WorldWideScience

Sample records for chip based generation

  1. Modelocking and Femtosecond Pulse Generation in Chip-Based Frequency Combs

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kasturi; Shim, Bonggu; Levy, Jacob S; Foster, Mark A; Salem, Reza; Johnson, Adrea R; Lamont, Michael R E; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2012-01-01

    Development of ultrashort pulse sources has had an immense impact on condensed-matter physics, biomedical imaging, high-field physics, frequency metrology, telecommunications, nonlinear optics, and molecular spectroscopy. Although numerous advancements of such sources have been made, it remains a challenge to create a highly compact, robust platform capable of producing femtosecond pulses over a wide range of wavelengths, durations, and repetition rates. Recent observations of frequency comb generation via cascaded parametric oscillation in microresonators11 suggest a path for achieving this goal. Here we investigate the temporal and spectral properties of parametric combs generated in silicon-nitride microresonators and observe a transition to passive modelocking of the comb consistent with soliton-pulse formation, resulting in the generation of 160-fs pulses at a 99-GHz repetition rate. This platform offers the prospect of producing pulses from 10 fs to a few ps at repetition rates from 10 GHz to > 1 THz an...

  2. Optical continuum generation on a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Bahram; Boyraz, Ozdal; Koonath, Prakash; Raghunathan, Varun; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Although the Raman effect is nearly two orders of magnitude stronger than the electronic Kerr nonlinearity in silicon, under pulsed operation regime where the pulse width is shorter than the phonon response time, Raman effect is suppressed and Kerr nonlinearity dominates. Continuum generation, made possible by the non-resonant Kerr nonlinearity, offers a technologically and economically appealing path to WDM communication at the inter-chip or intra-chip levels. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained by launching ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power into a conventional silicon waveguide. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, free carrier absorption and refractive index change indicate that up to >30 times spectral broadening is achievable in an optimized device. The broadening is due to self phase modulation and saturates due to two photon absorption. Additionally, we find that free carrier dynamics also contributes to the spectral broadening and cause the overall spectrum to be asymmetric with respect to the pump wavelength.

  3. Towards a Multifunctional Electrochemical Sensing and Niosome Generation Lab-on-Chip Platform Based on a Plug-and-Play Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Adnane; Rouillard, Camille; Mathault, Jessy; Boisvert, Martin; Tessier, Frédéric; Landari, Hamza; Melki, Imene; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Boisselier, Elodie; Fortin, Marc-André; Boilard, Eric; Greener, Jesse; Miled, Amine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new modular lab on a chip design for multimodal neurotransmitter (NT) sensing and niosome generation based on a plug-and-play concept. This architecture is a first step toward an automated platform for an automated modulation of neurotransmitter concentration to understand and/or treat neurodegenerative diseases. A modular approach has been adopted in order to handle measurement or drug delivery or both measurement and drug delivery simultaneously. The system is composed of three fully independent modules: three-channel peristaltic micropumping system, a three-channel potentiostat and a multi-unit microfluidic system composed of pseudo-Y and cross-shape channels containing a miniature electrode array. The system was wirelessly controlled by a computer interface. The system is compact, with all the microfluidic and sensing components packaged in a 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm box. Applied to serotonin, a linear calibration curve down to 0.125 mM, with a limit of detection of 31 μ M was collected at unfunctionalized electrodes. Added sensitivity and selectivity was achieved by incorporating functionalized electrodes for dopamine sensing. Electrode functionalization was achieved with gold nanoparticles and using DNA and o-phenylene diamine polymer. The as-configured platform is demonstrated as a central component toward an "intelligent" drug delivery system based on a feedback loop to monitor drug delivery. PMID:27240377

  4. Towards a Multifunctional Electrochemical Sensing and Niosome Generation Lab-on-Chip Platform Based on a Plug-and-Play Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Adnane; Rouillard, Camille; Mathault, Jessy; Boisvert, Martin; Tessier, Frédéric; Landari, Hamza; Melki, Imene; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Boisselier, Elodie; Fortin, Marc-André; Boilard, Eric; Greener, Jesse; Miled, Amine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new modular lab on a chip design for multimodal neurotransmitter (NT) sensing and niosome generation based on a plug-and-play concept. This architecture is a first step toward an automated platform for an automated modulation of neurotransmitter concentration to understand and/or treat neurodegenerative diseases. A modular approach has been adopted in order to handle measurement or drug delivery or both measurement and drug delivery simultaneously. The system is composed of three fully independent modules: three-channel peristaltic micropumping system, a three-channel potentiostat and a multi-unit microfluidic system composed of pseudo-Y and cross-shape channels containing a miniature electrode array. The system was wirelessly controlled by a computer interface. The system is compact, with all the microfluidic and sensing components packaged in a 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm box. Applied to serotonin, a linear calibration curve down to 0.125 mM, with a limit of detection of 31 μM was collected at unfunctionalized electrodes. Added sensitivity and selectivity was achieved by incorporating functionalized electrodes for dopamine sensing. Electrode functionalization was achieved with gold nanoparticles and using DNA and o-phenylene diamine polymer. The as-configured platform is demonstrated as a central component toward an “intelligent” drug delivery system based on a feedback loop to monitor drug delivery. PMID:27240377

  5. Towards a Multifunctional Electrochemical Sensing and Niosome Generation Lab-on-Chip Platform Based on a Plug-and-Play Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Kara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new modular lab on a chip design for multimodal neurotransmitter (NT sensing and niosome generation based on a plug-and-play concept. This architecture is a first step toward an automated platform for an automated modulation of neurotransmitter concentration to understand and/or treat neurodegenerative diseases. A modular approach has been adopted in order to handle measurement or drug delivery or both measurement and drug delivery simultaneously. The system is composed of three fully independent modules: three-channel peristaltic micropumping system, a three-channel potentiostat and a multi-unit microfluidic system composed of pseudo-Y and cross-shape channels containing a miniature electrode array. The system was wirelessly controlled by a computer interface. The system is compact, with all the microfluidic and sensing components packaged in a 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm box. Applied to serotonin, a linear calibration curve down to 0.125 mM, with a limit of detection of 31 μ M was collected at unfunctionalized electrodes. Added sensitivity and selectivity was achieved by incorporating functionalized electrodes for dopamine sensing. Electrode functionalization was achieved with gold nanoparticles and using DNA and o-phenylene diamine polymer. The as-configured platform is demonstrated as a central component toward an “intelligent” drug delivery system based on a feedback loop to monitor drug delivery.

  6. Droplet Microfluidics for Chip-Based Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan V. I. S. Kaler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Droplet microfluidics (DMF is a fluidic handling technology that enables precision control over dispensing and subsequent manipulation of droplets in the volume range of microliters to picoliters, on a micro-fabricated device. There are several different droplet actuation methods, all of which can generate external stimuli, to either actively or passively control the shape and positioning of fluidic droplets over patterned substrates. In this review article, we focus on the operation and utility of electro-actuation-based DMF devices, which utilize one or more micro-/nano-patterned substrates to facilitate electric field-based handling of chemical and/or biological samples. The underlying theory of DMF actuations, device fabrication methods and integration of optical and opto-electronic detectors is discussed in this review. Example applications of such electro-actuation-based DMF devices have also been included, illustrating the various actuation methods and their utility in conducting chip-based laboratory and clinical diagnostic assays.

  7. Benchmarking the True Random Number Generator of TPM Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Suciu, Alin

    2010-01-01

    A TPM (trusted platform module) is a chip present mostly on newer motherboards, and its primary function is to create, store and work with cryptographic keys. This dedicated chip can serve to authenticate other devices or to protect encryption keys used by various software applications. Among other features, it comes with a True Random Number Generator (TRNG) that can be used for cryptographic purposes. This random number generator consists of a state machine that mixes unpredictable data with the output of a one way hash function. According the specification it can be a good source of unpredictable random numbers even without having to require a genuine source of hardware entropy. However the specification recommends collecting entropy from any internal sources available such as clock jitter or thermal noise in the chip itself, a feature that was implemented by most manufacturers. This paper will benchmark the random number generator of several TPM chips from two perspectives: the quality of the random bit s...

  8. On-chip concentration of bacteria using a 3D dielectrophoretic chip and subsequent laser-based DNA extraction in the same chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the on-chip concentration of bacteria using a dielectrophoretic (DEP) chip with 3D electrodes and subsequent laser-based DNA extraction in the same chip. The DEP chip has a set of interdigitated Au post electrodes with 50 µm height to generate a network of non-uniform electric fields for the efficient trapping by DEP. The metal post array was fabricated by photolithography and subsequent Ni and Au electroplating. Three model bacteria samples (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans) were tested and over 80-fold concentrations were achieved within 2 min. Subsequently, on-chip DNA extraction from the concentrated bacteria in the 3D DEP chip was performed by laser irradiation using the laser-irradiated magnetic bead system (LIMBS) in the same chip. The extracted DNA was analyzed with silicon chip-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The total process of on-chip bacteria concentration and the subsequent DNA extraction can be completed within 10 min including the manual operation time.

  9. Development of gold based solder candidates for flip chip assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Flip chip technology is now rapidly replacing the traditional wire bonding interconnection technology in the first level packaging applications due to the miniaturization drive in the microelectronics industry. Flip chip assembly currently involves the use of high lead containing solders...... for interconnecting the chip to a carrier in certain applications due to the unique properties of lead. Despite of all the beneficial attributes of lead, its potential environmental impact when the products are discarded to land fills has resulted in various legislatives to eliminate lead from the electronic products...... based on its notorious legacy as a major health hazard across the spectrum of human generations and cultures. Flip chip assembly is also now increasingly being used for the high-performance (H-P) systems. These H-P systems perform mission-critical operations and are expected to experience virtually...

  10. Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-06-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

  11. Silicon-Chip Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Austin G; Cardenas, Jaime; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Mohanty, Aseema; Fain, Romy; Lee, Yoon Ho Daniel; Yu, Mengjie; Phare, Christopher T; Poitras, Carl B; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs represent a revolutionary technology for high precision spectroscopy due to their narrow linewidths and precise frequency spacing. Generation of such combs in the mid-infrared (IR) spectral region (2-20 um) is of great interest due to the presence of a large number of gas absorption lines in this wavelength regime. Recently, frequency combs have been demonstrated in the MIR in several platforms, including fiber combs, mode-locked lasers, optical parametric oscillators, and quantum cascade lasers. However, these platforms are either relatively bulky or challenging to integrate on-chip. An alternative approach using parametric mixing in microresonators is highly promising since the platform is extremely compact and can operate with relatively low powers. However, material and dispersion engineering limitations have prevented the realization of a microresonator comb source past 2.55 um. Although silicon could in principle provide a CMOS compatible platform for on-chip comb generation deep...

  12. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile-ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed

  13. Generation of high-stability solitons at microwave rates on a silicon chip

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xu; Yang, Ki Youl; Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Because they coherently link radio/microwave-rate electrical signals with optical-rate signals derived from lasers and atomic transitions, frequency combs are having a remarkably broad impact on science and technology. Integrating these systems on a photonic chip would revolutionize instrumentation, time keeping, spectroscopy, navigation and potentially create new mass-market applications. A key element of such a system-on-a-chip will be a mode-locked comb that can be self-referenced. The recent demonstration of soliton pulses from a microresonator has placed this goal within reach. However, to provide the requisite link between microwave and optical rate signals soliton generation must occur within the bandwidth of electronic devices. So far this is possible in crytalline devices, but not chip-based devices. Here, a monolithic comb that generates electronic-rate soliton pulses is demonstrated.

  14. SPIDER: Next Generation Chip Scale Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alan; Kendrick, Rick; Thurman, Sam; Wuchenich, Danielle; Scott, Ryan P.; Yoo, S. J. B.; Su, Tiehui; Yu, Runxiang; Ogden, Chad; Proiett, Roberto

    The LM Advanced Technology Center and UC Davis are developing an Electro-Optical (EO) imaging sensor called SPIDER (Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-optical Reconnaissance) that provides a 10x to 100x size, weight, and power (SWaP) reduction alternative to the traditional bulky optical telescope and focal plane detector array. The substantial reductions in SWaP would reduce cost and/or provide higher resolution by enabling a larger aperture imager in a constrained volume. The SPIDER concept consists of thousands of direct detection white-light interferometers densely packed onto Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) to measure the amplitude and phase of the visibility function at spatial frequencies that span the full synthetic aperture. In other words, SPIDER would sample the object being imaged in the Fourier domain (i.e., spatial frequency domain), and then digitally reconstruct an image. The conventional approach for imaging interferometers requires complex mechanical delay lines to form the interference fringes. This results in designs that are not traceable to more than a few simultaneous spatial frequency measurements. SPIDER seeks to achieve this traceability by employing micron-=scale optical waveguides and nanophotonic structures fabricated on a PIC with micron-scale packing density to form the necessary interferometers. Prior LM IRAD and DARPA/NASA CRAD-funded SPIDER risk reduction experiments, design trades, and simulations have matured the SPIDER imager concept to a TRL 3 level. Current funding under the DARPA SPIDER Zoom program is maturing the underlying PIC technology for SPIDER to the TRL 4 level. This is done by developing and fabricating a second-generation PIC that is fully traceable to the multiple layers and low-power phase modulators required for higher-dimension waveguide arrays that are needed for higher field-of-view sensors. Our project also seeks to extend the SPIDER concept to add a zoom capability that would provide

  15. Manipulating Neutral Atoms in Chip-Based Magnetic Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Kohel, James

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques for manipulating neutral atoms (more precisely, ultracold clouds of neutral atoms) in chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides have been demonstrated. Such traps and waveguides are promising components of future quantum sensors that would offer sensitivities much greater than those of conventional sensors. Potential applications include gyroscopy and basic research in physical phenomena that involve gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The developed techniques make it possible to control atoms with greater versatility and dexterity than were previously possible and, hence, can be expected to contribute to the value of chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides. The basic principle of these techniques is to control gradient magnetic fields with suitable timing so as to alter a trap to exert position-, velocity-, and/or time-dependent forces on atoms in the trap to obtain desired effects. The trap magnetic fields are generated by controlled electric currents flowing in both macroscopic off-chip electromagnet coils and microscopic wires on the surface of the chip. The methods are best explained in terms of examples. Rather than simply allowing atoms to expand freely into an atomic waveguide, one can give them a controllable push by switching on an externally generated or a chip-based gradient magnetic field. This push can increase the speed of the atoms, typically from about 5 to about 20 cm/s. Applying a non-linear magnetic-field gradient exerts different forces on atoms in different positions a phenomenon that one can exploit by introducing a delay between releasing atoms into the waveguide and turning on the magnetic field.

  16. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.;

    2008-01-01

    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis......This review with 239 references has as its aim to give the reader an introduction to the kinds of methods used for developing microchip based electrode systems as well as to cover the existing literature on electroanalytical systems where microchips play a crucial role for 'nondestructive...... studies and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies of living cells have been omitted. Included is also a discussion about some future and emerging nano tools and considerations that might have an impact on the future of "nondestructive" chip based electroanalysis of living cells....

  17. On-Chip Picosecond Pulse Detection and Generation Using Graphene Photoconductive Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Nicholas; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Christopher D. Wood; Russell, Christopher; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Cunningham, John E.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the use of graphene for room temperature on-chip detection and generation of pulsed terahertz (THz) frequency radiation, exploiting the fast carrier dynamics of light-generated hot carriers, and compare our results with conventional low-temperature-grown gallium arsenide (LT-GaAs) photoconductive (PC) switches. Coupling of picosecond-duration pulses from a biased graphene PC switch into Goubau line waveguides is also demonstrated. A Drude transport model based on the transient ph...

