WorldWideScience

Sample records for chip holding lithium

  1. Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Wei C

    2016-01-01

    We develop a chip-scale cavity optomechanical system in single-crystal lithium niobate that exhibits high optical quality factors and a large frequency-quality product as high as $3.6\\times 10^{12}$ Hz at room temperature and atmosphere. The excellent optical and mechanical properties together with the strong optomechanical coupling allow us to efficiently excite the coherent regenerative optomechanical oscillation operating at 375.8 MHz with a threshold power of 174 ${\\rm \\mu W}$ in the air. The demonstrated lithium niobate optomechanical device enables great potential for achieving electro-optic-mechanical hybrid systems for broad applications in sensing, metrology, and quantum physics.

  2. Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wei C.; LIN, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    We develop a chip-scale cavity optomechanical system in single-crystal lithium niobate that exhibits high optical quality factors and a large frequency-quality product as high as $3.6\\times 10^{12}$ Hz at room temperature and atmosphere. The excellent optical and mechanical properties together with the strong optomechanical coupling allow us to efficiently excite the coherent regenerative optomechanical oscillation operating at 375.8 MHz with a threshold power of 174 ${\\rm \\mu W}$ in the air....

  3. Method of mechanical holding of cantilever chip for tip-scan high-speed atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tip-scan atomic force microscopy (AFM) that scans a cantilever chip in the three dimensions, the chip body is held on the Z-scanner with a holder. However, this holding is not easy for high-speed (HS) AFM because the holder that should have a small mass has to be able to clamp the cantilever chip firmly without deteriorating the Z-scanner’s fast performance, and because repeated exchange of cantilever chips should not damage the Z-scanner. This is one of the reasons that tip-scan HS-AFM has not been established, despite its advantages over sample stage-scan HS-AFM. Here, we present a novel method of cantilever chip holding which meets all conditions required for tip-scan HS-AFM. The superior performance of this novel chip holding mechanism is demonstrated by imaging of the α3β3 subcomplex of F1-ATPase in dynamic action at ∼7 frames/s

  4. Modulational instability of polarization of light in a periodically poled lithium niobate chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Kun; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-01-01

    A critical physical phenomenon of polarization instability was observed in periodically poled lithium niobate, which reveals that tiny changes in the exterior conditions will have a remarkable effect on the polarization state of the output light. The instability shown here has a new physical mechanism from those in the weakly dispersive fiber, and such an in-chip chaos system is likely to promote an integrated chaos device behaving as biosensor, switch, and filter with high sensitivity or resolution.

  5. On-chip lithium cells for electrical and structural characterization of single nanowire electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible, hybrid nanomachined, on-chip construct for probing the structural and electrical changes in individual nanowire electrodes during lithium insertion. We have assembled arrays of individual β-phase manganese dioxide (β-MnO2) nanowires (NWs), which are employed as a model material system, into functional electrochemical cells through a combination of bottom-up (dielectrophoresis) and top-down (silicon nanomachining) unit processes. The on-chip NWs are electrochemically lithiated inside a helium-filled glovebox and their electrical conductivity is studied as a function of incremental lithium loading during initial lithiation. We observe a dramatic reduction in NW conductivity (on the order of two to three orders in magnitude), which is not reversed when the lithium is extracted from the nanoelectrode. This conductivity change is attributed to an increase in lattice disorder within the material, which is observed from TEM images of the lithiated NWs. Furthermore, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was employed to confirm the reduction in valence state of manganese, which occurs due to the transformation of MnO2 to LixMnO2. (papers)

  6. High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Bo, Fang; Wan, Shuai; Li, Wuxia; Gao, Feng; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Guoquan; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-09-01

    Lithium niobate (LN) microdisk resonators on a LN-silica-LN chip were fabricated using only conventional semiconductor fabrication processes. The quality factor of the LN resonator with a 39.6-μm radius and a 0.5-μm thickness is up to 1.19 × 10(6), which doubles the record of the quality factor 4.84 × 10(5) of LN resonators produced by microfabrication methods allowing batch production. Electro-optic modulation with an effective resonance-frequency tuning rate of 3.0 GHz/V was demonstrated in the fabricated LN microdisk resonator. PMID:26368411

  7. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with ... depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic ...

  8. Effect of heat-pressing temperature and holding time on the microstructure and flexural strength of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Wang

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of various heat-pressing procedures (different holding time and heat pressing temperature on the microstructure and flexural strength of lithium disilicate glass ceramic. An experimental lithium silicate glass ceramic (ELDC was prepared from the SiO2-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3-ZrO2-P2O5 system and heat-pressed following different procedures by varying temperature and holding time. The flexural strength was tested and microstructure was analyzed. The relationships between the microstructure, mechanical properties and heat-pressing procedures were discussed in-depth. Results verified the feasibility of the application of dental heat-pressing technique in processing the experimental lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Different heat-pressing procedures showed significant influence on microstructure and flexural strength. ELDC heat-pressed at 950℃ with holding time of 15 min achieved an almost pore-free microstructure and the highest flexural strength, which was suitable for dental restorative application.

  9. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium ... Lithium is also sometimes used to treat depression, schizophrenia (a mental ... emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge ...

  10. Fabrication of periodically poled lithium niobate chips for optical parametric oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Kaul; Ajay Mishra

    2010-11-01

    An electric-field poling process was established that yielded uniform periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) in 0.5 mm thick lithium niobate substrate. We have fabricated 50 mm long fanned as well as multigrating PPLNs having period variations from 25 m to 32 m. These PPLNs are required for quasi-phase-matched (QPM) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) applications. We have also configured a bench-top OPO set-up based on these PPLNs.

  11. The influence of holding time on the performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of heterogeneous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel for high power lithium ion battery applications has been investigated during last decades. In this study, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials are successfully prepared with sol-gel method, and the influence of holding time on performances of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is investigated. The results show that the holding time has a remarkable effect on the crystallinity, the morphology, the purity, the Mn3+ amount, and the grain size distribution, then further impacts the related electrochemical behaviors. We find that a decomposition reaction of the spinel occurs when an overlong holding time is used to synthesize the spinel powder, and the rate performance is directly related with the Mn3+ amount. We experimentally suggest that the compound sintered for 18 h exhibits the good electrochemical response in terms of both cycling and rate properties.

  12. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  13. Holding fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital. PMID:15938437

  14. Integrated optics on Lithium Niobate for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltron, A.; Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zamboni, R.; Ciampolillo, M.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Kroesen, S.; Esseling, M.; Denz, C.

    2015-05-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, optofluidic technology holds great promise for creating efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. Therefore, in this work the possibility of integrating opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. In particular, a T-junction droplet generator is directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by means of laser ablation process and optical waveguides are realized in the same material by exploiting the Titanium in-diffusion approach. The coupling of these two stages as well as the realization of holographic gratings in the same substrate will allow creating new compact optical sensor prototypes, where the optical properties of the droplets constituents can be monitored.

  15. Lithium Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Kesebir, Sermin; Üstündağ, Mehmet Fatih; Kavzoğlu, Semine Özdoğan

    2011-01-01

    Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose...

  16. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  17. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  18. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  19. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G;

    2016-01-01

    function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...... or the duration of toxicity in high-risk exposures. There is disagreement in the literature regarding factors that define patients most likely to benefit from treatments that enhance lithium elimination, including specific plasma lithium concentration thresholds. In the case of extracorporeal treatments...

  20. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Abed N; Shnaider, Alla; Osher, Yamima; Wang, Dana; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, R H

    2015-12-01

    Reports of toxic effects on the kidney of lithium treatment emerged very soon after lithium therapy was introduced. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is usually self-limiting or not clinically dangerous. Some reports of irreversible chronic kidney disease and renal failure were difficult to attribute to lithium treatment since chronic kidney disease and renal failure exist in the population at large. In recent years, large-scale epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that lithium treatment elevates the risk of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. Most patients do not experience renal side effects. The most common side effect of polyuria only weakly predicts increasing creatinine or reduced kidney function. Among those patients who do experience decrease in creatinine clearance, some may require continuation of lithium treatment even as their creatinine increases. Other patients may be able to switch to a different mood stabilizer medication, but kidney function may continue to deteriorate even after lithium cessation. Most, but not all, evidence today recommends using a lower lithium plasma level target for long-term maintenance and thereby reducing risks of severe nephrotoxicity. PMID:26043842

  1. Integrated opto-microfluidics platforms in lithium niobate crystals for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zaltron, A.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Chauvet, M.; Guichardaz, B.

    2015-02-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, droplet microfluidic technology holds great promise for efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. The possibility of integration of opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. Microfluidic channels were directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by precision saw cutting, and illuminated by optical waveguides integrated on the same substrate. The morphological characterization of the microfluidic channel and the optical response of the coupled optical waveguide were tested. In particular, the results indicate that the optical properties of the constituents dispersed in the fluid flowing in the microfluidic channel can be monitored in situ, opening to new compact optical sensor prototypes based on droplets generation and optical analysis of the relative constituents.

  2. Jianglong Holding Restructured

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    After seven months’shut-down,Guangfeng Dyeing&Printing Co.,Ltd.started operation on May 18th,in situconversion of Zhejiang Jianglong Dyeing&Printing HoldingCo.,Ltd.This marks the successful restructure of JianglongHolding.Jianglong was a vertical enterprise invloving in dyeing/printing,textile/garment manufactunng and trade.On Oct.

  3. Chips 2020

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising  Moore-like exponential g...

  4. Atom Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  5. Hydraulic fuel hold down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of holding down fuel assemblies in pressurized water reactors is described which minimizes flow restrictions, compensates for variations in primary coolant flow, and provides a steam release path through the reactor in the event of a loss of coolant accident. A pressure vessel is divided by a seal plate structure into a high-pressure and a low-pressure plenum. A piston in sliding relationship with the seal has push rods attached which hold down the fuel asemblies of the core. (LL)

  6. Shenzhen Textile Holdings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shenzhen Textile(Holdings)Co.,Ltd,founded in 1994 on the basis of the state-owned Shenzhen Textile Industry Company,listed on Shenzhen Stock Exchange in name of"Shen Fangzhi A"and"Shen Fangzhi B"in August 1994,the Group is mainly engaged in manufacturing,as well

  7. Protecting chips against hold time violations due to variability

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, Gustavo; Reis, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    With the development of Very-Deep Sub-Micron technologies, process variability is becoming increasingly important and is a very important issue in the design of complex circuits. Process variability is the statistical variation of process parameters, meaning that these parameters do not have always the same value, but become a random variable, with a given mean value and standard deviation. This effect can lead to several issues in digital circuit design.The logical consequence of this parameter variation is that circuit characteristics, as delay and power, also become random variables. Becaus

  8. Isotachophoretic analysis using injection-moulded polystyrene chip devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of miniaturized separation chip for performing isotachophoresis has been produced. The design uses polystyrene as a substrate material and incorporates carbon fibre loaded polystyrene drive and conductivity detection electrodes. This fully polymeric composition allows for the devices to be produced using injection moulding. Ultrasonic welding is used for sealing to give robust chips that can potentially be easily transported and used outside of a laboratory environment. A batch of devices was produced and tested with a number of inorganic cationic species as samples. The entire batch of 22 devices were successfully used for isotachophoretic separations. Good reproducibility was observed in the qualitative behaviour of the devices. For example, with lithium a relative step height ± standard deviation of 1.49 ± 0.01 was observed on a run-to-run basis with a single chip and of 1.47 ± 0.03 on a chip-to-chip basis over the entire batch of devices

  9. Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithium literature has been reviewed to provide a better understanding of the effects of lithium spills that might occur in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) facilities. Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with various gases, metals and non-metals have been identified. A preliminary assessment of lithium-concrete reactions has been completed using differential thermal analysis. Suggestions are given for future studies in areas where literature is lacking or limited

  10. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy

  11. Holding the Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris

    2016-05-01

    My colleagues and I had been asked by a member of a clinical team to help sort through the ethics of stopping a life-sustaining intervention for a very ill child. We had already talked with the parents, the physicians, and the folks from nursing, social work, and chaplaincy. Terms like "suffering," "cruel," "compassion," and "moral distress" had been uttered, as had terms like "inappropriate," "unethical," "neglectful," and "risk-management." The group had now stuffed all of these polarizing thoughts and feelings into this cramped room with only one door. And everyone was looking at me. What skill, competency, or inner capacity must one possess to hold and manage such tension? PMID:27150423

  12. A main amplifier and peak hold circuit for periodic sampling of high count rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A main amplifier circuit used for the telescope detector array was studies. The main amplifier circuit was mainly constituted by an integrated op amp chip ADA4851-4, and used for the voltage signal amplification and shaping. At the same time, a peak hold circuit was designed based on the restoration chip OPA615, used for periodically sampling the voltage signals and maintaining the amplitudes. 16 independent main amplifier and peak hold circuits constituted a high-density voltage signal processing electronic system. The system's signal processing performance, such as error and count rate, was better than the requirements of charged particle detection experiments. (authors)

  13. Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupke, M.; Ramirez-Martinez, F.; Curtis, E. A.; Ashmore, J. P.; Eriksson, S.; Hinds, E. A.; Moktadir, Z.; Gollasch, C.; Kraft, M.; Vijaya Prakash, G.; Baumberg, J. J.

    2006-02-01

    Concave pyramids are created in the (100) surface of a silicon wafer by anisotropic etching in potassium hydroxide. High quality micromirrors are then formed by sputtering gold onto the smooth silicon (111) faces of the pyramids. These mirrors show great promise as high quality optical devices suitable for integration into micro-optoelectromechanical systems and atom chips. We have shown that structures of this shape can be used to laser-cool and hold atoms in a magneto-optical trap.

  14. Fungal pretreatment of albizia chips for enhanced biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albizia biomass is a forestry waste, and holds a great potential in biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). However, low methane yields from albizia chips were observed due to their recalcitrant structure. In this study, albizia chips were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermisp...

  15. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  16. Mure skal holde zombierne ude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Vi bygger som besatte mure og barrierer for at holde flygtninge ude og tæmme de negative konsekvenser af den neoliberale globalisering.......Vi bygger som besatte mure og barrierer for at holde flygtninge ude og tæmme de negative konsekvenser af den neoliberale globalisering....

  17. Lithium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Lithium and Pregnancy Saturday, 20 September 2014 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to lithium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  18. The Lithium Plateau Enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonnel, C.; Vauclair, S.

    1998-01-01

    Why is the lithium abundance constant in the so-called lithium plateau while all predictions suggest that it should vary from star to star? Can we find a "lithium attractor" which would remain stable in halo stars while fundamental parameters (M_*, Teff, [Fe/H]) vary?

  19. DNA FROM ANCIENT STONE TOOLS AND BONES EXCAVATED AT BUGAS-HOLDING, WYOMING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traces of DNA may preserve on ancient stone tools. We examined 24 chipped stone artifacts recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming for the presence of DNA residues, and we compared DNA preservation in bones and stone tools from the same stratigraphic context...

  20. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  1. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.xbatteries containing the electrodes.

  2. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  3. A quantum relay chip based on telecommunication integrated optics technology

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Anthony; Alibart, Olivier; Ostrowsky, Daniel Barry; De Micheli, Marc; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an integrated optical circuit on lithium niobate designed to implement the teleportation-based quantum relay scheme for one-way quantum communication at a telecom wavelength. Such an advanced quantum circuit merges for the first time, both optical-optical and electro-optical non-linear functions necessary to implement the desired on-chip single qubit teleportation. On one hand, spontaneous parametric down-conversion is used to produce entangled photon-pairs. On the other hand, ...

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE HOT EMBOSSING POLYMER MICROFLUIDIC CHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; FU Jianzhong; CHEN Zichen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments are used to study the fabrication of polymer microfluidic chip with hot embossing method. The pattern fidelity with respect to the process parameters is analyzed. Experiment results show that the relationship between the imprint temperature and the microchannel width is approximately exponential. However, the depth of micro channel isn't sensitive to the imprint temperature. When the imprint pressure is larger than 1 MPa and the imprint time is longer than 2 min, the increasing of imprint pressure and holding time has little impact on the microchannel width. So over long holding time is not needed in hot embossing. Based on the experiment analysis, a series of optimization process parameters is obtained and a fine microfluidic chip is fabricated. The electrophoresis separation experiment are used to verify the microfluidic chip performance after bonding. The results show that 100bp-ladder DNA sample can be separated in less than 5 min successfully.

  5. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hold. 800.217 Section 800.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and holding mean legal or...

  6. Chip Multithreaded Consistency Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Song Li; Dan-Dan Huan; Wei-Wu Hu; Zhi-Min Tang

    2008-01-01

    Multithreaded technique is the developing trend of high performance processor. Memory consistency model is essential to the correctness, performance and complexity of multithreaded processor. The chip multithreaded consistency model adapting to multithreaded processor is proposed in this paper. The restriction imposed on memory event ordering by chip multithreaded consistency is presented and formalized. With the idea of critical cycle built by Wei-Wu Hu, we prove that the proposed chip multithreaded consistency model satisfies the criterion of correct execution of sequential consistency model. Chip multithreaded consistency model provides a way of achieving high performance compared with sequential consistency model and ensures the compatibility of software that the execution result in multithreaded processor is the same as the execution result in uniprocessor. The implementation strategy of chip multithreaded consistency model in Godson-2 SMT processor is also proposed. Godson-2 SMT processor supports chip multithreaded consistency model correctly by exception scheme based on the sequential memory access queue of each thread.

  7. Thermal properties of AlN-based atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Armijo, Julien; Bouchoule, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the thermal properties of atom chips consisting o high thermal conductivity Aluminum Nitride (AlN) substrates on which gold microwires are directly deposited. We have measured the heating of wires of several widths and with different thermal couplings to the copper mount holding the chip. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model where the copper mount is treated as a heat sink and the thermal interface resistance between the wire and the substrate is vanishing. We give analytical formulas describing the different transient heating regimes and the steady state. We identify criteria to optimize the design of a chip as well as the maximal currents $I_c$ that can be fed in the wires. For a 600$\\mu$m thick-chip glued on a copper block with Epotek H77, we find $I_c=16$A for a 3$\\mu$m high, 200$\\mu$m wide-wire.

  8. CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

  9. ALICE chip processor

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This tiny chip provides data processing for the time projection chamber on ALICE. Known as the ALICE TPC Read Out (ALTRO), this device was designed to minimize the size and power consumption of the TPC front end electronics. This single chip contains 16 low-power analogue-to-digital converters with six million transistors of digital processing and 8 kbits of data storage.

  10. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  11. Causes of stem end chip defect in chipping potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem-end chip defect (SECD) is a serious tuber quality concern that affects chipping potatoes. This defect is characterized by dark-colored vascular tissues and adjacent cortical tissues at the tuber stem-end of potato chips after frying. Chips with SECD are unappealing to consumers and raw product ...

  12. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  13. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  14. Lithium and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Yumiko; Shimada, Kohei; Ishiguro, Koichi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2014-06-18

    Lithium, a drug used to treat bipolar disorders, has a variety of neuroprotective mechanisms, including autophagy regulation, in various neuropsychiatric conditions. In neurodegenerative diseases, lithium enhances degradation of aggregate-prone proteins, including mutated huntingtin, phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein, and causes damaged mitochondria to degrade, while in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease autophagy downregulation by lithium is observed. The signaling pathway of lithium as an autophagy enhancer might be associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent pathway, which is involved in myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the mTOR-dependent pathway might be involved in inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) in other diseases. Lithium's autophagy-enhancing property may contribute to the therapeutic benefit of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24738557

  15. Holding Costs and Equilibrium Arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckman, Bruce; Vila, Jean-Luc.

    1993-01-01

    This paper constructs a dynamic model of the equilibrium determination of relative prices when arbitragers face holding costs. The major findings are that 1) models based on riskless arbitrage arguments alone may not provide usefully tight bounds on observed prices, 2) arbitragers are often most effective in eliminating the mispricings of shorter-term assets, 3) arbitrage activity increases the mean reversion of changes in the mispricing process and reduces their conditional volatility, and 4...

  16. China Rare Earth Holdings Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Rare Earth Holdings Limited is a large trans-area corporation and a public company listed in Hong Kong Stock Exchange (Name: China Rare Earth, Code: 0769), with headquarter in Hong Kong. Located on the bank of beautiful Taihu Lake, the subsidiary in Yinxing covers area of 200,000 m2. It has nearly 1,000 employees, 30% of whom are technical staffs. After self-administration and effort, the company passed ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14000 Certificaitons.

  17. Transparency and International Portfolio Holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Gelos, Gaston; Wei, Shang-Jin

    2004-01-01

    Does country transparency affect international portfolio investment? We examine this question by constructing new measures of transparency and by making use of a unique micro dataset on portfolio holdings of emerging market funds around the world. We distinguish between government and corporate transparency. There is clear evidence that funds invest systematically less in less transparent countries. There is also some evidence that during crises, funds flee from non-transparent countries to a...

  18. Goedel's Incompleteness Theorems hold vacuously

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Bhupinder Singh

    2002-01-01

    In an earlier paper, "Omega-inconsistency in Goedel's formal system: a constructive proof of the Entscheidungsproblem" (math/0206302), I argued that a constructive interpretation of Goedel's reasoning establishes any formal system of Arithmetic as omega-inconsistent. It follows from this that Goedel's Theorem VI holds vacuously. In this paper I show that Goedel's Theorem XI essentially states that, if we assume there is a P-formula [Con(P)] whose standard interpretation is equivalent to the a...

  19. A quantum relay chip based on telecommunication integrated optics technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate an integrated optical circuit on lithium niobate designed to implement a teleportation-based quantum relay scheme for one-way quantum communication at a telecom wavelength. Such an advanced quantum circuit merges for the first time both optical-optical and electro-optical nonlinear functions necessary for implementing the desired on-chip single-qubit teleportation. On the one hand, spontaneous parametric down-conversion is used to produce entangled photon pairs. On the other, we take advantage of two photon routers, consisting of electro-optically controllable couplers, to separate the paired photons and to carry out a Bell state measurement, respectively. After having validated all the individual functions in the classical regime, we performed a Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment to mimic a one-way quantum communication link. Such a quantum effect, seen as a prerequisite towards achieving teleportation, has been obtained at one of the routers when the chip was coupled to an external single-photon source. The two-photon interference pattern shows a net visibility of 80%, which validates the proof of principle of a ‘quantum relay circuit’ for qubits carried by telecom photons. In the case of optimized losses, such a chip could increase the maximal achievable distance of one-way quantum key distribution links by a factor of 1.8. Our approach and results emphasize the potential of integrated optics on lithium niobate as a key technology for future reconfigurable quantum information manipulation. (paper)

  20. Medicaid CHIP ESPC Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Scanning and Program Characteristic (ESPC) Database is in a Microsoft (MS) Access format and contains Medicaid and CHIP data, for the 50 states...

  1. Utilization of titanium chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex of equipment is created for realization of developed technology in experimental-inductrial production of secondary titanium alloys with annual efficiency of 50-100 t. The complex includes a section for chips preparation, facility for electride vacuum hot pressins, vacuum arc furnace for melting ingots of <200 kg. The ingots obtained will be reprocessed into bars, forgins, powers and also be used for production of shaped castings. Approbation of the developed technology was carried out by production of three types of secondary titanium lloys. The technical titanium chips were used as blend for production of TV1 alloy, chips of VT5 and PT3V alloys for TV2 and chips of VT6 and VT23 alloys for TV3 alloys. Study of chemical composition, mechanical properties and structure of secondary titanium alloys were performed on forged bars 20 mm in diameter

  2. China's first WLAN chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  3. Kinetic characteristics of continuous flow polymerase chain reaction chip: A numerical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Continuous flow PCR (polymerase chain reaction) chip holds impressive advantages compared to micro chamber PCR chip. In order to have better understanding of kinetic characteristics of continuous flow PCR chip, a comprehensive mathematical model is presented in this paper, including melting, annealing and extension phases of a typical PCR process which has the essence of a convection-diffusion-reaction system. Using this model, we can simulate the PCR process in series of reaction cycles. Numerical results show that the average sample velocity plays a significant role in affecting the amplification efficiency. Also, appropriate combination of the PCR mixture is important for high-quality DNA amplification. Giving a large initial DNA concentration range, the continuous flow PCR scheme holds excellent real-time detection ability theoretically. The present numerical model bridges the temperature distribution to the real DNA amplification, and thereby is able to successfully predict continuous flow PCR properties which are important for the chip design.

  4. A Single-Chip CMOS Pulse Oximeter with On-Chip Lock-In Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwei He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive and continuous method for monitoring the blood oxygen saturation level. This paper presents the design and testing of a single-chip pulse oximeter fabricated in a 0.35 µm CMOS process. The chip includes photodiode, transimpedance amplifier, analogue band-pass filters, analogue-to-digital converters, digital signal processor and LED timing control. The experimentally measured AC and DC characteristics of individual circuits including the DC output voltage of the transimpedance amplifier, transimpedance gain of the transimpedance amplifier, and the central frequency and bandwidth of the analogue band-pass filters, show a good match (within 1% with the circuit simulations. With modulated light source and integrated lock-in detection the sensor effectively suppresses the interference from ambient light and 1/f noise. In a breath hold and release experiment the single chip sensor demonstrates consistent and comparable performance to commercial pulse oximetry devices with a mean of 1.2% difference. The single-chip sensor enables a compact and robust design solution that offers a route towards wearable devices for health monitoring.

  5. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium a...

  6. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  7. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    , even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model. The......A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education...

  8. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  9. Scoping studies: behavior and control of lithium and lithium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HEDL scoping studies examining the behavior of lithium and lithium aerosols have been conducted to determine and examine potential safety and environmental issues for postulated accident conditions associated with the use of lithium as a fusion reactor blanket and/or coolant. Liquid lithium reactions with air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and concretes have been characterized. The effectiveness of various powder extinguishing agents and methods of application were determined for lithium-air reactions. The effectiveness of various lithium aerosol collection methods were determined and the volatilization and transport of radioactive metals potentially associated with lithium-air reactions were evaluated. Liquid lithium atmosphere reactions can be safely controlled under postulated accident conditions, but special handling practices must be provided. Lithium-concrete reactions should be avoided because of the potential production of high temperatures, corrosive environment and hydrogen. Carbon microspheres are effective in extinguishing well established lithium-air reactions for the lithium quantities tested (up to 10 kg). Large mass loading of lithium aerosols can be efficiently collected with conventional air cleaning systems. Potentially radioactive species (cobalt, iron and manganese) will be volatilized in a lithium-air reaction in contact with neutron activated stainless steel

  10. Scoping studies: behavior and control of lithium and lithium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppson, D W

    1982-01-01

    The HEDL scoping studies examining the behavior of lithium and lithium aerosols have been conducted to determine and examine potential safety and environmental issues for postulated accident conditions associated with the use of lithium as a fusion reactor blanket and/or coolant. Liquid lithium reactions with air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and concretes have been characterized. The effectiveness of various powder extinguishing agents and methods of application were determined for lithium-air reactions. The effectiveness of various lithium aerosol collection methods were determined and the volatilization and transport of radioactive metals potentially associated with lithium-air reactions were evaluated. Liquid lithium atmosphere reactions can be safely controlled under postulated accident conditions, but special handling practices must be provided. Lithium-concrete reactions should be avoided because of the potential production of high temperatures, corrosive environment and hydrogen. Carbon microspheres are effective in extinguishing well established lithium-air reactions for the lithium quantities tested (up to 10 kg). Large mass loading of lithium aerosols can be efficiently collected with conventional air cleaning systems. Potentially radioactive species (cobalt, iron and manganese) will be volatilized in a lithium-air reaction in contact with neutron activated stainless steel.

  11. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  12. Lithium and neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Neuroprotection can be defined as medical prophylactic and therapeutic intervention aimed at neuronal tissue and function. Hardly any concept of neuroprotection has been convincingly efficient in man thus far. Lithium has been used for the treatment of manic depressive illness for 50 years, but the mechanisms by which this cation exerts its beneficial effects are not yet clear. The last five years several studies have indicated that lithium mediates neuroprotection. In this essay we ...

