WorldWideScience

Sample records for chip based generation

  1. Atom chip based generation of entanglement for quantum metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Max F; Li, Yun; Hänsch, Theodor W; Sinatra, Alice; Treutlein, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Atom chips provide a versatile `quantum laboratory on a microchip' for experiments with ultracold atomic gases. They have been used in experiments on diverse topics such as low-dimensional quantum gases, cavity quantum electrodynamics, atom-surface interactions, and chip-based atomic clocks and interferometers. A severe limitation of atom chips, however, is that techniques to control atomic interactions and to generate entanglement have not been experimentally available so far. Such techniques enable chip-based studies of entangled many-body systems and are a key prerequisite for atom chip applications in quantum simulations, quantum information processing, and quantum metrology. Here we report experiments where we generate multi-particle entanglement on an atom chip by controlling elastic collisional interactions with a state-dependent potential. We employ this technique to generate spin-squeezed states of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate and show that they are useful for quantum metrology. The obser...

  2. Photonic-chip-based all-optical ultra-wideband pulse generation via XPM and birefringence in a chalcogenide waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kang; Marpaung, David; Pant, Ravi; Gao, Feng; Li, Enbang; Wang, Jian; Choi, Duk-Yong; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry; Sun, Junqiang; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-01-28

    We report a photonic-chip-based scheme for all-optical ultra-wideband (UWB) pulse generation using a novel all-optical differentiator that exploits cross-phase modulation and birefringence in an As₂S₃ chalcogenide rib waveguide. Polarity-switchable UWB monocycles and doublets were simultaneously obtained with single optical carrier operation. Moreover, transmission over 40-km fiber of the generated UWB doublets is demonstrated with good dispersion tolerance. These results indicate that the proposed approach has potential applications in multi-shape, multi-modulation and long-distance UWB-over-fiber communication systems.

  3. A comparison study of on-chip short pulse generation circuits based on a coplanar waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹焕; 耿永涛; 王平山; 李家胤

    2011-01-01

    A few traditional pulse-forming circuits are implemented in a commercial 0.13 μm digital complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. These circuits, based on a coplanar waveguide, are analyzed and compared through CadenceTM Spectre simulati

  4. Optical continuum generation on a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Bahram; Boyraz, Ozdal; Koonath, Prakash; Raghunathan, Varun; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Although the Raman effect is nearly two orders of magnitude stronger than the electronic Kerr nonlinearity in silicon, under pulsed operation regime where the pulse width is shorter than the phonon response time, Raman effect is suppressed and Kerr nonlinearity dominates. Continuum generation, made possible by the non-resonant Kerr nonlinearity, offers a technologically and economically appealing path to WDM communication at the inter-chip or intra-chip levels. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained by launching ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power into a conventional silicon waveguide. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, free carrier absorption and refractive index change indicate that up to >30 times spectral broadening is achievable in an optimized device. The broadening is due to self phase modulation and saturates due to two photon absorption. Additionally, we find that free carrier dynamics also contributes to the spectral broadening and cause the overall spectrum to be asymmetric with respect to the pump wavelength.

  5. A functional on-chip pressure generator using solid chemical propellant for disposable lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chien-Chong; Murugesan, Suresh; Kim, Sanghyo; Beaucage, Gregory; Choi, Jin-Woo; Ahn, Chong H

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a functional on-chip pressure generator that utilizes chemical energy from a solid chemical propellant to perform fluidic delivery in applications of plastic-based disposable biochips or lab-on-a-chip systems. In this functional on-chip pressure generator, azobis-isobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the solid chemical propellant is deposited on a microheater using a screen-printing technique, which can heat the AIBN at 70 degrees C to produce nitrogen gas. The output pressure of nitrogen gas, generated from the solid chemical propellant, is adjustable to a desired pressure by controlling the input power of the heater. Using this chemical energy source, the generated pressure depends on the deposited amount of the solid chemical propellant and the temperature of the microheater. Experimental measurements show that this functional on-chip pressure generator can achieve around 3 000 Pa pressure when 189 mJ of energy is applied to heat the 100 microg of AIBN. This pressure can drive 50 nl of water through a microfluidic channel of 70 mm and cross-sectional area of 100 microm x 50 microm. Due to its compact size, ease of fabrication and integration, high reliability (no moving parts), biologically inert gas output along with functionality of gas generation, this pressure generator will be an excellent pressure source for handling the fluids of disposable lab-on-a-chip, biochemical analysis systems or drug delivery systems.

  6. Towards a Multifunctional Electrochemical Sensing and Niosome Generation Lab-on-Chip Platform Based on a Plug-and-Play Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Kara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new modular lab on a chip design for multimodal neurotransmitter (NT sensing and niosome generation based on a plug-and-play concept. This architecture is a first step toward an automated platform for an automated modulation of neurotransmitter concentration to understand and/or treat neurodegenerative diseases. A modular approach has been adopted in order to handle measurement or drug delivery or both measurement and drug delivery simultaneously. The system is composed of three fully independent modules: three-channel peristaltic micropumping system, a three-channel potentiostat and a multi-unit microfluidic system composed of pseudo-Y and cross-shape channels containing a miniature electrode array. The system was wirelessly controlled by a computer interface. The system is compact, with all the microfluidic and sensing components packaged in a 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm box. Applied to serotonin, a linear calibration curve down to 0.125 mM, with a limit of detection of 31 μ M was collected at unfunctionalized electrodes. Added sensitivity and selectivity was achieved by incorporating functionalized electrodes for dopamine sensing. Electrode functionalization was achieved with gold nanoparticles and using DNA and o-phenylene diamine polymer. The as-configured platform is demonstrated as a central component toward an “intelligent” drug delivery system based on a feedback loop to monitor drug delivery.

  7. Towards a Multifunctional Electrochemical Sensing and Niosome Generation Lab-on-Chip Platform Based on a Plug-and-Play Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Adnane; Rouillard, Camille; Mathault, Jessy; Boisvert, Martin; Tessier, Frédéric; Landari, Hamza; Melki, Imene; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Boisselier, Elodie; Fortin, Marc-André; Boilard, Eric; Greener, Jesse; Miled, Amine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new modular lab on a chip design for multimodal neurotransmitter (NT) sensing and niosome generation based on a plug-and-play concept. This architecture is a first step toward an automated platform for an automated modulation of neurotransmitter concentration to understand and/or treat neurodegenerative diseases. A modular approach has been adopted in order to handle measurement or drug delivery or both measurement and drug delivery simultaneously. The system is composed of three fully independent modules: three-channel peristaltic micropumping system, a three-channel potentiostat and a multi-unit microfluidic system composed of pseudo-Y and cross-shape channels containing a miniature electrode array. The system was wirelessly controlled by a computer interface. The system is compact, with all the microfluidic and sensing components packaged in a 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm box. Applied to serotonin, a linear calibration curve down to 0.125 mM, with a limit of detection of 31 μ M was collected at unfunctionalized electrodes. Added sensitivity and selectivity was achieved by incorporating functionalized electrodes for dopamine sensing. Electrode functionalization was achieved with gold nanoparticles and using DNA and o-phenylene diamine polymer. The as-configured platform is demonstrated as a central component toward an "intelligent" drug delivery system based on a feedback loop to monitor drug delivery. PMID:27240377

  8. Towards a Multifunctional Electrochemical Sensing and Niosome Generation Lab-on-Chip Platform Based on a Plug-and-Play Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Adnane; Rouillard, Camille; Mathault, Jessy; Boisvert, Martin; Tessier, Frédéric; Landari, Hamza; Melki, Imene; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Boisselier, Elodie; Fortin, Marc-André; Boilard, Eric; Greener, Jesse; Miled, Amine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new modular lab on a chip design for multimodal neurotransmitter (NT) sensing and niosome generation based on a plug-and-play concept. This architecture is a first step toward an automated platform for an automated modulation of neurotransmitter concentration to understand and/or treat neurodegenerative diseases. A modular approach has been adopted in order to handle measurement or drug delivery or both measurement and drug delivery simultaneously. The system is composed of three fully independent modules: three-channel peristaltic micropumping system, a three-channel potentiostat and a multi-unit microfluidic system composed of pseudo-Y and cross-shape channels containing a miniature electrode array. The system was wirelessly controlled by a computer interface. The system is compact, with all the microfluidic and sensing components packaged in a 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm box. Applied to serotonin, a linear calibration curve down to 0.125 mM, with a limit of detection of 31 μM was collected at unfunctionalized electrodes. Added sensitivity and selectivity was achieved by incorporating functionalized electrodes for dopamine sensing. Electrode functionalization was achieved with gold nanoparticles and using DNA and o-phenylene diamine polymer. The as-configured platform is demonstrated as a central component toward an “intelligent” drug delivery system based on a feedback loop to monitor drug delivery. PMID:27240377

  9. Benchmarking the True Random Number Generator of TPM Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Suciu, Alin

    2010-01-01

    A TPM (trusted platform module) is a chip present mostly on newer motherboards, and its primary function is to create, store and work with cryptographic keys. This dedicated chip can serve to authenticate other devices or to protect encryption keys used by various software applications. Among other features, it comes with a True Random Number Generator (TRNG) that can be used for cryptographic purposes. This random number generator consists of a state machine that mixes unpredictable data with the output of a one way hash function. According the specification it can be a good source of unpredictable random numbers even without having to require a genuine source of hardware entropy. However the specification recommends collecting entropy from any internal sources available such as clock jitter or thermal noise in the chip itself, a feature that was implemented by most manufacturers. This paper will benchmark the random number generator of several TPM chips from two perspectives: the quality of the random bit s...

  10. On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergyris, Panagiotis; Meany, Thomas; Lunghi, Tommaso; Sauder, Gregory; Downes, James; Steel, M. J.; Withford, Michael J.; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the use of genuine monolithic integrated optical platforms, we report here a hybrid strategy enabling on-chip generation of configurable heralded two-photon states. More specifically, we combine two different fabrication techniques, i.e., non-linear waveguides on lithium niobate for efficient photon-pair generation and femtosecond-laser-direct-written waveguides on glass for photon manipulation. Through real-time device manipulation capabilities, a variety of path-coded heralded two-photon states can be produced, ranging from product to entangled states. Those states are engineered with high levels of purity, assessed by fidelities of 99.5 ± 8% and 95.0 ± 8%, respectively, obtained via quantum interferometric measurements. Our strategy therefore stands as a milestone for further exploiting entanglement-based protocols, relying on engineered quantum states, and enabled by scalable and compatible photonic circuits. PMID:27775062

  11. Droplet Microfluidics for Chip-Based Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan V. I. S. Kaler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Droplet microfluidics (DMF is a fluidic handling technology that enables precision control over dispensing and subsequent manipulation of droplets in the volume range of microliters to picoliters, on a micro-fabricated device. There are several different droplet actuation methods, all of which can generate external stimuli, to either actively or passively control the shape and positioning of fluidic droplets over patterned substrates. In this review article, we focus on the operation and utility of electro-actuation-based DMF devices, which utilize one or more micro-/nano-patterned substrates to facilitate electric field-based handling of chemical and/or biological samples. The underlying theory of DMF actuations, device fabrication methods and integration of optical and opto-electronic detectors is discussed in this review. Example applications of such electro-actuation-based DMF devices have also been included, illustrating the various actuation methods and their utility in conducting chip-based laboratory and clinical diagnostic assays.

  12. On-chip concentration of bacteria using a 3D dielectrophoretic chip and subsequent laser-based DNA extraction in the same chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the on-chip concentration of bacteria using a dielectrophoretic (DEP) chip with 3D electrodes and subsequent laser-based DNA extraction in the same chip. The DEP chip has a set of interdigitated Au post electrodes with 50 µm height to generate a network of non-uniform electric fields for the efficient trapping by DEP. The metal post array was fabricated by photolithography and subsequent Ni and Au electroplating. Three model bacteria samples (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans) were tested and over 80-fold concentrations were achieved within 2 min. Subsequently, on-chip DNA extraction from the concentrated bacteria in the 3D DEP chip was performed by laser irradiation using the laser-irradiated magnetic bead system (LIMBS) in the same chip. The extracted DNA was analyzed with silicon chip-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The total process of on-chip bacteria concentration and the subsequent DNA extraction can be completed within 10 min including the manual operation time.

  13. Development of gold based solder candidates for flip chip assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Flip chip technology is now rapidly replacing the traditional wire bonding interconnection technology in the first level packaging applications due to the miniaturization drive in the microelectronics industry. Flip chip assembly currently involves the use of high lead containing solders...... for interconnecting the chip to a carrier in certain applications due to the unique properties of lead. Despite of all the beneficial attributes of lead, its potential environmental impact when the products are discarded to land fills has resulted in various legislatives to eliminate lead from the electronic products...... based on its notorious legacy as a major health hazard across the spectrum of human generations and cultures. Flip chip assembly is also now increasingly being used for the high-performance (H-P) systems. These H-P systems perform mission-critical operations and are expected to experience virtually...

  14. Generation of high-stability solitons at microwave rates on a silicon chip

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xu; Yang, Ki Youl; Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Because they coherently link radio/microwave-rate electrical signals with optical-rate signals derived from lasers and atomic transitions, frequency combs are having a remarkably broad impact on science and technology. Integrating these systems on a photonic chip would revolutionize instrumentation, time keeping, spectroscopy, navigation and potentially create new mass-market applications. A key element of such a system-on-a-chip will be a mode-locked comb that can be self-referenced. The recent demonstration of soliton pulses from a microresonator has placed this goal within reach. However, to provide the requisite link between microwave and optical rate signals soliton generation must occur within the bandwidth of electronic devices. So far this is possible in crytalline devices, but not chip-based devices. Here, a monolithic comb that generates electronic-rate soliton pulses is demonstrated.

  15. On-chip High-Voltage Generator Design

    CERN Document Server

    Tanzawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    This book describes high-voltage generator design with switched-capacitor multiplier techniques.  The author provides various design techniques for switched-capacitor on-chip high-voltage generators, including charge pump circuits, regulators, level shifters, references, and oscillators.  Readers will see these techniques applied to system design in order to address the challenge of how the on-chip high-voltage generator is designed for Flash memories, LCD drivers, and other semiconductor devices to optimize the entire circuit area and power efficiency with a low voltage supply, while minimizing the cost.   ·         Shows readers how to design charge pump circuits with lower voltage operation, higher power efficiency, and smaller circuit area; ·         Describes comprehensive circuits and systems design of on-chip high-voltage generators; ·         Covers all the component circuit blocks, including charge pumps, pump regulators, level shifters, oscillators, and references.

  16. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile-ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed

  17. Silicon-Chip Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Austin G; Cardenas, Jaime; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Mohanty, Aseema; Fain, Romy; Lee, Yoon Ho Daniel; Yu, Mengjie; Phare, Christopher T; Poitras, Carl B; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs represent a revolutionary technology for high precision spectroscopy due to their narrow linewidths and precise frequency spacing. Generation of such combs in the mid-infrared (IR) spectral region (2-20 um) is of great interest due to the presence of a large number of gas absorption lines in this wavelength regime. Recently, frequency combs have been demonstrated in the MIR in several platforms, including fiber combs, mode-locked lasers, optical parametric oscillators, and quantum cascade lasers. However, these platforms are either relatively bulky or challenging to integrate on-chip. An alternative approach using parametric mixing in microresonators is highly promising since the platform is extremely compact and can operate with relatively low powers. However, material and dispersion engineering limitations have prevented the realization of a microresonator comb source past 2.55 um. Although silicon could in principle provide a CMOS compatible platform for on-chip comb generation deep...

  18. On-Chip Picosecond Pulse Detection and Generation Using Graphene Photoconductive Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Nicholas; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Christopher D. Wood; Russell, Christopher; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Cunningham, John E.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the use of graphene for room temperature on-chip detection and generation of pulsed terahertz (THz) frequency radiation, exploiting the fast carrier dynamics of light-generated hot carriers, and compare our results with conventional low-temperature-grown gallium arsenide (LT-GaAs) photoconductive (PC) switches. Coupling of picosecond-duration pulses from a biased graphene PC switch into Goubau line waveguides is also demonstrated. A Drude transport model based on the transient ph...

  19. Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-06-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

  20. Investigating Potential Toxicity of Leachate from Wood Chip Piles Generated by Roadside Biomass Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rex

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Roadside processing of wood biomass leaves chip piles of varying size depending upon whether they were created for temporary storage, spillage, or equipment maintenance. Wood chips left in these piles can generate leachate that contaminates streams when processing sites are connected to waterways. Leachate toxicity and chemistry were assessed for pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl., hybrid white spruce (Picea engelmannii x glauca Parry, and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton as well as from two wood chipping sites using mixes of lodgepole pine and hybrid or black spruce. Leachate was generated using rainfall simulation, a static 28-day laboratory assay, and a field-based exposure. Leachate generated by these exposures was analyzed for organic matter content, phenols, ammonia, pH, and toxicity. Findings indicate that all wood chip types produced a toxic leachate despite differences in their chemistry. The consistent toxicity response highlights the need for runoff management that will disconnect processing sites from aquatic environments.

  1. Manipulating Neutral Atoms in Chip-Based Magnetic Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Kohel, James

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques for manipulating neutral atoms (more precisely, ultracold clouds of neutral atoms) in chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides have been demonstrated. Such traps and waveguides are promising components of future quantum sensors that would offer sensitivities much greater than those of conventional sensors. Potential applications include gyroscopy and basic research in physical phenomena that involve gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The developed techniques make it possible to control atoms with greater versatility and dexterity than were previously possible and, hence, can be expected to contribute to the value of chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides. The basic principle of these techniques is to control gradient magnetic fields with suitable timing so as to alter a trap to exert position-, velocity-, and/or time-dependent forces on atoms in the trap to obtain desired effects. The trap magnetic fields are generated by controlled electric currents flowing in both macroscopic off-chip electromagnet coils and microscopic wires on the surface of the chip. The methods are best explained in terms of examples. Rather than simply allowing atoms to expand freely into an atomic waveguide, one can give them a controllable push by switching on an externally generated or a chip-based gradient magnetic field. This push can increase the speed of the atoms, typically from about 5 to about 20 cm/s. Applying a non-linear magnetic-field gradient exerts different forces on atoms in different positions a phenomenon that one can exploit by introducing a delay between releasing atoms into the waveguide and turning on the magnetic field.

  2. On-chip microwave generator for manipulation of superconductive quantum bits

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanashi, Y; Asano, T; Yoshikawa, N.

    2006-01-01

    A new on-chip microwave generator for manipulating superconductive quantum bits (qubits) have been proposed. To perform practical quantum computation, on-chip microwave generators, which can be controlled by single flux quantum (SFQ) circuits, are desirable because multiple qubits can be driven simultaneously with high accuracy by an SFQ control circuit and the number of wires between qubits and room-temperature electronics can be reduced. The proposed on-chip microwave generator is composed ...

  3. Custom Topology Generation for Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Sparsø, Jens

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares simulated annealing and tabu search for generating custom topologies for applications with periodic behaviour executing on a network-on-chip. The approach differs from previous work by starting from a fixed mapping of IP-cores to routers and performing design space exploration...... around an initial topology. The tabu search has been modified from its normally encountered form to allow easier escaping from local minima. A number of synthetic benchmarks are used for tuning the parameters of both heuristics and for testing the quality of the solutions each heuristic produces...

  4. A concentration gradient generator on a paper-based microfluidic chip coupled with cell culture microarray for high-throughput drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Xue, Peng; Wu, Yafeng; Bao, Jingnan; Chuah, Yon Jin; Kang, Yuejun

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the paper platforms for 3-D cell culture, a paper-based microfluidic device containing drug concentration gradient was designed and constructed for investigating cell response to drugs based on high throughput analysis. This drug gradient generator was applied to generate concentration gradients of doxorubicin (DOX) as the model drug. HeLa cells encapsulated in collagen hydrogel were incubated in the device reservoirs to evaluate the cell viability based on the controlled release of DOX spatially. It was demonstrated that drug diffusion through the paper fibers created a gradient of drug concentration, which influenced cell viability. This drug screening platform has a great opportunity to be applied for drug discovery and diagnostic studies with simultaneous and parallel tests of drugs under various gradient concentrations.

  5. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  6. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  7. Quantum light generation on a silicon chip using waveguides and resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Jun Rong

    2012-01-01

    Integrated optical devices may replace bulk crystal or fiber based assemblies with a more compact and controllable photon pair and heralded single photon source and generate quantum light at telecommunications wavelengths. Here, we propose that a periodic waveguide consisting of a sequence of optical resonators may outperform conventional waveguides or single resonators and generate more than 1 Giga-pairs per second from a sub-millimeter-long room-temperature silicon device, pumped with only about 10 milliwatts of optical power. Furthermore, the spectral properties of such devices provide novel opportunities of wavelength-division multiplexed chip-scale quantum light sources.

  8. Mission Profile Based Sizing of IGBT Chip Area for PV Inverter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng;

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing the total energy generation is of importance for Photovoltaic (PV) plants. This paper proposes a method to optimize the IGBT chip area for PV inverters to minimize the annual energy loss of the active switches based on long-term operation conditions (i.e., mission profile). The design...... process is firstly introduced. Then the power loss, thermal characteristic and lifetime for IGBT modules with different chip areas are modeled. After that, the dependence of the annual energy loss and maximum junction temperature on the IGBT chip area and switching frequency is derived under a specific...

  9. Continuous cell electroporation for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery based on laminar microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zewen; Li, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Electroporation is a high-efficiency and low-toxicity physical gene transfer method. Traditional electroporation is limited to only low volume cell samples. Here we present a continuous cell electroporation method based on commonly used microfluidic chip fabrication technology. Using easily fabricated PDMS microfluidic chip, syringe pumps, and pulse generator, we show efficient delivery of both DNA and siRNA into different cell lines. We describe the protocol of chip fabrication, apparatus setup, and cell electroporation assay. Typically, the fabrication of the devices takes 1 or 2 days and the continuous electroporation assay takes 1 h.

  10. Polystyrene Based SPR Biosensor Chip for Use in Immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Biosensors are widely used in immunoassay.The biosensor chip carries a receptor which is used in immunoassay and the chip properties have an important influence on the detecting sensitivity of the biosensor.This paper describes a polystyrene-based biosensor chip developed and used as part of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor.The SPR biosensor has a much higher detecting sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunoserbent assay (ELISA).

  11. Quantum random number generation using an on-chip plasmonic beamsplitter

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Jason; Özdemir, Şahin K; Tame, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental realisation of a quantum random number generator using a plasmonic beamsplitter. Free-space single photons are converted into propagating single surface plasmon polaritons on a gold stripe waveguide via a grating. The surface plasmons are then guided to a region where they are scattered into one of two possible outputs. The presence of a plasmonic excitation in a given output determines the value of a random bit generated from the quantum scattering process. Using a stream of single surface plasmons injected into the beamsplitter we achieve a quantum random number generation rate of 2.37 Mbits/s even in the presence of loss. We characterise the quality of the random number sequence generated, finding it to be comparable to sequences from other quantum photonic-based devices. The compact nature of our nanophotonic device makes it suitable for tight integration in on-chip applications, such as in quantum computing and communication schemes.

  12. WAVELET BASED SPECTRAL CORRELATION METHOD FOR DPSK CHIP RATE ESTIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yingxiang; Xiao Xianci; Tai Hengming

    2004-01-01

    A wavelet-based spectral correlation algorithm to detect and estimate BPSK signal chip rate is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method can correctly estimate the BPSK signal chip rate, which may be corrupted by the quadratic characteristics of the spectral correlation function, in a low SNR environment.

  13. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode Based Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles Perez, Jose Vicente (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A novel MMIC on-chip power-combined frequency multiplier device and a method of fabricating the same, comprising two or more multiplying structures integrated on a single chip, wherein each of the integrated multiplying structures are electrically identical and each of the multiplying structures include one input antenna (E-probe) for receiving an input signal in the millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave or terahertz frequency range inputted on the chip, a stripline based input matching network electrically connecting the input antennas to two or more Schottky diodes in a balanced configuration, two or more Schottky diodes that are used as nonlinear semiconductor devices to generate harmonics out of the input signal and produce the multiplied output signal, stripline based output matching networks for transmitting the output signal from the Schottky diodes to an output antenna, and an output antenna (E-probe) for transmitting the output signal off the chip into the output waveguide transmission line.

  14. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  15. Miniature Bose–Einstein condensate system design based on a transparent atom chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jingfang; Xu, Xinping; Jiang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Haichao; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new miniature Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) system based on a transparent atom chip with a compact external coil structure. A standard six-beam macroscopic magneto-optical trap (MOT) is able to be created near the chip surface due to the chip’s transparency. A novel wire pattern consisting of a double-z wire and a z-shaped wire is designed on the transparent atom chip. With a vertical bias magnetic field, the double-z wire can create the quadrupole magnetic field of an intermediate chip MOT, which is suitable for transporting atoms from the macroscopic MOT to the chip z-wire trap efficiently. The compact external coil structure is designed with a rectangular frameless geometry consisting of only four coil pairs and its volume is less than 0.3 liters. The maximum system power consumption during the BEC generation procedure is about 45 W. The miniature system is evaluated, and about 3 × 106 atoms can be loaded into the chip z-wire trap. The miniature chip BEC system has the advantages of small volume and low power consumption, and it has great potential for practical applications of BEC.

  16. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %. PMID:27512625

  17. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  18. CHIP Demonstrator: Semantics-Driven Recommendations and Museum Tour Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroyo, Lora; Stash, Natalia; Wang, Yiwen; Gorgels, Peter; Rutledge, Lloyd

    The main objective of the CHIP project is to demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies can be deployed to provide personalized access to digital museum collections. We illustrate our approach with the digital database ARIA of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. For the semantic enrichment of the Rijksmuseum ARIA database we collaborated with the CATCH STITCH project to produce mappings to Iconclass, and with the MultimediaN E-culture project to produce the RDF/OWL of the ARIA and Adlib databases. The main focus of CHIP is on exploring the potential of applying adaptation techniques to provide personalized experience for the museum visitors both on the Web site and in the museum.

  19. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng;

    2013-01-01

    Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built...... a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral...... as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices....

  20. Investigating Potential Toxicity of Leachate from Wood Chip Piles Generated by Roadside Biomass Operations

    OpenAIRE

    John Rex; Stephane Dubé; Phillip Krauskopf; Shannon Berch

    2016-01-01

    Roadside processing of wood biomass leaves chip piles of varying size depending upon whether they were created for temporary storage, spillage, or equipment maintenance. Wood chips left in these piles can generate leachate that contaminates streams when processing sites are connected to waterways. Leachate toxicity and chemistry were assessed for pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.), hybrid white spruce (Picea engelmannii x glauca Parry), and black s...

  1. Test of an ME Chip Based on FPGAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The characteristic of FPGA, motion estimation(ME) and the full search block matching arithmetic were introduced, it analyses the collectivity configuration of basic working flow in ME.Based on FPGA, the study concentrates on the control, computing and test part of ME chip implementation.In the end PCB of ME chip is designed and completed.ME is an important link of MPEG standard on picture compression, whose characteristics is its huge amount of data and computing task.So people often use special chip to meet the requirement, but there is still not such production in China at present.

  2. Development of a chip-based ingroove microplasma source: Design, characterization, and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuemei; Meng, Fanying; Yuan, Xin; Yan, Yanyue; Zhao, Zhongjun; Duan, Yixiang, E-mail: yduan@scu.edu.cn [Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, College of Chemistry and College of Life Science Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Tang, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi' an (China)

    2014-03-10

    A chip-based ingroove microplasma source was designed for molecular emission spectrometry by using a space-confined direct current duct in air. The voltage-current characteristics of different size generators, emission spectroscopy of argon were discussed, respectively. It is found that the emission intensity of excited Ar and N{sub 2} approaches its maximum near the cathode, while OH and O peaks most likely appear close to the anode. The electron density, electronic excitation temperature, rotational temperature, and vibrational temperature of the argon plasma were also calculated. More importantly, the chip-based ingroove microplasma shows much better stability compared with its counterparts.

  3. A Novel Chip-based Spectrophotometer for Online Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoyuan Cai; Min-Hsien Wu; Zheng Cui

    2006-01-01

    A chip-based spectrophotometer integrated with optical fiber is successfully demonstrated. Grade concentration of lactate solution flowed through the chip to perform an online detection. The response time (100s) and Limit of Detection (LOD,50mg/L) of the device were measured. This device shows comparable performance with traditional commercial instrument,while greatly decreases the sample requirement per detection and reduces the size of total system, introducing a novel method for real-time detection.

  4. Integration of a Pulse Generator on Chip Into a Compact Ultrawideband Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorobyov, A.V.; Bagga, S.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Haddad, S.A.P.; Serdijn, W.A.; Long, J.R.; Irahhauten, Z.; Ligthart, L.P.

    For impulse radio ultrawideband communications an “antenna plus generator” system is co-designed and an on chip generator is integrated into the antenna. This approach does away with the need for intermediate transmission lines conventionally placed between an RF device/generator and an antenna and

  5. 3D-SoftChip: A Novel Architecture for Next-Generation Adaptive Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mike Myung-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel architecture for next-generation adaptive computing systems, which we term 3D-SoftChip. The 3D-SoftChip is a 3-dimensional (3D vertically integrated adaptive computing system combining state-of-the-art processing and 3D interconnection technology. It comprises the vertical integration of two chips (a configurable array processor and an intelligent configurable switch through an indium bump interconnection array (IBIA. The configurable array processor (CAP is an array of heterogeneous processing elements (PEs, while the intelligent configurable switch (ICS comprises a switch block, 32-bit dedicated RISC processor for control, on-chip program/data memory, data frame buffer, along with a direct memory access (DMA controller. This paper introduces the novel 3D-SoftChip architecture for real-time communication and multimedia signal processing as a next-generation computing system. The paper further describes the advanced HW/SW codesign and verification methodology, including high-level system modeling of the 3D-SoftChip using SystemC, being used to determine the optimum hardware specification in the early design stage.

  6. Droplets actuating chip based on electrowetting-on-dielectric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jiangang; YUE Ruifeng; ZENG Xuefeng; LIU Litian

    2007-01-01

    A droplet-based actuating chip by using the method of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD)was developed to manipulate the microfluidics.Here,the actuation mechanism of the sandwiched-configuration EWOD chips was carefully studied,and the movement of droplets was numerically analyzed by using the computational fluidic software,CFD-ACE+.The fabrication of the chip,including a heavily phosphorus-doped poly-silicon micro-electrode array and a thermally grown SiO2 dielectric layer,was exploited to improve the chip stability and decrease the actuation voltage.In experiments,the transportation of a deionized droplet of about 0.5 μL is successfully achieved in air by applying the low voltage of 45 V.

  7. A novel optical network on chip design for future generation of multiprocessors system on chip

    OpenAIRE

    M. Channoufi; P. Lecoy; S. Le Beux; Attia, R; Delacressonniere, B

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel Optical Network on Chip (ONoC) relying on the multi-level optical layer design paradigm and called “OMNoC”. The proposed ONoC relies on multi-level microring resonator allowing efficient light coupling between superposed waveguides. Such microring resonator avoids using waveguide crossing, which contribute to reduce propagation losses. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate the potential of multi-level optical layer for reducing power consumption and increasin...

  8. Low-power chip-level optical interconnects based on bulk-silicon single-chip photonic transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Hyundai; Joo, Jiho; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kwack, Myung-Joon; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Park, Jaegyu; Kim, Sanggi

    2016-03-01

    We present new scheme for chip-level photonic I/Os, based on monolithically integrated vertical photonic devices on bulk silicon, which increases the integration level of PICs to a complete photonic transceiver (TRx) including chip-level light source. A prototype of the single-chip photonic TRx based on a bulk silicon substrate demonstrated 20 Gb/s low power chip-level optical interconnects between fabricated chips, proving that this scheme can offer compact low-cost chip-level I/O solutions and have a significant impact on practical electronic-photonic integration in high performance computers (HPC), cpu-memory interface, 3D-IC, and LAN/SAN/data-center and network applications.

  9. Determination of Apparent Amylose Content in Rice by Using Paper-Based Microfluidic Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianqiao; Lu, Lin; Fang, Changyun; Duan, Binwu; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2015-11-11

    Determination of apparent amylose content in rice is a key function for rice research and the rice industry. In this paper, a novel approach with paper-based microfluidic chip is reported to determine apparent amylose content in rice. The conventional color reaction between amylose and iodine was employed. Blue color of amylose-iodine complex generated on-chip was converted to gray and measured with Photoshop after the colored chip was scanned. The method for preparation of the paper chip is described. In situ generation of iodine for on-chip color reaction was designed, and factors influencing color reaction were investigated in detail. Elimination of yellow color interference of excess iodine by exploiting color removal function of Photoshop was presented. Under the optimized conditions, apparent amylose content in rice ranging from 1.5 to 26.4% can be determined, and precision was 6.3%. The analytical results obtained with the developed approach were in good agreement with those with the continuous flow analyzer method. PMID:26495809

  10. Nonlinear optics at low powers: new mechanism of on-chip optical frequency comb generation

    CERN Document Server

    Rogov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear optical effects provide a natural way of light manipulation and interaction, and form the foundation of applied photonics -- from high-speed signal processing and telecommunication, to ultra-high bandwidth interconnects and information processing. However, relatively weak nonlinear response at optical frequencies calls for operation at high optical powers, or boosting efficiency of nonlinear parametric processes by enhancing local field intensity with high quality-factor resonators near cavity resonance, resulting in reduced operational bandwidth and increased loss due to multi-photon absorption. Here, we present an alternative to this conventional approach, with strong nonlinear optical effects at substantially lower local intensities, based on period-doubling bifurcations near nonlinear cavity anti-resonance, and apply it to low-power optical comb generation in a silicon chip.

  11. Design of On—Chip Clock Generation with 50/50 Duty Cycle Correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANYueqiu; CUIWei; CHENHe

    2003-01-01

    A circuit design of on-chip clock generation which improves the duty cycle performance and prevents latch-up effect is described.The circuity provides onchip clock with automatic duty cycle correction so as to overcome the shortcoming of clock duty cycle dependence on technology parameters of the traditional on-chip clock generation circuit.It is extremely important that the dynamic power consumption equals approximately the one of its predecessor.The effective performance of the proposed circuit is confirmed by SPICE simulation.

  12. DSP Based Waveform Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The DSP Based Waveform Generator is used for CSR Control system to control special controlled objects, such as the pulsed power supply for magnets, RF system, injection and extraction synchronization, global CSR synchronization etc. This intelligent controller based on 4800 MIPS DSP and 256M SDRAM technology will supply highly stable and highly accurate reference waveform used by the power supply of magnets. The specifications are as follows:

  13. A Microfluidic Chip Using Phenol Formaldehyde Resin for Uniform-Sized Polycaprolactone and Chitosan Microparticle Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Chen Hsieh; Keng-Shiang Huang; Szu-Yu Chen; Chih-Yu Wang; Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu; Yung-Sheng Lin; Chin-Tung Wu; Chih-Hui Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study develops a new solvent-compatible microfluidic chip based on phenol formaldehyde resin (PFR). In addition to its solvent-resistant characteristics, this microfluidic platform also features easy fabrication, organization, decomposition for cleaning, and reusability compared with conventional chips. Both solvent-dependent (e.g., polycaprolactone) and nonsolvent-dependent (e.g., chitosan) microparticles were successfully prepared. The size of emulsion droplets could be easily adjusted...

  14. Network-on-chip the next generation of system-on-chip integration

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    ""What makes this book special as compared to the current literature in the field is that it provides a complete picture of NoC architectures. In fact, current books in the context of NoCs are usually specific and presuppose a basic knowledge of NoC architectures. Conversely, this book provides a complete guide for both unskilled readers and researchers working in the area, to acquire not only the basic concepts but also the advanced techniques for improving power, cost and performance metrics of the on-chip communication system.""-Maurizio Palesi, Kore University, Italy.

  15. Microfluidic-Based Sample Chips for Radioactive Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripp, J. L.; Law, J. D.; Smith, T. E.; Rutledge, V. J.; Bauer, W. F.; Ball, R. D.; Hahn, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Historical nuclear fuel cycle process sampling techniques required sample volumes ranging in the tens of milliliters. The radiation levels experienced by analytical personnel and equipment, in addition to the waste volumes generated from analysis of these samples, have been significant. These sample volumes also impacted accountability inventories of required analytes during process operations. To mitigate radiation dose and other issues associated with the historically larger sample volumes, a microcapillary sample chip was chosen for further investigation. The ability to obtain microliter volume samples coupled with a remote automated means of sample loading, tracking, and transporting to the analytical instrument would greatly improve analytical efficiency while reducing both personnel exposure and radioactive waste volumes. Sample chip testing was completed to determine the accuracy, repeatability, and issues associated with the use of microfluidic sample chips used to supply µL sample volumes of lanthanide analytes dissolved in nitric acid for introduction to an analytical instrument for elemental analysis.

  16. Efficient generation of cluster states with semiconductor double-dot molecules on a chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jian [Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei 230088 (China); Dong Ping, E-mail: dongping9979@163.co [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230061 (China); Zou Weiping; Xue Zhengyuan [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, ICMP and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-03-01

    We propose an efficient scheme for the generation of the cluster states directly using the iSWAP gate, with semiconductor double-dot molecules on a chip. The implementation of an iSWAP gate only requires resonant interaction between a molecule and a transmission line resonator, which results in considerable improvement for gate speed comparing to conventional dispersive techniques. Meanwhile, the fast generation speed is also very important in view of decoherence. Therefore, our approach makes one-way quantum computation more feasible via this on chip architecture. -- Research highlights: {yields} An efficient generation scheme of the cluster states is proposed with iSWAP gate in semiconductor double-dot molecules on a chip. {yields} The implementation of an iSWAP gate only requires resonant qubit-resonator interaction, which results in considerable improvement of gate speed comparing to dispersive interaction techniques. {yields} Resonant qubit-resonator interaction results in fast generation, which is very important in view of systematical decoherence. {yields} Our generation approach makes one-way quantum computation more feasible via this on chip architecture.

  17. Acrylamide generation in pre-treated potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide formation in potato slices fried at two different temperatures ( 170 and 190 degrees C) was investigated under different pre-processing conditions. Potato slices (Saturna variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were either fried at 170 degrees C per 5 min or 190 degrees C per 3.5 min....... Acrylamide content in potato chips was determined after frying at 170 or 190 degrees C. Frying at 190 degrees C increased by almost 130 percent the acrylamide content of all the pre-treated samples ( average value) fried at 170 degrees C. Soaking of blanched potato slices in the 3 g/100 g of NaCl solution...... per 5 min at 25 degrees C, reduces acrylamide formation in potato chips by 11 percent after frying at 170 degrees C. However when the slices are blanched directly in the 3 g/100g of NaCl solution at 60 degrees C for 30 min, their acrylamide formation increased surprisingly by similar to 90 percent...

  18. Researching and implementation of reconfigurable Hash chip based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaohui; Dai Zibin; Liu Yuanfeng; Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    The reconfigurable cryptographic chip is an integrated circuit that is designed by means of the method of reconfigurable architecture, and is used for encryption and decryption. Many different cipher algorithms can be flexibly implemented with the aid of a reconfigurable cryptographic chip and can be used in many fields. This article takes an example for the SHA-1/224/256 algorithms, and then designs a reconfigurable cryptographic chip based on the thought and method of the reconfigurable architecture. Finally, this paper gives the implementation result based on the FPGA of the family of Stratix II of Altera Corporation, and presents a good research trend for resolving the storage in hardware implementation using FPGAs.

  19. Biphoton statistic of quantum light generated on a silicon chip

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xiyuan; Zhang, Jidong; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a silicon-chip biphoton source with an unprecedented quantum cross correlation up to ${\\rm g_{si}^{(2)}(0) = (2.58 \\pm 0.16) \\times 10^4}$. The emitted biphotons are intrinsically single-mode, with self correlations of ${\\rm g_{ss}^{(2)}(0) = 1.90 \\pm 0.05}$ and ${\\rm g_{ii}^{(2)}(0) = 1.87 \\pm 0.06}$ for signal and idler photons, respectively. We observe the waveform asymmetry of cross correlation between signal and idler photons and reveal the identical and non-exponential nature of self correlations of individual signal and idler photon modes, which is a nature of cavity-enhanced nonlinear optical processes. The high efficiency and high purity of the biphoton source allow us to herald single photons with a conditional self correlation $\\rm g_{c}^{(2)}(0)$ as low as $\\rm 0.0059 \\pm 0.0014$ at a pair flux of $\\rm 1.95 \\times 10^5$ pairs/s, which remains below $\\rm 0.026 \\pm 0.001$ for a biphoton flux up to $\\rm 2.93 \\times 10^6$ pairs/s, with a photon preparation efficiency in the single-mode ...

  20. Beating heart on a chip: a novel microfluidic platform to generate functional 3D cardiac microtissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsano, Anna; Conficconi, Chiara; Lemme, Marta; Occhetta, Paola; Gaudiello, Emanuele; Votta, Emiliano; Cerino, Giulia; Redaelli, Alberto; Rasponi, Marco

    2016-02-01

    In the past few years, microfluidic-based technology has developed microscale models recapitulating key physical and biological cues typical of the native myocardium. However, the application of controlled physiological uniaxial cyclic strains on a defined three-dimension cellular environment is not yet possible. Two-dimension mechanical stimulation was particularly investigated, neglecting the complex three-dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. For this purpose, we developed a heart-on-a-chip platform, which recapitulates the physiologic mechanical environment experienced by cells in the native myocardium. The device includes an array of hanging posts to confine cell-laden gels, and a pneumatic actuation system to induce homogeneous uniaxial cyclic strains to the 3D cell constructs during culture. The device was used to generate mature and highly functional micro-engineered cardiac tissues (μECTs), from both neonatal rat and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM), strongly suggesting the robustness of our engineered cardiac micro-niche. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic strain was effectively highly uniaxial and uniformly transferred to cells in culture. As compared to control, stimulated μECTs showed superior cardiac differentiation, as well as electrical and mechanical coupling, owing to a remarkable increase in junction complexes. Mechanical stimulation also promoted early spontaneous synchronous beating and better contractile capability in response to electric pacing. Pacing analyses of hiPSC-CM constructs upon controlled administration of isoprenaline showed further promising applications of our platform in drug discovery, delivery and toxicology fields. The proposed heart-on-a-chip device represents a relevant step forward in the field, providing a standard functional three-dimensional cardiac model to possibly predict signs of hypertrophic changes in cardiac phenotype by mechanical and biochemical co-stimulation.

  1. Beating heart on a chip: a novel microfluidic platform to generate functional 3D cardiac microtissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsano, Anna; Conficconi, Chiara; Lemme, Marta; Occhetta, Paola; Gaudiello, Emanuele; Votta, Emiliano; Cerino, Giulia; Redaelli, Alberto; Rasponi, Marco

    2016-02-01

    In the past few years, microfluidic-based technology has developed microscale models recapitulating key physical and biological cues typical of the native myocardium. However, the application of controlled physiological uniaxial cyclic strains on a defined three-dimension cellular environment is not yet possible. Two-dimension mechanical stimulation was particularly investigated, neglecting the complex three-dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. For this purpose, we developed a heart-on-a-chip platform, which recapitulates the physiologic mechanical environment experienced by cells in the native myocardium. The device includes an array of hanging posts to confine cell-laden gels, and a pneumatic actuation system to induce homogeneous uniaxial cyclic strains to the 3D cell constructs during culture. The device was used to generate mature and highly functional micro-engineered cardiac tissues (μECTs), from both neonatal rat and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM), strongly suggesting the robustness of our engineered cardiac micro-niche. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic strain was effectively highly uniaxial and uniformly transferred to cells in culture. As compared to control, stimulated μECTs showed superior cardiac differentiation, as well as electrical and mechanical coupling, owing to a remarkable increase in junction complexes. Mechanical stimulation also promoted early spontaneous synchronous beating and better contractile capability in response to electric pacing. Pacing analyses of hiPSC-CM constructs upon controlled administration of isoprenaline showed further promising applications of our platform in drug discovery, delivery and toxicology fields. The proposed heart-on-a-chip device represents a relevant step forward in the field, providing a standard functional three-dimensional cardiac model to possibly predict signs of hypertrophic changes in cardiac phenotype by mechanical and biochemical co

  2. On-chip two-octave supercontinuum generation by enhancing self-steepening of optical pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lin; Yue, Yang; Lin, Qiang; Painter, Oskar; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Willner, Alan E

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic advances in supercontinuum generation have been made recently using photonic crystal fibers, but it is quite challenging to obtain an octave-spanning supercontinuum on a chip, partially because of strong dispersion in high-index-contrast nonlinear integrated waveguides. We show by simulation that extremely flat and low dispersion can be achieved in silicon nitride slot waveguides over a wavelength band of 500 nm. Different from previously reported supercontinua that were generated either by higher-order soliton fission in anomalous dispersion regime or by self phase modulation in normal dispersion regime, a two-octave supercontinuum from 630 to 2650 nm (360 THz in total) can be generated by greatly enhancing self-steepening in nonlinear pulse propagation in almost zero dispersion regime, when an optical shock as short as 3 fs is formed, which enables on-chip ultra-wide-band applications.

  3. Generation of ultrafast pulse via combined effects of stimulated Raman scattering and non-degenerate two-photon absorption in silicon nanophotonic chip

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianwei Wu; Fengguang Luo; Mingcui Cao

    2009-04-01

    A project of ultrafast pulse generation has been presented and demonstrated by utilizing the combined nonlinear effects of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and non-degenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) based on silicon nanophotonic chip, in which a continuous wave (CW) and an ultrafast dark pulse are co-propagating in the silicon chip so that the CW will be modulated inversely by the dark pulse during the propagation. As a result, an ultrafast bright pulse is achieved using the technique. Simulation results show that an ultrafast pulse with a pulsewidth (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) of about 50 fs is generated at the end of a 5-mm long silicon chip, when the initial conditions, including an input maximum of 0.5 W and FWHM of ∼ 176 fs for dark pulse, and CW with power of 5 W, are chosen.

  4. Heart-on-a-chip based on stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Elzbieta; Tomecka, Ewelina; Jesion, Iwona

    2016-01-15

    Heart diseases are one of the main causes of death around the world. The great challenge for scientists is to develop new therapeutic methods for these types of ailments. Stem cells (SCs) therapy could be one of a promising technique used for renewal of cardiac cells and treatment of heart diseases. Conventional in vitro techniques utilized for investigation of heart regeneration do not mimic natural cardiac physiology. Lab-on-a-chip systems may be the solution which could allow the creation of a heart muscle model, enabling the growth of cardiac cells in conditions similar to in vivo conditions. Microsystems can be also used for differentiation of stem cells into heart cells, successfully. It will help better understand of proliferation and regeneration ability of these cells. In this review, we present Heart-on-a-chip systems based on cardiac cell culture and stem cell biology. This review begins with the description of the physiological environment and the functions of the heart. Next, we shortly described conventional techniques of stem cells differentiation into the cardiac cells. This review is mostly focused on describing Lab-on-a-chip systems for cardiac tissue engineering. Therefore, in the next part of this article, the microsystems for both cardiac cell culture and SCs differentiation into cardiac cells are described. The section about SCs differentiation into the heart cells is divided in sections describing biochemical, physical and mechanical stimulations. Finally, we outline present challenges and future research concerning Heart-on-a-chip based on stem cell biology.