  18. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  19. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  20. Simple flow-focusing microfluidic chip for droplet generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Jana; Basova, E. Y.; Foret, František

    Brno: Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2015 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Drobníková, I.; Klepárník, K.), s. 127-129 ISBN 978-80-904959-3-7. [CECE 2015. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /12./. Brno (CZ), 21.09.2015-23.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : microfluidic chip * droplet generation * fluorinated oil phase Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.ce-ce.org/CECE2015/CECE%202015%20proceedings_full.pdf

  1. Custom Topology Generation for Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Sparsø, Jens

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares simulated annealing and tabu search for generating custom topologies for applications with periodic behaviour executing on a network-on-chip. The approach differs from previous work by starting from a fixed mapping of IP-cores to routers and performing design space exploration...... around an initial topology. The tabu search has been modified from its normally encountered form to allow easier escaping from local minima. A number of synthetic benchmarks are used for tuning the parameters of both heuristics and for testing the quality of the solutions each heuristic produces. An...

  2. Investigating Potential Toxicity of Leachate from Wood Chip Piles Generated by Roadside Biomass Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rex

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Roadside processing of wood biomass leaves chip piles of varying size depending upon whether they were created for temporary storage, spillage, or equipment maintenance. Wood chips left in these piles can generate leachate that contaminates streams when processing sites are connected to waterways. Leachate toxicity and chemistry were assessed for pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl., hybrid white spruce (Picea engelmannii x glauca Parry, and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton as well as from two wood chipping sites using mixes of lodgepole pine and hybrid or black spruce. Leachate was generated using rainfall simulation, a static 28-day laboratory assay, and a field-based exposure. Leachate generated by these exposures was analyzed for organic matter content, phenols, ammonia, pH, and toxicity. Findings indicate that all wood chip types produced a toxic leachate despite differences in their chemistry. The consistent toxicity response highlights the need for runoff management that will disconnect processing sites from aquatic environments.

  3. On-chip microwave generator for manipulation of superconductive quantum bits

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanashi, Y; Asano, T; Yoshikawa, N.

    2006-01-01

    A new on-chip microwave generator for manipulating superconductive quantum bits (qubits) have been proposed. To perform practical quantum computation, on-chip microwave generators, which can be controlled by single flux quantum (SFQ) circuits, are desirable because multiple qubits can be driven simultaneously with high accuracy by an SFQ control circuit and the number of wires between qubits and room-temperature electronics can be reduced. The proposed on-chip microwave generator is composed ...

  4. Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mark A; Salem, Reza; Geraghty, David F; Turner-Foster, Amy C; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2008-11-01

    With the realization of faster telecommunication data rates and an expanding interest in ultrafast chemical and physical phenomena, it has become important to develop techniques that enable simple measurements of optical waveforms with subpicosecond resolution. State-of-the-art oscilloscopes with high-speed photodetectors provide single-shot waveform measurement with 30-ps resolution. Although multiple-shot sampling techniques can achieve few-picosecond resolution, single-shot measurements are necessary to analyse events that are rapidly varying in time, asynchronous, or may occur only once. Further improvements in single-shot resolution are challenging, owing to microelectronic bandwidth limitations. To overcome these limitations, researchers have looked towards all-optical techniques because of the large processing bandwidths that photonics allow. This has generated an explosion of interest in the integration of photonics on standard electronics platforms, which has spawned the field of silicon photonics and promises to enable the next generation of computer processing units and advances in high-bandwidth communications. For the success of silicon photonics in these areas, on-chip optical signal-processing for optical performance monitoring will prove critical. Beyond next-generation communications, silicon-compatible ultrafast metrology would be of great utility to many fundamental research fields, as evident from the scientific impact that ultrafast measurement techniques continue to make. Here, using time-to-frequency conversion via the nonlinear process of four-wave mixing on a silicon chip, we demonstrate a waveform measurement technology within a silicon-photonic platform. We measure optical waveforms with 220-fs resolution over lengths greater than 100 ps, which represent the largest record-length-to-resolution ratio (>450) of any single-shot-capable picosecond waveform measurement technique. Our implementation allows for single-shot measurements and uses

  5. Polystyrene Based SPR Biosensor Chip for Use in Immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Biosensors are widely used in immunoassay.The biosensor chip carries a receptor which is used in immunoassay and the chip properties have an important influence on the detecting sensitivity of the biosensor.This paper describes a polystyrene-based biosensor chip developed and used as part of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor.The SPR biosensor has a much higher detecting sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunoserbent assay (ELISA).

  6. Quantum light generation on a silicon chip using waveguides and resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Jun Rong

    2012-01-01

    Integrated optical devices may replace bulk crystal or fiber based assemblies with a more compact and controllable photon pair and heralded single photon source and generate quantum light at telecommunications wavelengths. Here, we propose that a periodic waveguide consisting of a sequence of optical resonators may outperform conventional waveguides or single resonators and generate more than 1 Giga-pairs per second from a sub-millimeter-long room-temperature silicon device, pumped with only about 10 milliwatts of optical power. Furthermore, the spectral properties of such devices provide novel opportunities of wavelength-division multiplexed chip-scale quantum light sources.

  7. Microcontroller-Based Function Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar I. Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a microcontroller-based function generator system. By the function generator sine wave, square wave, quasi-square wave, saw-tooth and triangular waveforms are generated over a wide frequency range according to user requirements. By utilizing processing capabilities of the microcontroller the hardware is minimized exceedingly. The output waveform shapes are digitally-controlled to achieve the required wave shape. The single chip microcomputer of waveform generation equipment offers the possibility of improvements in manufacture reliability, maintenance and servicing and increased control flexibility. The system is built and tested. The results of test were satisfactory and appreciated by test engineers at different centers of ministry of communications.

  8. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode Based Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles Perez, Jose Vicente (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A novel MMIC on-chip power-combined frequency multiplier device and a method of fabricating the same, comprising two or more multiplying structures integrated on a single chip, wherein each of the integrated multiplying structures are electrically identical and each of the multiplying structures include one input antenna (E-probe) for receiving an input signal in the millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave or terahertz frequency range inputted on the chip, a stripline based input matching network electrically connecting the input antennas to two or more Schottky diodes in a balanced configuration, two or more Schottky diodes that are used as nonlinear semiconductor devices to generate harmonics out of the input signal and produce the multiplied output signal, stripline based output matching networks for transmitting the output signal from the Schottky diodes to an output antenna, and an output antenna (E-probe) for transmitting the output signal off the chip into the output waveguide transmission line.

  9. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng;

    2013-01-01

    Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built...... filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design...

  10. Chip-based electrochromatography coupled to ESI-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Claudia; Hackl, Claudia; Gerhardt, Renata; Seim, Stephan; Belder, Detlev

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we present the coupling of chip-based electrochromatography to MS using a glass chip with a monolithically integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As separation column, an acrylate-based porous polymer monolith is implemented into the glass chip by photopolymerization. For the establishment and development of this method, we used a test mixture detectable with both fluorescence and ESI-MS. After successful evaluation of the approach with the test solutes, it was applied exemplarily for drug analysis such as high-speed separations of benzodiazepines in pharmaceuticals. PMID:26873181

  11. Miniature Bose–Einstein condensate system design based on a transparent atom chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jingfang; Xu, Xinping; Jiang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Haichao; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new miniature Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) system based on a transparent atom chip with a compact external coil structure. A standard six-beam macroscopic magneto-optical trap (MOT) is able to be created near the chip surface due to the chip’s transparency. A novel wire pattern consisting of a double-z wire and a z-shaped wire is designed on the transparent atom chip. With a vertical bias magnetic field, the double-z wire can create the quadrupole magnetic field of an intermediate chip MOT, which is suitable for transporting atoms from the macroscopic MOT to the chip z-wire trap efficiently. The compact external coil structure is designed with a rectangular frameless geometry consisting of only four coil pairs and its volume is less than 0.3 liters. The maximum system power consumption during the BEC generation procedure is about 45 W. The miniature system is evaluated, and about 3 × 106 atoms can be loaded into the chip z-wire trap. The miniature chip BEC system has the advantages of small volume and low power consumption, and it has great potential for practical applications of BEC.

  12. Test of an ME Chip Based on FPGAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The characteristic of FPGA, motion estimation(ME) and the full search block matching arithmetic were introduced, it analyses the collectivity configuration of basic working flow in ME.Based on FPGA, the study concentrates on the control, computing and test part of ME chip implementation.In the end PCB of ME chip is designed and completed.ME is an important link of MPEG standard on picture compression, whose characteristics is its huge amount of data and computing task.So people often use special chip to meet the requirement, but there is still not such production in China at present.

  13. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  14. CHIP Demonstrator: Semantics-Driven Recommendations and Museum Tour Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroyo, Lora; Stash, Natalia; Wang, Yiwen; Gorgels, Peter; Rutledge, Lloyd

    The main objective of the CHIP project is to demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies can be deployed to provide personalized access to digital museum collections. We illustrate our approach with the digital database ARIA of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. For the semantic enrichment of the Rijksmuseum ARIA database we collaborated with the CATCH STITCH project to produce mappings to Iconclass, and with the MultimediaN E-culture project to produce the RDF/OWL of the ARIA and Adlib databases. The main focus of CHIP is on exploring the potential of applying adaptation techniques to provide personalized experience for the museum visitors both on the Web site and in the museum.

  15. Droplets actuating chip based on electrowetting-on-dielectric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jiangang; YUE Ruifeng; ZENG Xuefeng; LIU Litian

    2007-01-01

    A droplet-based actuating chip by using the method of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD)was developed to manipulate the microfluidics.Here,the actuation mechanism of the sandwiched-configuration EWOD chips was carefully studied,and the movement of droplets was numerically analyzed by using the computational fluidic software,CFD-ACE+.The fabrication of the chip,including a heavily phosphorus-doped poly-silicon micro-electrode array and a thermally grown SiO2 dielectric layer,was exploited to improve the chip stability and decrease the actuation voltage.In experiments,the transportation of a deionized droplet of about 0.5 μL is successfully achieved in air by applying the low voltage of 45 V.

  16. A novel optical network on chip design for future generation of multiprocessors system on chip

    OpenAIRE

    M. Channoufi; P. Lecoy; S. Le Beux; Attia, R; Delacressonniere, B

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel Optical Network on Chip (ONoC) relying on the multi-level optical layer design paradigm and called “OMNoC”. The proposed ONoC relies on multi-level microring resonator allowing efficient light coupling between superposed waveguides. Such microring resonator avoids using waveguide crossing, which contribute to reduce propagation losses. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate the potential of multi-level optical layer for reducing power consumption and increasin...

  17. Low-power chip-level optical interconnects based on bulk-silicon single-chip photonic transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Hyundai; Joo, Jiho; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kwack, Myung-Joon; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Park, Jaegyu; Kim, Sanggi

    2016-03-01

    We present new scheme for chip-level photonic I/Os, based on monolithically integrated vertical photonic devices on bulk silicon, which increases the integration level of PICs to a complete photonic transceiver (TRx) including chip-level light source. A prototype of the single-chip photonic TRx based on a bulk silicon substrate demonstrated 20 Gb/s low power chip-level optical interconnects between fabricated chips, proving that this scheme can offer compact low-cost chip-level I/O solutions and have a significant impact on practical electronic-photonic integration in high performance computers (HPC), cpu-memory interface, 3D-IC, and LAN/SAN/data-center and network applications.

  18. Investigating Potential Toxicity of Leachate from Wood Chip Piles Generated by Roadside Biomass Operations

    OpenAIRE

    John Rex; Stephane Dubé; Phillip Krauskopf; Shannon Berch

    2016-01-01

    Roadside processing of wood biomass leaves chip piles of varying size depending upon whether they were created for temporary storage, spillage, or equipment maintenance. Wood chips left in these piles can generate leachate that contaminates streams when processing sites are connected to waterways. Leachate toxicity and chemistry were assessed for pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.), hybrid white spruce (Picea engelmannii x glauca Parry), and black s...

  19. Acrylamide generation in pre-treated potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    . Acrylamide content in potato chips was determined after frying at 170 or 190 degrees C. Frying at 190 degrees C increased by almost 130 percent the acrylamide content of all the pre-treated samples ( average value) fried at 170 degrees C. Soaking of blanched potato slices in the 3 g/100 g of NaCl solution...... per 5 min at 25 degrees C, reduces acrylamide formation in potato chips by 11 percent after frying at 170 degrees C. However when the slices are blanched directly in the 3 g/100g of NaCl solution at 60 degrees C for 30 min, their acrylamide formation increased surprisingly by similar to 90 percent...

  20. Microfluidic-Based sample chips for radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical nuclear fuel cycle process sampling techniques required sample volumes ranging in the tens of milliliters. The radiation levels experienced by analytical personnel and equipment, in addition to the waste volumes generated from analysis of these samples, have been significant. These sample volumes also impacted accountability inventories of required analytes during process operations. To mitigate radiation dose and other issues associated with the historically larger sample volumes, a microcapillary sample chip was chosen for further investigation. The ability to obtain microliter volume samples coupled with a remote automated means of sample loading, tracking, and transporting to the analytical instrument would greatly improve analytical efficiency while reducing both personnel exposure and radioactive waste volumes. Sample chip testing was completed to determine the accuracy, repeatability, and issues associated with the use of microfluidic sample chips used to supply µL sample volumes of lanthanide analytes dissolved in nitric acid for introduction to an analytical instrument for elemental analysis

  1. Microfluidic-Based Sample Chips for Radioactive Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripp, J. L.; Law, J. D.; Smith, T. E.; Rutledge, V. J.; Bauer, W. F.; Ball, R. D.; Hahn, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Historical nuclear fuel cycle process sampling techniques required sample volumes ranging in the tens of milliliters. The radiation levels experienced by analytical personnel and equipment, in addition to the waste volumes generated from analysis of these samples, have been significant. These sample volumes also impacted accountability inventories of required analytes during process operations. To mitigate radiation dose and other issues associated with the historically larger sample volumes, a microcapillary sample chip was chosen for further investigation. The ability to obtain microliter volume samples coupled with a remote automated means of sample loading, tracking, and transporting to the analytical instrument would greatly improve analytical efficiency while reducing both personnel exposure and radioactive waste volumes. Sample chip testing was completed to determine the accuracy, repeatability, and issues associated with the use of microfluidic sample chips used to supply µL sample volumes of lanthanide analytes dissolved in nitric acid for introduction to an analytical instrument for elemental analysis.

  2. Network-on-chip the next generation of system-on-chip integration

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    ""What makes this book special as compared to the current literature in the field is that it provides a complete picture of NoC architectures. In fact, current books in the context of NoCs are usually specific and presuppose a basic knowledge of NoC architectures. Conversely, this book provides a complete guide for both unskilled readers and researchers working in the area, to acquire not only the basic concepts but also the advanced techniques for improving power, cost and performance metrics of the on-chip communication system.""-Maurizio Palesi, Kore University, Italy.

  3. Determination of Apparent Amylose Content in Rice by Using Paper-Based Microfluidic Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianqiao; Lu, Lin; Fang, Changyun; Duan, Binwu; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2015-11-11

    Determination of apparent amylose content in rice is a key function for rice research and the rice industry. In this paper, a novel approach with paper-based microfluidic chip is reported to determine apparent amylose content in rice. The conventional color reaction between amylose and iodine was employed. Blue color of amylose-iodine complex generated on-chip was converted to gray and measured with Photoshop after the colored chip was scanned. The method for preparation of the paper chip is described. In situ generation of iodine for on-chip color reaction was designed, and factors influencing color reaction were investigated in detail. Elimination of yellow color interference of excess iodine by exploiting color removal function of Photoshop was presented. Under the optimized conditions, apparent amylose content in rice ranging from 1.5 to 26.4% can be determined, and precision was 6.3%. The analytical results obtained with the developed approach were in good agreement with those with the continuous flow analyzer method. PMID:26495809

  4. Integration of a Pulse Generator on Chip Into a Compact Ultrawideband Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorobyov, A.V.; Bagga, S.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Haddad, S.A.P.; Serdijn, W.A.; Long, J.R.; Irahhauten, Z.; Ligthart, L.P.