  13. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  14. Solid-state lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  15. Pyramidal micro-mirrors for microsystems and atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Trupke, M; Curtis, E A; Ashmore, J P; Eriksson, S; Hinds, E A; Moktadir, Z; Gollasch, C; Kraft, M; Prakash, G V; Baumberg, J J

    2005-01-01

    Concave pyramids are created in the (100) surface of a silicon wafer by anisotropic etching in potassium hydroxide. High quality micro-mirrors are then formed by sputtering gold onto the smooth silicon (111) faces of the pyramids. These mirrors show great promise as high quality optical devices suitable for integration into MOEMS and atom chips. We have shown that structures of this shape can be used to laser-cool and hold atoms in a magneto-optical trap.

  16. 7 CFR 984.33 - Hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hold. 984.33 Section 984.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 984.33 Hold. Hold means to maintain possession or keep control of, in proper...

  17. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  18. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  19. Nanoslits in silicon chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching of a patterned oriented silicon wafer produces V-shaped etch pits. We demonstrate that the remaining thickness of silicon at the tip of the etch pit can be reduced to ∼5 μm using an appropriately sized etch mask and optical feedback. Starting from such an etched chip, we have developed two different routes for fabricating 100 nm scale slits that penetrate through the macroscopic silicon chip (the slits are ∼850 μm wide at one face of the chip and gradually narrow to ∼100-200 nm wide at the opposite face of the chip). In the first process, the etched chips are sonicated to break the thin silicon at the tip of the etch pit and then further KOH etched to form a narrow slit. In the second process, focused ion beam milling is used to etch through the thin silicon at the tip of the etch pit. The first method has the advantage that it uses only low-resolution technology while the second method offers more control over the length and width of the slit. Our slits can be used for preparing mechanically stable, transmission electron microscopy samples compatible with electrical transport measurements or as nanostencils for depositing nanowires seamlessly connected to their contact pads.

  20. SU-8 cantilever chip interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Janting, Jakob; Schultz, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    the electrodes on the SU-8 chip to a printed circuit board. Here, we present two different methods of electrically connecting an SU-8 chip, which contains a microfluidic network and free-hanging mechanical parts. The tested electrical interconnection techniques are flip chip bonding using underfill or flip chip...... bonding using an anisotropic conductive film (ACF). These are both widely used in the Si industry and might also be used for the large scale interconnection of SU-8 chips. The SU-8 chip, to which the interconnections are made, has a microfluidic channel with integrated micrometer-sized cantilevers...... that can be used for label-free biochemical detection. All the bonding tests are compared with results obtained using similar Si chips. It is found that it is significantly more complicated to interconnect SU-8 than Si cantilever chips primarily due to the softness of SU-8....

  1. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m3 (625 bulk- m3) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  2. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  3. Networks on chip

    CERN Document Server

    Jantsch, Axel

    2007-01-01

    From the reviews:""This edited book is concerned with the fundamentals of Networks-on-Chip design. … Overall, the various authors have done an excellent job in covering their material, and the book is well edited. The authors' objectives were that of providing an in-depth, up-to-date, unified and comprehensive treatment ... . These are difficult objectives … and they have done a creditable job of attaining them. In summary, this book is a welcome addition to the literature on networks on chip design … ."" (Mile Stojcev, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 44, 2004)

  4. Trapping molecules on chips

    CERN Document Server

    Santambrogio, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, it was demonstrated that neutral molecules can be loaded on a microchip directly from a supersonic beam. The molecules are confined in microscopic traps that can be moved smoothly over the surface of the chip. Once the molecules are trapped, they can be decelerated to a standstill, for instance, or pumped into selected quantum states by laser light or microwaves. Molecules are detected on the chip by time-resolved spatial imaging, which allows for the study of the distribution in the phase space of the molecular ensemble.

  5. Lithium nephropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Reis Pereira-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although widely used in the management of bipolar disorder, lithium may cause adverse kidney effects. The importance of the present study is to report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was under regular treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder and whose imaging studies demonstrated the presence of multiple renal microcysts, suggesting lithium nephropathy as main diagnostic hypothesis.

  6. A low-power, CMOS peak detect and hold circuit for nuclear pulse spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-power CMOS peak detecting track and hold circuit optimized for nuclear pulse spectroscopy is presented. The circuit topology eliminates the need for a rectifying diode, reducing the effect of charge injection into the hold capacitor, incorporates a linear gate at the input to prevent pulse pileup, and uses dynamic bias control that minimizes both pedestal and droop. Both positive-going and negative-going pulses are accommodated using a complementary set of track and hold circuits. Full characterization of the design fabricated in 1.2 microm CMOS including dynamic range, integral nonlinearity, droop rate, pedestal, and power measurements is presented. The circuit operates with only 250 microm for input pulses with 7 micros peaking time. Power consumption was increased to 750 microw for driving off-chip and test system capacitances. Analysis and design approaches for optimization of operational characteristics are also discussed

  7. Characterization of fish hold effluent discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra

    2014-10-15

    Fish hold effluent and the effluent produced from the cleaning of fish holds may contain organic material resulting from the degradation of seafood and cleaning products (e.g., soaps and detergents). This effluent is often discharged by vessels into near shore waters and, therefore, could have the potential to contribute to water pollution in bays and estuaries. We characterized effluent from commercial fishing vessels with holds containing refrigerated seawater, ice slurry, or chipped ice. Concentrations of trace heavy metals, wet chemistry parameters, and nutrients in effluent were compared to screening benchmarks to determine if there is a reasonable potential for effluent discharge to contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. Most analytes (67%) exceeded their benchmark concentration and, therefore, may have the potential to pose risk to human health or the environment if discharges are in significant quantities or there are many vessels discharging in the same areas. PMID:25176279

  8. Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium. PMID:23929396

  9. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  10. Flock on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Denis; Desreumaux, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    We will show how to motorize colloidal particles capable of sensing the orientation of their neighbors and how to handle them in microfluidic chips. These populations of colloidal rollers display non-equilibrium transitions toward swarming or swirling motion depending on the system geometry . After characterizing these emergent patterns we will quantitatively describe them by means of an hydrodynamic theory of polar active liquids.

  11. Copper chip technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Daniel C.

    1998-09-01

    Recently, IBM announced the first silicon integrated circuit technology that incorporates copper on-chip wiring. This technology, which combines industry-leading CMOS ULSI devices with 6 levels of hierarchically-scaled Cu metallization, has reached the point of manufacturing, after passing the qualification tests required to prove feasibility, yield, reliability, and manufacturability. The discussion of the change from Al To Cu interconnects for ULSI encompasses a wide variety of issues. This paper attempts to address these by way of example, from the broad range of detailed studies that have been performed in the course of developing these so-called 'copper chips.' Motivational issues are covered by comparative modeling of performance aspects and cost. The technology parameters and features are shown, as well as data relating to the process integration, electrical yield and parametric behavior, early manufacturing data, high-frequency modeling and measurements, noise and clock skew. The viability of this technology is indicated by results from reliability stressing, as well as the first successful demonstrations of fully functional SRAM, DRAM, and microprocessor chips with Cu wiring. The advantages of integrated Cu wiring may be applied even more broadly in the future. An example shown here is the achievement of very high-quality integrated inductors; these may help prospects for complete integration of RF and wireless communications chips onto silicon.

  12. Fish and chips

    OpenAIRE

    Delvenne, Philippe; Deprez, Manuel; Bisig, Bettina; JAMAR, Mauricette; Boniver, Jacques; Bours, Vincent; Herens, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Academic hospital laboratories should offer patients the possibility to have the most accurate diagnosis by the development of new analyses, such as molecular biology tests including FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) and chips (microarrays,...). The purpose of this article is to describe the principles and the potential applications of these techniques.

  13. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  14. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  15. Lithium overdosage and related tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2016-12-01

    Lithium acts biochemically through the inositol depletion in brain cortex. At low doses, however, it is partly effective and/or ineffective, whereas in high concentrations is toxic. We would like to make one point about this review. In fact, in our view, the patient should be given a support to correct hypernatremia and even sodium levels should be tested serially-along with serum lithium concentrations-because high sodium levels reduce the rate of elimination of lithium. Lithium is mainly a neurotoxicant. Lithium-related central nervous system toxicity as well as the cardiovascular and thyroid changes are most likely due to the cations (Na2 (+) and K(+)) competition. PMID:26753697

  16. Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jintian; Fang, Zhiwei; Song, Jiangxin; Wang, Nengwen; Qiao, Lingling; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    We report on fabrication of high Q lithium niobate (LN) whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators suspended on silica pedestals by femtosecond laser microfabrication. The micrometer-scale (diameter ~82 {\\mu}m) LN resonator possesses a Q factor of 2.5x10^5 around 1550 nm wavelength range. Moreover, second harmonic generation with a continuous-wave tunable single-longitudinal-mode pump laser in the on-chip LN microresonator is demonstrated in the on-chip LN microresonator. A fiber taper is employed to couple the pump laser into the microresonator, showing a normalized conversion efficiency of 1.35x10^-5/mW.

  17. Corporate Cash Holdings, National Culture, and Multinationality

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Ramirez; Solomon Tadesse

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relations between national cultures, the multinationality of the firm and its holdings of cash. We develop several hypotheses from well known corporate finance theories and theories of the multinational firm, positing that cultural factors as well as the degree of multinationality of firms influence their decisions to hold cash. In particular, firms in countries with high uncertainty avoidance, as a national culture, hold more cash as a way to hedge against undesired states of ...

  18. Electrochemical properties of a lithium-impregnated metal foam anode for thermal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Song; Yu, Hye-Ryeon; Cheong, Hae-Won

    2015-02-01

    Lithium-impregnated metal foam anodes (LIMFAs) are fabricated and investigated. The LIMFAs are prepared by the impregnation of lithium into molten-salt-coated nickel metal foam. A single cell with the LIMFA exhibits a specific capacity of 3009 As g-1. For comparison, a single cell with a LiSi alloy anode is also discharged, demonstrating a specific capacity of 1050 As g-1. These significant improvements can be attributed to the large amount of lithium impregnated into the metal foam as well as the molten lithium holding capability of the foam. Due to their excellent electrochemical properties, LIMFAs are suitable for use in thermal batteries.

  19. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  20. Bioavailability of lithium from lithium citrate syrup versus conventional lithium carbonate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelen, P J; Janssen, T J; De Witte, T C; Vree, T B; Benson, K

    1992-10-01

    The bioavailability of lithium citrate syrup was compared with that of regular lithium carbonate tablets in 18 healthy male human volunteers. Blood samples were collected up to 48 h after dosing. Lithium serum concentrations were determined by means of AAS. The absorption rate following oral administration of the syrup was greater (tmax 0.8 h) than following administration of regular tablets (tmax 1.4 h). Maximum lithium serum concentrations, however, were only about 10 per cent higher after syrup dosing and serum concentrations resulting from syrup and tablets were almost superimposable from 2 h after dosing. The terminal half-life of lithium was found to be 22 h after syrup as well as after tablet dosing. No side-effects were observed during the study. The bioavailability of lithium from syrup relative to tablets was found to be bioequivalent with respect to the maximum lithium serum concentration and the extent of drug absorption (AUC). PMID:1489941

  1. Synthesis of lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, lithium silicates were synthesised by the combustion technique, the mixtures were prepared with different molar ratios and using urea as fuel. Its characterization was realized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the percentages of its sizes were determined measuring the area under curve of the peaks in the diffractogram. (Author)

  2. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  3. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  4. 78 FR 66097 - Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Immtech...

  5. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Eswara Prasad; A A Gokhale; P Rama Rao

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has been developed of the microstructure-based micromechanisms of strengthening, of fatigue and fracture as well as of anisotropy in mechanical properties. However, these alloys have not yet greatly displaced the conventionally used denser Al alloys on account of their poorer ductility, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue resistance. This review aims to summarise the work pertaining to study of structure and mechanical properties with a view to indicate the directions that have been and can be pursued to overcome property limitations.

  6. Lithium ion battery production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sustainable battery manufacturing focus on more efficient methods and recycling. ► Temperature control and battery management system increase battery lifetime. ► Focus on increasing battery performance at low- and high temperatures. ► Production capacity of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. - Abstract: Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on energy storage. Materials needed for battery applications require specially made high quality products. Diminishing amounts of easily minable metal ores increase the consumption of separation and purification energy and chemicals. The metals are likely to be increasingly difficult to process. Iron, manganese, lead, zinc, lithium, aluminium, and nickel are still relatively abundant but many metals like cobalt and rare earths are becoming limited resources more rapidly. The global capacity of industrial-scale production of larger lithium ion battery cells may become a limiting factor in the near future if plans for even partial electrification of vehicles or energy storage visions are realized. The energy capacity needed is huge and one has to be reminded that in terms of cars for example production of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. Consequently annual production capacity of 106 cars requires 100 factories each with a 300 MWh capacity. Present day lithium ion batteries have limitations but significant improvements have been achieved recently . The main challenges of lithium ion batteries are related to material deterioration, operating temperatures, energy and power output, and lifetime. Increased lifetime

  7. Silicon chips light up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers have demonstrated a continuous laser in silicon, which paves the way for computing at the speed of light Silicon is the racehorse of microelectronics. For the last 40 years, the number of transistors that can be crammed onto a single silicon wafer has doubled every 18 months or so, with the latest 'Itanium' chip packing in almost half a billion of them. But Moore's law, as this exponential trend is popularly known, is coming to an end due to fundamental physical limitations. These include the difficulty of keeping the chips cool and the fact that length scales are quickly approaching those of a single atom. A silicon laser could help chip makers beat these limitations by harnessing light, thus reducing the size and cost of microelectronic circuits even further,while at the same time increasing their speed. The problem is that silicon is a very inefficient light emitter, which means that silicon-based optoelectronics has remained out of reach. Since 2000 all this has changed and the race to build a silicon laser has begun in earnest. Now, Mario Paniccia and colleagues at Intel in the US and Israel have demonstrated the first continuous all-silicon laser by harnessing a phenomenon called Raman scattering (Nature 433 292 and 725). (U.K.)

  8. Lithium availability and future production outlooks

    OpenAIRE

    Vikström, Hanna; Davidsson, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can...

  9. Reversible Lithium Neurotoxicity: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Netto, Ivan; Phutane, Vivek H

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical pre...

  10. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

  11. Electrodeposition of Lithium from Lithium-Containing Solvate Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhoutte, Gijs; Brooks, Neil R.; Schaltin, Stijn; Opperdoes, Bastiaan; Van Meervelt, Luc; Locquet, Jean-Pierre; Vereecken, Philippe M.; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-containing solvate ionic liquids [Li(L)n][X], with ligands L = 1,2-dimethoxyethane (G1, monoglyme) or 1-methoxy-2-(2-methoxyethyl)ether (G2, diglyme) (with n = 1, 2 or 3) and with anions X = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N–), bromide (Br–) or iodide (I–), were synthesized and used as electrolytes for the electrodeposition of lithium metal. Very high lithium-ion concentrations could be obtained, since the lithium ion is part of the cationic structure of the solvate ionic liquid...

  12. Dental Care for Medicaid and CHIP Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Amendments Dental Care Dental Care for Medicaid and CHIP Enrollees Dental health is an important part of ... for dental services. Dental Benefits for Children in CHIP States that provide CHIP coverage to children through ...

  13. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P;

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption of...... lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  14. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  15. Easy and versatile functionalization of lithium niobate wafers by hydrophobic trichlorosilanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functionalization of lithium niobate surface has been successfully obtained by the grafting of trichloro-organosilane derivatives thanks to liquid phase silanization or micro-contact printing. This functionalization has been proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The data show that the stability of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) film on the trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane-modified lithium niobate surface is largely due to the formation of a siloxy-niobate (-Si-O-Nb-) bond via a condensation reaction between -Si-Cl and niobate hydroxide (-NbOH). The extremely hydrophobic and stable SAM on lithium niobate could have useful applications in acoustic droplet handling and more generally surface acoustic waves (SAW) device preparation for lab-on-chip devices.

  16. Hydrolysis of lithium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its high hydrogen density and unique nuclear chemistry, lithium hydride, in all its isotopic forms, has an unsurpassed place in modem nuclear weapons. The hydrolysis of the material, and the outgassing of hydrogen from the bulk, are crucial to the performance of the material in service. This thesis describes research conducted at AWE Aldermaston, UK, to examine the hydrolysis and hydrogen outgassing from the bulk material, with the aim of ultimately developing the kinetics 8c mechanisms responsible. The basic chemistry is of great interest, especially the reaction with water. This reaction, whilst being fairly extensively studied in the past, has not been conclusively described with an accepted mechanism and associated kinetics. The last significant UK work on the topic was by Imperial College, London, under contract to AW(R)E in the late 1960s. This thesis describes the development of: (i) a solid state NMR spectroscopy technique to examine semi-quantitatively the surface of bulk lithium hydride for its chemical composition, and (ii) a dedicated lithium hydride inert atmosphere gravimetric analysis glove box to study the hydride/water reaction. Solid State NMR Spectroscopy has been utilised for the first time to probe the hydride/hydroxide ratio of partially hydrolysed lithium hydride. 6Li chemical shifts have been established for species of interest and extremely long, up to 17 hours, T1 relaxation times have been measured for 6Li hydride and hydroxide. A method for semi-quantitatively determining the hydroxide/hydride composition of a partially reacted sample has been developed, based on a 'dual-scan' technique using one short and one long pulse sequence. Gravimetric analysis has been developed for lithium hydride/humidity studies. This facility fully contains gravimetric analysis within an argon glove box, with the ability to control the sample atmosphere from room temperature to 60 deg C and from 0.5 to 40 percent relative humidity. The hydrolysis of

  17. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Junbo Hou; Min Yang

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separa...

  18. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  19. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Tuazon; David Casalino; Ehteshamuddin Syed; Daniel Batlle

    2008-01-01

    Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly ca...

  20. Every reason to discontinue lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Manuel E Fuentes; Sutor, Bruce; Albright, Robert C; Mark A Frye

    2014-01-01

    Lithium as a gold standard therapy for bipolar disorder is well known to have a number of medical comorbidities that impact renal, parathyroid, and thyroid function. Despite these medical comorbidities, there remains a group of lithium-responsive lithium-treated patients who have maintained mood stability for decades. The risk/benefit ratio of end organ toxicity/mood stability must be evaluated in each individual case.

  1. Zerstörungsfreie Charakterisierung von Lithium-Plating in Lithium-Ionen-Batterien

    OpenAIRE

    Petzl, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation is focused on the nondestructive detection and quantification of lithium plating in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Lithium plating denotes the deposition of metallic lithium on the negative graphite electrode of a lithium-ion battery during charging. This is a severe degradation process followed by capacity loss and impedance rise. Furthermore, the deposited lithium can grow dendritically which poses a serious safety hazard. It is shown that lithium plating can be detec...

  2. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  3. Active hold-down for heat treating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A vacuum hold-down is described, for holding a thin film workpiece while it undergoes large temperature changes and corresponding dimensional changes, which permits creep of the workpiece to avoid damage thereto while still holding it on a support surface. The support surface has a multiplicity of holes arranged in a plurality of zones. The vacuum is repeatedly interrupted at the holes lying at different zones while it continues to be applied at the other zones, to permit creep of the workpiece at a zone when vacuum is not applied thereto.

  4. Lithium - induced tardive dystonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti S

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Tardive dystonia is an uncommon form of chronic dystonia, which usually develops on exposure to neuroleptics. Tardive dystonia (Tdt following lithium therapy has not been previously reported. The case of 38 year old man with bipolar affective disorder who developed tardive dystonia while on maintenance lithium treatment is described. Presentation of Tdt in this patient was fairly characteristic although there was no suggestion of recent neuroleptic exposure. Tdt known to have poor treatment response, responded very well to clozapine, a novel anti-psychotic, in this case. To conclude, Tdt may develop on exposure to drugs other than neuroleptics. An adequate trial to clozapine can prove to be a useful treatment option.

  5. Lithium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published methods for 6Li-7Li lithium isotope separation have been reviewed. Future demand for 6Li, whose main use will be as a tritium breeder in blankets surrounding the core of DT fusion power reactors, is likely to exceed 5 Mg/a in the next century. The applicability of the various available methods to such a large scale production rate has been assessed. Research on improving the effectiveness of current lithium isotope separation processes has been carried out worldwide in several major areas during the past decade; these include two-phase chemical exchange systems, ion exchange resin chromatography, highly isotope-selective techniques like laser photoactivation and radiofrequency spectroscopy. Chemical exchange systems appear to offer good potential in the near term for 6Li enrichment

  6. An on-chip diamond optical parametric oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Hausmann, B J M; Venkataraman, V; Deotare, P; Loncar, M

    2013-01-01

    Efficient, on-chip optical nonlinear processes are of great interest for the development of compact, robust, low-power consuming systems for applications in spectroscopy, metrology, sensing and classical and quantum optical information processing. Diamond holds promise for these applications, owing to its exceptional properties. However, although significant progress has been made in the development of an integrated diamond photonics platform, optical nonlinearities in diamond have not been explored much apart from Raman processes in bulk samples. Here, we demonstrate optical parametric oscillations (OPO) via four wave mixing (FWM) in single crystal diamond (SCD) optical networks on-chip consisting of waveguide-coupled microring resonators. Threshold powers as low as 20mW are enabled by ultra-high quality factor (1*10^6) diamond ring resonators operating at telecom wavelengths, and up to 20 new wavelengths are generated from a single-frequency pump laser. We also report the inferred nonlinear refractive index...

  7. A paramagnetic implant containing lithium naphthalocyanine microcrystals for high-resolution biological oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshisundaram, Guruguhan; Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Eteshola, Edward; Lee, Stephen C.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2010-03-01

    Lithium naphthalocyanine (LiNc) is a microcrystalline EPR oximetry probe with high sensitivity to oxygen [R.P. Pandian, M. Dolgos, C. Marginean, P.M. Woodward, P.C. Hammel, P.T. Manoharan, P. Kuppusamy, Molecular packing and magnetic properties of lithium naphthalocyanine crystal: hollow channels enabling permeability and paramagnetic sensitivity to molecular oxygen J. Mater. Chem. 19 (2009) 4138-4147]. However, direct implantation of the crystals in the tissue for in vivo oxygen measurements may be hindered by concerns associated with their direct contact with the tissue/cells and loss of EPR signal due to particle migration in the tissue. In order to address these concerns, we have developed encapsulations (chips) of LiNc microcrystals in polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), an oxygen-permeable, bioinert polymer. Oximetry evaluation of the fabricated chips revealed that the oxygen sensitivity of the crystals was unaffected by encapsulation in PDMS. Chips were stable against sterilization procedures or treatment with common biological oxidoreductants. In vivo oxygen measurements established the ability of the chips to provide reliable and repeated measurements of tissue oxygenation. This study establishes PDMS-encapsulated LiNc as a potential probe for long-term and repeated measurements of tissue oxygenation.

  8. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  9. Lithium Alkyl Exchange Equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic analyses of two types of exchange reactions of organo- lithium reagents, both alkyl and aryl types, RLi, have been made: (1) halogen-metal interchange with alkyl and aryl halides, R'X, and (2) hydrogen-metal interchange (commonly called metallation) with aromatic hydrocarbons, R'H. Rates of these RLi + R'X ⇄ RX + R'Li; (1) . RLi + R'H ⇄ RH+ R'Li (2) reactions have been determined, conditions under which the systems attain equilibrium have been established, and the positions of equilibrium measured, all as functions of the reactants, solvents and catalysts employed. Concerning halogen-lithium interchange between alkyl groups (1), the conclusion is reached that equilibration proceeds to yield the less sterically demanding alkyl group attached to lithium. The data show, for example, that isobutyllithium is much less stable than n-butyllithium, and again, that 2,6-dimethyl- phenyllithium is much less stable than phenyllithium. The exchange is general with iodides, occurs with some bromides and does not occur with chlorides. The exchange is quite slow in hydrocarbon media and is catalysed by relatively small amounts of ethers. In the presence of the optically active methyl ether of menthol, methyl iodide exchanges with racemic s-butyllithium to give optically active s-butyl iodide. In work with the second reaction, hydrogen-lithium interchange (2), nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry has been used for rate studies. Catalysts (Lewis bases) have been evolved for establishing equilibria in rather unreactive systems, e.g. phenyllithium can be demonstrated to exchange with benzene by labelling the latter radioactivity. From the correlations of structure and reactivity found in this study, the conclusion is reached that the basic alkyllithium structure is dimeric, R2Li2 The arrangement of the groups within this dimer satisfactorily explain the special steric effects noted in organolithium reagent stability. (author)

  10. Microstructuring of lithium niobate

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, I.E.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents the results from an investigation into methods for micron-scale relief structuring of lithium niobate. A wet etch consisting of HF and HNO3 was applied, and directed by 1) patterning the ferroelectric domain structure of the samples and 2) illuminating the crystals with patterned 488nm light. Post-etch treatment of the structures resulted in ridge waveguides and alignment grooves, while pre-etch manipulation achieved an etch-stop. Ablation was investigated as a method of ...

  11. Lithium-Induced Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Desbuquoit, D.; Snoeckx, A; Corthouts, B.; Parizel, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A 59-year-old man was referred for CT scan of the abdomen after repair of an eventrated appendectomy wound. The man had a known history of bipolar affective disorder, for which he had been on lithium therapy for many years. As an incidental finding, CT scan showed numerous small hypodense renal lesions. Subsequently a MRI examination was performed to further characterize these renal abnormalities.

  12. Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159511.html Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report More than $30 ... chunk of their health care dollars on alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic care and natural ...

  13. Electronic structures of lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structures of lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3) and lithium disilicate (Li2Si2O5) are calculated using a first-principles orthogonalized linear combination of atomic-orbitals method. Results are compared with experimental x-ray-photoemission spectra and earlier calculations on sodium metasilicate and sodium disilicates

  14. Chips with everything

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In March 1972, Sir Robin Saxby gave a talk to the Royal Television Society called 'TV and Chips' about a 'state of the art' integrated circuit, containing 50 resistors and 50 transistors. Today's 'state of the art' chips contain up to a billion transistors. This enormous leap forward illustrates how dramatically the semiconductor industry has evolved in the past 34 years. The next 10 years are predicted to bring times of turbulent change for the industry, as more and more digital devices are used around the world. In this talk, Sir Robin will discuss the history of the Microchip Industry in parallel with ARM's history, demonstrating how a small European start-up can become a world player in the IT sector. He will also present his vision of important applications and developments in the next 20 years that are likely to become even more pervasive than the mobile phone is today, and will provide anecdotes and learning points from his own experience at ARM. About ARM: Sir Robin and a group of designers from Acorn...

  15. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis ...

  16. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5), an...

  17. Photo crystallization of lithium iodate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the processes of crystallization and dissolution of lithium iodate crystals are susceptible to the influence of light. The character of influence of light depends on the solution acidity. A possible mechanism explaining these phenomena is discussed. A technique of growing of lithium iodate crystals at constant temperature, pressure, and volume of the solution is proposed and realized

  18. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subsidiary holding company conducts in accordance with the purchase priorities set forth in 12 CFR part 563b... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidiary holding companies. 575.14 Section... COMPANIES § 575.14 Subsidiary holding companies. (a) Subsidiary holding companies. A mutual holding...

  19. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K. S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose.

  20. Ultra-thin chip technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips are the "smart skin" of a conventional silicon chip. This book shows how very thin and flexible chips can be fabricated and used in many new applications in microelectronics, microsystems, biomedical and other fields. It provides a comprehensive reference to the fabrication technology, post processing, characterization and the applications of ultra-thin chips.

  1. A Modular Data Acquisition System using the 10 GSa/s PSEC4 Waveform Recording Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan, M.; Oberla, E.; Frisch, H J; Wetstein, M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a modular multi-channel data acquisition system based on the 5-15 Gigasample-per-second waveform-recording PSEC4 chip. The system architecture incorporates two levels of hardware with FPGA-embedded system control and in-line data processing. The front-end unit is a 30-channel circuit board that holds five PSEC4 ASICs, a clock jitter cleaner, and a control FPGA. The analog bandwidth of the front-end signal path is 1.5 GHz. Each channel has an on-chip threshold-level discriminator t...