  5. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  6. On-chip high-voltage generator design design methodology for charge pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Tanzawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    This book provides various design techniques for switched-capacitor on-chip high-voltage generators, including charge pump circuits, regulators, level shifters, references, and oscillators.  Readers will see these techniques applied to system design in order to address the challenge of how the on-chip high-voltage generator is designed for Flash memories, LCD drivers, and other semiconductor devices to optimize the entire circuit area and power efficiency with a low voltage supply, while minimizing the cost.  This new edition includes a variety of useful updates, including coverage of power efficiency and comprehensive optimization methodologies for DC-DC voltage multipliers, modeling of extremely low voltage Dickson charge pumps, and modeling and optimum design of AC-DC switched-capacitor multipliers for energy harvesting and power transfer for RFID.

  7. Efficient generation of single and entangled photons on a silicon photonic integrated chip

    OpenAIRE

    Mower, Jacob; Englund, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We present a protocol for generating on-demand, indistinguishable single photons on a silicon photonic integrated chip. The source is a time-multiplexed spontaneous parametric down-conversion element that allows optimization of single-photon versus multiphoton emission while realizing high output rate and indistinguishability. We minimize both the scaling of active elements and the scaling of active element loss with multiplexing. We then discuss detection strategies and data processing to fu...

  8. On-chip generation of photon-triplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapick, Stephan; Brecht, Benjamin; Herrmann, Harald; Quiring, Viktor; Silberhorn, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Efficient sources of many-partite non-classical states are key for the advancement of quantum technologies and for the fundamental testing of quantum mechanics. We demonstrate the generation of time-correlated photon triplets at telecom wavelengths via pulsed cascaded parametric down-conversion in a monolithically integrated source. By detecting the generated states with success probabilities of (6.25 ± 1.09) × 10(-11) per pump pulse at injected powers as low as 10 μW, we benchmark the efficiency of the complete system and deduce its high potential for scalability. Our source is unprecedentedly long-term stable, it overcomes interface losses intrinsically due to its monolithic architecture, and the photon-triplet states dominate uncorrelated noise significantly. These results mark crucial progress towards the proliferation of robust, scalable, synchronized and miniaturized quantum technology. PMID:26906852

  9. Engineered peptide-based nanobiomaterials for electrochemical cell chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Md. Abdul; Cho, Hyeon-Yeol; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials having cell adhesion ability are considered to be integral part of a cell chip. A number of researches have been carried out to search for a suitable material for effective immobilization of cell on substrate. Engineered ECM materials or their components like collagen, Poly- l-Lysine (PLL), Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide have been extensively used for mammalian cell adhesion and proliferation with the aim of tissue regeneration or cell based sensing application. This review focuses on the various approaches for two- and three-dimensionally patterned nanostructures of a short peptide i.e. RGD peptide on chip surfaces together with their effects on cell behaviors and electrochemical measurements. Most of the study concluded with positive remarks on the well-oriented engineered RGD peptide over their homogenous thin film. The engineered RGD peptide not only influences cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation but also their periodic nano-arrays directly influence electrochemical measurements of the chips. The electrochemical signals found to be enhanced when RGD peptides were used in well-defined two-dimensional nano-arrays. The topographic alteration of three-dimensional structure of engineered RGD peptide was reported to be suitably contacted with the integrin receptors of cellular membrane which results indicated the enhanced cell-electrode adhesion and efficient electron exchange phenomenon. This enhanced electrochemical signal increases the sensitivity of the chip against the target analytes. Therefore, development of engineered cellular recognizable peptides and its 3D topological design for fabrication of cell chip will provide the synergetic effect on bio-affinity, sensitivity and accuracy for the in situ real-time monitoring of analytes.

  10. Neural Cell Chip Based Electrochemical Detection of Nanotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kafi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for toxicity assessment of commonly used nanoparticles is urgently needed for the sustainable development of nanotechnology. A neural cell with high sensitivity and conductivity has become a potential candidate for a cell chip to investigate toxicity of environmental influences. A neural cell immobilized on a conductive surface has become a potential tool for the assessment of nanotoxicity based on electrochemical methods. The effective electrochemical monitoring largely depends on the adequate attachment of a neural cell on the chip surfaces. Recently, establishment of integrin receptor specific ligand molecules arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD or its several modifications RGD-Multi Armed Peptide terminated with cysteine (RGD-MAP-C, C(RGD4 ensure farm attachment of neural cell on the electrode surfaces either in their two dimensional (dot or three dimensional (rod or pillar like nano-scale arrangement. A three dimensional RGD modified electrode surface has been proven to be more suitable for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation as well as electrochemical measurement. This review discusses fabrication as well as electrochemical measurements of neural cell chip with particular emphasis on their use for nanotoxicity assessments sequentially since inception to date. Successful monitoring of quantum dot (QD, graphene oxide (GO and cosmetic compound toxicity using the newly developed neural cell chip were discussed here as a case study. This review recommended that a neural cell chip established on a nanostructured ligand modified conductive surface can be a potential tool for the toxicity assessments of newly developed nanomaterials prior to their use on biology or biomedical technologies.

  11. Development of Microreactor Array Chip-Based Measurement System for Massively Parallel Analysis of Enzymatic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Yosuke; Akagi, Takanori; Ichiki, Takanori

    Microarray chip technology such as DNA chips, peptide chips and protein chips is one of the promising approaches for achieving high-throughput screening (HTS) of biomolecule function since it has great advantages in feasibility of automated information processing due to one-to-one indexing between array position and molecular function as well as massively parallel sample analysis as a benefit of down-sizing and large-scale integration. Mostly, however, the function that can be evaluated by such microarray chips is limited to affinity of target molecules. In this paper, we propose a new HTS system of enzymatic activity based on microreactor array chip technology. A prototype of the automated and massively parallel measurement system for fluorometric assay of enzymatic reactions was developed by the combination of microreactor array chips and a highly-sensitive fluorescence microscope. Design strategy of microreactor array chips and an optical measurement platform for the high-throughput enzyme assay are discussed.

  12. Validation Study of LPDDR2 SDRAM Based on TD-LTE Baseband chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang ChengZhi; Wang QiuJu; Han Juan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, as China has finished the updating of the fourth generation of network, for guaranteeing the information security of the state, communication chip with complete independent intellectual property right must be possessed to support the advancement of such project. TD-LTE Baseband Chip is a super-large-scale integrated circuit designed basing on SOC, which needs to carry out coding, etc to the transmitted baseband signal, or carry out decoding, etc to the received baseband signal. LPDDR2 SDRAM is used in the chip design process due to its low power dissipation, high capacity and high reliability. As PHY in the controller architecture of LPDDR2 SDRAM adopts hard core design, it cannot be achieved in Virtex-7 2000T prototype verification platform. This design mainly builds on such prototype verification platform to propose the verification scheme of LPDDR2 SDRAM controller in TD_LTE baseband chip, so as to guarantee that prototype verification in FPGA can be carried out by TD_LTE baseband system, and meanwhile high capacity storage space can be provided to the system.

  13. Demonstration of a Chip-based Nonlinear Optical Isolator

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, Shiyue; Jiang, Xiaoshun; Hua, Qian; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Despite fundamentally challenging in integrated (nano)photonics, achieving chip-based light nonreciprocity becomes increasingly urgent in signal processing and optical communications. Because of material incompatibilities in conventional approaches based on Faraday effects, alternative solutions have resorted to nonlinear processes to obtain one-way transmission. However, revealed dynamic reciprocity in a recent theoretical analysis has pinned down the functionalities of these nonlinear isolators. To overcome this dynamic reciprocity, we here report the first demonstration of a nonlinear optical isolator on a silicon chip enforced by phase-matched parametric amplification. Using a high-Q microtoroid resonator, we realize highly nonreciprocal transport at the 1,550 nm wavelength when waves are simultaneously launched in both forward and backward directions. Our design, compatible with current CMOS technique, yields convincing isolation performance with sufficiently low insertion loss for a wide range of input ...

  14. Chip-Scale Continuously Tunable Optical Orbital Angular Momentum Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jie; Moresco, Michele; Coolbaugh, Douglas; Watts, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has potential to impact a wide variety of applications ranging from optical communications to quantum information and optical forces for the excitation and manipulation of atoms, molecules, and micro-particles. The unique advantage of utilizing OAM in these applications relies, to a large extent, on the use of multiple different OAM states. Therefore, it is desirable to have a device that is able to gen- erate light with freely adjustable OAM states in an integrated form for large- scale integration. We propose and demonstrate a compact silicon photonic integrated circuit to generate a free-space optical beam with OAM state con- tinuously tuned from a single electrical input signal, realizing both integer and non-integer OAM states. The compactness and flexibility of the device and its compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) pro- cessing hold promise for integration with other silicon photonic components for wide-ranging applications.

  15. ChIPseek, a web-based analysis tool for ChIP data

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ting-Wen; Li, Hsin-Pai; Lee, Chi-Ching; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Huang, Po-Jung; Wu, Timothy H; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Yi-Feng; Tang, Petrus

    2014-01-01

    Background Chromatin is a dynamic but highly regulated structure. DNA-binding proteins such as transcription factors, epigenetic and chromatin modifiers are responsible for regulating specific gene expression pattern and may result in different phenotypes. To reveal the identity of the proteins associated with the specific region on DNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the most widely used technique. ChIP assay followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) or microarray (ChIP-chip...

  16. A superhydrophobic chip based on SU-8 photoresist pillars suspended on a silicon nitride membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, Giovanni; Accardo, Angelo; De Angelis, Francesco; Dane, Thomas; Weinhausen, Britta; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian

    2014-10-01

    We developed a new generation of superhydrophobic chips optimized for probing ultrasmall sample quantities by X-ray scattering and fluorescence techniques. The chips are based on thin Si3N4 membranes with a tailored pattern of SU-8 photoresist pillars. Indeed, aqueous solution droplets can be evaporated and concentrated at predefined positions using a non-periodic pillar pattern. We demonstrated quantitatively the deposition and aggregation of gold glyconanoparticles from the evaporation of a nanomolar droplet in a small spot by raster X-ray nanofluorescence. Further, raster nanocrystallography of biological objects such as rod-like tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles reveals crystalline macro-domain formation composed of highly oriented nanorods.

  17. A superhydrophobic chip based on SU-8 photoresist pillars suspended on a silicon nitride membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2014-07-28

    We developed a new generation of superhydrophobic chips optimized for probing ultrasmall sample quantities by X-ray scattering and fluorescence techniques. The chips are based on thin Si3N4 membranes with a tailored pattern of SU-8 photoresist pillars. Indeed, aqueous solution droplets can be evaporated and concentrated at predefined positions using a non-periodic pillar pattern. We demonstrated quantitatively the deposition and aggregation of gold glyconanoparticles from the evaporation of a nanomolar droplet in a small spot by raster X-ray nanofluorescence. Further, raster nanocrystallography of biological objects such as rod-like tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles reveals crystalline macro-domain formation composed of highly oriented nanorods. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  18. Characterizing Rat PNS Electrophysiological Response to Electrical Stimulation Using in vitro Chip-Based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, Joshua [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Prescod, Lindsay [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Enright, Heather [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Felix, Sarah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osburn, Joanne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wheeler, Elizabeth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kulp, Kris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Ex vivo systems and organ-on-a-chip technology offer an unprecedented approach to modeling the inner workings of the human body. The ultimate goal of LLNL’s in vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP) is to integrate multiple organ tissue cultures using microfluidic channels, multi-electrode arrays (MEA), and other biosensors in order to effectively simulate and study the responses and interactions of the major organs to chemical and physical stimulation. In this study, we focused on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) component of the iCHIP system. Specifically we sought to expound on prior research investigating the electrophysiological response of rat dorsal root ganglion cells (rDRGs) to chemical exposures, such as capsaicin. Our aim was to establish a protocol for electrical stimulation using the iCHIP device that would reliably elicit a characteristic response in rDRGs. By varying the parameters for both the stimulation properties – amplitude, phase width, phase shape, and stimulation/ return configuration – and the culture conditions – day in vitro and neural cell types - we were able to make several key observations and uncover a potential convention with a minimal number of devices tested. Future work will seek to establish a standard protocol for human DRGs in the iCHIP which will afford a portable, rapid method for determining the effects of toxins and novel therapeutics on the PNS.

  19. A quantum relay chip based on telecommunication integrated optics technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate an integrated optical circuit on lithium niobate designed to implement a teleportation-based quantum relay scheme for one-way quantum communication at a telecom wavelength. Such an advanced quantum circuit merges for the first time both optical-optical and electro-optical nonlinear functions necessary for implementing the desired on-chip single-qubit teleportation. On the one hand, spontaneous parametric down-conversion is used to produce entangled photon pairs. On the other, we take advantage of two photon routers, consisting of electro-optically controllable couplers, to separate the paired photons and to carry out a Bell state measurement, respectively. After having validated all the individual functions in the classical regime, we performed a Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment to mimic a one-way quantum communication link. Such a quantum effect, seen as a prerequisite towards achieving teleportation, has been obtained at one of the routers when the chip was coupled to an external single-photon source. The two-photon interference pattern shows a net visibility of 80%, which validates the proof of principle of a ‘quantum relay circuit’ for qubits carried by telecom photons. In the case of optimized losses, such a chip could increase the maximal achievable distance of one-way quantum key distribution links by a factor of 1.8. Our approach and results emphasize the potential of integrated optics on lithium niobate as a key technology for future reconfigurable quantum information manipulation. (paper)

  20. Novel definition files for human GeneChips based on GeneAnnot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Sergio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in genome sequence annotation revealed discrepancies in the original probeset/gene assignment in Affymetrix microarray and the existence of differences between annotations and effective alignments of probes and transcription products. In the current generation of Affymetrix human GeneChips, most probesets include probes matching transcripts from more than one gene and probes which do not match any transcribed sequence. Results We developed a novel set of custom Chip Definition Files (CDF and the corresponding Bioconductor libraries for Affymetrix human GeneChips, based on the information contained in the GeneAnnot database. GeneAnnot-based CDFs are composed of unique custom-probesets, including only probes matching a single gene. Conclusion GeneAnnot-based custom CDFs solve the problem of a reliable reconstruction of expression levels and eliminate the existence of more than one probeset per gene, which often leads to discordant expression signals for the same transcript when gene differential expression is the focus of the analysis. GeneAnnot CDFs are freely distributed and fully compliant with Affymetrix standards and all available software for gene expression analysis. The CDF libraries are available from http://www.xlab.unimo.it/GA_CDF, along with supplementary information (CDF libraries, installation guidelines and R code, CDF statistics, and analysis results.

  1. Mission Profile Based Sizing of IGBT Chip Area for PV Inverter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng;

    2016-01-01

    yearly mission profile. Simulation results are given to verify the thermal characteristics. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo based lifetime evaluation is presented to check the IGBT reliability. The proposed design method enables a reliability-oriented energy optimized sizing of active switches for PV inverter......Maximizing the total energy generation is of importance for Photovoltaic (PV) plants. This paper proposes a method to optimize the IGBT chip area for PV inverters to minimize the annual energy loss of the active switches based on long-term operation conditions (i.e., mission profile). The design...

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic-based Laboratories on a Chip for Analysis of Biomolecules Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A laboratory-on-a-chip design based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) microfluidics and integrated microelectrochemical detection is proposed. The proposed device is...

  3. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.;

    2008-01-01

    This review with 239 references has as its aim to give the reader an introduction to the kinds of methods used for developing microchip based electrode systems as well as to cover the existing literature on electroanalytical systems where microchips play a crucial role for 'nondestructive...

  4. Microfluidic interface technology based on stereolithography for glass-based lab-on-a-chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-I; Han, Ki-Ho

    2013-01-01

    As lab-on-a-chips are developed for on-chip integrated microfluidic systems with multiple functions, the development of microfluidic interface (MFI) technology to enable integration of complex microfluidic systems becomes increasingly important and faces many technical difficulties. Such difficulties include the need for more complex structures, the possibility of biological or chemical cross-contamination between functional compartments, and the possible need for individual compartments fabricated from different substrate materials. This chapter introduces MFI technology, based on rapid stereolithography, for a glass-based miniaturized genetic sample preparation system, as an example of a complex lab-on-a-chip that could include functional elements such as; solid-phase DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and capillary electrophoresis. To enable the integration of a complex lab-on-a-chip system in a single chip, MFI technology based on stereolithography provides a simple method for realizing complex arrangements of one-step plug-in microfluidic interconnects, integrated microvalves for microfluidic control, and optical windows for on-chip optical processes.

  5. A microfluidic device for on-chip agarose microbead generation with ultralow reagent consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Linda; Padirac, Adrien; Kaneda, Shohei; Genot, Anthony J; Rondelez, Yannick; Hober, Didier; Collard, Dominique; Fujii, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Water-in-oil microdroplets offer microreactors for compartmentalized biochemical reactions with high throughput. Recently, the combination with a sol-gel switch ability, using agarose-in-oil microdroplets, has increased the range of possible applications, allowing for example the capture of amplicons in the gel phase for the preservation of monoclonality during a PCR reaction. Here, we report a new method for generating such agarose-in-oil microdroplets on a microfluidic device, with minimized inlet dead volume, on-chip cooling, and in situ monitoring of biochemical reactions within the gelified microbeads. We used a flow-focusing microchannel network and successfully generated agarose microdroplets at room temperature using the "push-pull" method. This method consists in pushing the oil continuous phase only, while suction is applied to the device outlet. The agarose phase present at the inlet is thus aspirated in the device, and segmented in microdroplets. The cooling system consists of two copper wires embedded in the microfluidic device. The transition from agarose microdroplets to microbeads provides additional stability and facilitated manipulation. We demonstrate the potential of this method by performing on-chip a temperature-triggered DNA isothermal amplification in agarose microbeads. Our device thus provides a new way to generate microbeads with high throughput and no dead volume for biochemical applications. PMID:24106525

  6. Field programmable gate array–based servo control integrated chip for a six-axis articulated robot manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shieh Kung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to build a field programmable gate array–based six-axis servo control integrated chip which can integrate the function of a motion trajectory planning and the function of six position/speed/current servo controllers into one integrated chip. In the work, first, a mathematical modeling of a robot manipulator with the actuator using permanent magnet synchronous motor is derived. Second, the proportional controller in the position loop, a proportional–integral controller in the speed loop and a vector controller in the current loop for each axis are applied. Third, a system on a programmable chip technology which comprises an Altera field programmable gate array chip and an embedded soft-core Nios-II processor is considered to develop the proposed servo control integrated chip. However, in the servo control integrated chip, it has two modules. The first module is an embedded soft-core Nios-II processor which is used to generate the motion trajectory planning by software. The second module presents a six-axis servo controller intellectual property by hardware which is applied to execute six position/speed/current controllers. Therefore, the function of a motion trajectory command and the function of six position/speed/current servo controllers for a six-axis robot manipulator can be integrated into one field programmable gate array. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed field programmable gate array–based servo control integrated chip, a six-axis robot manipulator is applied and some experimental results are demonstrated.

  7. An integrated one-chip-sensor system for microRNA quantitative analysis based on digital droplet polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Masahiko; Wiederkehr, Rodrigo Sergio; Cai, Qing; Majeed, Bivragh; Fiorini, Paolo; Stakenborg, Tim; Matsuno, Toshinobu

    2016-04-01

    A silicon microfluidic chip was developed for microRNA (miRNA) quantitative analysis. It performs sequentially reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in a digital droplet format. Individual processes take place on different cavities, and reagent and sample mixing is carried out on a chip, prior to entering each compartment. The droplets are generated on a T-junction channel before the polymerase chain reaction step. Also, a miniaturized fluorescence detector was developed, based on an optical pick-up head of digital versatile disc (DVD) and a micro-photomultiplier tube. The chip integrated in the detection system was tested using synthetic miRNA with known concentrations, ranging from 300 to 3,000 templates/µL. Results proved the functionality of the system.

  8. Faults Detection in a Photovoltaic Generator by Using Matlab Simulink and the chipKIT Max32 Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadh Khenfer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a laboratory with equipment and an algorithm for teaching graduate students the monitoring and the diagnosis of PV arrays. The contribution is the presentation of an algorithm to detect and localize the fault, in photovoltaic generator when a limited number of voltage sensors are used. An I-V curve tracer using a capacitive load is exploited to measure the I-V characteristics of PV arrays. Such measurement allows characterization of PV arrays on-site, under real operating conditions, and provides also information for the detection of potential array anomalies. This I-V curve tracer is based on a microcontroller board family called chipKIT Max32 which is a popular platform for physical computing. A user program can be developed visually on a PC side via the graphical user interface (GUI in Matlab Simulink, where the chipKIT Max32 of Digilent which is a low-cost board is designed for use with the Arduinompid software. The obtained results from the partial shade default showed the effectiveness of the proposed diagnosis method and the good functioning of this board with the Matlab/Simulink environment.

  9. The embedded design verification test of microwave circuit modules based on specific chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭荣斌

    2013-01-01

    In the Paper,the author introduces an embedded design verification test based on specific chips to solve the technical problems of microwave circuit test and fault diagnosis.The author explains embedded design of microwave circuit modules and approach of hardware design and software design,and final y verifies the embedded design of microwave circuit modules based on specific chips.

  10. Polymer-based chips for surface plasmon resonance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreja, Paula; Cristea, Dana; Kusko, Mihai; Dinescu, Adrian

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a design and low-cost techniques for polymer-based chips for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. To obtain a polymer chip with a prism, microchannels and a chamber at microscale dimensions, replication techniques in polymers with controlled refractive index have been developed. Photoresist, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and epoxy resin were used. Silicon dioxide/silicon-based molds have been obtained by anisotropic etching of silicon, and glass prisms were used as masters for replication. The photoresist molds were obtained by optical lithography and were used to obtain the microchannels and the chamber. A liquid prepolymer (PDMS, Sylgard 184) with curing agent at a ratio of 10:1 was used, and a special technique was developed in order to fabricate the components of the structure at the same time. For the deposition and direct patterning of the metallic layers onto the polymer surface, different methods were experimented with, including sputtering. The materials and techniques used to achieve SPR sensors are presented, and the possibilities and limitations of the technology are discussed.

  11. Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute local gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity based on cold atom interferometry. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates, as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties in temperature as well as in ensemble size that will allow to overcome the current limitations with the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We show a lab-based prototype that uses the atom-chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serving as inertial reference inside the vacuum. With this setup it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal, within an area of 1 cm3 right below the atom-chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will allow for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz. In cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor will be characterized in the laboratory first, to be ultimately employed in campaigns to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is part of the center of

  12. Embedded 3D Graphics Core for FPGA-based System-on-Chip Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik

    2005-01-01

    such as a VRML viewer. The 3D graphics core is connected to a PLB 64-bit on-chip bus, and can render graphics into an on-chip tile buffer, which is later copied, using bus-master DMA transfers, to the frame-buffer in external DDR SDRAM memory. This memory is shared between the CPU, the 3D graphics core...... consumption is reduced as well. We show how an FPGA based embedded system is capable of most tasks in a single chip solution, without requiring additional CPU or graphics chips....

  13. Photography-based image generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Nicholas M.; Deering, Charles S.

    1989-09-01

    A two-channel Photography Based Image Generator system was developed to drive the Helmet Mounted Laser Projector at the Naval Training System Center at Orlando, Florida. This projector is a two-channel system that displays a wide field-of-view color image with a high-resolution inset to efficiently match the pilot's visual capability. The image generator is a derivative of the LTV-developed visual system installed in the A-7E Weapon System Trainer at NAS Cecil Field. The Photography Based Image Generator is based on patented LTV technology for high resolution, multi-channel, real world visual simulation. Special provisions were developed for driving the NTSC-developed and patented Helmet Mounted Laser Projector. These include a special 1023-line raster format, an electronic image blending technique, spherical lens mapping for dome projection, a special computer interface for head/eye tracking and flight parameters, special software, and a number of data bases. Good gaze angle tracking is critical to the use of the NTSC projector in a flight simulation environment. The Photography Based Image Generator provides superior dynamic response by performing a relatively simple perspective transformation on stored, high-detail photography instead of generating this detail by "brute force" computer image generation methods. With this approach, high detail can be displayed and updated at the television field rate (60 Hz).

  14. Combining SDM-Based Circuit Switching with Packet Switching in a Router for On-Chip Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Kuti Lusala; Jean-Didier Legat

    2012-01-01

    A Hybrid router architecture for Networks-on-Chip “NoC” is presented, it combines Spatial Division Multiplexing “SDM” based circuit switching and packet switching in order to efficiently and separately handle both streaming and best-effort traffic generated in real-time applications. Furthermore the SDM technique is combined with Time Division Multiplexing “TDM” technique in the circuit switching part in order to increase path diversity, thus improving throughput while sharing communication r...

  15. Design of Three-Phase Sine Wave Generator Based on Single-Chip Microcomputer%基于单片机的三相正弦波发生器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴波; 贾彬彬; 赵亮

    2012-01-01

    The design of waveform generator based on MSP430F169 is describe, which produces three-phase sinusoidal wave with phase difference of each others 120 °. The basic principle is depositing the sine-wave data in the MCU in advance, then the internal DAC0 and DAC1 are controled to update the output by the internal timers as the sine-wave data. The A phase and B phase we have got constitute the C phase basing on the principle that the instantaneous value of three-phase alternating current is zero. Amplitude and frequency are adjustable. Amplitude can be enlarged through the programmable amplifier.and freauencv is set bv the MCU%介绍了基于MSP430F169单片机的波形发生器,产生相位差互为120°的三相正弦波.基本原理是将正弦波数据预先存入单片机,利用单片机定时器来控制片内DAC0和DACl两路数模转换模块按所存数据更新输出,发出A相和B相正弦波,依据三相交流电瞬时值之和为零的原理合成C相正弦波.幅值、频率均可调,幅值通过程控放大器放大,频率通过单片机设定.

  16. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid.

  17. A full on-chip, low noise, low power consumption reference generator in monolithic active pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) is a promising choice to track charged particles in high energy physics experiments, such as the solenoidal tracker at RHIC (STAR). In order to achieve a clean reference voltage and simplify the cable placement, a full on-chip reference generator is presented in this paper. By utilizing a buffer and a series RC network, the proposed circuit can achieve good stability, low power and low noise, without any external components. The output voltage is adjustable to compensate the influence of the fabrication process. The generator has been implemented and fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process. Its silicon area is 327 μm×119 μm. The total power dissipation is 677 μW at a supply voltage of 3.3 V. The measured results show that only 5.84% of the total noise in MAPS is induced by the proposed reference generator. The comparison with the other optional circuit based on a current buffer is also presented.

  18. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an

  19. An electrically driven, ultrahigh-speed, on-chip light emitter based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tatsuya; Yamauchi, Yohei; Honda, Satoshi; Maki, Hideyuki

    2014-06-11

    The integration of high-speed light emitters on silicon chips is an important issue that must be resolved in order to realize on-chip or interchip optical interconnects. Here, we demonstrate the first electrically driven ultrafast carbon nanotube (CNT) light emitter based on blackbody radiation with a response speed (1-10 Gbps) that is more than 10(6) times higher than that of conventional incandescent emitters and is either higher than or comparable to that of light-emitting diodes or laser diodes. This high-speed response is explained by the extremely fast temperature response of the CNT film, which is dominated by the small heat capacity of the CNT film and its high heat dissipation to the substrate. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate 140 ps width pulsed light generation and real-time optical communication. This CNT-based emitter with the advantages of ultrafast response speeds, a small footprint, and integration on silicon can enable novel architectures for optical interconnects, photonic, and optoelectronic integrated circuits. PMID:24796644

  20. Skeleton-based OPC application for DSA full chip mask correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L.; Farys, V.; Serret, E.; Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

    2015-09-01

    Recent industrial results around directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) have demonstrated the high potential of this technique [1-2]. The main advantage being cost reduction thanks to a reduced number of lithographic steps. Meanwhile, the associated correction for mask creation must account for the introduction of this new technique, maintaining a high level of accuracy and reliability. In order to create VIA (Vertical Interconnect Layer) layer, graphoepitaxy DSA can be used. The technique relies on the creation of a confinement guides where the BCP can separate into distinct regions and resulting patterns are etched in order to obtain an ordered series of VIA contact. The printing of the guiding pattern requires the use of classical lithography. Optical proximity correction (OPC) is applied to obtain the best suited guiding pattern allowing to match a specific design target. In this study, an original approach for DSA full chip mask optical proximity correction based on a skeleton representation of a guiding pattern is proposed. The cost function for an OPC process is based on minimizing the Central Placement Error (CPE), defined as the difference between an ideal skeleton target and a generated skeleton from a guiding contour. The high performance of this approach for DSA OPC full chip correction and its ability to minimize variability error on via placement is demonstrated and reinforced by the comparison with a rigorous model. Finally this Skeleton approach is highlighted as an appropriate tool for Design rules definition.

  1. Wavelet-Based Grid Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Leland

    1996-01-01

    Wavelets can provide a basis set in which the basis functions are constructed by dilating and translating a fixed function known as the mother wavelet. The mother wavelet can be seen as a high pass filter in the frequency domain. The process of dilating and expanding this high-pass filter can be seen as altering the frequency range that is 'passed' or detected. The process of translation moves this high-pass filter throughout the domain, thereby providing a mechanism to detect the frequencies or scales of information at every location. This is exactly the type of information that is needed for effective grid generation. This paper provides motivation to use wavelets for grid generation in addition to providing the final product: source code for wavelet-based grid generation.

  2. Integrated potentiometric detector for use in chip-based flow cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra; Manz

    2000-07-01

    A new kind of potentiometric chip sensor for ion-selective electrodes (ISE) based on a solvent polymeric membrane is described. The chip sensor is designed to trap the organic cocktail inside the chip and to permit sample solution to flow past the membrane. The design allows the sensor to overcome technical problems of ruggedness and would therefore be ideal for industrial processes. The sensor performance for a Ba2+-ISE membrane based on a Vogtle ionophore showed electrochemical behavior similar to that observed in conventional electrodes and microelectrode arrangements. PMID:10905321

  3. Thermal properties of AlN-based atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Armijo, Julien; Bouchoule, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the thermal properties of atom chips consisting o high thermal conductivity Aluminum Nitride (AlN) substrates on which gold microwires are directly deposited. We have measured the heating of wires of several widths and with different thermal couplings to the copper mount holding the chip. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model where the copper mount is treated as a heat sink and the thermal interface resistance between the wire and the substrate is vanishing. We give analytical formulas describing the different transient heating regimes and the steady state. We identify criteria to optimize the design of a chip as well as the maximal currents $I_c$ that can be fed in the wires. For a 600$\\mu$m thick-chip glued on a copper block with Epotek H77, we find $I_c=16$A for a 3$\\mu$m high, 200$\\mu$m wide-wire.

  4. A Universal Intelligent System-on-Chip Based Sensor Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ferri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for real-time/reliable/low-maintenance distributed monitoring systems, e.g., wireless sensor networks, has been becoming more and more evident in many applications in the environmental, agro-alimentary, medical, and industrial fields. The growing interest in technologies related to sensors is an important indicator of these new needs. The design and the realization of complex and/or distributed monitoring systems is often difficult due to the multitude of different electronic interfaces presented by the sensors available on the market. To address these issues the authors propose the concept of a Universal Intelligent Sensor Interface (UISI, a new low-cost system based on a single commercial chip able to convert a generic transducer into an intelligent sensor with multiple standardized interfaces. The device presented offers a flexible analog and/or digital front-end, able to interface different transducer typologies (such as conditioned, unconditioned, resistive, current output, capacitive and digital transducers. The device also provides enhanced processing and storage capabilities, as well as a configurable multi-standard output interface (including plug-and-play interface based on IEEE 1451.3. In this work the general concept of UISI and the design of reconfigurable hardware are presented, together with experimental test results validating the proposed device.

  5. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed. ► Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose in serum has been demonstrated. ► The array electronic biochip has high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity. ► Additional electrodes were designed on the chip to correct interferences. -- Abstract: An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications

  6. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuelian [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zang, Jianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Qing, E-mail: Qli@swu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Chang Ming, E-mail: ecmli@swu.edu.cn [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed. ► Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose in serum has been demonstrated. ► The array electronic biochip has high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity. ► Additional electrodes were designed on the chip to correct interferences. -- Abstract: An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications.

  7. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    NOVELTY - A silicon transducer chip (1) has parallel backplate and movable diaphragm (12) and forms an electrical capacitor. The chip and electronic circuit chip (3) are provided on either sides of intermediate chip (2). The chip (2) has openings (4,10) between two sides of the chip, to allow sound...... towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...

  8. A microwave chip-based beam splitter for low-energy guided electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, J; Weber, Ph; Hommelhoff, P

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the splitting of a low-energy electron beam by means of a microwave pseudopotential formed above a planar chip substrate. Beam splitting arises from smoothly transforming the transverse guiding potential for an electron beam from a single-well harmonic confinement into a double-well, thereby generating two separated output beams with $5\\,$mm lateral spacing. Efficient beam splitting is observed for electron kinetic energies up to $3\\,$eV, in excellent agreement with particle tracking simulations. Furthermore, we present a beam splitter potential that is numerically optimized towards coherent and adiabatic splitting of guided electron wave packets. Prospects for electron-based quantum matter-wave optics applications are discussed.

  9. Quantum-correlated photon pairs generated in a commercial 45nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor microelectronics chip

    CERN Document Server

    Gentry, Cale M; Wade, Mark W; Stevens, Martin J; Dyer, Shellee D; Zeng, Xiaoge; Pavanello, Fabio; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P; Popović, Miloš A

    2015-01-01

    Correlated photon pairs are a fundamental building block of quantum photonic systems. While pair sources have previously been integrated on silicon chips built using customized photonics manufacturing processes, these often take advantage of only a small fraction of the established techniques for microelectronics fabrication and have yet to be integrated in a process which also supports electronics. Here we report the first demonstration of quantum-correlated photon pair generation in a device fabricated in an unmodified advanced (sub-100nm) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, alongside millions of working transistors. The microring resonator photon pair source is formed in the transistor layer structure, with the resonator core formed by the silicon layer typically used for the transistor body. With ultra-low continuous-wave on-chip pump powers ranging from 5 $\\mu$W to 400 $\\mu$W, we demonstrate pair generation rates between 165 Hz and 332 kHz using >80% efficient WSi superconducting nano...

  10. Test Time Reduction Reusing Multiple Processors in a Network-on-Chip Based Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Amory, Alexandre M.; Lubaszewski, Marcelo; Moraes, Fernando G.; Moreno, Edson I.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing complexity and the short life cycles of embedded systems are pushing the current system-on-chip designs towards a rapid increasing on the number of programmable processing units, while decreasing the gate count for custom logic. Considering this trend, this work proposes a test planning method capable of reusing available processors as test sources and sinks, and the on-chip network as the test access mechanism. Experimental results are based on ITC'02 benchmarks and on two ope...

  11. Neural network predicts sequence of TP53 gene based on DNA chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, J.S.; Wikman, F.; Lu, M.L.;

    2002-01-01

    We have trained an artificial neural network to predict the sequence of the human TP53 tumor suppressor gene based on a p53 GeneChip. The trained neural network uses as input the fluorescence intensities of DNA hybridized to oligonucleotides on the surface of the chip and makes between zero...... and four errors in the predicted 1300 bp sequence when tested on wild-type TP53 sequence....

  12. Storage stability of banana chips in polypropylene based nanocomposite packaging films

    OpenAIRE

    Manikantan, M. R.; Sharma, Rajiv; Kasturi, R.; Varadharaju, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposite films of 15 different compositions of nanoclay, compatibilizer and thickness were developed and used for packaging and storage of banana chips. The effect of nanocomposite films on the quality characteristics viz. moisture content (MC), water activity (WA), total color difference(TCD), breaking force (BF), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value(PV), total plate count (TPC) and overall acceptability score of banana chips under ambient condit...

  13. AC Zeeman potentials for atom chip-based ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Ziltz, Austin; Aubin, Seth

    2015-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical progress on using the AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-fields from an atom chip to manipulate and eventually trap ultracold atoms. These AC Zeeman potentials are inherently spin-dependent and can be used to apply qualitatively different potentials to different spin states simultaneously. Furthermore, AC Zeeman traps are compatible with the large DC magnetic fields necessary for accessing Feshbach resonances. Applications include spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry and experiments in 1D many-body physics. Initial experiments and results are geared towards observing the bipolar detuning-dependent nature of the AC Zeeman force at 6.8 GHz with ultracold 87Rb atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip. Experimental work is also underway towards working with potassium isotopes at frequencies of 1 GHz and below. Theoretical work is focused on atom chip designs for AC Zeeman traps produced by magnetic near-fields, while also incorporating the effect of the related electric near-fields. Electromagnetic simulations of atom chip circuits are used for mapping microwave propagation in on-chip transmission line structures, accounting for the skin effect, and guiding impedance matching.

  14. A simple elastic membrane-based microfluidic chip for the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells under tensile stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinghua; Zhang, Xu; Tong, Huiyu; Lin, Bingcheng; Qin, Jianhua

    2011-11-01

    This work presents a simple membrane-based microfluidic chip for the investigation of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under mechanical stimuli. The cyclic tensile stress was generated by the deformation of elastic PDMS membrane sandwiched between the two layer microfluidic chip via actuated negative pressure, and the cultured MSCs on membrane were subjected to different orders of tensile stress. The results suggest that mechanical stimuli are attributed to the different phenomena of MSCs in cell proliferation and differentiation. The higher tensile stress (>3.5) promoted obvious proliferation, osteogenesis and reduced adipogenesis in MSCs, indicating the possible regulative role of tensile stress in modifying the osteogenesis/adipogenesis balance in the development of tissue organ. PMID:22072525

  15. On-Chip Built-in Jitter Measurement Circuit for PLL Based on Duty-Cycle Modulation Vernier Delay Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Fei; Chung Len Lee; ZHANG Jingkai

    2007-01-01

    Phase-locked loops (PLLs) are essential wherever a local event is synchronized with a periodic external event. They are utilized as on-chip clock frequency generators to synthesize a low skew and higher internal frequency clock from an external lower frequency signal and its characterization and measurement have recently been calling for more and more attention. In this paper, a built-in on-chip circuit for measuring jitter of PLL based on a duty cycle modulation vernier delay line is proposed and demonstrated. The circuit employs two delay lines to measure the timing difference and transform the difference signal into digital words. The vernier lines are composed of delay cells whose duty cycle can be adjusted by a feedback voltage. It enables the circuit to have a self calibration capability which eliminates the mismatch problem caused by the process variation.

  16. Using a circular groove surrounded inlet to generate monodisperse droplets inside a microfluidic chip in a gravity-driven manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to generate uniform-sized nanoliter droplets inside a simple microfluidic chip was developed by using a circular groove to break off the liquid infused from the surrounded inlet. We characterized the droplet formation by using circular grooves with different diameters ranging from 1.2 to 2.4 mm. Monodisperse droplets with a very narrow size distribution (RSD < 0.56%, n = 70 droplets) can be reliably produced and the volume of droplets varied between 74 and 576 nl by using different circular grooves. Influences of liquid properties on droplet formation were also investigated, including surface tension, viscosity and density. Moreover, the transport of droplets and reliable coalescing of two neighboring droplets were realized by using Y-shaped guiding lanes with two different designs. Controlling the velocities of each droplet based on their different physical properties or slowing down the first droplet relying on a pinched segment of the guiding lane has been developed. These methods have been used to control the contact conditions of two reagents coalescing in a 'head-to-tail' mode

  17. AC electric field induced dipole-based on-chip 3D cell rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhal, Prateek; Chase, J Geoffrey; Gaynor, Paul; Oback, Björn; Wang, Wenhui

    2014-08-01

    The precise rotation of suspended cells is one of the many fundamental manipulations used in a wide range of biotechnological applications such as cell injection and enucleation in nuclear transfer (NT) cloning. Noticeably scarce among the existing rotation techniques is the three-dimensional (3D) rotation of cells on a single chip. Here we present an alternating current (ac) induced electric field-based biochip platform, which has an open-top sub-mm square chamber enclosed by four sidewall electrodes and two bottom electrodes, to achieve rotation about the two axes, thus 3D cell rotation. By applying an ac potential to the four sidewall electrodes, an in-plane (yaw) rotating electric field is generated and in-plane rotation is achieved. Similarly, by applying an ac potential to two opposite sidewall electrodes and the two bottom electrodes, an out-of-plane (pitch) rotating electric field is generated and rolling rotation is achieved. As a prompt proof-of-concept, bottom electrodes were constructed with transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) using the standard lift-off process and the sidewall electrodes were constructed using a low-cost micro-milling process and then assembled to form the chip. Through experiments, we demonstrate rotation of bovine oocytes of ~120 μm diameter about two axes, with the capability of controlling the rotation direction and the rate for each axis through control of the ac potential amplitude, frequency, and phase shift, and cell medium conductivity. The maximum observed rotation rate reached nearly 140° s⁻¹, while a consistent rotation rate reached up to 40° s⁻¹. Rotation rate spectra for zona pellucida-intact and zona pellucida-free oocytes were further compared and found to have no effective difference. This simple, transparent, cheap-to-manufacture, and open-top platform allows additional functional modules to be integrated to become a more powerful cell manipulation system.

  18. Impulse radio ultrawideband pulse shaper based on a programmable photonic chip frequency discriminator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, David; Chevalier, Ludovic; Burla, Maurizio; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We report and experimentally demonstrate the generation of impulse radio ultrawideband (UWB) pulses using a photonic chip frequency discriminator. The discriminator consists of three add-drop optical ring resonators (ORRs) which are fully programmable using thermo-optical tuning. This discriminator

  19. GEM400: A front-end chip based on capacitor-switch array for pixel-based GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrade of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) needs two-dimensional position-sensitive detection equipment to improve the experimental performance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector, in particular, pixel-based GEM detector has good application prospects in the domain of synchrotron radiation. The read-out of larger scale pixel-based GEM detector is difficult for the high density of the pixels (PAD for collecting electrons). In order to reduce the number of cables, this paper presents a read-out scheme for pixel-based GEM detector, which is based on System-in-Package technology and ASIC technology. We proposed a circuit structure based on capacitor switch array circuit, and design a chip GEM400, which is a 400 channels ASIC. The proposed circuit can achieve good stability and low power dissipation. The chip is implemented in a 0.35μm CMOS process. The basic functional circuitry in ths chip includes analog switch, analog buffer, voltage amplifier, bandgap and control logic block, and the layout of this chip takes 5mm × 5mm area. The simulation results show that the chip can allow the maximum amount of input charge 70pC on the condition of 100pF external integrator capacitor. Besides, the chip has good channel uniformity (INL is better than 0.1%) and lower power dissipation.

  20. Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in an On-Chip Li NbO 3 Microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintian; Xu, Yingxin; Ni, Jielei; Wang, Min; Fang, Zhiwei; Qiao, Lingling; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2016-07-01

    The realization of an efficient nonlinear parametric process in microresonators is a challenging issue largely because of an inherent difficulty in simultaneously ensuring the phase-matching condition and a coherent multiple-resonance condition for all the waves participating in the nonlinear conversion process. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator fabricated by femtosecond-laser direct writing. We overcome the above difficulty by selectively exciting high-order modes in the fabricated thin-disk microresonator. Thanks to the low optical absorption and high nonlinear optical coefficient of LiNbO3 crystal, we achieve a normalized conversion efficiency of 1.106 ×10-3/mW in the on-chip LiNbO3 microdisk with a diameter of approximately 102 μ m .

  1. Graphene-Boron Nitride Heterostructure Based Optoelectronic Devices for On-Chip Optical Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanda

    Graphene has emerged as an appealing material for a variety of optoelectronic applications due to its unique electrical and optical characteristics. In this thesis, I will present recent advances in integrating graphene and graphene-boron nitride (BN) heterostructures with confined optical architectures, e.g. planar photonic crystal (PPC) nanocavities and silicon channel waveguides, to make this otherwise weakly absorbing material optically opaque. Based on these integrations, I will further demonstrate the resulting chip-integrated optoelectronic devices for optical interconnects. After transferring a layer of graphene onto PPC nanocavities, spectral selectivity at the resonance frequency and orders-of-magnitude enhancement of optical coupling with graphene have been observed in infrared spectrum. By applying electrostatic potential to graphene, electro-optic modulation of the cavity reflection is possible with contrast in excess of 10 dB. And furthermore, a novel and complex modulator device structure based on the cavity-coupled and BN-encapsulated dual-layer graphene capacitor is demonstrated to operate at a speed of 1.2 GHz. On the other hand, an enhanced broad-spectrum light-graphene interaction coupled with silicon channel waveguides is also demonstrated with ?0.1 dB/?m transmission attenuation due to graphene absorption. A waveguide-integrated graphene photodetector is fabricated and shown 0.1 A/W photoresponsivity and 20 GHz operation speed. An improved version of a similar photodetector using graphene-BN heterostructure exhibits 0.36 A/W photoresponsivity and 42 GHz response speed. The integration of graphene and graphene-BN heterostructures with nanophotonic architectures promises a new generation of compact, energy-efficient, high-speed optoelectronic device concepts for on-chip optical communications that are not yet feasible or very difficult to realize using traditional bulk semiconductors.

  2. Rational design of on-chip refractive index sensors based on lattice plasmon resonances (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-08-01

    Lattice plasmon resonances (LPRs), which originate from the plasmonic-photonic coupling in gold or silver nanoparticle arrays, possess ultra-narrow linewidth by suppressing the radiative damping and provide the possibility to develop the plasmonic sensors with high figure of merit (FOM). However, the plasmonic-photonic coupling is greatly suppressed when the nanoparticles are immobilized on substrates because the diffraction orders are cut off at the nanoparticle-substrate interfaces. Here, we develop the rational design of LPR structures for the high-performance, on-chip plasmonic sensors based on both orthogonal and parallel coupling. Our finite-difference time-domain simulations in the core/shell SiO2/Au nanocylinder arrays (NCAs) reveal that new modes of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) show up when the aspect ratio of the NCAs is increased. The height-induced LSPRs couple with the superstrate diffraction orders to generate the robust LPRs in asymmetric environment. The high wavelength sensitivity and narrow linewidth in these LPRs lead to the plasmonic sensors with high FOM and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Wide working wavelengths from visible to near-infrared are also achieved by tuning the parameters of the NCAs. Moreover, the wide detection range of refractive index is obtained in the parallel LPR structure. The electromagnetic field distributions in the NCAs demonstrate the height-enabled tunability of the plasmonic "hot spots" at the sub-nanoparticles resolution and the coupling between these "hot spots" with the superstrate diffraction waves, which are responsible for the high performance LPRs-based on-chip refractive index sensors.

  3. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic chips based on the simplest LED lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfluidic chips are generally fabricated by a soft lithography method employing commercial lithography equipment. These heavy machines require a critical room environment and high lamp power, and the cost remains too high for most normal laboratories. Here we present a novel microfluidics fabrication method utilizing a portable ultraviolet (UV) LED as an alternative UV source for photolithography. With this approach, we can repeat several common microchannels as do these conventional commercial exposure machines, and both the verticality of the channel sidewall and lithography resolution are proved to be acceptable. Further microfluidics applications such as mixing, blood typing and microdroplet generation are implemented to validate the practicability of the chips. This simple but innovative method decreases the cost and requirement of chip fabrication dramatically and may be more popular with ordinary laboratories. (paper)

  4. Generation, transmission, and detection of terahertz photons on an electrically driven single chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Kenji; Ito, Atsushi; Okano, Shun [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate single photon counting of terahertz (THz) waves transmitted from a local THz point source through a coplanar two-wire waveguide on a GaAs/AlGaAs single heterostructure crystal. In the electrically driven all-in-one chip, quantum Hall edge transport is used to achieve a noiseless injection current for a monochromatic point source of THz fields. The local THz fields are coupled to a coplanar two-wire metal waveguide and transmitted over a macroscopic scale greater than the wavelength (38 μm in GaAs). THz waves propagating on the waveguide are counted as individual photons by a quantum-dot single-electron transistor on the same chip. Photon counting on integrated high-frequency circuits will open the possibilities for on-chip quantum optical experiments.

