm(3)) and 3 hours of battery life.

  13. Rearrangeable and exchangeable optical module with system-on-chip for wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Numata, Takashi; Sato, Hiroki; Hiraizumi, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Hidenobu; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    We developed a system-on-chip (SoC)-incorporated light-emitting diode (LED) and avalanche photodiode (APD) modules to improve the usability and flexibility of a fiberless wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. The SoC has a microprocessing unit and programmable circuits. The time division method and the lock-in method were used for separately detecting signals from different positions and signals of different wavelengths, respectively. Each module autonomously works for this time-divided-lock-in measurement with a high sensitivity for haired regions. By supplying [Formula: see text] of power and base and data clocks, the LED module emits both 730- and 855-nm wavelengths of light, amplitudes of which are modulated in each lock-in frequency generated from the base clock, and the APD module provides the lock-in detected signals synchronizing with the data clock. The SoC provided many functions, including automatic-power-control of the LED, automatic judgment of detected power level, and automatic-gain-control of the programmable gain amplifier. The number and the arrangement of modules can be adaptively changed by connecting this exchangeable modules in a daisy chain and setting the parameters dependent on the probing position. Therefore, users can configure a variety of arrangements (single- or multidistance combinations) of them with this module-based system.

  14. Performance with lead ions of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Jensen, L; Lefèvre, T; Weterings, W

    2007-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system must function safely with 208Pb82+ions. The differences with respect to the LHC proton beams are briefly recalled, and the possible areas for performance concerns discussed, in particular the various beam intercepting devices and the beam instrumentation. Energy deposition simulation results for the most critical elements are presented, and the conclusions drawn for the lead ion operation. The expected performance of the beam instrumentation systems are reviewed in the context of the damage potential of the ion beam and the required functionality of the various safety and post-operational analysis requirements.

  15. System-on-fluidics immunoassay device integrating wireless radio-frequency-identification sensor chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Yoshiaki; Oonishi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Shiratori, Akiko; Funaoka, Sohei; Fukushima, Masao

    2014-09-01

    A simple and sensitive point-of-care-test (POCT) device for chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay was devised and tested. The device consists of a plastic flow-channel reactor and two wireless-communication sensor chips, namely, a photo-sensor chip and a temperature-sensor chip. In the flow-channel reactor, a target antigen is captured by an antibody immobilized on the inner wall of the flow-channel and detected with enzyme labeled antibody by using CL substrate. The CL signal corresponding to the amount of antigen is measured by a newly developed radio-frequency-identification (RFID) sensor, which enables batteryless operation and wireless data communication with an external reader. As for the POCT device, its usage environment, especially temperature, varies for each measurement. Hence, temperature compensation is a key issue in regard to eliminating dark-signal fluctuation, which is a major factor in deterioration of the precision of the POCT device. A two-stage temperature-compensation scheme was adopted. As for the first stage, the signals of two photodiodes, one with an open window and one with a sealed window, integrated on the photo-sensor chip are differentiated to delete the dark signal. As for the second stage, the differentiated signal fluctuation caused by a temperature variation is compensated by using the other sensor chip (equipped with a temperature sensor). The dark-level fluctuation caused by temperature was reduced from 0.24 to 0.02 pA/°C. The POCT device was evaluated as a CL immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The flow rate of the CL reagent in the flow channel was optimized. As a result, the detection limit of the POCT device was 0.08 ng/ml (i.e., 0.4 μIU/ml). Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The ALPIDE pixel sensor chip for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.aglieri.rinella@cern.ch

    2017-02-11

    The ALPIDE chip is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor being developed for the Upgrade of the ITS of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The ALPIDE chip is implemented with a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process and fabricated on substrates with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. It measures 15 mm×30 mm and contains a matrix of 512×1024 pixels with in-pixel amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout of the sensitive matrix is hit driven. There is no signaling activity over the matrix if there are no hits to read out and power consumption is proportional to the occupancy. The sensor meets the experimental requirements of detection efficiency above 99%, fake-hit probability below 10{sup −5} and a spatial resolution of 5 μm. The capability to read out Pb–Pb interactions at 100 kHz is provided. The power density of the ALPIDE chip is projected to be less than 35 mW/cm{sup 2} for the application in the Inner Barrel Layers and below 20 mW/cm{sup 2} for the Outer Barrel Layers, where the occupancy is lower. This contribution describes the architecture and the main features of the final ALPIDE chip, planned for submission at the beginning of 2016. Early results from the experimental qualification of full scale prototype predecessors are also reported. - Highlights: • The ALPIDE chip, an innovative CMOS pixel particle detector is described. • It achieves excellent detection performance figures and very low power consumption. • The characterization of prototypes confirms the achievement of the specifications.

  17. Power Relationships that Lead to the Development of Feral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V Kerr

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies factors affecting the operation of a supply chain in a large, asset rich transport utility, and how a recent Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP implementation was perceived with respect to its usability for the task. A lack of trust in the ERP, ineffective training methods and complexity in extracting the data from the ERP were identified as a problem which lead to the development of “Feral Systems” (systems outside the accepted ERP or corporation condoned information systems – sometimes called skunkworks. This research uses an interpretative case study approach to gain insights into the human sense-making within the study organisation. The research argues that power relationships between operational managers and financial managers and processual power relationships between operational managers led to the development of these systems.

  18. Enhancing the Performance of Distributed Feedback Dye Lasers and Plasmonic V-grooves for Lab-on-a-chip Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron

    The ability to perform laboratory operations in compact systems is not only advantageous for the development of diagnostics tools and their production, but also provides unique opportunities to explore the natural world on the micro- and nanoscale. To this end, we focus on two optical schemes: 1...... to the advantages they bring to lab-on-a-chip systems.......) polymer-based distributed feedback (DFB) dye lasers, and 2) plasmonic V-grooves. Regarding the first, DFB dye lasers are well suited to serve as compact, minimal analyte volume and highly sensitive refractive index sensors, where changes occurring in an analyte result in readily measurable shifts...

  19. Cumulant generating function formula of heat transfer in ballistic systems with lead-lead coupling and general nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan

    2013-03-01

    Based on a two-time observation protocol, we consider heat transfer in a given time interval tM in a lead-junction-lead system taking coupling between the leads into account. In view of the two-time observation, consistency conditions are carefully verified in our specific family of quantum histories. Furthermore, its implication is briefly explored. Then using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we obtain an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two leads, valid in both transient and steady-state regimes. Also, a compact formula for the cumulant generating function in the long-time limit is derived, for which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is explicitly verified. In addition, we briefly discuss Di Ventra's repartitioning trick regarding whether the repartitioning procedure of the total Hamiltonian affects the nonequilibrium steady-state current fluctuation. All kinds of properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations, such as the fluctuation theorem in different time regimes, could be readily given according to these exact formulas. Finally a practical formalism dealing with cumulants of heat transfer across general nonlinear quantum systems is established based on field theoretical/algebraic method.

  20. Real-time PCR Machine System Modeling and a Systematic Approach for the Robust Design of a Real-time PCR-on-a-Chip System

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Chip-based DNA quantification systems are widespread, and used in many point-of-care applications. However, instruments for such applications may not be maintained or calibrated regularly. Since machine reliability is a key issue for normal operation, this study presents a system model of the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) machine to analyze the instrument design through numerical experiments. Based on model analysis, a systematic approach was developed to lower the variation of DN...

  1. Design of Water Temperature Control System Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanhong; Yan, Qiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we mainly introduce a multi-function water temperature controller designed with 51 single-chip microcomputer. This controller has automatic and manual water, set the water temperature, real-time display of water and temperature and alarm function, and has a simple structure, high reliability, low cost. The current water temperature controller on the market basically use bimetal temperature control, temperature control accuracy is low, poor reliability, a single function. With the development of microelectronics technology, monolithic microprocessor function is increasing, the price is low, in all aspects of widely used. In the water temperature controller in the application of single-chip, with a simple design, high reliability, easy to expand the advantages of the function. Is based on the appeal background, so this paper focuses on the temperature controller in the intelligent control of the discussion.

  2. Evaluation of a wood chipping system for eucalyptus tops for energy; Avaliacao de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto para aproveitamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, Juliana Lorensi do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Machado, Carlos Cardoso; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Sant' Anna, Cleverson de Mello [Departamento de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, UFV, MG (Brazil)], E-mails: machado@ufv.br, amaury@ufv.br, cleverson@ufv.br; Seixas, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ], E-mail: fseixas@esalq.usp.br

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and to estimate costs of a wood chipping system for tree tops, which are considered residuals from wood harvesting, to be used for energy. The study was developed in a forest industry in the Para State, located in the north region of Brazil. The system was comprised by one wood chipper, two forwarders and one front loader. Data collection was based on time study, fuel consumption and chips load weighting. System average productivity was 17.51 tonnes per effective hour. Machine utilization rate was 51.9% due to many delays, mainly for repair and maintenance of the chipper. Chips transportation was considered to be the critical point of the system, due to some lack of trucks available for blowing chips. The system can produce between 94 and 162 times more energy than the energy consumed. System cost per effective hour was R$ 376.56, which means R$ 21.51/tonne of chips or R$ 2.70/G J. (author)

  3. Small systems, small sensors: Integrating sensing technologies into microfluidic and organ-on-a-chip devices

    OpenAIRE

    Oomen, Pieter Edmond

    2016-01-01

    Pieter Oomen presenteert in zijn proefschrift verschillende microfluïdische systemen met geïntegreerde sensors voor biologische en chemische analyses. Deze geminiaturiseerde systemen kennen veel voordelen: reagentia- en monstergebruik worden verminderd, parallelle experimenten kunnen op een enkel apparaat worden gedaan en natuurlijke celomgevingen kunnen worden nagebootst in incubatiesystemen (orgaan-op-chip). Echter, om zulke systemen te controleren en systematisch te verbeteren gedurende de...

  4. Low-power grating detection system chip for high-speed low-cost length and angle precision measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ligang; Luo, Rengui; Wu, Wuchen

    2006-11-01

    This paper forwards a low power grating detection chip (EYAS) on length and angle precision measurement. Traditional grating detection method, such as resister chain divide or phase locked divide circuit are difficult to design and tune. The need of an additional CPU for control and display makes these methods' implementation more complex and costly. Traditional methods also suffer low sampling speed for the complex divide circuit scheme and CPU software compensation. EYAS is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). It integrates micro controller unit (MCU), power management unit (PMU), LCD controller, Keyboard interface, grating detection unit and other peripherals. Working at 10MHz, EYAS can afford 5MHz internal sampling rate and can handle 1.25MHz orthogonal signal from grating sensor. With a simple control interface by keyboard, sensor parameter, data processing and system working mode can be configured. Two LCD controllers can adapt to dot array LCD or segment bit LCD, which comprised output interface. PMU alters system between working and standby mode by clock gating technique to save power. EYAS in test mode (system action are more frequently than real world use) consumes 0.9mw, while 0.2mw in real world use. EYAS achieved the whole grating detection system function, high-speed orthogonal signal handling in a single chip with very low power consumption.

  5. X-ray quality increasing system controlled by single-chip microcomputer in single phase fluoroscopy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiaolin; Gu Hongmei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To decrease the amount of radiation that doctor and patient receives by increasing X-ray quality. Methods: Using Single-chip Microcomputer technology, test and modulate AC(Alternating Current) from high voltage generator by IGBT. X-ray tube generates X-rays only at high energy area. Thus the amount of radiation decreases. Results: The tube current decreases remarkably and the amount of radiation that doctor and patient receives decreases effectively. Conclusion: the system can effectively decrease the amount of radiation and is widely applicable to the upgrade of all kinds of single phase X-ray units. (authors)

  6. Electromagnetic design methods in systems-on-chip: integrated filters for wireless CMOS RFICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contopanagos, Harry

    2005-01-01

    We present general methods for designing on-chip CMOS passives and utilizing these integrated elements to design on-chip CMOS filters for wireless communications. These methods rely on full-wave electromagnetic numerical calculations that capture all the physics of the underlying foundry technologies. This is especially crucial for deep sub-micron CMOS technologies as it is important to capture the physical effects of finite (and mediocre) Q-factors limited by material losses and constraints on expensive die area, low self-resonance frequencies and dual parasitics that are particularly prevalent in deep sub-micron CMOS processes (65 nm-0.18 μm. We use these integrated elements in an ideal synthesis of a Bluetooth/WLAN pass-band filter in single-ended or differential architectures, and show the significant deviations of the on-chip filter response from the ideal one. We identify which elements in the filter circuit need to maximize their Q-factors and which Q-factors do not affect the filter performance. This saves die area, and predicts the FET parameters (especially transconductances) and negative-resistance FET topologies that have to be integrated in the filter to restore its performance. (invited paper)

  7. The ALPIDE pixel sensor chip for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    The ALPIDE chip is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor being developed for the Upgrade of the ITS of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The ALPIDE chip is implemented with a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process and fabricated on substrates with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. It measures 15 mm×30 mm and contains a matrix of 512×1024 pixels with in-pixel amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout of the sensitive matrix is hit driven. There is no signaling activity over the matrix if there are no hits to read out and power consumption is proportional to the occupancy. The sensor meets the experimental requirements of detection efficiency above 99%, fake-hit probability below 10−5 and a spatial resolution of 5 μm. The capability to read out Pb–Pb interactions at 100 kHz is provided. The power density of the ALPIDE chip is projected to be less than 35 mW/cm2 for the application in the Inner Barrel Layers and below 20 mW/cm2 for the Outer Barrel Layers, ...

  8. Electromagnetic design methods in systems-on-chip: integrated filters for wireless CMOS RFICs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contopanagos, Harry [Institute for Microelectronics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , PO Box 60228, GR-153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2005-01-01

    We present general methods for designing on-chip CMOS passives and utilizing these integrated elements to design on-chip CMOS filters for wireless communications. These methods rely on full-wave electromagnetic numerical calculations that capture all the physics of the underlying foundry technologies. This is especially crucial for deep sub-micron CMOS technologies as it is important to capture the physical effects of finite (and mediocre) Q-factors limited by material losses and constraints on expensive die area, low self-resonance frequencies and dual parasitics that are particularly prevalent in deep sub-micron CMOS processes (65 nm-0.18 {mu}m. We use these integrated elements in an ideal synthesis of a Bluetooth/WLAN pass-band filter in single-ended or differential architectures, and show the significant deviations of the on-chip filter response from the ideal one. We identify which elements in the filter circuit need to maximize their Q-factors and which Q-factors do not affect the filter performance. This saves die area, and predicts the FET parameters (especially transconductances) and negative-resistance FET topologies that have to be integrated in the filter to restore its performance. (invited paper)

  9. On-chip cellomics assay enabling algebraic and geometric understanding of epigenetic information in cellular networks of living systems. 1. Temporal aspects of epigenetic information in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    A series of studies aimed at developing methods and systems of analyzing epigenetic information in cells and in cell networks, as well as that of genetic information, was examined to expand our understanding of how living systems are determined. Because cells are minimum units reflecting epigenetic information, which is considered to map the history of a parallel-processing recurrent network of biochemical reactions, their behaviors cannot be explained by considering only conventional DNA information-processing events. The role of epigenetic information on cells, which complements their genetic information, was inferred by comparing predictions from genetic information with cell behaviour observed under conditions chosen to reveal adaptation processes, population effects and community effects. A system of analyzing epigenetic information was developed starting from the twin complementary viewpoints of cell regulation as an "algebraic" system (emphasis on temporal aspects) and as a "geometric" system (emphasis on spatial aspects). Exploiting the combination of latest microfabrication technology and measurement technologies, which we call on-chip cellomics assay, we can control and re-construct the environments and interaction of cells from "algebraic" and "geometric" viewpoints. In this review, temporal viewpoint of epigenetic information, a part of the series of single-cell-based "algebraic" and "geometric" studies of celluler systems in our research groups, are summerized and reported. The knowlege acquired from this study may lead to the use of cells that fully control practical applications like cell-based drug screening and the regeneration of organs.

  10. System design study of small lead-bismuth cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Hori, Toru; Konomura, Mamoru

    2003-07-01

    In phase II of the feasibility study of JNC, we will make a concept of a dispersion power source reactor with various requirements, such as economical competitiveness and safety. In the study of a small lead-bismuth cooled reactor, a concept whose features are long life core, inherent safety, natural convection of cooling system and steam generators in the reactor vessel has been designed since 2000. The investigations which have been done in 2002 are shown as follows; Safety analysis of UTOP considering uncertainty of reactivity. Possibility of reduction of number of control rods. Estimation of construction cost. Transient analyses of UTOP have been done in considering uncertainty of reactivity in order to show the inherent safety in the probabilistic method. And the inherent safety in UTOP is realized under the condition of considering uncertainty. Transient analyses of UTOP with various numbers of control rods have been done and it is suggested that there is possibility of reduction of the number of control rods considering accident managements. The method of cost estimation is a little modified. The cost of reactor vessel is estimated from that of medium sized lead-bismuth cooled reactor and the estimation of a purity control system is by coolant volume flow rate. The construction cost is estimated 850,000yen/kWe. (author)

  11. Lab-on-chip system combining a microfluidic-ELISA with an array of amorphous silicon photosensors for the detection of celiac disease epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Costantini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a lab-on-chip system, which combines a glass-polydimethilsiloxane microfluidic network and an array of amorphous silicon photosensors for the diagnosis and follow-up of Celiac disease. The microfluidic chip implements an on-chip enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, relying on a sandwich immunoassay between antibodies against gliadin peptides (GPs and a secondary antibody marked with horseradish peroxidase (Ig-HRP. This enzyme catalyzes a chemiluminescent reaction, whose light intensity is detected by the amorphous silicon photosensors and transduced into an electrical signal that can be processed to recognize the presence of antibodies against GPs in the serum of people affected by Celiac syndrome.The correct operation of the developed lab-on-chip has been demonstrated using rabbit serum in the microfluidic ELISA. In particular, optimizing the dilution factors of both sera and Ig-HRP samples in the flowing solutions, the specific and non-specific antibodies against GPs can be successfully distinguished, showing the suitability of the presented device to effectively screen celiac disease epitopes. Keywords: Lab-on-chip, Celiac disease, Microfluidics, On-chip detection, ELISA, Amorphous silicon photosensors

  12. A compound magnetic field generating system for targeted killing of Staphylococcus aureus by magnetotactic bacteria in a microfluidic chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Linjie; Chen, Changyou [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); France-China Bio-Mineralization and Nano-Structures Laboratory, Beijing (China); Wang, Pingping; Chen, Chuanfang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); France-China Bio-Mineralization and Nano-Structures Laboratory, Beijing (China); Wu, Long-Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne, UMR7283, Aix-Marseille University, Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, CNRS, Marseille (France); Song, Tao, E-mail: songtao@mail.iee.ac.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); France-China Bio-Mineralization and Nano-Structures Laboratory, Beijing (China)

    2017-04-01

    A compound magnetic field generating system was built to kill Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in a microfluidic chip in this paper. The system was consisted of coil pairs, a switch circuit, a control program and controllable electrical sources. It could produce a guiding magnetic field (gMF) of ±1 mT along arbitrary direction in the horizontal plane, a rotating magnetic field (rMF) and a swing magnetic field (sMF, 2 Hz, 10 mT) by controlling the currents. The gMF was used to guide MTB swimming to the S. aureus pool in the microfluidic chip, and then the rMF enhanced the mixture of S. aureus and MTB cells, therefore beneficial to the attachments of them. Finally, the sMF was used to induce the death of S. aureus via MTB. The results showed that MTB could be navigated by the gMF and that 47.1% of S. aureus were killed when exposed to the sMF. It provides a new solution for the targeted treatment of infected diseases and even cancers. - Highlights: • We built a system which generated a compound magnetic field in one device. • The compoud magnetic field includes guiding, rotating and swing magnetic fields. • MTB was guided and S. aureus attached to MTB was killed in the same device.

  13. Short- and Long-Term Lead Release after Partial Lead Service Line Replacements in a Metropolitan Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshommes, Elise; Laroche, Laurent; Deveau, Dominique; Nour, Shokoufeh; Prévost, Michèle

    2017-09-05

    Thirty-three households were monitored in a full-scale water distribution system, to investigate the impact of recent (sampling over a period of 1-20 months. Point-of-entry filters were installed to capture sporadic release of particulate lead from the lead service lines (LSLs). Mean concentrations increased immediately after PLSLRs and erratic particulate lead spikes were observed over the 18 month post-PLSLR monitoring period. The mass of lead released during this time frame indicates the occurrence of galvanic corrosion and scale destabilization. System-wide, lead concentrations were however lower in households with PLSLRs as compared to those with no replacement, especially for old PLSLRs. Nonetheless, 61% of PLSLR samples still exceeded 10 μg/L, reflecting the importance of implementing full LSL replacement and efficient risk communication. Acute concentrations measured immediately after PLSLRs demonstrate the need for appropriate flushing procedures to prevent lead poisoning.

  14. A multiplexed chip-based assay system for investigating the functional development of human skeletal myotubes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A S T; Long, C J; Pirozzi, K; Najjar, S; McAleer, C; Vandenburgh, H H; Hickman, J J

    2014-09-20

    This report details the development of a non-invasive in vitro assay system for investigating the functional maturation and performance of human skeletal myotubes. Data is presented demonstrating the survival and differentiation of human myotubes on microscale silicon cantilevers in a defined, serum-free system. These cultures can be stimulated electrically and the resulting contraction quantified using modified atomic force microscopy technology. This system provides a higher degree of sensitivity for investigating contractile waveforms than video-based analysis, and represents the first system capable of measuring the contractile activity of individual human muscle myotubes in a reliable, high-throughput and non-invasive manner. The development of such a technique is critical for the advancement of body-on-a-chip platforms toward application in pre-clinical drug development screens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Diseño de Hardware y Software de Systems on Chip empleando tecnología Xilinx EDK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cadena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo resume el proceso empleado para obtener el primer System on Chip (SoC diseñado, desarrollado, y emulado en la Escuela Politécnica del Ejército (ESPE y en el Ecuador. Se demostrará que combinando las ventajas del diseño sobre Field Programable Gate Arrays (FPGAs empleando la reutilización de IP Cores y plataformas, junto al uso de la tecnología de desarrollo Xilinx EDK, se puede diseñar tanto el hardware como el software de un chip de manera rápida y económicamente fiable. Además, se detalla el uso de la metodología Platform Based Design (PBD y del concepto de co-diseño de hardware y software para diseñar las capas de hardware, sistema operativo y aplicación de un chip. La capa de hardware contiene una serie de IP Cores gobernados por un procesador MicroBlaze trabajando dentro de la arquitectura CoreConnect de IBM. Mientras que la capa de sistema operativo está conformada por drivers, librerías y el Sistema Operativo en Tiempo Real (RTOS Xilkernel. Por último, la capa de aplicación tiene la funcionalidad de controlar una planta de temperatura, mediante la selección de dos técnicas de control: ON-OFF o PID. Cabe destacar que el co-diseño se desarrolló considerando un adecuado enfoque conceptual, arquitectural, y metodológico1.