    For impulse radio ultrawideband communications an “antenna plus generator” system is co-designed and an on chip generator is integrated into the antenna. This approach does away with the need for intermediate transmission lines conventionally placed between an RF device/generator and an antenna and

  5. 3D-SoftChip: A Novel Architecture for Next-Generation Adaptive Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mike Myung-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel architecture for next-generation adaptive computing systems, which we term 3D-SoftChip. The 3D-SoftChip is a 3-dimensional (3D vertically integrated adaptive computing system combining state-of-the-art processing and 3D interconnection technology. It comprises the vertical integration of two chips (a configurable array processor and an intelligent configurable switch through an indium bump interconnection array (IBIA. The configurable array processor (CAP is an array of heterogeneous processing elements (PEs, while the intelligent configurable switch (ICS comprises a switch block, 32-bit dedicated RISC processor for control, on-chip program/data memory, data frame buffer, along with a direct memory access (DMA controller. This paper introduces the novel 3D-SoftChip architecture for real-time communication and multimedia signal processing as a next-generation computing system. The paper further describes the advanced HW/SW codesign and verification methodology, including high-level system modeling of the 3D-SoftChip using SystemC, being used to determine the optimum hardware specification in the early design stage.

  6. Acrylamide generation in pre-treated potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide formation in potato slices fried at two different temperatures ( 170 and 190 degrees C) was investigated under different pre-processing conditions. Potato slices (Saturna variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were either fried at 170 degrees C per 5 min or 190 degrees C per 3.5 min to....... Acrylamide content in potato chips was determined after frying at 170 or 190 degrees C. Frying at 190 degrees C increased by almost 130 percent the acrylamide content of all the pre-treated samples ( average value) fried at 170 degrees C. Soaking of blanched potato slices in the 3 g/100 g of NaCl solution...... per 5 min at 25 degrees C, reduces acrylamide formation in potato chips by 11 percent after frying at 170 degrees C. However when the slices are blanched directly in the 3 g/100g of NaCl solution at 60 degrees C for 30 min, their acrylamide formation increased surprisingly by similar to 90 percent...

  7. Nonlinear optics at low powers: new mechanism of on-chip optical frequency comb generation

    CERN Document Server

    Rogov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear optical effects provide a natural way of light manipulation and interaction, and form the foundation of applied photonics -- from high-speed signal processing and telecommunication, to ultra-high bandwidth interconnects and information processing. However, relatively weak nonlinear response at optical frequencies calls for operation at high optical powers, or boosting efficiency of nonlinear parametric processes by enhancing local field intensity with high quality-factor resonators near cavity resonance, resulting in reduced operational bandwidth and increased loss due to multi-photon absorption. Here, we present an alternative to this conventional approach, with strong nonlinear optical effects at substantially lower local intensities, based on period-doubling bifurcations near nonlinear cavity anti-resonance, and apply it to low-power optical comb generation in a silicon chip.

  8. A single chip microcontroller based portable multichannel analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a portable multichannel analyzer for gamma spectroscopy applications is described. The developed unit is based on the Intel 8751 single chip microcontroller and has CRT and liquid crystal displays, preamplifying and amplifying sections, high voltage supply, built-in printer and runs on rechargeable batteries. The design uses standard off the shelf components, minimizes chip count by using all the microcontroller's resources and implementing most functions in software, and this results in a low cost system with good performance. Hardware and software design along with their integration are discussed. (orig.)

  9. A Microfluidic Chip Using Phenol Formaldehyde Resin for Uniform-Sized Polycaprolactone and Chitosan Microparticle Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Chen Hsieh; Keng-Shiang Huang; Szu-Yu Chen; Chih-Yu Wang; Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu; Yung-Sheng Lin; Chin-Tung Wu; Chih-Hui Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study develops a new solvent-compatible microfluidic chip based on phenol formaldehyde resin (PFR). In addition to its solvent-resistant characteristics, this microfluidic platform also features easy fabrication, organization, decomposition for cleaning, and reusability compared with conventional chips. Both solvent-dependent (e.g., polycaprolactone) and nonsolvent-dependent (e.g., chitosan) microparticles were successfully prepared. The size of emulsion droplets could be easily adjusted...

  10. Biphoton statistic of quantum light generated on a silicon chip

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xiyuan; Zhang, Jidong; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a silicon-chip biphoton source with an unprecedented quantum cross correlation up to ${\\rm g_{si}^{(2)}(0) = (2.58 \\pm 0.16) \\times 10^4}$. The emitted biphotons are intrinsically single-mode, with self correlations of ${\\rm g_{ss}^{(2)}(0) = 1.90 \\pm 0.05}$ and ${\\rm g_{ii}^{(2)}(0) = 1.87 \\pm 0.06}$ for signal and idler photons, respectively. We observe the waveform asymmetry of cross correlation between signal and idler photons and reveal the identical and non-exponential nature of self correlations of individual signal and idler photon modes, which is a nature of cavity-enhanced nonlinear optical processes. The high efficiency and high purity of the biphoton source allow us to herald single photons with a conditional self correlation $\\rm g_{c}^{(2)}(0)$ as low as $\\rm 0.0059 \\pm 0.0014$ at a pair flux of $\\rm 1.95 \\times 10^5$ pairs/s, which remains below $\\rm 0.026 \\pm 0.001$ for a biphoton flux up to $\\rm 2.93 \\times 10^6$ pairs/s, with a photon preparation efficiency in the single-mode ...

  11. Neural Cell Chip Based Electrochemical Detection of Nanotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kafi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for toxicity assessment of commonly used nanoparticles is urgently needed for the sustainable development of nanotechnology. A neural cell with high sensitivity and conductivity has become a potential candidate for a cell chip to investigate toxicity of environmental influences. A neural cell immobilized on a conductive surface has become a potential tool for the assessment of nanotoxicity based on electrochemical methods. The effective electrochemical monitoring largely depends on the adequate attachment of a neural cell on the chip surfaces. Recently, establishment of integrin receptor specific ligand molecules arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD or its several modifications RGD-Multi Armed Peptide terminated with cysteine (RGD-MAP-C, C(RGD4 ensure farm attachment of neural cell on the electrode surfaces either in their two dimensional (dot or three dimensional (rod or pillar like nano-scale arrangement. A three dimensional RGD modified electrode surface has been proven to be more suitable for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation as well as electrochemical measurement. This review discusses fabrication as well as electrochemical measurements of neural cell chip with particular emphasis on their use for nanotoxicity assessments sequentially since inception to date. Successful monitoring of quantum dot (QD, graphene oxide (GO and cosmetic compound toxicity using the newly developed neural cell chip were discussed here as a case study. This review recommended that a neural cell chip established on a nanostructured ligand modified conductive surface can be a potential tool for the toxicity assessments of newly developed nanomaterials prior to their use on biology or biomedical technologies.

  12. Beating heart on a chip: a novel microfluidic platform to generate functional 3D cardiac microtissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsano, Anna; Conficconi, Chiara; Lemme, Marta; Occhetta, Paola; Gaudiello, Emanuele; Votta, Emiliano; Cerino, Giulia; Redaelli, Alberto; Rasponi, Marco

    2016-02-01

    In the past few years, microfluidic-based technology has developed microscale models recapitulating key physical and biological cues typical of the native myocardium. However, the application of controlled physiological uniaxial cyclic strains on a defined three-dimension cellular environment is not yet possible. Two-dimension mechanical stimulation was particularly investigated, neglecting the complex three-dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. For this purpose, we developed a heart-on-a-chip platform, which recapitulates the physiologic mechanical environment experienced by cells in the native myocardium. The device includes an array of hanging posts to confine cell-laden gels, and a pneumatic actuation system to induce homogeneous uniaxial cyclic strains to the 3D cell constructs during culture. The device was used to generate mature and highly functional micro-engineered cardiac tissues (μECTs), from both neonatal rat and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM), strongly suggesting the robustness of our engineered cardiac micro-niche. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic strain was effectively highly uniaxial and uniformly transferred to cells in culture. As compared to control, stimulated μECTs showed superior cardiac differentiation, as well as electrical and mechanical coupling, owing to a remarkable increase in junction complexes. Mechanical stimulation also promoted early spontaneous synchronous beating and better contractile capability in response to electric pacing. Pacing analyses of hiPSC-CM constructs upon controlled administration of isoprenaline showed further promising applications of our platform in drug discovery, delivery and toxicology fields. The proposed heart-on-a-chip device represents a relevant step forward in the field, providing a standard functional three-dimensional cardiac model to possibly predict signs of hypertrophic changes in cardiac phenotype by mechanical and biochemical co

  13. Demonstration of a Chip-based Nonlinear Optical Isolator

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, Shiyue; Jiang, Xiaoshun; Hua, Qian; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Despite fundamentally challenging in integrated (nano)photonics, achieving chip-based light nonreciprocity becomes increasingly urgent in signal processing and optical communications. Because of material incompatibilities in conventional approaches based on Faraday effects, alternative solutions have resorted to nonlinear processes to obtain one-way transmission. However, revealed dynamic reciprocity in a recent theoretical analysis has pinned down the functionalities of these nonlinear isolators. To overcome this dynamic reciprocity, we here report the first demonstration of a nonlinear optical isolator on a silicon chip enforced by phase-matched parametric amplification. Using a high-Q microtoroid resonator, we realize highly nonreciprocal transport at the 1,550 nm wavelength when waves are simultaneously launched in both forward and backward directions. Our design, compatible with current CMOS technique, yields convincing isolation performance with sufficiently low insertion loss for a wide range of input ...

  14. A quantum relay chip based on telecommunication integrated optics technology

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Anthony; Alibart, Olivier; Ostrowsky, Daniel Barry; De Micheli, Marc; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an integrated optical circuit on lithium niobate designed to implement the teleportation-based quantum relay scheme for one-way quantum communication at a telecom wavelength. Such an advanced quantum circuit merges for the first time, both optical-optical and electro-optical non-linear functions necessary to implement the desired on-chip single qubit teleportation. On one hand, spontaneous parametric down-conversion is used to produce entangled photon-pairs. On the other hand, ...

  15. On-chip two-octave supercontinuum generation by enhancing self-steepening of optical pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lin; Yue, Yang; Lin, Qiang; Painter, Oskar; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Willner, Alan E

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic advances in supercontinuum generation have been made recently using photonic crystal fibers, but it is quite challenging to obtain an octave-spanning supercontinuum on a chip, partially because of strong dispersion in high-index-contrast nonlinear integrated waveguides. We show by simulation that extremely flat and low dispersion can be achieved in silicon nitride slot waveguides over a wavelength band of 500 nm. Different from previously reported supercontinua that were generated either by higher-order soliton fission in anomalous dispersion regime or by self phase modulation in normal dispersion regime, a two-octave supercontinuum from 630 to 2650 nm (360 THz in total) can be generated by greatly enhancing self-steepening in nonlinear pulse propagation in almost zero dispersion regime, when an optical shock as short as 3 fs is formed, which enables on-chip ultra-wide-band applications.

  16. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  17. The gut microbiotassay – a high-throughput real-time PCR chip combined with next generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mølbak, Lars

    this assay with the high-throughput real-time PCR chip “Access Array 48.48” from Fluidigm. The chip executes 2304 individual reactions in parallel and afterwards it is possible to harvest the amplicons for next-generation sequencing. This approach gives a taxonomical overview of the gut microbiota, hence...

  18. On-chip generation of photon-triplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapick, Stephan; Brecht, Benjamin; Herrmann, Harald; Quiring, Viktor; Silberhorn, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Efficient sources of many-partite non-classical states are key for the advancement of quantum technologies and for the fundamental testing of quantum mechanics. We demonstrate the generation of time-correlated photon triplets at telecom wavelengths via pulsed cascaded parametric down-conversion in a monolithically integrated source. By detecting the generated states with success probabilities of (6.25 ± 1.09) × 10(-11) per pump pulse at injected powers as low as 10 μW, we benchmark the efficiency of the complete system and deduce its high potential for scalability. Our source is unprecedentedly long-term stable, it overcomes interface losses intrinsically due to its monolithic architecture, and the photon-triplet states dominate uncorrelated noise significantly. These results mark crucial progress towards the proliferation of robust, scalable, synchronized and miniaturized quantum technology. PMID:26906852

  19. Validation Study of LPDDR2 SDRAM Based on TD-LTE Baseband chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang ChengZhi; Wang QiuJu; Han Juan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, as China has finished the updating of the fourth generation of network, for guaranteeing the information security of the state, communication chip with complete independent intellectual property right must be possessed to support the advancement of such project. TD-LTE Baseband Chip is a super-large-scale integrated circuit designed basing on SOC, which needs to carry out coding, etc to the transmitted baseband signal, or carry out decoding, etc to the received baseband signal. LPDDR2 SDRAM is used in the chip design process due to its low power dissipation, high capacity and high reliability. As PHY in the controller architecture of LPDDR2 SDRAM adopts hard core design, it cannot be achieved in Virtex-7 2000T prototype verification platform. This design mainly builds on such prototype verification platform to propose the verification scheme of LPDDR2 SDRAM controller in TD_LTE baseband chip, so as to guarantee that prototype verification in FPGA can be carried out by TD_LTE baseband system, and meanwhile high capacity storage space can be provided to the system.

  20. DSP Based Waveform Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The DSP Based Waveform Generator is used for CSR Control system to control special controlled objects, such as the pulsed power supply for magnets, RF system, injection and extraction synchronization, global CSR synchronization etc. This intelligent controller based on 4800 MIPS DSP and 256M SDRAM technology will supply highly stable and highly accurate reference waveform used by the power supply of magnets. The specifications are as follows:

  1. On-chip high-voltage generator design design methodology for charge pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Tanzawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    This book provides various design techniques for switched-capacitor on-chip high-voltage generators, including charge pump circuits, regulators, level shifters, references, and oscillators.  Readers will see these techniques applied to system design in order to address the challenge of how the on-chip high-voltage generator is designed for Flash memories, LCD drivers, and other semiconductor devices to optimize the entire circuit area and power efficiency with a low voltage supply, while minimizing the cost.  This new edition includes a variety of useful updates, including coverage of power efficiency and comprehensive optimization methodologies for DC-DC voltage multipliers, modeling of extremely low voltage Dickson charge pumps, and modeling and optimum design of AC-DC switched-capacitor multipliers for energy harvesting and power transfer for RFID.

  2. A quantum relay chip based on telecommunication integrated optics technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate an integrated optical circuit on lithium niobate designed to implement a teleportation-based quantum relay scheme for one-way quantum communication at a telecom wavelength. Such an advanced quantum circuit merges for the first time both optical-optical and electro-optical nonlinear functions necessary for implementing the desired on-chip single-qubit teleportation. On the one hand, spontaneous parametric down-conversion is used to produce entangled photon pairs. On the other, we take advantage of two photon routers, consisting of electro-optically controllable couplers, to separate the paired photons and to carry out a Bell state measurement, respectively. After having validated all the individual functions in the classical regime, we performed a Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment to mimic a one-way quantum communication link. Such a quantum effect, seen as a prerequisite towards achieving teleportation, has been obtained at one of the routers when the chip was coupled to an external single-photon source. The two-photon interference pattern shows a net visibility of 80%, which validates the proof of principle of a ‘quantum relay circuit’ for qubits carried by telecom photons. In the case of optimized losses, such a chip could increase the maximal achievable distance of one-way quantum key distribution links by a factor of 1.8. Our approach and results emphasize the potential of integrated optics on lithium niobate as a key technology for future reconfigurable quantum information manipulation. (paper)

  3. Chip-Scale Continuously Tunable Optical Orbital Angular Momentum Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jie; Moresco, Michele; Coolbaugh, Douglas; Watts, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has potential to impact a wide variety of applications ranging from optical communications to quantum information and optical forces for the excitation and manipulation of atoms, molecules, and micro-particles. The unique advantage of utilizing OAM in these applications relies, to a large extent, on the use of multiple different OAM states. Therefore, it is desirable to have a device that is able to gen- erate light with freely adjustable OAM states in an integrated form for large- scale integration. We propose and demonstrate a compact silicon photonic integrated circuit to generate a free-space optical beam with OAM state con- tinuously tuned from a single electrical input signal, realizing both integer and non-integer OAM states. The compactness and flexibility of the device and its compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) pro- cessing hold promise for integration with other silicon photonic components for wide-ranging applications.