  2. 78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard... America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI), Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC (Celerity Holdings), and Celerity Partners..., New Mexico, and Texas. \\2\\ See Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and...

  3. Strange taste and mild lithium intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Terao, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shosuke; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Hoaki, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    So far, it has not been emphasised that lithium can lose or change taste in some patients. This report addresses such side effect of lithium. A 61-year-old bipolar patient experienced taste changes while increasing lithium levels up to 1.28 mEq/l and the taste changes returned to normal after lithium discontinuation. The present findings suggest that changes in tastes may be a symptom of mild lithium intoxication.

  4. CRRES microelectronic test chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the JPL CRRES chip which was designed and fabricated in 1985 and included in the CRRES MEP. MOSFET Matrix results show the effect of shielding on radiation-induced MOSFET threshold voltage shifts and channel mobility degradation. Shielded (middle board) MOSFETs have a threshold-voltage damage factor that is approximately three-orders of magnitude smaller than would be estimated from Co-60 ground tests. Temperature swings as large as 23 degrees C with a 22.5 orbit periodicity affected the MOSFET data and was removed from the data in order to reveal the radiation effects. This experiment demonstrated the feasibility of characterizing MOSFETs in a matrix thus reducing the complexity and mass of the experiment

  5. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  6. Two-dimensional nanocomposites based on tungsten oxide nanoplates and graphene nanosheets for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-defined nanocomposite electrodes based on active materials and graphene have been known to hold improved lithium ion reaction properties such as the lithium ion insertion/desertion reaction, cycle life, and high rate performance. Here, we report two-dimensional nanocomposites consisting of WO3 nanoplates and graphene nanosheets (GNS) using a hydrothermal method and heating process for use in high-performance lithium ion batteries. A compilation of the data from XRD, SEM, and TEM suggests that the nanocomposites consist of high crystalline WO3 nanoplates and GNS. The capacity and high rate cycling performance of the nanocomposites as an anode for lithium ion batteries are evaluated using coin cells. The nanocomposite electrode with an optimized amount of GNS exhibits high reversible capacity, good capacity retention, and excellent high rate cycling performance

  7. CHIPPING FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF DENTAL CAD/CAM RESTORATIVE MATERIALS: PART I, PROCEDURES AND RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, G. D.; Giuseppetti, A. A.; Hoffman, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The edge chipping test was used to measure the fracture resistance of CAD/CAM dental restoration ceramics and resin composites. Methods An edge chipping machine was used to evaluate six materials including one feldspathic porcelain, two glass ceramics, a filled resin-composite, a yttria-stabilized zirconia, and a new ceramic-resin composite material. Force versus edge distance data were collected over a broad range of forces and distances. Data were analyzed by several approaches and several chipping resistance parameters were evaluated. The effects of using different indenter types were explored. Results The force versus distance trends were usually nonlinear with good fits to a power law equation with exponents usually ranging from 1.2 to 1.9. The order of chipping resistance (from least to greatest) was: feldspathic porcelain and a leucite glass ceramic (which were similar), followed by the lithium disilicate glass ceramic and the two resin composites (which were similar), and finally the zirconia which had the greatest resistance to chipping. Chipping with a Vickers indenter required 28% to 45% more force than with the sharp conical 120° indenter. The two indenters rank materials approximately the same way. The power law exponents were very similar for the two indenters for a particular material, but the exponents varied with material. The Rockwell C indenter gives different power law trends and rankings. Significance Despite the variations in the trends and indenters, simple comparisons between materials can be made by chipping with sharp conical 120° or Vickers indenters at 0.50 mm. Broad distance ranges are recommended for trend evaluation. PMID:24685178

  8. S-Chip Technical Assistance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The page will provide access to reports and other published products designed to assist states with complicated S-Chip technical issues. The reports and products...

  9. On-Chip Optical Squeezing

    CERN Document Server

    Dutt, Avik; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Gaeta, Alexander L; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal

    2013-01-01

    A squeezed light source, i.e. a source with ultra low noise level, below the standard quantum limit (SQL), can enable quantum enhanced sensing, spectroscopy[1, 2], metrology[3] and quantum information processing[4,5]. To date, such a non classical light source on-chip, scalable, compact and robust has not been demonstrated. Such a source could not only enable ultrasensitive measurements on chip, but also provide squeezing over high bandwidths in contrast to most sources which usually rely on large optical cavities with narrow bandwidths. Here, we report the observation of squeezed light in an on-chip monolithically integrated platform, generated in a micron-size silicon nitride oscillator[6] with GHz cavity linewidth. We show 1.7dB noise squeezing, i.e. reduction of the noise level below the standard quantum limit, of the intensity difference between two beams generated by an on-chip optical parametric oscillator.

  10. A lithium superionic conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window). PMID:21804556

  11. Structure of liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction experiments, made at a steady-state reactor source, were used to study the structure of liquid 7Li at temperatures of 197, 452 and 595 deg. C. A careful data analysis procedure was undertaken in which specific issues taken into account include (i) the influence of Brillouin modes on the measured diffraction pattern at small scattering vectors, (ii) inelasticity corrections that are significant for light atom systems, such as lithium, and (iii) the effects caused by the diffractometer resolution function. Data sets taken for the same liquid temperature using different incident neutron energies yield ion-ion partial structure factors, SII(k), that are in agreement within the statistical errors. The SII(k) are compared with previous experimental results and with the results obtained from liquid state theory and molecular dynamics methods made using several different local pseudopotentials. Finally, the valence electron form factor, ρ(k), is estimated by combining SII(k) with x-ray diffraction data and the ion-valence electron partial structure factor, SIe(k), is calculated by combining SII(k) with the ρ(k) obtained from both experiment and theory. The results show that the extraction of ρ(k) and SIe(k) by a combination of neutron and x-ray diffraction methods is feasible in practice, but demonstrates a need for new x-ray diffraction experiments on liquid lithium

  12. 70 dB long-pass filter on a nanophotonic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Zou, Chang-Ling; Tang, Hong X

    2016-09-01

    Integrated quantum photonic chips are promising for scalable, photonic based quantum information processing. Although on-chip quantum photon sources and single photon detectors have been demostrated separately, the full integration of these components on single chip is hindered by the background photons from the strong classical pump light. Here we design and fabricate an on-chip long-pass filter which can provide 70 dB attenuation for visible light near 775 nm with less than 3 dB insertion loss for light in the telecom C-band near 1550 nm. The adiabatic design makes this device broadband and robust against fabrication errors as well as working conditions. Combined with the previously demonstrated non-classical on-chip source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion on the same material system, this platform could enable 100 dB suppression of pump light and holds promise in realizing fully integrated quantum photonic chips where the sources, filters and detectors are monolithically integrated. PMID:27607719

  13. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P; Tornoe, C W; Ladefoged, Susanne; Dalhoff, K

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... loading dose estimates. Furthermore, the maintenance dose estimated from the central compartment (V1) led to plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range. Thus, a regimen where 12.2 mmol lithium was given after each hemodialysis session resulted in stable between-dialysis plasma lithium...

  14. Whole-Teflon microfluidic chips

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Kangning; Dai, Wen; Zhou, Jianhua; Su, Jing; Wu, Hongkai

    2011-01-01

    Although microfluidics has shown exciting potential, its broad applications are significantly limited by drawbacks of the materials used to make them. In this work, we present a convenient strategy for fabricating whole-Teflon microfluidic chips with integrated valves that show outstanding inertness to various chemicals and extreme resistance against all solvents. Compared with other microfluidic materials [e.g., poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)] the whole-Teflon chip has a few more advantages, ...

  15. How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie

    2007-01-01

    "How much popcorn will our classroom hold?" This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting…

  16. Should we Hold the Obese Responsible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    of responsibility puts aside questions of the past and holds a person responsible by reference to some desirable future state of affairs and will typically mean that he or she is subjected to criticism, censure, or other negative appraisals or that he or she is held cost-responsible in some form, for example...

  17. Uncertainty Quantification for Cargo Hold Fires

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold -- first, to introduce the application of high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods to buoyancy-driven cargo hold fire simulations, second, to explore statistical variation in the fluid dynamics of a cargo hold fire given parameterized uncertainty in the fire source location and temperature. Cargo hold fires represent a class of problems that require highly-accurate computational methods to simulate faithfully. Hence, we use an in-house discontinuous Galerkin code to treat these flows. Cargo hold fires also exhibit a large amount of uncertainty with respect to the boundary conditions. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to quantify the resulting uncertainty in the flow, using tools from the uncertainty quantification community to ensure that our efforts require a minimal number of simulations. We expect that the results of this study will provide statistical insight into the effects of fire location and temperature on cargo fires, and also assist in the optimization of f...

  18. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  19. CNPC Hong Kong (Holdings) Ltd. Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yaowen; Yang Hanfeng

    1997-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of the return of Hong Kong to the motherland, CNPC Hong Kong (Holdings) Ltd. is formally established in April, 1997 in Hong Kong. This important event marks the beginning of a new and prosperous stage in the trade and economic cooperation currently forged between the mainland petroleum industry and Hong Kong's financial,industrial and commercial circles.

  20. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  1. Whether to sell or hold a stock

    OpenAIRE

    Rishel, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    For a simple model of a stock, whose stock price is a geometric Brownian motion in which the drift rate changes back and forth between positive and negative values, optimal selling times are computed. An infinite optimal selling time meaning you should just hold the stock.

  2. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion ba...

  3. Cellulose based Lithium ion polymer electrolytes for Lithium batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Chelmecki, Marcin

    2004-01-01

    The separator membrane in batteries and fuel cells is of crucial importance for the function of these devices. In lithium ion batteries the separator membrane as well as the polymer matrix of the electrodes consists of polymer electrolytes which are lithium ion conductors. To overcome the disadvantage of currently used polymer electrolytes which are highly swollen with liquids and thus mechanically and electrochemically unstable, the goal of this work is a new generation of solid polymer e...

  4. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  5. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li2O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10-21m2 and 4 x 10-21m2, respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10-21m2. On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10-21m2. Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ3) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  6. Development of a microplate reader compatible microfluidic chip for ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fenghua; Zhang, Qin; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xinchun; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Shuping; Cheng, Zhiyi

    2012-08-01

    We report a novel microfluidic device use for sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay assay (ELISA). The related procedures including the introduction of reagents, dilution and distribution of samples, as well as immobilization of enzyme can be readily carried out on a poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chip. Particularly, this microfluidic chip comprising of two distinct parallel units, and has an identical dimension as a conventional microtiter plate, which offers access to the directly quantitative detection by the microplate reader. Gradient-concentration reacting solutions at six different concentrations level generated by the microfluidic channel network are simultaneously transported to 24 reaction chambers to form enzymatic products. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) and KH(2)PO(4) are used as enzyme-substrate-inhibitor model, to demonstrate the utility of the developed microchip-based enzyme inhibitor assay. Various conditions such as the surface treatment of chip channels, fluids velocities, substrate concentration, and buffer pH are investigated. The present microfluidic device for ELISA holds several advantages, for instance frugal usage of samples and reagents, less of operating time, favorably integrated configuration, ease of manipulation, and could be explored to a variety of high throughput drug screening. PMID:22526682

  7. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  8. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P;

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... loading dose estimates. Furthermore, the maintenance dose estimated from the central compartment (V1) led to plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range. Thus, a regimen where 12.2 mmol lithium was given after each hemodialysis session resulted in stable between-dialysis plasma lithium...... lithium administrated immediately postdialysis. Further observations are necessary to obtain robust long-term safety data and to optimize the monitoring schedule....

  9. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  10. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  11. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  12. Air breathing lithium power cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  13. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  14. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  15. Lithium Abundance of Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 32 metal-poor stars. The equivalent widths of Li λ6708A were measured and the lithium abundances were derived. The average lithium abundance of 21 stars on the lithium plateau is 2.33±0.02 dex. The Lithium plateau exhibits a marginal trend along metallicity, dA(Li)/d[Fe/H] = 0.12±0.06, and no clear trend with the effective temperature. The trend indicates that the abundance of lithium plateau may not be primordial and that a part of the lithium was produced in Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE).

  16. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971,...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  18. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a...

  19. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  20. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, C; Guo, X; Fan, L; Ma, X; Poot, M; Tang, H X

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips. PMID:26792424

  1. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, C.; Guo, X.; Fan, L.; Ma, X.; Poot, M.; Tang, H. X.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips.

  2. Integrated optic beam combiners in lithium niobate for stellar interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyu; Eckhause, Tobias; Winick, Kim A.; Monnier, John D.; Berger, Jean-Philippe

    2006-06-01

    Integrated optics can provide compact and robust solutions for ground and space-based interferometry by integrating optical devices with different functionalities, such as spatial filters, combiners/nullers, and phase modulators, on a single chip. Lithium niobate (LiNbO 3) has two distinct advantages over silica-based technologies, including good transparency further into the near-infrared (covering J, H, K, and L bands) and the ability to support electrically-controlled phase modulation through the linear electro-optic (EO) effect. The design, fabrication and preliminary tests of integrated optic components on LiNbO 3 substrates for astronomical beam combiners operating in the H and L bands is reported. The components include single-mode waveguides of sufficient length for spatial filtering, symmetric junctions for wavelength insensitive power splitters/combiners, and electro-optic waveguide modulators for path-length control.

  3. Lithium availability and future production outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Review of reserves, resources and key properties of 112 lithium deposits. • Discussions of widely diverging results from recent lithium supply estimates. • Forecasting future lithium production by resource-constrained models. • Exploring implications for future deployment of electric cars. - Abstract: Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can meet a growing demand is seldom adequately explained. This study presents a review and compilation of recent estimates of quantities of lithium available for exploitation and discusses the uncertainty and differences between these estimates. Also, mathematical curve fitting models are used to estimate possible future annual production rates. This estimation of possible production rates are compared to a potential increased demand of lithium if the International Energy Agency’s Blue Map Scenarios are fulfilled regarding electrification of the car fleet. We find that the availability of lithium could in fact be a problem for fulfilling this scenario if lithium-ion batteries are to be used. This indicates that other battery technologies might have to be implemented for enabling an electrification of road transports

  4. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S. [A123 Systems, Inc.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  5. 78 FR 31590 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... management segment of the supply chain unit. The Department also received information from the subject firm... management services, another petitioner supplied project coordinator analytics services, and the third... Employment and Training Administration Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears...

  6. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion to the formation of porous lithium nitride during intermediate storage and a violent exothermal...

  7. The Effect of Education on Equity Holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Hryshko, Dmytro; Luengo-Prado, Maria; Bent E. Sørensen

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of education on equity ownership in the form of stocks or mutual funds (outside of retirement accounts). We find a causal effect of education on stockholding using the number of colleges in the county where the respondent grew up as an instrument and data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The effect is particularly strong for whites from non-privileged backgrounds. We explore the channels through which education affects equity holdings using the Wisconsin Longitudin...

  8. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Azab, Seham F. A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig U...

  9. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  10. A new lithium salt with dihydroxybenzene and lithium tetrafluoroborate for lithium battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhao-Ming; Sun, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2011-10-01

    A new unsymmetrical lithium salt containing F-, C6H4O22- [dianion of 1,2-benzenediol], lithium difluoro(1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o‧)borate (LDFBDB) is synthesized and characterized. Its thermal decomposition in nitrogen begins at 170 °C. The cyclic voltammetry study shows that the LDFBDB solution in propylene carbonate (PC) is stable up to 3.7 V versus Li+/Li. It is soluble in common organic solvents. The ionic dissociation properties of LDFBDB are examined by conductivity measurements in PC, PC+ ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), PC + dimethyl ether (DME), PC + ethylene carbonate (EC) + EMC solutions. The conductivity values of the 0.564 mol dm-3 LDFBDB electrolyte in PC + DME solution is 3.90 mS cm-1. All these properties of the new lithium salt including the thermal characteristics, electrochemical stabilities, solubilities, ionic dissociation properties are studied and compared with those of its derivatives, lithium difluoro(3-fluoro-1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o‧)borate (FLDFBDB), lithium [3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-o,o‧ oxalato]borate (FLBDOB), and lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LBOB).

  11. Atom chip gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Müntinga, Hauke; Matthias, Jonas; Sahelgozin, Maral; Herr, Waldemar; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Atom interferometry has developed into a tool for measuring rotations [1], accelerations [2], and testing fundamental physics [3]. Gravimeters based on laser cooled atoms demonstrated residual uncertainties of few microgal [2,4] and were simplified for field applications [5]. Atomic gravimeters rely on the interference of matter waves which are coherently manipulated by laser light fields. The latter can be interpreted as rulers to which the position of the atoms is compared. At three points in time separated by a free evolution, the light fields are pulsed onto the atoms. First, a coherent superposition of two momentum states is produced, then the momentum is inverted, and finally the two trajectories are recombined. Depending on the acceleration the atoms experienced, the number of atoms detected in the output ports will change. Consequently, the acceleration can be determined from the output signal. The laser cooled atoms with microkelvin temperatures used in state-of-the-art gravimeters impose limits on the accuracy [4]. Therefore, ultra-cold atoms generated by Bose-Einstein condensation and delta-kick collimation [6,7] are expected to be the key for further improvements. These sources suffered from a low flux implying an incompatible noise floor, but a competitive performance was demonstrated recently with atom chips [8]. In the compact and robust setup constructed for operation in the drop tower [6] we demonstrated all steps necessary for an atom chip gravimeter with Bose-Einstein condensates in a ground based operation. We will discuss the principle of operation, the current performance, and the perspectives to supersede the state of the art. The authors thank the QUANTUS cooperation for contributions to the drop tower project in the earlier stages. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM

  12. Stem end chip defect in tubers used for potato chip production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem-end chip defect (SECD) is a serious tuber quality concern that affects chipping potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). SECD defect is characterized by dark-colored vascular tissues and adjacent cortical tissues at the tuber stem-end portion of potato chips after frying. Chips with SECD are unattractive ...

  13. Predictors of excellent response to lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of excellent response, that is, 'cure' of future affective episodes, to lithium in monotherapy. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings...... who were prescribed lithium from 1995 to 2006 in Denmark (N=3762). Excellent lithium responders were defined as patients who after a stabilization lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium in monotherapy without getting hospitalized. The rate of excellent response to lithium in...... somatic comorbidity had increased rates of non-response to lithium compared with patients without somatic comorbidity (HR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.00-1.52).It is concluded that the prevalence of excellent response to lithium monotherapy is low and such patients are characterized by few earlier psychiatric...

  14. Development, Fabrication and Characterisation of Atom Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Sönke

    2006-01-01

    Atom chips are robust and extremely powerful toolboxes for quantum optical experiments, since they make it possible to create exceedingly precise magnetic traps for neutral atoms with minimal field modulations. Accurate manipulation of trapped atoms is feasible with magnetic and electric fields created on the atom chip. Therefore atom chips with high quality surfaces and extremely well defined wires were build (roughness < 20nm). Furthermore new generations of atom chips were developed, like ...

  15. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  16. Recent Developments in Thin-Film Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Neudecker, B.J.

    1999-01-04

    This report on recent developments in thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries displays experimental data related to high-rate deposition and annealing, metal foil substrates, tin and zinc nitride anodes, lithium plating (``lithium-free'' lithium cells), manufacturing and applications. Challenges and future work include improving the yield of batteries on metal foils by electrical isolation of anode current collector from substrate, and lowering manufacturing costs by increasing deposition and processing rates of electrolyte and cathode films.

  17. Obtaining and thermodynamic properties of lithium hydrofluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to obtaining and thermodynamic properties of lithium hydrofluoride. Thus, the conditions of obtaining lithium hydrofluoride by interaction of concentrated solutions of hydrofluoric acid and lithium carbonate are defined. The enthalpy of above mentioned reaction by means of solution calorimetry method is defined as well. On the basis of experimental and reference data the enthalpy value of lithium hydrofluoride formation is evaluated. (author)

  18. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agubra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  19. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  20. Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Delva, N. J.; Hawken, E. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms of, lithium intoxication. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched via MEDLINE from January 1970 to December 1999 using the MeSH headings Lithium, Lithium Carbonate, Drug Toxicity, and Aging. Articles were selected based on clinical relevance and design. Most were case reports, case series, or reviews. MAIN MESSAGE: A case study illustrates both risk factors predisposing patients to lithium intoxication and the symptoms o...

  1. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  2. Near Field On Chip RFID Antenna Design

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Alberto; Vojtech, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    The process of fabricating the antenna on the top of the RFID chip eliminates the need for a separated and costly expensive process for antenna printing and assemblage, compulsory for a separated "off-chip" antenna which is much more times larger than the chip itself. This

  3. On-Chip Optical Squeezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Avik; Luke, Kevin; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal

    2015-04-01

    We report the observation of all-optical squeezing in an on-chip monolithically integrated CMOS-compatible platform. Our device consists of a low-loss silicon nitride microring optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a gigahertz cavity linewidth. We measure 1.7 dB (5 dB corrected for losses) of sub-shot-noise quantum correlations between bright twin beams generated in the microring four-wave-mixing OPO pumped above threshold. This experiment demonstrates a compact, robust, and scalable platform for quantum-optics and quantum-information experiments on chip.

  4. Asymptomatic Graves' disease during lithium therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, C J; Baylis, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium salts are widely recognized to cause biochemical hypothyroidism and have been used to treat thyrotoxicosis. We present a case of Graves' disease which developed during lithium therapy. The patient was asymptomatic until the lithium was discontinued; she subsequently developed florid symptoms of thyrotoxicosis.

  5. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  6. A novel silicon/carbon nanocomposite anode for high performance lithium-ion micro-battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a novel nanocomposite anode for lithium-ion battery, with high initial specific capacity (1200mAh/g) and good capacity retention (850mAh/g remaining after 30 cycles). Sufficient silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) at anode make a significant contribution to specific capacity increase. Moreover, nano void space between SiNPs and carbon scaffold provide enough space for expansion and contraction of SiNPs during the process of lithium ion intercalation and deintercalation to ensure a long cycle life. The porous carbon scaffold is obtained from Si/SiO2-templated SU-8 photoresist. As such, this design and fabrication makes it possible to implement direct prototyping of three dimensional (3D) micro-battery on chip

  7. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  8. Lithium treatment and thyroid abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocchetta Alberto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the interactions between lithium treatment and thyroid function have long been recognised, their clinical relevance is still controversial. This paper sets out a review of the literature to date, considering that lithium still represents the gold standard among prophylactic treatments of manic-depression several decades after its introduction. Method PubMed database was used to search for English-language articles relating to lithium treatment and thyroid function. As the amount of relevant papers totalled several hundreds, this review refers to previous reviews, especially with regard to older literature. Moreover, the authors particularly refer to a series of studies of thyroid function performed in a cohort of patients at different stages of lithium treatment, who were followed up by their group from 1989 onwards. Results The main findings from this review included: a lithium definitely affects thyroid function as repeatedly shown by studies on cell cultures, experimental animals, volunteers, and patients; b inhibition of thyroid hormone release is the critical mechanism in the development of hypothyroidism, goitre, and, perhaps, changes in the texture of the gland which are detected by ultrasonic scanning; c compensatory mechanisms operate and prevent the development of hypothyroidism in the majority of patients; d when additional risk factors are present, either environmental (such as iodine deficiency or intrinsic (immunogenetic background, compensatory potential may be reduced and clinically relevant consequences may derive; e hypothyroidism may develop in particular during the first years of lithium treatment, in middle-aged women, and in the presence of thyroid autoimmunity; f thyroid autoimmunity is found in excess among patients suffering from affective disorders, irrespective of lithium exposure; g in patients who have been on lithium for several years, the outcome of hypothyroidism, goitre, and thyroid

  9. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tuazon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly capable of defining renal morphological features and has been demonstrated to be superior to US and CT scan for the visualization of small renal cysts. The microcysts are found in both cortex and medulla, particularly in the regions with extensive atrophy and fibrosis, and can be multiple and bilateral. They tend to be sparse and do not normally exceed 1–2 mm in diameter. The renal microcysts in the image here reported are subtle, but consistent with lithium-induced chronic nephropathy. An MRI of the kidneys provides noninvasive evidence that strengthens the diagnosis of lithium-induced nephropathy.

  10. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, Maria Manuela; L. Dupont; Goncalves, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer physical vapour DEPOSITION (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD DEPOSITION techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts wi...

  11. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  12. Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David W.; Wilson, Edward; How, Jonathan; Sanenz-Otero, Alvar; Chamitoff, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They will be used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres will fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. SPHERES is a testbed for formation flying by satellites, the theories and calculations that coordinate the motion of multiple bodies maneuvering in microgravity. To achieve this inside the ISS cabin, bowling-ball-sized spheres perform various maneuvers (or protocols), with one to three spheres operating simultaneously . The Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) experiment will test relative attitude control and station-keeping between satellites, re-targeting and image plane filling maneuvers, collision avoidance and fuel balancing algorithms, and an array of geometry estimators used in various missions. SPHERES consists of three self-contained satellites, which are 18 sided polyhedrons that are 0.2 meter in diameter and weigh 3.5 kilograms. Each satellite contains an internal propulsion system, power, avionics, software, communications, and metrology subsystems. The propulsion system uses CO2, which is expelled through the thrusters. SPHERES satellites are powered by AA batteries. The metrology subsystem provides real-time position and attitude information. To simulate ground station-keeping, a laptop will be used to transmit navigational data and formation flying algorithms. Once these data are uploaded, the satellites will perform autonomously and hold the formation until a new command is given.

  13. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  14. Lithium mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological surveys showed that Romania basement contains a variety of balneary resources located within on the surface crust. Mineral waters are spread over more than 20% of the country at different depths, with a wide range of physical, chemical and therapeutic properties depending on their genesis.Balneary resources are represented mainly by therapeutic minerals that the physicochemical properties answer the needs of medical and prophylactic maintenance, enhancement and restoration of health, work capacity and physical and mental comfort of the individual.The surface waters arising from a natural source or updated by drilling and whose physical and chemical characteristics that may exert dynamic pharmaco-therapeutic are considered therapeutic mineral waters. Mineral waters are waters that have a variable content of salts, gas, minerals, radioactive elements, which gives them therapeutic properties. In the past, name of mineral water was attributed to all shallow or groundwater mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes. In recent years, mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes have been given the name of curative water.Lithium arouses a great scientific interest because, although his structure is so simple, easy to analyze, with chemical and physical properties well established the myriad of the effects on biological systems by influencing many cellular processes and molecular and the mechanism of action are still unclear generates a mystery that modern science attempting to decipher.

  15. Significant influence of insufficient lithium on electrochemical performance of lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an aim to broaden the understanding of the factors that govern electrochemical performance of lithium-rich layered oxide, the influences of insufficient lithium on reversible capacity, cyclic stability and rate capability of the oxide as cathode of lithium ion battery are investigated in this study. Various concentrations of lithium precursor are introduced to synthesize a target composition Li[Li0.13Ni0.30Ni0.57]O2, and the resulting products are characterized with inductively coupled plasma spectrum, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that the lithium content in the resulting oxide decreases with reducing the concentration of lithium precursor from 10wt%-excess lithium to stoichiometric lithium, due to insufficient compensation for lithium volatilization during synthesis process at high temperature. However, all these oxides still exhibit typically structural and electrochemical characteristics of lithium-rich layered oxides. Interestingly, with decreasing the Li content in the oxide, its reversible capacity increases due to relatively higher content of active transition-metal ions, while the cyclic stability degrades severely because of structural instability induced by higher content of Mn3+ ions and deeper lithium extraction

  16. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E;

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol......-mentioned factors, initial loss of aerosol by impact on the chamber wall is most important for the efficiency of a spacer. With a VT of 195 mL, the AeroChamber and Babyhaler were emptied in two breaths, the NebuChamber in four breaths, and the Nebuhaler in six breaths. Insufficiencies of the expiratory valves were...

  17. Lithium-6 from Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaty, R; Thibaud, J P; Kozlovskii, B; Mandzhavidze, N

    2000-01-01

    By introducing a hitherto ignored Li-6 producing process, due to accelerated He-3 reactions with He-4, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more Li-6 than Li-7. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data we demonstrate that the Li-6 produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric Li-7, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration.