  5. On-chip preparation of calcium alginate particles based on droplet templates formed by using a centrifugal microfluidic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Sun, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Chun-Guang; Xu, Zhang-Run

    2016-03-15

    A novel chip-based approach for the fabrication of oblate spheriodal calcium alginate particles was developed by combining the droplet template method and the centrifugal microfluidic strategy. Circular chips with multiple radial channels were designed. Sodium alginate solutions in radial channels were flung into CaCl2 solutions in the form of droplets under centrifugal force, and the droplets transformed into particles through cross-linking reaction. The size and morphology of particles could be controlled by regulating the centrifugal force, the channel geometry and the distance between the channel outlet and the CaCl2 solution. The throughput of particle production was evidently enhanced by increasing the number of radial channels to 48 and 64. The coefficients of variation of particle sizes were in the range of 5.2-5.6%, which indicated the monodisperse particles could be prepared by using the present method. With the chip configuration readily modified, the same platform could be used to produce Janus particles. The Janus particles showed clear interfaces owing to the high flight speed and the rapid gelling process of the droplets. This method would be capable of generating particles with complicated morphology and multifunction from diverse polymeric materials.

  6. A highly sensitive flow-through amperometric immunosensor based on the Peroxidase chip and enzyme-channeling principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeravik, J; Ruzgas, T; Fránek, M

    2003-10-01

    A concept based on the Peroxidase-chip (P-chip), antibody co-immobilization, competitive and enzyme-channeling principle was exploited to develop an integrated flow-through amperometric biosensor for detection of environmental pollutants such as s-triazine herbicides. In this concept, recombinant peroxidase is immobilized on the gold electrode (P-chip) in such a way that direct electron transfer is achieved. The recognition and quantitation the target analyte is realized through the competition between the simazine-glucose oxidase (GOD) conjugate and free simazine for the binding sites of the monoclonal antibody co-immobilized with peroxidase on the gold electrode. The arrangement allows to generate a specific signal in the presence of glucose through the channeling of H2O2 produced by GOD conjugate bound to the antibody. The immunosensor exhibited 50% signal decrease (IC50 value) at approximately 0.02 microg l(-1). A concentration of 0.1 ng l(-1) gave a signal clearly distinguishable from the blank whereas the ELISA using the same antibody had a typical detection limit of about 1 microg l(-1), which is four orders of magnitude higher compared to the presented biosensor system. The results demonstrated that gene engineering biomolecules, in this case recombinant peroxidase, might be attractive reagents for the development of electrochemical immunosensors. PMID:12896832

  7. Titanium based flat heat pipes for computer chip cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Gaurav; Ding, Changsong; Sigurdson, Marin; Bozorgi, Payam; Piorek, Brian; MacDonald, Noel; Meinhart, Carl

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a highly conductive flat heat pipe (called Thermal Ground Plane or TGP) for cooling computer chips. Conventional heat pipes have circular cross sections and thus can't make good contact with chip surface. The flatness of our TGP will enable conformal contact with the chip surface and thus enhance cooling efficiency. Another limiting factor in conventional heat pipes is the capillary flow of the working fluid through a wick structure. In order to overcome this limitation we have created a highly porous wick structure on a flat titanium substrate by using micro fabrication technology. We first etch titanium to create very tall micro pillars with a diameter of 5 μm, a height of 40 μm and a pitch of 10 μm. We then grow a very fine nano structured titania (NST) hairs on all surfaces of the pillars by oxidation in H202. In this way we achieve a wick structure which utilizes multiple length scales to yield high performance wicking of water. It's capable of wicking water at an average velocity of 1 cm/s over a distance of several cm. A titanium cavity is laser-welded onto the wicking substrate and a small quantity of water is hermetically sealed inside the cavity to achieve a TGP. The thermal conductivity of our preliminary TGP was measured to be 350 W/m-K, but has the potential to be several orders of magnitude higher.

  8. 76 FR 26283 - Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Blue Chip Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. On-chip Mode Multiplexer Based on a Single Grating Coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing;

    2012-01-01

    A two-mode multiplexer based on a single grating coupler is proposed and demonstrated on a silicon chip. The LP01 and LP11 modes of a few-mode fiber are excited from TE0 and TE1 silicon waveguide modes.......A two-mode multiplexer based on a single grating coupler is proposed and demonstrated on a silicon chip. The LP01 and LP11 modes of a few-mode fiber are excited from TE0 and TE1 silicon waveguide modes....

  10. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl;

    2014-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the di......We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches...

  11. Real-time tunability of chip-based light source enabled by microfluidic mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Rasmussen, Torben; Balslev, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate real-time tunability of a chip-based liquid light source enabled by microfluidic mixing. The mixer and light source are fabricated in SU-8 which is suitable for integration in SU-8-based laboratory-on-a-chip microsystems. The tunability of the light source is achieved by changing...... the concentration of rhodamine 6G dye inside two integrated vertical resonators, since both the refractive index and the gain profile are influenced by the dye concentration. The effect on the refractive index and the gain profile of rhodamine 6G in ethanol is investigated and the continuous tuning of the laser...

  12. Simulation-based Modeling Frameworks for Networked Multi-processor System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with modeling aspects of multi-processor system-on-chip (MpSoC) design affected by the on-chip interconnect, also called the Network-on-Chip (NoC), at various levels of abstraction. To begin with, we undertook a comprehensive survey of research and design practices of networked Mp......SoC. The survey presents the challenges of modeling and performance analysis of the hardware and the software components used in such devices. These challenges are further exasperated in a mixed abstraction workspace, which is typical of complex MpSoC design environment. We provide two simulation-based frameworks...... and the RIPE frameworks allows easy incorporation of IP cores from either frameworks, into a new instance of the design. This could pave the way for seamless design evaluation from system-level to cycletrue abstraction in future component-based MpSoC design practice....

  13. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  14. Fully integrated system-on-chip for pixel-based 3D depth and scene mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Martin; De Coi, Beat; Thalmann, Markus; Gancarz, Radoslav; Ferrat, Pascal; Dürmüller, Martin; Britt, Florian; Annese, Marco; Ledergerber, Markus; Catregn, Gion-Pol

    2012-03-01

    We present for the first time a fully integrated system-on-chip (SoC) for pixel-based 3D range detection suited for commercial applications. It is based on the time-of-flight (ToF) principle, i.e. measuring the phase difference of a reflected pulse train. The product epc600 is fabricated using a dedicated process flow, called Espros Photonic CMOS. This integration makes it possible to achieve a Quantum Efficiency (QE) of >80% in the full wavelength band from 520nm up to 900nm as well as very high timing precision in the sub-ns range which is needed for exact detection of the phase delay. The SoC features 8x8 pixels and includes all necessary sub-components such as ToF pixel array, voltage generation and regulation, non-volatile memory for configuration, LED driver for active illumination, digital SPI interface for easy communication, column based 12bit ADC converters, PLL and digital data processing with temporary data storage. The system can be operated at up to 100 frames per second.

  15. Multilayer-based lab-on-a-chip systems for perfused cell-based assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach, Udo; Sonntag, Frank; Grünzner, Stefan; Busek, Mathias; Schmieder, Florian; Franke, Volker

    2014-12-01

    A novel integrated technology chain of laser-microstructured multilayer foils for fast, flexible, and low-cost manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices especially for complex cell and tissue culture applications, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-cells ratio, was developed and established. Initially the microfluidic system is constructively divided into individual layers, which are formed by separate foils or plates. Based on the functional boundary conditions and the necessary properties of each layer, their corresponding foils and plates are chosen. In the third step, the foils and plates are laser microstructured and functionalized from both sides. In the fourth and last manufacturing step, the multiple plates and foils are joined using different bonding techniques like adhesive bonding, welding, etc. This multilayer technology together with pneumatically driven micropumps and valves permits the manufacturing of fluidic structures and perfusion systems, which spread out above multiple planes. Based on the established lab-on-a-chip platform for perfused cell-based assays, a multilayer microfluidic system with two parallel connected cell culture chambers was successfully implemented.

  16. Lab on a chip-based hepatic sinusoidal system simulator for optimal primary hepatocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jaehyung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Sik

    2016-08-01

    Primary hepatocyte cultures have been used in studies on liver disease, physiology, and pharmacology. While they are an important tool for in vitro liver studies, maintaining liver-specific characteristics of hepatocytes in vitro is difficult, as these cells rapidly lose their unique characteristics and functions. Portal flow is an important condition to preserve primary hepatocyte functions and liver regeneration in vivo. We have developed a microfluidic chip that does not require bulky peripheral devices or an external power source to investigate the relationship between hepatocyte functional maintenance and flow rates. In our culture system, two types of microfluidic devices were used as scaffolds: a monolayer- and a concave chamber-based device. Under flow conditions, our chips improved albumin and urea secretion rates after 13 days compared to that of the static chips. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that hepatocyte-specific gene expression was significantly higher at 13 days under flow conditions than when using static chips. For both two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture on the chips, flow resulted in the best performance of the hepatocyte culture in vitro. We demonstrated that flow improves the viability and efficiency of long-term culture of primary hepatocytes and plays a key role in hepatocyte function. These results suggest that this flow system has the potential for long-term hepatocyte cultures as well as a technique for three-dimensional culture. PMID:27334878

  17. PPNOCS: Performance and Power Network on Chip Simulator based on SystemC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed M. Saad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As technology moves towards multi-core system-on-chips (SoCs, networks-on-chip (NoCs are emerging as the scalable fabric for interconnecting the cores. Network-on-Chip architectures have a wide variety of parameters that can be adapted to the designers requirements. This paper proposes a performance and power network on chip simulator (PPNOCS based on SystemC to explore the impact of various architectural level parameters of the on-chip interconnection network elements on its performance and power. PPNOCS supports an arbitrary size of mesh and torus topology, adopts five classic routing algorithms and seven synthetic traffic patterns. Developers also can develop and verify their own network design by modifying the corresponding modules. Experiments of using this simulator are carried out to study the power, latency and throughput of a 4x4 multi-core mesh network topology. Results show that PPNOCS provides a fast and convenient platform for researching and verification of NoC architectures and routing algorithms.

  18. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelian; Zang, Jianfeng; Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Qing; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-04-10

    An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications.

  19. Integrated Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy chip based on liquid core waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Chunhong; Chen, Li; Li, Junhui; Liu, Qinghao; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We propose an integrated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) chip based on liquid-core waveguide with total reflection, through which the depression of leaky mode enable a long propagating distance. An Raman enhancement factor for rhodamine 6G of 2.5*105 is obtained, and a excellent repeatability is shown. The peaks in the SERS spectrum of DNA of silkworm clearly illustrate the information of the molecule structure. The integration of the SERS substrate, micro-fluid, and liquid-core waveguide make such a SERS chip attractive for biochemical detection with high performance.

  20. Test Time Reduction Reusing Multiple Processors in a Network-on-Chip Based Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Amory, Alexandre M; Moraes, Fernando G; Moreno, Edson I

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity and the short life cycles of embedded systems are pushing the current system-on-chip designs towards a rapid increasing on the number of programmable processing units, while decreasing the gate count for custom logic. Considering this trend, this work proposes a test planning method capable of reusing available processors as test sources and sinks, and the on-chip network as the test access mechanism. Experimental results are based on ITC'02 benchmarks and on two open core processors compliant with MIPS and SPARC instruction set. The results show that the cooperative use of both the on-chip network and the embedded processors can increase the test parallelism and reduce the test time without additional cost in area and pins.

  1. Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Flip Chip LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chih Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The GaN-based high-voltage flip chip light-emitting diode (HVFC-LED is designed and developed for the purpose of efficiency enhancement. In our design, the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR is deposited at the bonded substrate to increase the light extraction. After the flip chip process, the general current-voltage characteristics between the flip chip sample and the traditional sample are essentially the same. With the help of great thermal conductive silicon substrate and the bottom DBR, the HVFC-LED is able to enhance the power by 37.1% when compared to the traditional high-voltage LEDs. The wall-plug efficiencies of the HVFC-LED also show good droop reduction as high as 9.9% compared to the traditional devices.

  2. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode-Based Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Siles, Jose V.; Maestrini, Alain E.; Thomas, Bertrand; Jung, Cecile D.

    2013-01-01

    A 1.6-THz power-combined Schottky frequency tripler was designed to handle approximately 30 mW input power. The design of Schottky-based triplers at this frequency range is mainly constrained by the shrinkage of the waveguide dimensions with frequency and the minimum diode mesa sizes, which limits the maximum number of diodes that can be placed on the chip to no more than two. Hence, multiple-chip power-combined schemes become necessary to increase the power-handling capabilities of high-frequency multipliers. The design presented here overcomes difficulties by performing the power-combining directly on-chip. Four E-probes are located at a single input waveguide in order to equally pump four multiplying structures (featuring two diodes each). The produced output power is then recombined at the output using the same concept.

  3. A PRIORITY-BASED POLLING SCHEDULING ALGORITHM FOR ARBITRATION POLICY IN NETWORK ON CHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Liyong; Zhao Dongfeng; Zhao Yifan

    2012-01-01

    A solution is imperatively expected to meet the efficient contention resolution schemes for managing simultaneous access requests to the communication resources on the Network on Chip (NoC).Based on the ideas of conflict-free transmission,priority-based service,and dynamic self-adaptation to loading,this paper presents a novel scheduling algorithm for Medium Access Control (MAC) in NoC with the researches of the communication structure features of 2D mesh.The algorithm gives priority to guarantee the Quality of Service (QoS) for local input port as well as dynamic adjustment of the performance of the other ports along with input load change.The theoretical model of this algorithm is established with Markov chain and probability generating function.Mathematical analysis is made on the mean queue length and the mean inquiry cyclic time of the system.Simulated experiments are conducted to test the accuracy of the model.It turns out that the findings from theoretical analysis correspond well with those from simulated experiments.Further more,the analytical findings of the system performance demonstrate that the algorithm enables effectively strengthen the fairness and stability of data transmissions in NoC.

  4. Secure chip based encrypted search protocol in mobile office environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-A Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with largely two security problems between the cloud computing service and trusted platform module (TPM chip as a mobile convergent technology. At first, we solve the social issues from inside attackers, which is caused by that we regard server managers as trustworthy. In order to solve this problem, we propose encrypted DB retrieval system whose server manager cannot access on real data (plaintexts in mobile office environments of the cloud datacenter. The other problem is that cloud computing has limitless computing resources; however, it faces with the vulnerability of security. On the other hand, the TPM technology has been known as a symbol of physical security; however, it has the severe limitation of use such as hardware constraints or limited amount of non-volatile memory. To overcome the weakness and produce synergic effects between the two technologies, we combine two applications (cloud datacenter service, TPM chip as a mobile convergent technology. The main methods are TPM-security-client and masked keys. With these methods, the real keys are stored in TPM and the faked keys (masked keys are implemented for computations instead of real keys. Thus, the result of the faked keys is the same as the real keys. Consequently, this system is secure against both of the insiders and outsiders, the cloud computing service can improve security weaknesses.

  5. Fiber‐free coupling between bulk laser beams and on‐chip polymer‐based multimode waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Nielsen, Lars Bue; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2011-01-01

    light from a bulk beam to on‐chip waveguides and back into a bulk beam again. Using this setup, as much as 20% of the light coming from the source can be retrieved after passing through the on‐chip waveguides. The proposed setup is based on a pin‐aided alignment system that makes it possible to change...

  6. The output one-port flyback type switch design basing on the TOP261YN chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It introduces the output one-port flyback type switch basing on the TOP261YN chip. It analyzes this switch's working principles and design scheme. By using the flyback circuit and combining the peripheral feedback and pulse width modulation circuit, the power supply achieves high output as well as multiplexing. Experimental results show that the switch power supply has good performance. (authors)

  7. Human-on-a-chip design strategies and principles for physiologically based pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Advances in maintaining multiple human tissues on microfluidic platforms has led to a growing interest in the development of microphysiological systems for drug development studies. Determination of the proper design principles and scaling rules for body-on-a-chip systems is critical for their strategic incorporation into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model-aided drug development. While the need for a functional design considering organ-organ interactions has been considered, robust design criteria and steps to build such systems have not yet been defined mathematically. In this paper, we first discuss strategies for incorporating body-on-a-chip technology into the current PBPK modeling-based drug discovery to provide a conceptual model. We propose two types of platforms that can be involved in the different stages of PBPK modeling and drug development; these are μOrgans-on-a-chip and μHuman-on-a-chip. Then we establish the design principles for both types of systems and develop parametric design equations that can be used to determine dimensions and operating conditions. In addition, we discuss the availability of the critical parameters required to satisfy the design criteria, consider possible limitations for estimating such parameter values and propose strategies to address such limitations. This paper is intended to be a useful guide to the researchers focused on the design of microphysiological platforms for PBPK/PD based drug discovery. PMID:25739725

  8. An AES chip with DPA resistance using hardware-based random order execution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Bo; Li Xiangyu; Chen Cong; Sun Yihe; Wu Liji; Zhang Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an AES (advanced encryption standard) chip that combats differential power analysis (DPA) side-channel attack through hardware-based random order execution.Both decryption and encryption procedures of an AES are implemented on the chip.A fine-grained dataflow architecture is proposed,which dynamically exploits intrinsic byte-level independence in the algorithm.A novel circuit called an HMF (Hold-Match-Fetch) unit is proposed for random control,which randomly sets execution orders for concurrent operations.The AES chip was manufactured in SMIC 0.18 μm technology.The average energy for encrypting one group of plain texts (128 bits secrete keys) is 19 nJ.The core area is 0.43 mm2.A sophisticated experimental setup was built to test the DPA resistance.Measurement-based experimental results show that one byte of a secret key cannot be disclosed from our chip under random mode after 64000 power traces were used in the DPA attack.Compared with the corresponding fixed order execution,the hardware based random order execution is improved by at least 21 times the DPA resistance.

  9. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times.

  10. Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry with Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Sven; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gebbe, Martina; Muentinga, Hauke; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Quantus Team

    2015-05-01

    Today's generation of inertial sensitive atom interferometers typically operate with sources of laser cooled atoms and thus their performance is limited by velocity spread and finite-size effects that impose systematic uncertainties. Ultra-cold sources such as a BEC or even delta-kick cooled atomic ensembles with extremely narrow velocity dispersion are able to overcome these limitations and are crucial for obtaining high-fidelity beam splitters. Atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate a BEC and perform delta-kick cooling in a fast and reliable away. We show a combination of such an ensemble generated in a miniaturized atom-chip setup with the application of low-loss Bragg beam splitting to perform inertial sensitive measurements. A specialty of this setup is the retro-reflection of the beam splitting light field from the atom-chip itself, serving as inertial reference in vacuum. This allows for a compact realization of a quantum gravimeter determining the local gravitational acceleration to the scale of local variations limited by seismic noise. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50 1131-1137 (QUANTUS-III).

  11. Simulation and experimental validation of a SU-8 based PCR thermocycler chip with integrated heaters and temperature sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ali, Jamil; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Poulsen, Claus Riber;

    2004-01-01

    can allow on chip integration to other SU-8 based functional elements. Finite element modeling (FEM) and experiments show that the temperature distribution in the PCR chamber is homogeneous and that the chip is capable of fast thermal cycling. With heating and cooling rates of up to 50 and 30 degrees......We present a SU-8 based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with integrated platinum thin film heaters and temperature sensor. The device is fabricated in SU-8 on a glass substrate. The use of SU-8 provides a simple microfabrication process for the PCR chamber, controllable surface properties and......C/s, respectively, the performance of the chip is comparable with the best silicon micromachined PCR chips presented in the literature. The SU-8 chamber surface was found to be PCR compatible by amplification of yeast gene ribosomal protein S3 and Campylobacter gene cadF. The PCR compatibility of the chamber...

  12. Reconfigurable symmetric pulses generation using on-chip cascaded optical differentiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-09-01

    We report a type of programmable pulse shaping method based on cascaded frequency-detuned optical differentiators. By properly adjusting the central wavelength of each differentiator, a large variety of symmetric pulses can be generated from a transform-limited Gaussian-like pulse. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate the generation of flat-top, parabolic and triangular pulses with tunable pulse widths from a 20-ps Gaussian-like pulse, using no more than three cascaded differentiators. It can be found that as more differentiators are used, higher synthesized accuracy and larger tuning range of pulse widths can be obtained in general. Additionally, in our experiment, we design and fabricate thermally tunable delay interferometers on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform to work as optical differentiators, which can help us realize the shaping system with small footprint (943μm × 395μm) and high stability. PMID:27607657

  13. Application of dry film resist in the fabrication of microfluidic chips for droplet generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined use of film transparency masks and dry laminar resist (Shipley 5038) has enabled the rapid fabrication of prototype devices for droplet generation. The resolution limit of structures in the resist was controlled by the type of mask (transparency or electron beam Cr mask), the density of the pattern in transparency masks (2400 or 5080 dpi) and the thickness of the resist in the range of 35–140 µm. Flow-focusing devices with master patterns based on dry film resist were replicated as a Ni shim and hot embossed into Plexiglas 99524. These devices were used to generate oil/water droplets with a well-defined dependence of diameter and frequency on the flow parameters

  14. Droplet-based Biosensing for Lab-on-a-Chip, Open Microfluidics Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dak, Piyush; Ebrahimi, Aida; Swaminathan, Vikhram; Duarte-Guevara, Carlos; Bashir, Rashid; Alam, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    Low cost, portable sensors can transform health care by bringing easily available diagnostic devices to low and middle income population, particularly in developing countries. Sample preparation, analyte handling and labeling are primary cost concerns for traditional lab-based diagnostic systems. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) platforms based on droplet-based microfluidics promise to integrate and automate these complex and expensive laboratory procedures onto a single chip; the cost will be further reduced if label-free biosensors could be integrated onto the LoC platforms. Here, we review some recent developments of label-free, droplet-based biosensors, compatible with "open" digital microfluidic systems. These low-cost droplet-based biosensors overcome some of the fundamental limitations of the classical sensors, enabling timely diagnosis. We identify the key challenges that must be addressed to make these sensors commercially viable and summarize a number of promising research directions.

  15. Droplet-based Biosensing for Lab-on-a-Chip, Open Microfluidics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Dak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low cost, portable sensors can transform health care by bringing easily available diagnostic devices to low and middle income population, particularly in developing countries. Sample preparation, analyte handling and labeling are primary cost concerns for traditional lab-based diagnostic systems. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC platforms based on droplet-based microfluidics promise to integrate and automate these complex and expensive laboratory procedures onto a single chip; the cost will be further reduced if label-free biosensors could be integrated onto the LoC platforms. Here, we review some recent developments of label-free, droplet-based biosensors, compatible with “open” digital microfluidic systems. These low-cost droplet-based biosensors overcome some of the fundamental limitations of the classical sensors, enabling timely diagnosis. We identify the key challenges that must be addressed to make these sensors commercially viable and summarize a number of promising research directions.

  16. Silicon-chip-based mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Mengjie; Griffith, Austin G; Picqué, Nathalie; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    On-chip spectroscopy that could realize real-time fingerprinting with label-free and high-throughput detection of trace molecules is one of the 'holy grails" of sensing. Such miniaturized spectrometers would greatly enable applications in chemistry, bio-medicine, material science or space instrumentation, such as hyperspectral microscopy of live cells or pharmaceutical quality control. Dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS), a recent technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy without moving parts, is particularly promising since it measures high-precision spectra in the gas phase using only a single detector. Here, we present a microresonator-based platform designed for mid-infrared (mid-IR) DCS. A single continuous-wave (CW) low-power pump source generates two mutually coherent mode-locked frequency combs spanning from 2.6 $\\mu$m to 4.1 $\\mu$m in two silicon micro-resonators. Thermal control and free-carrier injection control modelocking of each comb and tune the dual-comb parameters. The large line spacing of the co...

  17. Design and Fabrication of a Monolithic Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Chip Based on CMOS Compatible Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei-Feng; ZHAO Yong; WANG Wan-Jun; SHAO Hai-Feng; YANG Jian-Yi; JIANG Xiao-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit chip on a silicon-on-insulator is designed and fabricated based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible technology.The chip integrates an optical Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a CMOS driving circuit with the amplification function.Test results show that the extinction ratio of the MZM is close to 20dB and the small-signal gain of the CMOS driving circuit is about 26.9dB.A 50m V 10 MHz sine wave signal is amplified by the driving circuit,and then drives the MZM successfully.%A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit chip on a silicon-on-insulator is designed and fabricated based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible technology. The chip integrates an optical Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a CMOS driving circuit with the amplification function. Test results show that the extinction ratio of the MZM is close to 20 dB and the small-signal gain of the CMOS driving circuit is about 26.9dB. A 50mV 10MHz sine wave signal is amplified by the driving circuit, and then drives the MZM successfully.

  18. On-chip generation and guiding of quantum light from a site-controlled quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Ayesha; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P.; Jones, Geb A. C.; Ritchie, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Kalliakos, Sokratis; Ward, Martin B.; Ellis, David J. P.; Shields, Andrew J., E-mail: andrew.shields@crl.toshiba.co.uk [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Schwagmann, Andre; Brody, Yarden [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate the emission and routing of single photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an actively positioned InAs quantum dot. Device–scale arrays of quantum dots are formed by a two–step regrowth process. We precisely locate the propagating region of a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide with respect to the quantum dot nucleation site. Under pulsed optical excitation, the multiphoton emission probability from the waveguide's exit is 12% ± 5% before any background correction. Our results are a major step towards the deterministic integration of a quantum emitter with the waveguiding components of photonic quantum circuits.

  19. Network Traffic Generator Model for Fast Network-on-Chip Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Ang, Frederico; Olsen, Rasmus G.;

    2008-01-01

    and effective Network-on-Chip (NoC) development and debugging environment. By capturing the type and the timestamp of communication events at the boundary of an IP core in a reference environment, the TG can subsequently emulate the core's communication behavior in different environments. Access patterns...... and resource contention in a system are dependent on the interconnect architecture, and our TG is designed to capture the resulting reactiveness. The regenerated traffic, which represents a realistic workload, can thus be used to undertake faster architectural exploration of interconnection alternatives...

  20. A Network Traffic Generator Model for Fast Network-on-Chip Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Frederico; Storgaard, Michael;

    2005-01-01

    and effective Network-on-Chip (NoC) development and debugging environment. By capturing the type and the timestamp of communication events at the boundary of an IP core in a reference environment, the TG can subsequently emulate the core's communication behavior in different environments. Access patterns...... and resource contention in a system are dependent on the interconnect architecture, and our TG is designed to capture the resulting reactiveness. The regenerated traffic, which represents a realistic workload, can thus be used to undertake faster architectural exploration of interconnection alternatives...

  1. Development of an AOI system for chips with a hole on backside based on a frame imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Fu; Chou, Chih-Chung; Lien, Chun-Chien; Weng, Rui-Cian

    2016-01-01

    Defects exist for a few of IC chips during fabrication and packaging. The cost for follow-up processes can be reduced if chips with defect size of impacting chip quality can be inspected and removed during the earlier sorting process. Products will be more cost-effective and competitive. According to the inspecting requirements for microphone chips, developed AOI system has to detect the boundary flaws and hole-inside defects with size of greater than criteria from chips backside. Both the length and width of chip size are less than 5 mm and there's depth difference between the surface of chip backside and the hole-inside membrance. Thus image acquisition device is designed and implemented by an area scan imager and a telecentric lenses with a coaxial LED lighting module. Therefore we can ignore the image radiometric and geometric calibration, and keep off the shadow inside the rim of hole. An algorithm to detect defects and derive their size based on the edge pixels statistic distribution and binary chip edge image is selected. Developed AOI system then can meet the requirements of real-time defect inspection with high accuracy and performance. Frame opto-mechanical device has the spatial resolution of 5μm and FOV of 6.4 x 5.1 mm. And defect inspection can be completed within 150 ms for the chip size of 2.5 x 3.0 mm. The processes of image acquisition and defect inspection can be accomplished during the chip sorting process to satisfy the real-time online inspection. Inspected chips are placed in GO/NG trays in real-time according to their quality. From the verification results compared with the ones by microscope, the inspection accuracy is better than system requirements. The over kill rate is less than 0.3% and 3% for chip boundary flaws and hole-inside defects respectively. But it still can't be inspected correctly for the hole-inside defects of only one membrance breakage. In the future, we will improve the illumination and detecting algorithm to solve this

  2. Advanced Micro Narrows Gap in Race for New Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Markoff; 张宁

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hoping to catch up with Intel and I. B. M. in an advanced chip-making technology, the semiconductor maker Advanced Micro Devices plans to announce Tuesday that it has begun to ship chips based on an advanced manufacturing process that is being used to build the next generation of processors.

  3. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Kodzius, Rimantas; Li, Fuquan; Foulds, Ian G.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads® demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead® SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads® travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device. PMID:27571084

  4. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Kodzius, Rimantas; Li, Fuquan; Foulds, Ian G; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-08-26

    The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads(®) demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead(®) SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads(®) travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device.

  5. Development of single-chip fuzzy controller based on FFSI in binary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉礼; 欧进萍; 孙德兴

    2003-01-01

    Length and concise structure of fuzzy logic reasoning program and its real-time reasoning characteris-tic have their effect on the performance of a digital single-chip fuzzy controller. The control effect of a digitalfuzzy controller based on looking up fuzzy control responding table is only relative to the table and not relative tothe fuzzy control rules in the practical control process. Aiming at above problem and having combined fuzzy log-ic reasoning with digital operational characteristics of a single-chip microcomputer, functioning-fuzzy-subset in-ference (FFSI) in binary, in which triangle membership functions of error and error-in-change are all represen-ted in binary and singleton membership functions of control variable is binary too, has been introduced. The cir-cuit principle plans of a single-chip fuzzy controller have been introduced for development of its hardware, andthe primary program structure, fuzzy logic reasoning subroutine, serial communication subroutine with PC andreliability design of the fuzzy controller are all discussed in detail. The control of indoor temperature by a fuzzycontroller has been conducted using a testing-room thermodynamic system. Research results show that the FFSIin binary can exercise a concise fuzzy control in a single-chip fuzzy controller, and the fuzzy controller is there-fore reliable and possesses a high performance-price ratio.

  6. Debugging systems-on-chip communication-centric and abstraction-based techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This book describes an approach and supporting infrastructure to facilitate debugging the silicon implementation of a System-on-Chip (SOC), allowing its associated product to be introduced into the market more quickly.  Readers learn step-by-step the key requirements for debugging a modern, silicon SOC implementation, nine factors that complicate this debugging task, and a new debug approach that addresses these requirements and complicating factors.  The authors’ novel communication-centric, scan-based, abstraction-based, run/stop-based (CSAR) debug approach is discussed in detail, showing how it helps to meet debug requirements and address the nine, previously identified factors that complicate debugging silicon implementations of SOCs. The authors also derive the debug infrastructure requirements to support debugging of a silicon implementation of an SOC with their CSAR debug approach. This debug infrastructure consists of a generic on-chip debug architecture, a configurable automated design-for-debug ...

  7. Phase matched second harmonic generation in an on-chip lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jintian; Ni, Jielei; Wang, Min; Fang, Zhiwei; Qiao, Lingling; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes in whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators have attracted much attention. Owing to the strong confinement of light in a small volume, a WGM microresonator can dramatically boost the strength of light field, thereby promoting the nonlinear interaction between the light and the resonator material. However, realization of efficient nonlinear parametric process in microresonators is a challenging issue. The major difficulty is to simultaneously ensure the phase matching condition and a coherent multiple resonance condition for all the waves participating in the nonlinear conversion process. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient second harmonic generation (SHG) in an on-chip lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing. We overcome the difficulty of double resonance for the phase matched pump and second harmonic waves by selectively exciting high order modes in the fabricated thin-disk microresonator. Our technique opens opportunities for integrate...

  8. Physically Based Terrain Generation : Procedural Heightmap Generation Using Plate Tectonics

    OpenAIRE

    Viitanen, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the usefulness of the theory of plate tectonics in procedural terrain generation. The objective is to produce a model that's based on plate tectonics and use it to investigate the benefits and drawbacks of simulating the movement and dynamics of tectonic plates. The study briefly reviews the procedural methods that are currently used in the game and film industries to produce artificial terrain and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. Utilization of plate tectoni...

  9. Trip Generation Model Based on Destination Attractiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Liya; GUAN Hongzhi; YAN Hai

    2008-01-01

    Traditional trip generation forecasting methods use unified average trip generation rates to determine trip generation volumes in various traffic zones without considering the individual characteristics of each traffic zone.Therefore,the results can have significant errors.To reduce the forecasting error produced by uniform trip generation rates for different traffic zones,the behavior of each traveler was studied instead of the characteristics of the traffic zone.This paper gives a method for calculating the trip efficiency and the effect of traffic zones combined with a destination selection model based on disaggregate theory for trip generation.Beijing data is used with the trip generation method to predict trip volumes.The results show that the disaggregate model in this paper is more accurate than the traditional method.An analysis of the factors influencing traveler behavior and destination selection shows that the attractiveness of the traffic zone strongly affects the trip generation volume.

  10. Application Aware Topology Generation for Surface Wave Networks-on-Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fu; Zheng-Bing Hu; Cheng Gong; Wen-Ming Pan; Guo-Bin Lv

    2014-01-01

    The networks-on-chip (NoC) communica-tion has an increasingly larger impact on the system power consumption and performance. Emerging technologies, like surface wave, are believed to have lower transmission latency and power consumption over the conventional wireless NoC. Therefore, this paper studies how to optimize the network performance and power consumption by giving the packet-switching fabric and traffic pattern of each application. Compared with the conventional method of wire-linked, which adds wireless transceivers by using the genetic algorithm (GA), the proposed maximal declining sorting algorithm (MDSA) can effectively reduce time consumption by as much as 20.4% to 35.6%. We also evaluate the power consumption and configuration time to prove the effective of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Concentric Circular Grating Generated by the Patterning Trapping of Nanoparticles in an Optofluidic Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hailang; Cao, Zhuangqi; Wang, Yuxing; Li, Honggen; Sang, Minghuang; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Fan; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-08-23

    Due to the field enhancement effect of the hollow-core metal-cladded optical waveguide chip, massive nanoparticles in a solvent are effectively trapped via exciting ultrahigh order modes. A concentric ring structure of the trapped nanoparticles is obtained since the excited modes are omnidirectional at small incident angle. During the process of solvent evaporation, the nanoparticles remain well trapped since the excitation condition of the optical modes is still valid, and a concentric circular grating consisting of deposited nanoparticles can be produced by this approach. Experiments via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and diffraction of a probe laser confirmed the above hypothesis. This technique provides an alternative strategy to enable effective trapping of dielectric particles with low-intensity nonfocused illumination, and a better understanding of the correlation between the guided modes in an optical waveguide and the nanoparticles in a solvent.

  12. Partition-based Low Power DFT Methodology for System-on-chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-fei; CHEN Jian; FU Yu-zhuo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a partition-based Design-forTest (DFT) technique to reduce the power consumption during scan-based testing. This method is based on partitioning the chip into several independent scan domains. By enabling the scan domains alternatively, only a fraction of the entire chip will be active at the same time, leading to Iow power consumption during test. Therefore, it will significantly reduce the possibility of Electronic Migration and Overheating. In order to prevent the drop of fault coverage, wrappers on the boundaries between scan domains are employed. This paper also presents a detailed design flow based on Electronics Design Automation(EDA) tools from Synopsy(s) to implement the proposed test structure. The proposed DFT method is experimented on a state-of-theart System-on-chips (SOC). The simulation results show a significant reduction in both average and peak power dissipation without sacrificing the fault coverage and test time. This SOC has been taped out in TSMC and finished the final test in ADVANTEST.

  13. Signal Detection of Multi-Channel Capillary Electrophoresis Chip Based on CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongfeng; Yan, Weiping; Yang, Xiaobo; Li, Jiechao; Zhu, Jieying

    2012-12-01

    A kind of multi-channel capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip signal detection system based on CCD was developed. The output signal of the CCD sensor was processed by a series of pre-processing circuits and ADC, and then it was collected by the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip which communicated with a host computer. The core in FPGA was designed to control the signal flow of the CCD and transfer the data to PC based on a Nios II embedded soft-processor. The application of PC was used to store the data and demonstrate the curve. The measurement of the fluorescent signals for different concentration Rhodamine B dyes is presented and the comparison with other detection systems is also discussed.

  14. Direct current insulator based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) integrated microfluidics has been a powerful tool for new developments in analytical chemistry. These microfluidic systems enable the miniaturization, integration and automation of complex biochemical assays through the reduction of reagent use and enabling portability.Cell and particle separation in microfluidic systems has recently gained significant attention in many sample preparations for clinical procedures. Direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) ...

  15. A monolithic glass chip for active single-cell sorting based on mechanical phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Faigle, C.; Lautenschläger, F.; Whyte, G; Homewood, P.; Martín Badosa, Estela; Guck, J.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of biological cells have long been considered as inherent markers of biological function and disease. However, the screening and active sorting of heterogeneous populations based on serial single-cell mechanical measurements has not been demonstrated. Here we present a novel monolithic glass chip for combined fluorescence detection and mechanical phenotyping using an optical stretcher. A new design and manufacturing process, involving the bonding of two asymmetricall...

  16. Human-on-a-chip design strategies and principles for physiologically based pharmocokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shuler, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in maintaining multiple human tissues on microfluidic platforms has led to a growing interest in developing microphysiological systems for drug development studies. Determining the proper design principles and scaling rules for body-on-a-chip systems is critical for their strategic incorporation into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)/pharmacodynamic model (PD) -aided drug development. While the need for a functional design considering organ-organ interactions has been cons...

  17. Combining SDM-Based Circuit Switching with Packet Switching in a Router for On-Chip Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Kuti Lusala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid router architecture for Networks-on-Chip “NoC” is presented, it combines Spatial Division Multiplexing “SDM” based circuit switching and packet switching in order to efficiently and separately handle both streaming and best-effort traffic generated in real-time applications. Furthermore the SDM technique is combined with Time Division Multiplexing “TDM” technique in the circuit switching part in order to increase path diversity, thus improving throughput while sharing communication resources among multiple connections. Combining these two techniques allows mitigating the poor resource usage inherent to circuit switching. In this way Quality of Service “QoS” is easily provided for the streaming traffic through the circuit-switched sub-router while the packet-switched sub-router handles best-effort traffic. The proposed hybrid router architectures were synthesized, placed and routed on an FPGA. Results show that a practicable Network-on-Chip “NoC” can be built using the proposed router architectures. 7 × 7 mesh NoCs were simulated in SystemC. Simulation results show that the probability of establishing paths through the NoC increases with the number of sub-channels and has its highest value when combining SDM with TDM, thereby significantly reducing contention in the NoC.

  18. An Energy-Efficient High-Throughput Mesh-Based Photonic On-Chip Interconnect for Many-Core Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achraf Ben Ahmed; Abderazek Ben Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Future high-performance embedded and general purpose processors and systems-on-chip are expected to combine hundreds of cores integrated together to satisfy the power and performance requirements of large complex applications. As the number of cores continues to increase, the employment of low-power and high-throughput on-chip interconnect fabrics becomes imperative. In this work, we present a novel mesh-based photonic on-chip interconnect, named PHENIC-II, for future high-performance many-co...

  19. Large-area photodetector with high-sensitivity and broadband spectral response based on composition-graded CdSSe nanowire-chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shuai; Li, Zhishuang; Song, Guangli; Zou, Bingsuo; Wang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Ruibin, E-mail: liuruibin8@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    The nanowire-chip based large-area and broad-band-response photodetector was realized by integrating the ternary bandgap-graded CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} nanowire-chip on proper substrate and optimizing electrode pattern. The actual light-to-dark current ratio (I{sub light}/I{sub dark}) is subject to the substrate type and the electrode pattern, as well the thickness of nanowires. Up to 10{sup 6} light-to-dark current ratio was obtained for the nanowire-chip photodetector with the optimized interdigital electrode parameters (0.5 mm in width, 0.5 mm in pitch), the suitable substrate – mica and appropriate nanowire thickness (70um). Although the carriers transmit from light-generated carrier centers to the electrodes through a complicated and long pathway, the photodetector of as-fabricated nanowire-chip shows much higher photocurrent and photoconductivity due to a higher photocarrier densities exist in the ternary compounds than that in binary CdS and CdSe nanowire and the intersection trap state existing between nanowires enhances the separation of electrons and holes. Uniform and broad photoresponse covering from ultraviolet to around 700 nm is attributed to the graded bandgap of different composition nanowires/nanobelts in the chip-type detector. Especially, the I{sub light}/I{sub dark} of nanowire-chip detector increases with the temperature decrease due to the dark noise and the scattering become lower. The chip detector with composition-graded nanowires shows good photoconductivity at room temperature and low temperature. More important, it can be fabricated by a commercial CVD route, which will satisfy the requirements in many application fields instead of Si-based detector. - Highights: • Macroscale photodetector based on CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} nanowire was fabricated. • Broad-spectrum uniform response and high-sensitivity are presented. • At low temperature the photodetector has better photoconductive property. • Photoconductive property dependent

  20. Single-bead arrays for fluorescence-based immunoassays on capillary-driven microfluidic chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Yuksel; Lim, Michel; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    We report a concept for the simple fabrication of easy-to-use chips for immunoassays in the context of point-of-care diagnostics. The chip concept comprises mainly three features: (1) the efficient integration of reagents using beads functionalized with receptors, (2) the generation of capillary-driven liquid flows without using external pumps, and (3) a high-sensitivity detection of analytes using fluorescence microscopy. We fabricated prototype chips using dry etching of Si wafers. 4.5-μm-diameter beads were integrated into hexagonal arrays by sedimentation and removing the excess using a stream of water. We studied the effect of different parameters and showed that array occupancies from 30% to 50% can be achieved by pipetting a 250 nL droplet of 1% bead solution and allowing the beads sediment for 3 min. Chips with integrated beads were sealed using a 50-μm-thick dry-film resist laminated at 45 °C. Liquids pipetted to loading pads were autonomously pulled by capillary pumps at a rate of 0.35 nL s-1 for about 30 min. We studied ligand-receptor interactions and binding kinetics using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and demonstrated a 5 pM limit of detection (LOD) for an anti-biotin immunoassay. As a clinically-relevant example, we implemented an immunoassay to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA) and showed an LOD of 108 fM (i.e. 3.6 pg mL-1). While a specific implementation is provided here for the detection of PSA, we believe that combining capillary-driven microfluidics with arrays of single beads and fluorescence readout to be very flexible and sufficiently sensitive for the detection of other clinically-relevant analytes.

  1. Acoustically-driven thread-based tuneable gradient generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesan, Shwathy; Rezk, Amgad R; Cheng, Kai Wei; Chan, Peggy P Y; Yeo, Leslie Y

    2016-08-01

    Thread-based microfluidics offer a simple, easy to use, low-cost, disposable and biodegradable alternative to conventional microfluidic systems. While it has recently been shown that such thread networks facilitate manipulation of fluid samples including mixing, flow splitting and the formation of concentration gradients, the passive capillary transport of fluid through the thread does not allow for precise control due to the random orientation of cellulose fibres that make up the thread, nor does it permit dynamic manipulation of the flow. Here, we demonstrate the use of high frequency sound waves driven from a chip-scale device that drives rapid, precise and uniform convective transport through the thread network. In particular, we show that it is not only possible to generate a stable and continuous concentration gradient in a serial dilution and recombination network, but also one that can be dynamically tuned, which cannot be achieved solely with passive capillary transport. Additionally, we show a proof-of-concept in which such spatiotemporal gradient generation can be achieved with the entire thread network embedded in a three-dimensional hydrogel construct to more closely mimic the in vivo tissue microenvironment in microfluidic chemotaxis studies and cell culture systems, which is then employed to demonstrate the effect of such gradients on the proliferation of cells within the hydrogel. PMID:27334420

  2. Chip-based optical microscopy for imaging membrane sieve plates of liver scavenger cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Øystein I.; Øie, Cristina I.; McCourt, Peter; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.

    2015-08-01

    The evanescent field on top of optical waveguides is used to image membrane network and sieve-plates of liver endothelial cells. In waveguide excitation, the evanescent field is dominant only near the surface (~100-150 nm) providing a default optical sectioning by illuminating fluorophores in close proximity to the surface and thus benefiting higher signal-to-noise ratio. The sieve plates of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are present on the cell membrane, thus near-field waveguide chip-based microscopy configuration is preferred over epi-fluorescence. The waveguide chip is compatible with optical fiber components allowing easy multiplexing to different wavelengths. In this paper, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities provided by integrated optical microscopy for imaging cell membranes.

  3. Extraction, amplification and detection of DNA in microfluidic chip-based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2013-12-20

    This review covers three aspects of PCR-based microfluidic chip assays: sample preparation, target amplification, and product detection. We also discuss the challenges related to the miniaturization and integration of each assay and make a comparison between conventional and microfluidic schemes. In order to accomplish these essential assays without human intervention between individual steps, the micro-components for fluid manipulation become critical. We therefore summarize and discuss components such as microvalves (for fluid regulation), pumps (for fluid driving) and mixers (for blending fluids). By combining the above assays and microcomponents, DNA testing of multi-step bio-reactions in microfluidic chips may be achieved with minimal external control. The combination of assay schemes with the use of micro-components also leads to rapid methods for DNA testing via multi-step bioreactions. Contains 259 references.

  4. Extraction, amplification and detection of DNA in microfluidic chip-based assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers three aspects of PCR-based microfluidic chip assays: sample preparation, target amplification, and product detection. We also discuss the challenges related to the miniaturization and integration of each assay and make a comparison between conventional and microfluidic schemes. In order to accomplish these essential assays without human intervention between individual steps, the micro-components for fluid manipulation become critical. We therefore summarize and discuss components such as microvalves (for fluid regulation), pumps (for fluid driving) and mixers (for blending fluids). By combining the above assays and microcomponents, DNA testing of multi-step bio-reactions in microfluidic chips may be achieved with minimal external control. The combination of assay schemes with the use of micro-components also leads to rapid methods for DNA testing via multi-step bioreactions. (author)

  5. Silicon-nanomembrane-based photonic crystal nanostructures for chip-integrated open sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Lin, Cheyun; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate two devices on the photonic crystal platform for chip-integrated optical absorption spectroscopy and chip-integrated biomolecular microarray assays. Infrared optical absorption spectroscopy and biomolecular assays based on conjugate-specific binding principles represent two dominant sensing mechanisms for a wide spectrum of applications in environmental pollution sensing in air and water, chem-bio agents and explosives detection for national security, microbial contamination sensing in food and beverages to name a few. The easy scalability of photonic crystal devices to any wavelength ensures that the sensing principles hold across a wide electromagnetic spectrum. Silicon, the workhorse of the electronics industry, is an ideal platform for the above optical sensing applications.

  6. A CDMA Based Scalable Hierarchical Architecture for Network-On-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abd El Ghany

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Scalable hierarchical architecture based Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA is proposed for high performance Network-on-Chip (NoC. This hierarchical architecture provides the integration of a large number of IPs in a single on-chip system. The network encoding and decoding schemes for CDMA transmission are provided. The proposed CDMA NoC architecture is compared to the conventional architecture in terms of latency, area and power dissipation. The overall area required to implement the proposed CDMA NoC design is reduced by 24.2%. The design decreases the latency of the network by 40%. The total power consumption required to achieve the proposed design is also decreased by 25%.