  17. Materials for innovative lead alloy cooled nuclear systems: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Georg; Weisenburger, Alfons; Fetzer, Renate; Heinzel, Annette; Jianu, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues for all future innovative nuclear systems including Gen IV reactors are materials. The selection of the structural materials determines the design which has to consider the properties and the availability of the materials. Beside general requirements for material properties that are common for all fast reactor types specific issues arise from coolant compatibility. The high solubility of steel alloying elements in liquid Pb-alloys at reactor relevant temperatures is clearly detrimental. Therefore, all steels that are considered as structural materials have to be protected by dissolution barriers. The most common barriers for steels under consideration are oxide scales that form in situ during operation. However, increasing the temperature above 500 deg. C will result either in dissolution attack or in enhanced oxidation. For higher temperatures additional barriers like alumina forming surface alloys are discussed and investigated. Mechanical loads like creep stress and fretting will act on the steels. These mechanical loads will interact with the coolant and can increase the negative effects. For a LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) Demonstrator and MYHRRA (ADS) austenitic steels (316L) are selected for most in core components. The 15-15Ti is the choice for the fuel cladding of MYHRRA and a Pb cooled demonstrator. For an industrial LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) the ferritic martensitic steel T91 was selected as fuel clad material due to its improved irradiation resistance. T91 is in both designs the material to be used for the heat exchanger. Surface alloying with alumina forming alloys is considered to assure material functionality at higher temperatures and is therefore selected for fuel cladding of the ELFR and the heat exchanger tubes. This presentation will give an overview on the selected materials for innovative Pb alloy cooled nuclear systems considering, beside pure compatibility, the influence of mechanical interaction like creep and

  18. The RD53 collaboration's SystemVerilog-UVM simulation framework and its general applicability to design of advanced pixel readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi, S; Christiansen, J; Conti, E; Placidi, P; Hemperek, T

    2014-01-01

    The foreseen Phase 2 pixel upgrades at the LHC have very challenging requirements for the design of hybrid pixel readout chips. A versatile pixel simulation platform is as an essential development tool for the design, verification and optimization of both the system architecture and the pixel chip building blocks (Intellectual Properties, IPs). This work is focused on the implemented simulation and verification environment named VEPIX53, built using the SystemVerilog language and the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) class library in the framework of the RD53 Collaboration. The environment supports pixel chips at different levels of description: its reusable components feature the generation of different classes of parameterized input hits to the pixel matrix, monitoring of pixel chip inputs and outputs, conformity checks between predicted and actual outputs and collection of statistics on system performance. The environment has been tested performing a study of shared architectures of the trigger latency buffering section of pixel chips. A fully shared architecture and a distributed one have been described at behavioral level and simulated; the resulting memory occupancy statistics and hit loss rates have subsequently been compared

  19. A heterogeneous multi-core platform for low power signal processing in systems-on-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun; Sparsø, Jens; Haandbæk, Niels

    2002-01-01

    is based on message passing. The mini-cores are designed as parameterized soft macros intended for a synthesis based design flow. A 520.000 transistor 0.25µm CMOS prototype chip containing 6 mini-cores has been fabricated and tested. Its power consumption is only 50% higher than a hardwired ASIC and more......This paper presents a low-power and programmable DSP architecture - a heterogeneous multiprocessor platform consisting of standard CPU/DSP cores, and a set of simple instruction set processors called mini-cores each optimized for a particular class of algorithm (FIR, IIR, LMS, etc.). Communication...

  20. A Novel Mu Rhythm-based Brain Computer Interface Design that uses a Programmable System on Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohan; Saraswat, Prateek; Gajendran, Rudhram

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the system design of a portable and economical mu rhythm based Brain Computer Interface which employs Cypress Semiconductors Programmable System on Chip (PSoC). By carrying out essential processing on the PSoC, the use of an extra computer is eliminated, resulting in considerable cost savings. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 and PSoC Designer 5.01 are employed in developing the software for the system, the hardware being custom designed. In order to test the usability of the BCI, preliminary testing is carried out by training three subjects who were able to demonstrate control over their electroencephalogram by moving a cursor present at the center of the screen towards the indicated direction with an average accuracy greater than 70% and a bit communication rate of up to 7 bits/min.

  1. A scalable single-chip multi-processor architecture with on-chip RTOS kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, B.D.; Verschueren, A.C.; Reyes Suarez, V.V.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Nunez, A.

    2003-01-01

    Now that system-on-chip technology is emerging, single-chip multi-processors are becoming feasible. A key problem of designing such systems is the complexity of their on-chip interconnects and memory architecture. It is furthermore unclear at what level software should be integrated. An example of a

  2. arXiv The MuPix System-on-Chip for the Mu3e Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Heiko

    2017-02-11

    Mu3e is a novel experiment searching for charged lepton flavor violation in the rare decay $\\mu^+ \\rightarrow e^+e^-e^+$. Decay vertex position, decay time and particle momenta have to be precisely measured in order to reject both accidental and physics background. A silicon pixel tracker based on $50\\,\\mu$m thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) in a 1 T solenoidal magnetic field provides precise vertex and momentum information. The MuPix chip combines pixel sensor cells with integrated analog electronics and a periphery with a complete digital readout. The MuPix7 is the first HV-MAPS prototype implementing all functionalities of the final sensor including a readout state machine and high speed serialization with 1.25 Gbit/s data output, allowing for a streaming readout in parallel to the data taking. The observed efficiency of the MuPix7 chip including the full readout system is $\\geq99\\%$ in a high rate test beam.

  3. Microchemical chip technology and nuclear energy. To develop new analytical system for process control in reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokeshi, Manabu; Ikeda, Yasuhisa; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2006-01-01

    A feasibility study for two years has been done to apply micro-chemical chip technology to nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Desktop-sized thermal lens microscope (DT-TLM) combined with integrated glass ship was examined in order to find a rapid and sensitive analytical method. A laser-beam is split into two beams, one as the reference while the other to be absorbed in a small quantity of sample solution in a cell with short optical-path length. The solution, on absorbing laser photons, increases in temperature accompanied with change in refractive index, which can be detected by using thermal lens microscope. After examinations of Co-complexes in the presence of 10 -6 M Cu ions by using micro chip-extraction behavior from aqueous phase to chloroform organic phase, and of U(VI) solutions in 3M nitric acid with added 8-quinolinol and others to develop optical density at absorbing wavelength, the author concluded that the system may be applicable for the practical analysis of U(VI) and H + in the spent fuel reprocessing plant. (S. Ohno)

  4. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment.

  5. Development of gold based solder candidates for flip chip assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Flip chip technology is now rapidly replacing the traditional wire bonding interconnection technology in the first level packaging applications due to the miniaturization drive in the microelectronics industry. Flip chip assembly currently involves the use of high lead containing solders...

  6. Organ-Tumor-on-a-Chip for Chemosensitivity Assay: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Navid Kashaninejad; Mohammad Reza Nikmaneshi; Hajar Moghadas; Amir Kiyoumarsi Oskouei; Milad Rismanian; Maryam Barisam; Mohammad Said Saidi; Bahar Firoozabadi

    2016-01-01

    With a mortality rate over 580,000 per year, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide. However, the emerging field of microfluidics can potentially shed light on this puzzling disease. Unique characteristics of microfluidic chips (also known as micro-total analysis system) make them excellent candidates for biological applications. The ex vivo approach of tumor-on-a-chip is becoming an indispensable part of personalized medicine and can replace in vivo animal testing as we...

  7. MEMS Fabry-Perot sensor interrogated by optical system-on-a-chip for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cheng; Bae, Hyungdae; Gupta, Ashwani; Bryden, Kenneth; Yu, Miao

    2013-09-23

    We present a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor along with an optical system-on-a-chip (SOC) interrogator for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing. The sensor employs a simple structure with an air-backed silicon membrane cross-axially bonded to a 45° polished optical fiber. This structure renders two cascaded FP cavities, enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing in close proximity along the optical axis. The optical SOC consists of a broadband source, a MEMS FP tunable filter, a photodetector, and the supporting circuitry, serving as a miniature spectrometer for retrieving the two FP cavity lengths. Within the measured pressure and temperature ranges, experimental results demonstrate that the sensor exhibits a good linear response to external pressure and temperature changes.

  8. Analysis of single-cell differences by use of an on-chip microculture system and optical trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamoto, Y; Inoue, I; Moriguchi, H; Yasuda, K

    2001-09-01

    A method is described for continuous observation of isolated single cells that enables genetically identical cells to be compared; it uses an on-chip microculture system and optical tweezers. Photolithography is used to construct microchambers with 5-microm-high walls made of thick photoresist (SU-8) on the surface of a glass slide. These microchambers are connected by a channel through which cells are transported, by means of optical tweezers, from a cultivation microchamber to an analysis microchamber, or from the analysis microchamber to a waste microchamber. The microchambers are covered with a semi-permeable membrane to separate them from nutrient medium circulating through a "cover chamber" above. Differential analysis of isolated direct descendants of single cells showed that this system could be used to compare genetically identical cells under contamination-free conditions. It should thus help in the clarification of heterogeneous phenomena, for example unequal cell division and cell differentiation.

  9. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  10. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution

  11. Development of stoker-burner wood chip combustion systems for the UK market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The document makes a case for the development of a design of wood chip stoker-burner more suited to the UK than those currently imported from Sweden and Finland. The differences would centre on market conditions, performance and cost-effectiveness and the devices would be manufactured or part-manufactured in the UK. Econergy Limited was contracted by the DTI as part of its Sustainable Energy Programmes to design and construct an operational prototype stoker-burner rated at 120 kWth. A test rig was built to: (i) study modified burner heads and (ii) develop control hardware and a control strategy. Both (i) and (ii) are described. Tests brought about an increase in performance of the burner head and its wet wood performance. It was considered that further improvements are achievable and six areas for future study were suggested.

  12. Ultrasonic welding for fast bonding of self-aligned structures in lab-on-a-chip systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Carl Esben; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding is a rapid, promising bonding method for the bonding of polymer chips; yet its use is still limited. We present two lab-on-a-chip applications where ultrasonic welding can be preferably applied: (1) Self-aligned gapless bonding of a two-part chip with a tolerance of 50 um; (2...... solutions offered here can significantly help bridge the gap between academia and industry, where the differences in production methods and materials pose a challenge when transferring technology....

  13. Optimal use of tandem biotin and V5 tags in ChIP assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krpic Sanja

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays coupled to genome arrays (Chip-on-chip or massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq lead to the genome wide identification of binding sites of chromatin associated proteins. However, the highly variable quality of antibodies and the availability of epitopes in crosslinked chromatin can compromise genomic ChIP outcomes. Epitope tags have often been used as more reliable alternatives. In addition, we have employed protein in vivo biotinylation tagging as a very high affinity alternative to antibodies. In this paper we describe the optimization of biotinylation tagging for ChIP and its coupling to a known epitope tag in providing a reliable and efficient alternative to antibodies. Results Using the biotin tagged erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 as example, we describe several optimization steps for the application of the high affinity biotin streptavidin system in ChIP. We find that the omission of SDS during sonication, the use of fish skin gelatin as blocking agent and choice of streptavidin beads can lead to significantly improved ChIP enrichments and lower background compared to antibodies. We also show that the V5 epitope tag performs equally well under the conditions worked out for streptavidin ChIP and that it may suffer less from the effects of formaldehyde crosslinking. Conclusion The combined use of the very high affinity biotin tag with the less sensitive to crosslinking V5 tag provides for a flexible ChIP platform with potential implications in ChIP sequencing outcomes.

  14. Optimal use of tandem biotin and V5 tags in ChIP assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Katarzyna E; Pourfarzad, Farzin; de Boer, Ernie; Krpic, Sanja; Grosveld, Frank; Strouboulis, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays coupled to genome arrays (Chip-on-chip) or massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) lead to the genome wide identification of binding sites of chromatin associated proteins. However, the highly variable quality of antibodies and the availability of epitopes in crosslinked chromatin can compromise genomic ChIP outcomes. Epitope tags have often been used as more reliable alternatives. In addition, we have employed protein in vivo biotinylation tagging as a very high affinity alternative to antibodies. In this paper we describe the optimization of biotinylation tagging for ChIP and its coupling to a known epitope tag in providing a reliable and efficient alternative to antibodies. Results Using the biotin tagged erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 as example, we describe several optimization steps for the application of the high affinity biotin streptavidin system in ChIP. We find that the omission of SDS during sonication, the use of fish skin gelatin as blocking agent and choice of streptavidin beads can lead to significantly improved ChIP enrichments and lower background compared to antibodies. We also show that the V5 epitope tag performs equally well under the conditions worked out for streptavidin ChIP and that it may suffer less from the effects of formaldehyde crosslinking. Conclusion The combined use of the very high affinity biotin tag with the less sensitive to crosslinking V5 tag provides for a flexible ChIP platform with potential implications in ChIP sequencing outcomes. PMID:19196479

  15. Recent results of the investigation of a micro-fluidic sampling chip and sampling system for hot cell aqueous processing streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Smith, T.; Law, J.

    2013-01-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and micro-fluidic sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. Different sampling volumes have been tested. It appears that the 10 μl volume has produced data that had much smaller relative standard deviations than the 2 μl volume. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The micro-fluidic-based robotic sampling system's mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of micro-fluidic sampling chips. (authors)

  16. Comparison of Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Bonding for the Integration of Thin Film Metal Electrodes in Injection Molded Polymeric Lab-on-Chip Systems for Electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We compare ultrasonic welding (UW and thermal bonding (TB for the integration of embedded thin-film gold electrodes for electrochemical applications in injection molded (IM microfluidic chips. The UW bonded chips showed a significantly superior electrochemical performance compared to the ones obtained using TB. Parameters such as metal thickness of electrodes, depth of electrode embedding, delivered power, and height of energy directors (for UW, as well as pressure and temperature (for TB, were systematically studied to evaluate the two bonding methods and requirements for optimal electrochemical performance. The presented technology is intended for easy and effective integration of polymeric Lab-on-Chip systems to encourage their use in research, commercialization and education.

  17. Real Time Corrosion Monitoring in Lead and Lead-Bismuth Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Stubbins; Alan Bolind; Ziang Chen

    2010-02-25

    The objective of this research program is to develop a real-time, in situ corrosion monitoring technique for flowing liquid Pb and eutectic PbBi (LBE) systems in a temperature range of 400 to 650 C. These conditions are relevant to future liquid metal cooled fast reactor operating parameters. THis program was aligned with the Gen IV Reactor initiative to develp technologies to support the design and opertion of a Pb or LBE-cooled fast reactor. The ability to monitor corrosion for protection of structural components is a high priority issue for the safe and prolonged operation of advanced liquid metal fast reactor systems. In those systems, protective oxide layers are intentionally formed and maintained to limit corrosion rates during operation. This program developed a real time, in situ corrosion monitoring tecnique using impedance spectroscopy (IS) technology.

  18. Characterization of aqueous two phase systems by combining lab-on-a-chip technology with robotic liquid handling stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Sven; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Marc; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-11-07

    Over the last decade, the use of design of experiment approaches in combination with fully automated high throughput (HTP) compatible screenings supported by robotic liquid handling stations (LHS), adequate fast analytics and data processing has been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry into a strategy of high throughput process development (HTPD) resulting in lower experimental effort, sample reduction and an overall higher degree of process optimization. Apart from HTP technologies, lab-on-a-chip technology has experienced an enormous growth in the last years and allows further reduction of sample consumption. A combination of LHS and lab-on-a-chip technology is highly desirable and realized in the present work to characterize aqueous two phase systems with respect to tie lines. In particular, a new high throughput compatible approach for the characterization of aqueous two phase systems regarding tie lines by exploiting differences in phase densities is presented. Densities were measured by a standalone micro fluidic liquid density sensor, which was integrated into a liquid handling station by means of a developed generic Tip2World interface. This combination of liquid handling stations and lab-on-a-chip technology enables fast, fully automated, and highly accurate density measurements. The presented approach was used to determine the phase diagram of ATPSs composed of potassium phosphate (pH 7) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 300, 400, 600 and 1000 Da respectively in the presence and in the absence of 3% (w/w) sodium chloride. Considering the whole ATPS characterization process, two complete ATPSs could be characterized within 24h, including four runs per ATPS for binodal curve determination (less than 45 min/run), and tie line determination (less than 45 min/run for ATPS preparation and 8h for density determination), which can be performed fully automated over night without requiring man power. The presented methodology provides

  19. Note: A silicon-on-insulator microelectromechanical systems probe scanner for on-chip atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Anthony G.; Maroufi, Mohammad; Moheimani, S. O. Reza, E-mail: Reza.Moheimani@newcastle.edu.au [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    A new microelectromechanical systems-based 2-degree-of-freedom (DoF) scanner with an integrated cantilever for on-chip atomic force microscopy (AFM) is presented. The silicon cantilever features a layer of piezoelectric material to facilitate its use for tapping mode AFM and enable simultaneous deflection sensing. Electrostatic actuators and electrothermal sensors are used to accurately position the cantilever within the x-y plane. Experimental testing shows that the cantilever is able to be scanned over a 10 μm × 10 μm window and that the cantilever achieves a peak-to-peak deflection greater than 400 nm when excited at its resonance frequency of approximately 62 kHz.

  20. Development and applications of a multi-purpose digital controller with a System-on-Chip FPGA for accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori, E-mail: kurimoto@post.j-parc.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, Keigo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2016-12-21

    J-PARC Main Ring (MR) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which accelerates protons from 3 GeV to 30 GeV. It has operated at a beam intensity of 390 kW and an upgrade toward the megawatt rating is scheduled. For higher beam intensity, some of the accelerator components require more intelligent and complicated functions. To consolidate such functions among various components, we developed multi-purpose digital boards using a System-on-Chip Field-Programmable Gated Array (SoC FPGA). In this paper, we describe the details of our developed boards as well as their possible applications. As an application of the boards, we have successfully performed the measurement of the betatron amplitude function during beam acceleration in J-PARC MR. The experimental setup and results of the measurement are also described in detail.

  1. PMMA to SU-8 bonding for polymer based lab-on-a-chip systems with integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Clausen, Bjarne Hans

    2004-01-01

    We present an adhesive bonding technique developed for SU-8 based "lab-on-a-chip"- systems with integrated optical components. Microfluidic channels and optical components (e.g. wave-guides) are defined in SU-8 photoresist on a Pyrex glass substrate. The microfluidic channels are sealed by a second...... Pyrex substrate, bonded on top of the cross-linked SU-8 structure using an inter- mediate layer of 950K molecular weight poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). Due to a lower refractive index of PMMA, this bonding technique offers optical waveguiding in the SU-8 structures in combination with good sealing...... of the microfluidic channels. The bonding technique is investigated with respect to bonding temperature in the range of 50 - 150 degr. C and at bonding forces of 1000 N and 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. A maximum bonding strength of 16 MPa is achieved for the PMMA to SU-8 bonding at a bonding temperature of 110 degr. C...

  2. System-on-Chip Environment: A SpecC-Based Framework for Heterogeneous MPSoC Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Gajski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constantly growing complexity of embedded systems is a challenge that drives the development of novel design automation techniques. C-based system-level design addresses the complexity challenge by raising the level of abstraction and integrating the design processes for the heterogeneous system components. In this article, we present a comprehensive design framework, the system-on-chip environment (SCE which is based on the influential SpecC language and methodology. SCE implements a top-down system design flow based on a specify-explore-refine paradigm with support for heterogeneous target platforms consisting of custom hardware components, embedded software processors, dedicated IP blocks, and complex communication bus architectures. Starting from an abstract specification of the desired system, models at various levels of abstraction are automatically generated through successive step-wise refinement, resulting in a pin-and cycle-accurate system implementation. The seamless integration of automatic model generation, estimation, and verification tools enables rapid design space exploration and efficient MPSoC implementation. Using a large set of industrial-strength examples with a wide range of target architectures, our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework and show significant productivity gains in design time.

  3. Fiscal 2000 research achievement report on the research and development of advanced design technologies for system-on-chip; 2000 nendo system on chip sentan sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    Efforts were made to develop technologies for rapid improvement in SoC (system on chip) design productivity. In concrete terms, the concept of V-core (virtual core) was introduced into SoC design for the establishment of reusing technology and design automation in the uppermost stream region of designing. Activities were conducted in the two fields of (1) research and development of V-core based design technology and (2) research and development of a V-core database. Efforts exerted in field (1) aimed at the research and development of system specifications description technology, architecture generation technology, soft V-core internal structure optimization technology, optimized RTL (register transfer level) description generation technology, and system performance verification technology. In field (2), efforts were made to develop core database technology, core development support tools, core verification technology, and design assets verification technology. The system specifications description technology is a technique to define SoC system level specifications (degree of model abstraction). (NEDO)

  4. Potentiometric chip-based multipumping flow system for the simultaneous determination of fluoride, chloride, pH, and redox potential in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Gabriela; Palacio, Edwin; Cerdà, Víctor

    2018-08-15

    A simple potentiometric chip-based multipumping flow system (MPFS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of fluoride, chloride, pH, and redox potential in water samples. The proposed system was developed by using a poly(methyl methacrylate) chip microfluidic-conductor using the advantages of flow techniques with potentiometric detection. For this purpose, an automatic system has been designed and built by optimizing the variables involved in the process, such as: pH, ionic strength, stirring and sample volume. This system was applied successfully to water samples getting a versatile system with an analysis frequency of 12 samples per hour. Good correlation between chloride and fluoride concentration measured with ISE and ionic chromatography technique suggests satisfactory reliability of the system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of lead in whole blood: Comparison of the LeadCare blood lead testing system with zeeman longitudinal electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, A.; Viallefont, A.; Fauconneau, B.; Rafael, M.; Guillard, O.

    2002-01-01

    This study compares the efficiency of blood lead level analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and the portable LeadCare Blood lead testing system (LCS). Recoveries of two added lead concentrations of 22 and 42 μg/dL ranged from 102.4 to 105.5% for LCS and from 96.3 to 97.2% for GFAAS. Measurement of a certified sample (Certified Danish Whole Blood) at a blood lead concentration of 26.2 μg/dL gave within- and between-run coefficients of variation which were both approximately 8% by LCS and 2% by GFAAS. Comparison of the tested method (LCS) versus GFAAS from analysis of 76 samples of blood lead collected from workers in different industrial sectors showed imperfect overall correlation (r = 0.95). The LCS is quite suitable for screening purposes, but requires the use of non-frozen blood collected less than 24 h before. Conservative threshold values should be applied when using the LCS for initial screening in the field. (orig.)

  6. Uranium-lead shielding for nuclear material transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, E.C.; Miller, N.E.; Basham, S.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basis for the selection of shielding materials for spent fuel shipping containers is described with comments concerning the favorable and unfavorable aspects of steel, lead, and depleted uranium. A concept for a new type of material made of depleted uranium and lead is described which capitalizes on the best cask shielding characteristics of both materials. This cask shielding is made by filling the shielding cavity with pieces of depleted uranium and then backfilling the interstitial voids with lead. The lead would be bonded to the uranium and also to the cask shells if desired. Shielding density approaching 80 percent of that of solid uranium could be achieved, while a density of 65 percent is readily obtainable. This material should overcome the problems of the effect of lead melting in the fire accident, high thermal gradients at uranium-stainless steel interfaces and at a major reduction in cost over that of a solid uranium shielded cask. A development program is described to obtain information on the properties of the composite material to aid in design analysis and licensing and to define the fabrication techniques

  7. Performance of an on-chip superconducting circulator for quantum microwave systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Rosenthal, Eric; Moores, Bradley; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Mates, J. A. B.; Hilton, G. C.; Vale, L. R.; Ullom, J. N.; LalumíEre, Kevin; Blais, Alexandre; Lehnert, K. W.

    Microwave circulators enforce a single propagation direction for signals in an electrical network. Unfortunately, commercial circulators are bulky, lossy, and cannot be integrated close to superconducting circuits because they require strong ( kOe) magnetic fields produced by permanent magnets. Here we report on the performance of an on-chip, active circulator for superconducting microwave circuits, which uses no permanent magnets. Non-reciprocity is achieved by actively modulating reactive elements around 100 MHz, giving roughly a factor of 50 in the separation between signal and control frequencies, which facilitates filtering. The circulator's active components are dynamically tunable inductors constructed with arrays of dc-SQUIDs in series. Array inductance is tuned by varying the magnetic flux through the SQUIDs with fields weaker than 1 Oe. Although the instantaneous bandwidth of the device is narrow, the operation frequency is tunable between 4 and 8 GHz. This presentation will describe the device's theory of operation and compare its measured performance to design goals. This work is supported by the ARO under contract W911NF-14-1-0079 and the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1125844.

  8. Integration of Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photodetectors for Lab-on-a-Chip Bio-Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Williams

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LoC technologies have allowed for the efficient separation and manipulation of various biomaterials, including many diagnostically relevant species. Organic electronics have similarly enjoyed a great deal of research, resulting in tiny, highly efficient, wavelength-selective organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs and organic photodetectors (OPDs. We consider the blend of these technologies for rapid detection and diagnosis of biological species. In the ideal system, optically active or fluorescently labelled biological species can be probed via light emission from OLEDs, and their subsequent light emission can be detected with OPDs. The relatively low cost and simple fabrication of the organic electronic devices suggests the possibility of disposable test arrays. Further, with full integration, the finalized system can be miniaturized and made simple to use. In this review, we consider the design constraints of OLEDs and OPDs required to achieve fully organic electronic optical bio-detection systems. Current approaches to integrated LoC optical sensing are first discussed. Fully realized OLED- and OPD-specific photoluminescence detection systems from literature are then examined, with a specific focus on their ultimate limits of detection. The review highlights the enormous potential in OLEDs and OPDs for integrated optical sensing, and notes the key avenues of research for cheap and powerful LoC bio-detection systems.