  18. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P;

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption of...... clearance data were independent of whether renal disease was of primarily glomerular or tubular origin and, further, were not influenced by long-term conventional antihypertensive treatment. 6. It is concluded that, even with a reduced kidney function, the data are compatible with the suggestion that...... lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  19. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  20. FERMI multi-chip module

    CERN Multimedia

    This FERMI multi-chip module contains five million transistors. 25 000 of these modules will handle the flood of information through parts of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. To select interesting events for recording, crucial decisions are taken before the data leaves the detector. FERMI modules are being developed at CERN in partnership with European industry.

  1. Fiber cavities for atom chips

    OpenAIRE

    Klappauf, B.G.; Horak, P.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    We present experimental realizations of several micro-cavities, constructed from standard fiber optic components, which meet the theoretical criteria for single atom detection from laser-cooled samples. We discuss integration of these cavities into state-of-the-art 'atom chips'.

  2. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    A chip scale tunable laser in the visible spectral band is realized by generating a periodic droplet array inside a microfluidic channel. Combined with a gain medium within the droplets, the periodic structure provides the optical feedback of the laser. By controlling the pressure applied to two...

  3. Kinerja Pengeringan Chip Ubi Kayu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi Asmara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lampung Province is the largest producer of cassava in Indonesia. Cassava has a weakness that is easily damaged and could not be stored longer. To overcome this, there is a need of an effective drying process so that cassava can be processed into other materials of lower power use as well as its economic value. A hybrid drying system is one solution to resolve the issue. The purpose of this research is to study the performance of drying cassava chips by using a hybrid type of dryer rack. The process of drying cassava chips made using a three-stage treatments with three replicates with the input load of 30 kg of cassava chips. The results showed that the pattern of decline in water levels in each treatment is uneven. The time needed to dry cassava chips to reach the water content of 10% - 12% in the drying of materials using sunlight for 18 hours, using electrical energy for 16 hours and use the energy of sunlight and electricity for 12 hours. The higher temperatures produced the shorter the time required in the drying process. Electrical energy required for the drying process using electric energy was 91 440 kJ and drying using electrical energy and sunlight was 68600 kJ.

  4. Reconfigurable Networks-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sao-Jie; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hu, Yu-Hen

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive survey of recent progress in the design and implementation of Networks-on-Chip. It addresses a wide spectrum of on-chip communication problems, ranging from physical, network, to application layers. Specific topics that are explored in detail include packet routing, resource arbitration, error control/correction, application mapping, and communication scheduling. Additionally, a novel bi-directional communication channel NoC (BiNoC) architecture is described, with detailed explanation.   Written for practicing engineers in need of practical knowledge about the design and implementation of networks-on-chip; Includes tutorial-like details to introduce readers to a diverse range of NoC designs, as well as in-depth analysis for designers with NoC experience to explore advanced issues; Describes a variety of on-chip communication architectures, including a novel bi-directional communication channel NoC.     From the Foreword: Overall this book shows important advances over the...

  5. Programmable synaptic chip for electronic neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moopenn, A.; Langenbacher, H.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A binary synaptic matrix chip has been developed for electronic neural networks. The matrix chip contains a programmable 32X32 array of 'long channel' NMOSFET binary connection elements implemented in a 3-micron bulk CMOS process. Since the neurons are kept off-chip, the synaptic chip serves as a 'cascadable' building block for a multi-chip synaptic network as large as 512X512 in size. As an alternative to the programmable NMOSFET (long channel) connection elements, tailored thin film resistors are deposited, in series with FET switches, on some CMOS test chips, to obtain the weak synaptic connections. Although deposition and patterning of the resistors require additional processing steps, they promise substantial savings in silicon area. The performance of synaptic chip in a 32-neuron breadboard system in an associative memory test application is discussed.

  6. Superconductivity in Graphene-Lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, D. M.; Alyahyaei, H. M.; Jishi, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations on systems consisting of a few layers of graphene and lithium. In particular, we investigate the evolution of the electron-phonon coupling strength with increasing number of layers. We find that, for intercalated systems such as C6-Li-C6 or C6-Li-C6-Li-C6, the electron-phonon coupling is weak. However, for systems of equal number of graphene and lithium layers, such as C6-Li or C6-Li-C6-Li, the electron-phonon coupling is strong. We investigate the opt...

  7. Liquid Lithium Experiments in CDX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial results of experiments involving the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) are reported. Studies of the interaction of a steady-state plasma with liquid lithium in the Plasma Interaction with Surface and Components Experimental Simulator (PISCES-B) are also summarized. In CDX-U a solid or liquid lithium covered rail limiter was introduced as the primary limiting surface for spherical torus discharges. Deuterium recycling was observed to be reduced, but so far not eliminated, for glow discharge-cleaned lithium surfaces. Some lithium influx was observed during tokamak operation. The PISCES-B results indicate that the rates of plasma erosion of lithium can exceed predictions by an order of magnitude at elevated temperatures. Plans to extend the CDX-U experiments to large area liquid lithium toroidal belt limiters are also described

  8. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  9. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  10. A PMOS multipled LVTSCR device for ESD protection with a higher holding voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tong-quan; WANG Yang; HUANG Wei; LUO Qi-yuan; JIN Xiang-liang

    2014-01-01

    A novel LVTSCR structure for 5 V on-chip protection against Electrostatic Discharge(ESD) stress at input or output pads is presented. Silvaco 2D TCAD software is used to simulate the device including electrical and thermal characteristics. The new device exchanges the diffusion region of N+ and P+ in N-WELL and introduces a PMOS-like structure to discharge ESD current before Low Voltage Triggering SCR(LVTSCR) starting to work. And the device simulation results show that it obtains a higher holding voltage(10.51 V) and a faster turn on speed(1.05×10-10 s) compared with LVTSCR, with the triggering voltage only increasing slightly from 12.45 V to 15.35 V. Also, in order to make sure that the PMOS structure will trigger first and will not cause thermal breakdown problem, nearly the same channel length as NMOS should be chosen for PMOS structure.

  11. Growth and decomposition of Lithium and Lithium hydride on Nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk;

    2006-01-01

    -hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower...

  12. Lithium-Induced Motor Neuropathy: An Unusual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Sahoo, Manas Ranjan; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy secondary to lithium is under-recognized. Most cases of polyneuropathy were reported with lithium intoxication. However, very few cases were reported without lithium toxicity. We present a case of motor neuropathy due to the use of lithium in a 26-year-old male with a therapeutic lithium level.

  13. Review and Outlook of China’s Lithium Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>In 2011 China’s lithium carbonate output was about 30000 tonnes. In 2012, China’s lithium carbonate output (including battery grade lithium carbonate) was 35000 tonnes, up by 17% on Y-o-Y basis. (1) Capacity of Ganfeng Lithium expanded considerably The company enjoys obvious technological advantages, its organic lithium deep processing

  14. Lithium-induced motor neuropathy: An unusual presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakam Mohapatra; Manas Ranjan Sahoo; Neelmadhav Rath

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy secondary to lithium is under-recognized. Most cases of polyneuropathy were reported with lithium intoxication. However, very few cases were reported without lithium toxicity. We present a case of motor neuropathy due to the use of lithium in a 26-year-old male with a therapeutic lithium level.

  15. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.563-2 - Personal holding company tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Personal holding company tax. 1.563-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Deduction for Dividends Paid § 1.563-2 Personal holding company tax. In the case of a personal holding company subject to the provisions of section 541, dividends paid...

  17. 77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard... SPV, LLC (Celerity Holdings), and Celerity Partners IV, LLC (Celerity Partners)...

  18. 78 FR 52391 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... to prepare their financial statements in accordance with statutory accounting principles (SAP) and... Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C); \\2\\ 12 U.S.C. 1841(a). A company that, on... the Board's use of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in determining whether a company...

  19. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E;

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......-mentioned factors, initial loss of aerosol by impact on the chamber wall is most important for the efficiency of a spacer. With a VT of 195 mL, the AeroChamber and Babyhaler were emptied in two breaths, the NebuChamber in four breaths, and the Nebuhaler in six breaths. Insufficiencies of the expiratory valves were...

  20. Lithium equation-of-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977, Dave Young published an equation-of-state (EOS) for lithium. This EOS was used by Lew Glenn in his AFTON calculations of the HYLIFE inertial-fusion-reactor hydrodynamics. In this paper, I summarize Young's development of the EOS and demonstrate a computer program (MATHSY) that plots isotherms, isentropes and constant energy lines on a P-V diagram

  1. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    NOVELTY - A silicon transducer chip (1) has parallel backplate and movable diaphragm (12) and forms an electrical capacitor. The chip and electronic circuit chip (3) are provided on either sides of intermediate chip (2). The chip (2) has openings (4,10) between two sides of the chip, to allow sound...... towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...

  2. System Integration - A Major Step toward Lab on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Joseph C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microfluidics holds great promise to revolutionize various areas of biological engineering, such as single cell analysis, environmental monitoring, regenerative medicine, and point-of-care diagnostics. Despite the fact that intensive efforts have been devoted into the field in the past decades, microfluidics has not yet been adopted widely. It is increasingly realized that an effective system integration strategy that is low cost and broadly applicable to various biological engineering situations is required to fully realize the potential of microfluidics. In this article, we review several promising system integration approaches for microfluidics and discuss their advantages, limitations, and applications. Future advancements of these microfluidic strategies will lead toward translational lab-on-a-chip systems for a wide spectrum of biological engineering applications.

  3. Holding equine oocytes in a commercial embryo-holding medium: New perspective on holding temperature and maturation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Pouya; Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Ducheyne, Kaatje; Hostens, Miel; Daels, Peter

    2016-09-15

    In the present study, we examined the effect of holding equine oocytes in Syngro embryo holding medium (EHM) overnight at either 4 °C, 17 °C, or 22 °C to 25 °C, on the time to maturation and developmental competence. We also examined the effect of placing denuded oocyte without extruded polar body back in maturation condition on subsequent maturation rate. In experiment 1, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered postmortem and placed in EHM at 22 °C to 25 °C for 18 to 20 hours (OH) or placed directly in maturation (DM). The maturation rate was assessed after 22, 24, or 28 hours of culture. After denuding cumulus cells at 22 or 24 hours, oocytes without obvious polar body were placed back into culture and reassessed at subsequent time points. At 22 hours, a higher proportion of oocytes placed in OH achieved nuclear maturation than those placed in DM (63% and 37%, respectively, P = 0.008). At 24 and 28 hours, no significant differences in the % MII stage oocytes were observed between OH and DM. The nuclear maturation rate for OH oocytes was similar at 22, 24, and 28 hours, indicating that the maximum maturation rate was reached at an earlier time than that in DM. Oocytes fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection resulted in a 7.1% and 6.3% blastocyst rate for OH and DM, respectively. Denuding oocytes after 22 hours or more of culture did not have an adverse effect on the final nuclear maturation rate. After 28 hours of culture, the same nuclear maturation rate (MII) was reached for nondenuded oocytes and oocytes denuded after 22 hours of 24 hours of culture. In experiment 2, COCs were held overnight at room temperature in EHM, then placed in maturation for 20, 22, and 28 hours. Nuclear maturation rate was significantly lower at 20 hours than 22 and 28 hours of culture and was similar at 22 and 28 hours, suggesting that at least 22 hours of culture is required to reach maximal maturation rate for stored oocytes (43%, 62%, and 65% at 20, 22

  4. Lithium in the Kidney: Friend and Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsady, Mohammad; Baumgarten, Ruben; Deen, Peter M T; de Groot, Theun

    2016-06-01

    Trace amounts of lithium are essential for our physical and mental health, and administration of lithium has improved the quality of life of millions of patients with bipolar disorder for >60 years. However, in a substantial number of patients with bipolar disorder, long-term lithium therapy comes at the cost of severe renal side effects, including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and rarely, ESRD. Although the mechanisms underlying the lithium-induced renal pathologies are becoming clearer, several recent animal studies revealed that short-term administration of lower amounts of lithium prevents different forms of experimental AKI. In this review, we discuss the knowledge of the pathologic and therapeutic effects of lithium in the kidney. Furthermore, we discuss the underlying mechanisms of these seemingly paradoxical effects of lithium, in which fine-tuned regulation of glycogen synthase kinase type 3, a prime target for lithium, seems to be key. The new discoveries regarding the protective effect of lithium against AKI in rodents call for follow-up studies in humans and suggest that long-term therapy with low lithium concentrations could be beneficial in CKD. PMID:26577775

  5. Microstructuring of lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents the results from an investigation into methods for micron-scale relief structuring of lithium niobate. A wet etch consisting of HF and HNO3 was applied and directed by 1) patterning the ferroelectric domain structure of the samples and 2) illuminating the crystals with patterned 488nm light. Post-etch treatment of the structures resulted in ridge waveguides and alignment grooves, while pre-etch manipulation achieved an etch-stop. Ablation was investigated as a method of directly structuring the crystal and for patterning photoresist. The etch was found to leave the +z face untouched. The -z face was etched at a rate, k. in μm/hour given by k = Ae Ea/RT where rate is in μm/hour, A=e(20.37) and Ea = ∼0.54eV, R is the gas constant and T the absolute temperature. This differential etch rate reveals a pattern induced in the ferroelectric domain structure by the technique of electric field patterning. The structures had walls with roughness -1, fibre alignment grooves and an etch stop were demonstrated, using appropriate pre- and post-etch treatments. The etch was found to be affected by illumination with 488nm. radiation. In Fe:LiNbO3 complete and partial frustration of the etch was induced on the -z face. Characteristic features of the partial frustration were sub-micron ridges and triangular pillars, separated by gaps as small as 500nm. In LiNbO3 the etch rate was found to increase on the -z face. The etch rate on the +z face was unaffected in both. Direct ablation with an excimer laser produced relief structures. Aspect ratios > 1:1 resulted in a dendritic structure in the ablated area. Direct ablation was suitable for patterning the photoresist. Surface damage was intentionally induced when producing large (>100μm) openings, however the effect of surface damage on electric field poling could not be conclusively tested. Submicron openings were also created and subsequent poling produced sub-micron domains, revealed by etching. (author)

  6. Deprotonative metallation of ferrocenes using mixed lithium-zinc and lithium-cadmium combinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Dayaker, Gandrath; Sreeshailam, Aare; Chevallier, Floris; Roisnel, Thierry; Radha Krishna, Palakodety; Mongin, Florence

    2010-01-01

    A mixed lithium-cadmium amide and a combination of lithium and zinc amides were reacted with a range of ferrocenes; deprotonative mono- or dimetallation in general occurred chemoselectively at room temperature, as evidenced by subsequent quenching with iodine.

  7. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  8. Darwinian Evolution on a Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Paegel, Brian M.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2008-01-01

    Author Summary The principles of Darwinian evolution are fundamental to understanding biological organization and have been applied to the development of functional molecules in the test tube. Laboratory evolution is greatly accelerated compared with natural evolution, but it usually requires substantial manipulation by the experimenter. Here we describe a system that relies on computer control and microfluidic chip technology to automate the directed evolution of functional molecules, subjec...

  9. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion t...

  10. Lithium ve Lithium Bipolar Affektif Bozukluğa SekonderAlkolizm Tedavisindeki Yeri

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of lithium on chronic alcoholism secondary to bipolar affective disorder has been studied on a total of 31 alcoholic pati¬ents, 11 of them having bipolar affective illness. All the patients were treated with lithium carbonate for a years duration. The results of this study has showed that lithium is significantly effective on chronic alcoholism only when it is secondary to bipolar affective ilness. In the control group where the primary ilness was alcoholism lithium treatment has b...

  11. Elaboration and characterization of hybrid lithium-ion conducting membranes for aqueous lithium-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Lancel, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous lithium-air batteries could be a revolution in energy storage, but the main limitation is the use of a thick glass-ceramic lithium ionic conductor to isolate the metallic lithium from the aqueous electrolyte. This makes the system more fragile, limits its cyclability and increases ohmic resistance. The aim of this work is to replace the glass-ceramic by a hybrid membrane made by electrospinning, which combines water tightness, flexibility and lithium-ions conductivity. The ionic condu...

  12. Lithium kan anvendes til patienter i hæmodialyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kancir, Anne Sophie Pinholt; Viftrup, Jens Emil; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-induced nephropathy is a known complication of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. Treatment with lithium should be discontinued, if there is evidence of lithium-induced nephropathy. However, lithium can be given to patients with end-stage-renal-disease on haemodialysis treatment, if...... there is no other way to control the bipolar disorder. We report one patient who was successfully treated with lithium in parallel with haemodialysis....

  13. Extraction of lithium Carbonate from Petalite Ore (Momeik District, Myanmar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods for preparing high purity lithium carbonate which can be used for pharmaceutical applications, electronic grade crystals of lithium or to prepare battery-grade lithium metal are disclosed. Lithium carbonate as commercially produced from mineral extraction, lithium containing brines or sea water. One method for the production of pure lithium carbonate from mineral source (petalite ore) obtained from Momeik District, Myanmar is disclosed. Method for mineral processing of ore concentrate is also disclosed.

  14. Plasma-modified polyethylene membrane as a separator for lithium-ion polymer battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface of polyethylene (PE) membranes as a separator for lithium-ion polymer battery was modified with acrylonitrile (AN) using the plasma technology. The plasma-induced acrylonitrile coated PE (PiAN-PE) membrane was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurement. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion polymer cell fabricated with the PE and the PiAN-PE membranes were also analyzed. The surface characterization demonstrates that the enhanced adhesion of the PiAN-PE membrane resulted from the increased polar component of surface energy for the PiAN-PE membrane. The presence of the PiAN induced onto the surface of the membrane via the plasma modification plays a critical role in improving the wettability and electrolyte retention, the interfacial adhesion between the electrodes and the separator, the cycle performance of the resulting lithium-ion polymer cell assembly. The PiAN-PE membrane modified by the plasma treatment holds a great potential to be used as a high-performance and cost-effective separator for lithium-ion polymer battery.

  15. Future trends in secure chip data managemen

    OpenAIRE

    Anciaux, Nicolas; Bouganim, Luc; Pucheral, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Secure chips, e.g. present in smart cards, TPM, USB dongles are now ubiquitous in applications with strong security requirements. Secure chips host personal data that must be carefully managed and protected, thus requiring embedded data management techniques. However, secure chips have severe hardware constraints which make traditional database techniques irrelevant. We previously addressed the problem of scaling down database techniques for the smart card and proposed the design of a DBMS ke...

  16. Future Trends in Secure Chip Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anciaux, Nicolas; Bouganim, Luc; Pucheral, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Secure chips, e.g. present in smart cards, TPM, USB dongles are now ubiquitous in applications with strong security requirements. Secure chips host personal data that must be carefully managed and protected, thus requiring embedded data management techniques. However, secure chips have severe hardware constraints which make traditional database techniques irrelevant. We previously addressed the problem of scaling down database techniques for the smart card and proposed the design of a DBMS ke...

  17. Wireless network-on-chip: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Wang; Tao Jin

    2014-01-01

    To alleviate the complex communication problems arising in the network-on-chip (NoC) architectures as the number of on-chip components increases, several novel interconnect infrastructures have been recently proposed to replace the traditional on-chip interconnection systems that are reaching their limits in terms of performance, power and area constraints. Wireless NoC (WiNoC) is among the most promising scalable interconnection architectures for future generation NoCs. In this study, the au...

  18. Mental models students hold of zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia Gail

    The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information

  19. Lithium: Sources, Production, Uses, and Recovery Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara; Ayres, Robert U.

    2013-08-01

    The demand for lithium has increased significantly during the last decade as it has become key for the development of industrial products, especially batteries for electronic devices and electric vehicles. This article reviews sources, extraction and production, uses, and recovery and recycling, all of which are important aspects when evaluating lithium as a key resource. First, it describes the estimated reserves and lithium production from brine and pegmatites, including the material and energy requirements. Then, it continues with a description about the current uses of lithium focusing on its application in batteries and concludes with a description of the opportunities for recovery and recycling and the future demand forecast. The article concludes that the demand of lithium for electronic vehicles will increase from 30% to almost 60% by 2020. Thus, in the next years, the recovery and recycling of lithium from batteries is decisive to ensure the long-term viability of the metal.

  20. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of lithium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental and hot bands of the vibration--rotation transitions of 6 LiH, 7 LiH, 6 LiD, and 7 LiD were observed by infrared diode laser spectroscopy at Doppler-limited resolution. Lithium hydride molecules were produced by the reaction of the Li vapor with hydrogen at elevated temperatures. Some 40 transitions were observed and, after combined with submillimeter-wave spectra reported by G. M. Plummer et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 4893 (1984)], were analyzed to yield Dunham-type constants with accuracies more than an order of magnitude higher than those published in the literature. It was clearly demonstrated that the Born--Oppenheimer approximation did not hold, and some parameters representing the breakdown were evaluated. The Born--Oppenheimer internuclear distance r/sup BO//sub e/ was derived to be 1.594 914 26 (59) A, where a new value of Planck's constant recommended by CODATA was employed. The relative intensity of absorption lines was measured to determine the ratio of the permanent dipole moment to its first derivative with respect to the internuclear distance: μ/sub e/ [(partialμpartialr)/sub e/ r/sub e/ ] = 1.743(86). The pressure broadening parameter Δν/sub p/ P was determined to be 6.40 (22) MHzTorr by measuring the linewidth dependence on the pressure of hydrogen, which was about four times larger than the value for the dipole--quadrupole interaction estimated by Kiefer and Bushkovitch's theory

  1. Photonic network-on-chip design

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Biberman, Aleksandr; Chan, Johnnie; Hendry, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive synthesis of the theory and practice of photonic devices for networks-on-chip. It outlines the issues in designing photonic network-on-chip architectures for future many-core high performance chip multiprocessors. The discussion is built from the bottom up: starting with the design and implementation of key photonic devices and building blocks, reviewing networking and network-on-chip theory and existing research, and finishing with describing various architectures, their characteristics, and the impact they will have on a computing system. After acquainting

  2. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing

    2013-10-10

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  3. Improving electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Dinesh

    There is an ever increasing demand for fossil fuels. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) can effectively reduce the production of greenhouse gases and lessen the need for fossil fuels. LIBs also have great potential in electric vehicle applications as an alternative to petroleum modes of transportation. Understanding the chemical reactions between the electrolyte and electrodes in LIBs is very crucial in developing batteries which can work over a wide temperature range and also give a wide potential window. The Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), formed by the reduction of solvent molecules on the surface of electrodes, is an important component of LIBs. The SEI is very essential to the performance of LIBs. One electron reduction pathway products of solvent molecules was investigated using lithium-naphthalenide. Methylene ethylene carbonate, a high temperature additive has been synthesized and its performance has been tested at 60°C. Lithium-Oxygen batteries have an energy density ten times greater than that of LIBs. However, lithium-oxygen batteries have rechargability problems associated with them. The most common electrolyte used in this type of batteries is LiPF6 in carbonate or ether based solvents. LiPF6 inherently decreases electrolyte stability, since LiPF 6 can undergo thermal dissociation into PF5 and LiF. PF 5 being a strong Lewis acid, can react with electron rich species. The thermal decomposition reactions of LiPF6 based electrolytes are studied in detail with regard to LIBs. The comprehensive study has been conducted on the thermal degradation of several electrolyte systems in the presence of Li2O2.

  4. The effects of lithium on FGF23

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhri, Hajar Abdurahman Omer

    2016-01-01

    Lithium ist eines der ältesten Medikamente die in der Neuropsychopharmakologie eingesetzt werden (183) und stellt noch immer eine Therapie erster Wahl als Behandlungsoption bei bipolaren affektiven Störungen dar. Lithium entfaltet seine Wirkung zumindest teilweise durch die Hemmung der Glykogensynthase-Kinase 3 (GSK-3), welche den Aquaporinkanal 2 via Adenylylcyclase oder Prostaglandin E2 reguliert (32, 184). Die Lithium- Behandlung ist zudem eine der häufigsten Ursachen für...

  5. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Wen, Jianguo; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Zhai, Dengyun; Miller, Dean; Jeong, Yo-Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Although the superoxide of lithium (LiO2) is believed to be a key intermediate in Li-O2 batteries leading to the formation of lithium peroxide, LiO2 has never been observed in its pure state. In this work, we provide evidence that use of a cathode based on a reduced graphene oxide with Ir nanoparticles in a Li-O2 battery results in a LiO2 discharge product formed by single electron transfer without further electron transfer or disproportionation to form Li2O2. High energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) patterns indicates the presence of crystalline LiO2 with no evidence of Li2O2 or Li2O. The HEXRD studies as a function of time also show that LiO2 can be stable in its crystalline form after one week of aging in the presence of electrolyte. The results provide evidence that LiO2 is stable enough that it can be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (~3.2 V) and may open the avenue for a lithium superoxide-based battery.

  6. Lithium anode for lithium-air secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Zhang, Tao; Hirano, Atushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiacho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2008-12-01

    The lithium ion conducting solid lithium phosphorous nitride (LiPON) has been sputtered on the water-stable NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}P{sub 3-y}Si{sub y}O{sub 12} (LATP). The stability and the interface resistance of the Li-Al/LiPON/LATP/LiPON/Li-Al cell have been examined. It is shown that the LiPON film protects LATP from reacting with the Li-Al alloy. The impedance of the Li-Al/LiPON/LATP/LiPON/Li-Al cell has been measured in the temperature range 25-80 C. The total cell resistance is about 8600 {omega} cm{sup 2} at room temperature and 360 {omega} cm{sup 2} at 80 C. The analysis of the impedance profiles suggests that the Li-Al/LiPON interface resistance is dominant at lower temperatures. The LATP plate immersed in water for 1 month shows only a slight degradation in the conductivity. (author)

  7. Total Ionization Dose effects in the FE-I4 front-end chip of the ATLAS Pixel IBL detector

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Pixel Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    During the first year of operation, a drift of the IBL calibration parameters (Threshold and ToT) and a low voltage current increase was observed. It was assumed that both observations were related to radiation damage effects depending on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) in the NMOS transistors of which each Front End chip holds around 80 million. The effect of radiation on those transistors was investigated in lab measurements and the results will be presented in this talk.

  8. Surface tension of tin-lithium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature and concentration dependences of surface tension of tin-lithium alloys in the range of temperatures 250-410 deg C and concentrations 6.3-15.0 at. % Li were measured by the big drop method. It was ascertained that lithium is a surfactant component of Sn-Li system. Positive sign of surface tension temperature coefficients suggests prevailing lithium desorption from the liquid alloy surface with temperature increase. Calculated value of maximum lithium adsorption in its alloys with tin, containing about 4 at. % Li, makes up 8.5 x 10-6 mol/m2

  9. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  10. Rechargeable lithium film batteries : encapsulation and protection

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Sousa, J. A.; Pereira, B. M.; Silva, M.F.; L.M. Gonçalves; Silva, Maria Manuela; Correia, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable solid-state lithium batteries were developed before [1] by physical vapour deposition. These batteries are fabricated with lithium-cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), lithium-phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) and lithium (Li), respectively for cathode, electrolyte and anode. The LiCoO2and LIPON were deposited by RF sputtering and the metallic Li by thermal evaporation. The chosen material for current collectors was titanium (deposited by e-beam technique) to prevent chemical reactions in contact ...

  11. Lithium in Medicine: Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota de Freitas, Duarte; Leverson, Brian D; Goossens, Jesse L

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the mechanism of action of lithium salts from a chemical perspective. A description on how lithium salts are used to treat mental illnesses, in particular bipolar disorder, and other disease states is provided. Emphasis is not placed on the genetics and the psychopharmacology of the ailments for which lithium salts have proven to be beneficial. Rather we highlight the application of chemical methodologies for the characterization of the cellular targets of lithium salts and their distribution in tissues. PMID:26860311

  12. Infrared vertically-illuminated photodiode for chip alignment feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Alloatti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We report on vertically-illuminated photodiodes fabricated in the GlobalFoundries 45nm 12SOI node and on a packaging concept for optically-interconnected chips. The photodiodes are responsive at 1180 nm, a wavelength currently used in chip-to-chip communications. They have further a wide field-of-view which enables chip-to-board positional feedback in chip-board assemblies. Monolithic integration enables on-chip processing of the positional data.