  4. Efficient generation of single and entangled photons on a silicon photonic integrated chip

    OpenAIRE

    Mower, Jacob; Englund, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We present a protocol for generating on-demand, indistinguishable single photons on a silicon photonic integrated chip. The source is a time-multiplexed spontaneous parametric down-conversion element that allows optimization of single-photon versus multiphoton emission while realizing high output rate and indistinguishability. We minimize both the scaling of active elements and the scaling of active element loss with multiplexing. We then discuss detection strategies and data processing to fu...

  5. Generation of ultrafast pulse via combined effects of stimulated Raman scattering and non-degenerate two-photon absorption in silicon nanophotonic chip

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianwei Wu; Fengguang Luo; Mingcui Cao

    2009-04-01

    A project of ultrafast pulse generation has been presented and demonstrated by utilizing the combined nonlinear effects of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and non-degenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) based on silicon nanophotonic chip, in which a continuous wave (CW) and an ultrafast dark pulse are co-propagating in the silicon chip so that the CW will be modulated inversely by the dark pulse during the propagation. As a result, an ultrafast bright pulse is achieved using the technique. Simulation results show that an ultrafast pulse with a pulsewidth (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) of about 50 fs is generated at the end of a 5-mm long silicon chip, when the initial conditions, including an input maximum of 0.5 W and FWHM of ∼ 176 fs for dark pulse, and CW with power of 5 W, are chosen.

  6. Characterizing Rat PNS Electrophysiological Response to Electrical Stimulation Using in vitro Chip-Based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, Joshua [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Prescod, Lindsay [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Enright, Heather [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Felix, Sarah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osburn, Joanne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wheeler, Elizabeth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kulp, Kris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Ex vivo systems and organ-on-a-chip technology offer an unprecedented approach to modeling the inner workings of the human body. The ultimate goal of LLNL’s in vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP) is to integrate multiple organ tissue cultures using microfluidic channels, multi-electrode arrays (MEA), and other biosensors in order to effectively simulate and study the responses and interactions of the major organs to chemical and physical stimulation. In this study, we focused on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) component of the iCHIP system. Specifically we sought to expound on prior research investigating the electrophysiological response of rat dorsal root ganglion cells (rDRGs) to chemical exposures, such as capsaicin. Our aim was to establish a protocol for electrical stimulation using the iCHIP device that would reliably elicit a characteristic response in rDRGs. By varying the parameters for both the stimulation properties – amplitude, phase width, phase shape, and stimulation/ return configuration – and the culture conditions – day in vitro and neural cell types - we were able to make several key observations and uncover a potential convention with a minimal number of devices tested. Future work will seek to establish a standard protocol for human DRGs in the iCHIP which will afford a portable, rapid method for determining the effects of toxins and novel therapeutics on the PNS.

  7. ChIPseek, a web-based analysis tool for ChIP data

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ting-Wen; Li, Hsin-Pai; Lee, Chi-Ching; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Huang, Po-Jung; Wu, Timothy H; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Yi-Feng; Tang, Petrus

    2014-01-01

    Background Chromatin is a dynamic but highly regulated structure. DNA-binding proteins such as transcription factors, epigenetic and chromatin modifiers are responsible for regulating specific gene expression pattern and may result in different phenotypes. To reveal the identity of the proteins associated with the specific region on DNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the most widely used technique. ChIP assay followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) or microarray (ChIP-chip...

  8. A superhydrophobic chip based on SU-8 photoresist pillars suspended on a silicon nitride membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2014-07-28

    We developed a new generation of superhydrophobic chips optimized for probing ultrasmall sample quantities by X-ray scattering and fluorescence techniques. The chips are based on thin Si3N4 membranes with a tailored pattern of SU-8 photoresist pillars. Indeed, aqueous solution droplets can be evaporated and concentrated at predefined positions using a non-periodic pillar pattern. We demonstrated quantitatively the deposition and aggregation of gold glyconanoparticles from the evaporation of a nanomolar droplet in a small spot by raster X-ray nanofluorescence. Further, raster nanocrystallography of biological objects such as rod-like tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles reveals crystalline macro-domain formation composed of highly oriented nanorods. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  9. Mission Profile Based Sizing of IGBT Chip Area for PV Inverter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng;

    2016-01-01

    yearly mission profile. Simulation results are given to verify the thermal characteristics. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo based lifetime evaluation is presented to check the IGBT reliability. The proposed design method enables a reliability-oriented energy optimized sizing of active switches for PV inverter......Maximizing the total energy generation is of importance for Photovoltaic (PV) plants. This paper proposes a method to optimize the IGBT chip area for PV inverters to minimize the annual energy loss of the active switches based on long-term operation conditions (i.e., mission profile). The design...

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic-based Laboratories on a Chip for Analysis of Biomolecules Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A laboratory-on-a-chip design based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) microfluidics and integrated microelectrochemical detection is proposed. The proposed device is...

  11. Tailored-waveguide based photonic chip for manipulating an array of single neutral atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Min; Zhou, Feng; Li, Xiao; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2016-05-01

    We propose a tailored-waveguide based photonic chip with the functions of trapping, coherently manipulating, detecting and individually addressing an array of single neutral atoms. Such photonic chip consists of an array of independent functional units spaced by a few micrometers, each of which is comprised of one silica-on-silicon optical waveguide and one phase Fresnel microlens etched in the middle of the output interface of the optical waveguide. We fabricated a number of photonic chips with 7 functional units and measured optical characteristics of these chips. We further propose feasible schemes to realize the functions of such photonic chip. The photonic chip is stable, scalable and can be combined with other integrated devices, such as atom chips, and can be used in the future hybrid quantum system and photonic quantum devices. PMID:27137532

  12. Rank-statistics based enrichment-site prediction algorithm developed for chromatin immunoprecipitation on chip experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekinger Edward

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. Tiling arrays are increasingly used in chromatin immunoprecipitation (IP experiments (ChIP on chip. ChIP on chip facilitates the generation of genome-wide maps of in-vivo interactions between DNA-associated proteins including transcription factors and DNA. Analysis of the hybridization of an immunoprecipitated sample to a tiling array facilitates the identification of ChIP-enriched segments of the genome. These enriched segments are putative targets of antibody assayable regulatory elements. The enrichment response is not ubiquitous across the genome. Typically 5 to 10% of tiled probes manifest some significant enrichment. Depending upon the factor being studied, this response can drop to less than 1%. The detection and assessment of significance for interactions that emanate from non-canonical and/or un-annotated regions of the genome is especially challenging. This is the motivation behind the proposed algorithm. Results We have proposed a novel rank and replicate statistics-based methodology for identifying and ascribing statistical confidence to regions of ChIP-enrichment. The algorithm is optimized for identification of sites that manifest low levels of enrichment but are true positives, as validated by alternative biochemical experiments. Although the method is described here in the context of ChIP on chip experiments, it can be generalized to any treatment-control experimental design. The results of the algorithm show a high degree of concordance with independent biochemical validation methods. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm have been characterized via quantitative PCR and independent computational approaches

  13. Chip-based Magnetic Resonance System for Medical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hakho; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Weissleder, Ralph

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a chip-based, diagnostic magnetic resonance (DMR) system that can perform rapid, quantitative and multi-channeled detection of biological targets. The measurement is based on the effect of molecularly targeted magnetic nanoparticles on NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) signals. With magnetic nanoparticles bound to their intended detection targets, the overall spin-spin relaxation time of bulk samples will be significantly shortened, as the particles efficiently dephase spins of surrounding water protons. Because the signal detection relies on NMR, the interference from media becomes negligible, making it possible to perform measurements in native biological samples (e.g., blood, sputum and urine). As proof of concept, we have developed a first DMR prototype by integrating microcoils, microfluidic channels and a permanent magnet. The microcoils, used as an NMR probe, are arranged in an array format for multiplexed, parallel detection. The microfluidic channels provide on-chip mixing between magnetic nanoparticles and biological samples and confine the mixture to microcoils for high filling factor. Here, we demonstrate clinical utility of the DMR system by measuring proteins at exquisite sensitivities (˜1 pM), identifying the disease condition of human sera, and profiling cancer cells according to their cell-surface markers.

  14. Efficient generation of single and entangled photons on a silicon photonic integrated chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a protocol for generating on-demand, indistinguishable single photons on a silicon photonic integrated chip. The source is a time-multiplexed spontaneous parametric down-conversion element that allows optimization of single-photon versus multiphoton emission while realizing high output rate and indistinguishability. We minimize both the scaling of active elements and the scaling of active element loss with multiplexing. We then discuss detection strategies and data processing to further optimize the procedure. We simulate an improvement in single-photon-generation efficiency over previous time-multiplexing protocols, assuming existing fabrication capabilities. We then apply this system to generate heralded Bell states. The generation efficiency of both nonclassical states could be increased substantially with improved fabrication procedures.

  15. A microfluidic device for on-chip agarose microbead generation with ultralow reagent consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Linda; Padirac, Adrien; Kaneda, Shohei; Genot, Anthony J; Rondelez, Yannick; Hober, Didier; Collard, Dominique; Fujii, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Water-in-oil microdroplets offer microreactors for compartmentalized biochemical reactions with high throughput. Recently, the combination with a sol-gel switch ability, using agarose-in-oil microdroplets, has increased the range of possible applications, allowing for example the capture of amplicons in the gel phase for the preservation of monoclonality during a PCR reaction. Here, we report a new method for generating such agarose-in-oil microdroplets on a microfluidic device, with minimized inlet dead volume, on-chip cooling, and in situ monitoring of biochemical reactions within the gelified microbeads. We used a flow-focusing microchannel network and successfully generated agarose microdroplets at room temperature using the "push-pull" method. This method consists in pushing the oil continuous phase only, while suction is applied to the device outlet. The agarose phase present at the inlet is thus aspirated in the device, and segmented in microdroplets. The cooling system consists of two copper wires embedded in the microfluidic device. The transition from agarose microdroplets to microbeads provides additional stability and facilitated manipulation. We demonstrate the potential of this method by performing on-chip a temperature-triggered DNA isothermal amplification in agarose microbeads. Our device thus provides a new way to generate microbeads with high throughput and no dead volume for biochemical applications. PMID:24106525

  16. An integrated one-chip-sensor system for microRNA quantitative analysis based on digital droplet polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Masahiko; Wiederkehr, Rodrigo Sergio; Cai, Qing; Majeed, Bivragh; Fiorini, Paolo; Stakenborg, Tim; Matsuno, Toshinobu

    2016-04-01

    A silicon microfluidic chip was developed for microRNA (miRNA) quantitative analysis. It performs sequentially reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in a digital droplet format. Individual processes take place on different cavities, and reagent and sample mixing is carried out on a chip, prior to entering each compartment. The droplets are generated on a T-junction channel before the polymerase chain reaction step. Also, a miniaturized fluorescence detector was developed, based on an optical pick-up head of digital versatile disc (DVD) and a micro-photomultiplier tube. The chip integrated in the detection system was tested using synthetic miRNA with known concentrations, ranging from 300 to 3,000 templates/µL. Results proved the functionality of the system.

  17. Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute local gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity based on cold atom interferometry. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates, as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties in temperature as well as in ensemble size that will allow to overcome the current limitations with the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We show a lab-based prototype that uses the atom-chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serving as inertial reference inside the vacuum. With this setup it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal, within an area of 1 cm3 right below the atom-chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will allow for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz. In cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor will be characterized in the laboratory first, to be ultimately employed in campaigns to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is part of the center of

  18. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an

  19. Neural network predicts sequence of TP53 gene based on DNA chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, J.S.; Wikman, F.; Lu, M.L.;

    2002-01-01

    We have trained an artificial neural network to predict the sequence of the human TP53 tumor suppressor gene based on a p53 GeneChip. The trained neural network uses as input the fluorescence intensities of DNA hybridized to oligonucleotides on the surface of the chip and makes between zero and...

  20. Faults Detection in a Photovoltaic Generator by Using Matlab Simulink and the chipKIT Max32 Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadh Khenfer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a laboratory with equipment and an algorithm for teaching graduate students the monitoring and the diagnosis of PV arrays. The contribution is the presentation of an algorithm to detect and localize the fault, in photovoltaic generator when a limited number of voltage sensors are used. An I-V curve tracer using a capacitive load is exploited to measure the I-V characteristics of PV arrays. Such measurement allows characterization of PV arrays on-site, under real operating conditions, and provides also information for the detection of potential array anomalies. This I-V curve tracer is based on a microcontroller board family called chipKIT Max32 which is a popular platform for physical computing. A user program can be developed visually on a PC side via the graphical user interface (GUI in Matlab Simulink, where the chipKIT Max32 of Digilent which is a low-cost board is designed for use with the Arduinompid software. The obtained results from the partial shade default showed the effectiveness of the proposed diagnosis method and the good functioning of this board with the Matlab/Simulink environment.

  1. Pattern Based Graph Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, Hong-Han; Yu, Philip S; Shen, Chih-Ya; Chen, Ming-Syan

    2013-01-01

    The importance of graph mining has been widely recognized thanks to a large variety of applications in many areas, while real datasets always play important roles to examine the solution quality and efficiency of a graph mining algorithm. Nevertheless, the size of a real dataset is usually fixed and constrained according to the available resources, such as the efforts to crawl an on-line social network. In this case, employing a synthetic graph generator is a possible way to generate a massive graph (e.g., billions nodes) for evaluating the scalability of an algorithm, and current popular statistical graph generators are properly designed to maintain statistical metrics such as total node degree, degree distribution, diameter, and clustering coefficient of the original social graphs. Nevertheless, in addition to the above metrics, recent studies on graph mining point out that graph frequent patterns are also important to provide useful implications for the corresponding social networking applications, but thi...

  2. Combining SDM-Based Circuit Switching with Packet Switching in a Router for On-Chip Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Kuti Lusala; Jean-Didier Legat

    2012-01-01

    A Hybrid router architecture for Networks-on-Chip “NoC” is presented, it combines Spatial Division Multiplexing “SDM” based circuit switching and packet switching in order to efficiently and separately handle both streaming and best-effort traffic generated in real-time applications. Furthermore the SDM technique is combined with Time Division Multiplexing “TDM” technique in the circuit switching part in order to increase path diversity, thus improving throughput while sharing communication r...

  3. A Universal Intelligent System-on-Chip Based Sensor Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ferri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for real-time/reliable/low-maintenance distributed monitoring systems, e.g., wireless sensor networks, has been becoming more and more evident in many applications in the environmental, agro-alimentary, medical, and industrial fields. The growing interest in technologies related to sensors is an important indicator of these new needs. The design and the realization of complex and/or distributed monitoring systems is often difficult due to the multitude of different electronic interfaces presented by the sensors available on the market. To address these issues the authors propose the concept of a Universal Intelligent Sensor Interface (UISI, a new low-cost system based on a single commercial chip able to convert a generic transducer into an intelligent sensor with multiple standardized interfaces. The device presented offers a flexible analog and/or digital front-end, able to interface different transducer typologies (such as conditioned, unconditioned, resistive, current output, capacitive and digital transducers. The device also provides enhanced processing and storage capabilities, as well as a configurable multi-standard output interface (including plug-and-play interface based on IEEE 1451.3. In this work the general concept of UISI and the design of reconfigurable hardware are presented, together with experimental test results validating the proposed device.