  9. Macroencapsulation of lead and steel SWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.; Thiesen, T.; Tyson, D.; Beitel, G.

    1995-01-01

    The treatability study to macroencapsulate radioactively contaminated lead and steel swarf (cuttings and/or chips)and chunks, a low level mixed waste, from the dismantlement of excess surplus uranium fuel handling and transfer casks was successful. Macroencapsulation is the land disposal restriction treatment standard for this waste form per 40 CFR 268.42 Table 3. An epoxy-based thermoset system was employed due to cracking failures of other types of thermoset systems. Bench scale tests were performed with a two-part epoxy (resin and hardener) using cast iron chips as a surrogate waste media. A two stage encapsulation process was employed in treating the swarf. Two liters of epoxy were added to a 2.8 ell (3 qt) container of swarf under 51K Pa vacuum (-15-inch of Hg) during the first stage of the process. In this stage each individual particle or chip was wetted by epoxy and allowed to harden into an initial monolith. The second stage encapsulated the initial monolith with a secondary layer of epoxy forming a larger final monolith. By evacuating the air from the swarf and epoxy during the initial monolith encapsulation, a higher density (higher swarf to epoxy ratio) was achieved. Tensile and compressive strength tests were performed on samples and without any media (cast iron chips). The coupons were prepared from a series of monoliths featuring various mixtures ratios and vacuum levels. The tensile strength of epoxy without chips averaged 41M Pa (6000 psi) and 1.4M Pa (2000 psi) with cast iron chips. Compression strengths averaged 140M Pa (20,000 psi) without chips and 66.2M Pa (9600 psi) with cast iron chips

  10. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, T; Zoschke, K; Rothermund, M; Oppermann, H; Woehrmann, M; Ehrmann, O; Lang, K D; Huegging, F

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump deposition process the glass-readout chip stack is diced in one step. Finally the glass carrier chip is released by laser illumination after flip chip assembly of the readout chip onto sensor tile. The results of the flip chip assembly process development for the ATLAS IBL upgrade are described more in detail. The new ATLAS FEI4B chip with a size of 20 × 19 mm 2 is flip chip bonded with a thickness of only 150 μm, but the capability of this technology has been demonstrated on hybrid modules with a reduced readout chip thickness of down to 50 μm which is a major step for ultra-thin electronic systems

  11. Perspectives on the Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile (MassCHIP): developing an online data query system to target a variety of user needs and capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce B; Franklin, Saul; West, James K

    2006-01-01

    The Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile (MassCHIP) has many distinctive features. These features evolved to maximize the usefulness of this query system for a broad group of users with varied needs, differing levels of knowledge about public health, and diverse experience using public health data. Three major features of MassCHIP help target our large user population. These features are as follows: (1) multiple avenues of entry to initiate queries ranging from an alphabetical list of simple topics to detailed International Classification of Disease codes; (2) the inclusion of data sets from other state agencies in addition to those of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to reflect a broad view of public health; and (3) the capacity to retrieve data for multiple levels of geography, from the neighborhood through the state, including planning districts and hospitals. In this article, we discuss the history and design of MassCHIP, and focus on the features of MassCHIP that target a great variety of user needs and capabilities, and which are distinctive among Web-based data query systems.

  12. Obstacle Recognition Based on Machine Learning for On-Chip LiDAR Sensors in a Cyber-Physical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castaño

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance is an important feature in advanced driver-assistance systems, aimed at providing correct, timely and reliable warnings before an imminent collision (with objects, vehicles, pedestrians, etc.. The obstacle recognition library is designed and implemented to address the design and evaluation of obstacle detection in a transportation cyber-physical system. The library is integrated into a co-simulation framework that is supported on the interaction between SCANeR software and Matlab/Simulink. From the best of the authors’ knowledge, two main contributions are reported in this paper. Firstly, the modelling and simulation of virtual on-chip light detection and ranging sensors in a cyber-physical system, for traffic scenarios, is presented. The cyber-physical system is designed and implemented in SCANeR. Secondly, three specific artificial intelligence-based methods for obstacle recognition libraries are also designed and applied using a sensory information database provided by SCANeR. The computational library has three methods for obstacle detection: a multi-layer perceptron neural network, a self-organization map and a support vector machine. Finally, a comparison among these methods under different weather conditions is presented, with very promising results in terms of accuracy. The best results are achieved using the multi-layer perceptron in sunny and foggy conditions, the support vector machine in rainy conditions and the self-organized map in snowy conditions.

  13. Obstacle Recognition Based on Machine Learning for On-Chip LiDAR Sensors in a Cyber-Physical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Fernando; Beruvides, Gerardo; Haber, Rodolfo E; Artuñedo, Antonio

    2017-09-14

    Collision avoidance is an important feature in advanced driver-assistance systems, aimed at providing correct, timely and reliable warnings before an imminent collision (with objects, vehicles, pedestrians, etc.). The obstacle recognition library is designed and implemented to address the design and evaluation of obstacle detection in a transportation cyber-physical system. The library is integrated into a co-simulation framework that is supported on the interaction between SCANeR software and Matlab/Simulink. From the best of the authors' knowledge, two main contributions are reported in this paper. Firstly, the modelling and simulation of virtual on-chip light detection and ranging sensors in a cyber-physical system, for traffic scenarios, is presented. The cyber-physical system is designed and implemented in SCANeR. Secondly, three specific artificial intelligence-based methods for obstacle recognition libraries are also designed and applied using a sensory information database provided by SCANeR. The computational library has three methods for obstacle detection: a multi-layer perceptron neural network, a self-organization map and a support vector machine. Finally, a comparison among these methods under different weather conditions is presented, with very promising results in terms of accuracy. The best results are achieved using the multi-layer perceptron in sunny and foggy conditions, the support vector machine in rainy conditions and the self-organized map in snowy conditions.

  14. The concept of system for chips production need to work demo CHP plant in company 'AGROSAVA' from Šimanovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Aleksandar Đ.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper according to the calculation of chips productivity needs for gasification in the demo CHP plant for co-generation: electricity and heat, chippers were analyzed due to: the type of mobility, running for chipping and the method of delivering chips to temporary yard. The plant was planned to generate electricity power up to 200kWelec. First, in consideration were taken the chippers with medium capacity, which mainly served for chipping brushwood and leaves that remain after harvest plantations on mostly flat terrain and parks. Later, the comparative characteristics of the world's three largest manufacturers of machinery for the production of wood chips significantly larger amounts (up to 30m3/h were given. These chippers were particularly suitable for the higher density of crops and stationed yard, in which brushwood would be brought and chip. At the end, the types of convective dryers were analyzed that could be successfully used for drying wood chips (drum and pneumatic dryer and based on the calculation proposed the types of dryers that were available in the local market.

  15. Canadian initiative leading the way for equitable health systems and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Home · Resources · Publications ... The field of health systems research has grown into a vibrant community. IDRC grantees are actively involved in Health Systems Global, a newinternational agency that gathers researchers, ...

  16. A systems change: leading the way to meeting health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisher, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating the efficacy of our practice requires a paradigm shift. Becoming an effective leader and clinician can facilitate opportunities for program development and clinical research. The use of strategic planning strategies, such as needs assessment and SWOT analysis, can help lead the way to such change. The following illustrates the use of strategic planning to develop The Carpal and Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Program (CCTSP) within a growing orthopedic practice. Copyright © 2013 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. System-on-chip architecture and validation for real-time transceiver optimization: APC implementation on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Hernan; Zhang, Yan R.

    2015-05-01

    New radar applications need to perform complex algorithms and process large quantity of data to generate useful information for the users. This situation has motivated the search for better processing solutions that include low power high-performance processors, efficient algorithms, and high-speed interfaces. In this work, hardware implementation of adaptive pulse compression for real-time transceiver optimization are presented, they are based on a System-on-Chip architecture for Xilinx devices. This study also evaluates the performance of dedicated coprocessor as hardware accelerator units to speed up and improve the computation of computing-intensive tasks such matrix multiplication and matrix inversion which are essential units to solve the covariance matrix. The tradeoffs between latency and hardware utilization are also presented. Moreover, the system architecture takes advantage of the embedded processor, which is interconnected with the logic resources through the high performance AXI buses, to perform floating-point operations, control the processing blocks, and communicate with external PC through a customized software interface. The overall system functionality is demonstrated and tested for real-time operations using a Ku-band tested together with a low-cost channel emulator for different types of waveforms.

  18. System on chip (SoC) microcontrollers (μC) as digitisers for ion beam analysis (IBA) instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, Harry J., E-mail: harry.j@whitlow.se

    2016-09-15

    Data digitisation of the analogue signals from detectors to digital data is an essential process in ion beam analysis (IBA). The low-cost, easy availability and development environments that have a low learning threshold makes system-on-chip (SoC) microcontrollers (μC) attractive for this task. These μC combine, on one die, analogue and digital inputs and outputs with serial USB interfaces, which opens up simple implementation of tailor-made interfaces for specific IBA measurement systems. We have investigated the design and performance limitations based on development of three different digitisation interfaces for IBA. These were a two-channel nuclear instrumentation module (NIM) ADC event mode interface (EMI) for a high-resolution magnetic RBS spectrometer, a simple headless-multi-channel analyser (MCA) and a combined dual channel headless MCA and EMI. It is shown that SoC μC based interfaces for digitisation of analogue spectroscopy pulses in IBA systems can be implemented for material costs less than 100 €. The performance of the SoC devices for many IBA applications is close to what can be achieved with state-of-the-art instruments. The simple pulse spectroscopy interface circuit and software are included in the auxiliary archive.

  19. Architectures for single-chip image computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Robert J.

    1992-04-01

    This paper will focus on the architectures of VLSI programmable processing components for image computing applications. TI, the maker of industry-leading RISC, DSP, and graphics components, has developed an architecture for a new-generation of image processors capable of implementing a plurality of image, graphics, video, and audio computing functions. We will show that the use of a single-chip heterogeneous MIMD parallel architecture best suits this class of processors--those which will dominate the desktop multimedia, document imaging, computer graphics, and visualization systems of this decade.

  20. Text Structuration Leading to an Automatic Summary System: RAFI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Abderrafih

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design and construction of Resume Automatique a Fragments Indicateurs (RAFI), a system of automatic text summary which sums up scientific and technical texts. The RAFI system transforms a long source text into several versions of more condensed texts, using discourse analysis, to make searching easier; it could be adapted to the…

  1. Remote monitor used on the 13N leak rate measurement system based on single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Rulong; Qiu Xiaoping; Guo Lanying

    2012-01-01

    It describes a design on Remote Monitor based on single-chip microcomputer, and also presents the design procedure of hardware and software for circuit design, and gives some of specific instructions about the important parts of the design. (authors)

  2. Rigorously modeling self-stabilizing fault-tolerant circuits: An ultra-robust clocking scheme for systems-on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Danny; Függer, Matthias; Posch, Markus; Schmid, Ulrich; Steininger, Andreas; Lenzen, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    We present the first implementation of a distributed clock generation scheme for Systems-on-Chip that recovers from an unbounded number of arbitrary transient faults despite a large number of arbitrary permanent faults. We devise self-stabilizing hardware building blocks and a hybrid synchronous/asynchronous state machine enabling metastability-free transitions of the algorithm's states. We provide a comprehensive modeling approach that permits to prove, given correctness of the constructed low-level building blocks, the high-level properties of the synchronization algorithm (which have been established in a more abstract model). We believe this approach to be of interest in its own right, since this is the first technique permitting to mathematically verify, at manageable complexity, high-level properties of a fault-prone system in terms of its very basic components. We evaluate a prototype implementation, which has been designed in VHDL, using the Petrify tool in conjunction with some extensions, and synthesized for an Altera Cyclone FPGA.

  3. System-on-Chip Integration of a New Electromechanical Impedance Calculation Method for Aircraft Structure Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Medale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work reported on this paper describes a new methodology implementation for active structural health monitoring of recent aircraft parts made from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. This diagnosis is based on a new embedded method that is capable of measuring the local high frequency impedance spectrum of the structure through the calculation of the electro-mechanical impedance of a piezoelectric patch pasted non-permanently onto its surface. This paper involves both the laboratory based E/M impedance method development, its implementation into a CPU with limited resources as well as a comparison with experimental testing data needed to demonstrate the feasibility of flaw detection on composite materials and answer the question of the method reliability. The different development steps are presented and the integration issues are discussed. Furthermore, we present the unique advantages that the reconfigurable electronics through System-on-Chip (SoC technology brings to the system scaling and flexibility. At the end of this article, we demonstrate the capability of a basic network of sensors mounted onto a real composite aircraft part specimen to capture its local impedance spectrum signature and to diagnosis different delamination sizes using a comparison with a baseline.

  4. System-on-chip integration of a new electromechanical impedance calculation method for aircraft structure health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Zedek, Sabeha; Medale, Daniel; Rolet, Sebastien; Fourniols, Jean Yves

    2012-10-11

    The work reported on this paper describes a new methodology implementation for active structural health monitoring of recent aircraft parts made from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. This diagnosis is based on a new embedded method that is capable of measuring the local high frequency impedance spectrum of the structure through the calculation of the electro-mechanical impedance of a piezoelectric patch pasted non-permanently onto its surface. This paper involves both the laboratory based E/M impedance method development, its implementation into a CPU with limited resources as well as a comparison with experimental testing data needed to demonstrate the feasibility of flaw detection on composite materials and answer the question of the method reliability. The different development steps are presented and the integration issues are discussed. Furthermore, we present the unique advantages that the reconfigurable electronics through System-on-Chip (SoC) technology brings to the system scaling and flexibility. At the end of this article, we demonstrate the capability of a basic network of sensors mounted onto a real composite aircraft part specimen to capture its local impedance spectrum signature and to diagnosis different delamination sizes using a comparison with a baseline.

  5. Rapid Development of System-on-Chip (SoC for Network-Enabled Visible Light Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trio Adiono

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Visible Light Communication (VLC is an emerging optical communication technology with rapid development nowadays. VLC is considered as a compliment and successor of radio-frequency (RF wireless communication. There are various typical implementations of VLC in which one of them is for exchanging data TCP/IP packets, thus the user can browse the internet as in established Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi technology. Briefly, we can call it by Light fidelity (Li-Fi. This paper described the design and implementation of System-on-Chip (SoC subsystem for Li-Fi application where the implemented SoC consists of hardware (H/W and software (S/W. In the H/W aspect, Physical Layer (PHY is made by using UART communication with Ethernet connection to communicate with Host/Device personal-computer (PC. In the S/W aspect, Xillinux operating system (OS is used. The H/W- as well as S/W-SoC, are realized in FPGA Zybo Zynq-7000 EPP development board. The functional test result shows (without optical channel or Zybo-to-Zybo only that the implemented SoC is working as expected. It is able to exchange TCP/IP packets between two PCs. Moreover, Ethernet connection has bandwidth up to 83.6 Mbps and PHY layer baud rate has bandwidth up to 921600 bps.

  6. Ternary system of cesium, rubidium and lead iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchanskaya, V.V.; Dunaeva, T.I.; Il'yasov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Meltability diagram of ternary system (CsI) 2 -(RbI) 2 -PbI 2 has been studied. The liquidus of the given system consists of crystallization fields of solid solutions (CsI-RbI) and (CsI·PbI 2 -RbI-PbI 2 ), fields of incongruently melting compounds 9RbI·PbI 2 , 4CsI·PbI 2 and field of PbI 2 component. In the system two nonvariant points at 410 and 380 deg C are detected

  7. Global Production Networks, Innovation, and Work: Why Chip and System Design in the IT Industry are Moving to Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Ernst; Boy Luethje

    2003-01-01

    This paper was prepared as an issue paper, to be discussed at the Planning Meeting of the SSRC on "Emerging Pathways to Innovation in Asia," September 12-13, 2003. The paper describes a research project that explores why chip design is moving to Asia, despite its high knowledge-intensity. Trade economists would search for an answer by looking at differences in the cost of employing a chip design engineer and comparative factor and resource endowments. However, an analysis of Asia's comparativ...

  8. Planet-planet scattering leads to tightly packed planetary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Sean N.; Barnes, Rory; Veras, Dimitri; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel; Greenberg, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The known extrasolar multiple-planet systems share a surprising dynamical attribute: they cluster just beyond the Hill stability boundary. Here we show that the planet-planet scattering model, which naturally explains the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution, can reproduce the observed distribution of dynamical configurations. We calculated how each of our scattered systems would appear over an appropriate range of viewing geometries; as Hill stability is weakly dependent on the masse...

  9. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING LEADS TO TIGHTLY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Barnes, Rory; Veras, Dimitri; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel; Greenberg, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The known extrasolar multiple-planet systems share a surprising dynamical attribute: they cluster just beyond the Hill stability boundary. Here we show that the planet-planet scattering model, which naturally explains the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution, can reproduce the observed distribution of dynamical configurations. We calculated how each of our scattered systems would appear over an appropriate range of viewing geometries; as Hill stability is weakly dependent on the masses, the mass-inclination degeneracy does not significantly affect our results. We consider a wide range of initial planetary mass distributions and find that some are poor fits to the observed systems. In fact, many of our scattering experiments overproduce systems very close to the stability boundary. The distribution of dynamical configurations of two-planet systems may provide better discrimination between scattering models than the distribution of eccentricity. Our results imply that, at least in their inner regions which are weakly affected by gas or planetesimal disks, planetary systems should be 'packed', with no large gaps between planets.

  10. Virtualization and emulation of a CAN device on a multi-processor system on chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breaban, G.D.; Koedam, M.L.P.J.; Stuijk, S.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    The increasing number of applications implemented on modern vehicles leads to the use of multi-core platforms in the automotive field. As the number of I/O interfaces offered by these platforms is typically lower than the number of integrated applications, a solution is needed to provide access to

  11. Time synchronization for an emulated CAN device on a Multi-Processor System on Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breaban, G.; Koedam, M.; Stuijk, S.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of applications implemented on modern vehicles leads to the use of multi-core platforms in the automotive field. As the number of I/O interfaces offered by these platforms is typically lower than the number of integrated applications, a solution is needed to provide access to

  12. Fluxless Bonding Processes Using Silver-Indium System for High Temperature Electronics and Silver Flip-Chip Interconnect Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Yun

    In this dissertation, fluxless silver (Ag)-indium (In) binary system bonding and Ag solid-state bonding are used between different bonded pairs which have large thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) mismatch and flip-chip interconnect bonding application. In contrast to the conventional soldering process, fluxless bonding technique eliminates contamination and reliability problems caused by flux to fabricate high quality joints. There are two section are reported. In the first section, the reactions of Ag-In binary system are presented. In the second section, the high melting temperature, thermal and electrical conductivity joint materials bonding by either Ag-In binary system bonding or solid-state bonding processes for different bonded pairs and flip-chip application are designed, developed, and reported. Our group have studied Ag-In system for several years and developed the bonding processes successfully. However, the detailed reactions of Ag and In were seldom studied. To design a proper bonding structure, it is necessary to understand the reaction between Ag and In. The systematic experiments were performed to investigate these reactions. A 40 um Ag layer was electroplated on copper (Cu) substrates, followed by indium layers of 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 um, respectively. The samples were annealed at 180 °C in 0.1 torr vacuum. For samples with In thickness less than 5 mum, the joint compositions are Ag2In only (1 um) or AgIn2, Ag2In, and Ag solid solution (Ag) after annealing. No indium is identified. For 10 and 15 um thick In samples, In covers almost over the entire sample surface after annealing. Later, an Ag layer was annealed at 450 °C for 3 hours to grow Ag grains, followed by plating 10 um In and annealing at 180 °C. By annealing Ag before plating In, more In is kept in the structure during annealing at 180 °C. Based on above results, for those designs with In thinner than 5 um, the Ag layer needs to be annealed, prior to In plating in order to make a

  13. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  14. Study on the Thermal Resistance of Multi-chip Module High Power LED Packaging Heat Dissipation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailin Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal resistance is a key technical index which indicates the thermal management of multi-chip module high power LED (MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system. In this paper, the prototype structure of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is proposed to study the reliable thermal resistance calculation method. In order to analyze the total thermal resistance of the MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system, three kinds of thermal resistance calculation method including theoretical calculation, experimental testing and finite element simulation are developed respectively. Firstly, based on the thermal resistance network model and the principle of steady state heat transfer, the theoretical value of total thermal resistance is 6.111 K/W through sum of the thermal resistance of every material layer in the major direction of heat flow. Secondly, the thermal resistance experiment is carried out by T3Ster to obtain the experimental result of total thermal resistance, and the value is 6.729 K/W. Thirdly, a three-dimensional finite element model of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is established, and the junction temperature experiment is also performed to calculated the finite element simulated result of total thermal resistance, the value is 6.99 K/W. Finally, by comparing the error of all the three kinds of result, the error of total thermal resistance between the theoretical value and experimental result is 9.2 %, and the error of total thermal resistance between the experimental result and finite element simulation is only about -3.9 %, meanwhile, the main reason of each error is discussed respectively.

  15. Using single cell cultivation system for on-chip monitoring of the interdivision timer in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloviev Mikhail

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of cell cycle progression in changing environments is vital for cell survival and maintenance, and different regulation mechanisms based on cell size and cell cycle time have been proposed. To determine the mechanism of cell cycle regulation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed an on-chip single-cell cultivation system that allows for the strict control of the extracellular environment. We divided the Chlamydomonas cell cycle into interdivision and division phases on the basis of changes in cell size and found that, regardless of the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and the extent of illumination, the length of the interdivision phase was inversely proportional to the rate of increase of cell volume. Their product remains constant indicating the existence of an 'interdivision timer'. The length of the division phase, in contrast, remained nearly constant. Cells cultivated under light-dark-light conditions did not divide unless they had grown to twice their initial volume during the first light period. This indicates the existence of a 'commitment sizer'. The ratio of the cell volume at the beginning of the division phase to the initial cell volume determined the number of daughter cells, indicating the existence of a 'mitotic sizer'.

  16. A Chip-Level BSOR-Based Linear GSIC Multiuser Detector for Long-Code CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benyoucef

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a chip-level linear group-wise successive interference cancellation (GSIC multiuser structure that is asymptotically equivalent to block successive over-relaxation (BSOR iteration, which is known to outperform the conventional block Gauss-Seidel iteration by an order of magnitude in terms of convergence speed. The main advantage of the proposed scheme is that it uses directly the spreading codes instead of the cross-correlation matrix and thus does not require the calculation of the cross-correlation matrix (requires 2NK2 floating point operations (flops, where N is the processing gain and K is the number of users which reduces significantly the overall computational complexity. Thus it is suitable for long-code CDMA systems such as IS-95 and UMTS where the cross-correlation matrix is changing every symbol. We study the convergence behavior of the proposed scheme using two approaches and prove that it converges to the decorrelator detector if the over-relaxation factor is in the interval ]0, 2[. Simulation results are in excellent agreement with theory.

  17. A Chip-Level BSOR-Based Linear GSIC Multiuser Detector for Long-Code CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyoucef M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a chip-level linear group-wise successive interference cancellation (GSIC multiuser structure that is asymptotically equivalent to block successive over-relaxation (BSOR iteration, which is known to outperform the conventional block Gauss-Seidel iteration by an order of magnitude in terms of convergence speed. The main advantage of the proposed scheme is that it uses directly the spreading codes instead of the cross-correlation matrix and thus does not require the calculation of the cross-correlation matrix (requires floating point operations (flops, where is the processing gain and is the number of users which reduces significantly the overall computational complexity. Thus it is suitable for long-code CDMA systems such as IS-95 and UMTS where the cross-correlation matrix is changing every symbol. We study the convergence behavior of the proposed scheme using two approaches and prove that it converges to the decorrelator detector if the over-relaxation factor is in the interval ]0, 2[. Simulation results are in excellent agreement with theory.