  13. An AES chip with DPA resistance using hardware-based random order execution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Bo; Li Xiangyu; Chen Cong; Sun Yihe; Wu Liji; Zhang Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an AES (advanced encryption standard) chip that combats differential power analysis (DPA) side-channel attack through hardware-based random order execution.Both decryption and encryption procedures of an AES are implemented on the chip.A fine-grained dataflow architecture is proposed,which dynamically exploits intrinsic byte-level independence in the algorithm.A novel circuit called an HMF (Hold-Match-Fetch) unit is proposed for random control,which randomly sets execution orders for concurrent operations.The AES chip was manufactured in SMIC 0.18 μm technology.The average energy for encrypting one group of plain texts (128 bits secrete keys) is 19 nJ.The core area is 0.43 mm2.A sophisticated experimental setup was built to test the DPA resistance.Measurement-based experimental results show that one byte of a secret key cannot be disclosed from our chip under random mode after 64000 power traces were used in the DPA attack.Compared with the corresponding fixed order execution,the hardware based random order execution is improved by at least 21 times the DPA resistance.

  14. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  15. Electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing interest in high specific energy lithium rechargeable batteries with improved discharge/charge cycles. Some of the promising battery systems under development are Li/CoO2, Li/V2O5 and Li/MnO2. A major factor that controls the specific performance of these batteries is the electrolyte. Recent advances made in the liquid electrolyte area for lithium high energy cathode systems are reviewed. Experimental work on the processing of solid thin film polymer electrolytes using plasticizers such as polyethylene glycol dimethoxy ether (PEGDME) and the properties such as conductivity and differential scanning calorimetry of polymer film electrolytes are presented. The advantages and the disadvantages of polymer thin film electrolytes are discussed

  16. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  17. Lithium aluminates and tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is studied the crystalline structure of lithium aluminates prepared by three different methods, namely: solid state reaction, humid reaction and sol-gel reaction. The analysis methods are the X-ray diffractometry and the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This study is realized as in original materials as in irradiated materials at the TRIGA Mark reactor, to correlate the synthesis method with response of these materials to the mixed irradiation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  18. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  19. The Determinants of International Portfolio Holdings and Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Shujing Li; Hamid Faruqee; Yan, Isabel K.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the liberalization of foreign portfolio investment around the globe since the early 1980s, the home-bias phenomenon is still found to exist. Using a relatively new IMF survey dataset of cross-border equity holdings, this paper tests new structural equations from a consumption-based asset-pricing model on international portfolio holdings. Using of stock data allows us to provide new and clear-cut evidence on the determinants of international portfolio holdings.

  20. The effect of acetazolamide on breath holding at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, S. C.; Keohane, K.; Coote, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of altitude and acetazolamide on breath holding was studied in 20 individuals. Breath holding time was reduced progressively during ascent. There was an additional reduction in the acetazolamide group at low but not at high altitude. The initial difference between the two groups may have been related to a lower CSF pH when on acetazolamide. At high altitude the finding of similar breath holding times in the two groups may have been due to acclimatization in the placebo group.

  1. Intangible Capital and Corporate Cash Holdings: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Dalida Kadyrzhanova; Antonio Falato; Jae Sim

    2012-01-01

    The rise in intangible capital is a fundamental driver of the secular trend in US corporate cash holdings over the last decades. We construct a new measure of intangible capital and show that intangible capital is the most important firm-level determinant of corporate cash holdings. Our measure accounts for almost as much of the secular increase in cash since the 1980s as all other standard determinants together. We then develop a new model of corporate cash holdings that introduces intangibl...

  2. Multiple-Job Holding Among Male Workers in Greece.

    OpenAIRE

    Livanos, Ilias; Zangelidis, Alexandros

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the incidence of multiple job-holding in Greece and contributes to the literature by examining its determinants, its variance across different regions and the effect of the business cycle on its occurrence. The empirical analysis highlights the importance of both pecuniary and non-pecuniary motives behind multiple job-holding, and reveals significant variations in its incidence across regions, with areas that have a large primary sector having higher multiple job-holding ra...

  3. Cash Holdings, Corporate Governance Structure and Firm Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Kin-Wai Lee; Cheng-Few Lee

    2009-01-01

    Firms with higher board independence, smaller boards, and lower expected managerial entrenchment, have lower cash holdings. We find that the positive association between cash holdings and managerial entrenchment is mitigated by stronger board structures. Specifically, in firms with higher expected managerial entrenchment, those with higher proportion of outside director on the board and smaller board size have lower cash holdings. We also find that firm value is negatively associated with cas...

  4. Aluminum-lithium target behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1989-10-01

    Information on physical properties and irradiation behavior of aluminum-lithium target alloys employed for the production of tritium in Savannah River reactors has been reviewed to support development of technology for the New Production Reactor (NPR). Phase compositions and microstructures, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and constituent diffusion phenomena of the alloys, established in prior site studies, are presented. Irradiation behavior, including distributions of product tritium and helium and related exposure limits due to swelling and cracking of the target alloys is discussed, along with gas release processes occurring during subsequent product recovery operations. The property review supports designation of the aluminum-lithium alloys as ideally well-suited target materials for low-temperature, tritium-producing reactors, demonstrated over 35 years of Savannah River reactor operation. Low temperature irradiation and reaction with lithium in the alloy promotes tritium retention during reactor exposure, and the aluminum provides a matrix from which the product is readily recovered on heating following irradiation. 33 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  6. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F.A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig University Hospitals. Seventy-six children diagnosed with BHS were included as follows: 32 children with cyanotic BHS, 14 children with pallid BHS, and 30 healthy children as a control group. All children were subjected to the following: full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory work up in the form of CBC, serum iron, ferritin, and zinc levels. Twenty-four hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) recording was also performed. No significant statistical difference was found between cyanotic and pallid groups regarding family history of BHS, severity, and precipitating factors of the attacks. Frequent runs of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during 24 hours ECG were significantly higher in children with BHS; the frequency of RSA was significantly correlated with the frequency (severity) of the attacks. Low serum ferritin was significantly associated with BHS groups but not correlated with the severity of the attacks. Autonomic dysregulation evidenced by frequent RSA is considered to be an important cause of BHS in children and is correlated with the frequency of the attacks. Low serum ferritin is additional factor in the pathophysiology. Both pallid and cyanotic BHS are suggested to be types of the same disease sharing the same pathophysiology. PMID:26181556

  7. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schuck, Carsten; Fan, Linran; Ma, Xiao-Song; Poot, Menno; Tang, Hong X

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standa...

  8. A single-atom detector integrated on an atom chip: fabrication, characterization and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, D.; Rohringer, W.; Fischer, D.; Wilzbach, M.; Raub, T.; Loziczky, S.; Liu, XiYuan; Groth, S.; Hessmo, B.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2010-09-01

    We describe a robust and reliable fluorescence detector for single atoms that is fully integrated on an atom chip. The detector allows spectrally and spatially selective detection of atoms, reaching a single-atom detection efficiency of 66%. It consists of a tapered lensed single-mode fiber for precise delivery of excitation light and a multi-mode fiber to collect the fluorescence. The fibers are mounted in lithographically defined holding structures on the atom chip. Neutral 87Rb atoms propagating freely in a magnetic guide are detected and the noise of their fluorescence emission is analyzed. The variance of the photon distribution allows us to determine the number of detected photons per atom and from there the atom detection efficiency. The second-order intensity correlation function of the fluorescence shows near-perfect photon anti-bunching and signs of damped Rabi oscillations. With simple improvements, one can increase the detection efficiency to 95%.

  9. CMOS front end analog signal readout chip for Si-strip/PIN detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the design of an 8-channel front-end chip for Si-strip detectors, ranging in capacitance from 1 to 30 pf. Each channel consists of a charge amplifier, a shaper amplifier (CR-RC3) and a track-hold stage. The channel outputs are connected to an analog multiplexer which is controlled by an external clock for serial readout. The peaking time is adjustable over 250ns-2us in four fixed steps by external control. There is provision for changing gain low/high. A derivative of the chip is also developed for dosimeter application that uses small area diodes as detectors. The circuit has a power dissipation of 6 MW per channel and is designed to fabricate in 1.2um CMOS technology. The Opf noise is ∼400e. The design approach is presented and the results of simulation are shown. (author)

  10. Silicon-nanomembrane-based photonic crystal nanostructures for chip-integrated open sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Lin, Cheyun; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate two devices on the photonic crystal platform for chip-integrated optical absorption spectroscopy and chip-integrated biomolecular microarray assays. Infrared optical absorption spectroscopy and biomolecular assays based on conjugate-specific binding principles represent two dominant sensing mechanisms for a wide spectrum of applications in environmental pollution sensing in air and water, chem-bio agents and explosives detection for national security, microbial contamination sensing in food and beverages to name a few. The easy scalability of photonic crystal devices to any wavelength ensures that the sensing principles hold across a wide electromagnetic spectrum. Silicon, the workhorse of the electronics industry, is an ideal platform for the above optical sensing applications.

  11. Modeling of On-Chip Optical Nonreciprocity with an Active Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Wen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On-chip nonreciprocal light transport holds a great impact on optical information processing and communications based upon integrated photonic devices. By harvesting gain-saturation nonlinearity, we recently demonstrated on-chip optical asymmetric transmission at telecommunication bands with superior nonreciprocal performances using only one active whispering-gallery-mode microtoroid resonator, beyond the commonly adopted magneto-optical (Faraday effect. Here, detailed theoretical analysis is presented with respect to the reported scheme. Despite the fact that our model is simply the standard coupled-mode theory, it agrees well with the experiment and describes the essential one-way light transport in this nonreciprocal device. Further discussions, including the connection with the second law of thermodynamics and Fano resonance, are also briefly made in the end.

  12. Machinability of lithium disilicate glass ceramic in in vitro dental diamond bur adjusting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Ren, Hai-Tao; Yin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Esthetic high-strength lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC) are used for monolithic crowns and bridges produced in dental CAD/CAM and oral adjusting processes, which machinability affects the restorative quality. A machinability study has been made in the simulated oral clinical machining of LDGC with a dental handpiece and diamond burs, regarding the diamond tool wear and chip control, machining forces and energy, surface finish and integrity. Machining forces, speeds and energy in in vitro dental adjusting of LDGC were measured by a high-speed data acquisition and force sensor system. Machined LDGC surfaces were assessed using three-dimensional non-contact chromatic confocal optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Diamond bur morphology and LDGC chip shapes were also examined using SEM. Minimum tool wear but significant LDGC chip accumulations were found. Machining forces and energy significantly depended on machining conditions (pMachining speeds dropped more rapidly with increased removal rates than other glass ceramics (pmachinability indices associated with the hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were derived based on the normal force-removal rate relations, which ranked LDGC the most difficult to machine among glass ceramics. Surface roughness for machined LDGC was comparable for other glass ceramics. The removal mechanisms of LDGC were dominated by penetration-induced brittle fracture and shear-induced plastic deformation. Unlike most other glass ceramics, distinct intergranular and transgranular fractures of lithium disilicate crystals were found in LDGC. This research provides the fundamental data for dental clinicians on the machinability of LDGC in intraoral adjustments. PMID:26318569

  13. Self-powered integrated systems-on-chip (energy chip)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-04-23

    In today\\'s world, consumer driven technology wants more portable electronic gadgets to be developed, and the next big thing in line is self-powered handheld devices. Therefore to reduce the power consumption as well as to supply sufficient power to run those devices, several critical technical challenges need to be overcome: a. Nanofabrication of macro/micro systems which incorporates the direct benefit of light weight (thus portability), low power consumption, faster response, higher sensitivity and batch production (low cost). b. Integration of advanced nano-materials to meet the performance/cost benefit trend. Nano-materials may offer new functionalities that were previously underutilized in the macro/micro dimension. c. Energy efficiency to reduce power consumption and to supply enough power to meet that low power demand. We present a pragmatic perspective on a self-powered integrated System on Chip (SoC). We envision the integrated device will have two objectives: low power consumption/dissipation and on-chip power generation for implementation into handheld or remote technologies for defense, space, harsh environments and medical applications. This paper provides insight on materials choices, intelligent circuit design, and CMOS compatible integration.

  14. On-Chip Optical Squeezing

    OpenAIRE

    Dutt, Avik; Luke, Kevin; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal

    2013-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of all-optical squeezing in an on-chip monolithically integrated CMOS-compatible platform. Our device consists of a low loss silicon nitride microring optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a gigahertz cavity linewidth. We measure 1.7 dB (5 dB corrected for losses) of sub-shot noise quantum correlations between bright twin beams generated in the microring four-wave-mixing OPO pumped above threshold. This experiment demonstrates a compact, robust, and scala...

  15. Teaching Quality Control with Chocolate Chip Cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ardith

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate chip cookies are used to illustrate the importance and effectiveness of control charts in Statistical Process Control. By counting the number of chocolate chips, creating the spreadsheet, calculating the control limits and graphing the control charts, the student becomes actively engaged in the learning process. In addition, examining…

  16. Assembly, chip and method of operating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The chip comprises a network of trench capacitors and an inductor, wherein the trench capacitors are coupled in parallel with a pattern of interconnects that is designed so as to limit generation of eddy current induced by the inductor in the interconnects. This allows the use of the chip as a porti

  17. Microluminometer chip and method to measure bioluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Paulus, Michael J [Knoxville, TN; Sayler, Gary S [Blaine, TN; Applegate, Bruce M [West Lafayette, IN; Ripp, Steven A [Knoxville, TN

    2008-05-13

    An integrated microluminometer includes an integrated circuit chip having at least one n-well/p-substrate junction photodetector for converting light received into a photocurrent, and a detector on the chip for processing the photocurrent. A distributed electrode configuration including a plurality of spaced apart electrodes disposed on an active region of the photodetector is preferably used to raise efficiency.

  18. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  19. Simple photolithographic rapid prototyping of microfluidic chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Hoyland, James; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2012-01-01

    Vi præsenterer en simpel metode til at producere støbeforme til støbning af PDMS mikrofluide chips vha. fotolitografi, med 35mm fotonegativer som masker. Vi demonstrer metodens muligheder og begrænsninger. Vi har optimeret processen til at fremstille planare lab-on-a-chip strukturer med meget høj...

  20. Radiation Behavior of Analog Neural Network Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, H.; Zee, F.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.

    1996-01-01

    A neural network experiment conducted for the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) 1-b launched in June 1994. Identical sets of analog feed-forward neural network chips was used to study and compare the effects of space and ground radiation on the chips. Three failure mechanisms are noted.

  1. Asynchronous design of Networks-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The Network-on-chip concept has evolved as a solution to a broad range of problems related to the design of complex systems-on-chip (SoC) with tenths or hundreds of (heterogeneous) IP-cores. The paper introduces the NoC concept, identifies a range of possible timing organizations (globally...

  2. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  3. Effects of deposition condition on the ionic conductivity and structure of amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitrate thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, N.S.; Lee, S.D.; Kwon, H.S.

    1999-12-17

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries, in forms of Li{vert_bar}Li{sup +} solid electrolyte{vert_bar}Li intercalation cathode, have been studied for their applications in electronic devices such as built-in power sources for RAM, CMOS chips and smart cards. Recently, it was reported that a new amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LIPON), showed an ionic conductivity as high as 2.0 x 10{sup {minus}6} {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} at room temperature, and also excellent long term stability when in contact with lithium. In spite of the advantages of LIPON as a solid electrolyte for microbatteries, the influence of deposition parameters on the structure and ionic conductivity on the LIPON is not yet known. the objective of the present study is to examine the effect of deposition conditions on the ionic conductivity and structural change of the LIPON solid electrolyte films, and hence to elucidate the mechanism by which the incorporation of nitrogen into phosphate glass improves the Li{sup +} ionic conductivity of LIPON.

  4. Extensible chip of optofluidic variable optical attenuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J; Xue, F L; Wu, L X; Fu, Y J; Hu, J; Zhang, W; Hu, F R

    2016-05-01

    A core chip of optofluidic variable optical attenuator (VOA) is reported. The chip, with a simple structure, utilizes microfluid and compressed air to regulate the optical attenuation, and it can be expanded to form a number of VOAs by using different microfluidic driving technologies. Three VOAs based on this chip and different driving technologies are introduced. The theoretical and experimental results show that the proposed chip possesses the advantages of large optical attenuation range (> 50dB) and low insertion loss (0.55 dB). Moreover it is a broadband optical device which can be operated in visible and near infrared wavelengths. The proposed chip provides a new method for seeking miniaturized VOAs with good performances, and it is promising to develop a number of different VOAs. PMID:27137582

  5. Carbon Nanotube Amperometric Chips with Pneumatic Micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Yuichi; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Chikae, Miyuki; Torai, Soichiro; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2008-04-01

    We fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) amperometric chips with pneumatic micropumps by the combination of amperometric biosensors based on CNT-arrayed electrodes and microchannels with pneumatic micropumps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane). On the chip, phosphate buffer solution and potassium ferricyanide, K3[Fe(CN)6], were introduced into the CNT electrodes using each pneumatic micropump and electrochemically measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that our chip can automatically exchange reagents on the CNT electrodes and clearly detect molecules. Moreover, by modifying the CNT electrodes with enzyme glucose oxidase, glucose molecules could be detected using our chips by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. We conclude that microfluidic chips with CNT-arrayed electrodes are a promising candidate for the development of hand-held electrochemical biosensors.

  6. Are lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) ferroelectrics bioactive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria, E-mail: paula.vilarinho@ua.pt; Barroca, Nathalie; Zlotnik, Sebastian; Félix, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-06-01

    The use of functional materials, such as ferroelectrics, as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ, is new and holds great promise. But the usage of materials in any bioapplication requires information on biocompatibility and desirably on bioactive behavior when bone tissue engineering is envisaged. Both requirements are currently unknown for many ferroelectrics. Herein the bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} is reported. The formation of apatite-like structures on the surface of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} powders after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different soaking periods indicates their bioactive potential. The mechanism of apatite formation is suggested. In addition, the significant release of lithium ions from the ferroelectric powders in the very first minutes of soaking in SBF is examined and ways to overcome this likely hurdle addressed. - Highlights: • LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} are bioactive ferroelectrics. • Cauliflower apatite type structures indicative of in-vitro bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3.} • Negative surface charges anchor Ca{sup 2+} to which PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} attracts forming apatite structure nuclei. • Use of ferroelectrics as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ is new and holds great promise.

  7. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  8. A study of lithium air rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium air battery system electro-chemically couples lithium metal anode to atmospheric oxygen through an air cathode. Due to the fact that the only electrolyte composition aprotic (proton donor) of lithium-air battery has shown the best refillable electric power, has attracted the electrical system in all parts of the world even more effort now. Aprotic electrolytes which are used include organic carbonates (e.g. ethylene carbonate. dimethyl carbonate, propylene carbonate), or ethers (tetrahydrofuran (THF), dioxolane) or esters (γ-butyrolactone), Manganese dioxide catalyzed porous carbon cathode. PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) binder. Teflon (PTFE) membrane is normally deposited on air side of cathode to control moisture penetration in it. Lithium salts, such as LiN (SO/sub 2/CF/sub 3/),/sub 2/, LiSO/sub 3/CF/sub 3/, LiPF/sub 6/, LiAsF/sub 6/ can be used in electrolyte to improve their conductivity. Polyethylene terephthalate layers or polypropylene layer are normally used as casing material whereas Nickel foam is used as current collector material. It is noted from the literature that Gold and Platinum enhance the charge discharge efficiency as catalysts. Most of the research on lithium air batteries has its focus on developing lithium air batteries for hybrid transportation vehicles. High reactivity of pure metallic lithium anode creates the major safety concerns. Nowadays research is mainly focused on developing certain protective mechanism to overcome this hindrance in the commercialization of lithium air batteries. (author)

  9. Recovery of lithium from waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, J.; Dvořák, P.; Kondás, J.; Havlák, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-54. ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : alkaline wastewater * laboratory scale * lithium carbonates * lithium metals * precipitation efficiency * reduced pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_01_50.pdf

  10. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.)

  11. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Mailable Mailable No more than 3 (individual batteries). batteries. 3. Each secondary cell must not contain.... In addition, the Postal Service has moved the lithium battery standards as it relates to... than 1.0 gram (g) of lithium content per cell. 2. Each battery must contain no more than 2.0...

  12. RECOVERY OF LITHIUM FROM WASTE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITKA JANDOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, processes based on roasting-leaching-crystallization steps and condensation-precipitation steps for Li2CO3 separation from spent Li/MnO2 batteries and lithium-containing wastewaters were developed and verified on a laboratory scale. Spent Li/MnO2 batteries were roasted under reduced pressure at 650°C, which split the castings and deactivated the batteries by reduction of LiMnO2 and MnO2 with residual lithium metal and graphite to form MnO and Li2CO3. The resultant lithium carbonate was selectively solubilised in water with manganese remaining in the leach residue. Li2CO3 of 99.5 % purity was obtained after evaporation of 95 % water. Processing of lithium-containing alkaline wastewaters from the production of liquid rubber comprises condensation up to lithium concentration of 12-13 g/l Li and a two-step precipitation of lithium carbonate using CO2 as a precipitation agent. Sparingly soluble Li2CO3 was produced in the second step at 95°C, whilst most impurities remain in the solution. Obtained lithium carbonate products contained on average more than 99.5 % Li2CO3. The lithium precipitation efficiency was about 90 %.

  13. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Jung Lee, Yun; Luo, Xiangyi; Chun Lau, Kah; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J.; Sub Jeong, Yo; Park, Jin-Bum; Zak Fang, Zhigang; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.

  14. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  15. 77 FR 21714 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ............ 2.5 kg n/a n/a Lithium metal cells or Lithium metal cells Lithium metal batteries batteries with not... Safety Administration, telephone (202) 366-1074. Background On January 11, 2010 (75 FR 1302), PHMSA, in... PHMSA to adopt lithium battery transport safety standards identical to those in the 2011-2012 edition...

  16. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of lithium carbonate in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, R.

    1988-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of lithium in six healthy volunteers stabilised on lithium were investigated and appropriate pharmacokinetic parameters calculated. 2. The results illustrate important differences in single and multiple dose lithium pharmacokinetics; the implications for minimising lithium-induced renal damage are discussed.

  17. Synthesis of lithium niobate and monocrystal growth by Czochralski method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualitative analysis of lithium niobate by x-ray analysis and optical microscopy is presented. The lithium niobate compound was obtained by synthesis using niobium oxides and lithium carbonates. The lithium niobate monocrystal growth was done by Czochralski method. (M.C.K.)

  18. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.16 List of certificate holding companies. A list of qualified companies...

  19. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... company, the biographical information requested in the Interagency Biographical and Financial Report FR... Existing Information Collections: The Annual Report of Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-6), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding...

  20. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.)

  1. Reaching the Crossroads of Two Lists for Periodicals Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    As an information and instruction librarian at SUNY-Cortland, the author is responsible for designing, developing, and maintaining the Library's Web site. In this article, she describes her experience in combining print/microform holdings list. She pursued a strategy that would make the two holding lists "appear" as one by using XML. She iterates…

  2. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  3. Optimization of holding tank system for medical radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holding tank systems are used for the disposal of medical radioactive waste. A short cut method including economic valuation work for the optimization of holding tank system is developed. A case study work was also performed via the developed method. The optimum tank arrangement for this case was found. (author)

  4. Module of lithium divertor for KTM tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyublinski, I., E-mail: yublinski@yandex.ru [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.; Evtikhin, V.; Balakirev, V.; Ionov, D.; Zharkov, M. [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Tazhibayeva, I. [IAE NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mirnov, S. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khomiakov, S.; Mitin, D. [OJSC Dollezhal Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [ENEA RC Frascati (Italy); Agostini, P. [ENEA RC Brasimone (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is under development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium filled tungsten felt is offered as the base plasma facing material of divertor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this project addresses to the progress in the field of fusion neutrons source and fusion energy source creation. - Abstract: Activity on projects of ITER and DEMO reactors has shown that solution of problems of divertor target plates and other plasma facing elements (PFEs) based on the solid plasma facing materials cause serious difficulties. Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life; to reduce power flux due to intensive re-irradiation on lithium atoms in plasma periphery that will essentially facilitate a problem of heat removal from PFE; to reduce Z{sub eff} of plasma to minimally possible level close to 1; to exclude tritium accumulation, that is provided with absence of dust products and an opportunity of the active control of the tritium contents in liquid lithium. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also activity in lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II permits of solving the problems in development of

  5. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  6. Structure of lithium-doped polyacetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, N. S.; Shacklette, L. W.; Baughman, R. H.

    1989-12-01

    A trigonal structure with three polymer chains per lithium column is proposed for lithium-doped polyacetylene. A calculation of the x-ray diffraction profile, using the unit-cell dimension and the lithium concentration as the only variables, is in good agreement with the observed data. The proposed structure optimizes the electrostatic interactions by maximizing both the Li+-Li+ separations and the coordination of negatively charged carbons and positively charged lithiums. Unlike the tetragonal lattice found in polyacetylene complexed with larger alkali-metal ions (K+, Rb+, and Cs+), the trigonal structure permits the undoped and the doped phases to coexist without any significant lattice mismatch at the boundary between the two phases. While the chain axis expands by ~1% upon doping with lithium, the projected area per chain remains essentially unchanged.

  7. High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We theoretically propose a microresonator on a silver chip. The microresonator supports hybrid plasmonic modes with highly localized electromagnetic fields (ultra-small mode volumes ∼0.1 μm3) and long photon lifetime (high quality factors >400) at room temperature, both of which exceed the traditional plasmonic microresonators. The total quality factor is found to be limited by two factors, the metal absorption and the radiation loss, and exhibit a tradeoff with the mode volume. This type of hybrid plasmonic microresonators holds great potential in fundamental physics and applications, for instance, cavity quantum electrodynamics in weak coupling regime and low-threshold microlasers.

  8. The Parent Control in the Mechanical Engineering Management-Holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnircová, Jana; Hodulíková, Petra; Joehnk, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The group of entities under the control of parent, so called holding, is arisen as the result and the most often used form of the business concentration nowadays. The paper is focused to find special tasks of parent company for to preserve effective unified economic control in the management-holding. The unified economic control the holding exists in the conditions of the main conflict of interest - holding is not a legal but economic unit and the connected companies into it have a legal autonomy with the economic dependence. The unified economic control limits the financial independence of every individual company of the holding. The attention in the paper is concentrated to the management concept of the parent control, i.e. the parent company supervises the control of intragroup flows and all of subsidiaries production activities.

  9. Holding Periods, Illiquidity and Disposition Effect in a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aftab,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to empirically investigate holding periods, illiquidity and disposition effect in Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE. KSE 100 Index Companies daily data were collected for a period of five year i.e. 2003-2007. Daily returns, holding periods, illiquidity and volatility were calculated through this data. These variables were regressed in models used by Visaltanachoti et al. (2007 to calculate annual holding periods, illiquidity and disposition effect. The results have revealed that there exists disposition effect in KSE. Holding periods were found positively related to illiquidity and negatively associated with stock returns. Further, holding periods were long for illiquid stocks and short for less illiquid stocks. The study is significant in the sense that it’s perhaps the first study conducted in a developing country like Pakistan.