  4. Thermal properties of AlN-based atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Armijo, Julien; Bouchoule, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the thermal properties of atom chips consisting o high thermal conductivity Aluminum Nitride (AlN) substrates on which gold microwires are directly deposited. We have measured the heating of wires of several widths and with different thermal couplings to the copper mount holding the chip. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model where the copper mount is treated as a heat sink and the thermal interface resistance between the wire and the substrate is vanishing. We give analytical formulas describing the different transient heating regimes and the steady state. We identify criteria to optimize the design of a chip as well as the maximal currents $I_c$ that can be fed in the wires. For a 600$\\mu$m thick-chip glued on a copper block with Epotek H77, we find $I_c=16$A for a 3$\\mu$m high, 200$\\mu$m wide-wire.

  5. Off-chip passivated-electrode, insulator-based dielectrophoresis (OπDEP)

    OpenAIRE

    Zellner, Phillip; Shake, Tyler; Sahari, Ali; Behkam, Bahareh; Agah, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the first off-chip passivated-electrode, insulator-based dielectrophoresis microchip (OπDEP). This technique combines the sensitivity of electrode-based dielectrophoresis (eDEP) with the high-throughput and inexpensive device characteristics of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). The device is composed of a permanent, reusable set of electrodes and a disposable, polymer microfluidic chip with microposts embedded in the microchannel. The device operates by capaci...

  6. Skeleton-based OPC application for DSA full chip mask correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L.; Farys, V.; Serret, E.; Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

    2015-09-01

    Recent industrial results around directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) have demonstrated the high potential of this technique [1-2]. The main advantage being cost reduction thanks to a reduced number of lithographic steps. Meanwhile, the associated correction for mask creation must account for the introduction of this new technique, maintaining a high level of accuracy and reliability. In order to create VIA (Vertical Interconnect Layer) layer, graphoepitaxy DSA can be used. The technique relies on the creation of a confinement guides where the BCP can separate into distinct regions and resulting patterns are etched in order to obtain an ordered series of VIA contact. The printing of the guiding pattern requires the use of classical lithography. Optical proximity correction (OPC) is applied to obtain the best suited guiding pattern allowing to match a specific design target. In this study, an original approach for DSA full chip mask optical proximity correction based on a skeleton representation of a guiding pattern is proposed. The cost function for an OPC process is based on minimizing the Central Placement Error (CPE), defined as the difference between an ideal skeleton target and a generated skeleton from a guiding contour. The high performance of this approach for DSA OPC full chip correction and its ability to minimize variability error on via placement is demonstrated and reinforced by the comparison with a rigorous model. Finally this Skeleton approach is highlighted as an appropriate tool for Design rules definition.

  7. Integrated potentiometric detector for use in chip-based flow cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra; Manz

    2000-07-01

    A new kind of potentiometric chip sensor for ion-selective electrodes (ISE) based on a solvent polymeric membrane is described. The chip sensor is designed to trap the organic cocktail inside the chip and to permit sample solution to flow past the membrane. The design allows the sensor to overcome technical problems of ruggedness and would therefore be ideal for industrial processes. The sensor performance for a Ba2+-ISE membrane based on a Vogtle ionophore showed electrochemical behavior similar to that observed in conventional electrodes and microelectrode arrangements. PMID:10905321

  8. Micromotor-based lab-on-chip immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Miguel; Orozco, Jahir; Guix, Maria; Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Escarpa, Alberto; Merkoçi, Arben; Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic polymer/Ni/Pt microtube engine, containing carboxy moieties on its mixed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/COOH-PEDOT polymeric outermost layer, is further functionalized with the antibody receptor to selectively recognize and capture the target protein. The new motor-based microchip immunoassay operations are carried out without any bulk fluid flow, replacing the common washing steps in antibody-based protein bioassays with the active transport of the captured protein throughout the different reservoirs, where each step of the immunoassay takes place. A first microchip format involving an `on-the-fly' double-antibody sandwich assay (DASA) is used for demonstrating the selective capture of the target protein, in the presence of excess of non-target proteins. A secondary antibody tagged with a polymeric-sphere tracer allows the direct visualization of the binding events. In a second approach the immuno-nanomotor captures and transports the microsphere-tagged antigen through a microchannel network. An anti-protein-A modified microengine is finally used to demonstrate the selective capture, transport and convenient label-free optical detection of a Staphylococcus aureus target bacteria (containing proteinA in its cell wall) in the presence of a large excess of non-target (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. The resulting nanomotor-based microchip immunoassay offers considerable potential for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics, environmental and security monitoring fields.Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic

  9. Polydimethylsiloxane-based conducting composites and their applications in microfluidic chip fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the design and fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based conducting composites and their applications in microfluidic chip fabrication. Owing to their good electrical conductivity and rubberlike elastic characteristics, these composites can be used variously in soft-touch electronic packaging, planar and three-dimensional electronic circuits, and in-chip electrodes. Several microfluidic components fabricated with PDMS-based composites have been introduced, including ...

  10. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    NOVELTY - A silicon transducer chip (1) has parallel backplate and movable diaphragm (12) and forms an electrical capacitor. The chip and electronic circuit chip (3) are provided on either sides of intermediate chip (2). The chip (2) has openings (4,10) between two sides of the chip, to allow sound...... towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...

  11. A full on-chip, low noise, low power consumption reference generator in monolithic active pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) is a promising choice to track charged particles in high energy physics experiments, such as the solenoidal tracker at RHIC (STAR). In order to achieve a clean reference voltage and simplify the cable placement, a full on-chip reference generator is presented in this paper. By utilizing a buffer and a series RC network, the proposed circuit can achieve good stability, low power and low noise, without any external components. The output voltage is adjustable to compensate the influence of the fabrication process. The generator has been implemented and fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process. Its silicon area is 327 μm×119 μm. The total power dissipation is 677 μW at a supply voltage of 3.3 V. The measured results show that only 5.84% of the total noise in MAPS is induced by the proposed reference generator. The comparison with the other optional circuit based on a current buffer is also presented.

  12. AC Zeeman potentials for atom chip-based ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Ziltz, Austin; Aubin, Seth

    2015-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical progress on using the AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-fields from an atom chip to manipulate and eventually trap ultracold atoms. These AC Zeeman potentials are inherently spin-dependent and can be used to apply qualitatively different potentials to different spin states simultaneously. Furthermore, AC Zeeman traps are compatible with the large DC magnetic fields necessary for accessing Feshbach resonances. Applications include spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry and experiments in 1D many-body physics. Initial experiments and results are geared towards observing the bipolar detuning-dependent nature of the AC Zeeman force at 6.8 GHz with ultracold 87Rb atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip. Experimental work is also underway towards working with potassium isotopes at frequencies of 1 GHz and below. Theoretical work is focused on atom chip designs for AC Zeeman traps produced by magnetic near-fields, while also incorporating the effect of the related electric near-fields. Electromagnetic simulations of atom chip circuits are used for mapping microwave propagation in on-chip transmission line structures, accounting for the skin effect, and guiding impedance matching.

  13. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuelian [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zang, Jianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Qing, E-mail: Qli@swu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Chang Ming, E-mail: ecmli@swu.edu.cn [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed. ► Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose in serum has been demonstrated. ► The array electronic biochip has high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity. ► Additional electrodes were designed on the chip to correct interferences. -- Abstract: An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications.

  14. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed. ► Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose in serum has been demonstrated. ► The array electronic biochip has high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity. ► Additional electrodes were designed on the chip to correct interferences. -- Abstract: An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications

  15. Broadband on-chip near-infrared spectroscopy based on a plasmonic grating filter array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erwen; Chong, Xinyuan; Ren, Fanghui; Wang, Alan X

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-compact, broadband on-chip near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy system based on a narrow-band plasmonic filter array. The entire filter array, consisting of 28 individual subwavelength metallic gratings, was monolithically integrated in a thin gold film on a quartz substrate, covering a 270 nm spectra from 1510 nm to 1780 nm. In order to achieve a high spectral resolution, extremely narrow slits are created for the gratings with a polymer waveguide layer on top, generating narrow-band guided-mode resonances through coupling with the surface-plasmon resonances of the metallic gratings. Experimental results show that the transmission bands of the filter array have full width at half-maximum of only 7 nm-13 nm, which is sufficient for NIR spectroscopy. The NIR absorption spectroscopy of xylene using the on-chip plasmonic filter array matches very well with the results from conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which proves the great potential for NIR sensing applications. PMID:27128037

  16. Simulation-based Modeling Frameworks for Networked Multi-processor System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with modeling aspects of multi-processor system-on-chip (MpSoC) design affected by the on-chip interconnect, also called the Network-on-Chip (NoC), at various levels of abstraction. To begin with, we undertook a comprehensive survey of research and design practices of networked Mp......-based frameworks: namely ARTS and RIPE, that allows to model hardware (computation time, power consumption, network latency, caching effect, etc.) and software (application partition and mapping, operating system scheduling, interrupt handling, etc.) aspects from system-level to cycle-true abstraction. Thereby, we...

  17. A microwave chip-based beam splitter for low-energy guided electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, J; Weber, Ph; Hommelhoff, P

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the splitting of a low-energy electron beam by means of a microwave pseudopotential formed above a planar chip substrate. Beam splitting arises from smoothly transforming the transverse guiding potential for an electron beam from a single-well harmonic confinement into a double-well, thereby generating two separated output beams with $5\\,$mm lateral spacing. Efficient beam splitting is observed for electron kinetic energies up to $3\\,$eV, in excellent agreement with particle tracking simulations. Furthermore, we present a beam splitter potential that is numerically optimized towards coherent and adiabatic splitting of guided electron wave packets. Prospects for electron-based quantum matter-wave optics applications are discussed.

  18. Review of chip-scale atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs) based on coherent population trapping (CPT) is reviewed. The background and the inspiration for the research are described, including the important schemes proposed to improve the CPT signal quality, the selection of atoms and buffer gases, and the development of micro-cell fabrication. With regard to the reliability, stability, and service life of the CSACs, the research regarding the sensitivity of the CPT resonance to temperature and laser power changes is also reviewed, as well as the CPT resonance's collision and light of frequency shifts. The first generation CSACs have already been developed but its characters are still far from our expectations. Our conclusion is that miniaturization and power reduction are the most important aspects calling for further research. (review)

  19. Storage stability of banana chips in polypropylene based nanocomposite packaging films

    OpenAIRE

    Manikantan, M. R.; Sharma, Rajiv; Kasturi, R.; Varadharaju, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposite films of 15 different compositions of nanoclay, compatibilizer and thickness were developed and used for packaging and storage of banana chips. The effect of nanocomposite films on the quality characteristics viz. moisture content (MC), water activity (WA), total color difference(TCD), breaking force (BF), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value(PV), total plate count (TPC) and overall acceptability score of banana chips under ambient condit...

  20. Test Time Reduction Reusing Multiple Processors in a Network-on-Chip Based Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Amory, Alexandre M.; Lubaszewski, Marcelo; Moraes, Fernando G.; Moreno, Edson I.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing complexity and the short life cycles of embedded systems are pushing the current system-on-chip designs towards a rapid increasing on the number of programmable processing units, while decreasing the gate count for custom logic. Considering this trend, this work proposes a test planning method capable of reusing available processors as test sources and sinks, and the on-chip network as the test access mechanism. Experimental results are based on ITC'02 benchmarks and on two ope...

  1. Parallel-plate lab-on-a-chip based on digital microfluidics for on-chip electrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidic-based lab-on-a-chip (LOC) integrated with on-chip electrochemical microsensor by IC compatible fabrication process, and its application for the entire online biosensing process capable of fully automatic analysis for ferrocenemethanol (FcM) and dopamine (DA). In this work, we made full use of the parallel-plate structure of the EWOD digital microfluidic device to fabricate the microfluidic module on the bottom plate and the three-microelectrode-system-integrated electrochemical cell together with patterned ground electrode on the top plate. The proposed LOC possesses the multifunction of: (1) creating, merging and transporting of microliter-level sample droplets, (2) online biosensing, and (3) droplets recycling. The three-electrode-integrated microsensor not only reveals a sensitive electrochemical detection for FcM in a wide concentration range (10 µM–1.0 mM), but also shows good stability, selectivity and reproducibility for surface-controlled detection of DA. The calibration of DA was linear for concentration from 1.0 to 50.0 µM with a high sensitivity of 2145 nA µM−1 cm−2 (R2 = 0.9933) and estimated detection limit of 0.42 µM (signal/noise ratio of 3). This work shows the promise of state-of-the-art digital microfluidic biosensors for fully automatic online bioanalysis in a future LOC to perform on-chip biomedical protocols in vitro diagnostic assays. (paper)

  2. Photography-based image generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Nicholas M.; Deering, Charles S.

    1989-09-01

    A two-channel Photography Based Image Generator system was developed to drive the Helmet Mounted Laser Projector at the Naval Training System Center at Orlando, Florida. This projector is a two-channel system that displays a wide field-of-view color image with a high-resolution inset to efficiently match the pilot's visual capability. The image generator is a derivative of the LTV-developed visual system installed in the A-7E Weapon System Trainer at NAS Cecil Field. The Photography Based Image Generator is based on patented LTV technology for high resolution, multi-channel, real world visual simulation. Special provisions were developed for driving the NTSC-developed and patented Helmet Mounted Laser Projector. These include a special 1023-line raster format, an electronic image blending technique, spherical lens mapping for dome projection, a special computer interface for head/eye tracking and flight parameters, special software, and a number of data bases. Good gaze angle tracking is critical to the use of the NTSC projector in a flight simulation environment. The Photography Based Image Generator provides superior dynamic response by performing a relatively simple perspective transformation on stored, high-detail photography instead of generating this detail by "brute force" computer image generation methods. With this approach, high detail can be displayed and updated at the television field rate (60 Hz).

  3. Detection of On-Chip Generated Weak Microwave Radiation Using Superconducting Normal-Metal SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdad Jalali-Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses quantum interaction phenomena of microwave radiation with a single-electron tunneling system. For this study, an integrated circuit is implemented, combining on the same chip a Josephson junction (Al/AlO x /Al oscillator and a single-electron transistor (SET with the superconducting island (Al and normal-conducting leads (AuPd. The transistor is demonstrated to operate as a very sensitive photon detector, sensing down to a few tens of photons per second in the microwave frequency range around f ∼ 100 GHz. On the other hand, the Josephson oscillator, realized as a two-junction SQUID and coupled to the detector via a coplanar transmission line (Al, is shown to provide a tunable source of microwave radiation: controllable variations in power or in frequency were accompanied by significant changes in the detector output, when applying magnetic flux or adjusting the voltage across the SQUID, respectively. It was also shown that the effect of substrate-mediated phonons, generated by our microwave source, on the detector output was negligibly small.