  18. Enabling Lead Free Interconnects in DoD Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    STATEMENT Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT An enhanced multi-pronged technology transfer approach will be designed to communicate...the needs of the weapon system program managers. Examples of risk will be given and information will be provided on where to access more detailed...Paul Zutter, Janelle Fowler, Holley Wingard, Jon Ahlbin, Charles Peltier, – Air Force • Paul Steiner, Tim Kalt, Gary Dowdy – NAVSEA • Mick Miller

  19. Leading Edge. Volume 7, Number 3. Systems Safety Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    foods were not always safe to eat given the sanitary conditions of the day. In 1943, the psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed a five-level... hierarchy of basic human needs, and safety was number two on this list. System safety is a specialized and formalized extension of our in- herent drive for...factors, hazards, mishaps, and ef- fects. The following is an example of each element within the hierarchy : An exposed sharp edge in a relay cabi- net

  20. Enabling adaptive system leadership: teachers leading professional development

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Internationally, there is increasing emphasis on teacher leadership of professional development. This provides opportunities for teachers to initiate and facilitate professional learning activities beyond their own schools. There is a need for theoretical tools to analyse their leadership activity and how to support it. Constructs from complexity leadership theory and the concept of teacher system leadership are used to develop a framework to analyse the purposes and practices of teacher prof...

  1. Simplification of the lead out system for an ionizing additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val'dberg, A.Yu.; Dubinskaya, F.E.; Tkachenko, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    Two types of the ionizing addition K 2 CO 3 output MHD-generator systems are studied: the wet system with a Venture scrubber (for peak-load power stations with a MDH-generator (MHDPS)), and wet electrical filter systems (for base-load MHDPS), also the possibility of trapping the ionizing addition by a dry electrical filter. An experimental installation has been designed including a foam apparatus for cooling and humidifying gases, a Venturi tube in which deposition of potash particles on drops of liquid occurs, and a cyclone of a drop catcher. Spraying is performed with the addition solution circulating in a closed contour. The solution accumulates in a tank, is cleaned by a filter from where the solution is fed to the foam apparatus through a heat exchanger. To determine the influence of the temperature on the catching efficiency of the Venturi scrubber the spraying on the foam apparatus is switched off. The studies indicate that the elimination of the expensive and huge foam apparatus would result in an economy of about 1 ruble/KW of installed power. The efficiency of the electrical method of catching the ionizing addition from the exhaust gases of the MHD-generator is investigated by means of dry electrical filter. The possibility in principle is found of the exhaust gas scrubbing from additions at elevated temperatures (90-160degC), i.e. without preliminary gas treatment in wet-type apparatus. (author)

  2. Cache-aware network-on-chip for chip multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatas, Konstantinos; Kyriacou, Costas; Dekoulis, George; Demetriou, Demetris; Avraam, Costas; Christou, Anastasia

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the hardware prototype of a Network-on-Chip (NoC) for a chip multiprocessor that provides support for cache coherence, cache prefetching and cache-aware thread scheduling. A NoC with support to these cache related mechanisms can assist in improving systems performance by reducing the cache miss ratio. The presented multi-core system employs the Data-Driven Multithreading (DDM) model of execution. In DDM thread scheduling is done according to data availability, thus the system is aware of the threads to be executed in the near future. This characteristic of the DDM model allows for cache aware thread scheduling and cache prefetching. The NoC prototype is a crossbar switch with output buffering that can support a cache-aware 4-node chip multiprocessor. The prototype is built on the Xilinx ML506 board equipped with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA.

  3. Influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time for multi-stage production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Altendorfer, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    In this paper the influence of different dispatching rules on the average production lead time is investigated. Two theorems based on covariance between processing time and production lead time are formulated and proved theoretically. Theorem 1 links the average production lead time to the "processing time weighted production lead time" for the multi-stage production systems analytically. The influence of different dispatching rules on average lead time, which is well known from simulation and empirical studies, can be proved theoretically in Theorem 2 for a single stage production system. A simulation study is conducted to gain more insight into the influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time in a multi-stage production system. We find that the "processing time weighted average production lead time" for a multi-stage production system is not invariant of the applied dispatching rule and can be used as a dispatching rule independent indicator for single-stage production systems.

  4. Effects of a chronic lead intoxication on the pathophysiological changes in the digestive system and interactions of lead with trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dobrakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead compounds are still the most dangerous poisons. The effects of lead intoxication occur mainly as a result of environmental exposure through lead paints, dust, soil, potable water. Pathophysiology of lead poisoning is still poorly understood, especially gastrointestinal and hepatological aspects. In consequence, the aim of the paper is to present the most important data concerning the effects of chronic lead exposure on the digestive system and the interactions between lead and selected trace elements.

  5. Test and improvement of readout system based on APV25 chip for GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shouyang; Jian Siyu; Zhou Jing; Shan Chao; Li Xinglong; Li Xia; Li Xiaomei; Zhou Yi

    2014-01-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) is the most promising position sensitive gas detector. The new generation of readout electronics system includes APV25 front-end card, multi-purpose digitizer (MPD), VME controller and Linux-based acquisition software DAQ. The construction and preliminary test of this readout system were finished, and the ideal data with the system working frequency of 40 MHz and 20 MHz were obtained. The long time running test shows that the system has a very good time-stable ability. Through optimizing the software configuration and improving hardware quality, the noise level was reduced, and the signal noise ratio was improved. (authors)

  6. Photonic network-on-chip design

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Biberman, Aleksandr; Chan, Johnnie; Hendry, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive synthesis of the theory and practice of photonic devices for networks-on-chip. It outlines the issues in designing photonic network-on-chip architectures for future many-core high performance chip multiprocessors. The discussion is built from the bottom up: starting with the design and implementation of key photonic devices and building blocks, reviewing networking and network-on-chip theory and existing research, and finishing with describing various architectures, their characteristics, and the impact they will have on a computing system. After acquainting

  7. Person or system - What leads to surgical advances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean Pf

    2017-01-01

    To understand the relationship between standardisation and originality in surgery, the contributions of three surgeons in the 20th century are analysed. The individual Arbuthnot Lane, the collectivist Robert Jones and the scientist Alexis Carrel changed the practice of orthopaedic surgery. It is argued that the factors influencing innovation are not binary but multifactorial and that advances in surgery occur when individual freedom is permitted within a system. It is concluded that innovation and standardisation in orthopaedic surgery need not conflict with each other.

  8. Controlling Cytomegalovirus: Helping the Immune System Take the Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Hanley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus, of the Herpesviridae family, has evolved alongside humans for thousands of years with an intricate balance of latency, immune evasion, and transmission. While upwards of 70% of humans have evidence of CMV infection, the majority of healthy people show little to no clinical symptoms of primary infection and CMV disease is rarely observed during persistent infection in immunocompetent hosts. Despite the fact that the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, immunologically, CMV hijacks the immune system by infecting and remaining latent in antigen-presenting cells that occasionally reactivate subclinically and present antigen to T cells, eventually causing the inflation of CMV-specific T cells until they can compromise up to 10% of the entire T cell repertoire. Because of this impact on the immune system, as well as its importance in fields such as stem cell and organ transplant, the relationship between CMV and the immune response has been studied in depth. Here we provide a review of many of these studies and insights into how CMV-specific T cells are currently being used therapeutically.

  9. Design, Characterization and Test of the Associative Memory Chip AM06 for the Fast TracKer System

    CERN Document Server

    Liberali, Valentino; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the performance of the new Associative Memory (AM) chip, designed and manufactured in 65 nm CMOS technology. The AM06 is the 6th version of a highly parallel ASIC processor for pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments. The AM06 is based on the XORAM cell architecture, which has been specifically designed to reduce power consumption and control complexity. The AM06 is a large chip, which contains memory banks that store all data of interest. The basic unit is a word of 18 bit. A group of 8 words (each of them related to a detector layer) is called a “pattern”. Each AM06 chip stores 2^17 patterns. The AM06 integrates serializer and deserializer IP blocks (working up to 2.4 GHz), to avoid routing congestion at the board level. AM06 is a complex VLSI chip, designed combining full-custom memory arrays, standard logic cells and IP blocks. It occupies a silicon area of 168 mm^2 and it contains about 421 millions transistors. The AM06 chip is able to perform a synchronous bitwise comparis...

  10. Comparative study of lead borate and bismuth lead borate glass systems as gamma-radiation shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Narveer; Singh, Kanwar Jit; Singh, Kulwant; Singh, Harvinder

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally and calculated theoretically for PbO-B 2 O 3 and Bi 2 O 3 -PbO-B 2 O 3 glass systems using narrow beam transmission method. These values have been used to calculate half value layer (HVL) parameter. These parameters have also been calculated theoretically for some standard radiation shielding concretes at same energies. Effect of replacing lead by bismuth has been analyzed in terms of density, molar volume and mass attenuation coefficient

  11. A novel single-step, multipoint calibration method for instrumented Lab-on-Chip systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Patou, François; Zulfiqar, Azeem

    2014-01-01

    for instrument-based PoC blood biomarker analysis systems. Motivated by the complexity of associating high-accuracy biosensing using silicon nanowire field effect transistors with ease of use for the PoC system user, we propose a novel one-step, multipoint calibration method for LoC-based systems. Our approach...... specifically addresses the important interfaces between a novel microfluidic unit to integrate the sensor array and a mobile-device hardware accessory. A multi-point calibration curve is obtained by generating a defined set of reference concentrations from a single input. By consecutively splitting the flow...

  12. Zero Suppression with Scalable Readout System (SRS) and APV25 FE Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Goentoro, Steven Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Zero suppression is a very useful algorithm in data acquisition and transfer. In this report, I would like to present the basic procedures of the application of Zero Suppression in the ordinary DAQ system that we have ( Date and Amore)

  13. A low-power digital frequency divider for system-on-a-chip applications

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham; Sharaf, Khaled M W; Ibrahim, Magdi Marzouk

    2011-01-01

    and speed. The architecture was implemented on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to verify its operation. Experimental measurements validate system operation with power reduction greater than 40%. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Apparatus, System and Method for Fast Detection of Genetic Information by PCR in an Interchangeable Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA includes an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component, and an optical detection system. The DNA amplification is performed on an interchangeable

  15. Resource Allocation Model for Modelling Abstract RTOS on Multiprocessor System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir; Madsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Resource Allocation is an important problem in RTOS's, and has been an active area of research. Numerous approaches have been developed and many different techniques have been combined for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation in the context...... of modelling an abstract RTOS on multiprocessor SoC platforms. We discuss the implementation details of a simplified basic priority inheritance protocol for our abstract system model in SystemC....

  16. Design of indoor temperature and humidity detection system based on single chip microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiuwei; Fu, Li; Ma, Tianhui

    2018-03-01

    The indoor temperature and humidity detection system based on STC15F2K60S2 is designed in this paper. The temperature and humidity sensor DHT22 to monitor the indoor temperature and humidity are used, and the temperature and humidity data to the user's handheld device are wirelessly transmitted, when the temperature reaches or exceeds the user set the temperature alarm value, and the system sound and light alarm, to remind the user.

  17. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Karen Skotte; Wolff, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible......-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis...

  18. A Facile Droplet-Chip-Time-Resolved Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Online System for Determination of Zinc in Single Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2017-05-02

    Single cell analysis is a significant research field in recent years reflecting the heterogeneity of cells in a biological system. In this work, a facile droplet chip was fabricated and online combined with time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) via a microflow nebulizer for the determination of zinc in single HepG2 cells. On the focusing geometric designed PDMS microfluidic chip, the aqueous cell suspension was ejected and divided by hexanol to generate droplets. The droplets encapsulated single cells remain intact during the transportation into ICP for subsequent detection. Under the optimized conditions, the frequency of droplet generation is 3-6 × 10 6 min -1 , and the injected cell number is 2500 min -1 , which can ensure the single cell encapsulation. ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were used for the quantification of zinc in single cells, and the accuracy was validated by conventional acid digestion-ICPMS method. The ZnO NPs incubated HepG2 cells were analyzed as model samples, and the results exhibit the heterogeneity of HepG2 cells in the uptake/adsorption of ZnO NPs. The developed online droplet-chip-ICPMS analysis system achieves stable single cell encapsulation and has high throughput for single cell analysis. It has the potential in monitoring the content as well as distribution of trace elements/NPs at the single cell level.

  19. Self-Adaptive On-Chip System Based on Cross-Layer Adaptation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kais Loukil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of mobile and battery operated multimedia systems and the diversity of supported applications mount new challenges in terms of design efficiency of these systems which must provide a maximum application quality of service (QoS in the presence of a dynamically varying environment. These optimization problems cannot be entirely solved at design time and some efficiency gains can be obtained at run-time by means of self-adaptivity. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer hardware (HW/software (SW adaptation solution for embedded mobile systems. It supports application QoS under real-time and lifetime constraints via coordinated adaptation in the hardware, operating system (OS, and application layers. Our method relies on an original middleware solution used on both global and local managers. The global manager (GM handles large, long-term variations whereas the local manager (LM is used to guarantee real-time constraints. The GM acts in three layers whereas the LM acts in application and OS layers only. The main role of GM is to select the best configuration for each application to meet the constraints of the system and respect the preferences of the user. The proposed approach has been applied to a 3D graphics application and successfully implemented on an Altera FPGA.

  20. The Development of Power Detection System Using One-Chip Microcontroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sa Hyun; Choi, Nkak II; Lee, Sung Kil; Lim, Yang Su; Cho Geum Bae; Baek, Hyung Lae [Chosun University, Kwangju(Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes on the development of power detection system with one-chop microcontroller. The designed system is composed of power detection circuits and analyzing software. The system detects 3-phases voltage, 3-phases current, external temperature, leakage current and stores in flash memory AT89C52 was used as CPU and AM29F040 was used as memory to store the data. The analysis software was developed to detect the cause of the electrical fire incidents. With a data-compression technology, the data can be stored for the 43.5 days in a normal state, four hours and fifteen minutes in emergency state. (author). 7 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A phase-based stereo vision system-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Javier; Ros, Eduardo; Sabatini, Silvio P; Solari, Fabio; Mota, Sonia

    2007-02-01

    A simple and fast technique for depth estimation based on phase measurement has been adopted for the implementation of a real-time stereo system with sub-pixel resolution on an FPGA device. The technique avoids the attendant problem of phase warping. The designed system takes full advantage of the inherent processing parallelism and segmentation capabilities of FPGA devices to achieve a computation speed of 65megapixels/s, which can be arranged with a customized frame-grabber module to process 211frames/s at a size of 640x480 pixels. The processing speed achieved is higher than conventional camera frame rates, thus allowing the system to extract multiple estimations and be used as a platform to evaluate integration schemes of a population of neurons without increasing hardware resource demands.

  2. A Smart Mobile Lab-on-Chip-Based Medical Diagnostics System Architecture Designed For Evolvability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    for this work. We introduce a smart-mobile and LoC-based system architecture designed for evolvability. By propagating LoC programmability, instrumentation, and control tools to the highlevel abstraction smart-mobile software layer, our architecture facilitates the realisation of new use...

  3. Towards a dependable homogeneous many-processor system-on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, dependable computing systems are widely required in mission critical and human-life critical applications. While the advance in CMOS technology enables smaller and faster circuits, the dependability of modern ICs has worsened as a result of the shrinking dimensions of MOS transistors and

  4. Simulation-based Modeling Frameworks for Networked Multi-processor System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    the requirements to model the application and the architecture properties independent of the NoC, and then use these applications to successfully validate the approach against a reference cycle-true system. The presence of a standard socket at the intellectual property (IP) and the NoC interface in both the ARTS...

  5. Fused Silica Ion Trap Chip with Efficient Optical Collection System for Timekeeping, Sensing, and Emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-22

    17 This can be accomplished by including Raman side-band cooling after Doppler cooling the system for all modes except the soft rotational mode, at...trapped ions. Nature 2010, 465(7268): 590 –593. 4. Islam R, Edwards EE, Kim K, Korenblit S, Noh C, Carmichael H, Lin G-D, Duan L-M, Wang C-CJ, Freericks

  6. Three-stage enzymatic digestive system for a gut-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Pim; Ianovska, Margaryta A.; Mathwig, Klaus; Bouwmeester, Hans; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a three-stage microfluidic system as a cell-free model for digestion in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Larger-scale digestion models are currently being used for pharmacological, toxicological and nutritional studies to determine the possible

  7. Single-chip microcomputer based protection, diagnostic and recording system for longwall shearers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyduk, A.; Krasucki, F. (Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Katedra Elektryfikacji i Automatyzacji Gornictwa)

    1993-05-01

    Presents a concept of microcomputer-aided operation, protection, diagnostics and recording for shearer loaders. A two-stage mathematical model is suggested and explained. The model represents the thermal processes that determine the overcurrent protection of drive motors. Circuits for monitoring fuses, supply voltages, contacts, relays, contactors and electro-hydraulic distributors with the use of transoptors are shown. Recording characteristic operation parameters of a shearer loader during the 5 minutes before a failure is proposed. Protection, diagnosis and control functions are suggested as additional functions to the microcomputer-aided system of shearer loader control being developed at the Silesian Technical University. The system is based on the NECmicroPD 78310 microprocessor. 10 refs.

  8. Blood-brain barrier-on-a-chip: Microphysiological systems that capture the complexity of the blood-central nervous system interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Duc Tt; Bender, R Hugh F; Andrejecsk, Jillian W; Sobrino, Agua; Hachey, Stephanie J; George, Steven C; Hughes, Christopher Cw

    2017-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier is a dynamic and highly organized structure that strictly regulates the molecules allowed to cross the brain vasculature into the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier pathology has been associated with a number of central nervous system diseases, including vascular malformations, stroke/vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various neurological tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. There is a compelling need for representative models of this critical interface. Current research relies heavily on animal models (mostly mice) or on two-dimensional (2D) in vitro models, neither of which fully capture the complexities of the human blood-brain barrier. Physiological differences between humans and mice make translation to the clinic problematic, while monolayer cultures cannot capture the inherently three-dimensional (3D) nature of the blood-brain barrier, which includes close association of the abluminal side of the endothelium with astrocyte foot-processes and pericytes. Here we discuss the central nervous system diseases associated with blood-brain barrier pathology, recent advances in the development of novel 3D blood-brain barrier -on-a-chip systems that better mimic the physiological complexity and structure of human blood-brain barrier, and provide an outlook on how these blood-brain barrier-on-a-chip systems can be used for central nervous system disease modeling. Impact statement The field of microphysiological systems is rapidly evolving as new technologies are introduced and our understanding of organ physiology develops. In this review, we focus on Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) models, with a particular emphasis on how they relate to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, cancer, and vascular malformations. We emphasize the importance of capturing the three-dimensional nature of the brain and the unique architecture of the BBB - something that until recently

  9. A Taxonomy of Reconfigurable Single-/Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Runtime adaptivity of hardware in processor architectures is a novel trend, which is under investigation in a variety of research labs all over the world. The runtime exchange of modules, implemented on a reconfigurable hardware, affects the instruction flow (e.g., in reconfigurable instruction set processors or the data flow, which has a strong impact on the performance of an application. Furthermore, the choice of a certain processor architecture related to the class of target applications is a crucial point in application development. A simple example is the domain of high-performance computing applications found in meteorology or high-energy physics, where vector processors are the optimal choice. A classification scheme for computer systems was provided in 1966 by Flynn where single/multiple data and instruction streams were combined to four types of architectures. This classification is now used as a foundation for an extended classification scheme including runtime adaptivity as further degree of freedom for processor architecture design. The developed scheme is validated by a multiprocessor system implemented on reconfigurable hardware as well as by a classification of existing static and reconfigurable processor systems.

  10. An On-Chip interconnect and protocol stack for multiple communication paradigms and programming models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansson, A.; Goossens, Kees

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of applications, with diverse requirements, are integrated on the same System on Chip (SoC) in the form of hardware and software Intellectual Property (IP). The diverse requirements, coupled with the IPs being developed by unrelated design teams, lead to multiple communication

  11. An on-chip interconnect and protocol stack for multiple communication paradigms and programming models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansson, M.A.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of applications, with diverse requirements, are integrated on the same System on Chip (SoC) in the form of hardware and software Intellectual Property (IP). The diverse requirements, coupled with the IPs being developed by unrelated design teams, lead to multiple communication

  12. Diseño e Implementación de un Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoC Interconectado por una Networks-on-Chip (NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mauricio Chicaiza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente documento se presenta una breve caracterización de los medios de comunicación empleados en arquitecturas multiprocesadas. Esta caracterización tiene como objetivo principal el mostrar un nuevo modelo de comunicación basado en conmutación de paquetes a los cuales se les denomina como Networks-On-Chip (NoC. Esta publicación muestra una arquitectura de red llamada NoC Hermes, la cual fue interconectada a un Multiprocessor-Systems-on-Chip (MPSoC compuesto de cuatro procesadores MicroBlaze. Está conexión se la realizó gracias al diseño y desarrollo de una Interfaz de Red generada en código VHDL. Por medio de la Interfaz de Red se consiguió que los procesadores MicroBlaze interactúen con los Switches de Hermes a fin de crear una arquitectura multiprocesada interconectada por una NoC. Con el motivo de realizar comparaciones también se creó otra arquitectura de multiprocesadores interconectados por buses. Para ambas arquitecturas se desarrolló una aplicación de Esteganografía enla que existe multiprocesamiento de dos procesadores trabajando simultáneamente. Lamentablemente sobre dicha aplicación no fue posible medir directamente la latencia y el consumo de energía, razón por la cual se utilizó simuladores que permitieron estimar dichas mediciones.

  13. [The system design of an intraperitoneal perfusion machine for hyperthermic chemotherapy based on single chip microcomputer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Xuandong; Li, Kaiyang

    2005-06-01

    A new kind of method for intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy has been proved to be very effective for the therapy of gastrointestinal cancer. In this article is reported an intraperitoneal perfusion machine which is designed for instituting the treatment. The liquor of the chemotherapy drug is infused into the abdomen after being heated by heating system; the liquor flows out of the abdomen is abandoned. The temperature of heating and the velocity of flow are controlled by MCU, thus the temperature of the liquor of the chemotherapy drug in the abdomen can be adjusted to the most favarable temperature.

  14. A low-power digital frequency divider for system-on-a-chip applications

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an idea for a new frequency divider architecture is proposed. The divider is based on a coarse-fine architecture. The coarse block operates at a low frequency to save power consumption and it selectively enables the fine block which operates at the high input frequency. The proposed divider has the advantages of synchronous divider, but with lower power consumption and higher operation speed. The design can achieve a wide division range with a minor effect on power consumption and speed. The architecture was implemented on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to verify its operation. Experimental measurements validate system operation with power reduction greater than 40%. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Three-dimensional impedance engineering for mixed-signal system-on-chip applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kyuchul

    frequency of up to 56.2 GHz. The crosstalk between bond pads becomes much smaller than that of conventional p- bulk substrate by using micro-PS. In addition, the use of micro-PS leads to greatly improved transformer performances including higher Q and fr, mutual reactive coupling coefficients with larger useable band-width and maximum available gain by reducing the substrate effect.

  16. A Survey on Formal Verification Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Grimm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The high degree of miniaturization in the electronics industry has been, for several years, a driver to push embedded systems to different fields and applications. One example is safety-critical systems, where the compactness in the form factor helps to reduce the costs and allows for the implementation of new techniques. The automotive industry is a great example of a safety-critical area with a great rise in the adoption of microelectronics. With it came the creation of the ISO 26262 standard with the goal of guaranteeing a high level of dependability in the designs. Other areas in the safety-critical applications domain have similar standards. However, these standards are mostly guidelines to make sure that designs reach the desired dependability level without explicit instructions. In the end, the success of the design to fulfill the standard is the result of a thorough verification process. Naturally, the goal of any verification team dealing with such important designs is complete coverage as well as standards conformity, but as these are complex hardware, complete functional verification is a difficult task. From the several techniques that exist to verify hardware, where each has its pros and cons, we studied six well-established in academia and in industry. We can divide them into two categories: simulation, which needs extremely large amounts of time, and formal verification, which needs unrealistic amounts of resources. Therefore, we conclude that a hybrid approach offers the best balance between simulation (time and formal verification (resources.