  10. Lithium uptake and the corrosion of zirconium alloys in aqueous lithium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on corrosion films on zirconium alloys that were analyzed for lithium by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS). The oxides grown in reactor in dilute lithium hydroxide solution, specimens cut from Zircaloy, and Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes removed from CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium, Registered Trademark) reactors showed low concentrations of lithium (4 to 50 ppm). The lithium was not leachable in a warm dilute acid. 6Li undergoes transmutation by the 6Li(n,t)4He reaction. However, SIMS profiles for d 7Li were identical through the bulk oxide and the isotopic ratio was close to the natural abundance value. The lithium in the oxide, existing as adsorbed lithium on the surface, has been in dynamic equilibrium with lithium in the coolant, and, in spite of many Effective Full Power Years (EFPY) of operation, lithium added to the CANDU coolant at ∼2.5 ppm is not concentrating in the oxides. On the other hand, corrosion films grown in the laboratory in concentrated lithium hydroxide solutions were very porous and contained hundreds of ppm of lithium in the oxide

  11. Phase composition of high lithium slags from the recycling of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwert, Tobias; Goldmann, Daniel [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rohstoffaufbereitung und Recycling; Strauss, Karl; Schirmer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mineralogie, Geochemie und Salzlagerstaetten

    2012-05-15

    The phase composition of different lithium containing slags from the recycling of lithium ion batteries was investigated in this study. All slags originate from the pyro-metallurgical Umicore Battery Recycling Process which uses an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-Li{sub 2}O-MgO-(MnO)-SiO{sub 2} slag system. The main objective of this study was the determination of the chemical behavior of lithium depending on the slag composition to develop possible slag beneficiation processes for lithium recovery. Lithium aluminate was the main lithium bearing phase in all slag types. The aluminum rich slag has lithium nearly exclusively concentrated in lithium aluminate. If the slag system is shifted towards lower aluminum and higher silicon content additionally a lithium silicate can be found. In a manganese rich slag besides of the aluminate lithium containing spinel type oxides can be calculated. Additionally, the structure and texture of the slags reveal some interesting information about the phase formation during the cooling process. (orig.)

  12. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips. stump wood chips, and chips from small-sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6,5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40 % at terminals. (orig.)

  13. Supply systems of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small-diameter thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2009. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2009 by these suppliers was 8,4 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected from March-May, 2010. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-diameter thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply system in Finland in 2009. The chipping at plant supply system was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. Nearly 70 % of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 28 % at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply system was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-diameter wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, similarly roughly 70 % of chips were comminuted at plants and 23 % at terminals. (orig.)

  14. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-15

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6.5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40% at terminals

  15. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of digoxin in the presence of lithium.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, S J; Kelly, J G; Johnston, G. D.; Copeland, S; King, D. J.; McDevitt, D G

    1984-01-01

    Previous biochemical and clinical data suggest there may be an interaction between digoxin and lithium. The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of an intravenous infusion of digoxin were studied in six male subjects before and after 2 weeks treatment with lithium carbonate. The effects of lithium on sodium pump activity, intracellular electrolytes and extracellular electrolytes were studied. No significant interaction between digoxin and lithium was found. No significant effects of lithium ...

  16. Alicyclic ammonium ionic liquids as lithium battery electrolytes A review

    OpenAIRE

    Puga, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquids are reasonable alternatives to electrolytes used in energy storage devices, such as lithium batteries, both lithium-ion and lithium-metal, given the safety advantages they provide. This is due to the favourable properties they often possess, mainly non­flammability and non­volatility. Candidates with alicyclic ammonium cations exhibit high electrochemical stabilities, especially towards lithium, a unique feature which enables the fabrication of reversible lithium-metal batteries...

  17. Microchannel cooling of face down bonded chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1993-01-01

    Microchannel cooling is applied to flip-chip bonded integrated circuits, in a manner which maintains the advantages of flip-chip bonds, while overcoming the difficulties encountered in cooling the chips. The technique is suited to either multichip integrated circuit boards in a plane, or to stacks of circuit boards in a three dimensional interconnect structure. Integrated circuit chips are mounted on a circuit board using flip-chip or control collapse bonds. A microchannel structure is essentially permanently coupled with the back of the chip. A coolant delivery manifold delivers coolant to the microchannel structure, and a seal consisting of a compressible elastomer is provided between the coolant delivery manifold and the microchannel structure. The integrated circuit chip and microchannel structure are connected together to form a replaceable integrated circuit module which can be easily decoupled from the coolant delivery manifold and the circuit board. The coolant supply manifolds may be disposed between the circuit boards in a stack and coupled to supplies of coolant through a side of the stack.

  18. Drop on demand in a microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we introduce the novel technique of in-chip drop on demand, which consists in dispensing picoliter to nanoliter drops on demand directly in the liquid-filled channels of a polymer microfluidic chip, at frequencies up to 2.5 kHz and with precise volume control. The technique involves a PDMS chip with one or several microliter-size chambers driven by piezoelectric actuators. Individual aqueous microdrops are dispensed from the chamber to a main transport channel filled with an immiscible fluid, in a process analogous to atmospheric drop on demand dispensing. In this paper, the drop formation process is characterized with respect to critical dispense parameters such as the shape and duration of the driving pulse, and the size of both the fluid chamber and the nozzle. Several features of the in-chip drop on demand technique with direct relevance to lab-on-a-chip applications are presented and discussed, such as the precise control of the dispensed volume, the ability to merge drops of different reagents and the ability to move a drop from the shooting area of one nozzle to another for multistep reactions. The possibility to drive the microfluidic chip with inexpensive audio electronics instead of research-grade equipment is also examined and verified. Finally, we show that the same piezoelectric technique can be used to generate a single gas bubble on demand in a microfluidic chip

  19. Silicon Photonics: The System on Chip Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Alberto

    This chapter describes possible applications of silicon photonics to the System on Chip (SoC) domain. Systems on Chip (SoCs) are complex systems containing billions of transistors integrated in a unique silicon-chip, implementing even complex functionalities by means of a variety of modules communicating with the system memories and/or between them through a proper communication system. The higher and higher integration density is becoming such that many issues arise when a SoC has to be integrated, and electrical limits of interconnect wires are a limiting factor for performance. According to this scenario, a new technology is required for the on-chip interconnect, in order to overcome current physical and performance issues; one possible solution is the optical interconnect, exploiting the many benefits of light to transport information across the chip. From an industrial point of view it is fundamental that such a new technology be fully CMOS compatible, in order to be able to continue to use current SoC design methodologies as well as present manufacturing equipment for the whole electronic part of the chip. Many semiconductor industries are today investigating such a novel field and a number of projects are currently running in order to demonstrate the feasibility of such a revolutionary on-chip communication system relying on both CMOS technology and photonics.

  20. Lithium-6 from Solar Flares

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaty, R.; Tatischeff, V.; Thibaud, J.P.; Kozlovsky, B.; Mandzhavidze, N.

    2000-01-01

    By introducing a hitherto ignored Li-6 producing process, due to accelerated He-3 reactions with He-4, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more Li-6 than Li-7. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data we demonstrate that the Li-6 produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric Li-7, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare produc...

  1. A stable thin-film lithium electrolyte: Lithium phosphorus oxynitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, X.; Bates, J.B.; Jellison, G.E. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Hart, F.X. [Univ. of the South, Sewanee, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-02-01

    The electrochemical and optical properties of lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) thin films have been studied with an emphasis on the stability window vs. lithium metal and the behavior of the Li/Lipon interface. Impedance measurements made between {minus}26 and 140 C show that Lipon exhibits a single, Li{sup +}-ion conducting phase with an average conductivity of 2.3 ({+-}0.7) {times} 10{sup {minus}6} S/cm at 25 C and an average activation energy of E{sub a} = 0.55 {+-} 0.02 eV. No detectable reaction or degradation was evident at the Li/Lipon interface, and linear sweep voltammetry measurements on three-electrode cells indicated that Lipon is stable from 0 to about 5.5 V with respect to a Li{sup +}/Li reference. The complex refractive index of Lipon was measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Optical bandgaps of 3.45 and 3.75 eV were obtained from the ellipsometry data and from optical absorption measurements, respectively.

  2. Ex Vacuo Atom Chip Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

    CERN Document Server

    Squires, Matthew B; Kasch, Brian; Stickney, James A; Erickson, Christopher J; Crow, Jonathan A R; Carlson, Evan J; Burke, John H

    2016-01-01

    Ex vacuo atom chips, used in conjunction with a custom thin walled vacuum chamber, have enabled the rapid replacement of atom chips for magnetically trapped cold atom experiments. Atoms were trapped in $>2$ kHz magnetic traps created using high power atom chips. The thin walled vacuum chamber allowed the atoms to be trapped $\\lesssim1$ mm from the atom chip conductors which were located outside of the vacuum system. Placing the atom chip outside of the vacuum simplified the electrical connections and improved thermal management. Using a multi-lead Z-wire chip design, a Bose-Einstein condensate was produced with an external atom chip. Vacuum and optical conditions were maintained while replacing the Z-wire chip with a newly designed cross-wire chip. The atom chips were exchanged and an initial magnetic trap was achieved in less than three hours.

  3. 75 FR 30046 - Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-June 14, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... published on May 1, 2009 (74 FR 20323). The CHIP Working Group will meet two times to develop a model... Administration Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-- June 14, 2010 AGENCY: Centers for... the second meeting of the Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Program (``CHIP''), and...

  4. A multi-year survey of stem-end chip defect in chipping potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most serious tuber quality concerns of US chip potato growers is stem-end chip defect, which is defined as a localized post-fry discoloration in and adjacent to the vasculature on the stem end portion of potato chips. The incidence and severity of stem-end chip defect vary with growing lo...

  5. METAL CHIP HEATING PROCESS INVESTIGATION (Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Dyakonov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solution algorithm of mathematical model of metal chip heating process in continuous muffle furnace and computer calculation program that allow to determine the heat- and mass transfer parameters have been worked out. The numerical modeling has been performed for three different lubricant-coolant compositions and six different furnace heights (all together 18 variants at the furnace productivity2000 kgof chip per hour. The main characteristics of chip heating process have been calculated. There was determined that the optimum furnace height at the point of its highest energy efficiency equals4,5 m. 

  6. Imaging Cold Molecules on a Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, S; Abel, M J; Zehentbauer, T; Meijer, G; Santambrogio, G

    2013-01-01

    We present the integrated imaging of cold molecules in a microchip environment. The on-chip de- tection is based on REMPI, which is quantum-state-selective and generally applicable. We demon- strate and characterize time-resolved spatial imaging and subsequently use it to analyze the effect of a phase-space manipulation sequence aimed at compressing the velocity distribution of a molec- ular ensemble with a view to future high-resolution spectroscopic studies. The realization of such on-chip measurements adds the final fundamental component to the molecule chip, offering a new and promising route for investigating cold molecules.

  7. ToxChip and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@\tToxChip is the molecular biological technology which has been developed based on genome and DNA microarray technologies. It will be able to make the sci-entists evaluate the toxicity of extraneous toxicants at the molecular level. ToxChip was successfully developed by a group of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) researchers in the United States in 1999[1]. The technology bears revolutionary significance on the traditional toxicology. It foretells the epoch in which DNA effects of environmental dangers and toxi-cants can be made certain rapidly and efficiently to fall. ToxChip will pioneer novel approaches for medicine, environmental and ecological toxicologies.

  8. Flit Synchronous Aelite Network on Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Subburaman, Mahesh Balaji

    2008-01-01

      The deep sub micron process technology and application convergence increases the design challenges in System-on-Chip (SoC). The traditional bus based on chip communication are not scalable and fails to deliver the performance requirements of the complex SoC. The Network on Chip (NoC) has been emerged as a solution to address these complexities of a efficient, high performance, scalable SoC design. The Aethereal NoC provides the latency and throughput bounds by pipelined timedivision multipl...

  9. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  10. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H. [Laboratory for Process Technology, IMTEK-Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P. [Micronas GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, Freiburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function. (author)

  11. On-chip spiral spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Brandon; Bromberg, Yaron; Sarma, Raktim; Cao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We designed an on-chip spectrometer based on an evanescently-coupled multimode spiral waveguide. Interference between the modes in the waveguide forms a wavelength-dependent speckle pattern which can be used as a fingerprint to identify the input wavelength after calibration. Evanescent coupling between neighboring arms of the spiral enhances the temporal spread of light propagating through the spiral, leading to a dramatic increase in the spectral resolution. Experimentally, we demonstrated that a 250 {\\mu}m radius spiral spectrometer provides a resolution of 0.01 nm at a wavelength of 1520 nm. Spectra containing 40 independent spectral channels can be recovered simultaneously and the operation bandwidth can be increased further when measuring sparse spectra.

  12. Operando electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy – formation of mossy lithium on lithium anodes during charge–discharge cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Wandt, Johannes; Marino, Cyril; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Jakes, Peter; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Granwehr, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The formation of mossy lithium and lithium dendrites so far prevents the use of lithium metal anodes in lithium ion batteries. To develop solutions for this problem (e.g., electrolyte additives), operando measurement techniques are required to monitor mossy lithium and dendrite formation during electrochemical cycling. Here we present a novel battery cell design that enables operando electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. It is shown that time-resolved operando EPR spectroscopy d...

  13. A generalized mathematical model to understand the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries - Effects of solvent and lithium transport

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Deshpande; Saksham Phul; Balaji Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    A general mathematical model to study capacity fading in lithium ion batteries is developed. The model assumes that the formation of the Solid Electrolyte interphase(SEI) layer is the primary reason behind the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. Previous models have assumed that either the solvent or the lithium plays a key role in the film formation reaction which drives the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. The current model postulates that the solvent species and lithium ions...

  14. Dead lithium phase investigation of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG ZhaoWen; HU SheJun; HOU XianHua; RU Qiang; YU HongWen; ZHAO LingZhi; LI WeiShan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, based on First-principle plane wave pseudo-potential method, we have carried out an in-depth study on the possible dead lithium phase of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Through investigation, we found that the phases LixSn4Zn4(x = 2, 4, 6, 8) contributed to reversible capacity, while the phases LixSn4Zns-(x-4)(x = 4.74, 7.72) led to capacity loss due to high formation energy, namely, they were the dead lithium phases during the charge/discharge process. And we come up with a new idea that stable lithium alloy phase with high lithiation formation energy (dead lithium phase) can also result in high loss of active lithium ion, besides the traditional expression that the formation of solid electrolyte interface film leads to high capacity loss.

  15. Mechanism of lithium insertion into NiSi2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; JI Shijun; SUN Juncai; TIAN Feng; TIAN Rujin; XIE Jingying

    2006-01-01

    As a promising high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, the lithium insertion performance and possible insertion mechanism of binary alloy of NiSi2 were discussed. The initial lithium insertion of crystal NiSi2 can reach up to 600 mAh·g-1 , but large irreversible capacity occurrs simultaneously for serious structure transformation and the irreversible phase forms. XRD and XPS were employed to detect the crystal structure and composition changes produced by lithium insertion. The lithium insertion-extraction behavior of NiSi2 electrode is similar to that of silicon after the first discharge. The structure stability seems related to the non-stoichimometric Ni-Si compound formed by lithium insertion into NiSi2.

  16. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  17. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaLuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  18. Lithium technologies for edge plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. ► The observed decreases of bolometer and Dβ signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. ► The lithium technology may provide inherent safety mission for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments. - Abstract: We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. Quasi steady-state mode I and pulse mode II of dust delivery were realized in both OH and OH + ECRH disruption free plasmas at the lithium flow rate up to 2 × 1021 atoms/s. A higher flow rate in mode II with injection rate of ∼5 × 1021 atoms/s caused a series of minor disruptions, which was completed by discharge termination after the major disruption. The observed decreases of bolometer and Dβ signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. The lithium technology may provide inherent safety pathway for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments.

  19. Lithium technologies for edge plasma control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, Vladimir Yu. [State Polytechnic University, Polytekhnicheskaya 29, Saint Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Kuteev, Boris V. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Bykov, Aleksey S. [State Polytechnic University, Polytekhnicheskaya 29, Saint Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Krylov, Sergey V. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Skokov, Viacheslav G. [State Polytechnic University, Polytekhnicheskaya 29, Saint Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Timokhin, Vladimir M., E-mail: timokhih@phtf.stu.neva.ru [State Polytechnic University, Polytekhnicheskaya 29, Saint Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed decreases of bolometer and D{sub {beta}} signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lithium technology may provide inherent safety mission for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments. - Abstract: We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. Quasi steady-state mode I and pulse mode II of dust delivery were realized in both OH and OH + ECRH disruption free plasmas at the lithium flow rate up to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} atoms/s. A higher flow rate in mode II with injection rate of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} atoms/s caused a series of minor disruptions, which was completed by discharge termination after the major disruption. The observed decreases of bolometer and D{sub {beta}} signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. The lithium technology may provide inherent safety pathway for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments.

  20. THE INERT HOLDING RATIO OF COAL ANDTHE STRENGTH OF COKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    1996-01-01

    The variation regularity of coke strength was investigated in terms of the genetic fac-tors and petrographic parameters of coal in collaboration with the technical properties of coal. Aconcept of inert holding ratio of coal was proposed. There is an optimal inert holding ratio for dif-ferent ranks of coals for making coke with highest combined strength. The additive property of in-ert holding ratio under normal conditions was demonstrated with actual examples of coal blending.Thus it is possible to predict the combined strength of coke through reflectance, content of inertcomponents and caking index (Ro, max-I-G) diagram system.

  1. High Performance Discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) with Liquid Lithium Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, John

    2014-10-01

    The possibility of a liquid metal first wall for a fusion reactor has been extensively discussed. Small-area liquid lithium limiters and divertor targets have been installed in tokamaks, but no confinement device has ever operated with a large-area liquid lithium wall. Here we report the first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (2 m2, or 40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the hot (300 C) wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10 × compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic confinement times exceeded ITER98P(y,2) scaling by up to a factor of four. LTX lacks auxiliary heating, so these confinement improvements represent changes in electron confinement. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges using the John Hopkins University transmission grating extreme ultraviolet spectrometer indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges run against liquid walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges operated against solid lithium walls. This differs strongly from earlier trials of molten lithium walls in LTX, which showed evidence for strong oxygen influx from walls operated at similar temperatures. At present, the Thomson scattering system is undergoing upgrades and realignment, after which confinement times obtained with magnetic diagnostics will be compared with kinetic measurements. A second electron beam will be installed to extend liquid lithium wall operation to 4 m2 coverage, or >80% of the total plasma surface area. Results with expanded liquid lithium wall area will be presented. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Lithium Toxicity and Neurologic Effects: Probable Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Resulting from Lithium Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Osamede Edokpolo; Madiha Fyyaz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We present the case of a patient who developed lithium toxicity with normal therapeutic levels, as a result of pharmacokinetic interaction with Valsartan, and probable Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from the ensuing lithium toxicity. Case Presentation. A 59-year old black male with bipolar disorder maintained on lithium and fluphenazine therapy presented with a 2 week history of worsening confusion, tremor, and gait abnormality. He recently had his dose of Valsartan increased. A...

  3. Analysis of Lithium Driven Electron Density Peaking in FTU Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Szepesi, G.; Romanelli, M.; Militello, F.; Peeters, A.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F.; Hornsby, W.; Snodin, A.; Wagner, D.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of lithium impurities on the microstability and turbulent transport characteristics in the core of a typical FTU Liquid Lithium Limiter (LLL)(Mazzitelli et al., Nucl. Fusion, 2011) discharge during the density ramp-up phase is studied. A non-linear gyrokinetic analysis performed with GKW (Peeters et al.,Comp. Phys. Comm., 2009) accompanied by a quasi-linear fluid analysis is presented. We show that a centrally peaked, high concentration lithium profile contributes to the electron p...

  4. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM.

  5. On-chip positionable photonic waveguides for chip-to-chip optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Tjitte-Jelte; Tichem, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on the progress related to a multichannel photonic alignment concept, aiming for sub-micrometer precision in the alignment of the waveguides of two photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The concept consists of two steps: chip-to-chip positioning and chip bonding provide a coarse alignment after which waveguide-to-waveguide positioning and fixing result in a fine alignment. For the waveguide-to-waveguide alignment, an alignment functionality is developed and integrated in one of the PICs, consisting of mechanically flexible waveguides and MEMS actuators. This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a mechanically flexible waveguide array that can be positioned by two out-of-plane actuators. Thermal actuators are integrated with mechanically flexible waveguide beams to enable positioning them with high precision. By adding a poly-Si pattern on top of SiO2 beams, an out-of-plane bimorph actuator can be realized. An analytical model enables estimating the curvature and the deflection of a single bimorph beam. Acquiring a small initial deflection while having a large motion range of the actuator proves to have conflicting demands on the poly-Si/SiO2 thickness ratio. In this paper, we show that suspended waveguide arrays with integrated alignment functionality have an initial deflection- they curl up- due to residual stress in the materials. The actuators can be operated using a driving voltage between 0V to 45V, corresponding to ~50mW. Using higher voltages brings the risk of permanently changing the material properties of the heaters. The actuators can accomplish an out-of-plane crossbar translation up to 6.5 μm at ~50mW as well as a rotation around the propagation direction of the light ranging from -0:1° to 0.1°. At a constant actuation power of ~50mW, the crossbar shows a drift in vertical deflection of 0.16 μm over a time of 30 min.

  6. Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Adrian

    This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20

  7. Patterns and clinical outcomes of lithium treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wilting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and consequences of lithium use’. In chapter 2.1 we studied lithium use patterns in out-patients within the last decade. In line with the increase in alternatives and the Dutch guidelines, we observed an increase in use of atypical antipsychotics and valproic acid and a decrease in use tricyclic antidepressants next to lithium. In chapter 2.2 we assessed the association between mood state and patient reported ADRs. The prevalence and the severity of ADRs increased with decreasing moo...

  8. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  9. Study of the primordial lithium abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lithium isotopes have attracted an intense interest because the abundance of both 6Li and 6Li from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the puzzles in nuclear astrophysics. Many investigations of both astrophysical observation and nucleosynthesis calculation have been carried out to solve the puzzle, but it is not solved yet. Several nuclear reactions involving lithium have been indirectly measured at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. The Standard BBN (SBBN) network calculations are then performed to investigate the primordial Lithium abundance. The result shows that these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the SBBN abundances of 6Li and 7Li.

  10. RECOVERY OF LITHIUM FROM WASTE MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    JITKA JANDOVÁ; PETR DVOŘÁK; JÁN KONDÁS; LUBOMÍR HAVLÁK

    2012-01-01

    In this study, processes based on roasting-leaching-crystallization steps and condensation-precipitation steps for Li2CO3 separation from spent Li/MnO2 batteries and lithium-containing wastewaters were developed and verified on a laboratory scale. Spent Li/MnO2 batteries were roasted under reduced pressure at 650°C, which split the castings and deactivated the batteries by reduction of LiMnO2 and MnO2 with residual lithium metal and graphite to form MnO and Li2CO3. The resultant lithium carbo...

  11. All silicon lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used as power supplies for portable electronic devices due to their higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities compared to other electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as lead-acid, Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries. Developing a novel battery chemistry, ‘‘all silicon lithium-ion batteries’’, using lithium iron silicate as the cathode and silicon as the anode, is the primary aim of this Ph.D project. This licentiate thesis is focused on improv...

  12. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  13. ASSESSMENT OF LITHIUM USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of lithium and reviews toxicologic information on several specific lithium salts: ithium carbonate, lithium chloride, lithium citrate, and lithium hypochlorite. ithium (Li), an alkali metal, is a n...

  14. Results from the CDX-U lithium wall and NSTX lithium pellet experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: CDX-U has been operated with the vacuum vessel wall and limiter surfaces nearly completely coated with lithium, with dramatic improvements to plasma performance. Discharges achieved global energy confinement times of up to 5-6 ms, exceeding previous CDX-U results by 5x, and ITER98P(y1) scaling by 2-3x. Lithium wall coatings were applied by electron beam-induced evaporation of a lithium-filled limiter and vapor deposition from a resistively heated lithium-filled oven, up to 1000 Angstrom thick, between discharges. The e-beam experiments also produced up to 60 MW/m2 power density in a 0.3 cm2 spot. Total beam power was modest (1.6 kW), but duration was up to 300 seconds. Convective transport of heat away from the beam spot was so effective that the entire lithium inventory (140 g), rather than just the area under the beam spot, was heated to evaporation (400-500 deg C). There was no observable hot spot within the beam footprint to the limit of resolution (10 deg C) of an infrared-red camera, which imaged the surface of the lithium during beam heating. These results are promising for the future implementation of lithium plasma-facing components in reactor scale devices. Lithium coating of carbon PFCs has been initiated also on NSTX, to control the density rise during long-duration H-modes, and to optimize density profiles for non-inductive current sustainment. Lithium pellets were injected into ohmically heated helium plasmas to deposit lithium on plasma contact areas. In the first experiment, pellets were injected into repeated ohmic helium discharges to deposit about 30 mg of lithium on the Center Stack Limiter. A following deuterium reference discharge with NBI exhibited a reduction in the volume-average density by a factor of about four and a peaked density profile. In a similar subsequent experiment, diverted, Lower Single-Null helium discharges about 25 mg of lithium was deposited on the lower divertor. The density exhibited a factor of about two

  15. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  16. The Lithium Flash - Thermal instabilities generated by lithium burning in RGB stars

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Forestini, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a scenario to explain the lithium-rich phase which occurs on the red giant branch at the so-called bump in the luminosity function. The high transport coefficients required to enhance the surface lithium abundance are obtained in the framework of rotation-induced mixing thanks to the impulse of the important nuclear energy released in a lithium burning shell. Under certain conditions a lithium flash is triggered off. The enhanced mass loss rate due to the temporary increase of the ...

  17. Maximum Recommended Dosage of Lithium for Pregnant Women Based on a PBPK Model for Lithium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Horton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium therapy during pregnancy is a medical challenge. Bipolar disorder is more prevalent in women and its onset is often concurrent with peak reproductive age. Treatment typically involves administration of the element lithium, which has been classified as a class D drug (legal to use during pregnancy, but may cause birth defects and is one of only thirty known teratogenic drugs. There is no clear recommendation in the literature on the maximum acceptable dosage regimen for pregnant, bipolar women. We recommend a maximum dosage regimen based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model. The model simulates the concentration of lithium in the organs and tissues of a pregnant woman and her fetus. First, we modeled time-dependent lithium concentration profiles resulting from lithium therapy known to have caused birth defects. Next, we identified maximum and average fetal lithium concentrations during treatment. Then, we developed a lithium therapy regimen to maximize the concentration of lithium in the mother’s brain, while maintaining the fetal concentration low enough to reduce the risk of birth defects. This maximum dosage regimen suggested by the model was 400 mg lithium three times per day.

  18. On-chip power delivery and management

    CERN Document Server

    Vaisband, Inna P; Popovich, Mikhail; Mezhiba, Andrey V; Köse, Selçuk; Friedman, Eby G

    2016-01-01

    This book describes methods for distributing power in high speed, high complexity integrated circuits with power levels exceeding many tens of watts and power supplies below a volt. It provides a broad and cohesive treatment of power delivery and management systems and related design problems, including both circuit network models and design techniques for on-chip decoupling capacitors, providing insight and intuition into the behavior and design of on-chip power distribution systems. Organized into subareas to provide a more intuitive flow to the reader, this fourth edition adds more than a hundred pages of new content, including inductance models for interdigitated structures, design strategies for multi-layer power grids, advanced methods for efficient power grid design and analysis, and methodologies for simultaneously placing on-chip multiple power supplies and decoupling capacitors. The emphasis of this additional material is on managing the complexity of on-chip power distribution networks.

  19. Spacecraft on a Chip Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System on a chip is a method to increase engineering efficiency. State of the art components are increasing in gate count as expected according to Moore’s...

  20. A Chip for an Implantable Neural Stimulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Bruun, Erik; Haugland, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a chip for a multichannel neural stimulator for functional electrical stimulation (FES). The purpose of FES is to restore muscular control in disabled patients. The chip performs all the signal processing required in an implanted neural stimulator. The power and digital data...... transmission to the stimulator passes through a 5 MHz inductive link. From the signals transmitted to the stimulator, the chip is able to generate charge-balanced current pulses with a controllable length up to 256 µs and an amplitude up to 2 mA, for stimulation of nerve fibers. The quiescent current...... consumption of the chip is approx. 650 µA at supply voltages of 6–12 V, and its size is 3.9×3.5 mm2. It has 4 output channels for use in a multipolar cuff electrode....

  1. Medicaid CHIP Environmental Scanning and Program Char...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ESPC development is sponsored by the CMS Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation in partnership with the Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services (CMCS) under the...

  2. FUNCTIONING OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS IN UKRAINE: STRONG AND WEAK SIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postgraduate, assistant Sergii Ivanovich TODORIUK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the organizational forms of the agricultural management which is gaining popularity in the world is agricultural holdings. The essence of agricultural holdings is considered in the article. Also the peculiarities of their functioning in Ukraine and determination of the strengths and weaknesses of their activities is defined, as well as perspectives of their further functioning. Agrarian holding, as a relatively new organizational legal form of managing in Ukraine has its advantages and disadvantages. As the experience shows the advantages of agrarian holdings over the subjects of management are revealed mainly in the economic sphere. While their disadvantages over the subjects of management are revealed in social and ecological spheres. This is a negative moment considering the implementation in Ukraine of the concept of the sustainable development, which means the combination of these main components (economic component, environmental component, social component.