  7. Condensate Splitting in an Asymmetric Double Well for Atom Chip Based Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the adiabatic splitting of a Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atoms by an asymmetric double-well potential located above the edge of a perpendicularly magnetized TbGdFeCo film atom chip. By controlling the barrier height and double-well asymmetry, the sensitivity of the axial splitting process is investigated through observation of the fractional atom distribution between the left and right wells. This process constitutes a novel sensor for which we infer a single shot sensitivity to gravity fields of δg/g≅2x10-4. From a simple analytic model, we propose improvements to chip-based gravity detectors using this demonstrated methodology

  8. Model based on-chip 13bits ADC design dedicated to uncooled infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Benoit; Robert, Patrick; Dupret, Antoine; Villard, Patrick; Pochic, David

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents an on-chip 13 bits 10 M/S Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) specifically designed for infrared bolometric image sensor. Bolometric infrared sensors are MEMs based thermal sensors, which covers a large spectrum of infrared applications, ranging from night vision to predictive industrial maintenance and medical imaging. With the current move towards submicron technologies, the demand for more integrated, smarter sensors and microsystems has dramatically increased. This trend has strengthened the need of on-chip ADC as the interface between the analog core and the digital processing electronic. However designing an on-chip ADC dedicated to focal plane array raises many questions about its architecture and its performance requirements. To take into account those specific needs, a high level model has been developed prior to the actual design. In this paper, we present the trade-offs of ADC design linked to infrared key performance parameters and bolometric technology detection method. The original development scheme, based on system level modeling, is also discussed. Finally we present the actual design and the measured performances.

  9. Radio lighting based on dynamic chaos generators

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Alexander; Gerasimov, Mark; Itskov, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    A problem of lighting objects and surfaces with artificial sources of noncoherent microwave radiation with the aim to observe them using radiometric equipment is considered. Transmitters based on dynamic chaos generators are used as sources of noncoherent wideband microwave radiation. An experimental sample of such a device, i.e., a radio lighting lamp based on a chaos microgenerator and its performance are presented.

  10. Fiber-to-Waveguide and 3D Chip-to-Chip Light Coupling Based on Bent Metal-Clad Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhaolin; Shi, Kaifeng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient fiber-to-waveguide light coupling has been a key issue in integrated photonics for many years. The main challenge lies in the huge mode mismatch between an optical fiber and a single mode waveguide. Herein, we present a novel fiber-to-waveguide coupler, named "L-coupler", through which the light fed from the top of a chip can bend 90{\\deg} with low reflection and is then efficiently coupled into an on-chip Si waveguide within a short propagation distance (<20{\\mu}m). The key element is a bent metal-clad waveguide with a big matched input port. According to our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, the coupling efficiency is over 80% within a broad range of working wavelengths in the near-infrared regime for a transverse electric input Gaussian wave. The coupler is polarization-dependent, with very low coupling efficiency (6%-9%) for transverse magnetic waves. The coupler can also be used for three-dimensional (3D) chip-to-chip optical interconnection by efficiently coupling light into ...

  11. VLSI design of an RSA encryption/decryption chip using systolic array based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chi-Chia; Lin, Bor-Shing; Jan, Gene Eu; Lin, Jheng-Yi

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the VLSI design of a configurable RSA public key cryptosystem supporting the 512-bit, 1024-bit and 2048-bit based on Montgomery algorithm achieving comparable clock cycles of current relevant works but with smaller die size. We use binary method for the modular exponentiation and adopt Montgomery algorithm for the modular multiplication to simplify computational complexity, which, together with the systolic array concept for electric circuit designs effectively, lower the die size. The main architecture of the chip consists of four functional blocks, namely input/output modules, registers module, arithmetic module and control module. We applied the concept of systolic array to design the RSA encryption/decryption chip by using VHDL hardware language and verified using the TSMC/CIC 0.35 m 1P4 M technology. The die area of the 2048-bit RSA chip without the DFT is 3.9 × 3.9 mm2 (4.58 × 4.58 mm2 with DFT). Its average baud rate can reach 10.84 kbps under a 100 MHz clock.

  12. Photonic chip based tunable and reconfigurable narrowband microwave photonic filter using stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Adam; Pant, Ravi; Li, Enbang; Choi, Duk-Yong; Poulton, Christopher G; Fan, Shanhui; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2012-08-13

    We report the first demonstration of a photonic chip based dynamically reconfigurable, widely tunable, narrow pass-band, high Q microwave photonic filter (MPF). We exploit stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a 6.5 cm long chalcogenide (As2S3) photonic chip to demonstrate a MPF that exhibited a high quality factor of ~520 and narrow bandwidth and was dynamically reconfigurable and widely tunable. It maintained a stable 3 dB bandwidth of 23 ± 2MHz and amplitude of 20 ± 2 dB over a large frequency tuning range of 2-12 GHz. By tailoring the pump spectrum, we reconfigured the 3 dB bandwidth of the MPF from ~20 MHz to ~40 MHz and tuned the shape factor from 3.5 to 2 resulting in a nearly flat-topped filter profile. This demonstration represents a significant advance in integrated microwave photonics with potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing for RADAR and analogue communications. PMID:23038523

  13. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF PIPELINE BASED ROUTER DESIGN FOR ON-CHIP NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Saravanakumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As the feature size is continuously decreasing and integration density is increasing, interconnections have become a dominating factor in determining the overall quality of a chip. Due to the limited scalability of system bus, it cannot meet the requirement of current System-on-Chip (SoC implementations where only a limited number of functional units can be supported. Long global wires also cause many design problems, such as routing congestion, noise coupling, and difficult timing closure. Network-on-Chip (NoC architectures have been proposed to be an alternative to solve the above problems by using a packet-based communication network. In this paper, the Circuit-Switched (CS Router was designed and analysed the various parameters such as power, timing and area. The CS router has taken more number of cycles to transfer the data from source to destination. So the pipelining concept was implemented by adding registers in the CS router architecture. The proposed architecture increases the speed of operation and reduces the critical path of the circuit. The router has been implemented using Verilog HDL. The parameters area, power and timing were calculated in 130 nm CMOS technology using Synopsys tool with nominal operating voltage of 1V and packet size is 39 bits. Finally power, area and time of these two routers have been analysed and compared.

  14. Reconfigurable laser arrays with capillary fill microfluidics for chip-based flow cytometry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Low cost, portable chip based flow cytometry has great potential for applications in resource poor and point of care settings. Typical approaches utilise low cost silicon or glass substrates with light emission and detection performed either off-chip using external equipment or incorporated on-chip using `pick and place' diode lasers and photo-detectors. The former approach adds cost and limits portability while the sub-micron alignment tolerances imposed by the application make the latter impractical for all but the simplest of systems. Use of an optically active semiconductor substrate, on the other hand, overcomes these limitations by allowing multiple laser/detector arrays to be formed in the substrate itself using high resolution lithographic techniques. The capacity for multiple emitters and detectors on a single chip not only enables parallel measurement for increased throughput but also allows multiple measurements to be performed on each cell as it passes through the system. Several different experiments can be performed simultaneously and throughput demand can be reduced with the facility for error checking. Furthermore, the fast switching times inherent with semiconductor lasers allows the active sections of the device to be reconfigured on a sub-microsecond time scale providing additional functionality. This is demonstrated here in a capillary fill system using pairs of laser/detectors that are operated in pulsed mode and alternated between lasing and detecting in an interleaved manner. Passing cells are alternately interrogated from opposing directions providing information that can be used to correct for differences in lateral cell position and ultimately differentiate blood cell type.

  15. Trace-Based Code Generation for Model-Based Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Kanstrén, T.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.-G.

    2009-01-01

    Paper Submitted for review at the Eighth International Conference on Generative Programming and Component Engineering. Model-based testing can be a powerful means to generate test cases for the system under test. However, creating a useful model for model-based testing requires expertise in the (formal) modeling language of the used tool and the general concept of modeling the system under test for effective test generation. A commonly used modeling notation is to describe the model through a...

  16. Ontology-based multiple choice question generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, Maha

    2014-01-01

    With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework.

  17. Trace-Based Code Generation for Model-Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanstrén, T.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.-G.

    2009-01-01

    Paper Submitted for review at the Eighth International Conference on Generative Programming and Component Engineering. Model-based testing can be a powerful means to generate test cases for the system under test. However, creating a useful model for model-based testing requires expertise in the (fo

  18. A large surface X-ray camera based on XPAD3/CdTe single chip hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, F.; Blanc, N.; Bompard, F.; Boudet, N.; Boursier, Y.; Buton, C.; Clémens, J.-C.; Dawiec, A.; Debarbieux, F.; Delpierre, P.; Dupont, M.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Hustache, S.; Morel, C.; Perez-Ponce, H.; Portal, L.; Vigeolas, E.

    2015-11-01

    The XPAD3 chip bump-bonded to a Si sensor has been widely used in preclinical micro-computed tomography and in synchrotron experiments. Although the XPAD3 chip is linear up to 60 keV, the performance of the XPAD3/Si hybrid detector is limited to energies below 30 keV, for which detection efficiencies remain above 20%. To overcome this limitation on detection efficiency in order to access imaging at higher energies, we decided to develop a camera based on XPAD3 single chips bump-bonded to high-Z CdTe sensors. We will first present the construction of this new camera, from the first tests of the single chip hybrids to the actual mechanical assembly. Then, we will show first images and stability tests performed on the D2AM beam line at ESRF synchrotron facility with the fully assembled camera.

  19. On-chip test of the shift register for high-end network switch based on cell-based design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Sekiya, A.; Akahori, A.; Akaike, H.; Fujimaki, A.; Hayakawa, H.; Kameda, Y.; Yorozu, S.; Terai, H.

    2001-12-01

    We have demonstrated the high-speed operation up to 55 GHz with a bias margin of +/-5.5% for a shift register based on the single-flux-quantum logic circuit. The shift register is employed in the rate transfer circuit in high-end network switches that are made up with the cell-based design technique. The on-chip test system was used for measuring the operation frequencies, and the test system itself was built by combining the cells to satisfy the boundary conditions between the test system and the circuit-under-test. As a result, the on-chip test system developed in this study has high flexibility.

  20. On-chip test of the shift register for high-end network switch based on cell-based design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated the high-speed operation up to 55 GHz with a bias margin of ±5.5% for a shift register based on the single-flux-quantum logic circuit. The shift register is employed in the rate transfer circuit in high-end network switches that are made up with the cell-based design technique. The on-chip test system was used for measuring the operation frequencies, and the test system itself was built by combining the cells to satisfy the boundary conditions between the test system and the circuit-under-test. As a result, the on-chip test system developed in this study has high flexibility. (author)

  1. Magnetic Tunnel Junction-Based On-Chip Microwave Phase and Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Chen, Yunpeng; Xie, Yunsong; Kolodzey, James; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based microwave detector is proposed and investigated. When the MTJ is excited by microwave magnetic fields, the relative angle between the free layer and pinned layer alternates, giving rise to an average resistance change. By measuring the average resistance change, the MTJ can be utilized as a microwave power sensor. Due to the nature of ferromagnetic resonance, the frequency of an incident microwave is directly determined. In addition, by integrating a mixer circuit, the MTJ-based microwave detector can also determine the relative phase between two microwave signals. Thus, the MTJbased microwave detector can be used as an on-chip microwave phase and spectrum analyzer.

  2. Sub-base-pair resolution during DNA separation in an optofluidic chip

    OpenAIRE

    Pollnau, Markus; Hammer, Manfred; Dongre, Chaitanya; Hoekstra, Hugo J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA sequencing in a lab-on-a-chip aims at providing cheap, high-speed analysis of low reagent volumes to, e.g., identify genomic deletions or insertions associated with genetic illnesses. Detecting single base-pair insertions or deletions from DNA fragments in the diagnostically relevant range of 150-1000 base-pairs requires a sizing accuracy of S < 10^-3, while only S < 10^-2 were reported. Here we demonstrate a sizing accuracy of S = 4 x 10^-4, thereby paving the way for the envisaged appli...

  3. HPV Direct Flow CHIP: a new human papillomavirus genotyping method based on direct PCR from crude-cell extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraez-Hernandez, Elsa; Alvarez-Perez, Martina; Navarro-Bustos, Gloria; Esquivias, Javier; Alonso, Sonia; Aneiros-Fernandez, Jose; Lacruz-Pelea, Cesar; Sanchez-Aguera, Magdalena; Santamaria, Javier Saenz; de Antonio, Jesus Chacon; Rodriguez-Peralto, Jose Luis

    2013-10-01

    HPV Direct Flow CHIP is a newly developed test for identifying 18 high-risk and 18 low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. It is based on direct PCR from crude-cell extracts, automatic flow-through hybridization, and colorimetric detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of HPV Direct Flow CHIP in the analysis of 947 samples from routine cervical screening or the follow-up of abnormal Pap smears. The specimens were dry swab samples, liquid-based cytology samples, or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. The genotype distribution was in agreement with known epidemiological data for the Spanish population. Three different subgroups of the samples were also tested by Linear Array (LA) HPV Genotyping Test (n=108), CLART HPV2 (n=82), or Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) HPV DNA Test (n=101). HPV positivity was 73.6% by HPV Direct Flow CHIP versus 67% by LA, 65.9% by HPV Direct Flow CHIP versus 59.8% by CLART, and 62.4% by HPV Direct Flow CHIP versus 42.6% by HC2. HPV Direct Flow CHIP showed a positive agreement of 88.6% with LA (k=0.798), 87.3% with CLART (k=0.818), and 68.2% with HC2 (k=0.618). In conclusion, HPV Direct Flow CHIP results were comparable with those of the other methods tested. Although further investigation is needed to compare the performance of this new test with a gold-standard reference method, these preliminary findings evidence the potential value of HPV Direct Flow CHIP in HPV vaccinology and epidemiology studies.

  4. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, V; Geiselmann, M; Herr, T; Lihachev, G; Pfeiffer, M H P; Gorodetsky, M L; Kippenberg, T J

    2016-01-22

    Optical solitons are propagating pulses of light that retain their shape because nonlinearity and dispersion balance each other. In the presence of higher-order dispersion, optical solitons can emit dispersive waves via the process of soliton Cherenkov radiation. This process underlies supercontinuum generation and is of critical importance in frequency metrology. Using a continuous wave-pumped, dispersion-engineered, integrated silicon nitride microresonator, we generated continuously circulating temporal dissipative Kerr solitons. The presence of higher-order dispersion led to the emission of red-shifted soliton Cherenkov radiation. The output corresponds to a fully coherent optical frequency comb that spans two-thirds of an octave and whose phase we were able to stabilize to the sub-Hertz level. By preserving coherence over a broad spectral bandwidth, our device offers the opportunity to develop compact on-chip frequency combs for frequency metrology or spectroscopy. PMID:26721682

  6. SOI based integrated on-chip photonic pressure sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.C.; Harmsma, P.J.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Pozo Torres, J.M.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.; Berg, J.H. van den; Bodis, P.

    2012-01-01

    A compact, mass producible Silicon On Insulator (SOI) based pressure sensor consisting of a folded Micro Ring Resonator (MRR) on a circular diaphragm is successfully designed, fabricated and characterized [1-3]. The MRR is designed to be single mode for TE polarized light at 1550 nm. The folded MRR

  7. Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, I.; Gromovyi, M.; Zeng, Y.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Gayral, B.; Semond, F.; Duboz, J. Y.; de Micheli, M.; Checoury, X.; Boucaud, P.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate phase-matched second harmonic generation in gallium nitride on silicon microdisks. The microdisks are integrated with side-coupling bus waveguides in a two-dimensional photonic circuit. The second harmonic generation is excited with a continuous wave laser in the telecom band. By fabricating a series of microdisks with diameters varying by steps of 8 nm, we obtain a tuning of the whispering gallery mode resonances for the fundamental and harmonic waves. Phase matching is obtained when both resonances are matched with modes satisfying the conservation of orbital momentum, which leads to a pronounced enhancement of frequency conversion. PMID:27687007

  8. Generation and functional assessment of 3D multicellular spheroids in droplet based microfluidics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhachandani, P; Motwani, V; Cohen, N; Sarkar, S; Torchilin, V; Konry, T

    2016-02-01

    Here we describe a robust, microfluidic technique to generate and analyze 3D tumor spheroids, which resembles tumor microenvironment and can be used as a more effective preclinical drug testing and screening model. Monodisperse cell-laden alginate droplets were generated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices that combine T-junction droplet generation and external gelation for spheroid formation. The proposed approach has the capability to incorporate multiple cell types. For the purposes of our study, we generated spheroids with breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 drug sensitive and resistant) and co-culture spheroids of MCF-7 together with a fibroblast cell line (HS-5). The device has the capability to house 1000 spheroids on chip for drug screening and other functional analysis. Cellular viability of spheroids in the array part of the device was maintained for two weeks by continuous perfusion of complete media into the device. The functional performance of our 3D tumor models and a dose dependent response of standard chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (Dox) and standard drug combination Dox and paclitaxel (PCT) was analyzed on our chip-based platform. Altogether, our work provides a simple and novel, in vitro platform to generate, image and analyze uniform, 3D monodisperse alginate hydrogel tumors for various omic studies and therapeutic efficiency screening, an important translational step before in vivo studies. PMID:26686985

  9. System-on-Chip Environment: A SpecC-Based Framework for Heterogeneous MPSoC Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dömer Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The constantly growing complexity of embedded systems is a challenge that drives the development of novel design automation techniques. C-based system-level design addresses the complexity challenge by raising the level of abstraction and integrating the design processes for the heterogeneous system components. In this article, we present a comprehensive design framework, the system-on-chip environment (SCE which is based on the influential SpecC language and methodology. SCE implements a top-down system design flow based on a specify-explore-refine paradigm with support for heterogeneous target platforms consisting of custom hardware components, embedded software processors, dedicated IP blocks, and complex communication bus architectures. Starting from an abstract specification of the desired system, models at various levels of abstraction are automatically generated through successive step-wise refinement, resulting in a pin-and cycle-accurate system implementation. The seamless integration of automatic model generation, estimation, and verification tools enables rapid design space exploration and efficient MPSoC implementation. Using a large set of industrial-strength examples with a wide range of target architectures, our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework and show significant productivity gains in design time.

  10. System-on-Chip Environment: A SpecC-Based Framework for Heterogeneous MPSoC Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Gajski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constantly growing complexity of embedded systems is a challenge that drives the development of novel design automation techniques. C-based system-level design addresses the complexity challenge by raising the level of abstraction and integrating the design processes for the heterogeneous system components. In this article, we present a comprehensive design framework, the system-on-chip environment (SCE which is based on the influential SpecC language and methodology. SCE implements a top-down system design flow based on a specify-explore-refine paradigm with support for heterogeneous target platforms consisting of custom hardware components, embedded software processors, dedicated IP blocks, and complex communication bus architectures. Starting from an abstract specification of the desired system, models at various levels of abstraction are automatically generated through successive step-wise refinement, resulting in a pin-and cycle-accurate system implementation. The seamless integration of automatic model generation, estimation, and verification tools enables rapid design space exploration and efficient MPSoC implementation. Using a large set of industrial-strength examples with a wide range of target architectures, our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework and show significant productivity gains in design time.

  11. Chip electrochromatographic systems: Novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube and silica monoliths based separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shubhodeep

    2009-12-01

    Miniaturized chemical analysis systems, also know as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices have been rapidly developing over the last decade. Capillary electrochromatography (CEC), a multidimensional separation technique combining capillary electrophoresis (CE) and liquid chromatography (LC) has been of great interest for chip based applications. Preliminary work has been undertaken to develop vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and photopolymerizable silica solgel as novel stationary phase materials for 'chip CEC' separations. Patterned growth of CNTs in a specific location of the channel has been carried out using a solid phase Fe-Al catalyst as well as a vapor deposited ferrocene catalyst. Characterization of the CNT "forests" was achieved using optical microscopy, secondary electron microscopy, high resolution tunneling electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Proof-of-concept applications were demonstrated using reversed phase CEC separations as well as solid phase extraction of a glycosylated protein using concanavilin A immobilized onto the CNT bed. Photopolymerizable silica solgel materials were developed as stationary phase for microfluidic electrochromatographic separations in disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip devices. Effect on morphology and pore size of gels were studied as function of UV and solgel polymerization conditions, porogen, salt additives, geometry and hydrolyzable methoxy-ies. Structural morphologies were studied with Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM). Pore size and pore volumes were characterized by thermal porometry, nitrogen BET adsorptions and differential scanning calorimetry. Computational fluid dynamics and confocal microscopy tools were employed to study the transport of fluids and model analytes. These investigations were directed towards evolving improved strategies for rinsing of uncrosslinked monomers to form porous monoliths as well as to effect a desired separation under a set of electrochromatograhic conditions

  12. On-chip visible-to-infrared supercontinuum generation with more than 495 THz spectral bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epping, J.P.; Hellwig, T.; Hoekman, M.; Mateman, R.; Leinse, A.; Heideman, R.G.; Rees, van A.; Slot, van der P.J.M.; Lee, C.J.; Fallnich, C.; Boller, K-J.

    2015-01-01

    We report ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation in high-confinement Si3N4 integrated optical waveguides. The spectrum extends through the visible (from 470 nm) to the infrared spectral range (2130 nm) comprising a spectral bandwidth wider than 495 THz, which is the widest supercontinuum spectrum

  13. On-chip generation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states with arbitrary symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.szameit@uni-jena.de [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2015-05-04

    We experimentally demonstrate a method for integrated-optical generation of two-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states featuring arbitrary symmetries. In our setting, we employ detuned directional couplers to impose a freely tailorable phase between the two modes of the state. Our results allow to mimic the quantum random walk statistics of bosons, fermions, and anyons, particles with fractional exchange statistics.

  14. Fabrication of thermoplastics chips through lamination based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserere, Sandrine; Mottet, Guillaume; Taniga, Velan; Descroix, Stephanie; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Malaquin, Laurent

    2012-04-24

    In this work, we propose a novel strategy for the fabrication of flexible thermoplastic microdevices entirely based on lamination processes. The same low-cost laminator apparatus can be used from master fabrication to microchannel sealing. This process is appropriate for rapid prototyping at laboratory scale, but it can also be easily upscaled to industrial manufacturing. For demonstration, we used here Cycloolefin Copolymer (COC), a thermoplastic polymer that is extensively used for microfluidic applications. COC is a thermoplastic polymer with good chemical resistance to common chemicals used in microfluidics such as acids, bases and most polar solvents. Its optical quality and mechanical resistance make this material suitable for a large range of applications in chemistry or biology. As an example, the electrokinetic separation of pollutants is proposed in the present study.

  15. Differentiation of Wines Treated with Wood Chips Based on Their Phenolic Content, Volatile Composition, and Sensory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Chira, Kleopatra; Tzanakouli, Eleni; Ligas, Ioannis; Kotseridis, Yorgos

    2015-12-01

    The effects of both wood chips addition and contact time on phenolic content, volatile composition, color parameters, and organoleptic character of red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko) were evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak, and Acacia were added in the wine after fermentation. A mixture consisting of 50% French and 50% Americal oak chips was also evaluated. In an attempt to categorize wine samples, various chemical parameters of wines and sensory parameters were studied after 1, 2, and 3 mo of contact time with chips. The results showed that regardless of the type of wood chips added in the wines, it was possible to differentiate the samples according to the contact time based on their phenolic composition and color parameters. In addition, wood-extracted volatile compounds seem to be the critical parameter that could separate the samples according to the wood type. The wines that were in contact with Acacia and Slavonia chips could be separated from the rest mainly due to their distinct sensory characters.

  16. Measurement of serum prostate cancer markers using a nanopore thin film based optofluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzghoul, Salah; Hailat, Mohammad; Zivanovic, Sandra; Que, Long; Shah, Girish V

    2016-03-15

    Currently used cancer marker for prostate adenocarcinoma (PC), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), greatly overestimates PC population. Patients with high PSA levels have to undergo unnecessary but physically painful and expensive procedure such as prostate biopsies repeatedly. The reliability of PC test can be greatly increased by finding a protein that is secreted selectively by malignant, but not normal, prostate cells. A recently discovered novel protein, referred as neuroendocrine marker (NEM), is secreted only by malignant prostate cells and released in blood circulation. Although NEM seems to be significantly more reliable based on the data obtained from a limited cohort, currently available NEM ELISA is not suitable for undertaking a large study. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to develop an alternative, label-free assay system that can reliably measure NEM and PSA in patient samples. Herein an optofluidic chip that can reliably detect PSA as well as NEM in patient samples has been developed. The optofluidic chip, which consists of arrayed nanopore-based sensors fabricated from anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) thin film, offers improved sensitivity upon the optimization of the concentration of the detector antibodies immobilized on the sensor surface. The results demonstrate that the chip is reliable, extremely sensitive and requires just 1 µl of patient serum (or even less) to measure PSA and NEM even in a non-cancer individual. Compared with the traditional ELISA for PSA, the nanopore-based sensor assay is 50-100 fold more sensitive, and offers many advantages such as elimination of labeled antigen, need for sophisticated equipment and highly trained individuals. These advantages, along with the low cost, should make the technology suitable for point-of-care application to screen elderly male populations for PC and to monitor the progress of patients undergoing PC treatment. PMID:26457734

  17. A 94-GHz extremely thin metasurface-based BiCMOS on-chip antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, S.; Caster, F; Heydari, P; Capolino, F.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. A novel fully on-chip antenna based on a metasurface fabricated in a 180-nm BiCMOS process is presented. Inspired by the concept of high impedance surface (HIS), this metasurface is not used as a reflector below an antenna as commonly done. Instead, it is used as a radiator by itself. The extremely thin metasurface is composed of a patterned top two metal layers and the ground plane placed in the lowest metal layer in the process. The ground plane on the lowest metal layer of the...

  18. Rapid identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis by chip-based continuous flow PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzsch, Michael; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Gärtner, Claudia; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-06-01

    To combat the threat of biological agents like Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis in bioterroristic scenarios requires fast, easy-to-use and safe identification systems. In this study we describe a system for rapid amplification of specific genetic markers for the identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis. Using chip based PCR and continuous flow technology we were able to amplify the targets simultaneously with a 2-step reaction profile within 20 minutes. The subsequent analysis of amplified fragments by standard gel electrophoresis requires another 45 minutes. We were able to detect both pathogens within 75 minutes being much faster than most other nucleic acid amplification technologies.

  19. Chip-based device for parallel sorting, amplification, detection, and identification of nucleic acid subsequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Colston, Jr, Billy W.

    2016-08-09

    An apparatus for chip-based sorting, amplification, detection, and identification of a sample having a planar substrate. The planar substrate is divided into cells. The cells are arranged on the planar substrate in rows and columns. Electrodes are located in the cells. A micro-reactor maker produces micro-reactors containing the sample. The micro-reactor maker is positioned to deliver the micro-reactors to the planar substrate. A microprocessor is connected to the electrodes for manipulating the micro-reactors on the planar substrate. A detector is positioned to interrogate the sample contained in the micro-reactors.

  20. Preparation of GaN-on-Si based thin-film flip-chip LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shaohua; Feng Bo; Sun Qian; Zhao Hanmin

    2013-01-01

    GaN based MQW epitaxial layers were grown on Si (111) substrate by MOCVD using A1N as the buffer layer.High light extraction LEDs were prepared by substrate transferring technology in combination with thin-film and flip-chip design.The blue and white 1.1 × 1.1 mm2 LED lamps are measured.The optical powers and external quantum efficiency for silicone encapsulated blue lamp are 546 mW,and 50.3% at forward current of 350 mA,while the photometric light output for a white lamp packaged with standard YAG phosphor is 120.1 lm.

  1. A Novel Magnetic Bead-based Biosensor Using Flip Chip Bonding Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Xiang Chen; Qinghui Jin; Jianlong Zhao; Yuansen Xu

    2006-01-01

    Based on flip-chip packaging, a novel approach towards integrated magnetic bio-separator was designed. The magnetic field and the force on the bead were simulated and analyzed, leading to the optimization of the fabrication parameters of the micro-magnetic unit. The planar coil as an electromagnet was fabricated through electroplating on a single seed layer.The PDMS microfluidic channel was bonded on the inverse side after Si etching. The results presented in this paper provide a novel design and fabrication to approach a microfluidic bio-separation system with magnetic beads.

  2. From bioseparation to artificial micro-organs: microfluidic chip based particle manipulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Microfluidic device technology provides unique physical phenomena which are not available in the macroscopic world. These may be exploited towards a diverse array of applications in biotechnology and biomedicine ranging from bioseparation of particulate samples to the assembly of cells into structures that resemble the smallest functional unit of an organ. In this paper a general overview of chip-based particle manipulation and separation is given. In the state of the art electric, magnetic, optical and gravitational field effects are utilized. Also, mechanical obstacles often in combination with force fields and laminar flow are employed to achieve separation of particles or molecules. In addition, three applications based on dielectrophoretic forces for particle manipulation in microfluidic systems are discussed in more detail. Firstly, a virus assay is demonstrated. There, antibody-loaded microbeads are used to bind virus particles from a sample and subsequently are accumulated to form a pico-liter sized aggregate located at a predefined position in the chip thus enabling highly sensitive fluorescence detection. Secondly, subcellular fractionation of mitochondria from cell homogenate yields pure samples as was demonstrated by Western Blot and 2D PAGE analysis. Robust long-term operation with complex cell homogenate samples while avoiding electrode fouling is achieved by a set of dedicated technical means. Finally, a chip intended for the dielectrophoretic assembly of hepatocytes and endothelial cells into a structure resembling a liver sinusoid is presented. Such "artificial micro organs" are envisioned as substance screening test systems providing significantly higher predictability with respect to the in vivo response towards a substance under test.

  3. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  4. Graphene Plasmonic Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Gorbach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using perturbation expansion of Maxwell equations with the nonlinear boundary condition, a generic propagation equation is derived to describe nonlinear effects, including spectral broadening of pulses, in graphene surface plasmon (GSP waveguides. A considerable spectral broadening of an initial 100 fs pulse with 0.5 mW peak power in a 25 nm wide and 150 nm long waveguide is demonstrated. The generated supercontinuum covers the spectral range from 6 μm to 13 μm .

  5. A Fully On-Chip Gm-Opamp-RC Based Preamplifier for Electret Condenser Microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy-Binh; Ryu, Seung-Tak; Lee, Sang-Gug

    An on-chip CMOS preamplifier for direct signal readout from an electret capacitor microphone has been designed with high immunity to common-mode and supply noise. The Gm-Opamp-RC based high impedance preamplifier helps to remove all disadvantages of the conventional JFET based amplifier and can drive a following switched-capacitor sigma-delta modulator in order to realize a compact digital electret microphone. The proposed chip is designed based on 0.18µm CMOS technology, and the simulation results show 86dB of dynamic range with 4.5µVrms of input-referred noise for an audio bandwidth of 20kHz and a total harmonic distortion (THD) of 1% at 90mVrms input. Power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and common-mode rejection ration (CMRR) are more than 95dB at 1kHz. The proposed design dissipates 125µA and can operate over a wide supply voltage range of 1.6V to 3.3V.

  6. Multilayer based lab-on-a-chip-systems for substance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Frank; Grünzner, Stefan; Schmieder, Florian; Busek, Mathias; Klotzbach, Udo; Franke, Volker

    2015-03-01

    An integrated technology chain for laser-microstructuring and bonding of polymer foils for fast, flexible and low-cost manufacturing of multilayer lab-on-a-chip devices especially for complex cell and tissue culture applications, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-cells ratio, was developed and established. Initially the microfluidic system is constructively divided into individual layers which are formed by separate foils or plates. Based on the functional boundary conditions and the necessary properties of each layer the corresponding foils and plates are chosen. In the third step the foils and plates are laser microstructured and functionalized from both sides. In the fourth and last manufacturing step the multiple plates and foils are joined using thermal diffusion bonding. Membranes for pneumatically driven valves and micropumps where bonded via chemical surface modification. Based on the established lab-on-a-chip platform for perfused cell-based assays, a multilayer microfluidic system with two parallel connected cell culture chambers was successfully implemented.

  7. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Giovanni, E-mail: giori@nanotech.dtu.dk; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F., E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk

    2015-04-15

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP. - Highlights: • We apply magnetoresistive sensors to study solid-surface hybridization kinetics of DNA. • We measure DNA melting profiles for perfectly matching DNA duplexes and for a single base mismatch. • We present a procedure to correct for temperature dependencies of the sensor output. • We reliably extract melting temperatures for the DNA hybrids. • We demonstrate direct measurement of differential binding signal for two probes on a single sensor.

  8. On-chip generation of monodisperse giant unilamellar lipid vesicles containing quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youn-Hee; Lee, Do-Hyun; Um, Eujin; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-05-01

    Monodispersed lipid vesicles have been used as a drug delivery vehicle and a biochemical reactor. To generate monodispersed lipid vesicles in the nano- to micrometer size range, an extrusion step should be included in conventional hand-shaking method of lipid vesicle synthesis. In addition, lipid vesicles as a drug carrier still need to be improved to effectively encapsulate concentrated biomolecules such as cells, proteins, and target drugs. To overcome these limitations, this paper reports a new microfluidic platform for continuous synthesis of small-sized (∼10 μm) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing quantum dots (QDs) as a nanosized model drug. To generate GUVs, we introduced an additional cross-flow to break vesicles into small size. 1,2 - dimyristoyl-sn-glycero - 3 - phosphocholine (DMPC) in an octanol-chloroform mixture was used in the construction of self-assembled membrane. Consequently, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of monodispersed GUVs with 7-12 μm diameter containing QDs. The proposed synthesis method of cell-sized GUVs would be highly desirable for applications such as multipurpose drug encapsulation and delivery. PMID:26920999

  9. Web Services-Based Test Report Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ling; BAI Xiaoying

    2005-01-01

    Tests involving a large number of test cases and test scenarios are always time- and effort-intensive, and use ad hoc approaches. Test management is needed to control the complexity and the quality of the testing of large software systems. The reporting mechanism is critical for monitoring the testing progress, analyzing test results, and evaluating the test effectiveness for a disciplined testing process throughout the testing lifecycle. This paper presents an XML-based report generation method for large system testing. The service-oriented architecture enables flexible test report generation, presentation, and exchange to facilitate collaboration in a distributed environment. The results show that proper reporting can effectively improve the visibility of the testing process and that this web-based approach is critical to enhance communication among multiple testing groups.

  10. Enhancing SAT-Based Test Pattern Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; XIONG You-lun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents modeling tools based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT) to solve problems of test generation for combinational circuits. It exploits an added layer to maintain circuit-related information and value justification relations to a generic SAT algorithm. It dovetails binary decision graphs (BDD) and SAT techniques to improve the efficiency of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG). More specifically, it first exploits inexpensive reconvergent fanout analysis of circuit to gather information on the local signal correlation by using BDD learning, then uses the above learned information to restrict and focus the overall search space of SAT-based ATPG. Its learning technique is effective and lightweight. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  11. ALGORITHM FOR GENERATING DEM BASED ON CONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) has a variety of applications in GIS and CAD.It is the basic model for generating three-dimensional terrain feature.Generally speaking,there are two methods for building DEM.One is based upon the digital terrain model of discrete points,and is characterized by fast speed and low precision.The other is based upon triangular digital terrain model,and slow speed and high precision are the features of the method.Combining the advantages of the two methods,an algorithm for generating DEM with discrete points is presented in this paper.When interpolating elevation,this method can create a triangle which includes interpolating point and the elevation of the interpolating point can be obtained from the triangle.The method has the advantage of fast speed,high precision and less memory.

  12. XML-Based Automatic Test Data Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Ibrahim Bulbul; Turgut Bakir

    2012-01-01

    Software engineering aims at increasing quality and reliability while decreasing the cost of the software. Testing is one of the most time-consuming phases of the software development lifecycle. Improvement in software testing results in decrease in cost and increase in quality of the software. Automation in software testing is one of the most popular ways of software cost reduction and reliability improvement. In our work we propose a system called XML-based automatic test data generation th...

  13. Ultrafast pulse generation in a mode-locked Erbium chip waveguide laser

    CERN Document Server

    Khurmi, Champak; Zhang, Wen Qi; V., Shahraam Afshar; Chen, George; Genest, Jérôme; Monro, Tanya M; Lancaster, David G

    2016-01-01

    We report mode-locked ~1550 nm output of transform-limited ~180 fs pulses from a large mode-area (diameter ~ 50 {\\mu}m) guided-wave erbium fluorozirconate glass laser. The passively mode-locked oscillator generates pulses with 25 nm bandwidth at 156 MHz repetition rate and peak-power of 260 W. Scalability to higher repetition rate is demonstrated by transform-limited 410 fs pulse output at 1.3 GHz. To understand the origins of the broad spectral output, the laser cavity is simulated by using a numerical solution to the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This paper reports the widest bandwidth and shortest pulses achieved from an ultra-fast laser inscribed waveguide laser.

  14. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...... or citation counts for improved measurement of relevance of tag clouds. We show, that on the given data sets, our approach outperforms the state of the art baseline methods with respect to such relevance by 41 % on Movielens dataset and by 11 % on Bibsonomy data set....

  15. Source Code Generator Based on Dynamic Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper presents the model of source code generator based on dynamic frames. The model is named as the SCT model because if its three basic components: Specification (S, which describes the application characteristics, Configuration (C, which describes the rules for building applications, and Templates (T, which refer to application building blocks. The process of code generation dynamically creates XML frames containing all building elements (S, C ant T until final code is produced. This approach is compared to existing XVCL frames based model for source code generating. The SCT model is described by both XML syntax and the appropriate graphical elements. The SCT model is aimed to build complete applications, not just skeletons. The main advantages of the presented model are its textual and graphic description, a fully configurable generator, and the reduced overhead of the generated source code. The presented SCT model is shown on development of web application example in order to demonstrate its features and justify our design choices.

  16. Integrated chip-based physiometer for automated fish embryo toxicity biotests in pharmaceutical screening and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Hall, Chris J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) models of human diseases have recently emerged as innovative experimental systems in drug discovery and molecular pathology. None of the currently available technologies, however, allow for automated immobilization and treatment of large numbers of spatially encoded transgenic embryos during real-time developmental analysis. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of an integrated 3D microfluidic chip-based system fabricated directly in the poly(methyl methacrylate) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. At its core, the device utilizes an array of 3D micromechanical traps to actively capture and immobilize single embryos using a low-pressure suction. It also features built-in piezoelectric microdiaphragm pumps, embryo-trapping suction manifold, drug delivery manifold, and optically transparent indium tin oxide heating element to provide optimal temperature during embryo development. Furthermore, we present design of the proof-of-concept off-chip electronic interface equipped with robotic servo actuator driven stage, innovative servomotor-actuated pinch valves, and embedded miniaturized fluorescent USB microscope. Our results showed that the innovative device has 100% embryo-trapping efficiency while supporting normal embryo development for up to 72 hr in a confined microfluidic environment. We also showed data that this microfluidic system can be readily applied to kinetic analysis of a panel of investigational antiangiogenic agents in transgenic zebrafish lines. The optical transparency and embryo immobilization allow for convenient visualization of developing vasculature patterns in response to drug treatment without the need for specimen re-positioning. The integrated electronic interfaces bring the lab-on-a-chip systems a step closer to realization of complete analytical automation. PMID:24664821

  17. Integrated chip-based physiometer for automated fish embryo toxicity biotests in pharmaceutical screening and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Hall, Chris J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) models of human diseases have recently emerged as innovative experimental systems in drug discovery and molecular pathology. None of the currently available technologies, however, allow for automated immobilization and treatment of large numbers of spatially encoded transgenic embryos during real-time developmental analysis. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of an integrated 3D microfluidic chip-based system fabricated directly in the poly(methyl methacrylate) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. At its core, the device utilizes an array of 3D micromechanical traps to actively capture and immobilize single embryos using a low-pressure suction. It also features built-in piezoelectric microdiaphragm pumps, embryo-trapping suction manifold, drug delivery manifold, and optically transparent indium tin oxide heating element to provide optimal temperature during embryo development. Furthermore, we present design of the proof-of-concept off-chip electronic interface equipped with robotic servo actuator driven stage, innovative servomotor-actuated pinch valves, and embedded miniaturized fluorescent USB microscope. Our results showed that the innovative device has 100% embryo-trapping efficiency while supporting normal embryo development for up to 72 hr in a confined microfluidic environment. We also showed data that this microfluidic system can be readily applied to kinetic analysis of a panel of investigational antiangiogenic agents in transgenic zebrafish lines. The optical transparency and embryo immobilization allow for convenient visualization of developing vasculature patterns in response to drug treatment without the need for specimen re-positioning. The integrated electronic interfaces bring the lab-on-a-chip systems a step closer to realization of complete analytical automation.

  18. Feasibility study of a green energy powered thermoelectric chip based air conditioner for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional compressed-refrigerant air conditioning systems consume substantial energy that may reduce the driving performance and cruising mileage of electric vehicles considerably. It is crucial to design a new climate control system, using a direct energy conversion principle, to further aid in the commercialization of modern electric vehicles. A solid state air conditioner model consisting on TECs (thermoelectric chips) as the load, DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells) as the renewable energy source and high power LiBs (lithium-ion batteries) as an energy storage device are considered for a personal mobility vehicle. The power management between the main power net and the solid state air conditioner interface is designed with an outer proportional-integral controller and an inner passivity based current controller with a loss included model for perfect tracking. This model is intended to comprise thermal and electrical elements which can be tunable for performance benchmarking and optimization of a solid state air conditioning system. Dynamic performance simulations of the solid-state air conditioner are performed, alongside guidelines for feasibility. - Highlights: • Alternative model extraction for dye sensitized solar cells. • Improved and computationally fast model for the cabin air temperature dynamics. • Euler–Lagrange loss included modeling of a buck converter. • Loss-included passivity based inner loop current control. • The thermoelectric chip air conditioner is tested in simulated cooling/heating scenarios

  19. SAD-based stereo vision machine on a System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Zhangwei

    2013-03-04

    This paper, proposes a novel solution for a stereo vision machine based on the System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC) architecture. The SOPC technology provides great convenience for accessing many hardware devices such as DDRII, SSRAM, Flash, etc., by IP reuse. The system hardware is implemented in a single FPGA chip involving a 32-bit Nios II microprocessor, which is a configurable soft IP core in charge of managing the image buffer and users' configuration data. The Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD) algorithm is used for dense disparity map computation. The circuits of the algorithmic module are modeled by the Matlab-based DSP Builder. With a set of configuration interfaces, the machine can process many different sizes of stereo pair images. The maximum image size is up to 512 K pixels. This machine is designed to focus on real time stereo vision applications. The stereo vision machine offers good performance and high efficiency in real time. Considering a hardware FPGA clock of 90 MHz, 23 frames of 640 × 480 disparity maps can be obtained in one second with 5 × 5 matching window and maximum 64 disparity pixels.

  20. SAD-Based Stereo Vision Machine on a System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangwei Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper, proposes a novel solution for a stereo vision machine based on the System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC architecture. The SOPC technology provides great convenience for accessing many hardware devices such as DDRII, SSRAM, Flash, etc., by IP reuse. The system hardware is implemented in a single FPGA chip involving a 32-bit Nios II microprocessor, which is a configurable soft IP core in charge of managing the image buffer and users’ configuration data. The Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD algorithm is used for dense disparity map computation. The circuits of the algorithmic module are modeled by the Matlab-based DSP Builder. With a set of configuration interfaces, the machine can process many different sizes of stereo pair images. The maximum image size is up to 512 K pixels. This machine is designed to focus on real time stereo vision applications. The stereo vision machine offers good performance and high efficiency in real time. Considering a hardware FPGA clock of 90 MHz, 23 frames of 640 × 480 disparity maps can be obtained in one second with 5 × 5 matching window and maximum 64 disparity pixels.

  1. Fabrication and demonstration of 1 × 8 silicon–silica multi-chip switch based on optical phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayose, Satomi; Hashizume, Yasuaki; Itoh, Mikitaka

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 1 × 8 silicon–silica hybrid thermo-optic switch based on an optical phased array using a multi-chip integration technique. The switch consists of a silicon chip with optical phase shifters and two silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) chips composed of optical couplers and fiber connections. We adopted a rib waveguide as the silicon waveguide to reduce the coupling loss and increase the alignment tolerance for coupling between silicon and silica waveguides. As a result, we achieved a fast switching response of 81 µs, a high extinction ratio of over 18 dB and a low insertion loss of 4.9–8.1 dB including a silicon–silica coupling loss of 0.5 ± 0.3 dB at a wavelength of 1.55 µm.

  2. Automated family-based naming of small RNAs for next generation sequencing data using a modified MD5-digest algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhihua; Lin, Yuefeng; John, Bino

    2012-01-01

    We developed NameMyGene, a web tool and a stand alone program to easily generate putative family-based names for small RNA sequences so that laboratories can easily organize, analyze, and observe patterns from, the massive amount of data generated by next-generation sequencers. NameMyGene, also applicable to other emerging methods such as RNA-Seq, and Chip-Seq, solely uses the input small RNA sequence and does not require any additional data such as other sequence data sets. The web server an...

  3. Delivery of molecules into cells using localized single cell electroporation on ITO micro-electrode based transparent chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Chiech; Santra, Tuhin Subhra; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Tsung-Ju; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2012-10-01

    Single cell electroporation is one of the nonviral method which successfully allows transfection of exogenous macromolecules into individual living cell. We present localized cell membrane electroporation at single-cell level by using indium tin oxide (ITO) based transparent micro-electrodes chip with inverted microscope. A focused ion beam (FIB) technique has been successfully deployed to fabricate transparent ITO micro-electrodes with submicron gaps, which can generate more intense electric field to produce very localized cell membrane electroporation. In our approach, we have successfully achieved 0.93 μm or smaller electroporation region on the cell surface to inject PI (Propidium Iodide) dye into the cell with 60 % cell viability. This experiments successfully demonstrate the cell self-recover process from the injected PI dye intensity variation. Our localized cell membrane electroporation technique (LSCMEP) not only generates reversible electroporation process but also it provides a clear optical path for potentially monitoring/tracking of drugs to deliver in single cell level.

  4. Support for Programming Models in Network-on-Chip-based Many-core Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth

    This thesis addresses aspects of support for programming models in Network-on- Chip-based many-core architectures. The main focus is to consider architectural support for a plethora of programming models in a single system. The thesis has three main parts. The first part considers parallelization...... and scalability in an image processing application with the aim of providing insight into parallel programming issues. The second part proposes and presents the tile-based Clupea many-core architecture, which has the objective of providing configurable support for programming models to allow different programming...... models to be supported by a single architecture. The architecture features a specialized network interface processor which allows extensive configurability of the memory system. Based on this architecture, a detailed implementation of the cache coherent shared memory programming model is presented...

  5. Electrochemical chip-based genomagnetic assay for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, Martin; Durikova, Helena; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Anton, Milan; Jandakova, Eva; Hrstka, Roman

    2016-09-15

    Cervical cancer, being the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, predominantly originates from a persistent infection with a high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Detection of DNA sequences from these high-risk strains, mostly HPV-16 and HPV-18, represents promising strategy for early screening, which would help to identify women with higher risk of cervical cancer. In developing countries, inadequate screening options lead to disproportionately high mortality rates, making a fast and inexpensive detection schemes highly important. Electrochemical sensors and assays offer an alternative to current methods of detection. We developed an electrochemical-chip based assay, in which target HPV DNA is captured via magnetic bead-modified DNA probes, followed by an antidigoxigenin-peroxidase detection system at screen-printed carbon electrode chips, enabling parallel measurements of eight samples simultaneously. We show sensitive detection in attomoles of HPV DNA, selective discrimination between HPV-16 and HPV-18 and good reproducibility. Most importantly, we show application of the assay into both cancer cell lines and cervical smears from patients. The electrochemical results correlated well with standard methods, making this assay potentially applicable in clinical practice. PMID:27132004

  6. Performance evaluation of a routing algorithm based on Hopfield Neural Network for network-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelpoor, Jamal; Ghafouri, Abdollah

    2015-12-01

    Network on chip (NoC) has emerged as a solution to overcome the system on chip growing complexity and design challenges. A proper routing algorithm is a key issue of an NoC design. An appropriate routing method balances load across the network channels and keeps path length as short as possible. This survey investigates the performance of a routing algorithm based on Hopfield Neural Network. It is a dynamic programming to provide optimal path and network monitoring in real time. The aim of this article is to analyse the possibility of using a neural network as a router. The algorithm takes into account the path with the lowest delay (cost) form source to destination. In other words, the path a message takes from source to destination depends on network traffic situation at the time and it is the fastest one. The simulation results show that the proposed approach improves average delay, throughput and network congestion efficiently. At the same time, the increase in power consumption is almost negligible.