  17. Design and test of a novel magnetic lead screw for active suspension system in a vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore the Magnetic Lead Screw is introduced and its benefits when used with an active suspension system are discussed. Based on a model of a quarter car, the design specifications for the MLS active suspension system are found, which leads to a design study. The design study investigates the relation...

  18. Development and production of Lab-on-Chip systems for DNA mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Peter Friis

    as low as 1:200. The developed polymer systems are tested by conducting two different experiments on DNA. Since such experiments are highly sensitive, efforts have been taken in order to lower the autofluorescence of the devices, resulting in a decrease of the background signal to roughly half...... several nanochannels can be placed parallel to each other, a large number of DNA molecules can be investigated. In the second experiment, mapping is performed on human DNA in nanoslit devices. A fluorescent profile is created by heating the sample up to a temperature, where the DNA is partially denatured....... The fluorescent dye will diffuse away from the denatured regions, and by analysing these black areas, the DNA molecule can be identified and potential mutations can be found. In the nanoslits, the DNA is stretched out via a shear flow, resulting in a stretching of more than 95% of the contour length meaning...

  19. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  20. Development of an automated chip culture system with integrated on-line monitoring for maturation culture of retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee-Hae Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In cell manufacturing, the establishment of a fully automated, microfluidic, cell culture system that can be used for long-term cell cultures, as well as for process optimization is highly desirable. This study reports the development of a novel chip bioreactor system that can be used for automated long-term maturation cultures of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. The system consists of an incubation unit, a medium supply unit, a culture observation unit, and a control unit. In the incubation unit, the chip contains a closed culture vessel (2.5 mm diameter, working volume 9.1 μL, which can be set to 37 °C and 5% CO2, and uses a gas-permeable resin (poly- dimethylsiloxane as the vessel wall. RPE cells were seeded at 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 and the medium was changed every day by introducing fresh medium using the medium supply unit. Culture solutions were stored either in the refrigerator or the freezer, and fresh medium was prepared before any medium change by warming to 37 °C and mixing. Automated culture was allowed to continue for 30 days to allow maturation of the RPE cells. This chip culture system allows for the long-term, bubble-free, culture of RPE cells, while also being able to observe cells in order to elucidate their cell morphology or show the presence of tight junctions. This culture system, along with an integrated on-line monitoring system, can therefore be applied to long-term cultures of RPE cells, and should contribute to process control in RPE cell manufacturing.

  1. Kinetic of the Oxygen Control System (OCS) for stagnant lead-bismuth systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefhalm, C.H.; Knebel, J.U.; Mack, K.J.

    2001-09-01

    Within the framework of the HGF strategy fund project 99/16 ''Thermalhydraulic and Material Specific Investigations into the Realization of an accelerator driven system (ADS) to Transmute Minor Actinides'' at the institute for nuclear and energy technology (IKET) investigations on the cooling of thermally high-loaded surfaces with liquid lead bismuth (Pb-Bi) are carried out. To operate a Pb-Bi loop safety, for example in order to cool a spallation target or a blanket of an accelerator driven system (ADS), the control of the oxygen concentration within the liquid metal is an inalienable prerequisite to prevent or minimize corrosion at the structure material. In this report the kinetic behaviour of the oxygen control system (OCS), which was developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, is examined. The OCS controls the chemical potential of oxygen in the liquid metal by regulating the oxygen content in the gas phase which flows over the free surface of the liquid metal. In this work the experimental facility KOCOS (kinetics of oxygen control system) in the karlsruhe lead laboratory (KALLA) was built. A physical diffusion model was utilised and extended to describe the exchange of oxygen between the gas and the liquid metal. The theoretical calculations are in very good agreement to the experimental findings. The OCS allows to control reversibly the oxygen concentration in the liquid metal. According to the observed kinetics of the process one can extrapolate that the control of large volumes, as they are necessary to operate an ADS demonstrator, is possible. Therefore, further experiments in liquid metal loop systems are suggested. (orig.)

  2. Design and Implementation of 8051 Single-Chip Microcontroller for Stationary 1.0 kW PEM Fuel Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs have attracted significant interest as a potential green energy source. However, if the performance of such systems is to be enhanced, appropriate control strategies must be applied. Accordingly, the present study proposes a sophisticated control system for a 1.0 kW PEMFC system comprising a fuel cell stack, an auxiliary power supply, a DC-DC buck converter, and a DC-AC inverter. The control system is implemented using an 8051 single-chip microcontroller and is designed to optimize the system performance and safety in both the startup phase and the long-term operation phase. The major features of the proposed control system are described and the circuit diagrams required for its implementation introduced. In addition, the touch-sensitive, intuitive human-machine interface is introduced and typical screens are presented. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the PEMFC system are briefly examined. Overall, the results confirm that the single-chip microcontroller presented in this study has significant potential for commercialization in the near future.

  3. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children.

  4. Portable capillary electrophoresis-system for on-site food analysis with lab-on-a-chip based contactless conductivity detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Claudia; Sewart, René; Klemm, Richard; Becker, Holger

    2014-06-01

    A portable analytical system for the characterization of liquid environmental samples and beverages in food control was realized. The key element is the implementation of contactless conductivity detection on lab-on-a-chip basis ensuring the system to be operated in a label free mode. Typical target molecules such as small ionic species like Li+, Na+, K+, SO4 2- or NO3-, organic acids in wine whose concentration and ratio to each other documents the wine quality, or caffeine or phosphate in coke were detected. Results from sample matrices like various beverages as water, cola, tea, wine and milk, water from heaters, environmental samples and blood will be presented.

  5. The change of β-adrenergic system after cessation of lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.-R.; Tsao, D.-A.; Yu, H.-S.; Ho, C.-K.

    2005-01-01

    For understanding a reversible or irreversible harm of β-adrenergic system in lead induced cardiovascular disease (hypertension), We set up animal model to estimate the change of blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system after lead exposure withdrawn in the study. We address three topics in this study: (a) the relationship between withdrawal time of lead exposure and β-adrenergic receptor, plasma catecholamine level, blood pressure, and lead level in heart, aorta, and kidney in lead-induced hypertensive rats after lead exposure stopped; (b) the relationship between blood pressure and β-adrenergic receptor in heart, aorta, and kidney; (c) the estimation of relationship between lead withdrawn and the variation of β-adrenergic system. Wistar rats were chronically fed with 2% lead acetate (experimental group) and water (control group) for 2 months. The rats were divided into 8 groups by withdrawal time of lead exposure stopped. Plasma catecholamine level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Radioligand binding assay was measured by a method that fulfilled strict criteria of β-adrenergic receptor using the ligand [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. The levels of lead were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that a close relation between reduced lead level and the plasma catecholamine level decreased, aorta β-adrenergic receptor increased, kidney β-adrenergic receptor diminished, heart β-adrenergic receptor increased, and blood pressure dropped after lead exposure withdrawn. The study on the regulation of β-adrenergic system in lead-induced hypertension after lead withdrawn might also provide insight about the nature of this disease state

  6. Lab-on-a-Chip Based Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWoerd, Mark J.; Brasseur, Michael M.; Spearing, Scott F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a novel technique with which we will grow protein crystals in very small volumes, utilizing chip-based, microfluidic ("LabChip") technology. This development, which is a collaborative effort between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Caliper Technologies Corporation, promises a breakthrough in the field of protein crystal growth. Our initial results obtained from two model proteins, Lysozyme and Thaumatin, show that it is feasible to dispense and adequately mix protein and precipitant solutions on a nano-liter scale. The mixtures have shown crystal growth in volumes in the range of 10 nanoliters to 5 microliters. In addition, large diffraction quality crystals were obtained by this method. X-ray data from these crystals were shown to be of excellent quality. Our future efforts will include the further development of protein crystal growth with LabChip(trademark) technology for more complex systems. We will initially address the batch growth method, followed by the vapor diffusion method and the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The culmination of these chip developments is to lead to an on orbit protein crystallization facility on the International Space Station. Structural biologists will be invited to utilize the on orbit Iterative Biological Crystallization facility to grow high quality macromolecular crystals in microgravity.

  7. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A combined method to estimate the appropriate age value of closed uraniun-lead system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhov, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    A new method is proposed for obtaining the appropriate age values of closed uranium-lead systems taking into account total indeependent information delivered as a result of spectral and isotope-lead analyses. A simple mathematical apparatus which permits to perform a geochronological interpretation of samples using miniature computers is considered and suggested. A simple estimation formula for determining the age of uranium-lead systems under the assumption of model development of isotope ratios of ordinary lead is derived and tested basing on the facts

  9. On-chip antenna: Practical design and characterization considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Salama, Khaled N.; Sedky, S.; Soliman, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the challenges of an emergent field, namely, on-chip antenna design. Consistent with the RF System-on-Chip (SoC) concept, co-design strategy for circuits and on-chip antennas is described. A number of design and layout issues, arising from the highly integrated nature of this kind of systems, are discussed. The characterization difficulties related to on-chip antennas radiation properties are also highlighted. Finally, a novel on-wafer test fixture is proposed to measure the gain and radiation pattern of the on-chip antennas in the anechoic chamber.

  10. On-chip antenna: Practical design and characterization considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2012-07-28

    This paper highlights the challenges of an emergent field, namely, on-chip antenna design. Consistent with the RF System-on-Chip (SoC) concept, co-design strategy for circuits and on-chip antennas is described. A number of design and layout issues, arising from the highly integrated nature of this kind of systems, are discussed. The characterization difficulties related to on-chip antennas radiation properties are also highlighted. Finally, a novel on-wafer test fixture is proposed to measure the gain and radiation pattern of the on-chip antennas in the anechoic chamber.

  11. Test and diagnosis of analogue, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits the system on chip approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yichuang

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive discussion of automatic testing, diagnosis and tuning of analogue, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits, and systems in a single source. The book contains eleven chapters written by leading researchers worldwide. As well as fundamental concepts and techniques, the book reports systematically the state of the arts and future research directions of these areas. A complete range of circuit components are covered and test issues are also addressed from the SoC perspective.

  12. Higher-order spin and charge dynamics in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Stano, Peter; Noiri, Akito; Ito, Takumi; Loss, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2017-09-22

    Understanding the dynamics of open quantum systems is important and challenging in basic physics and applications for quantum devices and quantum computing. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a good platform to explore the physics of open quantum systems because we can tune parameters including the coupling to the environment or leads. Here, we apply the fast single-shot measurement techniques from spin qubit experiments to explore the spin and charge dynamics due to tunnel coupling to a lead in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system. We experimentally observe both spin and charge time evolution via first- and second-order tunneling processes, and reveal the dynamics of the spin-flip through the intermediate state. These results enable and stimulate the exploration of spin dynamics in dot-lead hybrid systems, and may offer useful resources for spin manipulation and simulation of open quantum systems.

  13. Erkitinib, a novel EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor screened using a ProteoChip system from a phytochemical library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung-Yoon; Choi, Young-Jin [Biochip Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Innopharmascreen, Inc., Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan-Won [Biochip Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Biological Science, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In-Cheol, E-mail: ickang@hoseo.edu [Biochip Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Biological Science, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Innopharmascreen, Inc., Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-20

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, including cancer. Therefore PTK inhibitors are currently under intensive investigation as potential drug candidates. Herein, we report on a ProteoChip-based screening of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor, Erkitinibs, from phytochemical libraries. PLC-{gamma}-1 was used as a substrate immobilized on a ProteoChip and incubated with an EGFR kinase to phosphorylate tyrosine residues of the substrate, followed by a fluorescence detection of the substrate recognized by a phospho-specific monoclonal antibody. Erkitinibs inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these data suggest that Erkitinibs can be a specific inhibitor of an EGFR kinase and can be further developed as a potent anti-tumor agent.

  14. Erkitinib, a novel EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor screened using a ProteoChip system from a phytochemical library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung-Yoon; Choi, Young-Jin; Park, Chan-Won; Kang, In-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, including cancer. Therefore PTK inhibitors are currently under intensive investigation as potential drug candidates. Herein, we report on a ProteoChip-based screening of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor, Erkitinibs, from phytochemical libraries. PLC-γ-1 was used as a substrate immobilized on a ProteoChip and incubated with an EGFR kinase to phosphorylate tyrosine residues of the substrate, followed by a fluorescence detection of the substrate recognized by a phospho-specific monoclonal antibody. Erkitinibs inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these data suggest that Erkitinibs can be a specific inhibitor of an EGFR kinase and can be further developed as a potent anti-tumor agent.

  15. Experimental system design of liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler for DFLL-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Li Junge; Xu Shaomei; Weng Kuiping

    2011-01-01

    The liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler is a very important composition in the tritium unit of Chinese Dual-Functional Lithium Lead Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM). In order to complete the construction and run of the bubbler experimental system,overall design of the system, main circuit design and auxiliary system design have been proposed on the basis of theoretical calculations for the interaction of hydrogen isotope with lithium-lead alloy and experiment for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by bubbling with rotational jet nozzle. The key of this design is gas-liquid exchange packed column, to achieve the measurement and extraction of hydrogen isotopes from liquid lithium-lead alloy. (authors)

  16. Do inquiries into health system failures lead to change in clinical governance systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather; Alliex, Selma; Morrison, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the first part of a case study investigation to examine the changes at King Edward Memorial Hospital (KEMH) following an inquiry established to review the quality of obstetric and gynaecological services. Common findings from a range of health inquiries in recent times include that there have been inadequate adverse event reporting systems, the absence of transparent systems for staff and patients to report concerns about quality of patient care, and an ineffective medical credentialing and performance review system. The similarity of findings from many health inquiries raises the question of whether an inquiry does lead to changes to improve patient care and safety. There has been very little reported in the literature about this. Using a case study strategy the areas of medical credentialing, performance review and involvement of consumers in care were chosen as the KEMH clinical governance processes to be examined for changes post inquiry. Documents, archives and interviews were used as data sources for this case study. Documents were examined using a normative analytic approach and the Miles and Huberman framework was used for data analysis of the interviews. There were significant changes in the area of credentialing and performance review evident in analysis of all sources of data. There were some improvements in the processes of involving consumers in care, but deficits were identified in regard to the provision of training and upskilling for clinicians to improve their communication skills and interactions with patients and families.

  17. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR VENTILATION SYSTEM FILTRATION FAILURE LEADING TO AN UNFILTERED RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2005-01-06

    This document analyzed three scenarios involving failures of HEPA filtration systems leading to releases from liquid waste tanks. The scenarios are failure due to high temperature (fire), overpressure (filter blowout), and unfiltered release due to filter failure, improper installation. etc.

  18. A multi-channel low-power system-on-chip for single-unit recording and narrowband wireless transmission of neural signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, A; Ceravolo, M; Zambra, G; Gusmeroli, R; Spinelli, A S; Lacaita, A L; Angotzi, G N; Baranauskas, G; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a multi-channel neural recording system-on-chip (SoC) with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of a 16 amplifiers, an analog time division multiplexer, an 8-bit SAR AD converter, a digital signal processor (DSP) and a wireless narrowband 400-MHz binary FSK transmitter. Even though only 16 amplifiers are present in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64 channels demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. A digital data compression, based on the detection of action potentials and storage of correspondent waveforms, allows the use of a 1.25-Mbit/s binary FSK wireless transmission. This moderate bit-rate and a low frequency deviation, Manchester-coded modulation are crucial for exploiting a narrowband wireless link and an efficient embeddable antenna. The chip is realized in a 0.35- εm CMOS process with a power consumption of 105 εW per channel (269 εW per channel with an extended transmission range of 4 m) and an area of 3.1 × 2.7 mm(2). The transmitted signal is captured by a digital TV tuner and demodulated by a wideband phase-locked loop (PLL), and then sent to a PC via an FPGA module. The system has been tested for electrical specifications and its functionality verified in in-vivo neural recording experiments.

  19. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Okabe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna. In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT, the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction.

  20. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Kenji; Jeewan, Horagodage Prabhath; Yamagiwa, Shota; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto; Akita, Ippei

    2015-12-16

    In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI) chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm) enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna). In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT), the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction.

  1. Changes in blood lead levels associated with use of chloramines in water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Hull, Andrew P; Paul, Christopher J; Galeano, M Alicia Overstreet

    2007-02-01

    More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. We sought to test the potential effect of switching to chloramines for disinfection in water treatment systems on childhood blood lead levels using data from Wayne County, located in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. We constructed a unified geographic information system (GIS) that links blood lead screening data with age of housing, drinking water source, and census data for 7,270 records. The data were analyzed using both exploratory methods and more formal multivariate techniques. The analysis indicates that the change to chloramine disinfection may lead to an increase in blood lead levels, the impact of which is progressively mitigated in newer housing. Introducing chloramines to reduce carcinogenic by-products may increase exposure to lead in drinking water. Our research provides guidance on adjustments in the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program that should accompany changes in water treatment. As similar research is conducted in other areas, and the underlying environmental chemistry is clarified, water treatment strategies can be optimized across the multiple objectives that municipalities face in providing high quality drinking water to local residents.

  2. Issues facing the management of radioactively contaminated lead within the DOE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, M.C.; Kent, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and evaluate the issues that managing and operating contractors in the US DOE system should consider that are associated with management of radioactively contaminated elemental lead. There are many instances where DOE contaminated lead fall within Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation. In light of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), it is becoming increasingly important for additional regulatory options to be explored in order to facilitate proper treatment, storage and disposal of RCRA regulated lead. Various DOE facilities have initiated processes to reuse or recycle contaminated lead. Technologies such as melt-refining, surface blasting, and electromigration are being explored. One or more of these technologies may be the key to reducing contaminated lead inventories in the DOE system. Many DOE facilities are finding that these efforts need to have stringent regulatory evaluation since some alternatives have proven to be environmentally desirable but not economically feasible

  3. Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor Systems and the Fuels and Materials Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Allen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated developments in the consumer energy market have led developers of nuclear energy concepts to consider how innovations in energy technology can be adapted to meet consumer needs. Properties of molten lead or lead-bismuth alloy coolants in lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR systems offer potential advantages for reactors with passive safety characteristics, modular deployment, and fuel cycle flexibility. In addition to realizing those engineering objectives, the feasibility of such systems will rest on development or selection of fuels and materials suitable for use with corrosive lead or lead-bismuth. Three proposed LFR systems, with varying levels of concept maturity, are described to illustrate their associated fuels and materials challenges. Nitride fuels are generally favored for LFR use over metal or oxide fuels due to their compatibility with molten lead and lead-bismuth, in addition to their high atomic density and thermal conductivity. Ferritic/martensitic stainless steels, perhaps with silicon and/or oxide-dispersion additions for enhanced coolant compatibility and improved high-temperature strength, might prove sufficient for low-to-moderate-temperature LFRs, but it appears that ceramics or refractory metal alloys will be necessary for higher-temperature LFR systems intended for production of hydrogen energy carriers.

  4. Organ-Tumor-on-a-Chip for Chemosensitivity Assay: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Kashaninejad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With a mortality rate over 580,000 per year, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide. However, the emerging field of microfluidics can potentially shed light on this puzzling disease. Unique characteristics of microfluidic chips (also known as micro-total analysis system make them excellent candidates for biological applications. The ex vivo approach of tumor-on-a-chip is becoming an indispensable part of personalized medicine and can replace in vivo animal testing as well as conventional in vitro methods. In tumor-on-a-chip, the complex three-dimensional (3D nature of malignant tumor is co-cultured on a microfluidic chip and high throughput screening tools to evaluate the efficacy of anticancer drugs are integrated on the same chip. In this article, we critically review the cutting edge advances in this field and mainly categorize each tumor-on-a-chip work based on its primary organ. Specifically, design, fabrication and characterization of tumor microenvironment; cell culture technique; transferring mechanism of cultured cells into the microchip; concentration gradient generators for drug delivery; in vitro screening assays of drug efficacy; and pros and cons of each microfluidic platform used in the recent literature will be discussed separately for the tumor of following organs: (1 Lung; (2 Bone marrow; (3 Brain; (4 Breast; (5 Urinary system (kidney, bladder and prostate; (6 Intestine; and (7 Liver. By comparing these microchips, we intend to demonstrate the unique design considerations of each tumor-on-a-chip based on primary organ, e.g., how microfluidic platform of lung-tumor-on-a-chip may differ from liver-tumor-on-a-chip. In addition, the importance of heart–liver–intestine co-culture with microvasculature in tumor-on-a-chip devices for in vitro chemosensitivity assay will be discussed. Such system would be able to completely evaluate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET of

  5. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of applicability of lead damper to 3-dimensional isolation system based on loading tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Akihiro

    2003-01-01

    To develop a damper for 3-dimensional base isolation system, horizontal and vertical mechanical properties, effect of loading frequency on vertical mechanical properties, coupled properties between horizontal and vertical directions, stability performance due to cyclic deformation are evaluated experimentally using scale models of lead damper originally developed for horizontal base isolation system. Loading test results are summarized as follows; 1) The lead damper has good vertical damping performance, in that the vertical yield load of the lead damper is three times as large as that for the horizontal direction, and the lead damper shows plastic behavior in the small deformation region. 2) The lead damper shows enough stability for static vertical displacement of ±40 mm. 3) the lead damper shows high stability performance for dynamic cyclic loading test using motions of isolation layer calculated by earthquake response analysis of FBR building subjected to S2-earthquake motion. Thus, applicability of the lead damper to 3-dimensional isolation system is shown from these results. (author)

  7. Effects of chronic lead intoxication on rat serotoninergic system and anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Bouyatas, My Mustapha; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lead exposure has been shown to produce behavioral disturbances in human and animal models. These disturbances are associated with alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS), some of which have been attributed to serotonin (5-HT). This study was undertaken to investigate the chronic effects of lead exposure on the serotoninergic system in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the consequences of its toxicity on rat behavior. Adult male Wistar rats were chronically exposed for 3 months to 0.5% lead acetate in drinking water. The serotoninergic system was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and the anxiety behavior was assessed by the light/dark box test. The results show that chronic lead exposure induces a significant increase of blood and brain lead levels in treated rats compared with controls. The density of the immunoreactive serotoninergic cell bodies was significantly higher in treated rats in all parts of the DRN. Assessment of animal behavior using the light/dark box test showed that lead-treated rats spent significantly more time in the light chamber compared with controls (P=0.001). These findings suggest that lead exposure may possibly induce increased anxiety as a consequence of changes in neuronal 5-HT content in the DRN. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling of the Near Field Coupling Between an External Loop and an Implantable Spiral Chip Antennas in Biosensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the near field coupling between an external hand-held loop antenna and an implantable miniature (1x1 mm) printed square spiral chip antenna used in bio-MEMS sensors for contact-less powering and RF telemetry is investigated. The loop and the spiral are inductively coupled and effectively form a transformer. The numerical results include the quasi-stationary magnetic field pattern of the implanted antenna, near zone wave impedance as a function of the radial distance and the values of the lumped elements in the equivalent circuit model for the transformer.

  9. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang

    2015-01-01

    was capable to detect Salmonella at concentration of 50 cells per test within 40 min. The simple design, together with high level of integration, isothermal amplification, and quantitative analysis of multiple samples in short time will greatly enhance the practical applicability of the LOC system for rapid...... amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system...... and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or at site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic beads-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal...

  10. System upgrade and its complications in patients with a single lead atrial pacemaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Andersen, Henning Rud; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the indications for system upgrade with single lead atrial pacing (AAIR), complications associated with these re-interventions, and possible predictors for system upgrade among patients included in the Danish Multicenter Randomized Trial on AAIR vs. dual-chamber pacing (DDDR) in si...

  11. 75 FR 3178 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Lead System Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Government procurement. Amy G. Williams, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. 0 Accordingly, the..., without change, an interim rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to... limitations on the award of new contracts for lead system integrator functions in the acquisition of major DoD...

  12. Hybrid systems with lead-acid battery and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossen, Andreas; Garche, Juergen; Doering, Harry; Goetz, Markus; Knaupp, Werner; Joerissen, Ludwig

    Hybrid systems, based on a lead-acid battery and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) give the possibility to combine the advantages of both technologies. The benefits for different applications are discussed and the practical realisation of such systems is shown. Furthermore a numerical model for such a hybrid system is described and results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries and PEMFC shows advantages in case of applications with high peak power requirements (i.e. electric scooter) and applications where the fuel cell is used as auxiliary power supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of fuel cells at partial load operation results in a good fuel economy for recharging of lead-acid batteries with a fuel cell system.