  4. Titanium based flat heat pipes for computer chip cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Gaurav; Ding, Changsong; Sigurdson, Marin; Bozorgi, Payam; Piorek, Brian; MacDonald, Noel; Meinhart, Carl

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a highly conductive flat heat pipe (called Thermal Ground Plane or TGP) for cooling computer chips. Conventional heat pipes have circular cross sections and thus can't make good contact with chip surface. The flatness of our TGP will enable conformal contact with the chip surface and thus enhance cooling efficiency. Another limiting factor in conventional heat pipes is the capillary flow of the working fluid through a wick structure. In order to overcome this limitation we have created a highly porous wick structure on a flat titanium substrate by using micro fabrication technology. We first etch titanium to create very tall micro pillars with a diameter of 5 μm, a height of 40 μm and a pitch of 10 μm. We then grow a very fine nano structured titania (NST) hairs on all surfaces of the pillars by oxidation in H202. In this way we achieve a wick structure which utilizes multiple length scales to yield high performance wicking of water. It's capable of wicking water at an average velocity of 1 cm/s over a distance of several cm. A titanium cavity is laser-welded onto the wicking substrate and a small quantity of water is hermetically sealed inside the cavity to achieve a TGP. The thermal conductivity of our preliminary TGP was measured to be 350 W/m-K, but has the potential to be several orders of magnitude higher.

  5. Quantum-correlated photon pairs generated in a commercial 45nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor microelectronics chip

    CERN Document Server

    Gentry, Cale M; Wade, Mark W; Stevens, Martin J; Dyer, Shellee D; Zeng, Xiaoge; Pavanello, Fabio; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P; Popović, Miloš A

    2015-01-01

    Correlated photon pairs are a fundamental building block of quantum photonic systems. While pair sources have previously been integrated on silicon chips built using customized photonics manufacturing processes, these often take advantage of only a small fraction of the established techniques for microelectronics fabrication and have yet to be integrated in a process which also supports electronics. Here we report the first demonstration of quantum-correlated photon pair generation in a device fabricated in an unmodified advanced (sub-100nm) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, alongside millions of working transistors. The microring resonator photon pair source is formed in the transistor layer structure, with the resonator core formed by the silicon layer typically used for the transistor body. With ultra-low continuous-wave on-chip pump powers ranging from 5 $\\mu$W to 400 $\\mu$W, we demonstrate pair generation rates between 165 Hz and 332 kHz using >80% efficient WSi superconducting nano...

  6. GEM400: A front-end chip based on capacitor-switch array for pixel-based GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrade of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) needs two-dimensional position-sensitive detection equipment to improve the experimental performance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector, in particular, pixel-based GEM detector has good application prospects in the domain of synchrotron radiation. The read-out of larger scale pixel-based GEM detector is difficult for the high density of the pixels (PAD for collecting electrons). In order to reduce the number of cables, this paper presents a read-out scheme for pixel-based GEM detector, which is based on System-in-Package technology and ASIC technology. We proposed a circuit structure based on capacitor switch array circuit, and design a chip GEM400, which is a 400 channels ASIC. The proposed circuit can achieve good stability and low power dissipation. The chip is implemented in a 0.35μm CMOS process. The basic functional circuitry in ths chip includes analog switch, analog buffer, voltage amplifier, bandgap and control logic block, and the layout of this chip takes 5mm × 5mm area. The simulation results show that the chip can allow the maximum amount of input charge 70pC on the condition of 100pF external integrator capacitor. Besides, the chip has good channel uniformity (INL is better than 0.1%) and lower power dissipation.

  7. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic chips based on the simplest LED lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfluidic chips are generally fabricated by a soft lithography method employing commercial lithography equipment. These heavy machines require a critical room environment and high lamp power, and the cost remains too high for most normal laboratories. Here we present a novel microfluidics fabrication method utilizing a portable ultraviolet (UV) LED as an alternative UV source for photolithography. With this approach, we can repeat several common microchannels as do these conventional commercial exposure machines, and both the verticality of the channel sidewall and lithography resolution are proved to be acceptable. Further microfluidics applications such as mixing, blood typing and microdroplet generation are implemented to validate the practicability of the chips. This simple but innovative method decreases the cost and requirement of chip fabrication dramatically and may be more popular with ordinary laboratories. (paper)

  8. Using a circular groove surrounded inlet to generate monodisperse droplets inside a microfluidic chip in a gravity-driven manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to generate uniform-sized nanoliter droplets inside a simple microfluidic chip was developed by using a circular groove to break off the liquid infused from the surrounded inlet. We characterized the droplet formation by using circular grooves with different diameters ranging from 1.2 to 2.4 mm. Monodisperse droplets with a very narrow size distribution (RSD < 0.56%, n = 70 droplets) can be reliably produced and the volume of droplets varied between 74 and 576 nl by using different circular grooves. Influences of liquid properties on droplet formation were also investigated, including surface tension, viscosity and density. Moreover, the transport of droplets and reliable coalescing of two neighboring droplets were realized by using Y-shaped guiding lanes with two different designs. Controlling the velocities of each droplet based on their different physical properties or slowing down the first droplet relying on a pinched segment of the guiding lane has been developed. These methods have been used to control the contact conditions of two reagents coalescing in a 'head-to-tail' mode

  9. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid. PMID:25906739

  10. Large-area photodetector with high-sensitivity and broadband spectral response based on composition-graded CdSSe nanowire-chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nanowire-chip based large-area and broad-band-response photodetector was realized by integrating the ternary bandgap-graded CdS1−xSex nanowire-chip on proper substrate and optimizing electrode pattern. The actual light-to-dark current ratio (Ilight/Idark) is subject to the substrate type and the electrode pattern, as well the thickness of nanowires. Up to 106 light-to-dark current ratio was obtained for the nanowire-chip photodetector with the optimized interdigital electrode parameters (0.5 mm in width, 0.5 mm in pitch), the suitable substrate – mica and appropriate nanowire thickness (70um). Although the carriers transmit from light-generated carrier centers to the electrodes through a complicated and long pathway, the photodetector of as-fabricated nanowire-chip shows much higher photocurrent and photoconductivity due to a higher photocarrier densities exist in the ternary compounds than that in binary CdS and CdSe nanowire and the intersection trap state existing between nanowires enhances the separation of electrons and holes. Uniform and broad photoresponse covering from ultraviolet to around 700 nm is attributed to the graded bandgap of different composition nanowires/nanobelts in the chip-type detector. Especially, the Ilight/Idark of nanowire-chip detector increases with the temperature decrease due to the dark noise and the scattering become lower. The chip detector with composition-graded nanowires shows good photoconductivity at room temperature and low temperature. More important, it can be fabricated by a commercial CVD route, which will satisfy the requirements in many application fields instead of Si-based detector. - Highights: • Macroscale photodetector based on CdS1−xSex nanowire was fabricated. • Broad-spectrum uniform response and high-sensitivity are presented. • At low temperature the photodetector has better photoconductive property. • Photoconductive property dependent on the thickness of nanowire was discussed

  11. PDMS based microfluidic chips and their application in material synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiuqing

    Microfluidics is a highly interdisciplinary science which is to deal with the behavior, control and manipulation of fluids that are constrained to sub-milimeter scale. It incorporates the knowledge and technique intersecting physics, chemistry, mechanics, nanoscience and biotechnology, with practical applications to the design of systems in which small volumes of fluids will be used. In this thesis, we started our research from GER fluid synthesis which then is applied to designing different functions of microfluidic devices, valve, pump, and mixer. We built a way to correlate mechanical signal with electric signal by soft matter. The mechanical devices based GER fluid had good operating stability and mechanical performance. We studied how to improve the performance of GER fluid by increasing the yield stress while avoiding the sendimentation of nanoparticles in GER suspension. The meaning of this work is to enhance the stability and mechanical strength of GER fluid when it is applyed to the microfluidc channels. We tried different oils and studied the particle size for the GER effect. The largest yield stress which amounts to 300 kPa is achievable compared to previous GER fluid with 100 kPa. Microfluidic reactor, directing the flow of microliter volumes along microscale channels, offers the advantages of precise control of reagent loading, fast mixing and an enhanced reaction rate, cessation of the reaction at specific stages, and more. Basically, there are two microfluidic flow regimes, continuous flow and segmented flow (suspended droplets, channel-spanning slug, and wall-wetting films). Both flow regimes offer chemical reaction applications, e.g., continuous flow formation of polymer nanospheres and inorganic nanoparticles, size- and shape-control synthesis by segmented flow, and precipitate-forming reactions in droplets, wherein the segmented flow has gained more popularity in that area. The compartmentalization of segmented flow offers advantages to chemical

  12. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-01-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm2. A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the...

  13. Real-time tunability of chip-based light source enabled by microfluidic mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Rasmussen, Torben; Balslev, Søren; Kristensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    concentration of rhodamine 6G dye inside two integrated vertical resonators, since both the refractive index and the gain profile are influenced by the dye concentration. The effect on the refractive index and the gain profile of rhodamine 6G in ethanol is investigated and the continuous tuning of the laser......We demonstrate real-time tunability of a chip-based liquid light source enabled by microfluidic mixing. The mixer and light source are fabricated in SU-8 which is suitable for integration in SU-8-based laboratory-on-a-chip microsystems. The tunability of the light source is achieved by changing the...

  14. Smart sensor chip based on bioMEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Rajesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Bagga, Ellis; Bajpai, Ram P.; Bharadwaj, Lalit M.

    2004-03-01

    The smart sensor chip for simultaneous detection of a large number of disease markers is the most recent interest in the field of nanobiotechnology. Potential applications include miniaturized sensors to detect biological agents and diseases, biocompatible and improved systems for drug delivery. They are the simplest biomicroelectromechanical system (BioMEMS) devices that offer a very promising future to the development of novel physical, chemical and biological sensors. They can simultaneously detect a large number of antigens, antibodies, DNA molecules, trace metals, hormones, proteins, gases, microorganisms, toxins, chemical warfare agents, explosives etc. in gaseous, vacuum and liquid medium. Smart sensor chips would be of greater use in intensive care units (ICUs) where multiple disease markers are to be assessed precisely in very less time. These sensors employ highly specific biochemical reactions between complementary biomolecules in the same way that nature has used in our body to detect, diagnose and treat various types of diseases. They have aroused considerable interest because of their high specificity, ultra-high sensitivity, simplicity, low cost, less analyte requirement (in μl), less steps involved, non-hazardous procedure, quick response, low power requirement and a unique capability of detecting a large number of analytes simultaneously in a single step.

  15. Ceramic thermal wind sensor based on advanced direct chip attaching package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced direct chip attaching packaged two-dimensional ceramic thermal wind sensor is studied. The thermal wind sensor chip is fabricated by metal lift-off processes on the ceramic substrate. An advanced direct chip attaching (DCA) packaging is adopted and this new packaged method simplifies the processes of packaging further. Simulations of the advanced DCA packaged sensor based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model show the sensor can detect wind speed and direction effectively. The wind tunnel testing results show the advanced DCA packaged sensor can detect the wind direction from 0° to 360° and wind speed from 0 to 20 m/s with the error less than 0.5 m/s. The nonlinear fitting based least square method in Matlab is used to analyze the performance of the sensor. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in an On-Chip Li NbO 3 Microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintian; Xu, Yingxin; Ni, Jielei; Wang, Min; Fang, Zhiwei; Qiao, Lingling; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2016-07-01

    The realization of an efficient nonlinear parametric process in microresonators is a challenging issue largely because of an inherent difficulty in simultaneously ensuring the phase-matching condition and a coherent multiple-resonance condition for all the waves participating in the nonlinear conversion process. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator fabricated by femtosecond-laser direct writing. We overcome the above difficulty by selectively exciting high-order modes in the fabricated thin-disk microresonator. Thanks to the low optical absorption and high nonlinear optical coefficient of LiNbO3 crystal, we achieve a normalized conversion efficiency of 1.106 ×10-3/mW in the on-chip LiNbO3 microdisk with a diameter of approximately 102 μ m .

  17. Multilayer-based lab-on-a-chip systems for perfused cell-based assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach, Udo; Sonntag, Frank; Grünzner, Stefan; Busek, Mathias; Schmieder, Florian; Franke, Volker

    2014-12-01

    A novel integrated technology chain of laser-microstructured multilayer foils for fast, flexible, and low-cost manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices especially for complex cell and tissue culture applications, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-cells ratio, was developed and established. Initially the microfluidic system is constructively divided into individual layers, which are formed by separate foils or plates. Based on the functional boundary conditions and the necessary properties of each layer, their corresponding foils and plates are chosen. In the third step, the foils and plates are laser microstructured and functionalized from both sides. In the fourth and last manufacturing step, the multiple plates and foils are joined using different bonding techniques like adhesive bonding, welding, etc. This multilayer technology together with pneumatically driven micropumps and valves permits the manufacturing of fluidic structures and perfusion systems, which spread out above multiple planes. Based on the established lab-on-a-chip platform for perfused cell-based assays, a multilayer microfluidic system with two parallel connected cell culture chambers was successfully implemented.

  18. A highly sensitive flow-through amperometric immunosensor based on the Peroxidase chip and enzyme-channeling principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeravik, J; Ruzgas, T; Fránek, M

    2003-10-01

    A concept based on the Peroxidase-chip (P-chip), antibody co-immobilization, competitive and enzyme-channeling principle was exploited to develop an integrated flow-through amperometric biosensor for detection of environmental pollutants such as s-triazine herbicides. In this concept, recombinant peroxidase is immobilized on the gold electrode (P-chip) in such a way that direct electron transfer is achieved. The recognition and quantitation the target analyte is realized through the competition between the simazine-glucose oxidase (GOD) conjugate and free simazine for the binding sites of the monoclonal antibody co-immobilized with peroxidase on the gold electrode. The arrangement allows to generate a specific signal in the presence of glucose through the channeling of H2O2 produced by GOD conjugate bound to the antibody. The immunosensor exhibited 50% signal decrease (IC50 value) at approximately 0.02 microg l(-1). A concentration of 0.1 ng l(-1) gave a signal clearly distinguishable from the blank whereas the ELISA using the same antibody had a typical detection limit of about 1 microg l(-1), which is four orders of magnitude higher compared to the presented biosensor system. The results demonstrated that gene engineering biomolecules, in this case recombinant peroxidase, might be attractive reagents for the development of electrochemical immunosensors. PMID:12896832

  19. Fully integrated system-on-chip for pixel-based 3D depth and scene mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Martin; De Coi, Beat; Thalmann, Markus; Gancarz, Radoslav; Ferrat, Pascal; Dürmüller, Martin; Britt, Florian; Annese, Marco; Ledergerber, Markus; Catregn, Gion-Pol

    2012-03-01

    We present for the first time a fully integrated system-on-chip (SoC) for pixel-based 3D range detection suited for commercial applications. It is based on the time-of-flight (ToF) principle, i.e. measuring the phase difference of a reflected pulse train. The product epc600 is fabricated using a dedicated process flow, called Espros Photonic CMOS. This integration makes it possible to achieve a Quantum Efficiency (QE) of >80% in the full wavelength band from 520nm up to 900nm as well as very high timing precision in the sub-ns range which is needed for exact detection of the phase delay. The SoC features 8x8 pixels and includes all necessary sub-components such as ToF pixel array, voltage generation and regulation, non-volatile memory for configuration, LED driver for active illumination, digital SPI interface for easy communication, column based 12bit ADC converters, PLL and digital data processing with temporary data storage. The system can be operated at up to 100 frames per second.

  20. 76 FR 26283 - Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Blue Chip Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. Wavelet-Based Grid Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Leland

    1996-01-01

    Wavelets can provide a basis set in which the basis functions are constructed by dilating and translating a fixed function known as the mother wavelet. The mother wavelet can be seen as a high pass filter in the frequency domain. The process of dilating and expanding this high-pass filter can be seen as altering the frequency range that is 'passed' or detected. The process of translation moves this high-pass filter throughout the domain, thereby providing a mechanism to detect the frequencies or scales of information at every location. This is exactly the type of information that is needed for effective grid generation. This paper provides motivation to use wavelets for grid generation in addition to providing the final product: source code for wavelet-based grid generation.