  7. Accessible morphohistochemical labs-on-a-chip based on different counting chambers' grids: microfluidic morphodynamical workstations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradov O.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessible design of autonomous labs on the chip which do not require a special reader is developed. The proposed device uses hemocytometric counting chambers for determinati on of concentration of cells, isolated by a special device for cell sedimentation. A system of automated Rf-identification of chambers in the long-term storage is proposed which provides new morphometric data at various stages of cultivation or biomonitoring. A ne w diffraction method of calcu-lation and fingerprinting of cellular structures in varying environmental conditions is described. Experimental data on the pilot testing of Fuchs-Rosenthal, Buerker, Neubauer, Makler and Thoma chambers fo r the described technique is given. The applicability of these devices for coherent-d ensitometric indication either of concen tration dynamics in cell culture or suspen -sion or morphogenetic processes in them for laminar conditions is shown. A self-learning program for cellular pattern recog-nition and relational cytophotometry based on lab on the chip w ith an object-micrometric calib ration relative to the counting net is demonstrated. A hybrid in vitro / in silico met hod of morphogenesis monitoring in cell cultures is introduced.

  8. On-chip cooling by superlattice-based thin-film thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ihtesham; Prasher, Ravi; Lofgreen, Kelly; Chrysler, Gregory; Narasimhan, Sridhar; Mahajan, Ravi; Koester, David; Alley, Randall; Venkatasubramanian, Rama

    2009-04-01

    There is a significant need for site-specific and on-demand cooling in electronic, optoelectronic and bioanalytical devices, where cooling is currently achieved by the use of bulky and/or over-designed system-level solutions. Thermoelectric devices can address these limitations while also enabling energy-efficient solutions, and significant progress has been made in the development of nanostructured thermoelectric materials with enhanced figures-of-merit. However, fully functional practical thermoelectric coolers have not been made from these nanomaterials due to the enormous difficulties in integrating nanoscale materials into microscale devices and packaged macroscale systems. Here, we show the integration of thermoelectric coolers fabricated from nanostructured Bi2Te3-based thin-film superlattices into state-of-the-art electronic packages. We report cooling of as much as 15 °C at the targeted region on a silicon chip with a high (~1,300 W cm-2) heat flux. This is the first demonstration of viable chip-scale refrigeration technology and has the potential to enable a wide range of currently thermally limited applications.

  9. Low power, chip-based stimulated Brillouin scattering microwave photonic filter with ultrahigh selectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Marpaung, David; Pagani, Mattia; Pant, Ravi; Choi, Duk-Yong; Luther-Davies, Barry; Madden, Steve J; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Highly selective and reconfigurable microwave filters are of great importance in radio-frequency signal processing. Microwave photonic (MWP) filters are of particular interest, as they offer flexible reconfiguration and an order of magnitude higher frequency tuning range than electronic filters. However, all MWP filters to date have been limited by trade-offs between key parameters such as tuning range, resolution, and suppression. This problem is exacerbated in the case of integrated MWP filters, blocking the path to compact, high performance filters. Here we show the first chip-based MWP band-stop filter with ultra-high suppression, high resolution in the MHz range, and 0-30 GHz frequency tuning. This record performance was achieved using an ultra-low Brillouin gain from a compact photonic chip and a novel approach of optical resonance-assisted RF signal cancellation. The results point to new ways of creating energy-efficient and reconfigurable integrated MWP signal processors for wireless communications an...

  10. Electrochemical chip-based genomagnetic assay for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, Martin; Durikova, Helena; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Anton, Milan; Jandakova, Eva; Hrstka, Roman

    2016-09-15

    Cervical cancer, being the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, predominantly originates from a persistent infection with a high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Detection of DNA sequences from these high-risk strains, mostly HPV-16 and HPV-18, represents promising strategy for early screening, which would help to identify women with higher risk of cervical cancer. In developing countries, inadequate screening options lead to disproportionately high mortality rates, making a fast and inexpensive detection schemes highly important. Electrochemical sensors and assays offer an alternative to current methods of detection. We developed an electrochemical-chip based assay, in which target HPV DNA is captured via magnetic bead-modified DNA probes, followed by an antidigoxigenin-peroxidase detection system at screen-printed carbon electrode chips, enabling parallel measurements of eight samples simultaneously. We show sensitive detection in attomoles of HPV DNA, selective discrimination between HPV-16 and HPV-18 and good reproducibility. Most importantly, we show application of the assay into both cancer cell lines and cervical smears from patients. The electrochemical results correlated well with standard methods, making this assay potentially applicable in clinical practice.

  11. Plastic-Chip-Based Magnetophoretic Immunoassay for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyo; Jang, Minji; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Kil-Soo; Lee, Seok Jae; Ro, Kyung-Won; Kang, In Sung; Jeong, Byung Do; Park, Tae Jung; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Jaebeom

    2016-09-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a relevant infectious disease in the 21st century, and its extermination is still far from being attained. Due to the extreme infectivity of incipient TB patients, a rapid sensing system for proficient point-of-care (POC) diagnostics is required. In our study, a plastic-chip-based magnetophoretic immunoassay (pcMPI) is introduced using magnetic and gold nanoparticles (NPs) modified with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antibodies. This pcMPI offers an ultrasensitive limit of detection (LOD) of 1.8 pg·ml(-1) for the detection of CFP-10, an MTB-secreted antigen, as a potential TB biomarker with high specificity. In addition, by combining the plastic chip with an automated spectrophotometer setup, advantages include ease of operation, rapid time to results (1 h), and cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, the pcMPI results using clinical sputum culture filtrate samples are competitively compared with and integrated with clinical data collected from conventional tools such as the acid-fast bacilli (AFB) test, mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and physiological results. CFP-10 concentrations were consistently higher in patients diagnosed with MTB infection than those seen in patients infected with nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) (P < 0.05), and this novel test can distinguish MTB and NTM while MGIT cannot. All these results indicate that this pcMPI has the potential to become a new commercial TB diagnostic POC platform in view of its sensitivity, portability, and affordability.

  12. Enhancement of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance polymer based biosensor chips using well-defined glycopolymers for lectin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Wong, Kok Hou; Granville, Anthony Michael

    2016-01-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer based Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor chips were successfully fabricated using glycopolymer brushes carrying glucose moieties for the detection of concanavalin A. Poly(pentafluorostyrene), with pre-determined polymer chain lengths, were synthesized via a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization technique. The synthesized poly(pentafluorostyrene), was subsequently converted into glycopolymers via a para-fluoro-thiol "click" reaction and grafted onto the surface of sensor chips. The "glycocluster effect" induced by pendent carbohydrate moieties enabled a stronger affinity for concanavalin A binding, which resulted in a dramatic expansion of the sensors' response range. It was discovered that the longer polymer brushes did not guarantee additional enhancements for the sensor chips. Instead, they could lead to higher detection limits. In this study, the limit of detection for the sensor chips was discovered to be 1.3nmolL(-1) with a saturated response at 1054.2nmolL(-1). In addition to the superior performance, the capabilities of the reported sensor chips can be easily manipulated to detect a diverse range of analytes by "clicking" various sensing elements onto the polymer brushes. PMID:26433474

  13. A brief review on mixed convection heat transfer in channel flow with vortex generator for electronic chip cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mandal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to increase processor speeds, 3D IC architecture is being aggressively pursued by researchers and chip manufacturers. This architecture allows extremely high level of integration with enhanced electrical performance and expanded functionality, and facilitates realization of VLSI and ULSI technologies. However, utilizing the third dimension to provide additional device layers poses thermal challenges due to the increased heat dissipation and complex electrical interconnects among different layers. The conflicting needs of the cooling system requiring larger flow passage dimensions to limit the pressure drop, and the IC architecture necessitating short interconnect distances to reduce signal latency warrant paradigm shifts in both of their design approach. Additional considerations include the effects due to temperature non-uniformity, localized hot spots, complex fluidic connections, and mechanical design. This paper reviews the advances in electronic chip cooling in the last decade and provides a vision for code signing integrated cooling systems. For various heat fluxes on each side of a chip acting as discrete heat source, the current single-phase cooling technology is projected to provide adequate cooling, albeit with high pressure drops. Effectively mitigating the high temperatures surrounding local hot spots remains a challenging issue. Various forms of tabulators above the chips, different geometric arrangements of the chips positioned top and bottom wall of the duct serves very well in the heat augmentation technique with better performance

  14. Analysis of on-chip distributed interconnects based on Pade expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng JI; Long GE; Zhiquan WANG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,on-chip interconnects are modeled as distributed parameter RLCG transmission lines,based on which the matrix ABCD of interconnects is deduced.With help of the ABCD matrix,a voltage transfer function of an interconnect system,consisting of a driver,interconnect line and load,is obtained analytically in the form of a transcen-dental function,and it is reduced to a finite order system based on high order Pade approximation.With the reduced-order transfer function,response waveforms with step input can be obtained,and signal delay can be calculated consequently.Two numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate its efficiency.

  15. On-chip two-mode division multiplexing using tapered directional coupler-based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing; Da Ros, Francesco;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We demonstrate a novel on-chip two-mode division multiplexing circuit using a tapered directional coupler-based TE0&TE1 mode multiplexer and demultiplexer on the silicon-on-insulator platform. A low insertion loss (0.3 dB), low mode crosstalk (...), and large fabrication tolerance (20 nm) are measured. An on-chip mode multiplexing experiment is carried out on the fabricated circuit with non return-to-zero (NRZ) on-off keying (OOK) signals at 40 Gbit/s. The experimental results show clear eye diagrams and moderate power penalty for both TE0 and TE1...... modes....

  16. Chip Multithreaded Consistency Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Song Li; Dan-Dan Huan; Wei-Wu Hu; Zhi-Min Tang

    2008-01-01

    Multithreaded technique is the developing trend of high performance processor. Memory consistency model is essential to the correctness, performance and complexity of multithreaded processor. The chip multithreaded consistency model adapting to multithreaded processor is proposed in this paper. The restriction imposed on memory event ordering by chip multithreaded consistency is presented and formalized. With the idea of critical cycle built by Wei-Wu Hu, we prove that the proposed chip multithreaded consistency model satisfies the criterion of correct execution of sequential consistency model. Chip multithreaded consistency model provides a way of achieving high performance compared with sequential consistency model and ensures the compatibility of software that the execution result in multithreaded processor is the same as the execution result in uniprocessor. The implementation strategy of chip multithreaded consistency model in Godson-2 SMT processor is also proposed. Godson-2 SMT processor supports chip multithreaded consistency model correctly by exception scheme based on the sequential memory access queue of each thread.

  17. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Y.; Ma, J. X.; Li, C. G.; Wang, H. X.

    2014-04-01

    Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2-10.4% and 100-107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis.

  18. Optimizing design of triplexer chip with low insert loss and high isolation based on planar lightwave circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Design optimization of a novel integrated triplexer based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) for fiber-to-the-home applications is described. The two-mode interference coupler and Mach-Zehnder interference are used to construct the filter chip.Simulation results of high isolation and low insertion loss are gotten for proposed design. Technique tolerance is improved for fabricating device.

  19. Hot embossed polyethylene through-hole chips for bead-based microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jie; Du, Nan; Ou, Tina; Floriano, Pierre N.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; McDevitt, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a growth of interest in the translation of microfluidic systems into real-world clinical practice, especially for use in point-of-care or near patient settings. While initial fabrication advances in microfluidics involved mainly the etching of silicon and glass, the economics of scaling of these materials is not amendable for point-of-care usage where single-test applications forces cost considerations to be kept low and throughput high. As such, a materials base more consistent with point-of-care needs is required. In this manuscript, the fabrication of a hot embossed, through-hole low-density polyethylene ensembles derived from an anisotropically etched silicon wafer is discussed. This semi-opaque polymer that can be easily sterilized and recycled provides low background noise for fluorescence measurements and yields more affordable cost than other thermoplastics commonly used for microfluidic applications such as cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). To fabrication through-hole microchips from this alternative material for microfluidics, a fabrication technique that uses a high-temperature, high-pressure resistant mold is described. This aluminum-based epoxy mold, serving as the positive master mold for embossing, is casted over etched arrays of pyramidal pits in a silicon wafer. Methods of surface treatment of the wafer prior to casting and PDMS casting of the epoxy are discussed to preserve the silicon wafer for future use. Changes in the thickness of polyethylene are observed for varying embossing temperatures. The methodology described herein can quickly fabricate 20 disposable, single use chips in less than 30 minutes with the ability to scale up 4x by using multiple molds simultaneously. When coupled as a platform supporting porous bead sensors, as in the recently developed Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip, this bead chip system can achieve limits of detection, for the cardiac biomarker C-reactive protein, of 0.3 ng/mL, thereby

  20. Dye-based coatings for hydrophobic valves and their application to polymer labs-on-a-chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a method for the selective surface patterning of microfluidic chips with hydrophobic fluoropolymers which is demonstrated by the fabrication of hydrophobic valves via dispensing. It enables efficient optical quality control for the surface patterning thus permitting the low-cost production of highly reproducible hydrophobic valves. Specifically, different dyes for fluoropolymers enabling visual quality control (QC) are investigated, and two fluoropolymer-solvent-dye solutions based on fluorescent quantum dots (QD) and carbon black (CB) are presented in detail. The latter creates superhydrophobic surfaces on arbitrary substrates, e.g. chips made from cyclic olefin copolymer (COC, water contact angle = 157.9°), provides good visibility for the visual QC in polymer labs-on-a-chip and increases the burst pressures of the hydrophobic valves. Finally, an application is presented which aims at the on-chip amplification of mRNA based on defined flow control by hydrophobic valves is presented. Here, the optimization based on QC in combination with the Teflon-CB coating improves the burst pressure reproducibility from 14.5% down to 6.1% compared to Teflon-coated valves.

  1. On-chip interdigitated supercapacitor based on nano-porous gold/manganese oxide nanowires hybrid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid development of micro-sized electronics has aroused demand for on-chip energy storage devices of high reliability, stability and performance. Micro fabrication technology has now enabled planar supercapacitors (SCs), based on various electrode materials, to be prepared onto a chip for a variety of applications. Nano-porous metal/manganese oxide hybrid electrode with enhanced conductivity and capacitive performance has been proven to be a promising candidate for SCs but has not yet been utilized for interdigitated on-chip energy storage. Herein, we demonstrate a scalable preparation of nano-porous gold/manganese oxide nanowires thin film electrode material, which can be further fabricated to on-chip interdigitated all-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon wafers so that they can be integrated with MEMS or CMOS. Also the nucleation and growth mechanism of manganese oxide nanowires on nano-porous gold has been investigated. Remarkably, the miniaturized SCs based on the nano-porous gold/manganese oxide nanowires hybrid material exhibits excellent cycle stability and superior frequency response (4 ms) and demonstrates energy density of 55 μWh cm−3 and power density of 3.4 W cm−3, which is relatively high compared with other manganese oxide based supercapacitors

  2. All-optical modulator based on a ferrofluid core metal cladding waveguide chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel optical intensity modulator based on the combination of a symmetrical metal cladding optical waveguide (SMCW) and ferrofluid, where the ferrofluid is sealed in the waveguide to act as a guiding layer. The light matter interaction in the ferrofluid film leads to the formation of a regular nanoparticle pattern, which changes the phase match condition of the ultrahigh order modes in return. When two lasers are incident on the same spot of the waveguide chip, experiments illustrate all-optical modulation of one laser beam by adjusting the intensity of the other laser. A possible theoretical explanation may be due to the optical trapping and Soret effect since the phenomenon is considerable only when the control laser is effectively coupled into the waveguide. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Microring resonator-based optical router for photonic networks-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihua, Yu; Qi, Zhang; Xin, Jin; Juan, Zhao; Hadi, Baghsiahi; Selviah, D. R.

    2016-07-01

    We report the design and analysis of a non-blocking microring resonator-based optical switched router, which can be used as a switch node to construct a large photonic routing network on chips. The proposed optical router has sixteen microrings, fourteen crossings and four 90° waveguide bends, which could be tuned through the thermo-optic (TO) or electro-optic (EO) effect. Compared with a previously described 5 × 5 optical switching router, our router comprises fewer microring resonators (MRRs), crossings and bends, which results in a more compact design, a higher switching speed, a lower loss and a lower optical power consumption. In addition, all the rings operate at the same wavelength making it scalable to a network of any size.

  4. Scheduling method based on virtual flattened architecture for Hierarchical system-on-chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong; ZHANG Jin-yi; YANG Xiao-dong; YANG Yi

    2009-01-01

    As the technology of IP-core-reused has been widely used, a lot of intellectual property (IP) cores have been embedded in different layers of system-on-chip (SOC). Although the cycles of development and overhead are reduced by this method, it is a challenge to the SOC test. This paper proposes a scheduling method based on the virtual flattened architecture for hierarchical SOC, which breaks the hierarchical architecture to the virtual flattened one. Moreover, this method has more advantages compared with the traditional one, which tests the parent cores and child cores separately. Finally, the method is verified by the ITC'02 benchmark, and gives good results that reduce the test time and overhead effectively.

  5. Silicon-based on-chip electrically tunable sidewall Bragg grating Fabry-Perot filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Ehteshami, Nasrin; Liu, Weilin; Yao, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a silicon-based on-chip electrically tunable sidewall Bragg grating Fabry-Perot filter. Spectral measurement shows that the filter has a narrow notch in reflection of approximately 46 pm, a Q-factor of 33,500, and an extinction ratio of 16.4 dB. DC measurement shows that the average central wavelength shift rates with forward and reverse bias are -1.15  nm/V and 4.2  pm/V, respectively. Due to strong light confinement in the Fabry-Perot cavity, the electro-optic frequency response shows that the filter has a 3-dB modulation bandwidth of ∼5.6  GHz. The performance of using the filter to perform modulation of a 3.5  Gb/s2(7)-1 nonreturn-to-zero pseudorandom binary sequence is evaluated.

  6. Tunable ultracompact chip-integrated multichannel filter based on plasmon-induced transparencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Chai, Zhen; Lu, Cuicui; Yang, Hong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-02

    Nanoscale multichannel filter is realized in plasmonic circuits directly, which consists of four plasmonic nanocavities coupled via a plasmonic waveguide etched in a gold film. The feature device size is only 1.35 μm, which is reduced by five orders of magnitude compared with previous reports. The optical channels are formed by transparency windows of plasmon-induced transparencies. A shift of 45 nm in the central wavelengths of optical channels is obtained when the plasmonic coupled-nanocavities are covered with a 100-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) layer. This work opens up the possibility for the realization of solid quantum chips based on plasmonic circuits.

  7. On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villares, G., E-mail: gustavo.villares@phys.ethz.ch; Wolf, J.; Kazakov, D.; Süess, M. J.; Beck, M.; Faist, J., E-mail: jfaist@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Hugi, A. [IRsweep GmbH, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-21

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is emerging as an appealing application of mid-infrared frequency combs for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, as it leverages on the unique coherence properties of frequency combs. Here, we present an on-chip dual-comb source based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency combs. Control of the combs repetition and offset frequencies is obtained by integrating micro-heaters next to each laser. We show that a full control of the dual-comb system is possible, by measuring a multi-heterodyne beating corresponding to an optical bandwidth of 32 cm{sup −1} centered at 1330 cm{sup −1} (7.52 μm), demonstrating that this device represents a critical step towards compact dual-comb systems.

  8. Characterisation of Flavonoid Aglycones by Negative Ion Chip-Based Nanospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Gates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are one of the most important classes of natural products having a wide variety of biological activities. There is wide interest in a range of medical and dietary applications, and having a rapid, reliable method for structural elucidation is essential. In this study a range of flavonoid standards are investigated by chip-based negative ion nanospray mass spectrometry. It was found that the different classes of flavonoid studied have a combination of distinct neutral losses from the precursor ion [M-H]− along with characteristic low-mass ions. By looking only for this distinct pattern of product ions, it is possible to determine the class of flavonoid directly. This methodology is tested here by the analysis of a green tea extract, where the expected flavonoids were readily identified, along with quercetin, which is shown to be present at only about 2% of the most intense ion in the spectrum.

  9. Fabrication LSPR sensor chip of Ag NPs and their biosensor application based on interparticle coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodselahi, T., E-mail: t_ghodselahi@yahoo.com [Nano Mabna Iranian Inc., PO Box 1676664116, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neishaboorynejad, T. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arsalani, S. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor of silver nanoparticles on hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin film were synthetized by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD. • Samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, AFM, and UV visible. • DNA primer at fM concentration was detected based on breaking of inter-particles coupling. • Dipolar plasmon of isolated Ag NPs, coupled Ag NPs plasmons, in-plane and out-plane coupling, and quadrupole plasmon modes were considered to explain biosensor properties. • The initial response, wavelength shift sensitivity, and response time of LSPR sensors were compared by morphology. - Abstract: We introduce a simple method to synthesize localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor chip of Ag NPs on the hydrogenated amorphous carbon by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the content of Ag and C atoms. X-ray diffraction profile and atomic force microscopy indicate that the Ag NPs have fcc crystal structure and spherical shape and by increasing deposition time, particle sizes do not vary and only Ag NPs aggregation occurs, resulting in LSPR wavelength shift. Firstly, by increasing Ag NPs content, in-plan interparticles coupling is dominant and causes redshift in LSPR. At the early stage of agglomeration, out-plane coupling occurs and in-plane coupling is reduced, resulting a blueshift in the LSPR. By further increasing of Ag NPs content, agglomeration is completed on the substrate and in-plan coupling rises, resulting significant redshift in the LSPR. Results were used to implement biosensor application of chips. Detection of DNA primer at fM concentration was achieved based on breaking interparticles coupling of Ag NPs. A significant wavelength shift sensitivity of 30 nm and a short response time of 30 min were obtained, where both of these are prerequisite for biosensor applications.

  10. The combination of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and chip-based infusion for improved screening and characterization of drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staack, Roland F; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    An approach has been developed for drug metabolism studies of non-radiolabeled compounds using on-line liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) combined with chip-based infusion following fraction collection. The potential of this approach, which improves the data quality compared with only LC/MS analysis, has been investigated for the analysis of in vitro metabolites of tolcapone and talinolol, two compounds with well-characterized metabolism. The information-dependent LC/MS/MS analysis enables the characterization of the major metabolites while the chip-based infusion is used to obtain good product ion spectra for lower level metabolites, to generate complementary MS information on potential metabolites detected in the LC/MS trace, or to screen for unexpected metabolites. Fractions from the chromatographic analysis are collected in 20 second steps, into a 96-well plate. The fractions of interest can be re-analyzed with chip-based infusion on a variety of mass spectrometers including triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QqLIT or Q TRAP) and QqTOF systems. Acquiring data for several minutes using multi-channel acquisition (MCA), or signal averaging while infusing the fractions at approximately 200 nL/min, permits about a 50 times gain in sensitivity (signal-to-noise) in MS/MS mode. A 5-10 microL sample fraction can be infused for more than 30 min allowing the time to perform various MS experiments such as MS(n), precursor ion or neutral loss scans and accurate mass measurement, all in either positive or negative mode. Through fraction collection and infusion, a significant gain in data quality is obtained along with a time-saving benefit, because the original sample needs neither to be re-analyzed by re-injection nor to be pre-concentrated. Therefore, a novel hydroxylated talinolol metabolite could be characterized with only one injection. PMID:15685686

  11. MEGen: A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D Loizou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are being used in an increasing number of different areas. These not only include the human safety assessment of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, biocides and environmental chemicals but also for food animal, wild mammal and avian risk assessment. The value of PBPK models is that they are tools for estimating tissue dosimetry by integrating in vitro and in vivo mechanistic, pharmacokinetic and toxicological information through their explicit mathematical description of important anatomical, physiological and biochemical determinants of chemical uptake, disposition and elimination. However, PBPK models are perceived as complex, data hungry, resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, model validation and verification are hindered by the relative complexity of the equations. To begin to address these issues a freely available web application for the rapid construction and documentation of bespoke PBPK models is under development. Here we present an overview of the current capabilities of MEGen, a model equation generator and parameter database and discuss future developments.

  12. DNA mutation detection with chip-based temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis using a slantwise radiative heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Dan; Zhou, Jing; Xu, Zhang-Run; Song, Jin; Dai, Jing; Fang, Jin; Fang, Zhao-Lun

    2007-09-01

    A simple and robust chip-based temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) system was developed for DNA mutation/single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis using a radiative heating system. Reproducible, stable and uniform temperature gradients were established along a 3 cm length of the electrophoretic separation channel using a single thermostated aluminium heater plate. The heater was slightly slanted relative to the plane of the glass chip at 0.2-1.3 degrees by inserting thin spacers between the plate and chip at one end to produce differences in radiative heating that created the temperature gradient. On-chip TGCE analyses of 4 mutant DNA model samples amplified from plasmid templates, each containing a single base substitution, with a wide range of melting temperatures, showed that mutations were successfully detected under a wide temperature gradient of 10 degrees C and within a short gradient region of about 3 cm (3.3 degrees C cm(-1) gradient). The radiative heating system was able to establish stable spatial temperature gradients along short microfluidic separation channels using simple peripheral equipment and manipulation while ensuring good resolution for detecting a wide range of mutations. Effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by the successful detection of K-ras gene mutations in 6 colon cancer cell lines.

  13. A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, David; Roeloffzen, Chris; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    We report a high performance phase modulation direct detection microwave photonic link employing a photonic chip as a frequency discriminator. The photonic chip consists of five optical ring resonators (ORRs) which are fully programmable using thermo-optical tuning. In this discriminator a drop-port

  14. Single-chip computers with microelectromechanical systems-based magnetic memory (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carley, L. Richard; Bain, James A.; Fedder, Gary K.; Greve, David W.; Guillou, David F.; Lu, Michael S.C.; Mukherjee, Tamal; Santhanam, Suresh; Abelmann, Leon; Min, Seungook

    2000-01-01

    This article describes an approach for implementing a complete computer system (CPU, RAM, I/O, and nonvolatile mass memory) on a single integrated-circuit substrate (a chip)—hence, the name “single-chip computer.” The approach presented combines advances in the field of microelectromechanical system

  15. A rainfall simulator based on multifractal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrour, Nawal; mallet, Cecile; barthes, Laurent; chazottes, Aymeric

    2015-04-01

    The Precipitations are due to complex meteorological phenomenon's and unlike other geophysical constituents such as water vapour concentration they present a relaxation behaviour leading to an alternation of dry and wet periods. Thus, precipitations can be described as intermittent process. The spatial and temporal variability of this phenomenon is significant and covers large scales. This high variability can cause extreme events which are difficult to observe properly because of their suddenness and their localized character. For all these reasons, the precipitations are therefore difficult to model. This study aims to adapt a one-dimensional time series model previously developed by the authors [Akrour et al., 2013, 2014] to a two-dimensional rainfall generator. The original time series model can be divided into 3 major steps : rain support generation, intra event rain rates generation using multifractal and finally calibration process. We use the same kind of methodology in the present study. Based on dataset obtained from meteorological radar of Météo France with a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km we present the used approach : Firstly, the extraction of rain support (rain/no rain area) allowing the retrieval of the rain support structure function (variogram) and fractal properties. This leads us to use either the rain support modelisation proposed by ScleissXXX [ref] or directly real rain support extracted from radar rain maps. Then, the generation (over rain areas) of rain rates is made thanks to a 2D multifractal Fractionnally Integrated Flux (FIF) model [ref]. This second stage is followed by a calibration/forcing step (forcing average rain rate per events) added in order to provide rain rate coherent with observed rain-rate distribution. The forcing process is based on a relation identified from the average rain rate of observed events and their surfaces. The presentation will first explain the different steps presented above, then some results

  16. A 3D Microfluidic Chip for Electrochemical Detection of Hydrolysed Nucleic Bases by a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vlachova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH. It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  17. A rule-based software test data generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  18. Chip-based in situ hybridization for identification of bacteria from the human microbiome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Yooli Kim; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.; Liu, Peng

    2010-11-01

    The emerging field of metagenomics seeks to assess the genetic diversity of complex mixed populations of bacteria, such as those found at different sites within the human body. A single person's mouth typically harbors up to 100 bacterial species, while surveys of many people have found more than 700 different species, of which {approx}50% have never been cultivated. In typical metagenomics studies, the cells themselves are destroyed in the process of gathering sequence information, and thus the connection between genotype and phenotype is lost. A great deal of sequence information may be generated, but it is impossible to assign any given sequence to a specific cell. We seek non-destructive, culture-independent means of gathering sequence information from selected individual cells from mixed populations. As a first step, we have developed a microfluidic device for concentrating and specifically labeling bacteria from a mixed population. Bacteria are electrophoretically concentrated against a photopolymerized membrane element, and then incubated with a specific fluorescent label, which can include antibodies as well as specific or non-specific nucleic acid stains. Unbound stain is washed away, and the labeled bacteria are released from the membrane. The stained cells can then be observed via epifluorescence microscopy, or counted via flow cytometry. We have tested our device with three representative bacteria from the human microbiome: E. coli (gut, Gram-negative), Lactobacillus acidophilus (mouth, Gram-positive), and Streptococcus mutans (mouth, Gram-positive), with results comparable to off-chip labeling techniques.

  19. Design and Fabrication of a Chip-based Continuous-wave Atom Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Power, E P; Vanderelzen, B; Herrera-Fierro, P; Murphy, R; Yalisove, S M; Raithel, G

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for a continuous-wave (CW) atom laser on a chip and describe the process used to fabricate the device. Our design aims to integrate quadrupole magnetic guiding of ground state Rb atoms with continuous surface adsorption evaporative cooling to create a continuous Bose-Einstein condensate; out-coupled atoms from the condensate should realize a CW atom laser. We choose a geometry with three wires embedded in a spiral pattern in a silicon subtrate. The guide features an integrated solenoid to mitigate spin-flip losses and provide a tailored longitudinal magnetic field. Our design also includes multiple options for atom interferometry: accomodations are in place for laser-generated atom Fabry-Perot and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and a pair of atomic beam X-splitters is incorporated for an all-magnetic atom Mach-Zehnder setup. We demonstrate the techniques necessary to fabricate our device using existing micro- and nano-scale fabrication equipment, and discuss future options for modified desi...

  20. Network on Chip: a New Approach of QoS Metric Modeling Based on Calculus Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem NASRI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available According to ITRS, in 2018, ICs will be able to integrate billions of transistors, with feature sizes around 18 nm and clock frequencies near to 10 GHz. In this context, Network on Chip (NoC appears as an attractive solution to implement future high performance networks and more QoS management. A NoC is composed by IP cores (Intellectual Propriety and switches connected among themselves by communicationchannels. End-to-End Delay (EED communication is accomplished by the exchange of data among IP cores.Often, the structure of particular messages is not adequate for the communication purposes. This leads to the concept of packet switching. In the context of NoCs, packets are composed by header, payload, and trailer. Packets are divided into small pieces called Flits. It appears of importance, to meet the required performance in NoC hardware resources. It should be specified in an earlier step of the system design. The main attention should be given to the choice of some network parameters such as the physical buffer size in the node. The EED and packet loss are some of the critical QoS metrics. Some real-time and multimedia applications bound up these parameters and require specific hardware resources and particular management approaches in the NoC switch.A traffic contract (SLA, Service Level Agreement specifies the ability of a network or protocol to give guaranteed performance, throughput or latency bounds based on mutually agreed measures, usually by prioritizing traffic. A defined Quality of Service (QoS may be required for some types of network real time traffic or multimedia applications. The main goal of this paper is, using the Network on Chip modeling architecture, to define a QoS metric. We focus on the network delay bound and packet losses. This approach is based on the Network Calculus theory, a mathematical model to represent the data flows behavior between IPs interconnected over NoC.We propose an approach of QoS-metric based on Qo

  1. A novel rabbit immunospot array assay on a chip allows for the rapid generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies with high affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Ozawa

    Full Text Available Antigen-specific rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RaMoAbs are useful due to their high specificity and high affinity, and the establishment of a comprehensive and rapid RaMoAb generation system has been highly anticipated. Here, we present a novel system using immunospot array assay on a chip (ISAAC technology in which we detect and retrieve antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of antigen-immunized rabbits and produce antigen-specific RaMoAbs with 10(-12 M affinity within a time period of only 7 days. We have used this system to efficiently generate RaMoAbs that are specific to a phosphorylated signal-transducing molecule. Our system provides a new method for the comprehensive and rapid production of RaMoAbs, which may contribute to laboratory research and clinical applications.

  2. Sensitivity enhancement of a grating-based surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) biosensor chip using gold thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Jong Seol; Guignon, Ernest F.; Lynes, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel approach to enhance the sensitivity of a grating-based surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) sensor by increasing the thickness of the metal film used in this system. The calculated optical properties of grating-based SPR spectra were significantly affected by both grating depth and by gold thickness. Higher angular sensitivity could be achieved at short wavelengths and under in situ measurement (analysis under aqueous condition). We confirmed the predicated enhancements of SPCE response using Alexa Fluor 647-labeled anti-mouse IgG immobilized on the SPCE sensor chips. Grating-coupled SPCE sensor chips can be used as a useful tool for high contents analysis of chemical and biomolecular interactions.

  3. Chip-Based Measurements of Brownian Relaxation of Magnetic Beads Using a Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerberg, Frederik W.; Dalslet, Bjarke T.; Snakenborg, Detlef; Johansson, Christer; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2010-12-01

    We present a simple `click-on' fluidic system with integrated electrical contacts, which is suited for electrical measurements on chips in microfluidic systems. We show that microscopic magnetic field sensors based on the planar Hall effect can be used for detecting the complex magnetic response using only the self-field arising from the bias current applied to the sensors as excitation field. We present measurements on a suspension of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 250 nm vs. temperature and find that the observations are consistent with the Cole-Cole model for Brownian relaxation with a constant hydrodynamic bead diameter when the temperature dependence of the viscosity of water is taken into account. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of performing measurements of the Brownian relaxation response in a lab-on-a-chip system and constitute the first step towards an integrated biosensor based on the detection of the dynamic response of magnetic beads.

  4. Control of a Power Generation System Based on a Dual Star Induction Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Marouani, K; Nounou, K; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Tabbache, B; Alloui, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme of a power generation system based on a dual star squirrel-cage induction machine operating as an induction generator. The operating mode based on an excitation control scheme is chosen to ensure a controlled magnitude and frequency of the generator output voltage. Some preliminary simulation and experimental test results, carried out on a prototype of dual star induction machine operating as generator and supplying various loads under different conditions...

  5. SERS-based multiple biomarker detection using a gold-patterned microarray chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Insup; Junejo, Inam-ur-Rehman; Lee, Moonkwon; Lee, Sangyeop; Lee, Eun Kyu; Chang, Soo-Ik; Choo, Jaebum

    2012-09-01

    We report a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunoassay platform for the multiplex detection of biomarkers. For this purpose, a gold-patterned microarray chip has been fabricated and used as a SERS detection template. Here, a typical sandwich immunocomplex protocol was adopted. Monoclonal antibodies were immobilized on gold patterned substrates, and then antigen solutions and polyclonal antibody-conjugated hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) were sequentially added for the formation of sandwich immunocomplexes. Antigen biomarkers can be quantitatively assayed by monitoring the intensity change of a characteristic SERS peak of a reporter molecule adsorbed on the surfaces of HGNs. Under optimized assay conditions, the limits of detections (LODs) were determined to be 10 fg/mL for human IgG and 10-100 fg/mL for rabbit IgG. In addition, the SERS-based immunoassay technique can be applied in a wider dynamic concentration range with a good sensitivity compared to ELISA. The proposed method fulfills the current needs of high sensitivity and selectivity which are essential for the clinical diagnosis of a disease.

  6. Flexure mechanism-based parallelism measurements for chip-on-glass bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have played vital roles in a variety of electronic devices such as televisions, cellular phones, and desktop/laptop monitors because of their enhanced volume, performance, and functionality. However, there is still a need for thinner LCD panels due to the trend of miniaturization in electronic applications. Thus, chip-on-glass (COG) bonding has become one of the most important aspects in the LCD panel manufacturing process. In this study, a novel sensor was developed to measure the parallelism between the tooltip planes of the bonding head and the backup of the COG main bonder, which has previously been estimated by prescale pressure films in industry. The sensor developed in this study is based on a flexure mechanism, and it can measure the total pressing force and the inclination angles in two directions that satisfy the quantitative definition of parallelism. To improve the measurement accuracy, the sensor was calibrated based on the estimation of the total pressing force and the inclination angles using the least-squares method. To verify the accuracy of the sensor, the estimation results for parallelism were compared with those from prescale pressure film measurements. In addition, the influence of parallelism on the bonding quality was experimentally demonstrated. The sensor was successfully applied to the measurement of parallelism in the COG-bonding process with an accuracy of more than three times that of the conventional method using prescale pressure films

  7. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis

  8. Chip-based amperometric enzyme sensor system for monitoring of bioprocesses by flow-injection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baecker, M.; Rakowski, D.; Poghossian, A.; Biselli, M; Wagner, P.; Schoening, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic chip integrating amperometric enzyme sensors for the detection of glucose, glutamate and glutamine in cell-culture fermentation processes has been developed. The enzymes glucose oxidase, glutamate oxidase and glutaminase were immobilized by means of cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on platinum thin-film electrodes integrated within a microfluidic channel. The biosensor chip was coupled to a flow-injection analysis system for electrochemical characterization of the sensors. The...

  9. Rule-based Test Generation with Mind Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Polivaev, Dimitry

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces basic concepts of rule based test generation with mind maps, and reports experiences learned from industrial application of this technique in the domain of smart card testing by Giesecke & Devrient GmbH over the last years. It describes the formalization of test selection criteria used by our test generator, our test generation architecture and test generation framework.

  10. Rule-based Test Generation with Mind Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Polivaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces basic concepts of rule based test generation with mind maps, and reports experiences learned from industrial application of this technique in the domain of smart card testing by Giesecke & Devrient GmbH over the last years. It describes the formalization of test selection criteria used by our test generator, our test generation architecture and test generation framework.

  11. The role of travel mode in engagement with a Radio Frequency ID chip based school physical activity intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Coombes

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of active travel to school in children is low and declining. For example, the 2014 National Travel Survey showed that just 46% of primary school children walk to school. This is despite the fact that children who actively travel have been shown to be more physically active overall as well as perform better in class. Beat the Street is a community based intervention which uses RFID (Radio Frequency ID) chip readers attached to locations around the neighbourhood. The ...

  12. Silicon-nanowire based attachment of silicon chips for mouse embryo labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, S; Novo, S; Duch, M; Gómez-Martínez, R; Fernández-Regúlez, M; San Paulo, A; Nogués, C; Esteve, J; Ibañez, E; Plaza, J A

    2015-03-21

    The adhesion of small silicon chips to cells has many potential applications as direct interconnection of the cells to the external world can be accomplished. Hence, although some typical applications of silicon nanowires integrated into microsystems are focused on achieving a cell-on-a-chip strategy, we are interested in obtaining chip-on-a-cell systems. This paper reports the design, technological development and characterization of polysilicon barcodes featuring silicon nanowires as nanoscale attachment to identify and track living mouse embryos during their in vitro development. The chips are attached to the outer surface of the Zona Pellucida, the cover that surrounds oocytes and embryos, to avoid the direct contact between the chip and the embryo cell membrane. Two attachment methodologies, rolling and pushpin, which allow two entirely different levels of applied forces to attach the chips to living embryos, are evaluated. The former consists of rolling the mouse embryos over one barcode with the silicon nanowires facing upwards, while in the latter, the barcode is pushed against the embryo with a micropipette. The effect on in vitro embryo development and the retention rate related to the calculated applied forces are stated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy inspection, which allowed high-resolution imaging, also confirms the physical attachment of the nanowires with some of them piercing or wrapped by the Zona Pellucida and revealed extraordinary bent silicon nanowires. PMID:25609565

  13. On-Chip Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification on Flow-Based Chemiluminescence Microarray Analysis Platform for the Detection of Viruses and Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, A; Dilcher, M; Abd El Wahed, A; Hufert, F; Niessner, R; Seidel, M

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an on-chip isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (iNAAT) for the multiplex amplification and detection of viral and bacterial DNA by a flow-based chemiluminescence microarray. In a principle study, on-chip recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) on defined spots of a DNA microarray was used to spatially separate the amplification reaction of DNA from two viruses (Human adenovirus 41, Phi X 174) and the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, which are relevant for water hygiene. By establishing the developed assay on the microarray analysis platform MCR 3, the automation of isothermal multiplex-amplification (39 °C, 40 min) and subsequent detection by chemiluminescence imaging was realized. Within 48 min, the microbes could be identified by the spot position on the microarray while the generated chemiluminescence signal correlated with the amount of applied microbe DNA. The limit of detection (LOD) determined for HAdV 41, Phi X 174, and E. faecalis was 35 GU/μL, 1 GU/μL, and 5 × 10(3) GU/μL (genomic units), which is comparable to the sensitivity reported for qPCR analysis, respectively. Moreover the simultaneous amplification and detection of DNA from all three microbes was possible. The presented assay shows that complex enzymatic reactions like an isothermal amplification can be performed in an easy-to-use experimental setup. Furthermore, iNAATs can be potent candidates for multipathogen detection in clinical, food, or environmental samples in routine or field monitoring approaches.

  14. Keystream Generator Based On Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad A. Abdulsalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the design of keystream generator using heuristic techniques are reported. A simulated annealing algorithm for generating random keystream with large complexity is presented. Simulated annealing technique is adapted to locate these requirements. The definitions for some cryptographic properties are generalized, providing a measure suitable for use as an objective function in a simulated annealing algorithm, seeking randomness that satisfy both correlation immunity and the large linear complexity. Results are presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the method.

  15. "Hook"-calibration of GeneChip-microarrays: Chip characteristics and expression measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohn Knut

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce biases and uncertainty in downstream analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labelling, hybridization, and scanning causing chip-specific systematic variations on the raw intensity level. Also the chosen array-type and the up-to-dateness of the genomic information probed on the chip affect the quality of the expression measures. In the accompanying publication we presented theory and algorithm of the so-called hook method which aims at correcting expression data for systematic biases using a series of new chip characteristics. Results In this publication we summarize the essential chip characteristics provided by this method, analyze special benchmark experiments to estimate transcript related expression measures and illustrate the potency of the method to detect and to quantify the quality of a particular hybridization. It is shown that our single-chip approach provides expression measures responding linearly on changes of the transcript concentration over three orders of magnitude. In addition, the method calculates a detection call judging the relation between the signal and the detection limit of the particular measurement. The performance of the method in the context of different chip generations and probe set assignments is illustrated. The hook method characterizes the RNA-quality in terms of the 3'/5'-amplification bias and the sample-specific calling rate. We show that the proper judgement of these effects requires the disentanglement of non-specific and specific hybridization which, otherwise, can lead to misinterpretations of expression changes. The consequences of modifying probe/target interactions by either changing the labelling protocol or by substituting RNA by DNA targets are demonstrated. Conclusion The single-chip based hook-method provides accurate expression estimates and chip-summary characteristics

  16. DVS for On-Chip Bus Designs Based on Timing Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Kaul, Himanshu; Blaauw, David; Mudge, Trevor; Austin, Todd

    2011-01-01

    On-chip buses are typically designed to meet performance constraints at worst-case conditions, including process corner, temperature, IR-drop, and neighboring net switching pattern. This can result in significant performance slack at more typical operating conditions. In this paper, we propose a dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) technique for buses, based on a double sampling latch which can detect and correct for delay errors without the need for retransmission. The proposed approach recovers the available slack at non-worst-case operating points through more aggressive voltage scaling and tracks changing conditions by monitoring the error recovery rate. Voltage margins needed in traditional designs to accommodate worst-case performance conditions are therefore eliminated, resulting in a significant improvement in energy efficiency. The approach was implemented for a 6mm memory read bus operating at 1.5GHz (0.13 $\\mu$m technology node) and was simulated for a number of benchmark programs. Even at the worst-case ...

  17. System on chip thermal vacuum sensor based on standard CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinfeng, Li; Zhen'an, Tang; Jiaqi, Wang

    2009-03-01

    An on-chip microelectromechanical system was fabricated in a 0.5 μm standard CMOS process for gas pressure detection. The sensor was based on a micro-hotplate (MHP) and had been integrated with a rail to rail operational amplifier and an 8-bit successive approximation register (SAR) A/D converter. A tungsten resistor was manufactured on the MHP as the sensing element, and the sacrificial layer of the sensor was made from polysilicon and etched by surface-micromachining technology. The operational amplifier was configured to make the sensor operate in constant current mode. A digital bit stream was provided as the system output. The measurement results demonstrate that the gas pressure sensitive range of the vacuum sensor extends from 1 to 105 Pa. In the gas pressure range from 1 to 100 Pa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.23 mV/ Pa, the linearity is 4.95%, and the hysteresis is 8.69%. The operational amplifier can drive 200 ω resistors distortionlessly, and the SAR A/D converter achieves a resolution of 7.4 bit with 100 kHz sample rate. The performance of the operational amplifier and the SAR A/D converter meets the requirements of the sensor system.

  18. System on chip thermal vacuum sensor based on standard CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-chip microelectromechanical system was fabricated in a 0.5 μm standard CMOS process for gas pressure detection. The sensor was based on a micro-hotplate (MHP) and had been integrated with a rail to rail operational amplifier and an 8-bit successive approximation register (SAR) A/D converter. A tungsten resistor was manufactured on the MHP as the sensing element, and the sacrificial layer of the sensor was made from polysilicon and etched by surface-micromachining technology. The operational amplifier was configured to make the sensor operate in constant current mode. A digital bit stream was provided as the system output. The measurement results demonstrate that the gas pressure sensitive range of the vacuum sensor extends from 1 to 105 Pa. In the gas pressure range from 1 to 100 Pa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.23 mV/ Pa, the linearity is 4.95%, and the hysteresis is 8.69%. The operational amplifier can drive 200 ω resistors distortionlessly, and the SAR A/D converter achieves a resolution of 7.4 bit with 100 kHz sample rate. The performance of the operational amplifier and the SAR A/D converter meets the requirements of the sensor system.

  19. Chip-integrated optical power limiter based on an all-passive micro-ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Siqi; Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in silicon nanophotonics has dramatically advanced the possible realization of large-scale on-chip optical interconnects integration. Adopting photons as information carriers can break the performance bottleneck of electronic integrated circuit such as serious thermal losses and poor process rates. However, in integrated photonics circuits, few reported work can impose an upper limit of optical power therefore prevent the optical device from harm caused by high power. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme based on a single all-passive micro-ring resonator to realize the optical power limitation which has a similar function of current limiting circuit in electronics. Besides, we analyze the performance of optical power limiter at various signal bit rates. The results show that the proposed device can limit the signal power effectively at a bit rate up to 20 Gbit/s without deteriorating the signal. Meanwhile, this ultra-compact silicon device can be completely compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may pave the way of very large scale integrated photonic circuits for all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems.