  13. Performance of Dower's inverse transform and Frank lead system for Identification of Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, A; Bonizzi, P; Karel, J; Peeters, R

    2015-08-01

    This study performs a comparison between Dower's inverse transform and Frank lead system for Myocardial Infarction (MI) identification. We have selected a set of relevant features for MI detection from the vectorcardiogram and used the lasso method after that to build a model for the Dower's inverse transform and one for the Frank leads system. Then we analyzed the performance between both models on MI detection. The proposed methods have been tested using PhysioNet PTB database that contains 550 records from which 368 are MIs. Two main conclusions are coming from this study. The first one is that Dower's inverse transform performs equally well than Frank leads in identification of MI patients. The second one is that lead positions have a large influence on the accuracy of MI patient identification.

  14. Transport of lead in secondary systems of PWR plants: laboratory and plant investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, D.; Rocher, A.; Nordmann, F.

    1992-01-01

    Both in France and abroad, abnormally high lead concentrations have been found in the deposits on certain steam generator tubes subject to combined inter and transgranular corrosion on the secondary side. Many potential sources of lead have been identified in PWR steam-water system, mainly at the turbine level. Tests on a loop (ORION) have shown that lead (as Pb or PbO) can transport from the condenser to the steam generator and that the contaminant mainly concentrates in flow restricted areas of steam generators

  15. On-chip power delivery and management

    CERN Document Server

    Vaisband, Inna P; Popovich, Mikhail; Mezhiba, Andrey V; Köse, Selçuk; Friedman, Eby G

    2016-01-01

    This book describes methods for distributing power in high speed, high complexity integrated circuits with power levels exceeding many tens of watts and power supplies below a volt. It provides a broad and cohesive treatment of power delivery and management systems and related design problems, including both circuit network models and design techniques for on-chip decoupling capacitors, providing insight and intuition into the behavior and design of on-chip power distribution systems. Organized into subareas to provide a more intuitive flow to the reader, this fourth edition adds more than a hundred pages of new content, including inductance models for interdigitated structures, design strategies for multi-layer power grids, advanced methods for efficient power grid design and analysis, and methodologies for simultaneously placing on-chip multiple power supplies and decoupling capacitors. The emphasis of this additional material is on managing the complexity of on-chip power distribution networks.

  16. The study of the possibility to use CAMEX chips in collider experiments with short bunch crossing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.M.; Chilingarov, A.G.; Serbo, V.V.; Titov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the possibility to use CAMEX chips in several systems of the detector KEDR at the e + e - collider VEPP-4M was performed. The relatively short bunch crossing time at VEPP-4M 60 ns leads to some problems with the use of CAMEX in the standard mode. The different ways to overcome these difficulties are investigated and compared. (orig.)

  17. ALICE chip processor

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This tiny chip provides data processing for the time projection chamber on ALICE. Known as the ALICE TPC Read Out (ALTRO), this device was designed to minimize the size and power consumption of the TPC front end electronics. This single chip contains 16 low-power analogue-to-digital converters with six million transistors of digital processing and 8 kbits of data storage.

  18. Microfungi problem, health aspects. [Storage of wood fuel chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, Raida (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Forest Products)

    1988-11-01

    The storage of wood fuel chips, in general, leads to the establishment of microbial activity in the pile. Fungi are one of these microorganisms which can grow vigorously in stored forest products. Different types of fungi are commonly present on wood chip pile; rot fungi, blue stain fungi and moulds. Each fungis has its optimum temperature and humidity. Fungi also differ in their ability to utilize different components of the biofuel; moulds are unable to degrade lignin and only few species can degrade cellulose. Rot fungi on the other hand can attack all parts of the substrate and degrade it to varying degrees. Sporulation in fungi is their mechanisms for reproduction and survival. The spores are produced asexually in special spore carriers which are specific for each type of fungi. In stored wood chip pile the sporulation of moulds is the source of health hazard due to its ability to produce very large numbers of microspores in a short period. These microspores are usually airborne and they are almost always present in air but their numbers differ with time, weather and location. Most people can tolerate the presence of these microfungi at concentrations up to 10{sup 6} spore/m{sup 3} air, but a more intense exposure of 10{sup 10} spores/m{sup 3} air con provoke allergic reactions in certain individuals causing allergic alveolitis. The growth of different fungi on stored wood chips pile depends on the time and the system of storage that is used for that pile. In general, indoors storage, high moisture contents and excess of fine fractions are factors that could lead to intensive fungal activity. Handling of such material necessitate the use of protective helmet to avoid the risks of allergic reactions. (4 refs.) (au).

  19. Fuzzy Control Model and Simulation for Nonlinear Supply Chain System with Lead Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fuzzy robust control strategy for the nonlinear supply chain system in the presence of lead times is proposed. Based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control system, the fuzzy control model of the nonlinear supply chain system with lead times is constructed. Additionally, we design a fuzzy robust H∞ control strategy taking the definition of maximal overlapped-rules group into consideration to restrain the impacts such as those caused by lead times, switching actions among submodels, and customers’ stochastic demands. This control strategy can not only guarantee that the nonlinear supply chain system is robustly asymptotically stable but also realize soft switching among subsystems of the nonlinear supply chain to make the less fluctuation of the system variables by introducing the membership function of fuzzy system. The comparisons between the proposed fuzzy robust H∞ control strategy and the robust H∞ control strategy are finally illustrated through numerical simulations on a two-stage nonlinear supply chain with lead times.

  20. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, T; Woehrmann, M; Rothermund, M; Huegging, F; Ehrmann, O; Oppermann, H; Lang, K.D

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump depo...

  1. Optimal use of tandem biotin and V5 tags in ChIP assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Kolodziej (Katarzyna); F. Pourfarzad, F. (Farzin); E. de Boer (Ernie); S. Krpic (Sanja); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J. Strouboulis (John)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays coupled to genome arrays (Chip-on-chip) or massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) lead to the genome wide identification of binding sites of chromatin associated proteins. However, the highly variable quality of antibodies and the

  2. Liquid-vapor phase transition upon pressure decrease in the lead-bismuth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. N.

    2009-11-01

    The liquid-vapor phase transitions boundaries were calculated on the basis of the values of vapor pressure of the components in the lead-bismuth system during the stepwise pressure decrease by one order of magnitude from 105 down to 1 Pa. The emergence of azeotropic liquid under pressure lower than 19.3 kPa was ascertained. The emergence of azeotropic mixture near the lead edge of the phase diagram was concluded to be the reason for technological difficulties in the distillation separation of the system into the components in a vacuum.

  3. Study on measurement of leading and trailing edges of blades based on optical scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Bi; Liu, Hongguang; Bao, Longxiang; Li, Di

    2017-10-01

    In the field of aeronautics, the geometry and dimensional accuracy of the blade edges has a large influence on the aerodynamic performance of aero engine. Therefore, a non-contact optical scanning system is established to realize the measurement of leading and trailing edges of blades in a rapid, precise and efficient manner in the paper. Based on the mechanical framework of a traditional CMM, the system is equipped with a specified sensing device as the scanning probe, which is made up by two new-style laser scanning sensors installed at a certain angle to each other by a holder. In the measuring procedure, the geometric dimensions of the measured blade edges on every contour plane are determined by the contour information on five transversals at the leading or trailing edges, which can be used to determine the machining allowance of the blades. In order to verify the effectiveness and practicality of the system set up, a precision forging blade after grinded is adopted as the measured object and its leading and trailing edges are measured by the system respectively. In the experiment, the thickness of blade edges on three contour planes is measured by the optical scanning system several times. As the experiment results show, the repeatability accuracy of the system can meet its design requirements and the inspecting demands of the blade edges. As a result, the optical scanning system could serve as a component of the intelligent manufacturing system of blades to improve the machining quality of the blade edges.

  4. PMMA to SU-8 Bonding for Polymer Based Lab-on-a-chip Systems with Integrated Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Nilsson, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    An adhesive bonding technique for wafer-level sealing of SU-8 based lab-on-a-chip microsystems with integrated optical components is presented. Microfluidic channels and optical components, e.g. waveguides, are fabricated in cross-linked SU-8 and sealed with a Pyrex glass substrate by means...... strength of 16 MPa is achieved at bonding temperatures between 110 oC and 120oC, at a bonding force of 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. The optical propagation loss of multi-mode 10ym (thickness)x 30ym (width)SU-8 waveguides is measured. The propagation loss in PMMA bonded waveguide struc-tures is more than 5 d......B/cm lower, at wavelengths between 600nm and 900 nm, than in similar structures bonded by an intermediate layer of SU-8. Furthermore 950K PMMA shows no tendency to flow into the bonded structures during bonding because of its high viscosity....

  5. Lead coolant test facility systems design, thermal hydraulic analysis and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khericha, Soli, E-mail: slk2@inel.gov [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Harvego, Edwin; Svoboda, John; Evans, Robert [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Dalling, Ryan [ExxonMobil Gas and Power Marketing, Houston, TX 77069 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T and FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research needs listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements were identified as listed below: Bullet Develop and demonstrate feasibility of submerged heat exchanger. Bullet Develop and demonstrate open-lattice flow in electrically heated core. Bullet Develop and demonstrate chemistry control. Bullet Demonstrate safe operation. Bullet Provision for future testing. This paper discusses the preliminary design of systems, thermal hydraulic analysis, and simplified cost estimated. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200 Degree-Sign C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  6. Optimization of a Two Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator for the Integrated Current Lead System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, R.; Matsubara, Y.; Okada, A.; Takami, S.; Konno, M.; Tomioka, A.; Imayoshi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Mito, T.

    2008-03-01

    Implementation of a conventional current lead with a pulse tube refrigerator has been validated to be working as an Integrated Current Lead (ICL) system for the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). Realization of the system is primarily accounted for the flexibility of a pulse tube refrigerator, which does not posses any mechanical piston and/or displacer. As for an ultimate version of the ICL system, a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) lead links a superconducting coil with a conventional copper lead. To ensure the minimization of heat loads to the superconducting coil, a pulse tube refrigerator has been upgraded to have a second cooling stage. This arrangement reduces not only the heat loads to the superconducting coil but also the operating cost for a SMES system. A prototype two-stage pulse tube refrigerator, series connected arrangement, was designed and fabricated to satisfy the requirements for the ICL system. Operation of the first stage refrigerator is a four-valve mode, while the second stage utilizes a double inlet configuration to ensure its confined geometry. The paper discusses the optimization of second stage cooling to validate the conceptual design

  7. Tritium transport modeling at system level for the EUROfusion dual coolant lithium-lead breeding blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgorri, F. R.; Moreno, C.; Carella, E.; Rapisarda, D.; Fernández-Berceruelo, I.; Palermo, I.; Ibarra, A.

    2017-11-01

    The dual coolant lithium lead (DCLL) breeding blanket is one of the four breeder blanket concepts under consideration within the framework of EUROfusion consortium activities. The aim of this work is to develop a model that can dynamically track tritium concentrations and fluxes along each part of the DCLL blanket and the ancillary systems associated to it at any time. Because of tritium nature, the phenomena of diffusion, dissociation, recombination and solubilisation have been modeled in order to describe the interaction between the lead-lithium channels, the structural material, the flow channel inserts and the helium channels that are present in the breeding blanket. Results have been obtained for a pulsed generation scenario for DEMO. The tritium inventory in different parts of the blanket, the permeation rates from the breeder to the secondary coolant and the amount of tritium extracted from the lead-lithium loop have been computed. Results present an oscillating behavior around mean values. The obtained average permeation rate from the liquid metal to the helium is 1.66 mg h-1 while the mean tritium inventory in the whole system is 417 mg. Besides the reference case results, parametric studies of the lead-lithium mass flow rate, the tritium extraction efficiency and the tritium solubility in lead-lithium have been performed showing the reaction of the system to the variation of these parameters.

  8. Minimisation of the LCOE for the hybrid power supply system with the lead-acid battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology of minimisation of the unit cost of production of energy generated in the hybrid system compatible with the lead-acid battery, and used to power a load with the known daily load curve. For this purpose, the objective function in the form of the LCOE and the genetic algorithm method were used. Simulation tests for three types of load with set daily load characteristics were performed. By taking advantage of the legal regulations applicable in the territory of Poland, regarding the energy storing in the power system, the optimal structure of the prosumer solar-wind system including the lead-acid battery, which meets the condition of maximum rated power, was established. An assumption was made that the whole solar energy supplied to the load would be generated in the optimised system.

  9. Decapsulation Method for Flip Chips with Ceramics in Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.; Duh, J. G.

    2008-06-01

    The decapsulation of flip chips bonded to ceramic substrates is a challenging task in the packaging industry owing to the vulnerability of the chip surface during the process. In conventional methods, such as manual grinding and polishing, the solder bumps are easily damaged during the removal of underfill, and the thin chip may even be crushed due to mechanical stress. An efficient and reliable decapsulation method consisting of thermal and chemical processes was developed in this study. The surface quality of chips after solder removal is satisfactory for the existing solder rework procedure as well as for die-level failure analysis. The innovative processes included heat-sink and ceramic substrate removal, solder bump separation, and solder residue cleaning from the chip surface. In the last stage, particular temperatures were selected for the removal of eutectic Pb-Sn, high-lead, and lead-free solders considering their respective melting points.

  10. Inventory control in multi-echelon divergent systems with random lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.C.; Diks, E.B.; Kok, de A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with integral inventory control in multi-echelon divergent systems with stochastic lead times. The policy considered is an echelon stock, periodic review, order-up-to (R, S) policy. A computational method is derived to obtain the order-up-to level and the allocation fractions

  11. Deliberation in the Motor System: Reflex Gains Track Evolving Evidence Leading to a Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selen, L.P.J.; Shadlen, M.N.; Wolpert, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Both decision making and sensorimotor control require real-time processing of noisy information streams. Historically these processes were thought to operate sequentially: cognitive processing leads to a decision, and the outcome is passed to the motor system to be converted into action. Recently,

  12. The quality management system in leading organization of the integrated structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunitsyn A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available the article has analyzed the problem of integrated structure management. The author has noted that the implementation of recommendations outlined in the article will allow building and improving the quality management system in leading organization of integrated structure on a regular basis that meets the requirements.

  13. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Lead-based Paint System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lead-based Paint System of Records collects personally identifiable information, test scores, and submitted fees. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies.

  14. Inventory control in multi-echelon divergent systems with random lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Diks, Erik; de Kok, Ton

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with integral inventory control in multi-echelon divergent systems with stochastic lead times. The policy considered is an echelon stock, periodic review, order-up-to (R, S) policy. A computational method is derived to obtain the order-up-to level and the allocation fractions

  15. An Energy-Efficient Reconfigurable Circuit Switched Network-on-Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Rauwerda, G.K.; Smit, L.T.

    Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient on-chip communication architecture for multi-tile System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. The SoC architecture, including its run-time software, can replace inflexible ASICs for future ambient systems. These ambient systems have to be flexible as well as

  16. A proposed holistic approach to on-chip, off-chip, test, and package interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Dirk J.

    1998-11-01

    The term interconnection has traditionally implied a `robust' connection from a transistor or a group of transistors in an IC to the outside world, usually a PC board. Optimum system utilization is done from outside the IC. As an alternative, this paper addresses `unimpeded' transistor-to-transistor interconnection aimed at reaching the high circuit densities and computational capabilities of neighboring IC's. In this view, interconnections are not made to some human-centric place outside the IC world requiring robustness—except for system input and output connections. This unimpeded interconnect style is currently available only through intra-chip signal traces in `system-on-a-chip' implementations, as exemplified by embedded DRAMs. Because the traditional off-chip penalty in performance and wiring density is so large, a merging of complex process technologies is the only option today. It is suggested that, for system integration to move forward, the traditional robustness requirement inherited from conventional packaging interconnect and IC manufacturing test must be discarded. Traditional system assembly from vendor parts requires robustness under shipping, inspection and assembly. The trend toward systems on a chip signifies willingness by semiconductor companies to design and fabricate whole systems in house, so that `in-house' chip-to-chip assembly is not beyond reach. In this scenario, bare chips never leave the controlled environment of the IC fabricator while the two major contributors to off-chip signal penalty, ESD protection and the need to source a 50-ohm test head, are avoided. With in-house assembly, ESD protection can be eliminated with the precautions already familiar in plasma etching. Test interconnection impacts the fundamentals of IC manufacturing, particularly with clock speeds approaching 1GHz, and cannot be an afterthought. It should be an integral part of the chip-to-chip interconnection bandwidth optimization, because—as we must

  17. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  18. Chronic lead intoxication affects glial and neural systems and induces hypoactivity in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2011-10-01

    Lead is an environmental toxin and its effects are principally manifested in the brain. Glial and neuronal changes have been described during development following chronic or acute lead intoxication, however, little is known about the effects of chronic lead intoxication in adults. In this study we evaluated immunohistochemically the glial and dopaminergic systems in adult male Wistar rats. 0.5% (v/v) lead acetate in drinking water was administrated chronically over a 3-month period. Hypertrophic immunoreactive astrocytes were observed in the frontal cortex and other brain structures of the treated animals. Analysis of the astroglial features showed increased number of astrocyte cell bodies and processes in treated rats, an increase confirmed by Western blot. Particular distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was observed within the blood vessel walls in which dense immunoreactive glial processes emanate from astrocytes. Glial changes in the frontal cortex were concomitant with reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neuronal processes, which seem to occur as a consequence of significantly reduced dopaminergic neurons within the nucleus of origin in the substantia nigra. These glial and neuronal changes following lead intoxication may affect animal behavior as evidenced by reduced locomotor activity in an open field test. These findings demonstrate that chronic lead exposure induces astroglial changes, which may compromise neuronal function and consequently animal behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. A new analytical approach to understanding nanoscale lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-05

    High levels of iron in distributed drinking water often accompany elevated lead release from lead service lines and other plumbing. Lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems are hypothesized to be the result of adsorption and transport of lead by iron oxide particles. This mechanism was explored using point-of-use drinking water samples characterized by size exclusion chromatography with UV and multi-element (ICP-MS) detection. In separations on two different stationary phases, high apparent molecular weight (>669 kDa) elution profiles for (56)Fe and (208)Pb were strongly correlated (average R(2)=0.96, N=73 samples representing 23 single-unit residences). Moreover, (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas exhibited an apparent linear dependence (R(2)=0.82), consistent with mobilization of lead via adsorption to colloidal particles rich in iron. A UV254 absorbance peak, coincident with high molecular weight (56)Fe and (208)Pb, implied that natural organic matter was interacting with the hypothesized colloidal species. High molecular weight UV254 peak areas were correlated with both (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas (R(2)=0.87 and 0.58, respectively). On average, 45% (std. dev. 10%) of total lead occurred in the size range 0.05-0.45 μm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of two methods for blood lead analysis in cattle: graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and LeadCare(R) II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Gaskill, Cynthia; Erb, Hollis N; Ebel, Joseph G; Hillebrandt, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The current study compared the LeadCare(R) II test kit system with graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for blood lead (Pb) analysis in 56 cattle accidentally exposed to Pb in the field. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by LeadCare II within 4 hr of collection and after 72 hr of refrigeration. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and samples that were coagulated (n = 12) were homogenized before analysis. There was strong rank correlation (R(2) = 0.96) between atomic absorption and LeadCare II (within 4 hr of collection), and a conversion formula was determined for values within the observed range (3-91 mcg/dl, although few had values >40 mcg/dl). Median and mean blood pb concentrations for atomic absorption were 7.7 and 15.9 mcg/dl, respectively; for LeadCare II, medians were 5.2 mcg/dl at 4 hr and 4.9 mcg/dl at 72 hr, and means were 12.4 and 11.7, respectively. LeadCare II results at 4 hr strongly correlated with 72 hr results (R(2) = 0.96), but results at 72 hr were lower (P atomic absorption. Although there have been several articles that compared LeadCare with other analytical techniques, all were for the original system, not LeadCare II. The present study indicated that LeadCare II results correlated well with atomic absorption over a wide range of blood Pb concentrations and that refrigerating samples for up to 72 hr before LeadCare II analysis was acceptable for clinical purposes.

  1. Products and stability of phosphate reactions with lead under freeze-thaw cycling in simple systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafsteinsdottir, Erla G., E-mail: erla.hafsteinsdottir@gmail.com [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); White, Duanne A., E-mail: duanne.white@mq.edu.au [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Gore, Damian B., E-mail: damian.gore@mq.edu.au [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Stark, Scott C., E-mail: scott.stark@aad.gov.au [Environmental Protection and Change, Australian Antarctic Division, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Tasmania 7050 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    Orthophosphate fixation of metal contaminated soils in environments that undergo freeze-thaw cycles is understudied. Freeze-thaw cycling potentially influences the reaction rate, mineral chemical stability and physical breakdown of particles during fixation. This study determines what products form when phosphate (triple superphosphate [Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}] or sodium phosphate [Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}]) reacts with lead (PbSO{sub 4} or PbCl{sub 2}) in simple chemical systems in vitro, and assesses potential changes in formation during freeze-thaw cycles. Systems were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles from +10 deg. C to -20 deg. C and then analysed by X-ray diffractometry. Pyromorphite formed in all systems and was stable over multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Low temperature lead orthophosphate reaction efficiency varied according to both phosphate and lead source; the most time-efficient pyromorphite formation was observed when PbSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were present together. These findings have implications for the manner in which metal contaminated materials in freezing ground can be treated with phosphate. - Highlights: > Formation of lead phosphate products in cold environments is identified. > Potential change in formation during freeze-thaw cycling is assessed. > Lead phosphate reaction efficiency varies according to phosphate and lead source. > Pyromorphite formation is stable during 240 freeze-thaw cycles. - Pyromorphite, formed from Pb phosphate fixation, is stable during multiple freeze-thaw cycles but the efficiency of the fixation depends on the phosphate source and the type of Pb mineral.

  2. Products and stability of phosphate reactions with lead under freeze-thaw cycling in simple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsteinsdottir, Erla G.; White, Duanne A.; Gore, Damian B.; Stark, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Orthophosphate fixation of metal contaminated soils in environments that undergo freeze-thaw cycles is understudied. Freeze-thaw cycling potentially influences the reaction rate, mineral chemical stability and physical breakdown of particles during fixation. This study determines what products form when phosphate (triple superphosphate [Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ] or sodium phosphate [Na 3 PO 4 ]) reacts with lead (PbSO 4 or PbCl 2 ) in simple chemical systems in vitro, and assesses potential changes in formation during freeze-thaw cycles. Systems were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles from +10 deg. C to -20 deg. C and then analysed by X-ray diffractometry. Pyromorphite formed in all systems and was stable over multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Low temperature lead orthophosphate reaction efficiency varied according to both phosphate and lead source; the most time-efficient pyromorphite formation was observed when PbSO 4 and Na 3 PO 4 were present together. These findings have implications for the manner in which metal contaminated materials in freezing ground can be treated with phosphate. - Highlights: → Formation of lead phosphate products in cold environments is identified. → Potential change in formation during freeze-thaw cycling is assessed. → Lead phosphate reaction efficiency varies according to phosphate and lead source. → Pyromorphite formation is stable during 240 freeze-thaw cycles. - Pyromorphite, formed from Pb phosphate fixation, is stable during multiple freeze-thaw cycles but the efficiency of the fixation depends on the phosphate source and the type of Pb mineral.

  3. Polonium release from an ATW burner system with liquid lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.; Yefimov, E.; Pankratov, D.