  2. Lab on a chip-based hepatic sinusoidal system simulator for optimal primary hepatocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jaehyung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Sik

    2016-08-01

    Primary hepatocyte cultures have been used in studies on liver disease, physiology, and pharmacology. While they are an important tool for in vitro liver studies, maintaining liver-specific characteristics of hepatocytes in vitro is difficult, as these cells rapidly lose their unique characteristics and functions. Portal flow is an important condition to preserve primary hepatocyte functions and liver regeneration in vivo. We have developed a microfluidic chip that does not require bulky peripheral devices or an external power source to investigate the relationship between hepatocyte functional maintenance and flow rates. In our culture system, two types of microfluidic devices were used as scaffolds: a monolayer- and a concave chamber-based device. Under flow conditions, our chips improved albumin and urea secretion rates after 13 days compared to that of the static chips. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that hepatocyte-specific gene expression was significantly higher at 13 days under flow conditions than when using static chips. For both two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture on the chips, flow resulted in the best performance of the hepatocyte culture in vitro. We demonstrated that flow improves the viability and efficiency of long-term culture of primary hepatocytes and plays a key role in hepatocyte function. These results suggest that this flow system has the potential for long-term hepatocyte cultures as well as a technique for three-dimensional culture. PMID:27334878

  3. PPNOCS: Performance and Power Network on Chip Simulator based on SystemC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed M. Saad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As technology moves towards multi-core system-on-chips (SoCs, networks-on-chip (NoCs are emerging as the scalable fabric for interconnecting the cores. Network-on-Chip architectures have a wide variety of parameters that can be adapted to the designers requirements. This paper proposes a performance and power network on chip simulator (PPNOCS based on SystemC to explore the impact of various architectural level parameters of the on-chip interconnection network elements on its performance and power. PPNOCS supports an arbitrary size of mesh and torus topology, adopts five classic routing algorithms and seven synthetic traffic patterns. Developers also can develop and verify their own network design by modifying the corresponding modules. Experiments of using this simulator are carried out to study the power, latency and throughput of a 4x4 multi-core mesh network topology. Results show that PPNOCS provides a fast and convenient platform for researching and verification of NoC architectures and routing algorithms.

  4. An automatic single channel analyzer based on single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hardware and software of an automatic single channel analyzer based on AT89C51RC single-chip microcomputer is described in this paper. The equipment takes a method of channel-width-adjusting symmetrically, and makes use of single-chip microcomputer to control the two DAC0832 so as to adjust the discriminating threshold and channel-width automatically. As a result, the auto-measuring of the single channel analyzer is realized. Its circuit configuration is simple, and the uniformity of its channel-width is well, too. (authors)

  5. Integrated Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy chip based on liquid core waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Chunhong; Chen, Li; Li, Junhui; Liu, Qinghao; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We propose an integrated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) chip based on liquid-core waveguide with total reflection, through which the depression of leaky mode enable a long propagating distance. An Raman enhancement factor for rhodamine 6G of 2.5*105 is obtained, and a excellent repeatability is shown. The peaks in the SERS spectrum of DNA of silkworm clearly illustrate the information of the molecule structure. The integration of the SERS substrate, micro-fluid, and liquid-core waveguide make such a SERS chip attractive for biochemical detection with high performance.

  6. Test Time Reduction Reusing Multiple Processors in a Network-on-Chip Based Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Amory, Alexandre M; Moraes, Fernando G; Moreno, Edson I

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity and the short life cycles of embedded systems are pushing the current system-on-chip designs towards a rapid increasing on the number of programmable processing units, while decreasing the gate count for custom logic. Considering this trend, this work proposes a test planning method capable of reusing available processors as test sources and sinks, and the on-chip network as the test access mechanism. Experimental results are based on ITC'02 benchmarks and on two open core processors compliant with MIPS and SPARC instruction set. The results show that the cooperative use of both the on-chip network and the embedded processors can increase the test parallelism and reduce the test time without additional cost in area and pins.

  7. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode-Based Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Siles, Jose V.; Maestrini, Alain E.; Thomas, Bertrand; Jung, Cecile D.

    2013-01-01

    A 1.6-THz power-combined Schottky frequency tripler was designed to handle approximately 30 mW input power. The design of Schottky-based triplers at this frequency range is mainly constrained by the shrinkage of the waveguide dimensions with frequency and the minimum diode mesa sizes, which limits the maximum number of diodes that can be placed on the chip to no more than two. Hence, multiple-chip power-combined schemes become necessary to increase the power-handling capabilities of high-frequency multipliers. The design presented here overcomes difficulties by performing the power-combining directly on-chip. Four E-probes are located at a single input waveguide in order to equally pump four multiplying structures (featuring two diodes each). The produced output power is then recombined at the output using the same concept.

  8. Manufacture and application of a microfluidic chip-based 18F microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip-based 18F microreactor for the preparation of 18F-labeled probes. Methods: The 18F microreactor was composed of PDMS microfluidic chip and customized glass microvessel integrating with stainless capillary tube (D 0.6 mm) as heater/cooler. PDMS chips were fabricated by silk-screen printing technology,a traditional and easily accessible process. 18F-FDG and 18F-fluoroacetate (FAC) were synthesized using the 18F microreactor. TLC was applied to measure the 18F-labeling yield and the radiochemical purity of 18F-FDG and 18F-FAC. Results: The size of PDMS chip was 40.0 mm (l)×30.0 mm (w)×6.0 mm(h) and the liquid/gas inside channel was 0.3 mm (w)×50.0 μm (h). The customized glass microvessel was about 4.0 mm (D) ×30.0 mm (h) with 200 μl of reaction volume. The capillary tube which wrapped around the microvessel functioned as a heater when electric current was provided, while as a cooler when compressed air went through. The integrated 18F microreactor with a total size of 40.0 mm (l) ×30.0 mm (w) ×15.0 mm (h) was successfully used to prepare 18F-FDG and 18F-FAC, whose radiochemical purity were both higher than 96% and 18F-labeling yield was 92.5% and 90.0% respectively in the first fluorination step. Conclusions: A PDMS microfluidic chip-based 18F microreactor is developed and successfully applied to prepare 18F-FDG and 18F-FAC. It has the dual advantages of both microfluidic chip and traditional synthesis module and features of high integration, small total size and low consumption of labeling precursor. (authors)

  9. A PRIORITY-BASED POLLING SCHEDULING ALGORITHM FOR ARBITRATION POLICY IN NETWORK ON CHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Liyong; Zhao Dongfeng; Zhao Yifan

    2012-01-01

    A solution is imperatively expected to meet the efficient contention resolution schemes for managing simultaneous access requests to the communication resources on the Network on Chip (NoC).Based on the ideas of conflict-free transmission,priority-based service,and dynamic self-adaptation to loading,this paper presents a novel scheduling algorithm for Medium Access Control (MAC) in NoC with the researches of the communication structure features of 2D mesh.The algorithm gives priority to guarantee the Quality of Service (QoS) for local input port as well as dynamic adjustment of the performance of the other ports along with input load change.The theoretical model of this algorithm is established with Markov chain and probability generating function.Mathematical analysis is made on the mean queue length and the mean inquiry cyclic time of the system.Simulated experiments are conducted to test the accuracy of the model.It turns out that the findings from theoretical analysis correspond well with those from simulated experiments.Further more,the analytical findings of the system performance demonstrate that the algorithm enables effectively strengthen the fairness and stability of data transmissions in NoC.

  10. The output one-port flyback type switch design basing on the TOP261YN chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It introduces the output one-port flyback type switch basing on the TOP261YN chip. It analyzes this switch's working principles and design scheme. By using the flyback circuit and combining the peripheral feedback and pulse width modulation circuit, the power supply achieves high output as well as multiplexing. Experimental results show that the switch power supply has good performance. (authors)

  11. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times. PMID:25332741

  12. Human-on-a-chip design strategies and principles for physiologically based pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Advances in maintaining multiple human tissues on microfluidic platforms has led to a growing interest in the development of microphysiological systems for drug development studies. Determination of the proper design principles and scaling rules for body-on-a-chip systems is critical for their strategic incorporation into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model-aided drug development. While the need for a functional design considering organ-organ interactions has been considered, robust design criteria and steps to build such systems have not yet been defined mathematically. In this paper, we first discuss strategies for incorporating body-on-a-chip technology into the current PBPK modeling-based drug discovery to provide a conceptual model. We propose two types of platforms that can be involved in the different stages of PBPK modeling and drug development; these are μOrgans-on-a-chip and μHuman-on-a-chip. Then we establish the design principles for both types of systems and develop parametric design equations that can be used to determine dimensions and operating conditions. In addition, we discuss the availability of the critical parameters required to satisfy the design criteria, consider possible limitations for estimating such parameter values and propose strategies to address such limitations. This paper is intended to be a useful guide to the researchers focused on the design of microphysiological platforms for PBPK/PD based drug discovery. PMID:25739725

  13. An AES chip with DPA resistance using hardware-based random order execution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Bo; Li Xiangyu; Chen Cong; Sun Yihe; Wu Liji; Zhang Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an AES (advanced encryption standard) chip that combats differential power analysis (DPA) side-channel attack through hardware-based random order execution.Both decryption and encryption procedures of an AES are implemented on the chip.A fine-grained dataflow architecture is proposed,which dynamically exploits intrinsic byte-level independence in the algorithm.A novel circuit called an HMF (Hold-Match-Fetch) unit is proposed for random control,which randomly sets execution orders for concurrent operations.The AES chip was manufactured in SMIC 0.18 μm technology.The average energy for encrypting one group of plain texts (128 bits secrete keys) is 19 nJ.The core area is 0.43 mm2.A sophisticated experimental setup was built to test the DPA resistance.Measurement-based experimental results show that one byte of a secret key cannot be disclosed from our chip under random mode after 64000 power traces were used in the DPA attack.Compared with the corresponding fixed order execution,the hardware based random order execution is improved by at least 21 times the DPA resistance.

  14. Experiment-Based Computational Investigation of Thermomechanical Stresses in Flip Chip BGA Using the ATC4.2 Test Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchett, Steven N.; Nguyen, Luu; Peterson, David W.; Sweet, James N.

    1999-08-02

    Stress measurement test chips were flip chip assembled to organic BGA substrates containing micro-vias and epoxy build-up interconnect layers. Mechanical degradation observed during temperature cycling was correlated to a damage theory developed based on 3D finite element method analysis. Degradation included die cracking, edge delamination and radial fillet cracking.

  15. Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry with Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Sven; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gebbe, Martina; Muentinga, Hauke; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Quantus Team

    2015-05-01

    Today's generation of inertial sensitive atom interferometers typically operate with sources of laser cooled atoms and thus their performance is limited by velocity spread and finite-size effects that impose systematic uncertainties. Ultra-cold sources such as a BEC or even delta-kick cooled atomic ensembles with extremely narrow velocity dispersion are able to overcome these limitations and are crucial for obtaining high-fidelity beam splitters. Atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate a BEC and perform delta-kick cooling in a fast and reliable away. We show a combination of such an ensemble generated in a miniaturized atom-chip setup with the application of low-loss Bragg beam splitting to perform inertial sensitive measurements. A specialty of this setup is the retro-reflection of the beam splitting light field from the atom-chip itself, serving as inertial reference in vacuum. This allows for a compact realization of a quantum gravimeter determining the local gravitational acceleration to the scale of local variations limited by seismic noise. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50 1131-1137 (QUANTUS-III).

  16. Droplet-based Biosensing for Lab-on-a-Chip, Open Microfluidics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Dak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low cost, portable sensors can transform health care by bringing easily available diagnostic devices to low and middle income population, particularly in developing countries. Sample preparation, analyte handling and labeling are primary cost concerns for traditional lab-based diagnostic systems. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC platforms based on droplet-based microfluidics promise to integrate and automate these complex and expensive laboratory procedures onto a single chip; the cost will be further reduced if label-free biosensors could be integrated onto the LoC platforms. Here, we review some recent developments of label-free, droplet-based biosensors, compatible with “open” digital microfluidic systems. These low-cost droplet-based biosensors overcome some of the fundamental limitations of the classical sensors, enabling timely diagnosis. We identify the key challenges that must be addressed to make these sensors commercially viable and summarize a number of promising research directions.

  17. Detection of On-Chip Generated Weak Microwave Radiation Using Superconducting Normal-Metal SET

    OpenAIRE

    Behdad Jalali-Jafari; Lotkhov, Sergey V.; Zorin, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    The present work addresses quantum interaction phenomena of microwave radiation with a single-electron tunneling system. For this study, an integrated circuit is implemented, combining on the same chip a Josephson junction (Al/AlO x /Al) oscillator and a single-electron transistor (SET) with the superconducting island (Al) and normal-conducting leads (AuPd). The transistor is demonstrated to operate as a very...

  18. Simulation and experimental validation of a SU-8 based PCR thermocycler chip with integrated heaters and temperature sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ali, Jamil; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Poulsen, Claus Riber;

    2004-01-01

    can allow on chip integration to other SU-8 based functional elements. Finite element modeling (FEM) and experiments show that the temperature distribution in the PCR chamber is homogeneous and that the chip is capable of fast thermal cycling. With heating and cooling rates of up to 50 and 30 degrees......We present a SU-8 based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with integrated platinum thin film heaters and temperature sensor. The device is fabricated in SU-8 on a glass substrate. The use of SU-8 provides a simple microfabrication process for the PCR chamber, controllable surface properties and......C/s, respectively, the performance of the chip is comparable with the best silicon micromachined PCR chips presented in the literature. The SU-8 chamber surface was found to be PCR compatible by amplification of yeast gene ribosomal protein S3 and Campylobacter gene cadF. The PCR compatibility of the chamber...

  19. Biosensor system-on-a-chip including CMOS-based signal processing circuits and 64 carbon nanotube-based sensors for the detection of a neurotransmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Yang; Seo, Sung Min; Lee, Dong Joon; Lee, Minbaek; Lee, Joohyung; Cheon, Jun-Ho; Cho, Eunju; Lee, Hyunjoong; Chung, In-Young; Park, Young June; Kim, Suhwan; Hong, Seunghun

    2010-04-01

    We developed a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based biosensor system-on-a-chip (SoC) for the detection of a neurotransmitter. Here, 64 CNT-based sensors were integrated with silicon-based signal processing circuits in a single chip, which was made possible by combining several technological breakthroughs such as efficient signal processing, uniform CNT networks, and biocompatible functionalization of CNT-based sensors. The chip was utilized to detect glutamate, a neurotransmitter, where ammonia, a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction of glutamate and glutamate oxidase on CNT-based sensors, modulated the conductance signals to the CNT-based sensors. This is a major technological advancement in the integration of CNT-based sensors with microelectronics, and this chip can be readily integrated with larger scale lab-on-a-chip (LoC) systems for various applications such as LoC systems for neural networks. PMID:20300676

  20. Debugging systems-on-chip communication-centric and abstraction-based techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This book describes an approach and supporting infrastructure to facilitate debugging the silicon implementation of a System-on-Chip (SOC), allowing its associated product to be introduced into the market more quickly.  Readers learn step-by-step the key requirements for debugging a modern, silicon SOC implementation, nine factors that complicate this debugging task, and a new debug approach that addresses these requirements and complicating factors.  The authors’ novel communication-centric, scan-based, abstraction-based, run/stop-based (CSAR) debug approach is discussed in detail, showing how it helps to meet debug requirements and address the nine, previously identified factors that complicate debugging silicon implementations of SOCs. The authors also derive the debug infrastructure requirements to support debugging of a silicon implementation of an SOC with their CSAR debug approach. This debug infrastructure consists of a generic on-chip debug architecture, a configurable automated design-for-debug ...