  20. System on chip thermal vacuum sensor based on standard CMOS process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinfeng; Tang Zhen'an; Wang Jiaqi

    2009-01-01

    An on-chip microelectromechanical system was fabricated in a 0.5μm standard CMOS process for gas pressure detection. The sensor was based on a micro-hotplate (MHP) and had been integrated with a rail to rail operational amplifier and an 8-bit successive approximation register (SAR) A/D converter. A tungsten resistor was manufactured on the MHP as the sensing element, and the sacrificial layer of the sensor was made from polysilicon and etched by surface-micromachining technology. The operational amplifier was configured to make the sensor operate in constant current mode. A digital bit stream was provided as the system output. The measurement results demonstrate that the gas pressure sensitive range of the vacuum sensor extends from 1 to 105 Pa. In the gas pressure range from 1 to 100 Pa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.23 mV/Pa, the linearity is 4.95%, and the hysteresis is 8.69%. The operational amplifier can drive 200 Ω resistors distortionlessly, and the SAR A/D converter achieves a resolution of 7.4 bit with 100 kHz sample rate. The performance of the operational amplifier and the SAR A/D converter meets the requirements of the sensor system.

  1. Construction of a multidimensional plane network-on-chip architecture based on the hypercube structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Wu; Yubai Li; Qicong Peng; Song Chai; Zhongming Yang

    2009-01-01

    In current network-on-chip (NOC) studies and in practical applications,the mesh structure is the most widely used and deeply researched structure.However,the hypercube structure is more symmetrical and regular than the mesh or torus structures.This paper compares the network characteristics of these three direct topologies and proposes a method to compress the hypercube into a plane structure.This structure,which has the multidimensional property based on the hypercube,is called the multidimensional plane (MDP) NOC.The compression process is divided into two steps:the transformation of router denotations and the connection of channels.Then,SystemC is used to implement the MDP NOC and it is compared with the mesh and torus NOCs in terms of four aspects of performance,including average latency time,normalization throughput,energy consumption and area cost.(C) 2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  2. CHAOS-BASED FEEDFORWARD OUTPUT FUNCTIONS FOR COMBINING KEYSTREAM GENERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Tao; Wang Ruli; Yan Yixun

    2001-01-01

    The chaos-based feedforward output functions for combining keystream generators are proposed according to chaotic dynamic theory. The generated binary signals are independently and identically distributed, and have predictable periods. All experiments correspond to the theoretical prediction very well.

  3. Quantitative determination of 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) in human urine using microfluidic chip-based nano-liquid chromatography with on-chip sample enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Shu-Ling; Chung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Chan, Shan-An; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2011-04-15

    Urinary 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) (8-isoPGF(2α)) has been reported as an important biomarker to indicate the oxidative stress status in vivo. In order to quantitatively determine the low contents of 8-isoPGF(2α) (in sub- to low ng mL(-1) range) in physiological fluids, a sensitive detection method has become an important issue. In this study, we employed a microfluidic chip-based nano liquid chromatography (chip-nanoLC) with on-chip sample enrichment coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS) for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. This chip-nanoLC unit integrates a microfluidic switch, a chip column design having a pre-column (enrichment column) for sample enrichment prior to an analytical column for separation, as well as a nanospray emitter on a single polyimide chip. The introduction of enrichment column offers the advantages of online sample pre-concentration and reducing matrix influence on MS detection to improve sensitivity. In this study, the chip-nanoLC consisting of Zorbax 300A SB-C18 columns and Agilent QqQ Mass spectrometer were used for determining 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. Gradient elution was employed for effective LC separation and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was utilized for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) (m/z 353→193). We employed liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)/solid-phase extraction (SPE) for extracting analyte and reducing matrix effect from urine sample prior to chip-nanoLC/QqQ-MS analysis for determining urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). Good recoveries were found to be in the range of 83.0-85.3%. The linear range was 0.01-2 ng mL(-1) for urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). In addition, the proposed method showed good precision and accuracy for 8-isoPGF(2α) spiked synthetic urine samples. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 1.8-5.0% and 4.3-5.8%, respectively. The method accuracy for intra-day and inter-day assays ranged from 99.3 to 99.9% and 99.4 to 99.7%, respectively. Due to its

  4. Emulation-based transient thermal modeling of 2D/3D systems-on-chip with active cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Del Valle, Pablo; Atienza Alonso, David

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art devices in the consumer electronics market are relying more and more on Multi-Processor Systems-On-Chip (MPSoCs) as an efficient solution to meet their multiple design constrains, such as low cost, low power consumption, high performance and short time-to-market. In fact, as technology scales down, logic density and power density increase, generating hot spots that seriously affect the MPSoC performance and can physically damage the final system behavior. Moreover, forthcomin...

  5. A triple-dimensional sensing chip for discrimination of eight antioxidants based on quantum dots and graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huilin; Fang, Guozhen; Deng, Qiliang; Wang, Shuo

    2015-12-15

    A triple-dimensional sensing chip is developed based on simultaneous utilization of fluorescence (FL), electrochemical (ECL) and mass-sensitivity (MS) properties of a novel nanocomposites. The sensing nanomaterial is composed of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and graphene through a one-pot room-temperature reverse microemulsion polymerization. Here, full integration of QDs and graphene on one chip provides triple-dimensional sensing signals. It enables quick and accurate discrimination of eight analytes in a "lab-on-a-nanomaterial" approach and notably improves the overall sensor performance. Unknown samples randomly taken from the training set at concentrations of 0.7 μM are successfully classified by principal component analysis (PCA) with accuracies of 92.5%, compared with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. We further apply it to discriminate eight antioxidants from real oil samples, and explore the mechanism. PMID:26148676

  6. Design and Implementation of Embedded Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Network Based on System-on-programmable Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; HAN Xiao-jun

    2008-01-01

    A scheme of transmission control protocol/Internet protocol(TCP/IP) network system based on system-on-programmable chip(SOPC) is proposed for the embedded network communication. In this system, Nios processor, Ethernet controller and other peripheral logic circuits are all integrated on a Stratix Ⅱ field programmable gate array(FPGA) chip by using SOPC builder design software. And the network communication is realized by transplanting MicroC/OS Ⅱ(μC/OS Ⅱ) operation system and light weight Internet protocol(LwIP). The design idea, key points and the structures of both software and hardware of the system are presented and ran with a telecommunication example. The experiment shows that the embedded TCP/IP network system has high reliability and real-time performance.

  7. A Phase Change Memory Chip Based on TiSbTe Alloy in 40-nm Standard CMOS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhitang Song; YiPeng Zhan; Daolin Cai; Bo Liu; Yifeng Chen; Jiadong Ren

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, a phase change random access memory (PCRAM) chip based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 alloy material was fabricated in a 40-nm 4-metal level complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The phase change resistor was then integrated after CMOS logic fabrication. The PCRAM was successfully embedded without changing any logic device and process, in which 1.1 V negative-channel metal-oxide semiconductor device was used as the memory cell selector. The currents and the time of SET and RESET operations were found to be 0.2 and 0.5 mA, 100 and 10 ns, respectively. The high speed performance of this chip may highlight the design advantages in many embedded applications.

  8. A magnetoelectric composite based signal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, Y. K.; Serov, V. N.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Makovkin, S. A.; Viehland, D.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-05-01

    Self-oscillations in an active loop consisting of a wide-band amplifier and a magnetoelectric composite in the feedback circuit have been observed. The composite with a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate bimorph and ferromagnetic Metglas serves as a resonator that determines the frequency of oscillations and provides the feedback voltage. Under amplitude balance and phase matching conditions, the device generated signals at 2.3 kHz, at the bending resonance frequency of the composite. The oscillations were observed over a specific range of magnetic bias H. The shape of the signal generated is dependent on electrical circuit parameters and magnitude and orientation of H.

  9. Generating IDS Attack Pattern Automatically Based on Attack Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向尕; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    Generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is studied. The extending definition of attack tree is proposed. And the algorithm of generating attack tree is presented. The method of generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is shown, which is tested by concrete attack instances. The results show that the algorithm is effective and efficient. In doing so, the efficiency of generating attack pattern is improved and the attack trees can be reused.

  10. A versatile quantitation platform based on platinum nanoparticles incorporated volumetric bar-chart chip for highly sensitive assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzhen; Zhu, Guixian; Qi, Wenjin; Li, Ying; Song, Yujun

    2016-11-15

    Platinum nanoparticles incorporated volumetric bar-chart chip (PtNPs-V-Chip) is able to be used for point-of-care tests by providing quantitative and visualized readout without any assistance from instruments, data processing, or graphic plotting. To improve the sensitivity of PtNPs-V-Chip, hybridization chain reaction was employed in this quantitation platform for highly sensitive assays that can detect as low as 16 pM Ebola Virus DNA, 0.01ng/mL carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the 10 HER2-expressing cancer cells. Based on this amplified strategy, a 100-fold decrease of detection limit was achieved for DNA by improving the number of platinum nanoparticle catalyst for the captured analyte. This quantitation platform can also distinguish single base mismatch of DNA hybridization and observe the concentration threshold of CEA. The new strategy lays the foundation for this quantitation platform to be applied in forensic analysis, biothreat detection, clinical diagnostics and drug screening.

  11. Stability improvement of induction generator-based wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hu, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The stability improvement of induction-generator-based wind turbine systems under power system fault conditions has been studied. Two types of generators are considered, namely rotor short-circuited induction generators and dynamic slip-controlled wound rotor induction generators. The factors...... affecting the stability are analysed. The characteristics of the induction-generator-based wind turbines are described, and possible methods of improving stability of the wind generators are discussed. The system modelling is presented, and then the discussed methods of improving stability are investigated...

  12. Intra-generational Redistribution under Public Pension Planning Based on Generation-based Funding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjo, Daisuke; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Murata, Tadahiko

    In this paper, we propose a method of determining the pension in the generation-based funding scheme. In this proposal, we include two types of pensions in the scheme. One is the payment-amount related pension and the other is the payment-frequency related pension. We set the ratio of the total amount of payment-amount related pension to the total amount of both pensions, and simulate income gaps and the relationship between contributions and benefits for each individual when the proposed method is applied.

  13. Chip-Scale Bioassays Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hye-Young Park

    2005-12-17

    This work explores the development and application of chip-scale bioassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for high throughput and high sensitivity analysis of biomolecules. The size effect of gold nanoparticles on the intensity of SERS is first presented. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with various sizes. The SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response of individual particles was also investigated using Raman-microscope and an array of gold islands on a silicon substrate. The location and the size of individual particles were mapped using AFM. The next study describes a low-level detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and simulants of biological warfare agents in a sandwich immunoassay format using SERS labels, which have been termed Extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs). A new ERL scheme based on a mixed monolayer is also introduced. The mixed monolayer ERLs were created by covering the gold nanoparticles with a mixture of two thiolates, one thiolate for covalently binding antibody to the particle and the other thiolate for producing a strong Raman signal. An assay platform based on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold is then presented. The mixed SAMs were prepared from dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) to covalently bind antibodies on gold substrate and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiol to prevent nonspecific adsorption of antibodies. After the mixed SAMs surfaces, formed from various mole fraction of DSU were incubated with antibodies, AFM was used to image individual antibodies on the surface. The final study presents a collaborative work on the single molecule adsorption of YOYO-I labeled {lambda}-DNA at compositionally patterned SAMs using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The role of solution pH, {lambda}-DNA concentration, and domain size was investigated. This work also revealed

  14. Chip-Scale Bioassays Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Young [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This work explores the development and application of chip-scale bioassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for high throughput and high sensitivity analysis of biomolecules. The size effect of gold nanoparticles on the intensity of SERS is first presented. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with various sizes. The SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response of individual particles was also investigated using Raman-microscope and an array of gold islands on a silicon substrate. The location and the size of individual particles were mapped using AFM. The next study describes a low-level detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and simulants of biological warfare agents in a sandwich immunoassay format using SERS labels, which have been termed Extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs). A new ERL scheme based on a mixed monolayer is also introduced. The mixed monolayer ERLs were created by covering the gold nanoparticles with a mixture of two thiolates, one thiolate for covalently binding antibody to the particle and the other thiolate for producing a strong Raman signal. An assay platform based on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold is then presented. The mixed SAMs were prepared from dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) to covalently bind antibodies on gold substrate and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiol to prevent nonspecific adsorption of antibodies. After the mixed SAMs surfaces, formed from various mole fraction of DSU were incubated with antibodies, AFM was used to image individual antibodies on the surface. The final study presents a collaborative work on the single molecule adsorption of YOYO-I labeled {lambda}-DNA at compositionally patterned SAMs using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The role of solution pH, {lambda}-DNA concentration, and domain size was investigated. This work also revealed

  15. Development, Fabrication and Characterisation of Atom Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Sönke

    2006-01-01

    Atom chips are robust and extremely powerful toolboxes for quantum optical experiments, since they make it possible to create exceedingly precise magnetic traps for neutral atoms with minimal field modulations. Accurate manipulation of trapped atoms is feasible with magnetic and electric fields created on the atom chip. Therefore atom chips with high quality surfaces and extremely well defined wires were build (roughness < 20nm). Furthermore new generations of atom chips were developed, like ...

  16. Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Aubin, S., E-mail: saaubi@wm.edu [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Jervis, D. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold {sup 87}Rb and {sup 39}K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold {sup 39}K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

  17. Dynamically Generated Interfaces in XML Based Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Minit

    2009-01-01

    Providing on-line services on the Internet will require the definition of flexible interfaces that are capable of adapting to the user's characteristics. This is all the more important in the context of medical applications like home monitoring, where no two patients have the same medical profile. Still, the problem is not limited to the capacity of defining generic interfaces, as has been made possible by UIML, but also to define the underlying information structures from which these may be generated. The DIATELIC project deals with the tele-monitoring of patients under peritoneal dialysis. By means of XML abstractions, termed as "medical components", to represent the patient's profile, the application configures the customizable properties of the patient's interface and generates a UIML document dynamically. The interface allows the patient to feed the data manually or use a device which allows "automatic data acquisition". The acquired medical data is transferred to an expert system, which analyses the dat...

  18. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade–Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5–8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. - Highlights: • We applied real parking distribution data to estimate evaporative vapor generation. • We applied real hourly temperature data to estimate hourly incremental vapor generation rate. • Evaporative emission for Florence is estimated based on parking distribution and hourly rate. - A new approach is proposed to quantify the weighted evaporative vapor generation based on parking distribution with an hourly incremental vapor generation rate

  19. LLVM-based overlapped executable code generator

    OpenAIRE

    V. Aranov; A. Terentiev

    2014-01-01

    Overlapped executable code is an attractive artifact of obfuscation technology not yet widely covered and researched. Overlapped code and opaque predicates technologies together allows creation of prominent software obfuscation technologies featuring both obscure executable code and code protected from patching due to hard-to-track relations with other code. The paper provides polynomial algorithm to generate overlapped executable code using LLVM framework and discuss results of the generatio...

  20. Learning-Based Procedural Content Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Roberts and Ke Chen

    2014-01-01

    Procedural Content Generation (PCG) has become one of the hottest topics in Computational Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence (AI) game research in the past few years. PCG is the process of automatically creating content for video games, rather than by hand, and can offer great benefits for video games companies by helping to bring costs down and quality up. By guiding the process with AI it can be enhanced further and even be made to personalize content for target players. Among the cur...

  1. An Integrated Circuit for Chip-Based Analysis of Enzyme Kinetics and Metabolite Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Boon Chong; Macdonald, Alasdair Iain; Martin, Christopher; Streklas, Angelos J; Campbell, Gordon; Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A; Nemeth, Balazs; Grant, James P; Barrett, Michael P; Cumming, David R S

    2016-06-01

    We have created a novel chip-based diagnostic tools based upon quantification of metabolites using enzymes specific for their chemical conversion. Using this device we show for the first time that a solid-state circuit can be used to measure enzyme kinetics and calculate the Michaelis-Menten constant. Substrate concentration dependency of enzyme reaction rates is central to this aim. Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFET) are excellent transducers for biosensing applications that are reliant upon enzyme assays, especially since they can be fabricated using mainstream microelectronics technology to ensure low unit cost, mass-manufacture, scaling to make many sensors and straightforward miniaturisation for use in point-of-care devices. Here, we describe an integrated ISFET array comprising 2(16) sensors. The device was fabricated with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Unlike traditional CMOS ISFET sensors that use the Si3N4 passivation of the foundry for ion detection, the device reported here was processed with a layer of Ta2O5 that increased the detection sensitivity to 45 mV/pH unit at the sensor readout. The drift was reduced to 0.8 mV/hour with a linear pH response between pH 2-12. A high-speed instrumentation system capable of acquiring nearly 500 fps was developed to stream out the data. The device was then used to measure glucose concentration through the activity of hexokinase in the range of 0.05 mM-231 mM, encompassing glucose's physiological range in blood. Localised and temporal enzyme kinetics of hexokinase was studied in detail. These results present a roadmap towards a viable personal metabolome machine.

  2. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  3. Experimental determination of the nucleation rates of undercooled micron-sized liquid droplets based on fast chip calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fast scanning calorimeter calibration with position dependence. • Calibration of fast scanning calorimeter during cooling. • Quantitative determination of nucleation rates by treating the undercooling as stochastic parameter - Abstract: Accurate thermal analyzes and calorimetry measurements depend on careful calibration measurements. For conventional differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) the calibration procedure is well known. The melting point of different pure metals is measured and compared with literature data to adjust the temperature reading of the calorimeter. Likewise, the measured melting enthalpies of standard reference substances serve for enthalpy calibration. Yet for fast chip calorimetry, new procedures need to be established. For the medium-area and large-area calorimeter chips, this procedure needs to be modified, because the calibration behavior depends on the position of the sample on the measurement area. Additionally, a way to calibrate the calorimeter for measurements performed during cooling will also be shown. For this second aspect, the athermal and diffusionless martensitic phase transformation of Ni49.9–Ti50.1 at% was used. The well-calibrated sensor chips are ideally suited to perform nucleation rate density analyzes based on a statistical approach. Here, the nucleation rate densities of micron-sized pure Sn droplets that had been coated with a non-catalytic coating have been determined by experimental analysis of the statistical variance of the undercooling response

  4. Improved liquid chromatography-MS/MS of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides via chip-based pulsed makeup flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Shi, Xiaofeng; Yu, Xiang; Leymarie, Nancy; Staples, Gregory O; Yin, Hongfeng; Killeen, Kevin; Zaia, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Microfluidic chip-based hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is a useful separation system for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in compositional profiling of heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides; however, ions observed using HILIC LC-MS are low in charge. Tandem MS of HS oligosaccharide ions with low charge results in undesirable losses of SO(3) from precursor ions during collision induced dissociation. One solution is to add metal cations to stabilize sulfate groups. Another is to add a nonvolatile, polar compound such as sulfolane, a molecule known to supercharge proteins, to produce a similar effect for oligosaccharides. We demonstrate use of a novel pulsed makeup flow (MUF) HPLC-chip. The chip enables controlled application of additives during specified chromatographic time windows and thus minimizes the extent to which nonvolatile additives build up in the ion source. The pulsed MUF system was applied to LC-MS/MS of HS oligosaccharides. Metal cations and sulfolane were tested as additives. The most promising results were obtained for sulfolane, for which supercharging of the oligosaccharide ions increased their signal strengths relative to controls. Tandem MS of these supercharged precursor ions showed decreased abundances of product ions from sulfate losses yet more abundant product ions from backbone cleavages.

  5. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-15

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  6. S-Mesh: a Mesh-based on-chip network with separation of control and transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hao; ZOU Xue-cheng; JI Li-xin; CAI Meng; ZHANG Ke-feng

    2009-01-01

    The current network-on-chip (NoC) topology cannot predict subsequent switch node status promptly. Switch nodes have to perform various functions such as routing decision, data forwarding, packet buffering, congestion control and properties of an NoC system. Therefore, these make switch architecture far more complex. This article puts forward a separating on-chip network architecture based on Mesh (S-Mesh). S-Mesh is an on-chip network that separates routing decision flow from the switches. It consists of two types of networks: datapath network (DN) and control network (CN). The CN establishes data paths for data transferring in DN. Meanwhile, the CN also transfers instructions between different resources. This property makes switch architecture simple, and eliminates conflicts in network interface units between the resource and switch. Compared with 2D-Mesh, Torus Mesh, Fat-tree and Butterfly, the average packet latency in S-Mesh is the shortest when the packet length is more than 53 B. Compared with 2D-Mesh, the areas savings of S-Mesh is about 3%--7%, and the power dissipation is decreased by approximate 2%.

  7. Experimental determination of the nucleation rates of undercooled micron-sized liquid droplets based on fast chip calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Christian, E-mail: ch.simon@uni-muenster.de; Peterlechner, Martin; Wilde, Gerhard

    2015-03-10

    Highlights: • Fast scanning calorimeter calibration with position dependence. • Calibration of fast scanning calorimeter during cooling. • Quantitative determination of nucleation rates by treating the undercooling as stochastic parameter - Abstract: Accurate thermal analyzes and calorimetry measurements depend on careful calibration measurements. For conventional differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) the calibration procedure is well known. The melting point of different pure metals is measured and compared with literature data to adjust the temperature reading of the calorimeter. Likewise, the measured melting enthalpies of standard reference substances serve for enthalpy calibration. Yet for fast chip calorimetry, new procedures need to be established. For the medium-area and large-area calorimeter chips, this procedure needs to be modified, because the calibration behavior depends on the position of the sample on the measurement area. Additionally, a way to calibrate the calorimeter for measurements performed during cooling will also be shown. For this second aspect, the athermal and diffusionless martensitic phase transformation of Ni{sub 49.9}–Ti{sub 50.1} at% was used. The well-calibrated sensor chips are ideally suited to perform nucleation rate density analyzes based on a statistical approach. Here, the nucleation rate densities of micron-sized pure Sn droplets that had been coated with a non-catalytic coating have been determined by experimental analysis of the statistical variance of the undercooling response.

  8. Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

  9. The Design of a Network-On-Chip Architecture Based On An Avionic Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Achballah, Ahmed Ben; Saoud, Slim Ben

    2014-01-01

    When the Network-On-Chip (NoC) paradigm was introduced, many researchers have proposed many novelistic NoC architectures, tools and design strategies. In this paper we introduce a new approach in the field of designing Network-On-Chip (NoC). Our inspiration came from an avionic protocol which is the AFDX protocol. The proposed NoC architecture is a switch centric architecture, with exclusive shortcuts between hosts and utilizes the flexibility, the reliability and the performances offered by ...

  10. A Methodology for Platform Based High—Level System—on—Chip Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOFeng; LIUPeng; YAOQingdong

    2003-01-01

    The time-to-market challenge has increased the need for shortening the co-verification time in system-on-chip development.In this article,a new methodology of high-level hardware/software coverification is introduced.With the help of the real-time operating system,the application program can easily be migrated from the software simulator to the hardware emulation board.The hierarchical architecture can be used to separate application program from the implementation of the platform during the veriflaction process.The highlevel verification platform is successfully used in developing the HDTV decoding chip.

  11. Chip-Based Measurements of Brownian Relaxation of Magnetic Beads Using a Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Snakenborg, Detlef;

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple 'click-on' fluidic system with integrated electrical contacts, which is suited for electrical measurements on chips in microfluidic systems. We show that microscopic magnetic field sensors based on the planar Hall effect can be used for detecting the complex magnetic response...... using only the self-field arising from the bias current applied to the sensors as excitation field. We present measurements on a suspension of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 250 nm vs. temperature and find that the observations are consistent with the Cole-Cole model for Brownian relaxation...... biosensor based on the detection of the dynamic response of magnetic beads....

  12. Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vo, T.D.; Hu, Hao; Galili, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate chip-based Tbaud optical signal processing for all-optical performance monitoring, switching and demultiplexing based on the instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity in a dispersion-engineered As_2S_3 planar waveguide. At the Tbaud transmitter, we use a THz bandwidth radio-frequency spectrum...... analyzer to perform all-optical performance monitoring and to optimize the optical time division multiplexing stages as well as mitigate impairments, for example, dispersion. At the Tbaud receiver, we demonstrate error-free demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s single wavelength, return-to-zero signal to 10 Gbit...

  13. Implementation of a Test Data Generator based on DSL Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In software testing process, test data generation represents an important step for high quality software, even for mobile devices. As proposed in previous works, a potential source for random data generation is represented by the UI layout files that are used for almost all mobile platforms (Android, iOS, Windows Phone/Mobile. This paper continues the previous work and presents a test data generation system based on Android layout files. The test data generator uses DSL files as input and generates test data that conform to several testing principles. The generated test data could be stored in XML files or any format required by the testing frameworks.

  14. Quantum random number generation based on vacuum field fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Abellan Sanchez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Random numbers are extensively used in a broad range of applications. Nevertheless, there are two main markets from a commercial point of view: (i) secure communications and (ii) stochastic simulation. According to the generation rate and quality of the random numbers required, different approaches have been used so far, most of them based on pseudo-random number generation. However, these type of generators have already started showing weakness both in the quality and the generation...

  15. A New Nonrecursive Pseudorandom Number Generator Based on Chaos Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Yaguchi, Hirotake; Kubo, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new pseudorandom number generator SSR (the Simplified Shift-Real random number generator) which generates the k-th random number nonrecursively (directly) based on chaos mappings on the interval [1,2). We investigate properties of SSR random numbers and give the theoretical background of generation of random numbers. A practical integral(all-integer) version SSI of SSR, which is suitable for parallel computation, is also provided.

  16. Quantitation of Cotinine in Nonsmoker Saliva Using Chip Based Nanoelectrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Jenkins, Roger A [ORNL; Counts, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    A new analytical procedure was developed for the quantitation of nonsmoker salivary cotinine. Small volumes of saliva were diluted with water, fortified with cotinine-d{sub 3} (internal standard), then passed through small extraction columns. The analyte and internal standard were eluted with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid/acetonitrile. Aliquots of each extract were analyzed directly, without chromatographic separation, using chip-based (NanoMate{sup TM}) nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated detection limit was 0.49 ng cotinine/mL saliva. This method was used to quantify salivary cotinine collected from nonsmoking human subjects living in one of three environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure categories or 'cells': 1. smoking home/smoking workplace; 2. smoking home/nonsmoking workplace; and 3. nonsmoking home/smoking workplace. Samples were collected during five sequential days, including Saturday, as part of a larger study to evaluate potential variability in exposure to ETS. Salivary cotinine measurements were made for the purpose of excluding misclassified smokers and for comparison with known levels of exposure to airborne nicotine in each exposure category. The concentrations observed were consistent with those reported from other large studies reported elsewhere. A non-parametric statistical test was applied to the data within each cell. No statistically significant differences were found between the mean cotinine concentrations collected on a weekday as compared to those collected on a weekend day. When the non-parametric test was applied to the three cells, a statistically significant difference was observed between cell 1 compared to cells 2 and 3. The salivary cotinine concentrations were thus statistically invariant over a five-day exposure period, and they were greatest under the conditions of smoking home and smoking workplace.

  17. Cell Monitoring and Manipulation Systems (CMMSs based on Glass Cell-Culture Chips (GC3s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Buehler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed different types of glass cell-culture chips (GC3s for culturing cells for microscopic observation in open media-containing troughs or in microfluidic structures. Platinum sensor and manipulation structures were used to monitor physiological parameters and to allocate and permeabilize cells. Electro-thermal micro pumps distributed chemical compounds in the microfluidic systems. The integrated temperature sensors showed a linear, Pt1000-like behavior. Cell adhesion and proliferation were monitored using interdigitated electrode structures (IDESs. The cell-doubling times of primary murine embryonic neuronal cells (PNCs were determined based on the IDES capacitance-peak shifts. The electrical activity of PNC networks was detected using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs. During seeding, the cells were dielectrophoretically allocated to individual MEAs to improve network structures. MEA pads with diameters of 15, 20, 25, and 35 µm were tested. After 3 weeks, the magnitudes of the determined action potentials were highest for pads of 25 µm in diameter and did not differ when the inter-pad distances were 100 or 170 µm. Using 25-µm diameter circular oxygen electrodes, the signal currents in the cell-culture media were found to range from approximately −0.08 nA (0% O2 to −2.35 nA (21% O2. It was observed that 60-nm thick silicon nitride-sensor layers were stable potentiometric pH sensors under cell-culture conditions for periods of days. Their sensitivity between pH 5 and 9 was as high as 45 mV per pH step. We concluded that sensorized GC3s are potential animal replacement systems for purposes such as toxicity pre-screening. For example, the effect of mefloquine, a medication used to treat malaria, on the electrical activity of neuronal cells was determined in this study using a GC3 system.

  18. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  19. (Re)configuration based on model generation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Gerhard; Falkner, Andreas A; Haselböck, Alois; Schenner, Gottfried; Schreiner, Herwig; 10.4204/EPTCS.65.3

    2011-01-01

    Reconfiguration is an important activity for companies selling configurable products or services which have a long life time. However, identification of a set of required changes in a legacy configuration is a hard problem, since even small changes in the requirements might imply significant modifications. In this paper we show a solution based on answer set programming, which is a logic-based knowledge representation formalism well suited for a compact description of (re)configuration problems. Its applicability is demonstrated on simple abstractions of several real-world scenarios. The evaluation of our solution on a set of benchmark instances derived from commercial (re)configuration problems shows its practical applicability.

  20. Blocking oligo--a novel approach for improving chip-based DNA hybridization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sheng-ce; Gao, Hua-fang; Cao, Fei; Ma, Xue-mei; Cheng, Jing

    2003-08-01

    For most of the commonly used DNA chips, the probes are usually single-stranded oligonucleotides and the targets are double-stranded DNAs (dsDNAs). Only one strand of the DNA serves as the target while the other competes with the probes immobilized on the chip for the target and therefore is regarded as the interfering strand. In this report, a novel technique was developed for improving the hybridization efficiency on DNA chips by using blocking oligos, which is complimentary to the target interfering strand to reduce the influence of the interfering strand. The hybridization efficiency of dsDNA was much lower than that of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) when synthesized DNA targets were tested on the DNA chip. Blocking oligos can improve the hybridization efficiency of dsDNA to about 2/3 that of ssDNA. Blocking oligos have also been applied to PCR products of different lengths for hybridization. The hybridization efficiency with blocking oligos is about three times higher than that without blocking oligos. We have tested PCR products of 1054 and 435 bp using our blocking procedure, and the results are consistent. PMID:12944123

  1. Validation of a fully autonomous phosphate analyser based on a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slater, Conor; Cleary, J.; Lau, K.T.;

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the design of a phosphate analyser that utilises a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip. The analyser contains all the required chemical storage, pumping and electronic components to carry out a complete phosphate assay. The system is self-calibrating and self-cleaning, thus capable...

  2. Waveguide filter-based on-chip differentiator for microwave photonic signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taddei, Caterina; Nguyen, T.H. Yen; Zhuang, Leimeng; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paul; Roeloffzen, Chris G.H.

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a waveguide filterbased on-chip differentiator for microwave photonic signal processing. The system principle allows the operation of arbitrary-order differentiation. The realized device is constructed using the basic building blocks of photonic integrated circuits, and fe

  3. Human cell chips: adapting DNA microarray spotting technology to cell-based imaging assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traver Hart

    Full Text Available Here we describe human spotted cell chips, a technology for determining cellular state across arrays of cells subjected to chemical or genetic perturbation. Cells are grown and treated under standard tissue culture conditions before being fixed and printed onto replicate glass slides, effectively decoupling the experimental conditions from the assay technique. Each slide is then probed using immunofluorescence or other optical reporter and assayed by automated microscopy. We show potential applications of the cell chip by assaying HeLa and A549 samples for changes in target protein abundance (of the dsRNA-activated protein kinase PKR, subcellular localization (nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and activation state (phosphorylation of STAT1 and of the p38 and JNK stress kinases in response to treatment by several chemical effectors (anisomycin, TNFalpha, and interferon, and we demonstrate scalability by printing a chip with approximately 4,700 discrete samples of HeLa cells. Coupling this technology to high-throughput methods for culturing and treating cell lines could enable researchers to examine the impact of exogenous effectors on the same population of experimentally treated cells across multiple reporter targets potentially representing a variety of molecular systems, thus producing a highly multiplexed dataset with minimized experimental variance and at reduced reagent cost compared to alternative techniques. The ability to prepare and store chips also allows researchers to follow up on observations gleaned from initial screens with maximal repeatability.

  4. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  5. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  6. Network Generation Model Based on Evolution Dynamics To Generate Benchmark Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Pasta, Muhammad Qasim

    2016-01-01

    Network generation models provide an understanding of the dynamics behind the formation and evolution of different networks including social networks, technological networks and biological networks. Two important applications of these models are to study the evolution dynamics of network formation and to generate benchmark networks with known community structures. Research has been conducted in both these directions relatively independent of the other application area. This creates a disjunct between real world networks and the networks generated to study community detection algorithms. In this paper, we propose to study both these application areas together i.e.\\ introduce a network generation model based on evolution dynamics of real world networks and generate networks with community structures that can be used as benchmark graphs to study community detection algorithms. The generated networks possess tunable modular structures which can be used to generate networks with known community structures. We stud...

  7. Mechanically based generative laws of morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloussov, Lev V.

    2008-03-01

    A deep (although at the first glance naïve) question which may be addressed to embryonic development is why during this process quite definite and accurately reproduced successions of precise and complicated shapes are taking place, or why, in several cases, the result of development is highly precise in spite of an extensive variability of intermediate stages. This problem can be attacked in two different ways. One of them, up to now just slightly employed, is to formulate robust macroscopic generative laws from which the observed successions of shapes could be derived. Another one, which dominates in modern embryology, regards the development as a succession of highly precise 'micropatterns', each of them arising due to the action of specific factors, having, as a rule, nothing in common with each other. We argue that the latter view contradicts a great bulk of firmly established data and gives no satisfactory answers to the main problems of development. Therefore we intend to follow the first way. By doing this, we regard developing embryos as self-organized systems transpierced by feedbacks among which we pay special attention to those linked with mechanical stresses (MS). We formulate a hypothesis of so-called MS hyper-restoration as a common basis for the developmentally important feedback loops. We present a number of examples confirming this hypothesis and use it for reconstructing prolonged chains of developmental events. Finally, we discuss the application of the same set of assumptions to the first steps of egg development and to the internal differentiation of embryonic cells.

  8. PERFORMANCE ENHANCED ROUTER DESIGN FOR NETWORK ON CHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbu chozhan.P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network on chip is a new paradigm for on chip design that is able to sustain the communication provisions for the SoC with the desired performance. NOC applies networking methodology concepts to system on chip data transfer and it gives noticeable elevation over conventionalbus based communication. NOC router is the backbone of on chip communication which directs the flow of data. In NOC router the arbiter is used during number of inputs request for the similar out port. Arbiter generates the grant based on the priority and previous granted input. For NOC router we have design the efficient round robin arbiter and analyse the power and area. In this paper on chip router is designed with a buffering technique of FWFT based asynchronous FIFO which improves timing and reduce power consumption. The proposed design of router is simulated and synthesized in Xilinx ISE 13.2 and the source code is written in Verilog. Cadence soc encounter of technology ami035 is used to generate layout of router and RTL compiler is used to compute area, power and timing.

  9. An OCP Compliant Network Adapter for GALS-based SoC Design Using the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Mahadevan, Shankar; Olsen, Rasmus Grøndahl;

    2005-01-01

    decouples communication and computation, providing memory-mapped OCP transactions based on primitive message-passing services of the network. Also, it facilitates GALS-type systems, by adapting to the clockless network. This helps leverage a modular SoC design flow. We evaluate performance and cost of 0......The demand for IP reuse and system level scalability in System-on-Chip (SoC) designs is growing. Network-onchip (NoC) constitutes a viable solution space to emerging SoC design challenges. In this paper we describe an OCP compliant network adapter (NA) architecture for the MANGO NoC. The NA...

  10. Aggregated wind power generation probabilistic forecasting based on particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new method for probabilistic forecasting of aggregated wind power generation. • A dynamic system is established based on a numerical weather prediction model. • The new method handles the non-Gaussian and time-varying wind power uncertainties. • Particle filter is applied to forecast predictive densities of wind generation. - Abstract: Probability distribution of aggregated wind power generation in a region is one of important issues for power system daily operation. This paper presents a novel method to forecast the predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation from several geographically distributed wind farms, considering the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics in wind power uncertainties. Based on a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, a dynamic system is established to formulate the relationship between the atmospheric and near-surface wind fields of geographically distributed wind farms. A recursively backtracking framework based on the particle filter is applied to estimate the atmospheric state with the near-surface wind power generation measurements, and to forecast the possible samples of the aggregated wind power generation. The predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation are then estimated based on these predicted samples by a kernel density estimator. In case studies, the new method presented is tested on a 9 wind farms system in Midwestern United States. The testing results that the new method can provide competitive interval forecasts for the aggregated wind power generation with conventional statistical based models, which validates the effectiveness of the new method

  11. One Step Quick Detection of Cancer Cell Surface Marker by Integrated NiFe-based Magnetic Biosensing Cell Cultural Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenchen Bao; Lei Chen; Tao Wang; Chong Lei; Furong Tian; Daxiang Cui; Yong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    RGD peptides has been used to detect cell surface integrin and direct clinical effective therapeutic drug selection. Herein we report that a quick one step detection of cell surface marker that was realized by a specially designed NiFe-based magnetic biosensing cell chip combined with functionalized magnetic nanoparti-cles. Magnetic nanoparticles with 20-30 nm in diameter were prepared by coprecipitation and modified with RGD-4C, and the resultant RGD-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were used for targeting cancer cells cul-tured on the NiFe-based magnetic biosensing chip and distinguish the amount of cell surface receptor-integrin. Cell lines such as Calu3, Hela, A549, CaFbr, HEK293 and HUVEC exhibiting different integrin expression were chosen as test samples. Calu3, Hela, HEK293 and HUVEC cells were successfully identified. This approach has advantages in the qualitative screening test. Compared with traditional method, it is fast, sensitive, low cost, easy-operative, and needs very little human intervention. The novel method has great potential in applications such as fast clinical cell surface marker detection, and diagnosis of early cancer, and can be easily extended to other biomedical applications based on molecular recognition.

  12. An Algorithm on Generating Lattice Based on Layered Concept Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chang-sheng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Concept lattice is an effective tool for data analysis and rule extraction, a bottleneck factor on impacting the applications of concept lattice is how to generate lattice efficiently. In this paper, an algorithm LCLG on generating lattice in batch processing based on layered concept lattice is developed, this algorithm is based on layered concept lattice, the lattice is generated downward layer by layer through concept nodes and provisional nodes in current layer; the concept nodes are found parent-child relationships upward layer by layer, then the Hasse diagram of inter-layer connection is generated; in the generated process of the lattice nodes in each layer, we do the pruning operations dynamically according to relevant properties, and delete some unnecessary nodes, such that the generating speed is improved greatly; the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has good performance.

  13. IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

  14. Generating Weather Forecast Texts with Case Based Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyanju, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques have been used to generate weather forecast texts. In this paper, case based reasoning (CBR) is proposed for weather forecast text generation because similar weather conditions occur over time and should have similar forecast texts. CBR-METEO, a system for generating weather forecast texts was developed using a generic framework (jCOLIBRI) which provides modules for the standard components of the CBR architecture. The advantage in a CBR approach is that systems can be built...

  15. Reclamation Of Plant Wastes (Straw And Obtaining (Nano Chips With Bactericidal Properties Based On Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidovna Voropaeva Nadezda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rape, camelina, wheat and Jerusalem artichoke vegetable wastes (straw as annually renewable raw materials were processed into activated carbons, which were modified with silver nanoparticles for carbonaceous sorbents to acquire specific properties, since carbonaceous sorbents are usually widely used in the food industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of human activity. The technology to obtain active carbons from agricultural crop residues has been developed, active carbon physico-chemical and adsorption properties, textural characteristics have been studied, new functional carbon (nano materials with antibacterial activity containing (nano particles of silver have been obtained, their influence within (nano chip composition on rape crop growth, development and yield has been studied. In the conducted field tests, the highest activity was noted when using the (nano chip whose structure included RAC - camelina and silver nanoparticles. Besides, when nano chips are used for seed treatment, the yield increase makes up 11.6 % for nanoparticles containing Ag, for plant active carbons (PAC (rape with Ag this index makes up 28.1 %, for RAC (Camelina with Ag it makes up 55.8 % (compared to the control variant, which can be explained by the differences in the sorption characteristics of the studied radio activated carbons. Our results and the previous studies of other authors can prove the fact that silver nanoparticles (including those being a part of (nano chips “get” into the biochemical processes and have a pronounced phytostimulating effect on plants, which was especially obvious when suppressing the activity of plant pathogenic microflora by silver nanoparticles.

  16. High-sensitivity high-throughput chip based biosensor array for multiplexed detection of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai; Tang, Naimei; Jairo, Grace A.; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Blake, Diane A.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Heavy metal ions released into the environment from industrial processes lead to various health hazards. We propose an on-chip label-free detection approach that allows high-sensitivity and high-throughput detection of heavy metals. The sensing device consists of 2-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities that are combined by multimode interferometer to form a sensor array. We experimentally demonstrate the detection of cadmium-chelate conjugate with concentration as low as 5 parts-per-billion (ppb).

  17. Picoliter Well Array Chip-Based Digital Recombinase Polymerase Amplification for Absolute Quantification of Nucleic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Liu, Yong; Wei, Qingquan; Liu, Yuanjie; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Xuelian; Yu, Yude

    2016-01-01

    Absolute, precise quantification methods expand the scope of nucleic acids research and have many practical applications. Digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) is a powerful method for nucleic acid detection and absolute quantification. However, it requires thermal cycling and accurate temperature control, which are difficult in resource-limited conditions. Accordingly, isothermal methods, such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), are more attractive. We developed a picoliter well array (PWA) chip with 27,000 consistently sized picoliter reactions (314 pL) for isothermal DNA quantification using digital RPA (dRPA) at 39°C. Sample loading using a scraping liquid blade was simple, fast, and required small reagent volumes (i.e., <20 μL). Passivating the chip surface using a methoxy-PEG-silane agent effectively eliminated cross-contamination during dRPA. Our creative optical design enabled wide-field fluorescence imaging in situ and both end-point and real-time analyses of picoliter wells in a 6-cm2 area. It was not necessary to use scan shooting and stitch serial small images together. Using this method, we quantified serial dilutions of a Listeria monocytogenes gDNA stock solution from 9 × 10-1 to 4 × 10-3 copies per well with an average error of less than 11% (N = 15). Overall dRPA-on-chip processing required less than 30 min, which was a 4-fold decrease compared to dPCR, requiring approximately 2 h. dRPA on the PWA chip provides a simple and highly sensitive method to quantify nucleic acids without thermal cycling or precise micropump/microvalve control. It has applications in fast field analysis and critical clinical diagnostics under resource-limited settings. PMID:27074005

  18. Cytotoxicity of cadmium-containing quantum dots based on a study using a microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiannuo; Tian, Jing; Weng, Lixing; Wu, Lei; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Wang, Lianhui

    2012-02-01

    There is a lack of reliable nanotoxicity assays available for monitoring and quantifying multiple cellular events in cultured cells. In this study, we used a microfluidic chip to systematically investigate the cytotoxicity of three kinds of well-characterized cadmium-containing quantum dots (QDs) with the same core but different shell structures, including CdTe core QDs, CdTe/CdS core-shell QDs, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs, in HEK293 cells. Using the microfluidic chip combined with fluorescence microscopy, multiple QD-induced cellular events including cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and QD uptake were simultaneously analysed. The three kinds of QDs showed significantly different cytotoxicities. The CdTe QDs, which are highly toxic to HEK293 cells, resulted in remarkable cellular and nuclear morphological changes, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, and strong inhibition of cell proliferation; the CdTe/CdS QDs were moderately toxic but did not significantly affect the proliferation of HEK293 cells; while the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had no detectable influence on cytotoxicity with respect to cell morphology, viability, and proliferation. Our data indicated that QD cytotoxicity was closely related to their surface structures and specific physicochemical properties. This study also demonstrated that the microfluidic chip could serve as a powerful tool to systematically evaluate the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in multiple cellular events.

  19. Integrated electrokinetic magnetic bead-based electrochemical immunoassay on microfluidic chips for reliable control of permitted levels of zearalenone in infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Mirian; López, Miguel A; Escarpa, Alberto

    2011-05-21

    Microfluidic technology has now become a novel sensing platform where different analytical steps, biological recognition materials and suitable transducers can be cleverly integrated yielding a new sensor generation. A novel "lab-on-a-chip" strategy integrating an electrokinetic magnetic bead-based electrochemical immunoassay on a microfluidic chip for reliable control of permitted levels of zearalenone in infant foods is proposed. The strategy implies the creative use of the simple channel layout of the double-T microchip to perform sequentially the immunointeraction and enzymatic reaction by applying a program of electric fields suitably connected to the reservoirs for driving the fluidics at different chambers in order to perform the different reactions. Both zones are used with the aid of a magnetic field to avoid in a very simple and elegant way the non-specific adsorption. Immunological reaction is performed under a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) where the mycotoxin ZEA and an enzyme-labelled derivative compete for the binding sites of the specific monoclonal antibody immobilised onto protein G modified magnetic beads. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, catalyses the oxidation of hydroquinone (HQ) to benzoquinone (BQN), whose back electrochemical reduction was detected at +0.1 V. Controlled-electrokinetic fluidic handling optimized conditions are addressed for all analytical steps cited above, and allows performing the complete immunoassay for the target ZEA analyte in less than 15 minutes with unique analytical merits: competitive immunoassay currents showed a very well-defined concentration dependence with a good precision as well as a suitable limit of detection of 0.4 µg L(-1), well below the legislative requirements, and an extremely low systematic error of 2% from the analysis of a maize certified reference material revealing additionally an excellent accuracy. Also, the reliability of the

  20. Mutation scanning using MUT-MAP, a high-throughput, microfluidic chip-based, multi-analyte panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Patel

    Full Text Available Targeted anticancer therapies rely on the identification of patient subgroups most likely to respond to treatment. Predictive biomarkers play a key role in patient selection, while diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers expand our understanding of tumor biology, suggest treatment combinations, and facilitate discovery of novel drug targets. We have developed a high-throughput microfluidics method for mutation detection (MUT-MAP, mutation multi-analyte panel based on TaqMan or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR assays. We analyzed a set of 71 mutations across six genes of therapeutic interest. The six-gene mutation panel was designed to detect the most common mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, NRAS, BRAF, and AKT1 oncogenes. The DNA was preamplified using custom-designed primer sets before the TaqMan/AS-PCR assays were carried out using the Biomark microfluidics system (Fluidigm; South San Francisco, CA. A cross-reactivity analysis enabled the generation of a robust automated mutation-calling algorithm which was then validated in a series of 51 cell lines and 33 FFPE clinical samples. All detected mutations were confirmed by other means. Sample input titrations confirmed the assay sensitivity with as little as 2 ng gDNA, and demonstrated excellent inter- and intra-chip reproducibility. Parallel analysis of 92 clinical trial samples was carried out using 2-100 ng genomic DNA (gDNA, allowing the simultaneous detection of multiple mutations. DNA prepared from both fresh frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples were used, and the analysis was routinely completed in 2-3 days: traditional assays require 0.5-1 µg high-quality DNA, and take significantly longer to analyze. This assay can detect a wide range of mutations in therapeutically relevant genes from very small amounts of sample DNA. As such, the mutation assay developed is a valuable tool for high-throughput biomarker discovery and validation in personalized medicine and cancer drug

  1. Chip based common-path optical coherence tomography system with an on-chip microlens and multi-reference suppression algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Lantian; Weiss, Nicolas; Leeuwen, van Ton G.; Pollnau, Markus; Ridder, de René M.; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an integrated optical probe including an on-chip microlens for a common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography system. This common-path design uses the end facet of the silicon oxynitride waveguide as the reference plane, thus eliminating the need of a space-consuming and disp

  2. TOT01, a time-over-threshold based readout chip in 180nm CMOS technology for silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Gryboś, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of the TOT01 prototype front-end ASIC for the readout of long silicon strip detectors in the STS (Silicon Tracking System) of the CBM experiment at FAIR - GSI. The deposited charge measurement is based on the Time-over-Threshold method which allows integration of a low-power ADC into each channel. The TOT01 chip comprises 30 identical channels and 1 test channel which is supplied with additional test pads. The major blocks of each channel are the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) with two switchable constant-current discharge circuits and additional test features. The architecture of the CSA core is based on the folded cascode. The input p-channel MOSFET device, biased at a drain current 500 μA, was optimized for 30 pF detector capacitance while keeping in mind the area constraints — W/L = 1800 μm / 0.180 μm. The main advantage of this solution is high gain (GBW = 1.2 GHz) and low power consumption at the same time. The amplifier is followed by the discriminator circuit. The discriminator allows for a global (multi-channel) differential threshold setting and independent compensation for the CSA output DC-level deviations in each channel by means of a 6-bit digital to analog converter (DAC). The output pulse of this processing chain is fed through a 31:1 multiplexer structure to the output of the chip for further processing. The TOT01 chip has been fabricated in the UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process (Europractice mini@sic). It has 78 pads, measures approximately 1.5x3.2 mm2 and dissipates 33 mW. The channels have 50 μm pitch and each consumes 1.05 mW of power. The chip has been successfully tested. Charge sensitivity parameters, noise performance and first X-ray acquisitions are presented.