    1998-04-01

    The authors analyzed polonium release hazards in a conceptual pool-type ATW burner with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant. Simplified quantitative models are used based on experiments and real NPP experience. They found little Po contamination outside the burner under normal operating conditions with nominal leakage from the gas system. In sudden gas leak and/or coolant spill accidents, the P contamination level can reach above the regulation limit but short exposure would not lead to severe health consequences. They are evaluating and developing mitigation methods

  4. Performance Recovery of Natural Draft Dry Cooling Systems by Combined Air Leading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling efficiency of natural draft dry cooling system (NDDCS are vulnerable to ambient winds, so the implementation of measures against the wind effects is of great importance. This work presents the combined air leading strategies to recover the flow and heat transfer performances of NDDCS. Following the energy balance among the exhaust steam, circulating water, and cooling air, numerical models of natural draft dry cooling systems with the combined air leading strategies are developed. The cooling air streamlines, volume effectiveness, thermal efficiency and outlet water temperature for each cooling delta of the large-scale heat exchanger are obtained. The overall volume effectiveness, average outlet water temperature of NDDCS and steam turbine back pressure are calculated. The results show that with the air leading strategies inside or outside the dry-cooling tower, the thermo-flow performances of natural draft dry cooling system are improved under all wind conditions. The combined inner and outer air leading strategies are superior to other single strategy in the performance recovery, thus can be recommended for NDDCS in power generating units.

  5. CMOS Image Sensors: Electronic Camera On A Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    Recent advancements in CMOS image sensor technology are reviewed, including both passive pixel sensors and active pixel sensors. On- chip analog to digital converters and on-chip timing and control circuits permit realization of an electronic camera-on-a-chip. Highly miniaturized imaging systems based on CMOS image sensor technology are emerging as a competitor to charge-coupled devices for low cost uses.

  6. New system for digital to analog transformation and reconstruction of 12-lead ECGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothadia, Roshni; Kulecz, Walter B; Kofman, Igor S; Black, Adam J; Grier, James W; Schlegel, Todd T

    2013-01-01

    We describe initial validation of a new system for digital to analog conversion (DAC) and reconstruction of 12-lead ECGs. The system utilizes an open and optimized software format with a commensurately optimized DAC hardware configuration to accurately reproduce, from digital files, the original analog electrocardiographic signals of previously instrumented patients. By doing so, the system also ultimately allows for transmission of data collected on one manufacturer's 12-lead ECG hardware/software into that of any other. To initially validate the system, we compared original and post-DAC re-digitized 12-lead ECG data files (∼5-minutes long) in two types of validation studies in 10 patients. The first type quantitatively compared the total waveform voltage differences between the original and re-digitized data while the second type qualitatively compared the automated electrocardiographic diagnostic statements generated by the original versus re-digitized data. The grand-averaged difference in root mean squared voltage between the original and re-digitized data was 20.8 µV per channel when re-digitization involved the same manufacturer's analog to digital converter (ADC) as the original digitization, and 28.4 µV per channel when it involved a different manufacturer's ADC. Automated diagnostic statements generated by the original versus reconstructed data did not differ when using the diagnostic algorithm from the same manufacturer on whose device the original data were collected, and differed only slightly for just 1 of 10 patients when using a third-party diagnostic algorithm throughout. Original analog 12-lead ECG signals can be reconstructed from digital data files with accuracy sufficient for clinical use. Such reconstructions can readily enable automated second opinions for difficult-to-interpret 12-lead ECGs, either locally or remotely through the use of dedicated or cloud-based servers.

  7. New system for digital to analog transformation and reconstruction of 12-lead ECGs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Kothadia

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe initial validation of a new system for digital to analog conversion (DAC and reconstruction of 12-lead ECGs. The system utilizes an open and optimized software format with a commensurately optimized DAC hardware configuration to accurately reproduce, from digital files, the original analog electrocardiographic signals of previously instrumented patients. By doing so, the system also ultimately allows for transmission of data collected on one manufacturer's 12-lead ECG hardware/software into that of any other. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To initially validate the system, we compared original and post-DAC re-digitized 12-lead ECG data files (∼5-minutes long in two types of validation studies in 10 patients. The first type quantitatively compared the total waveform voltage differences between the original and re-digitized data while the second type qualitatively compared the automated electrocardiographic diagnostic statements generated by the original versus re-digitized data. RESULTS: The grand-averaged difference in root mean squared voltage between the original and re-digitized data was 20.8 µV per channel when re-digitization involved the same manufacturer's analog to digital converter (ADC as the original digitization, and 28.4 µV per channel when it involved a different manufacturer's ADC. Automated diagnostic statements generated by the original versus reconstructed data did not differ when using the diagnostic algorithm from the same manufacturer on whose device the original data were collected, and differed only slightly for just 1 of 10 patients when using a third-party diagnostic algorithm throughout. CONCLUSION: Original analog 12-lead ECG signals can be reconstructed from digital data files with accuracy sufficient for clinical use. Such reconstructions can readily enable automated second opinions for difficult-to-interpret 12-lead ECGs, either locally or remotely through the use of dedicated or cloud

  8. Comparison of Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Bonding for the Integration of Thin Film Metal Electrodes in Injection Molded Polymeric Lab-on-Chip Systems for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga

    2016-01-01

    We compare ultrasonic welding (UW) and thermal bonding (TB) for the integration of embedded thin-film gold electrodes for electrochemical applications in injection molded (IM) microfluidic chips. The UW bonded chips showed a significantly superior electrochemical performance compared to the ones ...

  9. Precision charge amplification and digitization system for a scintillating and lead glass array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Rameika, R.; Arenton, M.

    1989-01-01

    A 544-channel low-noise, high-rate, precision charge amplification and ADC system was constructed for the Fermilab Experiment 705 electromagnetic calorimeter, which employs SCG1-C scintillating glass and SF5 lead glass instrumented with photo-multiplier tubes. A general discussion of the system is given, and the charge amplification, fast trigger pulse generation, and analog to digital conversion aspects of the system are presented in more detail. Performance is evaluated using data from Experiment 705 and from off-line tests. Short and long term pedestal stability, baseline recovery and rate capability, linearity of response, and crosstalk between channels are discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Precision charge amplification and digitization system for a scintillating and lead glass array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Rameika, R.; Arenton, M.; Chen, T.Y.; Conetti, S.; Cox, B.; Etemadi, B.; Fortney, L.; Guffey, K.; Haire, M.

    1989-01-01

    A 544-channel low-noise, high-rate, precision charge amplification and ADC system was constructed for the Fermilab Experiment 705 electromagnetic calorimeter, which employs SCG1-C scintillating glass and SF5 lead glass instrumented with photo-multiplier tubes. A general discussion of the system is given, and the charge amplification, fast trigger pulse generation, and analog to digital conversion aspects of the system are presented in more detail. Performance is evaluated using data from Experiment 705 and from off-line tests. Short and long term pedestal stability, baseline recovery and rate capability, linearity of response, and crosstalk between channels are discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Medicaid CHIP ESPC Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Scanning and Program Characteristic (ESPC) Database is in a Microsoft (MS) Access format and contains Medicaid and CHIP data, for the 50 states and...

  12. On-chip concentration of bacteria using a 3D dielectrophoretic chip and subsequent laser-based DNA extraction in the same chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-hyeong; Lee, Jeong-Gun

    2010-01-01

    We report the on-chip concentration of bacteria using a dielectrophoretic (DEP) chip with 3D electrodes and subsequent laser-based DNA extraction in the same chip. The DEP chip has a set of interdigitated Au post electrodes with 50 µm height to generate a network of non-uniform electric fields for the efficient trapping by DEP. The metal post array was fabricated by photolithography and subsequent Ni and Au electroplating. Three model bacteria samples (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans) were tested and over 80-fold concentrations were achieved within 2 min. Subsequently, on-chip DNA extraction from the concentrated bacteria in the 3D DEP chip was performed by laser irradiation using the laser-irradiated magnetic bead system (LIMBS) in the same chip. The extracted DNA was analyzed with silicon chip-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The total process of on-chip bacteria concentration and the subsequent DNA extraction can be completed within 10 min including the manual operation time.

  13. Study of electromagnetic interference on quench detecting system of HTS current leads for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yanlan; Li, Jiangang; Ji, Zhenshan; Zhu, C.M.; Zhen, L.G.; Xiao, Y.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • EAST HTS superconducting magnet system shall be operating in a very noisy environment. • Voltage taps will have a lot of inductive voltage induced on them which makes quench detection very difficult. • The noise comes from the coupling between rapid pulsed poloidal coils, and radiation coupling interference associated with EAST heating systems;. • A series of related electromagnetic compatibility simulation tests have been carried out. • Electromagnetic noises are well restrained by choosing proper anti-interference means. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) material B-2223/Ag-Au has been used for EAST poloidal field (PF) coil current leads for reducing construction and operation cost of cryogenic system. The quench propagation velocity of HTS superconducting material is several orders of magnitude lower than that of normal low temperature current leads. It is difficult to detect weak signal of quench which is easily influenced by strong electromagnetic interference (EMI). In this paper, the sources of EMI from quench detecting system of high temperature current leads have been introduced. And we have chosen reasonable methods for good transformation and protection on the basis of electromagnetic compatibility simulation diagnosis experiments. Recent experimental results showed that the restraint of EMI has been achieved and has met the requirements of experiment

  14. A study of leading indicators for occupational health and safety management systems in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan M; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Strahlendorf, Peter; Caicco Tett, Louise; Noonan, Joanna; Hayes, Thomas; Van Hulle, Henrietta; Adam, Ryan; Holden, Jeremy; Kent-Hillis, Tracy; McDonald, Mike; Paré, Geneviève C; Lachhar, Karanjit; Silva E Silva, Vanessa

    2018-04-23

    In Ontario, Canada, approximately $2.5 billion is spent yearly on occupational injuries in the healthcare sector. The healthcare sector has been ranked second highest for lost-time injury rates among 16 Ontario sectors since 2009 with female healthcare workers ranked the highest among all occupations for lost-time claims. There is a great deal of focus in Ontario's occupational health and safety system on compliance and fines, however despite this increased focus, the injury statistics are not significantly improving. One of the keys to changing this trend is the development of a culture of healthy and safe workplaces including the effective utilization of leading indicators within Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMSs). In contrast to lagging indicators, which focus on outcomes retrospectively, a leading indicator is associated with proactive activities and consists of selected OHSMSs program elements. Using leading indicators to measure health and safety has been common practice in high-risk industries; however, this shift has not occurred in healthcare. The aim of this project is to conduct a longitudinal study implementing six elements of the Ontario Safety Association for Community and Healthcare (OSACH) system identified as leading indicators and evaluating the effectiveness of this intervention on improving selected health and safety workplace indicators. A quasi-experimental longitudinal research design will be used within two Ontario acute care hospitals. The first phase of the study will focus on assessing current OHSMSs using the leading indicators, determining potential facilitators and barriers to changing current OHSMSs, and identifying the leading indicators that could be added or changed to the existing OHSMS in place. Phase I will conclude with the development of an intervention designed to support optimizing current OHSMSs in participating hospitals based on identified gaps. Phase II will pilot test and evaluate the tailored

  15. A Lab-on-Chip Design for Miniature Autonomous Bio-Chemoprospecting Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoli, S.

    The performance of the so-called ` Lab-on-Chip ' devices, featuring micrometre size components and employed at present for carrying out in a very fast and economic way the extremely high number of sequence determinations required in genomic analyses, can be largely improved as to further size reduction, decrease of power consumption and reaction efficiency through development of nanofluidics and of nano-to-micro inte- grated systems. As is shown, such new technologies would lead to robotic, fully autonomous, microwatt consumption and complete ` laboratory on a chip ' units for accurate, fast and cost-effective astrobiological and planetary exploration missions. The theory and the manufacturing technologies for the ` active chip ' of a miniature bio/chemoprospecting planetary rover working on micro- and nanofluidics are investigated. The chip would include micro- and nanoreactors, integrated MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical System) components, nanoelectronics and an intracavity nanolaser for highly accurate and fast chemical analysis as an application of such recently introduced solid state devices. Nano-reactors would be able to strongly speed up reaction kinetics as a result of increased frequency of reactive collisions. The reaction dynamics may also be altered with respect to standard macroscopic reactors. A built-in miniature telemetering unit would connect a network of other similar rovers and a central, ground-based or orbiting control unit for data collection and transmission to an Earth-based unit through a powerful antenna. The development of the ` Lab-on-Chip ' concept for space applications would affect the economy of space exploration missions, as the rover's ` Lab-on-Chip ' development would link space missions with the ever growing terrestrial market and business concerning such devices, largely employed in modern genomics and bioinformatics, so that it would allow the recoupment of space mission costs.

  16. A novel conductive-polymer-based integration process for high-performance flip-chip packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohokare, Saurabh

    Conductive polymers have recently attracted considerable attention for low-temperature fabrication of lead-free, reworkable, and flexible flip-chip interconnects. Using these materials, I demonstrate in this thesis a process that enables low-cost and high-resolution flip-chip interconnects using conventional micro-fabrication techniques. This fabrication process offers improved performance as compared to conventional flip-chip techniques, such as screen-printing, and allows for definition of interconnects with excellent surface uniformity and control over the bump profile. In order to demonstrate the utility and wide applicability of this process, several test implementations that serve as case studies were investigated. Specifically, novel InGaAsSb avalanche photodiodes (APDs), operating around lambda = 2m and targeted for free-space communication and biomedical spectroscopy applications, were fabricated and flip-chip-integrated to test the static electrical characteristics of the polymer bumps. Additionally, the dynamic electrical performance characteristics of the polymer bumps were studied by using AlGaAsSb/AlGaSb p-i-n photodetectors as a case study. The fabrication of these photodetectors, operating around lambda = 1.55mum and targeted for optical communication applications, was accomplished using a customized inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch process that resulted in a low dark current and excellent speed (3dB bandwidth of 10GHz) and, responsivity (60% external quantum efficiency) characteristics. Furthermore, flip-chip integration was used to demonstrate a three-dimensional, point-to-point micro-optical interconnect, which was 2.33mm-long in a system 15.27mm3 in volume. Lastly, high-speed parallel optical interconnects were demonstrated using polymer-flip-chip-integrated 10GHz vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and DOEs. Such interconnects offer the ability to alleviate the communication bottleneck that is projected to occur in future, high

  17. Multilevel Production Systems with Dependent Demand with Uncertainty of Lead Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibatolah Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a multilevel assembly system with several components in each sublevel. It is assumed that actual lead time for all components is probabilistic; and periodic order quantity (POQ policy for ordering is utilized. If at a certain level a job is not received at the expected time, a delay is incurred at the delivery of production at this level and this may result in backorders of the finished product. It is assumed in this case that a fixed percentage of the shortage is backlogged and other sales are lost. In the real situation, some but not all customers will wait for backlogged components during a period of shortage, such as for fashionable commodities or high-tech products with the short product life cycle. The objective of this study is to find the planned lead time and periodicity for the total components in order to minimize the expected fixed ordering, holding, and partial backlogging costs for the finished product. In this study, it is assumed that a percentage of components at each level are scrap. A general mathematical model is suggested and the method developed can be used for optimization planned lead time and periodicity for such an MRP system under lead time uncertainties.

  18. Influence of liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic on tensile, fatigue and creep properties of ferritic/martensitic and austenitic steels for transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorse, D., E-mail: dominique.gorse-pomonti@polytechnique.edu [CNRS-LSI, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Auger, T. [CNRS-MSSMAT, Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92290, Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Vogt, J.-B.; Serre, I. [CNRS-LMPGM, 59655, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Weisenburger, A. [ForschungszentrumKarlsruheGmbH, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gessi, A.; Agostini, P. [ENEA, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy); Fazio, C. [ForschungszentrumKarlsruheGmbH, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hojna, A.; Di Gabriele, F. [Ustav jaderneho vyzkumu Rez a.s., Husinec 130, Rez 25068 (Czech Republic); Van Den Bosch, J.; Coen, G.; Almazouzi, A. [SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Serrano, M. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-31

    In this paper, the tensile, fatigue and creep properties of the Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) steel T91 and of the Austenitic Stainless (AS) Steel 316L in lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) or lead, obtained in the different organizations participating to the EUROTRANS-DEMETRA project are reviewed. The results show a remarkable consistency, referring to the variety of metallurgical and surface state conditions studied. Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) effects are shown, remarkable on heat-treated hardened T91 and also on corroded T91 after long-term exposure to low oxygen containing Liquid Metal (LM), but hardly visible on passive or oxidized smooth T91 specimens. For T91, the ductility trough was estimated, starting just above the melting point of the embrittler (T{sub M,E} = 123.5 deg. C for LBE, 327 deg. C for lead) with the ductility recovery found at 425 deg. C. LME effects are weaker on 316L AS steel. Liquid Metal Assisted Creep (LMAC) effects are reported for the T91/LBE system at 550 deg. C, and for the T91/lead system at 525 deg. C. Today, if the study of the LME effects on T91 and 316L in LBE or lead can be considered well documented, in contrast, complementary investigations are necessary in order to quantify the LMAC effects in these systems, and determine rigorously the threshold creep conditions.

  19. Leading research of smart structural system; Chiteki kozo system no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The technology trend was surveyed to clarify the themes of smart structural system towards its R and D. The smart structural system is a structural system which incorporates functions of perception, judgment and learning by integrating functions, structures and information, to ensure the structural soundness at real time and control the active-adaptive of shapes. The final goal of it is to make materials and structures similar to organic systems. It has a self-repair function which can detect the generation and propagation of cracks and prevent the destruction positively with conducting self-diagnosis. High performance, high efficiency and energy saving are expected by combining the conversion of design concept into destruction control and the regulation of vibration, noise and shape. Especially, it is effective for the safety of aerospace systems, earthquake disaster measures, and extension of machine life. This report describes the background, purpose, R and D activities in Japan and foreign countries, and basic development themes. In addition, it arranges the needs of various industrial fields systematically, and proposes a concrete concept. Furthermore, the effects expected by the application of smart structural systems and the outline of international technical cooperation are presented. 110 refs., 164 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Study on lead transportation in air-water-paddy system with 210Pb as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuding; Zhang Hairong; Ma Xuejun

    1987-08-01

    With 210 PbCl 2 as tracer, a research into lead sources in brown rice, lead distribution in soil and rice, lead chemical forms in soil and their change with time, availability of soil for rice and effect of soil pH on the Pb adsorption was carried out in air-water-paddy system near cities and towns located upper and middle reaches of Liaohe River, northeastern China. Test soil was light acid meadow brown soil. The Pb proportions in rice grain derived from the soil, airborne dust and irrigation water and the transportation pathway to brown rice were investigated. Transportation coefficients of Pb in the system were determined by tracer experiment. It was indicated that the Pb concentration in rice root, the Pb concentration and its distribution in the soil are main factors effecting Pb transportation to rice. Based on the simulation test, mathematical model for computing soil environmental capacity of Pb in the system is put forward. The soil environmental capacity of Pb computed is 1600 - 1700 ppm, i.e. 3.6 - 3.8 t/ha. The computed result was in agreement with the observed. The mathematical model was also used to compute soil enviromental capacity of those heavy metal corresponding respectively with 203 Hg, 115+115m Cd, 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 65 Ni, 60 Co etc

  1. Novel electrochemical nickel metallization in silicon impedance engineering for mixed-signal system-on-chip crosstalk isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi

    One of the major challenges for single chip radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC's) built on Si is the RE crosstalk through the Si substrate. Noise from switching transient in digital circuits can be transmitted through Si substrate and degrades the performance of analog circuit elements. A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage type structure of through-the-wafer thickness in the Si substrate was demonstrated to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing RE cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure incorporated into the p- Si substrate was realized by electroless Ni metallization over selected regions with ultra-high-aspect-ratio macropores that was etched electrochemically in p- Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by immersing the macroporous Si sample in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni2+ without a reducing agent. It was found that working at slightly elevated temperature, Ni 2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited in the macropores. During the wet chemical process, conformal metallization on the pore wall was achieved. The entire porous Si skeleton was gradually replaced by Ni along the extended duration of immersion. In a p-/p+ epi Si substrate used for high performance digital CMOS, the suppression of crosstalk by the arrayed metallic Ni via structure fabricated from the front p side was significant that the crosstalk went down to the noise floor of the conventional measurement instruments. The process and mechanism of forming such a Ni structure over the original Si were studied. Theoretical computation relevant to the process was carried out to show a good consistency with the experiments.

  2. Partition of lead in milk-pectin aqueous biphasic system with complexation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, P.; Macasek, F.; Gerhart, P.

    1997-01-01

    In present work, decontamination of raw cow milk from lead was investigated using the 'membraneless dialysis'. The 4% w/w solutions of apple pectin, degree of esterification 70%, containing various complexing agents were used for experiments at the initial volume ration pectin : milk = 3:7 which changed to 8:2 at equilibration. Radioactive indicator 212 Pb was prepared from 228 Th emanator. After dissolution in Jennes-Koops buffer with 10 -5 M Pb 2+ carrier, milk was spiked with the indicator for 100 minutes. Distribution equilibrium of water and lead was achieved after next 100 minutes but yield of lead extraction into pectin phase was less then 2.3% in the case of raw milk, and less then 3.0% in the case of pasteurized milk. Due to denaturation of raw milk, there are strongly limited possibilities to influence the radionuclide partition in the systems. Various non-toxic complexation agents (glycine, alanine, histidine, cysteine, Edtacal) were applied to improve extraction of lead to pectin phase. Glycine and histidine have not influence on lead extraction yields but there was observed an increased yield, 3,8% for alanine and even 25% for 0.002 M cysteine. As the most interesting appeared application of Edtacal, calcium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA by which the recovery of lead with with pectin phase reached about 80% at concentration of EDTA in initial pectin phase 0.001 M. The retention of Pb 2+ cation in milk phase is extraordinary high as compared with strontium and corresponds to behavior of trivalent ions what is attributed to specific interactions with thiol groups of milk components

  3. Design optimization of radiation shielding structure for lead slowing-down spectrometer system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Dong; Ahn, Sangjoon; Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je

    2015-01-01

    A lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS) system is a promising nondestructive assay technique that enables a quantitative measurement of the isotopic contents of major fissile isotopes in spent nuclear fuel and its pyroprocessing counterparts, such as 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu, and, potentially, minor actinides. The LSDS system currently under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea) is planned to utilize a high-flux (>1012 n/cm2·s) neutron source comprised of a high...

  4. Two-stage model of development of heterogeneous uranium-lead systems in zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, N.N.; Zevchenkov, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of isotope systems of multiphase zircons at their two-stage distortion is considered. The results of calculations testify to the fact that linear correlations on the diagram with concordance can be explained including two-stage discovery of U-Pb systems of cogenetic zircons if zircon is considered physically heterogeneous and losing in its different part different ratios of accumulated radiogenic lead. ''Metamorphism ages'' obtained by these two-stage opening zircons are intermediate, and they not have geochronological significance while ''crystallization ages'' remain rather close to real ones. Two-stage opening zircons in some cases can be diagnosed by discordance of their crystal component

  5. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  6. "Hook"-calibration of GeneChip-microarrays: Chip characteristics and expression measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohn Knut

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce biases and uncertainty in downstream analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labelling, hybridization, and scanning causing chip-specific systematic variations on the raw intensity level. Also the chosen array-type and the up-to-dateness of the genomic information probed on the chip affect the quality of the expression measures. In the accompanying publication we presented theory and algorithm of the so-called hook method which aims at correcting expression data for systematic biases using a series of new chip characteristics. Results In this publication we summarize the essential chip characteristics provided by this method, analyze special benchmark experiments to estimate transcript related expression measures and illustrate the potency of the method to detect and to quantify the quality of a particular hybridization. It is shown that our single-chip approach provides expression measures responding linearly on changes of the transcript concentration over three orders of magnitude. In addition, the method calculates a detection call judging the relation between the signal and the detection limit of the particular measurement. The performance of the method in the context of different chip generations and probe set assignments is illustrated. The hook method characterizes the RNA-quality in terms of the 3'/5'-amplification bias and the sample-specific calling rate. We show that the proper judgement of these effects requires the disentanglement of non-specific and specific hybridization which, otherwise, can lead to misinterpretations of expression changes. The consequences of modifying probe/target interactions by either changing the labelling protocol or by substituting RNA by DNA targets are demonstrated. Conclusion The single-chip based hook-method provides accurate expression estimates and chip-summary characteristics

  7. Comparison of chemical solution deposition systems for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, F.; Daglish, M.; Kemmitt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) were prepared from five chemical solution deposition (CSD) systems, namely methoxyethanol, citrate, diol, acetic acid and triethanolamine. Physical characteristics of the solutions, processing parameters and physical and electrical properties of the films were used to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different chemical systems. All the CSD systems decomposed to produce single phase perovskite PZT at temperatures above 650 deg C. Thin film deposition was influenced by the specific characteristics of each system such as wetting on the substrate and viscosity. Distinct precursor effects on the thin film crystallinity and electrical performance were revealed. The diol route yielded films with the highest crystallite size, highest permittivity and lowest loss tangent. The relative permittivity exhibited by films made by the other routes were 25% to 35% lower at equivalent thicknesses. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  8. Review and Perspectives of Aurivillius Structures as a Lead-Free Piezoelectric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Moure

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU-Directives 2002/95/EC, 2002/96/EC, lead-based piezoceramics must be substituted in the future with more environmentally friendly alternatives, only when a reliable alternative is found. This is why an increasing interest has grown in the research community to find lead free piezoelectric materials that fulfil the requirements for this substitution. Different families of compounds have been shown to be possible candidates for this use, such as bismuth and niobates based perovskites, pyrochlores, etc. However, a material with piezoelectric coefficients similar to those of PZT (lead zirconate titanate, Pb[ZrxTi1-x]O3 has not been yet found. Besides, each of these families has its specific characteristics in terms of remnant polarization, coercive field or application temperature. Thus, the choice of each material should be made according to the specific needs of the application. In this sense, Aurivillius-type structure materials (also known as Bismuth Layered Structure Ferroelectrics, BLSF can take advantage of their specific properties for uses as Lead Free Piezoelectric systems. Some of them have a high Curie temperature, which make them good candidates to be used as high temperature piezoelectrics; high coercive fields, which facilitates their use as actuators; or a high switching fatigue resistance, which can be useful for future applications as Ferroelectric Random Access Memories (FERAM.