  3. Gut Bacteria May Hold Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159905.html Gut Bacteria May Hold Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Intestinal ... doctors -- may be influenced by a person's intestinal bacteria -- sometimes called gut microbiome, new research finds. "Patients ...

  4. Veterinary students to hold community dog wash April 10

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary students enrolled in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine will hold a community dog wash on Saturday, April 10 from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. on Virginia Tech's Blacksburg campus.

  5. Patent holdings of US biotherapeutic companies in major markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Teena E; Yerram, Chandra Bindu; Saberwal, Gayatri

    2009-05-01

    In previous studies we examined the (United States, US) patent holdings of 109 largely North American biotech companies developing therapeutics that, in particular, have an interest in discovery stage science. There appears little correlation between the number of patents and the number of products of individual companies. Here we quantified and compared the 103 US-headquartered companies' patent holdings in Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and the US. The companies demonstrate variable and surprising patterns of patent holdings across these countries or regions. For most companies, patent holdings are not in proportion to the importance of the country as a biotech or pharma market. These results have implications for the patenting strategies of small biotech companies involved in drug discovery. PMID:19429502

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  7. Link between chips and cutting moments evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cahuc, Olivier; Gérard, Alain; 10.4028/WWW.scientific.net/AMR.423.89

    2012-01-01

    The better understanding of the material cutting process has been shown with the benefit of the forces and moments measurement since some years ago. In paper, simultaneous six mechanical components and chip orientation measurements were realized during turning tests. During these tests, the influence of the depth of cut or feed rate has been observed and a link between the chip orientation and the moment vector orientation or the central axis characteristics has been shown.

  8. Open Tiled Manycore System-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Wallentowitz, Stefan; Wagner, Philipp; Tempelmeier, Michael; Wild, Thomas; Herkersdorf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Manycore System-on-Chip include an increasing amount of processing elements and have become an important research topic for improvements of both hardware and software. While research can be conducted using system simulators, prototyping requires a variety of components and is very time consuming. With the Open Tiled Manycore System-on-Chip (OpTiMSoC) we aim at building such an environment for use in our and other research projects as prototyping platform. This paper describes the project goal...

  9. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Zauner, Dan;

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report low resolution surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) conducted with a chip based spectrometer. The flat field spectrometer presented here is fabricated in SU-8 on silicon, showing a resolution of around 3 nm and a free spectral range of around 100 nm. The output facet...... fiber. The obtained spectra show that chip based spectrometer together with the SERS active surface can be used as Raman sensor....

  10. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  11. Degradation Phenomena of Lithium-rich Lithium-Nickel-Cobalt- Manganese-Oxide in Lithium-Ion-Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkhaus, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the energy density in lithium-ion-batteries is crucial for the widespread of electric or partly electrified vehicles, consumer electronics, or stationary energy storage systems. One feasible way to achieve this aim is to change the cell chemistry of a lithiumion- battery cell by substituting the existing anode and cathode active materials. One possible cathode material, that has the capability to increase the energy densities in future lithium-ion-batteries is lithiu...

  12. LITHIUM TOXICITY IN ELDERLY-A CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana D. Arnaoudova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effect of Lithium as a mono therapy or as an augmenting agent in a variety of medical and psychiatric disorders is under doubt. However, lithium is associated with a number of adverse effects. Method and objective: A review of the literature on lithium use in older adults and a case report presentation. Summary of results: The literature, concerning current uses of Lithium in older patients, especially for patients with neurologic or cognitive impairments is limited due to the lack of well-designed, large clinical trials. Elderly patients are at higher risk to develop neurotoxicity in the course of lithium therapy. We present a case of 66 years old female patient, suffering bipolar disorder, who developed lithium toxicity and was admitted at the gerontopsychiatric department due to a confusional state, tremor and gait abnormality. Lithium toxicity was suspected when sufficient information about previous medical history of lithium therapy has been obtained. Lithium level found to be 1.69mmol/L. The patient has developed intoxication during maintenance therapy with a lithium dosage which had been unchanged for months. Conclusion: Elderly patients require lower doses of Lithium to achieve similar serum concentrations as those in younger adults. Neurotoxicity could be suspected at serum lithium levels which are considered therapeutic in younger adults. When prescribing lithium agents in elderly we should consider age-related changes in pharmacokinetics. The best way to prevent lithium toxicity is to control the serum concentration regularly during therapy.

  13. The Hold-up Problem Under Common Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Nicita; Simone Sepe

    2012-01-01

    Many real world transactions occur in a common agency environment in which an agent interacts with several principals having competing interests. The hold-up literature, however, has so far neglected to investigate common agency transactions. In this paper, we consider the hold-up problem that arises in a context where there are a monopolistic seller and multiple buyers on the one side and all the parties on the other are required to make specific self-investments. Our contribution is twofold...

  14. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

  15. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  16. De determinanten van cash holdings bij Belgische KMO's

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbaelen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Deze eindverhandeling handelt over de determinanten die een invloed kunnen hebben op het niveau van cash holdings van Belgische KMO's. Dit werkstuk beslaat zeven hoofdstukken. Eerst en vooral wordt de probleemstelling uitgewerkt in hoofdstuk één gevolgd door een definiëring van het begrip KMO in hoofdstuk twee. Vervolgens komt in hoofdstuk drie een uitgebreide literatuurstudie aan bod. In hoofdstuk vier worden de determinanten van de cash holdings besproken, welke uit de literatuurstudie voor...

  17. INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT IN VERTICALLY INTEGRATED HOLDING COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Uspenskaja, N.

    2015-01-01

    The trend towards production consolidation and integration processes taking place both in the Russian and global economies leads to development of business associations, with a holding company being the most common form in Russia and around the globe. The evidence in favor of the formation of holding companies is that they can benefit from the scale (bulk purchasing, centralized stuff training); in the global capital and exports markets they can be more effective than smaller businesses and, ...

  18. Breath-hold CT attenuation correction for quantitative cardiac SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Koshino, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Fukumoto, Masaji; Sasaki, Kazunari; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Kiso, Keisuke; Iida, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Attenuation correction of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image is possible using computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation maps with hybrid SPECT/CT. CT attenuation maps acquired during breath holding can be misaligned with SPECT, generating artifacts in the reconstructed images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of respiratory phase during breath-hold CT acquisition on attenuation correction of cardiac SPECT imaging. Methods A series o...

  19. An evaluation of the blind lap joint for the surface mount attachment of chip components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianco, P. T.; Dalporto, J. F.

    Blind lap solder joints were used to attach leadless ceramic chip resistors to polyimidequartz circuit boards. Hand soldering and vapor phase reflow techniques were evaluated. The solder was 62Sn-36Pb-2Ag (wt. percent). The integrity of the solder joints was assessed by microstructural examination and room temperature shear tests. These analyses were performed on as-fabricated circuit boards as well as an those samples exposed to thermal cycling (308 cycles; -55 to 125 C; 6 C/min ramps; 120 min hold periods;) or thermal shock (100 cycles, -55 C to 125 C; liquid-to-liquid transfer; 10 min hold periods). In all cases, microscopy revealed no cracks within the solder joints. The shear strengths of the joints were 13.4 lb (59 N), as-fabricated; 10.5 lb (47 N), 308 thermal cycles; and 14.0 lb (62 N), 100 thermal shock cycles. All values were well within acceptability limits for the particular application. Measurements of the intermetallic compound thicknesses at the copper land/solder interface indicated that the additional heating cycle of the hand soldering step decreased the layer thickness as compared to non-hand soldered joints. The successful implementation of the blind lap joint can provide increased device densities on circuit boards by reducing bonding pad extension beyond the ceramic chip foot print.

  20. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Jürgen

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content.

  1. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.)

  2. Rotation, inflation, and lithium in the Pleiades

    CERN Document Server

    Somers, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly rotating cool dwarfs of the Pleiades are rich in lithium relative to their slowly rotating counterparts. Motivated by observations of inflated radii in young, active stars, and by calculations showing that radius inflation inhibits pre-main sequence (pre-MS) Li destruction, we test whether this pattern could arise from a connection between stellar rotation rate and radius inflation on the pre-MS. We demonstrate that pre-MS radius inflation can efficiently suppress lithium destruction by rotationally induced mixing, and that the net effect of inflation and rotational mixing is a pattern where rotation correlates with lithium abundance for $M_{*} {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$, similar to the empirical trend in the Pleiades. Next, we adopt different prescriptions for the dependence of inflation on rotation, and compare their predictions to the Pleiades lithium/rotation pattern. A connection between rotation and radius inflation naturally and generically reproduces the important qualitative features of this patte...

  3. Lithium May Fend off Alzheimer's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 夏红

    2004-01-01

    @@ Lithium, a common treatment for manic depression, might also help to stave off②Alzheimer's disease. Patients who take the drug to stabilize their mood disorder are less likely to succumb to dementia③, a study reveals.

  4. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content. (author)

  5. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  6. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  7. INTRA AND EXTRA ERYTHROCYTE LITHIUM ION CONCENTRATION RATIOS IN MANIC PATIENTS1

    OpenAIRE

    Sampath, G.; Rama Rao, B.S. Sridhara; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Subash, M

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY In a study RBC-Plasma lithium ratios in manic patients treated with lithium we found that lithium responders had higher lithium ratios than lithium non-responders. There was, however, no cut off value which could differentiate lithium responders from non-responders.

  8. Materials for microfluidic chip fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kangning; Zhou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongkai

    2013-11-19

    Through manipulating fluids using microfabricated channel and chamber structures, microfluidics is a powerful tool to realize high sensitive, high speed, high throughput, and low cost analysis. In addition, the method can establish a well-controlled microenivroment for manipulating fluids and particles. It also has rapid growing implementations in both sophisticated chemical/biological analysis and low-cost point-of-care assays. Some unique phenomena emerge at the micrometer scale. For example, reactions are completed in a shorter amount of time as the travel distances of mass and heat are relatively small; the flows are usually laminar; and the capillary effect becomes dominant owing to large surface-to-volume ratios. In the meantime, the surface properties of the device material are greatly amplified, which can lead to either unique functions or problems that we would not encounter at the macroscale. Also, each material inherently corresponds with specific microfabrication strategies and certain native properties of the device. Therefore, the material for making the device plays a dominating role in microfluidic technologies. In this Account, we address the evolution of materials used for fabricating microfluidic chips, and discuss the application-oriented pros and cons of different materials. This Account generally follows the order of the materials introduced to microfluidics. Glass and silicon, the first generation microfluidic device materials, are perfect for capillary electrophoresis and solvent-involved applications but expensive for microfabriaction. Elastomers enable low-cost rapid prototyping and high density integration of valves on chip, allowing complicated and parallel fluid manipulation and in-channel cell culture. Plastics, as competitive alternatives to elastomers, are also rapid and inexpensive to microfabricate. Their broad variety provides flexible choices for different needs. For example, some thermosets support in-situ fabrication of

  9. The AmpliChip CYP450 test: principles, challenges, and future clinical utility in digestive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Brian D; Egan, Laurence J; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2006-07-01

    Understanding genetically encoded inherited differences in drug metabolism and targets (ie, receptors, transporters) offers the promise of minimizing adverse drug reactions and improving therapies. Among the enzymes involved in drug metabolism, the cytochromes P450 (CYP450) hold a central position. In fact, CYP450 are involved in the biotransformation of most drugs used in clinical practice. Recent advances in the development of DNA-based diagnostics, coupled with a better understanding of genetic polymorphisms in influencing pharmacologic responses, have provided the foundation for novel in vitro tests that may predict side effects and/or therapeutic responses. The AmpliChip CYP450 test was developed as a clinical test to evaluate an individual's metabolic capacity for certain drugs by identifying polymorphisms of 2 CYP450 enzymes (ie, CYP2D6 and CYP2D19). Even though the AmpliChip CYP450 has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, its practical clinical utility has not yet been determined, and there is a paucity of data related to gastrointestinal and liver diseases. An understanding of the principles and opportunities provided by this new category of diagnostic test is key before planning the necessary studies to evaluate the usefulness of AmpliChip CYP450 in gastroenterologic clinical practice. PMID:16797246

  10. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  11. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    van Schalkwijk, Walter

    2007-01-01

    From the reviews:""The book does serve as a guide for future development for most aspects of the chemistry lithium-ion system and is definitely a valuable snapshot of the state-of-the-by-no-means-finished-art of lithium-ion batteries.""(John B. Kerr, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Journal of the American Chemical Society, 125:12, 2003)

  12. Electrochromic window with lithium conductive polymer electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Paul; Aegerter, Michel A.; Deroo, Daniel; Valla, Bruno

    1991-01-01

    An electrochromic window was built using WO3 as the electrochromic material and V2O5 as the counter-electrode. Both were deposited onto ITO coated glass panes by vacuum evaporation and were amorphous to X-ray diffraction. The electrolyte was a lithium conducting polymer constituted by a Poly (ethylene oxide) - lithium salt complex. The electrochemical characterization of electrodes was realized by cyclic voltammetry, coulometric titration, and impedance spectroscopy, which allowd the determin...

  13. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth; Casse, Michel; Audouze, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to...

  14. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  15. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Steve H.; GavinM. Mudd; Damien Giurco

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR) of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1) and 55.0 (Case 3) Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE) was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 wherea...

  16. Advanced Flip Chips in Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2010-01-01

    The use of underfill materials is necessary with flip-chip interconnect technology to redistribute stresses due to mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between dissimilar materials in the overall assembly. Underfills are formulated using organic polymers and possibly inorganic filler materials. There are a few ways to apply the underfills with flip-chip technology. Traditional capillary-flow underfill materials now possess high flow speed and reduced time to cure, but they still require additional processing steps beyond the typical surface-mount technology (SMT) assembly process. Studies were conducted using underfills in a temperature range of -190 to 85 C, which resulted in an increase of reliability by one to two orders of magnitude. Thermal shock of the flip-chip test articles was designed to induce failures at the interconnect sites (-40 to 100 C). The study on the reliability of flip chips using underfills in the extreme temperature region is of significant value for space applications. This technology is considered as an enabling technology for future space missions. Flip-chip interconnect technology is an advanced electrical interconnection approach where the silicon die or chip is electrically connected, face down, to the substrate by reflowing solder bumps on area-array metallized terminals on the die to matching footprints of solder-wettable pads on the chosen substrate. This advanced flip-chip interconnect technology will significantly improve the performance of high-speed systems, productivity enhancement over manual wire bonding, self-alignment during die joining, low lead inductances, and reduced need for attachment of precious metals. The use of commercially developed no-flow fluxing underfills provides a means of reducing the processing steps employed in the traditional capillary flow methods to enhance SMT compatibility. Reliability of flip chips may be significantly increased by matching/tailoring the CTEs of the substrate

  17. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, T; Woehrmann, M; Rothermund, M; Huegging, F; Ehrmann, O; Oppermann, H; Lang, K.D

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump depo...

  18. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  19. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak

    2016-07-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  20. Lithium borate solid TL detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new procedure for the preparation of Li2B4O7:Cu,In and Li2B4O7:Cu,In,Ag in form of sintered pellets has been developed recently at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade. Very few TL materials are tissue equivalent with an effective atomic number which is very close to that of soft biological tissue (7.4). Li2B4O7 based TL dosemeters appeared to be among the most attractive, with an effective atomic number of 7.3. The thermoluminescence properties of lithium borate in form of sintered TLD pellets examined in this study include glow-curve shapes, TL sensitivity, photon dose response, minimum detectable dose, relative photon energy response, fading, reproducibility, uniformity, recommended annealing procedure and kinetic parameters. (author)

  1. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, H; Stienkemeier, F; Bogomolov, A S; Baklanov, A V; Reich, D M; Skomorowski, W; Koch, C P; Mudrich, M

    2015-01-01

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li+ and LiI+ ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V=650(20) reciprocal cm. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  2. The Cosmological Lithium Problem Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A; Shubhchintak,

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  3. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  4. Transporting Digital Micro-fluids Among Multi-chips Based on Surface Acoustic Wave%基于声表面波技术实现数字微流体多基片间输运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章安良; 夏兴华

    2011-01-01

    A new method for transporting digital micro-fluids among multi chips has been proposed based on surface acoustic wave(SAW). It is composed of three piezo-electric chips: one is an interface chip and the others are working chips. Each chip has an interdigital transducer (IDT) with 27. 5 MHz center frequency and a reflector, which are fabricated on 128°YX-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. A digital micro-fluid to be transported was first pipetted onto the working chip 2 by a microsyringe. After the interface chip was adjusted to the same height with the working chip 2 and their gap was as small as possible, an amplified RF signal with 27.5 MHz frequency was applied to the IDT of the working chip 2. The IDT radiated SAW and the digital micro-fluid was actuated to the interface chip. Then the digital micro-fluid was transported from the interface chip to the working chip 1 using the similar method. Two digital micro-fluids on different working chips had successfully been mixed and react based on SAW.%建立了声表面波实现多基片间输运微流体的新方法.由3个128(0)YX-LiNbO3压电基片组成,一个基片为接口基片,另两个为工作基片,每个基片光刻一个中心频率为27.5 MHz叉指换能器和一个反射栅.采用微量进样器将待输运的数字微流体进样到工作基片2,调节接口基片使得其与工作基片2位于同一高度,并使其间隙尽可能小,在工作基片2的叉指换能器上施加声同步频率经放大后的RF信号,激发声表面波,驱动数字微流体到达接口基片.再采用类似方法将接口基片中数字微流体输运到工作基片1,完成两个工作基片间的输运.实现了不同工作基片上的数字微流体的混合及化学反应.

  5. Magnetron sputtered lithium niobate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of lithium niobate films on Corning 7059 glass by rf planar magnetron sputtering in an Ar + 40% 02 mixture has been studied at 2 mtorr. Films deposited on unheated substrates became crazed by release of a tensile stress arising from the difference between the expansion coefficient of the glass and the coating. Improvement of surface cleanliness by discharge cleaning or solvent degreasing using iso-propyl alcohol in a Soxhlet extractor enhanced the film/substrate adhesion. This prevented crazing, but the transparent films produced were still under stress. Glass surfaces cleaned sufficiently for high film adhesion had a coefficient of static friction, glass on glass, of greater than of the order of 0.8. A lithium niobate powder target was used because the uneven heating arising from magnetron discharge localization resulted in fracture of single crystal material. Care was taken to remove all water vapour from the discharge atmosphere using liquid nitrogen traps, for without these the coatings produced were optically absorbing, due to oxide reduction, presumably formed by an active hydrogen reaction. The refractive index of the films, as determined from their waveguiding characteristics, was in the region of 2.10-2.20. Trial coatings grown at 380degC and above had indices in the region of 2.19; these high temperature films were also transparent but under tensile stress. The growth rates ranged from 9.5 A min-1 for a substrate temperature of 3800C to 11.5 A min-1 for a substrate temperature of 4700C. (author)

  6. Fabrication technology of integrated fiber microfluidic electrophoresis chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI MengChun

    2007-01-01

    The technology of PCB was used to fabricate the chip mould, and the microfluidic electrophoresis chip was fabricated with PDMS material. The fiber integrated on the chip was used as the transmission medium, so the light spot size was near the depth of microchannel. The detection sensitivity was improved, and the optical focusing system was spared. The fabrication process, sealing methods and structure characteristic of PDMS microfluidic electrophoresis chips were discussed. The experiment was achieved by using the fabricated chip to separate FITC fluorescein and FITC-labeled amino acid mixture reagent, and the feasibility of the chip was validated.

  7. Low-temperature anodic bonding using thin films of lithium-niobate-phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the investigation of a low-temperature anodic bonding process with layers of a lithium-niobate-phosphate glass on chip level. The glass layers are deposited by means of rf sputtering. The applied glass is characterised by its high ion conductivity, enabling anodic bonding at room temperature. Results of the optimisation process concerning the intrinsic stress of the glass layers and the thermal exposure of the substrates through the deposition process are presented. The stoichiometry of the glass layers is verified through Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The bonding strength is measured by tensile tests. Microfabricated atomic vapour cells are used for hermeticity tests of the bonding by absorption measurements of the caesium D1 line. (paper)

  8. On-chip liquid storage and dispensing for lab-on-a-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents novel components for on-chip storage and dispensing inside a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) for applications in immunoassay point-of-care testing (POCT), where incubation and washing steps are essential. It involves easy-to-use on-chip solutions for the sequential thermo-hydraulic actuation of liquids. The novel concept of combining the use of a rubber plug, both as a non-return valve cap and as a liquid injection interface of a sealed reservoir, allows simple filling of a sterilized cavity, as well as the storage and dispensing of reagent and washing buffer liquids. Segmenting the flow with air spacers enables effective rinsing and the use of small volumes of on-chip stored liquids. The chip uses low-resistance resistors as heaters in the paraffin actuator, providing the low-voltage actuation that is preferred for handheld battery driven instruments

  9. Discovery Mondays: Chips with everything!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Electronics to hear the sound of matter From the TV to the fridge, the wristwatch to the washing machine, hardly any consumer product in this day and age can escape the influence of electronics, and the ever more powerful microchip. So it's hardly surprising to learn that such sophisticated devices as particle detectors are bristling with the best and most powerful microchips technology has to offer! Particle detectors known as trackers are like 3-D digital cameras. They are used to detect the tracks of particles created in the accelerator and to pin down their momentum and thus their identity. A chip seen with a microscope.Come to Microcosm and see with your own eyes a silicon detector, packed full of electronic microchips. Get up closer with a microscope and admire the way in which the fine details of the etchings break down light. Further on, watch a TV as you've never done before - from the inside! Then try out our special simulation game that helps you understand the purpose of a particle detector. Bu...

  10. Grating chips for quantum technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilligan, James Patrick; Ingleby, Stuart; Griffin, Paul Francis; Riis, Erling; Arnold, Aidan

    2015-05-01

    Laser cooled atomic samples have resulted in profound advances in frequency metrology, however the technology is typically complex and bulky. In the cover story of the May 2013 issue of Nature Nanotechnology we describe a micro-fabricated optical element that greatly facilitates miniaturisation of ultra-cold atom technology. Portable devices should be feasible with accuracy vastly exceeding that of equivalent room-temperature technology, with a minimal footprint. Laser cooled samples will be ideal for measurement devices e.g. portable atomic clocks and magnetometers and, moreover, they hold great potential for longer-term breakthroughs exploiting e.g. optical lattices for all-optical clocks and Bose-Einstein condensates for atom interferometry. Here we will discuss next generation diffractive optical elements (DOE) and demonstrate quantum based measurements on samples of ultra-cold atoms created using our miniaturised optical setup.

  11. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan; Les accumulateurs lithium-ion au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, O

    2006-07-15

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Polymer/Transitonal Metal Oxides Nanocomposites as Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium/Lithium lon Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Kang Wu

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of polymer/transition metal oxides nanocomposite material were reviewed.The new nanocomposite material(PPY)0.5/MoO3 prepared by a new method is described.The application of the nanocomposite materials as cathode material in rechargeable lithium/lithium ion batteries was explored.

  13. Interactions of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials; and filtration of lithium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the facilities and experiments and presents test results of a program being conducted at the hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the fusion reactor development effort. This experimental program is designed to characterize the interaction of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials. Lithium-atmosphere reaction tests were conducted in normal humidity air, pure nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These tests are described and their results, such as maximum temperatures, aerosol generated, and reaction rates measured, are reported. Initial lithium temperatures for these tests ranged between 2240C and 8430C. A lithium-concrete reaction test, using 10 kg of lithium at 3270C, and lithium-insulating materials reaction tests, using a few grams of lithium at 3500C and 6000C, are also described and results are presented. In addition, a lithium-aerosol filter loading test was conducted to determine the mass loading capacity of a commercial high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The aerosol was characterized, and the loading-capacity-versus-pressure-buildup across the filter is reported

  14. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m3 to 5.86 kg/m3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  15. Feasibility study of a green energy powered thermoelectric chip based air conditioner for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional compressed-refrigerant air conditioning systems consume substantial energy that may reduce the driving performance and cruising mileage of electric vehicles considerably. It is crucial to design a new climate control system, using a direct energy conversion principle, to further aid in the commercialization of modern electric vehicles. A solid state air conditioner model consisting on TECs (thermoelectric chips) as the load, DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells) as the renewable energy source and high power LiBs (lithium-ion batteries) as an energy storage device are considered for a personal mobility vehicle. The power management between the main power net and the solid state air conditioner interface is designed with an outer proportional-integral controller and an inner passivity based current controller with a loss included model for perfect tracking. This model is intended to comprise thermal and electrical elements which can be tunable for performance benchmarking and optimization of a solid state air conditioning system. Dynamic performance simulations of the solid-state air conditioner are performed, alongside guidelines for feasibility. - Highlights: • Alternative model extraction for dye sensitized solar cells. • Improved and computationally fast model for the cabin air temperature dynamics. • Euler–Lagrange loss included modeling of a buck converter. • Loss-included passivity based inner loop current control. • The thermoelectric chip air conditioner is tested in simulated cooling/heating scenarios

  16. Results from the CDX-U lithium wall and NSTX lithium pellet experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CDX-U has been operated with the vacuum vessel wall and limiter surfaces nearly completely coated with lithium, with dramatic improvements to plasma performance. Discharges achieved global energy confinement times of up to 5-6 ms, exceeding previous CDX-U results by 5x, and ITER98P(y1) scaling by 2-3. Lithium wall coatings up to A thick were applied between discharges by electron-beam-induced evaporation of a lithium-filled limiter and vapor deposition from a resistively heated oven. The e-beam power was modest (1.6 kW) but it produced up to 60 MW/m2 power density in a 0.3 cm2 spot; the duration was up to 300 s. Convective transport of heat away from the beam spot was so effective that the entire lithium inventory (140 g) was heated to evaporation (400-500 deg. C) and there was no observable hot spot on the lithium surface within the beam footprint. These results are promising for use of lithium plasma-facing components in reactor scale devices. Lithium coating has been applied to NSTX carbon plasma-facing surfaces, to control the density rise during long-duration H-modes for non-inductive current sustainment. First, lithium pellets were injected into sequences of Ohmically heated helium plasmas in both center stack limiter (CSL) and lower single-null divertor (LSND) configurations to deposit a total of 25-30 mg of lithium on the respective plasma contact areas. In both cases, the first subsequent L mode, deuterium discharge with NBI showed a reduction in the volume-average density by a factor ∼3 compared to lithium discharges before the lithium coating. Recently, a lithium evaporator was installed aimed toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Twelve depositions, ranging from about 10 mg to 5 g of lithium, were performed. The effects on LSND L-mode, double-null divertor (DND) H-mode, and DND reversed-shear plasmas were variable but, immediately after coating, there were decreases in the density and significant increases in the electron

  17. Chemical equilibrium studies of tritium--lithium and tritium--lithium alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In deuterium-tritium fusion reactors currently under design, the production of tritium is accomplished by utilizing a lithium-bearing blanket. Lithium metal is presently the leading candidate for the blanket material, although molten Li2BeF4, solid Li--Al (50-50 at. percent) alloy and other lithium-containing materials are distinct possibilities. This paper summarizes progress of ongoing studies of the thermodynamics of some of these lithium containing systems. The individual solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium in lithium as a function of temperature (700 to 10000C) and pressure are presented. Recent work with the solid alloy Li--Al (50-50 at. percent) has shown that the tritium solubility between 400 and 6000C is low. When the tritium pressure was between 0.14 and 0.52 torr, the Li--Al samples contained only 1 to 4 ppm tritium

  18. Vacuum distillation refining of crude lithium (Ⅰ)——Thermodynamics on separating impurities from lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为亮; 杨斌; 柴立元; 闵小波; 戴永年; 于霞; 张传福

    2001-01-01

    Thermodynamics on vacuum refining process of the crude lithium has been studied by using separation coefficients of impurities in the crude lithium and vapor-liquid equilibrium composition diagrams of Li-i binary alloy (i stands for an impurity) at different temperatures. Behaviors of impurities in the vacuum distillation process have been examined.The results show that fractional vacuum distillation should be taken to obtain metal lithium with high purity more than 99.99 % Li, in which metal K, Na and partial Mg are volatilized at lower temperature of 673~873 K. Lithium is distilled from the residual liquid containing other impurities, such as Ca, Mg, Al, Si, Fe and Ni at higher temperature of 873~1 073 K and the chamber pressure is less than the critical pressure of lithium.