  3. The Hebrewer: A Web-Based Inflection Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James Q.; Harrell, Lane Foster; Raizen, Esther

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the grammatical and programmatical production aspects of the "Hebrewer," a cross-platform web-based reference work in the form of a Hebrew inflection generator. The Hebrewer, a Java applet/servlet combination, is currently capable of generating 2,500 nouns in full declension and 500 verbs in full conjugation, displaying the…

  4. On the area and energy scalability of wireless network-on-chip: a model-based benchmarked design space exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Abadal Cavallé, Sergi; Iannazzo Soteras, Mario Enrique; Nemirovsky, Mario; Cabellos Aparicio, Alberto; Lee, Heekwan; Alarcón Cot, Eduardo José

    2014-01-01

    Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) are emerging as the way to interconnect the processing cores and the memory within a chip multiprocessor. As recent years have seen a significant increase in the number of cores per chip, it is crucial to guarantee the scalability of NoCs in order to avoid communication to become the next performance bottleneck in multicore processors. Among other alternatives, the concept of Wireless Network-on- Chip (WNoC) has been proposed, wherein on-chip anten...

  5. Sample introduction interface for on-chip nucleic acid-based analysis of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, O; Melling, L; Tarn, M D; Kemp, C; Esfahani, M M N; Pamme, N; Shaw, K J

    2016-05-24

    Despite recent advances in microfluidic-based integrated diagnostic systems, the sample introduction interface, especially with regards to large volume samples, has often been neglected. We present a sample introduction interface that allows direct on-chip processing of crude stool samples for the detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The principle of IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension) was adapted to include a large volume sample chamber with a septum-based interface for stool sample introduction. Solid chaotropic salt and dry superparamagnetic particles (PMPs) could be stored on-chip and reconstituted upon sample addition, simplifying the process of release of DNA from H. pylori cells and its binding to the PMPs. Finally, the PMPs were pulled via a magnet through a washing chamber containing an immiscible oil solution and into an elution chamber where the DNA was released into aqueous media for subsequent analysis. The entire process required only 7 min while enabling a 40-fold reduction in working volume from crude biological samples. The combination of a real-world interface and rapid DNA extraction offers the potential for the methodology to be used in point-of-care (POC) devices. PMID:27164181

  6. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods. PMID:26699696

  7. Quantum random number generator using a microresonator-based Kerr oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Yu, Mengjie; Luke, Kevin; Carvalho, Daniel O; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate an all-optical quantum random number generator using a dual-pumped degenerate optical parametric oscillator in a silicon nitride microresonator. The frequency-degenerate bi-phase state output is realized using parametric four-wave mixing in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime with two nondegenerate pumps. We achieve a random number generation rate of 2 MHz and verify the randomness of our output using the National Institute of Standards and Technology Statistical Test Suite. The scheme offers potential for a chip-scale random number generator with gigahertz generation rates and no postprocessing.

  8. Search-based software test data generation using evolutionary computation

    OpenAIRE

    Maragathavalli, P.

    2011-01-01

    Search-based Software Engineering has been utilized for a number of software engineering activities.One area where Search-Based Software Engineering has seen much application is test data generation. Evolutionary testing designates the use of metaheuristic search methods for test case generation. The search space is the input domain of the test object, with each individual or potential solution, being an encoded set of inputs to that test object. The fitness function is tailored to find...

  9. Enhanced Liquid Metal Micro Droplet Generation by Pneumatic Actuation Based on the StarJet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koltay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel pneumatic actuation system for generation of liquid metal droplets according to the so-called StarJet method. In contrast to our previous work, the performance of the device has been significantly improved: the maximum droplet generation frequency in continuous mode has been increased to fmax = 11 kHz (formerly fmax = 4 kHz. In addition, the droplet diameter has been reduced to 60 μm. Therefore, a new fabrication process for the silicon nozzle chips has been developed enabling the production of smaller nozzle chips with higher surface quality. The size of the metal reservoir has been increased to hold up to 22 mL liquid metal and the performance and durability of the actuator has been improved by using stainless steel and a second pneumatic connection to control the sheath flow. Experimental results are presented regarding the characterization of the droplet generation, as well as printed metal structures.

  10. Multi-band local microwave signal generation based on an optical frequency comb generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Sun, Wen Hui; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2015-03-01

    We propose and experimental demonstrate a new method to generate multi-band local microwave signals based on an optical frequency comb generator (OFCG) by applying an optical sideband injection locking technique and an optical heterodyning technique. The generated microwave signal can cover multi bands from S band to Ka band. A tunable multiband microwave signal spanning from 5 GHz to 40 GHz can be generated by the beating between the optical carrier and injection locked modulation sidebands in a photodetector without an optical filter. The wavelength of the slave laser can be continuously and near-linearly adjusted by proper changing its bias current. By tuning the bias current of the slave laser, the wavelength of that is matched to one of the modulation sidebands of the OFCG. The performance of the arrangement in terms of the tunability and stability of the generated microwave signal is also studied.

  11. Separation of large DNA molecules by size exclusion chromatography-based microchip with on-chip concentration structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Naoki; Itoh, Shintaro; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Zhang, Hedong

    2016-06-01

    The separation of DNA molecules according to their size represents a fundamental bioanalytical procedure. Here, we report the development of a chip-sized device, consisting of micrometer-sized fence structures fabricated in a microchannel, for the separation of large DNA molecules (over 10 kbp) based on the principle of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). In order to achieve separation, two approaches were utilized: first, the DNA samples were concentrated immediately prior to separation using nanoslit structures, with the aim of improving the resolution. Second, a theoretical model of SEC-based separation was established and applied in order to predict the optimal voltage range for separation. In this study, we achieved separation of λ DNA (48.5 kbp) and T4 DNA (166 kbp) using the present SEC-based microchip.

  12. Method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binhua; Song, Qian; He, Chun; Jin, Jianhui; He, Lin

    2010-07-01

    With the advance of the PFPA technology, the design methodology of digital systems is changing. In recent years we develop a method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA and VHDL. This paper presents the principles and implementation skills of the method. Taking a developed camera as an example, we introduce the structure, input and output clocks/signals of a timing generator implemented in the camera. The generator is composed of a top module and a bottom module. The bottom one is made up of 4 sub-modules which correspond to 4 different operation modes. The modules are implemented by 5 VHDL programs. Frame charts of the architecture of these programs are shown in the paper. We also describe implementation steps of the timing generator in Quartus II, and the interconnections between the generator and a Nios soft core processor which is the controller of this generator. Some test results are presented in the end.

  13. Data Generators for Learning Systems Based on RBF Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robnik-Sikonja, Marko

    2016-05-01

    There are plenty of problems where the data available is scarce and expensive. We propose a generator of semiartificial data with similar properties to the original data, which enables the development and testing of different data mining algorithms and the optimization of their parameters. The generated data allow large-scale experimentation and simulations without danger of overfitting. The proposed generator is based on radial basis function networks, which learn sets of Gaussian kernels. These Gaussian kernels can be used in a generative mode to generate new data from the same distributions. To assess the quality of the generated data, we evaluated the statistical properties of the generated data, structural similarity, and predictive similarity using supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. To determine usability of the proposed generator we conducted a large scale evaluation using 51 data sets. The results show a considerable similarity between the original and generated data and indicate that the method can be useful in several development and simulation scenarios. We analyze possible improvements in the classification performance by adding different amounts of the generated data to the training set, performance on high-dimensional data sets, and conditions when the proposed approach is successful.

  14. Loss Minimizing Operation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Generation Systems Considering Reactive Power Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baohua, Zhang; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    formula for the control reference is explicitly deduced in this paper considering the losses of the generator, the power electronic devices and the filter. Three control strategies are compared with the proposed method under different wind speeds and different reactive power references. The simulation......The paper deals with control techniques for minimizing the operating loss of doubly fed induction generator based wind generation systems when providing reactive power. The proposed method achieves its goal through controlling the rotor side q-axis current in the synchronous reference frame. The...

  15. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about −60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanyang, Li; Hao, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about -60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms.

  17. On-chip supercapacitors with ultrahigh volumetric performance based on electrochemically co-deposited CuO/polypyrrole nanosheet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Zhou, Jinqiu; Xu, Na; Yang, Tingzhou; Shen, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuejun; Wu, Shishan; Yan, Chenglin

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a new method for fabricating unique on-chip supercapacitors based on CuO/polypyrrole core/shell nanosheet arrays by means of direct electrochemical co-deposition on interdigital-like electrodes. The prepared all-solid-state device demonstrates exceptionally high specific capacitance of 1275.5 F cm-3 (˜40 times larger than that of CuO-only supercapacitors) and high-energy-density of 28.35 mWh cm-3, which are both significantly greater than other solid-state supercapacitors. More importantly, the device maintains approximately 100% capacity retention at 2.5 A cm-3 after 3000 cycles. The in situ co-deposition of CuO/polypyrrole nanosheets on interdigital substrate enables effective charge transport, electrode fabrication integrity, and device integration. Because of their high energy, power density, and stable cycling stability, these newly developed on-chip supercapacitors permit fast, reliable applications in portable and miniaturized electronic devices.

  18. Bayesian-based aberration correction and numerical diffraction for improved lensfree on-chip microscopy of biological specimens

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Alexander; Jin, Chao; Wang, Xiao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Lensfree on-chip microscopy is an emerging imaging technique that can be used to visualize and study biological specimens without the need for imaging lens systems. Important issues that can limit the performance of lensfree on-chip microscopy include interferometric aberrations, acquisition noise, and image reconstruction artifacts. In this study, we introduce a Bayesian-based method for performing aberration correction and numerical diffraction that accounts for all three of these issues to improve the effective numerical aperture (NA) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed microscopic image. The proposed method was experimentally validated using the USAF resolution target as well as real waterborne Anabaena flos-aquae samples, demonstrating improvements in NA by ~25% over the standard method, and improvements in SNR of 2.3 dB and 3.8 dB in the reconstructed image when compared to the reconstructed images produced using the standard method and a maximum likelihood estimation method, respective...

  19. Optimization of a flexible multi-generation system based on wood chip gasification and methanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Algren, Loui;

    2016-01-01

    with an existing combined heat and power (CHP) unit and industrial energy utility supply in the Danish city of Horsens. The objective was to optimize economic performance and minimize total CO2 emission of the FMG while it was required to meet the local district heating demand plus the thermal utility demand...... both investment costs and operating conditions. Applying a previously developed FMG design methodology, scalable models of the considered processes were developed and the system design was optimized with respect to hourly operation over the period 2015–2035. The optimal design with respect to both...... of ± 25% in investment costs and methanol price, and considering two different electricity price scenarios.In addition, a change in the interest rate from 5% to 20% was found to reduce the lower bound of the NPVto 181.3 M€ for reference operating conditions. The results suggest that the applied interest...

  20. Faults Detection in a Photovoltaic Generator by Using Matlab Simulink and the chipKIT Max32 Board

    OpenAIRE

    Riadh Khenfer; Mohamed Mostefai; Seddik Benahdouga; Mounir Maddad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory with equipment and an algorithm for teaching graduate students the monitoring and the diagnosis of PV arrays. The contribution is the presentation of an algorithm to detect and localize the fault, in photovoltaic generator when a limited number of voltage sensors are used. An I-V curve tracer using a capacitive load is exploited to measure the I-V characteristics of PV arrays. Such measurement allows characterization of PV arrays on-site, under real operating ...

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Chip-based Continuous-wave Atom Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Power, E. P.; George, L; Vanderelzen, B.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Murphy, R; Yalisove, S. M.; Raithel, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for a continuous-wave (CW) atom laser on a chip and describe the process used to fabricate the device. Our design aims to integrate quadrupole magnetic guiding of ground state Rb atoms with continuous surface adsorption evaporative cooling to create a continuous Bose-Einstein condensate; out-coupled atoms from the condensate should realize a CW atom laser. We choose a geometry with three wires embedded in a spiral pattern in a silicon subtrate. The guide features an integr...

  2. An area-efficient network interface for a TDM-based Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Kasapaki, Evangelia; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Network interfaces (NIs) are used in multi-core systems where they connect processors, memories, and other IP-cores to a packet switched Network-on-Chip (NOC). The functionality of a NI is to bridge between the read/write transaction interfaces used by the cores and the packet-streaming interface...... used by the routers and links in the NOC. The paper addresses the design of a NI for a NOC that uses time division multiplexing (TDM). By keeping the essence of TDM in mind, we have developed a new area-efficient NI micro-architecture. The new design completely eliminates the need for FIFO buffers...

  3. Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.

  4. Hardware and Software Co-design: An Architecture Proposal for a Network-on-Chip Switch based on Bufferless Data Flow

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ortega-Cisneros; H.J. Cabrera-Villaseñor; J. J. Raygoza-Panduro; F. Sandoval; R. Loo-Yau

    2014-01-01

    The use of on chip networks as interconnection media fo r systems implemented in FPGA s is limited by the amount of logical resources necessary to deploy the network in the target device, and the time necessary to adjust the network parameters to achieve the perfo rmance goal for the system. In this paper we present a switch architecture, with data flow control based on circuit switching and aim ed for on-chip networks with a Spidergon topology, which seeks to reduce the area occupied without...

  5. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  6. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  7. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  8. Search-Based Software Test Data Generation Using Evolutionary Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maragathavalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Search-based Software Engineering has been utilized for a number of software engineering activities.One area where Search-Based Software Engineering has seen much application is test data generation. Evolutionary testing designates the use of metaheuristic search methods for test case generation. The search space is the input domain of the test object, with each individual or potential solution, being an encoded set of inputs to that test object. The fitness function is tailored to find test data for the type of testthat is being undertaken. Evolutionary Testing (ET uses optimizing search techniques such as evolutionary algorithms to generate test data. The effectiveness of GA-based testing system is compared with a Random testing system. For simple programs both testing systems work fine, but as the complexity of the program or the complexity of input domain grows, GA-based testing system significantly outperforms Random testing.

  9. Ultra-thin silicon (UTSi) on insulator CMOS transceiver and time-division multiplexed switch chips for smart pixel integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Sawchuk, Alexander A.

    2001-12-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and functionality of two different 0.5 micron CMOS optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) chips based on the Peregrine Semiconductor Ultra-Thin Silicon on insulator technology. The Peregrine UTSi silicon- on-sapphire (SOS) technology is a member of the silicon-on- insulator (SOI) family. The low-loss synthetic sapphire substrate is optically transparent and has good thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion properties, which meet the requirements for flip-chip bonding of VCSELs and other optoelectronic input-output components. One chip contains transceiver and network components, including four channel high-speed CMOS transceiver modules, pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) generators, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and other test circuits. The transceiver chips can operate in both self-testing mode and networking mode. An on- chip clock and true-single-phase-clock (TSPC) D-flip-flop have been designed to generate a PRBS at over 2.5 Gb/s for the high-speed transceiver arrays to operate in self-testing mode. In the networking mode, an even number of transceiver chips forms a ring network through free-space or fiber ribbon interconnections. The second chip contains four channel optical time-division multiplex (TDM) switches, optical transceiver arrays, an active pixel detector and additional test devices. The eventual applications of these chips will require monolithic OEICs with integrated optical input and output. After fabrication and testing, the CMOS transceiver array dies will be packaged with 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and metal-semiconductor- metal (MSM) or GaAs p-i-n detector die arrays to achieve high- speed optical interconnections. The hybrid technique could be either wire bonding or flip-chip bonding of the CMOS SOS smart-pixel arrays with arrays of VCSELs and photodetectors onto an optoelectronic chip carrier as a multi-chip module (MCM).

  10. Correlações inter e intragerações e herdabilidade de cor de chips, matéria seca e produção em batata Correlations between and within generations and heritability of chips color, dry matter and yield in potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Felix Souza Rodrigues

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar correlações inter e intragerações clonais, estimar herdabilidade quanto à cor de chips, teor de matéria seca e produção de batata, e suas implicações na seleção. Duzentos e cinqüenta clones de dez famílias foram escolhidos aleatoriamente de uma população de primeira geração clonal, destinada ao processamento de batatas chips, do programa de melhoramento genético de batata da Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado. Os clones foram avaliados em segunda (G2, terceira (G3 e quarta (G4 gerações, respectivamente, no outono e primavera de 1999, e outono de 2000, em Pelotas, RS. Os coeficientes de correlação entre gerações e as estimativas de herdabilidade dentro das gerações clonais foram baixas em relação à cor de chips, baixas a moderadas quanto à matéria seca e incrementais com as gerações nos componentes de produção. Os coeficientes de correlação entre as características de qualidade e os componentes de produção dentro de cada geração foram baixos e, na maioria, não-significativos. As estimativas de herdabilidade dos dados conjuntos da G3 e G4 foram moderada, moderadamente alta e alta, respectivamente, em relação à cor de chips, teor de matéria seca e produção.The objectives of this work were to determine correlations between and within clonal generation, to estimate heritability for chips color, dry matter content and yield of potatoes, and their implications on selection. Two hundred and fifty clones of ten families were randomly chosen from a first clonal population, directed to chips processing, of the potato breeding program of Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado. The clones were evaluated in second (G2, third (G3 and fourth (G4 generations during autumn and spring of 1999 and autumn of 2000, respectively, in Pelotas, RS. The coefficients of correlation between generations and the estimates of heritability

  11. Routing algorithms in networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshtalab, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation.  Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.   ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip and NoC-based, manycore systems; ·         Describe...

  12. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  13. Aging assessment of large generator insulation based on PD measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Bo; CHEN Xiaolin; CHENG Yonghong; XIE Hengkun

    2005-01-01

    The statistical parameters of phase resolved partial discharge (PD) distribution and ultra-wideband (UWB) characteristics of PD pulse are proposed for aging assessment of large generator insulation. Multi-stress aging tests of the model generator stator bar specimens were performed and PD measurements were conducted using both digital PD detector with frequency ranging from 40 kHz to 400 kHz and UWB PD detector with bandwidth from 10 MHz to 3 GHz at different aging stages. The test results show that the skewness and UWB frequency characteristics of PD can be taken as the characterization parameters for aging assessment of generator insulation. Furthermore, the measurement results of real generator stator bars show that these methods based on statistical parameters and UWB characteristics of PD are prospective for aging assessment and residual lifetime estimation of large generator stator insulation.

  14. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen;

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision-making....... Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...

  15. The guitar chord-generating algorithm based on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Yi-fan; Du, Dan; Liu, Miao-miao; Siddiqi, Awais

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to generate chords for popular songs automatically based on complex network. Firstly, according to the characteristics of guitar tablature, six chord networks of popular songs by six pop singers are constructed and the properties of all networks are concluded. By analyzing the diverse chord networks, the accompaniment regulations and features are shown, with which the chords can be generated automatically. Secondly, in terms of the characteristics of popular songs, a two-tiered network containing a verse network and a chorus network is constructed. With this network, the verse and chorus can be composed respectively with the random walk algorithm. Thirdly, the musical motif is considered for generating chords, with which the bad chord progressions can be revised. This method can make the accompaniments sound more melodious. Finally, a popular song is chosen for generating chords and the new generated accompaniment sounds better than those done by the composers.

  16. Fatigue analysis of steam generator cassette parts based on CAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue analysis has been performed for steam generator nozzle header and tube based on CAE. Three dimensional model was produced using the commercial CAD program, IDEAS and the geometry and boundary condition information have been transformed into input format of ABAQUS for thermal analysis, stress analysis, and fatigue analysis. Cassette nozzle, which has a complex geometry, has been analysed by using the three dimensional model. But steam generator tube has been analysed according to ASME procedure since it can be modelled as a two dimensional finite element model. S-N curve for the titanium alloy of the steam generator tube material was obtained from the material tests. From the analysis, it has been confirmed that these parts of the steam generator cassette satisfy the lifetime of the steam generator cassette. Three dimensional modelling strategy from the thermal analysis to fatigue analysis should be implemented into the design of reactor major components to enhance the efficiency of design procedure

  17. Compact Shorted Stacked-Patch Antenna Integrated with Chip-Package Based on LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low profile chip-package stacked-patch antenna is proposed by using low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC technology. The proposed antenna employs a stacked-patch to achieve two operating frequency bands and enhance the bandwidth. The height of the antenna is decreased to 4.09 mm (about λ/25 at 2.45 GHz due to the shorted pin. The package is mounted on a 44 × 44 mm2 ground plane to miniaturize the volume of the system. The design parameters of the antenna and the effect of the antenna on chip-package cavity are carefully analyzed. The designed antenna operates at a center frequency of 2.45 GHz and its impedance bandwidth (S11< -10 dB is 200 MHz, resulting from two neighboring resonant frequencies at 2.41 and 2.51 GHz, respectively. The average gain across the frequency band is about 5.28 dBi.

  18. Implementing oxygen control in chip-based cell and tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Pieter E; Skolimowski, Maciej D; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2016-09-21

    Oxygen is essential in the energy metabolism of cells, as well as being an important regulatory parameter influencing cell differentiation and function. Interest in precise oxygen control for in vitro cultures of tissues and cells continues to grow, especially with the emergence of the organ-on-a-chip and the desire to emulate in vivo conditions. This was recently discussed in this journal in a Critical Review by Brennan et al. (Lab Chip (2014). DOI: ). Microfluidics can be used to introduce flow to facilitate nutrient supply to and waste removal from in vitro culture systems. Well-defined oxygen gradients can also be established. However, cells can quickly alter the oxygen balance in their vicinity. In this Tutorial Review, we expand on the Brennan paper to focus on the implementation of oxygen analysis in these systems to achieve continuous monitoring. Both electrochemical and optical approaches for the integration of oxygen monitoring in microfluidic tissue and cell culture systems will be discussed. Differences in oxygen requirements from one organ to the next are a challenging problem, as oxygen delivery is limited by its uptake into medium. Hence, we discuss the factors determining oxygen concentrations in solutions and consider the possible use of artificial oxygen carriers to increase dissolved oxygen concentrations. The selection of device material for applications requiring precise oxygen control is discussed in detail, focusing on oxygen permeability. Lastly, a variety of devices is presented, showing the diversity of approaches that can be employed to control and monitor oxygen concentrations in in vitro experiments.

  19. Modelling the surface generation process during AFM probe-based machining: simulation and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The controlled removal of material conducted with the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe is a technique that has started gaining increased attention in recent years within the micro and nano manufacturing research community. The attractive characteristics of this process are that it is relatively simple to implement and low-cost compared with vacuum-based lithography techniques for micro and nano fabrication. However, similarly to any machining process, the resulting surface finish of features cut with an AFM probe can be critical. In this context, the focus of the paper is on the development and validation of a novel analytical model for predicting the floor surface roughness induced by AFM probe-based machining when generating cavities composed of linear parallel grooves. In addition to kinematic parameters, the proposed model takes into account the minimum chip thickness and elastic recovery associated with each phase present within the microstructure of a workpiece. The implementation of the model was carried out and its performance tested when processing a dual phase brass alloy using an AFM nano-indentation probe. A relatively good agreement was achieved between the analytical and experimental results with an average prediction error of 21% when assessing the arithmetic average roughness, Ra. (paper)

  20. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing technique to improve the distribution and statistical properties of the generated data. The post-processed output passes the NIST Sp. 800-22 statistical tests. The system is written in Verilog VHDL and realized on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA. The generator can fit into a very small area and have a maximum throughput of 2.1 Gb/s.

  1. Using case-based reasoning for generating functional test procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Dunia Delgado Dapena

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for storage structure and retrieval mechanisms used for implementing case-based reasoning (CBR in generating functional test procedures in software projects. This proposal was based on software project t functional requirements and sets out the proposed algorithms for considering the similarity between each pair of projects as well as those leading to adapting the solution found in the case base.

  2. Highly porous magnetite/graphene nanocomposites for a solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor on paper-based chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Lv, Zhaozi; Xia, Yong; Han, Yanchao; Lou, Baohua; Wang, Erkang

    2013-04-01

    Graphene-nanosheet-based highly porous magnetite nanocomposites (GN-HPMNs) have been prepared using a simple solvothermal method and used as an immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor on paper-based chips. Highly porous Fe3O4 nanocrystal clusters were coated with acrylate and wrapped tightly on the skeleton of graphene nanosheets. The structures and sizes of the GN-HPMNs could be tuned by varying the proportions of the solvents ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Then, the relatively highly porous ones with an average diameter of about 65 nm were combined with Nafion to form composite films on an electrode surface for immobilization of Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine). Because of their porosity, negatively charged surface, and cooperative characteristics of magnetic nanomaterials and graphene, under an external magnetic field, the GN-HPMNs ensured effective immobilization, excellent electron transfer, and long-term stability of Ru(bpy)3(2+) in the composite film. The sensor developed exhibited excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 0.65% for 30 continuous cycles. It was found to be much more favorable for detecting compounds containing tertiary amino groups and DNAs with guanine and adenine. A detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 5.0 nM was obtained for tripropylamine. As an application example, 0.5 nM single-nucleotide mismatch could be detected. This was the first attempt to introduce magnetic nanomaterials and an external magnetic field into paper-based chips. The sensor developed has the advantages of high sensitivity, good stability, and wide potential applicability as well as simplicity, low cost, and good disposability. PMID:23132543

  3. Osmosis-based pressure generation: dynamics and application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R Bruhn

    Full Text Available This paper describes osmotically-driven pressure generation in a membrane-bound compartment while taking into account volume expansion, solute dilution, surface area to volume ratio, membrane hydraulic permeability, and changes in osmotic gradient, bulk modulus, and degree of membrane fouling. The emphasis lies on the dynamics of pressure generation; these dynamics have not previously been described in detail. Experimental results are compared to and supported by numerical simulations, which we make accessible as an open source tool. This approach reveals unintuitive results about the quantitative dependence of the speed of pressure generation on the relevant and interdependent parameters that will be encountered in most osmotically-driven pressure generators. For instance, restricting the volume expansion of a compartment allows it to generate its first 5 kPa of pressure seven times faster than without a restraint. In addition, this dynamics study shows that plants are near-ideal osmotic pressure generators, as they are composed of many small compartments with large surface area to volume ratios and strong cell wall reinforcements. Finally, we demonstrate two applications of an osmosis-based pressure generator: actuation of a soft robot and continuous volume delivery over long periods of time. Both applications do not need an external power source but rather take advantage of the energy released upon watering the pressure generators.

  4. Modelling and simulation of passive Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) based micromixer for clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikat, Chakraborty; Sharath, M.; Srujana, M.; Narayan, K.; Pattnaik, Prasant Kumar

    2016-03-01

    In biomedical application, micromixer is an important component because of many processes requires rapid and efficient mixing. At micro scale, the flow is Laminar due to small channel size which enables controlled rapid mixing. The reduction in analysis time along with high throughput can be achieved with the help of rapid mixing. In LoC application, micromixer is used for mixing of fluids especially for the devices which requires efficient mixing. Micromixer of this type of microfluidic devices with a rapid mixing is useful in application such as DNA/RNA synthesis, drug delivery system & biological agent detection. In this work, we design and simulate a microfluidic based passive rapid micromixer for lab-on-a-chip application.

  5. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing using Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a New Technique for Detecting HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Willyandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 infection by individuals in window period who are tested negative in conventional HIV-1 detection would pose the community with serious problems. Several diagnostic tools require specific labora-tory equipment, perfect timing of diagnosis, antibody to HIV-1, and invasive technique to get sample for examination, until high amount of time to process the sample as well as accessibility of remote areas. Many attempts have been made to solve those problems to come to a new detection technique. This review aims to give information about the current development technique for detection of HIV infection. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing is currently introduced for detection of HIV-1 infection. This review also cover the possible usage of gingival crevicular fluid as sample specimen that could be taken noninvasively from the individual.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.63

  6. PMMA to SU-8 Bonding for Polymer Based Lab-on -a-chip Systems with Integrated Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    An adhesive bonding technique for wafer-level sealing of SU-8 based lab-on-a-chip microsystems with integrated optical components is presented. Microfluidic channels and optical components, e.g. waveguides, are fabricated in cross-linked SU-8 and sealed with a Pyrex glass substrate by means...... strength of 16 MPa is achieved at bonding temperatures between 110 oC and 120oC, at a bonding force of 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. The optical propagation loss of multi-mode 10ym (thickness)x 30ym (width)SU-8 waveguides is measured. The propagation loss in PMMA bonded waveguide struc-tures is more than 5 d...

  7. Flexible readout and integration sensor (FRIS): a bio-inspired, system-on-chip, event-based readout architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joseph H.; Pouliquen, Philippe O.; Andreou, Andreas G.; Goldberg, Arnold C.; Rizk, Charbel G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a bio-inspired system-on-chip focal plane readout architecture which at the system level, relies on an event based sampling scheme where only pixels within a programmable range of photon flux rates are output. At the pixel level, a one bit oversampled analog-to-digital converter together with a decimator allows for the quantization of signals up to 26 bits. Furthermore, digital non-uniformity correction of both gain and offset errors is applied at the pixel level prior to readout. We report test results for a prototype array fabricated in a standard 90nm CMOS process. Tests performed at room and cryogenic temperatures demonstrate the capability to operate at a temporal noise ratio as low as 1.5, an electron well capacity over 100Ge-, and an ADC LSB down to 1e-.

  8. Novel Frequency Hopping Sequences Generator Based on AES Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振荣; 庄奕琪; 张博; 张超

    2010-01-01

    A novel frequency hopping(FH) sequences generator based on advanced encryption standard(AES) iterated block cipher is proposed for FH communication systems.The analysis shows that the FH sequences based on AES algorithm have good performance in uniformity, correlation, complexity and security.A high-speed, low-power and low-cost ASIC of FH sequences generator is implemented by optimizing the structure of S-Box and MixColumns of AES algorithm, proposing a hierarchical power management strategy, and applying ...

  9. SNP typing on the NanoChip electronic microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Morling, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We describe a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing protocol developed for the NanoChip electronic microarray. The NanoChip array consists of 100 electrodes covered by a thin hydrogel layer containing streptavidin. An electric currency can be applied to one, several, or all electrodes...... at the same time according to a loading protocol generated by the user. Biotinylated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is directed to the pad(s) via the electronic field(s) and bound to streptavidin in the hydrogel layer. Subsequently, fluorescently labeled reporter oligos and a stabilizer oligo are hybridized...... to the bound DNA. Base stacking between the short reporter and the longer stabilizer oligo stabilizes the binding of a matching reporter, whereas the binding of a reporter carrying a mismatch in the SNP position will be relatively weak. Thermal stringency is applied to the NanoChip array according to a reader...

  10. Role Oriented Test Case Generation for Agent Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sivakumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Agent Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE is a rapidly developing area of research. Current research and development primarily focuses on the analysis, design and implementation of agent based software whereas testing is less prioritised. Software testing is an important and indispensable part of software development process. Test case generation is the primary step of any testing process which is followed by test execution and test evaluation. Test case generation is not an easy task but upon automating the test case generation process serves many advantages such as time saving, effort saving and more importantly reduces number of errors and faults. This paper investigates about generating test cases for testing agent based software. We propose a novel approach, which takes advantage of agent’s role as the basis for generating test cases. Role is an important mental attribute of an agent which is simply defined as the set of capabilities that an agent can perform. The main objective of this paper is to generate test cases from role diagram upon converting it to activity diagram.

  11. Large-field-of-view Chip-scale Talbot-grid-based Fluorescence Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Shuo; Kato, Mihoko; Sternberg, Paul W; Yang, Changhuei

    2012-01-01

    The fluorescence microscope is one of the most important tools in modern clinical diagnosis and biological science. However, its expense, size and limited field-of-view (FOV) are becoming bottlenecks in key applications such as large-scale phenotyping and low-resource-setting diagnostics. Here we report a low-cost, compact chip-scale fluorescence-imaging platform, termed the Fluorescence Talbot Microscopy (FTM), which utilizes the Talbot self-imaging effect to enable efficient fluorescence imaging over a large and directly-scalable FOV. The FTM prototype has a resolution of 1.2 microns and an FOV of 3.9 mm x 3.5 mm. We demonstrate the imaging capability of FTM on fluorescently labeled breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) and HEK cells expressing green fluorescent protein.

  12. Chalcogenide glass planar MIR couplers for future chip based Bracewell interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Harry-Dean Kenchington; Ireland, Michael; Ma, Pan; Tuthill, Peter; Eggleton, Ben; Lawrence, John S; Debbarma, Sukanta; Luther-Davies, Barry; Madden, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Photonic integrated circuits are established as the technique of choice for a number of astronomical processing functions due to their compactness, high level of integration, low losses, and stability. Temperature control, mechanical vibration and acoustic noise become controllable for such a device enabling much more complex processing than can realistically be considered with bulk optics. To date the benefits have mainly been at wavelengths around 1550 nm but in the important Mid-Infrared region, standard photonic chips absorb light strongly. Chalcogenide glasses are well known for their transparency to beyond 10000 nm, and the first results from coupler devices intended for use in an interferometric nuller for exoplanetary observation in the Mid-Infrared L band (3800-4200 nm) are presented here showing that suitable performance can be obtained both theoretically and experimentally for the first fabricated devices operating at 4000 nm.

  13. Potential of Biomass Based Electricity Generation in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KP Ariyadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass has attracted much attention as a primary energy source for electricity generation due to its potential to supply low cost fuel source with considerable environmental and socio-economic benefits. Despite having favorable climatic conditions to grow and use biomass for electricity generation, biomass based electricity generation in Sri Lanka is lagging behind due to many reasons. Many countries rely on the agricultural or forestry by-products or residuals as the main source of biomass for electricity generation mainly due to the comparatively low cost and sustainable supply of these by-products. Sri Lanka does not have this advantage and has to rely mainly on purposely grown biomass for electricity generation. Development of short rotation energy plantations seems to be the best option available for Sri Lanka to produce biomass for commercial scale electricity generation. The highly favorable growing conditions, availability of promising tree species and a variety of plantation management options and significant environmental and socio-economic benefits associated with energy plantation development greatly favor this option. This paper examines the potential of using plantation grown biomass as a fuel source for electricity generation in Sri Lanka.

  14. A Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Normal Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-31

    In a recent paper, Richard Crandall and the present author established that each of a certain class of explicitly given real constants, uncountably infinite in number, is b-normal, for an integer that appears in the formula defining the constant. A b-normal constant is one where every string of m digits appears in the base-b expansion of the constant with limiting frequency b{sup -m}. This paper shows how this result can be used to fashion an efficient and effective pseudo-random number generator, which generates successive strings of binary digits from one of the constants in this class. The resulting generator, which tests slightly faster than a conventional linear congruential generator, avoids difficulties with large power-of-two data access strides that may occur when using conventional generators. It is also well suited for parallel processing--each processor can quickly and independently compute its starting value, with the collective sequence generated by all processors being the same as that generated by a single processor.

  15. Temperature sensing based on a Brillouin fiber microwave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. P.; Gan, J. L.; Xu, S. H.; Yang, Z. M.

    2013-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser used for microwave generation. Based on this configuration, temperature sensing has been realized. The dual-frequency Brillouin lasing is generated independently from two pieces of fiber cascaded within one ring resonator. Microwave generation is acquired as the beat signal of the dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser, with the beat frequency being linearly proportional to the temperature difference of the two fiber sections. In the experiment, the temperature coefficient of frequency shift is 1.015 ± 0.001 MHz °C-1. The temperature can be precisely measured by acquiring the frequency of the microwave generator, and this new configuration provides a promising application for temperature sensing.

  16. Chips 2020

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising  Moore-like exponential g...

  17. Mutually unbiased bases generated by a single unitary operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranade, Kedar [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Kern, Oliver; Seyfarth, Ulrich [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this talk, we discuss a method for constructing unitary operators which generate mutually unbiased bases on Hilbert spaces H=C{sup d} for d being a power-of-two dimension (i. e. d = 2{sup m}, m element of N). Such operators U have order d+1, and the columns of U,U{sup 2},.., U{sup d+1} = 1 define mutually unbiased bases. The construction is based on finding a maximal commuting unitary operator basis of the matrix algebra associated to the Hilbert space and a Clifford group unitary transformation which maps the equivalence classes of a partition of this operator basis onto another. We explicitly construct unitary operators which generate mutually unbiased bases in all dimensions d = 2{sup m} for m{<=}22.

  18. Quality-based generation of weather radar Cartesian products

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ośródka; J. Szturc

    2015-01-01

    Weather radar data volumes are commonly processed to obtain various 2-D Cartesian products based on the transfer from polar to Cartesian representations through a certain interpolation method. In this research an algorithm of the spatial interpolation of polar reflectivity data employing quality index data is applied to find the Cartesian reflectivity as plan position indicator products. On this basis, quality-based versions of standard algorithms for the generation of the foll...

  19. Code generation based on formal BURS theory and heuristic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nymeyer, A.; Katoen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    BURS theory provides a powerful mechanism to efficiently generate pattern matches in a given expression tree. BURS, which stands for bottom-up rewrite system, is based on term rewrite systems, to which costs are added. We formalise the underlying theory, and derive an algorithm that computes all pat

  20. Virtual microstructural leaf tissue generation based on cell growth modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abera, M.K.; Retta, M.A.; Verboven, P.; Nicolai, B.M.; Berghuijs, H.; Struik, P.

    2016-01-01

    A cell growth algorithm for virtual leaf tissue generation is presented based on the biomechanics of plant cells in tissues. The algorithm can account for typical differences in epidermal layers, palisade mesophyll layer and spongy mesophyll layer which have characteristic differences in the shap

  1. Automatic Structure-Based Code Generation from Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Westergaard, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Automatic code generation based on Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models is challenging because CPNs allow for the construction of abstract models that intermix control flow and data processing, making translation into conventional programming constructs difficult. We introduce Process-Partitioned CPNs...

  2. Balanced Civilization Map Generation based on Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates how to incorporate real-world data into game content so that the content is playable and enjoyable while not misrepresenting the data. We propose a method for generating balanced Civilization maps based on Open Data, describing how to acquire, transform and integrate...

  3. Rapid fabrication of a four-layer PMMA-based microfluidic chip using CO2-laser micromachining and thermal bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueye; Shen, Jienan; Zhou, Mengde

    2016-10-01

    A smart design method to transform the original two-layer microfluidic chip into a four-layer 3D microfluidic chip is proposed. A novel fabrication method is established to rapidly and effectively produce a four-layer microfluidic chip device made entirely from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Firstly, the CO2-laser cuts the PMMA sheets by melting and blowing away vaporized material from the parent material to obtain high-quality channels of the microfluidic chip. An orthogonal experimental method is used to study its processing stability. In addition, a simple, rapid thermal bonding technique is successfully applied in fabricating the four-layer microfluidic chip, which has a bond strength of 1.3 MPa. A wooden pole is used to improve the accuracy of the alignment. Finally, a mixing experiment with blue ink and water is carried out, which proves that this smart design method and rapid manufacturing technology are successful.

  4. 片上网络性能及功耗仿真实验研究%Network-on-chip simulation experiment based on systemC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任胜兵; 潘震宇; 卢念; 张万利

    2011-01-01

    片上网络成为解决片上系统互联问题的研究热点.分析了基于SystemC的片上网络软件仿真平台.以NIRGAM模拟器为例,实现了JPEG编码器和XYYX路由算法,并对三种路由算法进行了功耗与时延的对比实验,体现了其方便的扩展能力及性能评估能力.实例表明软件模拟提供了灵活的实验方式,缩短了设计和验证的周期,利于培养创新能力.%How to solve the on-chip communication bottlenecks with the embedded technology based on network-on-chip has been a hot topic. This paper analyzes the network-on-chip simulation experiment platform based on SystemC, completes three teaching experiments taking the scalable NIRGAM simulator for example, builds a JPEG encoder and a XYYX router, and makes a contrast experiment among three routing algorithms in network delay and power consumption respect. Those experiments represent the strong expansion and assessment of capability of NIRGAM simulator. The network-on-chip simulation experiment platform based on SystemC provides a flexible experimental method and cuts the time for design and verification of network-on-chip. More significantly, it is more beneficial to the development of innovation capability of students.

  5. Ring resonator-based on-chip modulation transformer for high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel wideband on-chip photonic modulation transformer for phase-modulated microwave photonic links. The proposed device is able to transform phase-modulated optical signals into intensity-modulated versions (or vice versa) with nearly zero conversion of laser phase noise to intensity noise. It is constructed using waveguide-based ring resonators, which features simple architecture, stable operation, and easy reconfigurability. Beyond the stand-alone functionality, the proposed device can also be integrated with other functional building blocks of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) to create on-chip complex microwave photonic signal processors. As an application example, a PIC consisting of two such modulation transformers and a notch filter has been designed and realized in TriPleX(TM) waveguide technology. The realized device uses a 2 × 2 splitting circuit and 3 ring resonators with a free spectral range of 25 GHz, which are all equipped with continuous tuning elements. The device can perform phase-to-intensity modulation transform and carrier suppression simultaneously, which enables high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonics links (PM-MPLs). Associated with the bias-free and low-complexity advantages of the phase modulators, a single-fiber-span PM-MPL with a RF bandwidth of 12 GHz (3 dB-suppression band 6 to 18 GHz) has been demonstrated comprising the proposed PIC, where the achieved spurious-free dynamic range performance is comparable to that of Class-AB MPLs using low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulators. PMID:24216825

  6. Generation of short electrical pulses based on bipolar transistorsny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for the generation of short electrical pulses based on the minority carrier charge storage and the step recovery effect of bipolar transistors is presented. Electrical pulses of about 90 ps up to 800 ps duration are generated with a maximum amplitude of approximately 7V at 50Ω. The bipolar transistor is driven into saturation and the base-collector and base-emitter junctions become forward biased. The resulting fast switch-off edge of the transistor’s output signal is the basis for the pulse generation. The fast switching of the transistor occurs as a result of the minority carriers that have been injected and stored across the base-collector junction under forward bias conditions. If the saturated transistor is suddenly reverse biased the pn-junction will appear as a low impedance until the stored charge is depleted. Then the impedance will suddenly increase to its normal high value and the flow of current through the junction will turn to zero, abruptly. A differentiation of the output signal of the transistor results in two short pulses with opposite polarities. The differentiating circuit is implemented by a transmission line network, which mainly acts as a high pass filter. Both the transistor technology (pnp or npn and the phase of the transfer function of the differentating circuit influence the polarity of the output pulses. The pulse duration depends on the transistor parameters as well as on the transfer function of the pulse shaping network. This way of generating short electrical pulses is a new alternative for conventional comb generators based on steprecovery diodes (SRD. Due to the three-terminal structure of the transistor the isolation problem between the input and the output signal of the transistor network is drastically simplified. Furthermore the transistor is an active element in contrast to a SRD, so that its current gain can be used to minimize the power of the driving signal.

  7. Space-based laser-driven MHD generator: Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of a laser-driven MHD generator, as a candidate receiver for a space-based laser power transmission system, was investigated. On the basis of reasonable parameters obtained in the literature, a model of the laser-driven MHD generator was developed with the assumptions of a steady, turbulent, two-dimensional flow. These assumptions were based on the continuous and steady generation of plasmas by the exposure of the continuous wave laser beam thus inducing a steady back pressure that enables the medium to flow steadily. The model considered here took the turbulent nature of plasmas into account in the two-dimensional geometry of the generator. For these conditions with the plasma parameters defining the thermal conductivity, viscosity, electrical conductivity for the plasma flow, a generator efficiency of 53.3% was calculated. If turbulent effects and nonequilibrium ionization are taken into account, the efficiency is 43.2%. The study shows that the laser-driven MHD system has potential as a laser power receiver for space applications because of its high energy conversion efficiency, high energy density and relatively simple mechanism as compared to other energy conversion cycles.

  8. A Vector Network Analyzer Based on Pulse Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schulte

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast four channel network analyzer is introduced to measure S-parameters in a frequency range from 10MHz to 3GHz. The signal generation for this kind of analyzer is based on pulse generators, which are realized with bipolar transistors. The output signal of the transistor is differentiated and two short pulses, a slow and a fast one, with opposite polarities are generated. The slow pulse is suppressed with a clipping network. Thus the generation of very short electrical pulses with a duration of about 100ps is possible. The structure of the following network analyzer is similar to the structure of a conventional four channel network analyzer. All four pulses, which contain the high frequency information of the device under test, are evaluated after the digitalization of intermediate frequencies. These intermediate frequencies are generated with sampling mixers. The recorded data is evaluated with a special analysis technique, which is based on a Fourier transformation. The calibration techniques used are the same as for conventional four channel network analyzers, no new calibration techniques need to be developed.

  9. Generation of Quasi-Gaussian Pulses Based on Correlation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POHOATA, S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gaussian pulses have been mostly used within communications, where some applications can be emphasized: mobile telephony (GSM, where GMSK signals are used, as well as the UWB communications, where short-period pulses based on Gaussian waveform are generated. Since the Gaussian function signifies a theoretical concept, which cannot be accomplished from the physical point of view, this should be expressed by using various functions, able to determine physical implementations. New techniques of generating the Gaussian pulse responses of good precision are approached, proposed and researched in this paper. The second and third order derivatives with regard to the Gaussian pulse response are accurately generated. The third order derivates is composed of four individual rectangular pulses of fixed amplitudes, being easily to be generated by standard techniques. In order to generate pulses able to satisfy the spectral mask requirements, an adequate filter is necessary to be applied. This paper emphasizes a comparative analysis based on the relative error and the energy spectra of the proposed pulses.

  10. Automatic Tamil lyric generation based on ontological interpretation for semantics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeswari Sridhar; D Jalin Gladis; Kameswaran Ganga; G Dhivya Prabha

    2014-02-01

    This system proposes an -gram based approach to automatic Tamil lyric generation, by the ontological semantic interpretation of the input scene. The approach is based on identifying the semantics conveyed in the scenario, thereby making the system understand the situation and generate lyrics accordingly. The heart of the system includes the ontological interpretation of the scenario, and the selection of the appropriate tri-grams for generating the lyrics. To fulfill this, we have designed a new ontology with weighted edges, where the edges correspond to a set of sentences, which indicate a relationship, and are represented as a tri-gram. Once the appropriate tri-grams are selected, the root words from these tri-grams are sent to the morphological generator, to form words in their packed form. These words are then assembled to form the final lyrics. Parameters of poetry like rhyme, alliteration, simile, vocative words, etc., are also taken care of by the system. Using this approach, we achieved an average accuracy of 77.3% with respect to the exact semantic details being conveyed in the generated lyrics.