  9. Preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination in environmental samples using polyurethane foam/Me-BTANC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira Gama, Ednilton; Silva Lima, Adriana da; Azevedo Lemos, Valfredo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, polyurethane foam (PUF) loaded with 2-(6'-methyl-2'-benzothiazolylazo)chromotropic acid (Me-BTANC) was packed in a minicolumn and it was used in an on-line preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination. Optimum hydrodynamic and chemical conditions for metal sorption were investigated. The effects of several foreign substances on the adsorption of cadmium and lead were also reported. The enrichment factor obtained was 37 (Cd and Pb) for 180 s preconcentration time. The proposed procedures allowed the determination of metals with detection limits (3σ) of 0.80 and 3.75 μg L -1 (0.10 and 0.47 μg g -1 of solid sample) for cadmium and lead, respectively. The precision of the procedures was also calculated: 3.1 (Cd 10 μg L -1 ) and 4.4% (Pb 100 μg L -1 ). The accuracy of the procedure was checked by analysis of the certified reference materials Spinach Leaves and Fish Tissue. Cadmium and lead contents in environmental samples (black tea, spinach leaves, natural and tap water) were determined by applying the proposed procedure

  10. Regional and long-term patterns of lead concentrations in fluvial, marine and terrestrial systems and humans in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    Lead contamination of abiotic and biotic systems has been studied closely since the early 1970s, when lead was firstly perceived as an environmental problem. Lead emission reduction policies were implemented throughout Europe during that time. Nonetheless, analyses of lead loads in aquatic systems, such as the river Elbe, showed no decline over time in either suspended matter or surface sediments. Regional differences in lead concentrations of fluvial systems were found, due to tidal influence, runoff and local emissions. Lead contamination of sediments from the North Sea was highest in estuaries. Concentrations in sediment cores were quite stable down to the depth of background values, due to bioturbation, flow, waves and meandering channels. Terrestrial soils in Europe were highly polluted in industrial and ore mining areas and large cities. No decline in lead concentrations was evident in foraminifers, bladder wrack or fish. It was found that contamination in sediments, mammals and fish was higher in coastal zones than in the open sea. In contrast to in aquatic organisms, positive impacts of lead reduction regulations were detected in terrestrial plants, which adsorbed or took up lead mainly through atmospheric lead deposition. European lead concentrations in plants decreased coincidently with lead emissions. That trend could also be identified in the blood lead levels of the human population in Europe: since 1979 they have declined in every group of the population. Mainly influenced by age, sex and the living environment, overall, the lead loads of humans had never been high enough to cause health danger. (orig.)

  11. Solving wood chip transport problems with computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Bradley; Sharon A. Winsauer

    1976-01-01

    Efficient chip transport operations are difficult to achieve due to frequent and often unpredictable changes in distance to market, chipping rate, time spent at the mill, and equipment costs. This paper describes a computer simulation model that allows a logger to design an efficient transport system in response to these changing factors.

  12. On-chip integrated lasers for biophotonic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mappes, Timo; Wienhold, Tobias; Bog, Uwe

    Meeting the need of biomedical users, we develop disposable Lab-on-a-Chip systems based on commercially available polymers. We are combining passive microfluidics with active optical elements on-chip by integrating multiple solid-state and liquid-core lasers. While covering a wide range of laser ...

  13. SUNRAYCE 1993: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have 'hands-on' contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  14. SUNRAYCE 93: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-11-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems, and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use, and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  15. Elemental Technologies for Lead-Bismuth Spallation Target System in J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Saito, S.; Sugawara, T.; Takei, H.; Sasa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been researching and developing an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) as a dedicated system for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides. The ADS proposed by JAEA uses the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy as a spallation target material and a coolant. In the various R and D for ADS, construction of the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is planned under the framework of the J-PARC project as a preceding step before the construction of demonstrative ADS. In this R and D, TEF is considered for the experimental investigation of the feasibility of the beam window, the structural materials, and to investigate the operation properties of the target system by using 400 MeV-250 kW proton beam. This target system is consisted of various elements and must be able to operate without troubles during an operation period of TEF facility. Furthermore, in the maintenance period after the operation, because the inside of a hot cell storing a target is exposed to strong radiations, all elements must be designed as remote control devices. In this study, the present conditions of the design and the result of performance test of each important elements were confirmed in the realisation of the LBE target system, such as the monitoring system of flow rate by using the ultrasonic method, the heater system with the metallic heat insulator joined to a flow channel of LBE, and the operability of remote handing. (authors)

  16. Miniature stick-packaging--an industrial technology for pre-storage and release of reagents in lab-on-a-chip systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oordt, Thomas; Barb, Yannick; Smetana, Jan; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2013-08-07

    Stick-packaging of goods in tubular-shaped composite-foil pouches has become a popular technology for food and drug packaging. We miniaturized stick-packaging for use in lab-on-a-chip (LOAC) systems to pre-store and on-demand release the liquid and dry reagents in a volume range of 80-500 μl. An integrated frangible seal enables the pressure-controlled release of reagents and simplifies the layout of LOAC systems, thereby making the package a functional microfluidic release unit. The frangible seal is adjusted to defined burst pressures ranging from 20 to 140 kPa. The applied ultrasonic welding process allows the packaging of temperature sensitive reagents. Stick-packs have been successfully tested applying recovery tests (where 99% (STDV = 1%) of 250 μl pre-stored liquid is released), long-term storage tests (where there is loss of only <0.5% for simulated 2 years) and air transport simulation tests. The developed technology enables the storage of a combination of liquid and dry reagents. It is a scalable technology suitable for rapid prototyping and low-cost mass production.

  17. Mobilization and distribution of lead originating from roof dust and wet deposition in a roof runoff system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianghua; Yu, Haixia; Huang, Xiaogu

    2015-12-01

    In this research, the mobilization and distribution of lead originating in roof dust and wet deposition were investigated within a roof dust-rooftop-runoff system. The results indicated that lead from roof dust and wet deposition showed different transport dynamics in runoff system and that this process was significantly influenced by the rainfall intensity. Lead present in the roof dust could be easily washed off into the runoff, and nearly 60 % of the total lead content was present in particulate form. Most of the lead from the roof dust was transported during the late period of rainfall; however, the lead concentration was higher for several minutes at the rainfall beginning. Even though some of the lead from wet deposition, simulated with a standard isotope substance, was adsorbed onto adhered roof dust and/or retained on rooftop in runoff system, most of it (50-82 %) remained as dissolved lead in the runoff for rainfall events of varying intensity. Regarding the distribution of lead in the runoff system, the results indicated that it could be carried in the runoff in dissolved and particulate form, be adsorbed to adhered roof dust, or remain on the rooftop because of adsorption to the roof material. Lead from the different sources showed different distribution patterns that were also related to the rainfall intensity. Higher rainfall intensity resulted in a higher proportion of lead in the runoff and a lower proportion of lead remaining on the rooftop.

  18. Optimal base-stock policy for the inventory system with periodic review, backorders and sequential lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We extend well-known formulae for the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. Our extension uses the notion of the 'extended lead time'. The derived performance measures...

  19. Optimal selection of TLD chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, P.; Nicoll, J.J.; Edmonds, P.; Paris, M.; Thompson, C.

    1996-01-01

    Large sets of TLD chips are often used to measure beam dose characteristics in radiotherapy. A sorting method is presented to allow optimal selection of chips from a chosen set. This method considers the variation

  20. Neutron CT with a multi-detector system leading to drastical reduction of the measuring time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehn, G.; Pfister, G.; Schatz, A.; Goebel, J.; Kofler, R.

    1993-09-01

    By means of numerical simulation methods and their verification with measurements it could be shown that such a detector system can be realized for a line beam and 1-2 detectors per cm. With the maximum available beam width of the fast neutron field at the FRM approximately 20 detectors can be used leading to a reduction of the measuring time to 0,5 - 1 hour. A multi detector system for a line beam of thermal neutrons was constructed, tested and used for CT-measurements. This detector system for the measurement of thinner layers with better spatial resolution could be realized. The electronic discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays has been improved. This discrimination was used in all CT-measurements to get transmission values of both kinds of radiation and to reconstruct to complementary CT-images. The use of a polyenergetic radiation causes spectral shifts in the transmission spectrum leading to artifacts in the reconstructed CT-image. The transmission values must be spectral corrected before image reconstruction, because the image artifacts complicate the image evaluation or make it impossible. A new energy selective procedure for the online spectral correction was developed. This method is based on the concept to measure additionally to the integral transmission value his pulse height spectrum and to do the correction depending on the changes in this pulse height spectrum. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles - Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO{sub 2} emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects. (author)

  2. Low energy transvenous cardioversion of short duration atrial tachyarrhythmias in humans using a single lead system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, A; Jung, J; Fries, R; Stopp, M; Sen, S; Schieffer, H; Ozbek, C

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of atrial cardioversion using an endocardial single lead system presently used for ventricular defibrillation. The study population consisted of 26 recipients of an ICD in combination with a conventional endocardial single lead system with the proximal spring electrode as anode in the SVC and the distal as cathode in the apex of the RV. Atrial tachyarrhythmias were induced by right atrial burst pacing. If the arrhythmia sustained > 1 minute, biphasic shocks synchronized with the R wave were delivered using the implanted device, beginning with an energy of 4 J. If 4 J failed to terminate the arrhythmia, energy was increased stepwise, if the first shock was successful, a step-down testing was performed after reinduction of atrial tachyarrhythmias. The mean atrial defibrillation threshold was 2.3 +/- 1.2 J (range, 0.5-5 J). A total of 154 shocks were delivered and no adverse effects were observed. The mean defibrillation threshold for atrial flutter was somewhat lower than that for AF (1.8 +/- 1 J vs 2.7 +/- 1.4 J, P = 0.08). There was no correlation between the atrial defibrillation threshold and a history of previously occurring atrial tachyarrhythmias, the kind of the underlying heart disease, a prescription of antiarrhythmic drugs, the dimension of the LA, the LVEF, or the ventricular DFT. Internal atrial cardioversion of short duration atrial tachyarrhythmias using a transvenous single lead system designed for ventricular defibrillation is feasible and safe at low energies, and may have important clinical applications.

  3. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31

    This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid

  4. Dosimetry study for a new in vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) bone lead measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Huiling; Chettle, David; Luo Liqiang; O'Meara, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    A new 109 Cd γ-ray induced bone lead measurement system has been developed to reduce the minimum detectable limit (MDL) of the system. The system consists of four 16 mm diameter detectors. It requires a stronger source compared to the 'conventional' system. A dosimetry study has been performed to estimate the dose delivered by this system. The study was carried out by using human-equivalent phantoms. Three sets of phantoms were made to estimate the dose delivered to three age groups: 5-year old, 10-year old and adults. Three approaches have been applied to evaluate the dose: calculations, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and experiments. Experimental results and analytical calculations were used to validate MC simulation. The experiments were performed by placing Panasonic UD-803AS TLDs at different places in phantoms that representing different organs. Due to the difficulty of obtaining the organ dose and the whole body dose solely by experiments and traditional calculations, the equivalent dose and effective dose were calculated by MC simulations. The result showed that the doses delivered to the organs other than the targeted lower leg are negligibly small. The total effective doses to the three age groups are 8.45/9.37 μSv (female/male), 4.20 μSv, and 0.26 μSv for 5-year old, 10-year old and adult, respectively. An approval to conduct human measurements on this system has been received from the Research Ethics Board based on this research

  5. Concentration dependence of surface properties and molar volume of multicomponent system indium-tin-lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    The results of an experimental research of surface properties of the four-component system indium-tin-lead-bismuth are presented. The researches under discussion were carried out in a combined device in which the surface tension ({sigma}) is measured by the method of maximum pressure in a drop, and density ({rho}) is measured by advanced aerometry. Measurement errors are 0.7 % for surface tension measurement, and 0.2 % for density measurement. The study of the concentration dependence of {sigma} in this system has revealed the influence of the third and fourth components upon the characteristics of surface tension isotherms of the binary system indium-tin. It was found out that with an increase in the content of the third and fourth components the depth of the minimum on the surface tension isotherms of the indium-tin system {sigma} decreases. On the basis of the concentration dependence of the phenomenon of concentration bufferity is revealed. It is shown that despite the complex character, isotherms of {sigma} on beam sections of a multicomponent system do not contain qualitatively new features in comparison with the isotherms of these properties in lateral binary systems.

  6. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Report on research results of the FY 2000 medical/engineering cooperative research project. Fundamental research on microelectrode-aided gene information measurement system (Research and development of gene diagnostic system using superhigh-sensitivity microelectrode DNA chip ECA - electrochemical array); 2000 nendo igaku kogaku renkeigata kenkyu jigyo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Bisho denkyoku riyo idenshi joho keisoku system ni kansuru kiban kenkyu (chokokandogata bisho denkyoku DNA chip ECA (denki kagaku allay) wo mochiita idenshi shindan system no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The fundamental research is conducted for developing the microelectrode on which a synthetic oligonucletide probe is immobilized, and for establishing the system capable of detecting the hybrid formation simply and quickly, in order to develop the advanced DNA chips for diagnosis. The project results include development of the prototype array electrode with 25 1mm-diameter gold electrodes uniformly arranged at intervals of 4.5mm; development of the electrochemical activity analyzer for multi-electrode systems, showing the performance almost on a level with that of the existing electrochemical analyzer for the single-electrode systems; establishment of the gene databases; development of the method which can produce a sufficient quantity of nucleic acid for DNA chip analysis by studying the method of preparing the nucleic acid from the blood serum, preparing RNA from a trace quantity of the living liver sample and amplifying the genes, wherein the nucleic acid is produced while its profile before the amplification is kept intact; and establishment of the method for detecting the hepatitis B virus by combining the electrochemical detection of DNA by a non-immobilized probe with the PCR method. (NEDO)

  8. Modelling, Synthesis, and Configuration of Networks-on-Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo

    This thesis presents three contributions in two different areas of network-on-chip and system-on-chip research: Application modelling and identifying and solving different optimization problems related to two specific network-on-chip architectures. The contribution related to application modelling...... is an analytical method for deriving the worst-case traffic pattern caused by an application and the cache-coherence protocol in a cache-coherent shared-memory system. The contributions related to network-on-chip optimization problems consist of two parts: The development and evaluation of six heuristics...... for solving the network synthesis problem in the MANGO network-on-chip, and the identification and formalization of the ReNoC configuration problem together with three heuristics for solving it....

  9. Evaluation of Shielding Wall Optimization in Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Kim, Jeong Dong; Lee, Yong Deok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) system is nondestructive technology for analyzing isotope fissile content in spent fuel and pyro processed material, in real time and directly. The high intensity neutron and gamma ray were generated from a nuclear material (Pyro, Spent nuclear fuel), electron beam-target reaction and fission of fissile material. Therefore, shielding analysis of LSDS system should be carried out. In this study, Borax, B{sub 4}C, Li{sub 2}Co{sub 3}, Resin were chosen for shielding analysis. The radiation dose limit (<0.1 μSv/hr) was adopted conservatively at the outer wall surface. The covering could be able to reduce the concrete wall thickness from 5cm to 15cm. The optimized shielding walls evaluation will be used as an important data for future real LSDS facility design and shielding door assessment.

  10. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yuki, E-mail: yukey@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tomizawa, Motohiro [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan); Suzuki, Himiko [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Okamura, Ai [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ohtani, Katsumi [National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kanagawa 214-8585 (Japan); Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kamijima, Michihiro, E-mail: kamijima@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  11. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity

  12. Quantitative measurement of damage caused by 1064-nm wavelength optical trapping of Escherichia coli cells using on-chip single cell cultivation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayano, Satoru; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinobu; Yasuda, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We quantitatively examined the possible damage to the growth and cell division ability of Escherichia coli caused by 1064-nm optical trapping. Using the synchronous behavior of two sister E. coli cells, the growth and interdivision times between those two cells, one of which was trapped by optical tweezers, the other was not irradiated, were compared using an on-chip single cell cultivation system. Cell growth stopped during the optical trapping period, even with the smallest irradiated power on the trapped cells. Moreover, the damage to the cell's growth and interdivision period was proportional to the total irradiated energy (work) on the cell, i.e., irradiation time multiplied by irradiation power. The division ability was more easily affected by a smaller energy, 0.36 J, which was 30% smaller than the energy that adversely affected growth, 0.54 J. The results indicate that the damage caused by optical trapping can be estimated from the total energy applied to cells, and furthermore, that the use of optical trapping for manipulating cells might cause damage to cell division and growth mechanisms, even at wavelengths under 1064 nm, if the total irradiation energy is excessive

  13. Bio-patch design and implementation based on a low-power system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Geng; Xie, Li; Mantysalo, Matti; Chen, Jian; Tenhunen, Hannu; Zheng, L R

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the prototype implementation of a Bio-Patch using fully integrated low-power System-on-Chip (SoC) sensor and paper-based inkjet printing technology. The SoC sensor is featured with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate a variety of bio-signals. It is fabricated in a 0.18-ìm standard CMOS technology, with a total power consumption of 20 ìW from a 1.2 V supply. Both the electrodes and interconnections are implemented by printing conductive nano-particle inks on a flexible photo paper substrate using inkjet printing technology. A Bio-Patch prototype is developed by integrating the SoC sensor, a soft battery, printed electrodes and interconnections on a photo paper substrate. The Bio-Patch can work alone or operate along with other patches to establish a wired network for synchronous multiple-channel bio-signals recording. The measurement results show that electrocardiogram and electromyogram are successfully measured in in-vivo tests using the implemented Bio-Patch prototype.

  14. Technology for On-Chip Qubit Control with Microfabricated Surface Ion Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highstrete, Clark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Quantum Information Sciences Dept.; Scott, Sean Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). RF/Optoelectronics Dept.; Nordquist, Christopher D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). RF/Optoelectronics Dept.; Sterk, Jonathan David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Tigges, Christopher P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Blain, Matthew Glenn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Heller, Edwin J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Microsystems Integration Dept.; Stevens, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). MESAFab Operations 2 Dept.

    2013-11-01

    Trapped atomic ions are a leading physical system for quantum information processing. However, scalability and operational fidelity remain limiting technical issues often associated with optical qubit control. One promising approach is to develop on-chip microwave electronic control of ion qubits based on the atomic hyperfine interaction. This project developed expertise and capabilities at Sandia toward on-chip electronic qubit control in a scalable architecture. The project developed a foundation of laboratory capabilities, including trapping the 171Yb+ hyperfine ion qubit and developing an experimental microwave coherent control capability. Additionally, the project investigated the integration of microwave device elements with surface ion traps utilizing Sandia’s state-of-the-art MEMS microfabrication processing. This effort culminated in a device design for a multi-purpose ion trap experimental platform for investigating on-chip microwave qubit control, laying the groundwork for further funded R&D to develop on-chip microwave qubit control in an architecture that is suitable to engineering development.

  15. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  16. Silicon microstrip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Masciocchi, S.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.S.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1995-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed for the fixed target experiment WA89 at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into a FASTBUS memory. The detector provides a fast readout by offering zero-suppressed data extraction on the chip. The silicon counters are the largest detectors built on a monocrystal so far in order to achieve good transversal acceptance. Construction and performance during the 1993 data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  17. Proposition of a modification to the VAR process and its application in the consolidation of pressed zircaloy chips and the evaluation of the dynamical system of the electric arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucsi, Cristiano Stefano

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is the investigation of a new process as an alternative to the Vacuum Arc Remelting technology in the consolidation of Zircaloy chips. A procedure is proposed for the recycling of primary Zircaloy scraps by means of a modified VAR furnace. The performed studies were made in order to optimise the low cost new devices added to existing VAR furnace prototype, find ideal operational conditions, evaluate data acquisition system and the electric arc dynamical system in order to made viable the automated control of the modified VAR prototype. A funnel-crucible special device was developed and installed in a VAR prototype furnace allowing ingots to be obtained from pressed chips. This indicated the viability of creation of a new process for the consolidation of Zircaloy chips. The voltage of the electric arc during the melting runs was digitally recorded allowing the evaluation of the electric arc dynamics by using the topological invariant of the system: correlation dimension and the higher Liapunov exponent. (author)

  18. A Systems Model to Make, Market, and Lead Your Way towards Sustained Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar Agrawalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Business enterprises exist in a world that is fiercely competitive, tied with huge global uncertainties. They always encounter increasing pressure on prices and margins. Hence, irrespective of their domain of operations and industry, businesses are naturally concerned about their growth, specifically sustained profitable growth, in today’s world. Marketing is a key business function to market and lead a business towards sustained profitable growth but the problem is it lacks a systems perspective in its operations, strategy, and practice. Further, given the confluence and systemic interactions of various economic, digital, and competitive forces; the challenge for different business functions—including marketing—increases tremendously. In this context, it is important for business enterprises to have a systems perspective to find their ways to growth that will be sustained. This calls for a holistic approach to assimilate and steer the business functions in any enterprise. The present conceptual paper focuses on an important business function for sustained growth in a holistic way and presents a systems model, called ‘Value Based Business Approach (VBBA-marketing’, which has potential to guide and steer companies and business enterprises to create a path for their sustained profitable growth.

  19. Lab-on a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Labs on chips are manufactured in many shapes and sizes and can be used for numerous applications, from medical tests to water quality monitoring to detecting the signatures of life on other planets. The eight holes on this chip are actually ports that can be filled with fluids or chemicals. Tiny valves control the chemical processes by mixing fluids that move in the tiny channels that look like lines, connecting the ports. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama designed this chip to grow biological crystals on the International Space Station (ISS). Through this research, they discovered that this technology is ideally suited for solving the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. For example, thousands of chips the size of dimes could be loaded on a Martian rover looking for biosignatures of past or present life. Other types of chips could be placed in handheld devices used to monitor microbes in water or to quickly conduct medical tests on astronauts. The portable, handheld Lab-on-a Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) made its debut flight aboard Discovery during the STS-116 mission launched December 9, 2006. The system allowed crew members to monitor their environment for problematic contaminants such as yeast, mold, and even E.coli, and salmonella. Once LOCAD-PTS reached the ISS, the Marshall team continued to manage the experiment, monitoring the study from a console in the Payload Operations Center at MSFC. The results of these studies will help NASA researchers refine the technology for future Moon and Mars missions. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  20. On-Chip electric power generation system from sound of portable music plyers and smartphones towerd portable uTAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naito, T.; Kaji, N.; le Gac, Severine; Tokeshi, M.; van den Berg, Albert; Baba, Y.; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates electric generation from sound to minimize and integrate microfluidic systems for point of care testing or in-situ analysis. In this work, 5.4 volts and 50 mW DC was generated from sound through an earphone cable, which is a versatile system and able to actuate small size and