  19. An analog CMOS chip set for neural networks with arbitrary topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Lansner, John; Lehmann, Torsten

    1993-01-01

    An analog CMOS chip set for implementations of artificial neural networks (ANNs) has been fabricated and tested. The chip set consists of two cascadable chips: a neuron chip and a synapse chip. Neurons on the neuron chips can be interconnected at random via synapses on the synapse chips thus implementing an ANN with arbitrary topology. The neuron test chip contains an array of 4 neurons with well defined hyperbolic tangent activation functions which is implemented by using parasitic lateral b...

  20. Assessment of Deformation of Shear Localized Chip in High Speed Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T; C; LEE; W; S; LAU; S; K; CHAN

    2002-01-01

    As the cutting speed goes higher, the mechanism of chip deformation will be changed significantly, i.e., continuous chip in low cutting speed will shift to serrated chip with shear localization. For the shear localized chip, the parameters used to assess the chip deformation for continuous chip, such as shorten coefficient ξ, shear angle φ and shear strain ε, can not describe the chip deformation correctly or comprehensively. This paper deals with the assessment of chip deformation of shear localization. Th...

  1. Analysis of Hold Down Force for IVTM in PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PGSFR (Prototype Generation IV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor) is a new design for a compact sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. The main components of the IVTM (In-Vessel Transfer Machine) for PGSFR are composed of the upper driving part, the main tube and the pantograph arm including the gripper. The bottom of the pantograph arm has a tapered feature machined into it at the interface where it contacts the surrounding core assemblies when the hold down is engaged. A tapered feature on the core hold down assembly engages features in the top of the core assemblies and may help to reduce the deflections at the bottom of the main structural support tube while under refueling loads. Hold down force is one of the most important parameter for design IVTM. Elastic FE analysis was performed to calculate hold down force and displacement. The hold down force and displacement are 3626.8 N and -2.27 mm, respectively. The calculated values will be used to design IVTM for PGSFR. The maximum reaction force of fuel assembly is 641.05 N. The calculated values will be used to design receptacle and lower grid plate for PGSFR

  2. Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

    2014-09-01

    Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

  3. Immobilization of zebrafish larvae on a chip-based device for environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Jin; Hall, Chris J.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    Small vertebrate model organisms have recently gained popularity as attractive experimental models that enhance our understanding of human tissue and organ development. Laser microsurgery on zebrafish larvae combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging can in particular provide accelerated insights into the tissue regeneration phenomena. Conventional SEM exposes, however, specimens to high vacuum environments, and often requires laborintensive and time-consuming pretreatments and manual positioning. Moreover, there are virtually no technologies available that can quickly immobilize the zebrafish larvae for high definition SEM imaging. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of a microfluidic chip-based system for immobilizing zebrafish larvae and it's interfacing with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) imaging. The Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) device was fabricated using a high-speed infrared laser micromachining and consists of a reservoir with multiple semispherical microwells, which hold the yolk of zebrafish larvae, and drain channels that allow removing excess of medium during SEM imaging. Paper filter is used to actuate the chip and immobilization of the larvae by gentle suction that occurs during water drainage. The trapping region allows multiple specimens to be positioned on the chip. The device is then inserted directly inside the ESEM and imaged in a near 100% humidity atmosphere. This facilitates ESEM imaging of untreated biological samples.

  4. The development of an atom chip with through silicon vias for an ultra-high-vacuum cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development, fabrication and examination of an atom chip through silicon vias (TSV), which is anodically bonded with a Pyrex glass cell to form an ultra-high-vacuum system for the application of Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) experiments. The silicon via is etched by the inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etch and filled by copper plating technology. The metal wires on both sides of the atom chips are patterned by the lithography process. Three different sizes of TSV are made and tested by continuously applying a maximum current of 17 A under the vacuum (70 Torr) and in air. In addition, after the thermal cycling of an anodic bonding process (requested at 350 °C) and a high electric field of 1000 V m−1, the TSV on atom chips can still hold the ultra-high vacuum (UHV). The conductive and vacuum yields of the TSV improved from 50% to 100% and from 75% to 81.25%, respectively after the modification of the fabrication process. Finally, the UHV test of TSV on atom chips at room temperature can be reached at 8 × 10−10 Torr, thus satisfying the requirements of atomic physics experiments under the UHV environment. (paper)

  5. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  6. Lithium Depletion in Fully Convective Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bildsten, L; Matzner, C D; Ushomirsky, G; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Edward F.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Ushomirsky, Greg

    1996-01-01

    We present an analytic calculation of the thermonuclear depletion of lithium in contracting, fully convective, pre-main sequence stars of mass M 0.08 M_sun) and for constraining the masses of lithium depleted stars.

  7. Atrial flutter in the newborn resulting from maternal lithium ingestion.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, N.; Forfar, J D; Godman, M J

    1983-01-01

    We report a case of isolated atrial flutter in a neonate, attributable to maternal lithium treatment, and suggest that the assessment of all infants born to mothers on lithium treatment during pregnancy should include an electrocardiogram.

  8. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  9. Lithium Beats Newer Meds for Bipolar Disorder, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms such as depression, aggression, risk-taking and impulsive behavior, according to background notes in the study. Lithium ... as bipolar and prescribed only one of the drugs -- lithium, valproate, olanzapine or quetiapine. The investigators found ...

  10. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  11. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfo...

  12. Lithium Dendrite Suppression with UV-Curable Polysilsesquioxane Separator Binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Wonjun; Lee, Albert S; Lee, Jin Hong; Hwang, Seung Sang; Kim, Eunkyoung; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2016-05-25

    For the first time, an inorganic-organic hybrid polymer binder was used for the coating of hybrid composites on separators to enhance thermal stability and to prevent formation of lithium dendrite in lithium metal batteries. The fabricated hybrid-composite-coated separators exhibited minimal thermal shrinkage compared with the previous composite separators (separators revealed excellent C-rate and cyclability performance due to the prevention of lithium dendrite growth on the lithium anode even after 200 cycles under 0.2-5C (charge-discharge) conditions. The mechanism for lithium dendrite prevention was attributed to exceptional nanoscale surface mechanical properties of the hybrid composite coating layer compared with the lithium metal anode, as the elastic modulus of the hybrid-composite-coated separator far exceeded those of both the lithium metal anode and the required threshold for lithium metal dendrite prevention. PMID:27148625

  13. Reactor internals and hold down spring stiffness/reaction calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hold down spring is a structural component that supports the reactor pressure vessel. It is located between the flange and barrel components, and has a function that transfers the force caused by reactor pressure vessel cap to barrel flange. Purpose: This paper attempts to have an analysis calculation and comparison of AP1OOO and LPP Hold down spring. Methods: This article inherited Qinshan nuclear power hold down spring analysis method, use analytical method and FEM method to solve the problem. Results: The stress and deflection of HDS are calculated. Since the friction coefficient may have a large effect, the results of different friction coefficients are also analyzed. Conclusions: This paper compared the Qinshan, AP1000 and LPP HDS design advantages and disadvantages and proposed two kinds of new design, expected to have a reference value for follow-up engineers. (authors)

  14. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  15. Internationalization and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Arata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.

  16. Reagents for Lithium Electrodes and Sensors for Blood Serum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Christian

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of lithium in blood serum requires high selectivity since the blood contains about 140 mM sodium compared to the 0.5-1.5 mM lithium level in manic depressive patients under treatment with lithium salts. This review traces the development of optical and potentiometric methods for the selective measurement of lithium in the presence of sodium. Selectivities of over 1,000:1 are achievable with properly designed ionophores.

  17. Effects of lithium on neural stem cell proliferation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Lillý Þorsteinsdóttir 1988

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is the most potent mood stabilizer, mainly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) since 1949. Lithium has shown neuroprotective and neurogenic effects in animal models of ischemia and irradiation. For these reasons, lithium is being suggested as a suitable candidate in the prevention and treatment of cranial irradiation-induced damage. Lithium is believed to affect simultaneously several signaling pathways by triggering the inositol monophosphates and as a secondary response m...

  18. Thermodynamics of Lithium Intercalation into Graphites and Disordered Carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Reynier, Y. F.; Yazami, R.; Fultz, B.

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the open-circuit potential of lithium half-cells was measured for electrodes of carbon materials having different amounts of structural disorder. The entropy of lithium intercalation, DeltaS, and enthalpy of intercalation, DeltaH, were determined over a broad range of lithium concentrations. For the disordered carbons, DeltaS is small. For graphite, an initially large DeltaS decreases with lithium concentration, becomes negative, and then shows two plateaus assoc...

  19. Physical, Atomic and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Lithium Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Lithium has gained extensive attention in medical science due to mood stabilizing activity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, atomic, and thermal properties of lithium powder. The lithium powder was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated lithium powder samples were characterized ...

  20. Spectrophotometric analysis of lithium carbonate used for bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    May, J M; Hickey, M.; Triantis, I.; Palazidou, E; Kyriacou, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium therapy is the gold standard of treatment for patients with Bipolar Disorder. However, despite its effectiveness, it is a potentially hazardous drug requiring regular monitoring of blood levels to ensure toxic levels are not reached. This paper describes the spectrophotometric analysis of Lithium carbonate in solution as a first step in developing a portable home monitoring device for blood lithium analysis.. Using a high-end spectrophotometer, solutions of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) ...

  1. Antiproliferative Potential of Officinal Forms and Nanoparticles of Lithium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, A P; Poveshchenko, O V; Bondarenko, N A; Bogatova, N P; Makarova, O P; Konenkov, V I

    2016-04-01

    We studied the effect of officinal forms and nanoparticles of lithium carbonate and lithium citrate on proliferative activity of hepatoma-29 cells. Lithium carbonate nanoparticles suppressed proliferation of hepatoma-29 cells in lower concentrations than officinal form of this salt. The antiproliferative effect of lithium salts i activation of apoptosis and arrest of hepatoma-29 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. PMID:27165073

  2. Experiment list: SRX112178 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line=OS25 ES cells || chip antibody=8WG16 (MMS-126R, Covance) || chip antibody manufacturer=Covance || chromatin=Fixed || beads=Magn...etic beads http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm

  3. The single chip microcomputer technique in an intelligent nuclear instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present that how to acquire and process the output signals from the nuclear detector adopting single chip microcomputer technique, including working principles and the designing method of the computer's software and hardware in the single chip microcomputer instrument

  4. Experiment list: SRX180159 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sd || cell type=hemogenic endothelium || chip antibody=CEBPb || chip antibody vendor=santa cruz biotechnol...ogy http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eachData/bw/SRX180159.bw http://

  5. Experiment list: SRX352043 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available technologies http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eachData/bw/SRX352043.b...e primary epidermal keratinocytes || chip antibody=anti-Brg1 (H-88) || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Bio

  6. Experiment list: SRX367328 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nology) || sirna transfection=siCTL http://dbarchive.bio...=HEK293T cell || cell line=Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells || chip antibody=CDK9 || chip antibody details=2316S (Cell Signaling Tech

  7. Experiment list: SRX367330 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nology) || sirna transfection=siBrd4 http://dbarchive.bi...=HEK293T cell || cell line=Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells || chip antibody=CDK9 || chip antibody details=2316S (Cell Signaling Tech

  8. Experiment list: SRX367329 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hnology) || sirna transfection=siJMJD6 http://dbarchive....e=HEK293T cell || cell line=Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells || chip antibody=CDK9 || chip antibody details=2316S (Cell Signaling Tec

  9. Experiment list: SRX821820 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PPARG ChIP-seq || tissue=SQ White Adipose Tissue || chip antibody=anti-PPAR? antibody || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechnolog...ies http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/each

  10. Experiment list: SRX821806 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PPARG ChIP-seq || tissue=SQ White Adipose Tissue || chip antibody=anti-PPAR? antibody || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechnolog...ies http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/each

  11. Experiment list: SRX821815 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PPARG ChIP-seq || tissue=SQ White Adipose Tissue || chip antibody=anti-PPAR? antibody || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechnolog...ies http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/each

  12. Experiment list: SRX821812 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =PPARG ChIP-seq || tissue=SQ White Adipose Tissue || chip antibody=anti-PPAR? antibody || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechnolo...gies http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/eac

  13. Experiment list: SRX821821 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PPARG ChIP-seq || tissue=SQ White Adipose Tissue || chip antibody=anti-PPAR? antibody || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechnolog...ies http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/each

  14. Experiment list: SRX821809 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PPARG ChIP-seq || tissue=SQ White Adipose Tissue || chip antibody=anti-PPAR? antibody || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechnolog...ies http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/each

  15. Novel High Pressure Pump-on-a-Chip Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HJ Science & Technology, Inc proposes to develop a novel high pressure "pump-on-a-chip" and "valve-on-a-chip" microfluidic technology for NASA planetary science...

  16. Results from the CDX-U Lithium Wall and NSTX Lithium Pallet Injection and Evaporation Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CDX-U has been operated with the vacuum vessel wall and limiter surfaces nearly completely coated with lithium, producing dramatic improvements to plasma performance. Discharges achieved global energy confinement times up to 6 ms, exceeding previous CDX-U results by a factor of 5, and ITER98P(y,1) scaling by 2-3. Lithium wall coatings up to 1000 (angstrom) thick were applied between discharges by electron-beam-induced evaporation of a lithium-filled limiter and vapor deposition from a resistively heated oven. The e-beam power was modest (1.6 kW) but it produced up to 60 MW/m2 power density in a 0.3 cm2 spot; the duration was up to 300 s. Convective transport of heat away from the beam spot was so effective that the entire lithium inventory (140 g) was heated to evaporation (400-500 C) and there was no observable hot spot on the lithium surface within the beam footprint. These results are promising for use of lithium plasma-facing components in reactor scale devices. Lithium coating has also been applied to NSTX carbon plasma-facing surfaces, to control the density rise during long-duration H-modes for non-inductive current sustainment. First, lithium pellets were injected into sequences of Ohmically heated helium plasmas in both center stack limiter (CSL) and lower single-null divertor (LSND) configurations to deposit a total of 25-30 mg of lithium on the respective plasma contact areas. In both cases, the first subsequent L mode, deuterium discharge with NBI showed a reduction in the volume-average density by a factor ∼3 compared to similar discharges before the lithium coating. Recently, a lithium evaporator was installed aimed toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Twelve depositions, ranging from about 10 mg to 5 g of lithium, were performed. The effects on LSND L-mode, double-null divertor (DND) H-mode, and DND reversed-shear plasmas were variable but, immediately after coating, there were decreases in the density and significant

  17. Aerosol-Assisted Extraction of Silicon Nanoparticles from Wafer Slicing Waste for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Hyekyoung; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Jiwoong; Roh, Kee Min; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Cho, Bong-Gyoo; Park, Eunjun; Kim, Hansu; Luo, Jiayan; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of silicon debris particles are generated during the slicing of silicon ingots into thin wafers for the fabrication of integrated-circuit chips and solar cells. This results in a significant loss of valuable materials at about 40% of the mass of ingots. In addition, a hazardous silicon sludge waste is produced containing largely debris of silicon, and silicon carbide, which is a common cutting material on the slicing saw. Efforts in material recovery from the sludge and recycling have been largely directed towards converting silicon or silicon carbide into other chemicals. Here, we report an aerosol-assisted method to extract silicon nanoparticles from such sludge wastes and their use in lithium ion battery applications. Using an ultrasonic spray-drying method, silicon nanoparticles can be directly recovered from the mixture with high efficiency and high purity for making lithium ion battery anode. The work here demonstrated a relatively low cost approach to turn wafer slicing wastes into much higher value-added materials for energy applications, which also helps to increase the sustainability of semiconductor material and device manufacturing. PMID:25819285

  18. Efficient blue light generation using periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate via resonant frequency doubling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademian, Ali; Jadhav, Shilpa; Shiner, David

    2014-05-01

    Convenient high power blue diode lasers with single frequency operation are still under developments and are not as well developed and cost effective as IR laser sources. Harmonic generation of IR lasers provide a viable alternative source of blue and UV light. Magnesium oxide doped periodically poled Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPMgO:SLT) has been reported to have the lowest blue, IR and blue induced IR absorption (BLIIRA) among ferroelectric crystals such as Lithium Niobate (PPLN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (PPKTP). All these properties, along with higher thermal conductivity, make this crystal an excellent candidate for efficient blue light generation using second harmonic generation (SHG) in a resonant buildup cavity. Efficient resonant doubling is very sensitive to various cavity and crystal loss mechanisms. Recently we obtained 400 mW of blue light at 486 nm with net conversion efficiency of 77% using a 515 mW fiber grating stabilized IR source. Sources of conversion loss have been identified and evaluated with various methods in our investigation. These include reflection, scattering, absorption, and polarization rotation of IR light in the crystal, as well as mode mismatching and spherical aberration due to focusing lenses. The locking and electronic control functions of the cavity are automated using an internally mounted single chip microcontroller with embedded DSP (digital signal processor). Work is supported by NSF grant.

  19. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, A. M.; Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γe, approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20-600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O2 and H2O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γe = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  20. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  1. Crystal structure of advanced lithium titanate with lithium oxide additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi [Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)], E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp; Sasaki, Kazuya [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Kimio [Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Suzuki, Akihiro [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takuya [Department of Integrated Sciences in Physics and Biology, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, 3-8-1 Sakurajousui, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 156-8550 (Japan); Terai, Takayuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2009-04-30

    Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} is one of the most promising candidates among solid breeder materials proposed for fusion reactors. However, the mass of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} was found to decrease with time in the sweep gas mixed with hydrogen. This mass change indicates that the oxygen content of the sample decreased, suggesting the change from Ti{sup 4+} to Ti{sup 3+}. In the present paper, the crystal structure and the non-stoichiometry of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} added with Li{sub 2}O have been extensively investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry. In the case of the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} samples used in the present study, LiO-C{sub 2}H{sub 5} or LiO-i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7} and Ti(O-i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4} were mixed in the proportion corresponding to the molar ratio Li{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} of either 2.00 or 1.00. In thermogravimetry, the mass of this sample decreased with time due to lithium deficiency, where no presence of oxygen deficiency was indicated.

  2. Crystal structure of advanced lithium titanate with lithium oxide additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li2TiO3 is one of the most promising candidates among solid breeder materials proposed for fusion reactors. However, the mass of Li2TiO3 was found to decrease with time in the sweep gas mixed with hydrogen. This mass change indicates that the oxygen content of the sample decreased, suggesting the change from Ti4+ to Ti3+. In the present paper, the crystal structure and the non-stoichiometry of Li2TiO3 added with Li2O have been extensively investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry. In the case of the Li2TiO3 samples used in the present study, LiO-C2H5 or LiO-i-C3H7 and Ti(O-i-C3H7)4 were mixed in the proportion corresponding to the molar ratio Li2O/TiO2 of either 2.00 or 1.00. In thermogravimetry, the mass of this sample decreased with time due to lithium deficiency, where no presence of oxygen deficiency was indicated.

  3. Nanostructured lithium sulfide materials for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yun Jung; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-08-01

    Upon the maturation and saturation of Li-ion battery technologies, the demand for the development of energy storage systems with higher energy densities has surged to meet the needs of key markets such as electric vehicles. Among the many next generation high-energy storage options, the Lisbnd S battery system is considered particularly close to mass commercialization because of its low cost and the natural abundance of sulfur. In this review, we focus on nanostructured Li2S materials for Lisbnd S batteries. Due to a lithium source in its molecular structure, Li2S can be coupled with various Li-free anode materials, thereby giving it the potential to surmount many of the problems related with a Li-metal anode. The hurdles that impede the full utilization of Li2S materials include its high activation barrier and the low electrical conductivity of bulk Li2S particles. Various strategies that can be used to assist the activation process and facilitate electrical transport are analyzed. To provide insight into the opportunities specific to Li2S materials, we highlight some major advances and results that have been achieved in the development of metal Li-free full cells and all-solid-state cells based on Li2S cathodes.

  4. PETRA - The Licence Holding Model. PETRA working paper no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The licence-holding status of individual family members is a significant factor in decisions over modal choice for particular journeys, for all members of the family. It is also a central factor in describing the car ownership status of the family. This paper present the disaggregate drivers licence holding model, LICENCE, which assigns licences to the individual members of the family in the PETRA model system. The assignment is based on the specific characteristics of the individual members, and relies on cross-sectional data. (au)

  5. Self-control, financial literacy & the co-holding puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Gathergood, John; Weber, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    We use UK survey data to analyze the puzzling co-existence of high cost revolving consumer credit alongside low yield liquid savings in household balance sheets, which we name the ‘co-holding puzzle'. Approximately 12% of households in our sample co-hold, on average, £3800 of revolving consumer credit on which they incur interest charges, even though they could immediately pay down all this debt using their liquid assets. Co-holders are typically more financially literate, with above average ...

  6. Internal capital market efficiency of Belgian holding companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Axel; Malika HAMADI

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the internal capital market efficient? To answer the first question, we check if group cash flow is a determinant of the group members investment spending. The answer is positive if the holding company’s subsidiary is affiliated to a coordination center and negative otherwise. To ans...

  7. Holding Pressure and Its Influence on Quality in PIM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Petera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PIM (powder injection molding process consists of several steps in which faults can occur. The quality of the part that is produced usually cannot be seen until the end of the process. It is therefore necessary to find a way to discover the fault earlier in the process. The cause of defects is very often “phase separation” (inhomogeneity in powder distribution, which can also be influenced by the holding pressure. This paper evaluates the powder distribution with a new method based on density measurement. Measurements were made using various holding pressure values.

  8. Investasi: Komparasi Strategi Buy and Hold dengan Pendekatan Teknikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natica Ardani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyse effectivity of technical analysis moving average compare to buy and hold strategy on index LQ-45 (as emerging market and S&P500 (as developed market. Using descriptive approach, this research analysed by metastock program with moving average exponential crossovers method. This research data samples use LQ45 and S&P500 from year 2001-2011. The findings of this research indicate that technical analysis more effective when economic situation on crisis (bearish. Whereas buy and hold strategy more effective on good economic condition (bullish. The results consistent for LQ-45 and S&P500.

  9. 'Holding' and 'endorsing' claims in the course of scientific activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Hugh

    2015-10-01

    My principal aims are to show that holding, adopting and endorsing (definitions of which I provide) are distinct cognitive attitudes that may be taken towards claims at different moments of scientific activities, and that none of them are reducible to acceptance (as defined by Jonathan Cohen); to explore in detail the differences between holding and accepting, using the controversies about GMOs to provide illustrations; and to draw some implications pertinent to democratic decision-making concerning public policies about science and technology, and to the responsibilities that scientists thereby incur. PMID:26386534

  10. Performance and Energy Efficient Network-on-Chip Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Vangal, Sriram

    2007-01-01

    The scaling of MOS transistors into the nanometer regime opens the possibility for creating large Network-on-Chip (NoC) architectures containing hundreds of integrated processing elements with on-chip communication. NoC architectures, with structured on-chip networks are emerging as a scalable and modular solution to global communications within large systems-on-chip. NoCs mitigate the emerging wire-delay problem and addresses the need for substantial interconnect bandwidth by replacing today...

  11. CHIPS: The Cosmological HI Power Spectrum Estimator

    CERN Document Server

    Trott, Cathryn M; Procopio, Pietro; Wayth, Randall B; Mitchell, Daniel A; McKinley, Benjamin; Tingay, Steven J; Barry, N; Beardsley, A P; Bernardi, G; Bowman, Judd D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Carroll, P; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Dillon, Joshua S; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hewitt, J N; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Jacobs, Daniel C; Kaplan, D L; Kim, HS; Lenc, E; Line, J; Loeb, A; Lonsdale, C J; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Neben, A R; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Paul, S; Pober, J C; Prabu, T; Riding, J; Shankar, N Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Sullivan, I S; Tegmark, M; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wu, C; Wyithe, J S B

    2016-01-01

    Detection of the cosmological neutral hydrogen signal from the Epoch of Reionization, and estimation of its basic physical parameters, is the principal scientific aim of many current low-frequency radio telescopes. Here we describe the Cosmological HI Power Spectrum Estimator (CHIPS), an algorithm developed and implemented with data from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), to compute the two-dimensional and spherically-averaged power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations. The principal motivations for CHIPS are the application of realistic instrumental and foreground models to form the optimal estimator, thereby maximising the likelihood of unbiased signal estimation, and allowing a full covariant understanding of the outputs. CHIPS employs an inverse-covariance weighting of the data through the maximum likelihood estimator, thereby allowing use of the full parameter space for signal estimation ("foreground suppression"). We describe the motivation for the algorithm, implementation, application to ...

  12. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  14. Rehydration characteristics and modeling of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala, A.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava chips with dimension 4x2x0.2cm were re-hydrated in distilled water at 200C, 300C and 400C in a laboratory water bath. Kinetics of re-hydration was investigated using three different re-hydration models namely Peleg, exponential and Weibull. The pattern of water absorption was observed to be faster at the initial period of soaking. Higher temperature induces faster moisture absorption in the chips. Non linear regression analysis was used to fit in the experimental data and the coefficient of determination was found to be greater than 0.72 for all the models. The values of R2 , RMSE, MBE and reduced chi square showed that Weibull model best described the re-hydrating behaviour of the cassava chips.

  15. On-chip electro membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Jensen, Henrik; Hansen, Steen Honore;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first downscaling of electro membrane extraction (EME) to a chip format. The voltage-controlled extraction for sample preparation on microfluidic devices has several advantages such as selective extraction removing the high ionic strength of biological samples, preconcentr......This paper presents the first downscaling of electro membrane extraction (EME) to a chip format. The voltage-controlled extraction for sample preparation on microfluidic devices has several advantages such as selective extraction removing the high ionic strength of biological samples...... basic drugs were selectively extracted from the flowing sample solution, into the organic phase SLM, and further into just 7 mu I of 10 mM HCI, serving as acceptor solution. Subsequently, the acceptor solution was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. The electro membrane chip was highly efficient...

  16. Wireless network-on-chip: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate the complex communication problems arising in the network-on-chip (NoC architectures as the number of on-chip components increases, several novel interconnect infrastructures have been recently proposed to replace the traditional on-chip interconnection systems that are reaching their limits in terms of performance, power and area constraints. Wireless NoC (WiNoC is among the most promising scalable interconnection architectures for future generation NoCs. In this study, the authors first provide a general description of the WiNoC architecture. Then, they discuss the research problems under five categories: topology, routing, flow control, antenna and reliability. Open research issues for the realisation of the WiNoC are also discussed.

  17. Obtainment of lithium metal by electrolysis of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obtainment metallic lithium through KCL + LiCl, using a stainless steel cathode and a graphite anode is studied. The applications of lithium on nuclear energy, aerospatial program, metalurgy and as refining and degassing agent are also presented. The purification of lithium is still mentioned. (C.G.C.)

  18. Adverse reactions in treatment with lithium carbonate and haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baastrup, P C; Hollnagel, P; Sorensen, R; Schou, M

    1976-12-01

    Hospital records of 425 patients who had been treated simultaneously with lithium carbonate and haloperidol were examined. Adverse reactions in these patients were the same as in patients given lithium alone or haloperidol alone. None of the patients developed a syndrome resembling that described by others in patients treated with a lithium and haloperidol combination. PMID:1036539

  19. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... equipment (HM-224F; 75 FR 1302). The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all... they will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the Conference...'', ``Lithium ion cell or battery'', ``Lithium metal cell or battery'', ``Short circuit'', and...

  20. Lithium in older patients: treatment patterns and somatic adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium has been used in psychiatry for over 60 years and is still one of the first-line treatments in bipolar disorder. It is also used as augmentation to antidepressants in treatment resistant depression. Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may influence lithium