  11. Market based generation: A promising market management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed to ease the tension between demand management and supply side management at electric utilities through the introduction of a concept called market management. Market management provides a framework for developing and evaluating the attractiveness of new products and services such as dispersed generation hardware, implementation services, and complementary pricing structures. A market management strategy is the definition of market segments, creating products for those segments, evaluation of the profitability of the product-segment combinations, commitment of resources to those segments, and development of product and marketing plans for those segments. A brief analysis of backup generation is presented as an example of market management. In this example, the customer that is backed up shares some portion of the capital and maintenance costs of the backup unit through priority service rates; the utility and customers that are not backed up can obtain the use of the generating resource but pay only a portion of its costs. Backup generation programs have been found to provide utilities with the ability to meet peak load requirements more cheaply than by investing in peaking capacity. Other benefits for utilities include protection of market share, more efficient rates, and a new source of revenues. With the advances in the technology of small-scale generation, utilities can examine bundling various pricing options with market based generation to offer alternative value-added service options to customer segments with demand characteristics that make these technologies attractive. 3 figs

  12. An interface board for developing control loops in power electronics based on microcontrollers and DSPs Cores -Arduino /ChipKit /dsPIC /DSP /TI Piccolo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new control-interface card for developing simple control loops and generating test signals for power electronic converters is presented. The control board can operate with two computational cores (Texas Instruments and Microchip) allowing using the preferred DSP architecture...... of the boards are presented in detail as well as the board main specifications. The board operation has been tested with three core platforms: TI Piccolo controlSTICK, a Microchip dsPIC and a ChipKit Uno32 (Arduino-like platform). The board was used for generating test signals for characterizing 1200 V Si...

  13. New Metric Based Algorithm for Test Vector Generation in VLSI Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Atre

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for test-vector-generation (TVG for combinational circuits has been presented for testing VLSI chips. This is done by defining a suitable metric or distance, in the space of all input vectors, between a vector and a set of vectors. The test vectors are generated by suitably maximising the above distance. Two different methods of maximising the distance are suggested. Performances of the two methods for different circuits are presented and compared with the random method of TVG. It was observed that method B is superior to the other two methods. Also, method A is slightly better than method R.

  14. STL Triangular Mesh Generation Based on SAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesh generation is a fundamental technique in multiple domains. In this study, a STL triangular mesh generation method based on SAT model is proposed. Two novel triangulation methods, the constrained Delaunay algorithm and the grid subtraction algorithm, are employed on the multi-loop planer regions and the curved surfaces respectively. For the use of node adjustment, the mesh nodes on the surface boundary are strictly matched, with no cracks created on the joint of model surfaces. Experiments show that the proposed solution works effectively and high quality of the mesh model is achieved.

  15. Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) Based Random Number Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadr; Mostafa Zolfaghari-Nejad

    2012-01-01

    Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are widely used to generate random Numbers. In this paper we propose a new architecture in which an Arbiter Based PUF has been employed as a nonlinear function in Nonlinear Feedback Shift Register (NFSR) to generate true random numbers. The rate of producing the output bit streams is 10 million bits per second. The proposed RNG is able to pass all NIST tests and the entropy of the output stream is 7.999837 bits per byte. The proposed circuit has very low r...

  16. Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) Based Random Number Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Sadr, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are widely used to generate random Numbers. In this paper we propose a new architecture in which an Arbiter Based PUF has been employed as a nonlinear function in Nonlinear Feedback Shift Register (NFSR) to generate true random numbers. The rate of producing the output bit streams is 10 million bits per second. The proposed RNG is able to pass all NIST tests and the entropy of the output stream is 7.999837 bits per byte. The proposed circuit has very low resource usage of 193 Slices that makes it suitable for lightweight applications.

  17. Physical Unclonable Function (PUF Based Random Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs are widely used to generate random Numbers. In this paper we propose a new architecture in which an Arbiter Based PUF has been employed as a nonlinear function in Nonlinear Feedback Shift Register (NFSR to generate true random numbers. The rate of producing the output bit streams is 10 million bits per second. The proposed RNG is able to pass all NIST tests and the entropy of the output stream is 7.999837 bits per byte. The proposed circuit has very low resource usage of 193 Slices that makes it suitable for lightweight applications.

  18. Assembly, chip and method of operating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The chip comprises a network of trench capacitors and an inductor, wherein the trench capacitors are coupled in parallel with a pattern of interconnects that is designed so as to limit generation of eddy current induced by the inductor in the interconnects. This allows the use of the chip as a porti

  19. Microfluidic chip based nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of abused drugs and metabolites in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kevin Y; Leung, K Wing; Ting, Annie K L; Wong, Zack C F; Ng, Winki Y Y; Choi, Roy C Y; Dong, Tina T X; Wang, Tiejie; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-03-01

    A microfluidic chip based nano-HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano-HPLC-Chip-MS/MS) has been developed for simultaneous measurement of abused drugs and metabolites: cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, norcocaine, morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, phencyclidine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, and methadone in the hair of drug abusers. The microfluidic chip was fabricated by laminating polyimide films and it integrated an enrichment column, an analytical column and a nanospray tip. Drugs were extracted from hairs by sonication, and the chromatographic separation was achieved in 15 min. The drug identification and quantification criteria were fulfilled by the triple quardropule tandem mass spectrometry. The linear regression analysis was calibrated by deuterated internal standards with all of the R(2) at least over 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were from 0.1 to 0.75 and 0.2 to 1.25 pg/mg, respectively. The validation parameters including selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability, and matrix effect were also evaluated here. In conclusion, the developed sample preparation method coupled with the nano-HPLC-Chip-MS/MS method was able to reveal the presence of drugs in hairs from the drug abusers, with the enhanced sensitivity, compared with the conventional HPLC-MS/MS. PMID:22281681

  20. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  1. Parametric down-conversion photon pair source on a nanophotonic chip

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xiang; Schuck, Carsten; Jung, Hojoong; Cheng, Risheng; Tang, Hong X

    2016-01-01

    Quantum photonic chips, which integrate quantum light sources alongside active and passive optical elements, as well as single photon detectors, show great potential for photonic quantum information processing and quantum technology. Mature semiconductor nanofabrication processes allow for scaling such photonic integrated circuits to on-chip networks of increasing complexity. Second order nonlinear materials are the method of choice for generating photonic quantum states in the overwhelming part of linear optic experiments using bulk components but integration with waveguide circuitry on a nanophotonic chip proved to be challenging. Here we demonstrate such an on-chip parametric down-conversion source of photon pairs based on second order nonlinearity in an Aluminum nitride microring resonator. We show the potential of our source for quantum information processing by measuring high-visibility antibunching of heralded single photons with nearly ideal state purity. Our down conversion source operates with high ...

  2. Image-Based Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As a new interdisciplinary research area, “image-based geometric modeling and mesh generation” integrates image processing, geometric modeling and mesh generation with finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine, materials sciences and engineering. It is well known that FEM is currently well-developed and efficient, but mesh generation for complex geometries (e.g., the human body) still takes about 80% of the total analysis time and is the major obstacle to reduce the total computation time. It is mainly because none of the traditional approaches is sufficient to effectively construct finite element meshes for arbitrarily complicated domains, and generally a great deal of manual interaction is involved in mesh generation. This contributed volume, the first for such an interdisciplinary topic, collects the latest research by experts in this area. These papers cover a broad range of topics, including medical imaging, image alignment and segmentation, image-to-mesh conversion,...

  3. Fully photonics-based physical random bit generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Sun, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xianglian; Yi, Xiaogang; Zhang, Jianguo; Guo, Xiaomin; Guo, Yanqiang; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-07-15

    We propose a fully photonics-based approach for ultrafast physical random bit generation. This approach exploits a compact nonlinear loop mirror (called a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer, TOAD) to sample the chaotic optical waveform in an all-optical domain and then generate random bit streams through further comparison with a threshold level. This method can efficiently overcome the electronic jitter bottleneck confronted by existing RBGs in practice. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates that this method can continuously extract 5 Gb/s random bit streams from the chaotic output of a distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with optical feedback. This limited generation rate is caused by the bandwidth of the used optical chaos. PMID:27420532

  4. Sensitive HPV Genotyping Based on the Flow-Through Hybridization and Gene Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV has been recognized as the direct cause of cervical carcinoma. Therefore, detection and genotyping of HPV are important to cervical-cancer screening. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of flow-through hybridization and gene chip (HybriMax on HPV genotyping through comparison of the results with Hybrid Capture II (HC-II and in situ hybridization (ISH. 591 women were classified into 6 groups according to their histological diagnoses. The overall accordance rate on 13 types of HPV genotypes between HybriMax and HC-II were 92.5% and 100% in the cancer group. The overall accordance was excellent with the Kappa index (KI of 0.814. The value of KI in each group was 0.750 (normal cytological diagnosis, 0.781 (chronic cervicitis, 0.80 (condyloma acuminatum, 0.755 (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I, 0.723 (CIN II, and 0.547 (CIN III (0.75>KI>0.4, good; KI≥0.75, excellent. The 10 most common HPV subtype detected by HybriMax were 16, 52/58, 18, 33, 31, 81, 53, 68, and 66 in patients, and 16, 68, 18, 52, 58, 11, 53, 31/39, and 33 in normal controls. In conclusion, HybriMax is an efficient method for HPV genotyping and more suitable for clinical use.

  5. "Bio-switch Chip" Based on Nanostructured Conducting Polymer and Entrapped Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daesan; Yoo, Haneul; Park, Jae Yeol; Hong, Seunghun

    2016-08-31

    We report a switchable biochip strategy where enzymes were entrapped in conducting polymer layers and the enzymatic reaction of the entrapped enzymes was controlled in real-time via electrical stimuli on the polymer layers. This device is named here as a "bio-switch chip" (BSC). We fabricated BSC structures using polypyrrole (Ppy) with entrapped glucose oxidase (GOx) and demonstrated the switching of glucose oxidation reaction in real-time. We found that the introduction of a negative bias voltage on the BSC structure resulted in the enhanced glucose oxidation reaction by more than 20 times than that without a bias voltage. Moreover, because the BSC structures could be fabricated on specific regions, we could control the enzymatic reaction on specific regions. In view of the fact that enzymes enable very useful and versatile biochemical reactions, the ability to control the enzymatic reactions via conventional electrical signals could open up various applications in the area of biochips and other biochemical industries. PMID:27576664

  6. Normal Vector Based Subdivision Scheme to Generate Fractal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we firstly devise a new and general p-ary subdivision scheme based on normal vectors with multi-parameters to generate fractals. Rich and colorful fractals including some known fractals and a lot of unknown ones can be generated directly and conveniently by using it uniformly. The method is easy to use and effective in generating fractals since the values of the parameters and the directions of normal vectors can be designed freely to control the shape of generated fractals. Secondly, we illustrate the technique with some design results of fractal generation and the corresponding fractal examples from the point of view of visualization, including the classical Lévy curves, Dragon curves, Sierpiński gasket, Koch curve, Koch-type curves and other fractals. Finally, some fractal properties of the limit of the presented subdivision scheme, including existence, self-similarity, non-rectifiability, and continuity but nowhere differentiability are described from the point of view of theoretical analysis.

  7. Atom Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  8. Generators of the auxiliary signals based on the Josephson junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kychak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and problem statement. Generators based on the Josephson junctions are advisable to use to ensure the generation of signals in the wavelength range from infrared to millimeter. It is necessary to build a dependence of the phase difference of the wave functions superconductor Josephson junctions from the parameters of the equivalent circuit of the resistive shunted tunnel junction. Solution of the problem. An analytical expression for calculating the dependence of the instantaneous voltage values from the parameters of the equivalent circuit resistive shunted Josephson junction is obtained. The dependence of the oscillation period from the parameters of the equivalent circuit elements is researched and a comparison of its values with the period of the output voltage of the generator based on three Josephson junctions is carried out. Conclusions. It is shown that the synchronization leads to decrement in the line width generation and increment the output voltage. Comparison of theoretical calculations and computer modeling shows that the differences do not exceed 25% and therefore they can be used for approximate calculations.

  9. Octave Spanning Frequency Comb on a Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Del'Haye, P; Gavartin, E; Holzwarth, R; Kippenberg, T J

    2009-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have revolutionized the field of frequency metrology within the last decade and have become enabling tools for atomic clocks, gas sensing and astrophysical spectrometer calibration. The rapidly increasing number of applications has heightened interest in more compact comb generators. Optical microresonator based comb generators bear promise in this regard. Critical to their future use as 'frequency markers', is however the absolute frequency stabilization of the optical comb spectrum. A powerful technique for this stabilization is self-referencing, which requires a spectrum that spans a full octave, i.e. a factor of two in frequency. In the case of mode locked lasers, overcoming the limited bandwidth has become possible only with the advent of photonic crystal fibres for supercontinuum generation. Here, we report for the first time the generation of an octave-spanning frequency comb directly from a toroidal microresonator on a silicon chip. The comb spectrum covers the wavelength range...

  10. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogation System Based on a Linearly Wavelength-Swept Thermo-Optic Laser Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Seok Lee; Hwi Don Lee; Hyo Jin Kim; Jae Du Cho; Myung Yung Jeong; Chang-Seok Kim

    2014-01-01

    A linearized wavelength-swept thermo-optic laser chip was applied to demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system. A broad tuning range of 11.8 nm was periodically obtained from the laser chip for a sweep rate of 16 Hz. To measure the linear time response of the reflection signal from the FBG sensor, a programmed driving signal was directly applied to the wavelength-swept laser chip. The linear wavelength response of the applied strain was clearly extracted with an R-sq...

  11. Grid connected hybrid dispersed power generators based on PV array and wind-driven induction generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A grid connected hybrid scheme for residential power supply based on an integrated photo-voltaic (PV) array and a wind-driven induction generator (IG) has been proposed in this paper. This new grid-connected configuration employs a closed loop controller at the inverter interfaced to the PV array to regulate the current fed to the grid. By varying the reference current to the controller the PV array meets the reactive power needs of the induction generator and also acts as a source of real power to the grid. A dynamic mathematical model of the hybrid scheme with variables expressed in d - q synchronous reference frame has been developed. The model is implemented in the SimpowerTM platform, the simulation results bring out the usefulness of hybrid operation of PV, and wind-driven IG for grid connected operations. (authors)

  12. Generating a multilingual taxonomy based on multilingual terminology clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengzhi; ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomy denotes the hierarchical structure of a knowledge organization system.It has important applications in knowledge navigation,semantic annotation and semantic search.It is a useful instrument to study the multilingual taxonomy generated automatically under the dynamic information environment in which massive amounts of information are processed and found.Multilingual taxonomy is the core component of the multilingual thesaurus or ontology.This paper presents two methods of bilingual generated taxonomy:Cross-language terminology clustering and mixed-language based terminology clustering.According to our experimental results of terminology clustering related to four specific subject domains,we found that if the parallel corpus is used to cluster multilingual terminologies,the method of using mixed-language based terminology clustering outperforms that of using the cross-language terminology clustering.

  13. OCL-BASED TEST CASE GENERATION USING CATEGORY PARTITIONING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of fault detection techniques during initial stages of software development life cycle urges to improve reliability of a software product. Specification-based testing is one of the major criterions to detect faults in the requirement specification or design of a software system. However, due to the non-availability of implementation details, test case generation from formal specifications become a challenging task. As a novel approach, the proposed work presents a methodology to generate test cases from OCL (Object constraint Language formal specification using Category Partitioning Method (CPM. The experiment results indicate that the proposed methodology is more effective in revealing specification based faults. Furthermore, it has been observed that OCL and CPM form an excellent combination for performing functional testing at the earliest to improve software quality with reduced cost.

  14. Providing content based billing architecture over Next Generation Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Communication marketplace has stressed that "content is king" ever since the initial footsteps for Next Generation Networks like 3G, 3GPP, IP Multimedia subsystem (IMS) services. However, many carriers and content providers have struggled to drive revenue for content services, primarily due to current limitations of certain types of desirable content offerings, simplistic billing models, and the inability to support flexible pricing, charging and settlement. Unlike wire line carriers, wireless carriers have a limit to the volume of traffic they can carry, bounded by the finite wireless spectrum. Event based services like calling, conferencing etc., only perceive charge per event, while the Content based charging system attracts Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) to maximize service delivery to customer and achieve best ARPU. With the Next Generation Networks, the number of data related services that can be offered, is increased significantly. The wireless carrier will be able to move from offering wireles...

  15. SU-E-T-108: Development of a Novel Clinical Neutron Dose Monitor for Proton Therapy Based On Twin TLD500 Chips in a Small PE Moderator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, R; Mukherjee, B [Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen (WPE)gGmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, it could be desirable to measure out-of-field fast neutron doses at critical locations near and outside the patient body. Methods: The working principle of a novel clinical neutron dose monitor is verified by MCNPX simulation. The device is based on a small PE moderator of just 5.5cm side length for easy handling covered with a thermal neutron suppression layer. In the simulation, a polystyrene phantom is bombarded with a standard proton beam. The secondary thermal neutron flux produced inside the moderator by the impinging fast neutrons from the treatment volume is estimated by pairs of α-Al2O3:C (TLD500) chips which are evaluated offline after the treatment either by TL or OSL methods. The first chip is wrapped with 0.5mm natural Gadolinium foil converting the thermal neutrons to gammas via (n,γ) reaction. The second chip is wrapped with a dummy material. The chip centers have a distance of 2cm from each other. Results: The simulation shows that the difference of gamma doses in the TLD500 chips is correlated to the mean fast neutron dose delivered to the moderator material. Different outer shielding materials have been studied. 0.5mm Cadmium shielding is preferred for cost reasons and convenience. Replacement of PE moderator material by other materials like lead or iron at any place is unfavorable. The spatial orientation of the moderator cube is uncritical. Using variance reduction techniques like splitting/Russian roulette, the TLD500 gamma dose simulation give positive differences up to distances of 0.5m from the treatment volume. Conclusion: Applicability and basic layout of a novel clinical neutron dose monitor are demonstrated. The monitor measures PE neutron doses at locations outside the patient body up to distances of 0.5m from the treatment volume. Tissue neutron doses may be calculated using neutron kerma factors.

  16. A fractional-N frequency synthesizer-based multi-standard I/Q carrier generation system in 0.13 {mu}m CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Wenfeng; Geng Zhiqing; Feng Peng; Wu Nanjian, E-mail: nanjian@semi.ac.cn [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-06-15

    This paper proposes a sigma-delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer-based multi-standard I/Q carrier generation system. With reasonable frequency planning, the system can be used in multi-standard wireless communication applications (GSM, WCDMA, GPRS, TD-SCDMA, WLAN (802.11a/b/g)). The implementation is achieved by a 0.13 {mu}m RF CMOS process. The measured results demonstrate that three quadrature VCOs (QVCO) continuously cover the frequency from 3.1 to 6.1 GHz (65.2%), and through the successive divide-by-2 prescalers to achieve the frequency from 0.75 to 6.1 GHz continuously. The chip was fully integrated with the exception of an off-chip filter. The entire chip area is only 3.78 mm{sup 2}, and the system consumes a 21.7 mA - 1.2 V supply without output buffers. The lock-in time of the PLL frequency synthesizer is less than 4 {mu}s over the entire frequency range with a direct frequency presetting technique and the auxiliary non-volatile memory (NVM) can store the digital configuration signal of the system, including presetting signals to avoid the calibration process case by case. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. A fractional-N frequency synthesizer-based multi-standard I/Q carrier generation system in 0.13 μm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenfeng, Lou; Zhiqing, Geng; Peng, Feng; Nanjian, Wu

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a sigma—delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer-based multi-standard I/Q carrier generation system. With reasonable frequency planning, the system can be used in multi-standard wireless communication applications (GSM, WCDMA, GPRS, TD-SCDMA, WLAN (802.11a/b/g)). The implementation is achieved by a 0.13 μm RF CMOS process. The measured results demonstrate that three quadrature VCOs (QVCO) continuously cover the frequency from 3.1 to 6.1 GHz (65.2%), and through the successive divide-by-2 prescalers to achieve the frequency from 0.75 to 6.1 GHz continuously. The chip was fully integrated with the exception of an off-chip filter. The entire chip area is only 3.78 mm2, and the system consumes a 21.7 mA @ 1.2 V supply without output buffers. The lock-in time of the PLL frequency synthesizer is less than 4 μs over the entire frequency range with a direct frequency presetting technique and the auxiliary non-volatile memory (NVM) can store the digital configuration signal of the system, including presetting signals to avoid the calibration process case by case.

  18. AN FFT-BASED SELF-SIMILAR TRAFFIC GENERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施建俊; 薛质; 诸鸿文

    2001-01-01

    The self-similarity of the network traffic has great influences on the performance. But there are few analytical or even numerical solutions for such a model. So simulation becomes the most efficient method for research. Fractal Gaussian noise (FGN) is the most popularly used self-similar model. This paper presented an FGN generator based on fast Fourier transform (FFT). The study indicates that this algorithm is fairly fast and accurate.

  19. A Correlational Encoder Decoder Architecture for Pivot Based Sequence Generation

    OpenAIRE

    SAHA, AMRITA; Khapra, Mitesh M.; Chandar, Sarath; Rajendran, Janarthanan; Cho, Kyunghyun

    2016-01-01

    Interlingua based Machine Translation (MT) aims to encode multiple languages into a common linguistic representation and then decode sentences in multiple target languages from this representation. In this work we explore this idea in the context of neural encoder decoder architectures, albeit on a smaller scale and without MT as the end goal. Specifically, we consider the case of three languages or modalities X, Z and Y wherein we are interested in generating sequences in Y starting from inf...

  20. Audio Signal Generator System Based On State Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维喜

    2009-01-01

    A state machine can make program designing quicker, simpler and more efficient. This paper describes in detail the model for a state machine and the idea for its designing and gives the design process of the state machine through an example of audio signal generator system based on Labview. The result shows that the introduction of the state machine can make complex design processes more clear and the revision of programs easier.

  1. Towards a generation-based semantic web authoring tool

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Widespread use of Semantic Web technologies requires interfaces through which knowledge can be viewed and edited without deep understanding of Description Logic and formalisms like OWL and RDF. Several groups are pursuing approaches based on Controlled Natural Languages (CNLs), so that editing can be performed by typing in sentences which are automatically interpreted as statements in OWL. We suggest here a variant of this approach which relies entirely on Natural Language Generation (NLG), a...

  2. Generating Images with Perceptual Similarity Metrics based on Deep Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dosovitskiy, Alexey; Brox, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Image-generating machine learning models are typically trained with loss functions based on distance in the image space. This often leads to over-smoothed results. We propose a class of loss functions, which we call deep perceptual similarity metrics (DeePSiM), that mitigate this problem. Instead of computing distances in the image space, we compute distances between image features extracted by deep neural networks. This metric better reflects perceptually similarity of images and thus leads ...

  3. A Third-Generation Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Lumpkins, Sarah; Steil, Jennifer; Pellis, Neal; Charles, John

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program seeks to understand and mitigate risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions center dot HRP's evidence base consists of an Evidence Report for each HRP risk center dot Three generations of Evidence Reports 1) Review articles + Good content - Limited authorship, infrequent updates 2) Wikipedia articles + Viewed often, very open to contributions - Summary of reviews, very few contributions 3) HRP-controlled wiki articles + Incremental additions to review articles with editorial control

  4. Artificial Intelligence Based Optimal Configuration of Hybrid Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Suryoatmojo, Heri; スルヨアトモジョ, ヘリ

    2010-01-01

    As discussed in this chapter, PV and wind energy are the most promising as a future energy technology and can be classified as a clean sources of electric energy in the world. Due to the unexpected power variation of these sources utilization of these sources with Diesel generator unit and battery system is a challenging aspect that must be overcome in this thesis. This dissertation presents a proposed package of computer programs based pm Matlab software. This package presents a complete des...

  5. Spin-torque generation in topological insulator based heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Mark H.

    2016-03-11

    Heterostructures utilizing topological insulators exhibit a remarkable spin-torque efficiency. However, the exact origin of the strong torque, in particular whether it stems from the spin-momentum locking of the topological surface states or rather from spin-Hall physics of the topological-insulator bulk, remains unclear. Here, we explore a mechanism of spin-torque generation purely based on the topological surface states. We consider topological-insulator-based bilayers involving ferromagnetic metal (TI/FM) and magnetically doped topological insulators (TI/mdTI), respectively. By ascribing the key theoretical differences between the two setups to location and number of active surface states, we describe both setups within the same framework of spin diffusion of the nonequilibrium spin density of the topological surface states. For the TI/FM bilayer, we find large spin-torque efficiencies of roughly equal magnitude for both in-plane and out-of-plane spin torques. For the TI/mdTI bilayer, we elucidate the dominance of the spin-transfer-like torque. However, we cannot explain the orders of magnitude enhancement reported. Nevertheless, our model gives an intuitive picture of spin-torque generation in topological-insulator-based bilayers and provides theoretical constraints on spin-torque generation due to topological surface states.

  6. Lab-on-a-chip based biosensor for the real-time detection of aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Yıldız; Esen, Elif; Kokturk, Guzin; Ozer, Hayrettin; Muhammad, Turghun; Olcer, Zehra; Basegmez, H Imge Oktay; Simsek, Senay; Barut, Serkan; Gok, M Yagmur; Akgun, Mete; Altintas, Zeynep

    2016-11-01

    Polymers were synthesized and utilized for aflatoxin detection coupled with a novel lab-on-a-chip biosensor: MiSens and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were preferred to be designed and used due to the toxic nature of aflatoxin template and also to avoid difficult clean-up protocols. Towards an innovative miniaturized automated system, a novel biochip has been designed that consists of 6 working electrodes (1mm diameter) with shared reference and counter electrodes. The aflatoxin detection has been achieved by a competition immunoassay that has been performed using the new biochips and the automated MiSens electrochemical biosensor device. For the assay, aflatoxin antibody has been captured on the Protein A immobilized electrode. Subsequently the sample and the enzyme-aflatoxin conjugate mixture has been injected to the electrode surfaces. The final injection of the enzyme substrate results in an amperometric signal. The sensor assays for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in different matrices were also performed using enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and HPLC for confirmation. High recovery was successfully achieved in spiked wheat samples using NIP coupled HPLC and NIP coupled MiSens biosensor [2ppb of aflatoxin was determined as 1.86ppb (93% recovery), 1.73ppb (86.5% recovery), 1.96ppb (98% recovery) and 1.88ppb (94.0% recovery) for immunoaffinity column (IAC)-HPLC, NIP-HPLC, Supel™ Tox SPE Cartridges (SUP)-HPLC and NIP-MiSens, respectively]. Aflatoxin detection in fig samples were also investigated with MiSens biosensor and the results were compared with HPLC method. The new biosensor allows real-time and on-site detection of AFB1 in foods with a rapid, sensitive, fully automated and miniaturized system and expected to have an immense economic impact for food industry. PMID:27591628

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Generator Side Converter of Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Power Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    A real wind power generation system is given in this paper. SVM control strategy and vector control is applied for generator side converter and doubly fed induction generator respectively. First the mathematical models of the wind turbine rotor, drive train, generator side converter are described...

  8. Enzyme-based microfluidic chip coupled to graphene electrodes for the detection of D-amino acid enantiomer-biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, Pilar; Martín, Aída; López, Miguel Ángel; González, María Cristina; Escarpa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical microfluidic strategy for the separation and enantiomeric detection of D-methionine (D-Met) and D-leucine (D-Leu) is presented. These D-amino acids (D-AAs) act as biomarkers involved in relevant diseases caused by Vibrio cholerae. On a single layout microfluidic chip (MC), highly compatible with extremely low biological sample consumption, the strategy allowed the controlled microfluidic D-AA separation and the specific reaction between D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and each D-AA biomarker avoiding the use of additives (i.e., cyclodextrins) for enantiomeric separation as well as any covalent immobilization of the enzyme into the wall channels or on the electrode surface such as in the biosensor-based approaches. Hybrid polymer/graphene-based electrodes were end-channel coupled to the microfluidic system to improve the analytical performance. D-Met and D-Leu were successfully detected becoming this proof-of-the-concept a promising principle for the development of point-of-care (POC) devices for in situ screening of V. cholerae related diseases. PMID:25870911

  9. 基于PSOC的DDS信号发生器设计%Design of DDS Signal Generator Based on PSOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩旭; 于小亿

    2012-01-01

    DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer)is a fully digitized resolution to design the signal generator. Based on PSOC (programming system on chip)technology, the functions of each module in DDS signal generator have been implemented with the IDE-PSoC Creator-as the development platform. According to the structure and principles of DDS, the relationship between the reference frequency and the output frequency has been deduced. Besides, with the help of firmware components provided by Creator, the configuration for properties and the using mode are given. This design fully demonstrates the advantage of high integration level and graphical programming method in embedded system design.%DDS(直接数字频率合成,direct digital frequency synthesis)是一种全数字化设计信号发生器的方法.基于PSOC (programming system on chip)芯片技术,以Creator集成环境作为设计开发平台,实现DDS信号发生器各个模块的功能.根据DDS的结构和原理,推导得到参考频率与输出频率间的关系.利用Creator提供的固件元件,给出了元件的属性配置和使用方法.该设计充分体现了PSOC集成度高,图形化编程在嵌入式系统设计中的优势.

  10. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Hill

    Full Text Available The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP. Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and

  11. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  12. Transporting Digital Micro-fluids Among Multi-chips Based on Surface Acoustic Wave%基于声表面波技术实现数字微流体多基片间输运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章安良; 夏兴华

    2011-01-01

    A new method for transporting digital micro-fluids among multi chips has been proposed based on surface acoustic wave(SAW). It is composed of three piezo-electric chips: one is an interface chip and the others are working chips. Each chip has an interdigital transducer (IDT) with 27. 5 MHz center frequency and a reflector, which are fabricated on 128°YX-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. A digital micro-fluid to be transported was first pipetted onto the working chip 2 by a microsyringe. After the interface chip was adjusted to the same height with the working chip 2 and their gap was as small as possible, an amplified RF signal with 27.5 MHz frequency was applied to the IDT of the working chip 2. The IDT radiated SAW and the digital micro-fluid was actuated to the interface chip. Then the digital micro-fluid was transported from the interface chip to the working chip 1 using the similar method. Two digital micro-fluids on different working chips had successfully been mixed and react based on SAW.%建立了声表面波实现多基片间输运微流体的新方法.由3个128(0)YX-LiNbO3压电基片组成,一个基片为接口基片,另两个为工作基片,每个基片光刻一个中心频率为27.5 MHz叉指换能器和一个反射栅.采用微量进样器将待输运的数字微流体进样到工作基片2,调节接口基片使得其与工作基片2位于同一高度,并使其间隙尽可能小,在工作基片2的叉指换能器上施加声同步频率经放大后的RF信号,激发声表面波,驱动数字微流体到达接口基片.再采用类似方法将接口基片中数字微流体输运到工作基片1,完成两个工作基片间的输运.实现了不同工作基片上的数字微流体的混合及化学反应.

  13. The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guoan; Lee, Seung Ah; Antebi, Yaron; Elowitz, Michael B.; Yang, Changhuei

    2011-01-01

    We report a chip-scale lensless wide-field-of-view microscopy imaging technique, subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy, which can render microscopy images of growing or confluent cell cultures autonomously. We demonstrate that this technology can be used to build smart Petri dish platforms, termed ePetri, for cell culture experiments. This technique leverages the recent broad and cheap availability of high performance image sensor chips to provide a low-cost and automated microscopy soluti...

  14. Generation of tunable, high repetition rate frequency combs with equalized spectra using carrier injection based silicon modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarjun, K. P.; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2016-03-01

    High repetition-rate frequency combs with tunable repetition rate and carrier frequency are extensively used in areas like Optical communications, Microwave Photonics and Metrology. A common technique for their generation is strong phase modulation of a CW-laser. This is commonly implemented using Lithium-Niobate based modulators. With phase modulation alone, the combs have poor spectral flatness and significant number of missing lines. To overcome this, a complex cascade of multiple intensity and phase modulators are used. A comb generator on Silicon based on these principles is desirable to enable on-chip integration with other functionalities while reducing power consumption and footprint. In this work, we analyse frequency comb generation in carrier injection based Silicon modulators. We observe an interesting effect in these comb generators. Enhanced absorption accompanying carrier injection, an undesirable effect in data modulators, shapes the amplitude here to enable high quality combs from a single modulator. Thus, along with reduced power consumption to generate a specific number of lines, the complexity has also been significantly reduced. We use a drift-diffusion solver and mode solver (Silvaco TCAD) along with Soref-Bennett relations to calculate the variations in refractive indices and absorption of an optimized Silicon PIN - waveguide modulator driven by an unbiased high frequency (10 Ghz) voltage signal. Our simulations demonstrate that with a device length of 1 cm, a driving voltage of 2V and minor shaping with a passive ring-resonator filter, we obtain 37 lines with a flatness better than 5-dB across the band and power consumption an order of magnitude smaller than Lithium-Niobate modulators.

  15. Chip-scale parametric amplifier with 11 dB gain at 1550 nm based on a slow-light GaInP photonic crystal waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestier, Isabelle; Combrié, Sylvain; Xavier, Stéphane; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; De Rossi, Alfredo; Eisenstein, Gadi

    2012-10-01

    We report on a chip scale parametric amplifier based on a GaInP photonic crystal waveguide. The amplifier operates with both pump and signal in the 1550 nm wavelength range and offers an on-chip gain of 11 dB (5 dB including the 6 dB coupling losses) when pumped at only 800 mW. It enables us, therefore, to incorporate the many advantages of parametric amplification within photonic chips for optical communication applications.

  16. Rapid detection of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in herbal specimens by a simple, bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Plubcharoensook, Pattra; Prasongsuk, Sehanat

    2016-06-01

    Postharvest herbal product contamination with mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi represents a potentially carcinogenic hazard. Aspergillus flavus is a major cause of this issue. Available mold detection methods are PCR-based and rely heavily on laboratories; thus, they are unsuitable for on-site monitoring. In this study, a bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform was developed to rapidly detect toxigenic Aspergillus spp. DNA. The 3.0-4.0 cm(2) chip is fabricated using Whatman™ filter paper, fishing line and a simple plastic lamination process and has nucleic acid amplification and signal detection components. The Aspergillus assay specifically amplifies the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene, aflR, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP); hybridization between target DNA and probes on blue silvernanoplates (AgNPls) yields colorimetric results. Positive results are indicated by the detection pad appearing blue due to dispersed blue AgNPls; negative results are indicated by the detection pad appearing colorless or pale yellow due to probe/target DNA hybridization and AgNPls aggregation. Assay completion requires less than 40 min, has a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 aflR copies, and has high specificity (94.47%)and sensitivity (100%). Contamination was identified in 14 of 32 herbal samples tested (43.75%). This work demonstrates the fabrication of a simple, low-cost, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform suitable for rapid-detection applications. PMID:27168276

  17. Optimization of Gear Ratio in the Tidal Current Generation System based on Generated Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Kazuhisa; Shiono, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuyuki

    It is possible to predict generating power of the tidal current generation, because of the tidal current's periodicity. Tidal current generation is more advantageous than other renewable energy sources, when the tidal current generation system is connected to the power system and operated. In this paper, we propose a method used to optimize the gear ratio and generator capacity, that is fundamental design items in the tidal current generation system which is composed of Darrieus type water turbine and squirrel-cage induction generator coupled with gear. The proposed method is applied to the tidal current generation system including the most large-sized turbine that we have developed and studied. This paper shows optimum gear ratio and generator capacity that make generated energy maximum, and verify effectiveness of the proposed method. The paper also proposes a method of selecting maximum generating current velocity in order to reduce the generator capacity, from the viewpoint of economics.

  18. Surface skeleton generation based on 360-degree profile scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lujie; Sass, Lawrence; Sung, Woong Ki; Noel, Vernelle

    2013-05-01

    A rapid prototyping method is invented, which works on a specific data structure produced by an optical metrology technique: 360-degree surface profile scanning. A computer algorithm takes an object profile data, restructure the format, generate horizontal and vertical ribs, lay out the ribs on a 2D canvas and output the geometries to a file format compatible with laser cutters. A laser cutting machine is subsequently used to cut all the ribs from sheet materials. Then, the ribs are manually assembled based on computer-generated assembly codes. Through this process, the original object's 3D surface can be prototyped rapidly at an arbitrary scale, which may well exceed the working dimension of the laser cutter.

  19. One-to-one encapsulation based on alternating droplet generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirama, Hirotada; Torii, Toru

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the preparation of encapsulated particles as models of cells using an alternating droplet generation encapsulation method in which the number of particles in a droplet is controlled by a microchannel to achieve one-to-one encapsulation. Using a microchannel in which wettability is treated locally, the fluorescent particles used as models of cells were successfully encapsulated in uniform water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion droplets. Furthermore, 20% of the particle-containing droplets contained one particle. Additionally, when a surfactant with the appropriate properties was used, the fluorescent particles within each inner aqueous droplet were enclosed in the merged droplet by spontaneous droplet coalescence. This one-to-one encapsulation method based on alternating droplet generation could be used for a variety of applications, such as high-throughput single-cell assays, gene transfection into cells or one-to-one cell fusion.

  20. Accelerated Search for Gaussian Generator Based on Triple Prime Integers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris S. Verkhovsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern cryptographic algorithms are based on complexity of two problems: Integer factorization of real integers and a Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP. Approach: The latter problem is even more complicated in the domain of complex integers, where Public Key Cryptosystems (PKC had an advantage over analogous encryption-decryption protocols in arithmetic of real integers modulo p: The former PKC have quadratic cycles of order O (p2 while the latter PKC had linear cycles of order O(p. Results: An accelerated non-deterministic search algorithm for a primitive root (generator in a domain of complex integers modulo triple prime p was provided in this study. It showed the properties of triple primes, the frequencies of their occurrence on a specified interval and analyzed the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Conclusion: Numerous computer experiments and their analysis indicated that three trials were sufficient on average to find a Gaussian generator.

  1. Z - Source Multi Level Inverter Based PV Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lakhmi kanth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel technique of Z-Source multilevel Inverter based PV Generation system is implemented and simulated using MATLAB-Simulink simulation software. The Photovoltaic cells are healthier option for converting solar energy into electricity. Due to high capital cost and low efficiency PV cells have not yet been a fully smart choice for electricity users. To enhance the performance of the system, Z-Source multi level inverter can be used in place of conventional Voltage Source Inverter (VSI in Solar Power Generation System. The PV cell model is developed using circuit mathematical equations. The Z-Source multilevel inverter is modeled to realize boosted DC to AC conversion (inversion with low THD. Outcome shows that the energy conversion efficiency of ZSMLI is a lot improved as compared to conventional voltage Source Inverter (VSI. By doing FFT analysis we can know the total THD.

  2. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  3. Image Relaxation Matching Based on Feature Points for DSM Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shunyi; ZHANG Zuxun; ZHANG Jianqing

    2004-01-01

    In photogrammetry and remote sensing, image matching is a basic and crucial process for automatic DEM generation. In this paper we presented a image relaxation matching method based on feature points. This method can be considered as an extention of regular grid point based matching. It avoids the shortcome of grid point based matching. For example, with this method, we can avoid low or even no texture area where errors frequently appear in cross correlaton matching. In the mean while, it makes full use of some mature techniques such as probability relaxation, image pyramid and the like which have already been successfully used in grid point matching process. Application of the technique to DEM generaton in different regions proved that it is more reasonable and reliable.

  4. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  5. The gene expression data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on Affymetrix gene chips provide insight into regulatory and hypothetical genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Liu Casey S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a leading infectious disease with global public health threat. Its control and management have been complicated by multi-drug resistance and latent infection, which prompts scientists to find new and more effective drugs. With the completion of the genome sequence of the etiologic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is now feasible to search for new drug targets by sieving through a large number of gene products and conduct genome-scale experiments based on microarray technology. However, the full potential of genome-wide microarray analysis in configuring interrelationships among all genes in M. tuberculosis has yet to be realized. To date, it is only possible to assign a function to 52% of proteins predicted in the genome. Results We conducted a functional-genomics study using the high-resolution Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip. Approximately one-half of the genes were found to be always expressed, including more than 100 predicted conserved hypotheticals, in the genome of M. tuberculosis during the log phase of in vitro growth. The gene expression profiles were analyzed and visualized through cluster analysis to epitomize the full details of genomic behavior. Broad patterns derived from genome-wide expression experiments in this study have provided insight into the interrelationships among genes in the basic cellular processes of M. tuberculosis. Conclusion Our results have confirmed several known gene clusters in energy production, information pathways, and lipid metabolism, and also hinted at potential roles of hypothetical and regulatory proteins.

  6. Measurement of oxidatively generated base damage in cellular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadet, Jean, E-mail: jean.cadet@cea.fr [Laboratoire ' Lesions des Acides Nucleiques' , SCIB-UMR-E no3 (CEA/UJF), FRE CNRS 3200, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA/Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Douki, Thierry; Ravanat, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire ' Lesions des Acides Nucleiques' , SCIB-UMR-E no3 (CEA/UJF), FRE CNRS 3200, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA/Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-06-03

    This survey focuses on the critical evaluation of the main methods that are currently available for monitoring single and complex oxidatively generated damage to cellular DNA. Among chromatographic methods, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and to a lesser extent HPLC-ECD which is restricted to a few electroactive nucleobases and nucleosides are appropriate for measuring the formation of single and clustered DNA lesions. Such methods that require optimized protocols for DNA extraction and digestion are sensitive enough for measuring base lesions formed under conditions of severe oxidative stress including exposure to ionizing radiation, UVA light and high intensity UVC laser pulses. In contrast application of GC-MS and HPLC-MS methods that are subject to major drawbacks have been shown to lead to overestimated values of DNA damage. Enzymatic methods that are based on the use of DNA repair glycosylases in order to convert oxidized bases into strand breaks are suitable, even if they are far less specific than HPLC methods, to deal with low levels of single modifications. Several other methods including immunoassays and {sup 32}P-postlabeling methods that are still used suffer from drawbacks and therefore are not recommended. Another difficult topic is the measurement of oxidatively generated clustered DNA lesions that is currently achieved using enzymatic approaches and that would necessitate further investigations.

  7. In situ ZnO-PVA nanocomposite coated microfluidic chips for biosensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habouti, S.; Kunstmann-Olsen, C.; Hoyland, J. D.;

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic chips with integrated fluid and optical connectors have been generated via a simple PDMS master-mould technique. In situ coating using a Zinc oxide polyvinylalcohol based sol-gel method results in ultrathin nanocomposite layers on the fluid channels, which makes them strongly hydroph...

  8. Hexapole-compensated magneto-optical trap on a mesoscopic atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jöllenbeck, S.; Mahnke, J.; Randoll, R.;

    2011-01-01

    Magneto-optical traps on atom chips are usually restricted to small atomic samples due to a limited capture volume caused primarily by distorted field configurations. Here we present a magneto-optical trap based on a millimeter-sized wire structure which generates a magnetic field with minimized...

  9. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Karen Skotte; Wolff, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    -binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis......We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible......-binding buffer, respectively....

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Molecular Diagnosis of Choroideremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Shimizu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We screened patients with choroideremia using next-generation sequencing (NGS and identified a novel mutation and a known mutation in the CHM gene. One patient presented an atypical fundus appearance for choroideremia. Another patient presented macular hole retinal detachment in the left eye. The present case series shows the utility of NGS-based screening in patients with choroideremia. In addition, the presence of macular hole in 1 of the 2 patients, together with a previous report, indicated the susceptibility of patients with choroideremia to macular hole.

  11. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-08-15

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Wireless next generation networks a virtue-based trust model

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief proposes a trust model motivated by virtue epistemology, addressing the need for a more efficient and flexible trust model for wireless next generation networks. This theory of trust simplifies the computation and communication overhead of strictly cognitive-computational models of trust. Both the advantages and the challenges of virtue-based trust models are discussed. This brief offers new research and a general theory of rationality that enables users to interpret trust and reason as complementary mechanisms that guide our rational conduct at two different epistemic level

  13. Web service based system for generating input data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with a three-layer architectural model of a distributed information system based on Web services, which will be used for automatic generation of sets of input data. The information system will be constructed of a client layer, a service layer and of a data layer. The web services as a tool of developing distributed software systems will be presented briefly. A web service and the implementation of its web methods will be described. A way to use the developed web methods in real application will be proposed. Keywords: web services

  14. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiao Feng; Yuechuan Zhang; Cuifeng Ying; Deqiang Wang; Chunlei Du

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than$100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications.

  15. Quantum random number generator based on spin noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoprinakis, G. E.; Polis, M.; Tavernarakis, A.; Dellis, A. T.; Kominis, I. K.

    2008-05-01

    We present an implementation of a robust quantum random number generator based on the quantum fluctuations of the collective spin of an alkali-metal vapor. The achieved bit rate is limited by the spin relaxation rate of the alkali-metal atoms 1/T2 to about 1 kbit/s. However, the same physical scheme, which is impervious to limitations posed by single-photon detectors used in current implementations and rests solely on threshold detection, can be extended to solid state systems with a bit rate higher than 1 Gbit/s.

  16. Generating Explanations for Internet-based Business Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fischer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely established debriefing in business games is important and influences the students' learning performance. Most games only support game statistics instead of explaining solution paths. We suggest the automatic generation of explanations for internet-mediated business games to improve the debriefing quality. As a proof of concept we developed a prototype of an internet-based auction game embedding an open simulation model and an automatic explanation component helping students and teachers to analyse the decision making process. This paper describes the usefulness of automated explanations and the underlying generic software architecture.

  17. Pseudo Random Number Generator Based on Back Propagation Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bang-ju; WANG Yu-hua; NIU Li-ping; ZHANG Huan-guo

    2007-01-01

    Random numbers play an increasingly important role in secure wire and wireless communication.Thus the design quality of random number generator(RNG) is significant in information security.A novel pseudo RNG is proposed for improving the security of network communication.The back propagation neural network(BPNN) is nonlinear,which can be used to improve the traditional RNG.The novel pseudo RNG is based on BPNN techniques.The result of test suites standardized by the U.S shows that the RNG can satisfy the security of communication.

  18. Generating Multilingual Documents from a Knowledge Base The TECHDOC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Rösner, D; Stede, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    TECHDOC is an implemented system demonstrating the feasibility of generating multilingual technical documents on the basis of a language-independent knowledge base. Its application domain is user and maintenance instructions, which are produced from underlying plan structures representing the activities, the participating objects with their properties, relations, and so on. This paper gives a brief outline of the system architecture and discusses some recent developments in the project: the addition of actual event simulation in the KB, steps towards a document authoring tool, and a multimodal user interface. (slightly corrected version of a paper to appear in: COLING 94, Proceedings)

  19. An Approach of MST Generation Algorithm Based on Node Weightage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Pal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers generation of Minimal Spanning Trees (MST of a simple symmetric and connected graph G. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to find out minimal spanning tree of the graph G based on the weightage of nodes in graph. The time complexity of the problem is in polynomial order with better execution time comparing to the existing algorithms. The goal is to design an algorithm that is simple, elegant, easy to understand and applicable in field of networking design, optimization of network cost, and mobile computing.

  20. RFID based Bill Generation and Payment through Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati R.Zope

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging electronic commerce becomes popular together with theconsiderable increase of mobile device. Since mobile paymentswill become one of the most important mobile services. Here weare generating a bill in Super market and billing it through mobile.The most important consideration is the security of the mobiledevices and the applications along with the complexity ofpayment process. We describe how Smart Market works anddiscuss related issues in detail and secure remote paymentarchitecture based on smart card in mobile devices that simplifiesthe payment process and takes a finance measure to permit amore fairly allocation of risks between merchants and consumers.