  1. Reconfigurable symmetric pulses generation using on-chip cascaded optical differentiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-09-01

    We report a type of programmable pulse shaping method based on cascaded frequency-detuned optical differentiators. By properly adjusting the central wavelength of each differentiator, a large variety of symmetric pulses can be generated from a transform-limited Gaussian-like pulse. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate the generation of flat-top, parabolic and triangular pulses with tunable pulse widths from a 20-ps Gaussian-like pulse, using no more than three cascaded differentiators. It can be found that as more differentiators are used, higher synthesized accuracy and larger tuning range of pulse widths can be obtained in general. Additionally, in our experiment, we design and fabricate thermally tunable delay interferometers on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform to work as optical differentiators, which can help us realize the shaping system with small footprint (943μm × 395μm) and high stability. PMID:27607657

  2. Application of dry film resist in the fabrication of microfluidic chips for droplet generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined use of film transparency masks and dry laminar resist (Shipley 5038) has enabled the rapid fabrication of prototype devices for droplet generation. The resolution limit of structures in the resist was controlled by the type of mask (transparency or electron beam Cr mask), the density of the pattern in transparency masks (2400 or 5080 dpi) and the thickness of the resist in the range of 35–140 µm. Flow-focusing devices with master patterns based on dry film resist were replicated as a Ni shim and hot embossed into Plexiglas 99524. These devices were used to generate oil/water droplets with a well-defined dependence of diameter and frequency on the flow parameters

  3. Development of an AOI system for chips with a hole on backside based on a frame imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Fu; Chou, Chih-Chung; Lien, Chun-Chien; Weng, Rui-Cian

    2016-01-01

    Defects exist for a few of IC chips during fabrication and packaging. The cost for follow-up processes can be reduced if chips with defect size of impacting chip quality can be inspected and removed during the earlier sorting process. Products will be more cost-effective and competitive. According to the inspecting requirements for microphone chips, developed AOI system has to detect the boundary flaws and hole-inside defects with size of greater than criteria from chips backside. Both the length and width of chip size are less than 5 mm and there's depth difference between the surface of chip backside and the hole-inside membrance. Thus image acquisition device is designed and implemented by an area scan imager and a telecentric lenses with a coaxial LED lighting module. Therefore we can ignore the image radiometric and geometric calibration, and keep off the shadow inside the rim of hole. An algorithm to detect defects and derive their size based on the edge pixels statistic distribution and binary chip edge image is selected. Developed AOI system then can meet the requirements of real-time defect inspection with high accuracy and performance. Frame opto-mechanical device has the spatial resolution of 5μm and FOV of 6.4 x 5.1 mm. And defect inspection can be completed within 150 ms for the chip size of 2.5 x 3.0 mm. The processes of image acquisition and defect inspection can be accomplished during the chip sorting process to satisfy the real-time online inspection. Inspected chips are placed in GO/NG trays in real-time according to their quality. From the verification results compared with the ones by microscope, the inspection accuracy is better than system requirements. The over kill rate is less than 0.3% and 3% for chip boundary flaws and hole-inside defects respectively. But it still can't be inspected correctly for the hole-inside defects of only one membrance breakage. In the future, we will improve the illumination and detecting algorithm to solve this

  4. On-chip generation and guiding of quantum light from a site-controlled quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Jamil, Ayesha; Kalliakos, Sokratis; Schwagmann, Andre; Ward, Martin B; Brody, Yarden; Ellis, David J P; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P; Jones, Geb A C; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the emission and routing of single photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an actively positioned InAs quantum dot. Device scale arrays of quantum dots are formed by a two step regrowth process. We precisely locate the propagating region of a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide with respect to the quantum dot nucleation site. Under pulsed optical excitation, the multiphoton emission probability from the exit of the waveguide is 12 \\pm 5 % before any background correction. Our results are a major step towards the deterministic integration of a quantum emitter with the waveguiding components of photonic quantum circuits.

  5. On-chip generation and guiding of quantum light from a site-controlled quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the emission and routing of single photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an actively positioned InAs quantum dot. Device–scale arrays of quantum dots are formed by a two–step regrowth process. We precisely locate the propagating region of a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide with respect to the quantum dot nucleation site. Under pulsed optical excitation, the multiphoton emission probability from the waveguide's exit is 12% ± 5% before any background correction. Our results are a major step towards the deterministic integration of a quantum emitter with the waveguiding components of photonic quantum circuits

  6. Network Traffic Generator Model for Fast Network-on-Chip Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Ang, Frederico; Olsen, Rasmus G.;

    2008-01-01

    and effective Network-on-Chip (NoC) development and debugging environment. By capturing the type and the timestamp of communication events at the boundary of an IP core in a reference environment, the TG can subsequently emulate the core's communication behavior in different environments. Access patterns...... and resource contention in a system are dependent on the interconnect architecture, and our TG is designed to capture the resulting reactiveness. The regenerated traffic, which represents a realistic workload, can thus be used to undertake faster architectural exploration of interconnection alternatives...

  7. A Network Traffic Generator Model for Fast Network-on-Chip Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Frederico; Storgaard, Michael;

    2005-01-01

    and effective Network-on-Chip (NoC) development and debugging environment. By capturing the type and the timestamp of communication events at the boundary of an IP core in a reference environment, the TG can subsequently emulate the core's communication behavior in different environments. Access patterns...... and resource contention in a system are dependent on the interconnect architecture, and our TG is designed to capture the resulting reactiveness. The regenerated traffic, which represents a realistic workload, can thus be used to undertake faster architectural exploration of interconnection alternatives...

  8. Partition-based Low Power DFT Methodology for System-on-chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-fei; CHEN Jian; FU Yu-zhuo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a partition-based Design-forTest (DFT) technique to reduce the power consumption during scan-based testing. This method is based on partitioning the chip into several independent scan domains. By enabling the scan domains alternatively, only a fraction of the entire chip will be active at the same time, leading to Iow power consumption during test. Therefore, it will significantly reduce the possibility of Electronic Migration and Overheating. In order to prevent the drop of fault coverage, wrappers on the boundaries between scan domains are employed. This paper also presents a detailed design flow based on Electronics Design Automation(EDA) tools from Synopsy(s) to implement the proposed test structure. The proposed DFT method is experimented on a state-of-theart System-on-chips (SOC). The simulation results show a significant reduction in both average and peak power dissipation without sacrificing the fault coverage and test time. This SOC has been taped out in TSMC and finished the final test in ADVANTEST.

  9. Signal Detection of Multi-Channel Capillary Electrophoresis Chip Based on CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongfeng; Yan, Weiping; Yang, Xiaobo; Li, Jiechao; Zhu, Jieying

    2012-12-01

    A kind of multi-channel capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip signal detection system based on CCD was developed. The output signal of the CCD sensor was processed by a series of pre-processing circuits and ADC, and then it was collected by the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip which communicated with a host computer. The core in FPGA was designed to control the signal flow of the CCD and transfer the data to PC based on a Nios II embedded soft-processor. The application of PC was used to store the data and demonstrate the curve. The measurement of the fluorescent signals for different concentration Rhodamine B dyes is presented and the comparison with other detection systems is also discussed.

  10. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl;

    2014-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the...... differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface....... The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature...

  11. Interface design approach for system on chip based on configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Maalej, Issam; Gogniat, Guy; Abid, Mohamed; Philippe, Jean Luc

    2003-01-01

    Communication synthesis is an essential step in hardware/software co-synthesis: many embedded systems use automatic generation of interface for point to point communication or use external supports of communication as standard bus or micro network. In this paper, we address the problem of hardware – software interface design in codesign approach for real-time applications. We refer to the hardware component as hardware accelerator and the software component as processor. In our approach, the ...

  12. A monolithic glass chip for active single-cell sorting based on mechanical phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Faigle, C.; Lautenschläger, F.; Whyte, G; Homewood, P.; Martín Badosa, Estela; Guck, J.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of biological cells have long been considered as inherent markers of biological function and disease. However, the screening and active sorting of heterogeneous populations based on serial single-cell mechanical measurements has not been demonstrated. Here we present a novel monolithic glass chip for combined fluorescence detection and mechanical phenotyping using an optical stretcher. A new design and manufacturing process, involving the bonding of two asymmetricall...

  13. Characterisation of Flavonoid Aglycones by Negative Ion Chip-Based Nanospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J. Gates; Lopes, Norberto P.

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are one of the most important classes of natural products having a wide variety of biological activities. There is wide interest in a range of medical and dietary applications, and having a rapid, reliable method for structural elucidation is essential. In this study a range of flavonoid standards are investigated by chip-based negative ion nanospray mass spectrometry. It was found that the different classes of flavonoid studied have a combination of distinct neutral losses from th...

  14. Human-on-a-chip design strategies and principles for physiologically based pharmocokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shuler, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in maintaining multiple human tissues on microfluidic platforms has led to a growing interest in developing microphysiological systems for drug development studies. Determining the proper design principles and scaling rules for body-on-a-chip systems is critical for their strategic incorporation into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)/pharmacodynamic model (PD) -aided drug development. While the need for a functional design considering organ-organ interactions has been cons...

  15. Direct current insulator based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) integrated microfluidics has been a powerful tool for new developments in analytical chemistry. These microfluidic systems enable the miniaturization, integration and automation of complex biochemical assays through the reduction of reagent use and enabling portability.Cell and particle separation in microfluidic systems has recently gained significant attention in many sample preparations for clinical procedures. Direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) ...

  16. A novel terahertz time-domain spectroscopic endoscope based on a single photoconductive antenna chip

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jitao

    2013-01-01

    The common terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) based on photoconductive antenna (PCA) needs two separate PCA chips. One PCA works as an emitter, and the other works as a receiver. For a reflection-type measurement, the technique called 'attenuated total reflection' usually is needed to enhance the reflection sensitivity. These make the system bulk and complicated for the reflection-type measurement. In this paper, we propose a novel THz-TDS endoscope that is specifically designed for...

  17. Fiber-to-Waveguide and 3D Chip-to-Chip Light Coupling Based on Bent Metal-Clad Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhaolin; Shi, Kaifeng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient fiber-to-waveguide light coupling has been a key issue in integrated photonics for many years. The main challenge lies in the huge mode mismatch between an optical fiber and a single mode waveguide. Herein, we present a novel fiber-to-waveguide coupler, named "L-coupler", through which the light fed from the top of a chip can bend 90{\\deg} with low reflection and is then efficiently coupled into an on-chip Si waveguide within a short propagation distance (<20{\\mu}m). The key element is a bent metal-clad waveguide with a big matched input port. According to our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, the coupling efficiency is over 80% within a broad range of working wavelengths in the near-infrared regime for a transverse electric input Gaussian wave. The coupler is polarization-dependent, with very low coupling efficiency (6%-9%) for transverse magnetic waves. The coupler can also be used for three-dimensional (3D) chip-to-chip optical interconnection by efficiently coupling light into ...

  18. Single-bead arrays for fluorescence-based immunoassays on capillary-driven microfluidic chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Yuksel; Lim, Michel; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    We report a concept for the simple fabrication of easy-to-use chips for immunoassays in the context of point-of-care diagnostics. The chip concept comprises mainly three features: (1) the efficient integration of reagents using beads functionalized with receptors, (2) the generation of capillary-driven liquid flows without using external pumps, and (3) a high-sensitivity detection of analytes using fluorescence microscopy. We fabricated prototype chips using dry etching of Si wafers. 4.5-μm-diameter beads were integrated into hexagonal arrays by sedimentation and removing the excess using a stream of water. We studied the effect of different parameters and showed that array occupancies from 30% to 50% can be achieved by pipetting a 250 nL droplet of 1% bead solution and allowing the beads sediment for 3 min. Chips with integrated beads were sealed using a 50-μm-thick dry-film resist laminated at 45 °C. Liquids pipetted to loading pads were autonomously pulled by capillary pumps at a rate of 0.35 nL s-1 for about 30 min. We studied ligand-receptor interactions and binding kinetics using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and demonstrated a 5 pM limit of detection (LOD) for an anti-biotin immunoassay. As a clinically-relevant example, we implemented an immunoassay to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA) and showed an LOD of 108 fM (i.e. 3.6 pg mL-1). While a specific implementation is provided here for the detection of PSA, we believe that combining capillary-driven microfluidics with arrays of single beads and fluorescence readout to be very flexible and sufficiently sensitive for the detection of other clinically-relevant analytes.

  19. On-chip wavelength switch based on thermally tunable discrete four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Chen, Yaohui; Hu, Hao; Yvind, Kresten

    An on-chip wavelength switch is proposed based on discrete four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide. Switching operation can be realized by thermal tuning the waveguide dispersion. We also discuss optimal dimension design concerning device performances.......An on-chip wavelength switch is proposed based on discrete four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide. Switching operation can be realized by thermal tuning the waveguide dispersion. We also discuss optimal dimension design concerning device performances....

  20. On-chip molecular electronic plasmon sources based on self-assembled monolayer tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Wang, Tao; Chu, Hong-Son; Wu, Lin; Liu, Rongrong; Sun, Song; Phua, Wee Kee; Wang, Lejia; Tomczak, Nikodem; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-04-01

    Molecular electronic control over plasmons offers a promising route for on-chip integrated molecular plasmonic devices for information processing and computing. To move beyond the currently available technologies and to miniaturize plasmonic devices, molecular electronic plasmon sources are required. Here, we report on-chip molecular electronic plasmon sources consisting of tunnel junctions based on self-assembled monolayers sandwiched between two metallic electrodes that excite localized plasmons, and surface plasmon polaritons, with tunnelling electrons. The plasmons originate from single, diffraction-limited spots within the junctions, follow power-law distributed photon statistics, and have well-defined polarization orientations. The structure of the self-assembled monolayer and the applied bias influence the observed polarization. We also show molecular electronic control of the plasmon intensity by changing the chemical structure of the molecules and by bias-selective excitation of plasmons using molecular diodes.

  1. Extraction, amplification and detection of DNA in microfluidic chip-based assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers three aspects of PCR-based microfluidic chip assays: sample preparation, target amplification, and product detection. We also discuss the challenges related to the miniaturization and integration of each assay and make a comparison between conventional and microfluidic schemes. In order to accomplish these essential assays without human intervention between individual steps, the micro-components for fluid manipulation become critical. We therefore summarize and discuss components such as microvalves (for fluid regulation), pumps (for fluid driving) and mixers (for blending fluids). By combining the above assays and microcomponents, DNA testing of multi-step bio-reactions in microfluidic chips may be achieved with minimal external control. The combination of assay schemes with the use of micro-components also leads to rapid methods for DNA testing via multi-step bioreactions. (author)

  2. Multichannel spectroscopy system based on VA2TA front-end self-triggered chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental prototype of a spectroscopy system that is based on 128-channel self-triggered VA2TA chip has been created. Software which allows registering and analyzing events in a multistrip silicon sensor has been developed. Main parameters of the measurement are defined in a program window and they control how the information from the connected channels is being processed. Low noise silicon planar and multistrip sensors have been bonded to the VA2TA chip and the energy resolution of the system has been tested. Spectra from 241Am, 57Co and characteristic X-ray radiation have been measured to test the energy resolution which was approximately 3.6...3.9 keV for a planar sensor for the energies in a range of 26...122 keV

  3. Low latency on chip communication based on hybrid NOC Architecture using X-Y router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas wini Deotare

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available On-chip co mmunication has two different type of architecture which can be classified as Bus and mesh based Networks- on-Chip (No C. Each of them has diffe rent features and applications. In this paper, we construct the hybrid architecture with using bus and mesh NOC architecture. In the hybrid architecture, heavy communication affinity IPcores are placed in the same subsystem. and this large mesh No C get partitioned into several subsystems and one on one individual IPs, so that there is the reduction in the transmission latency of NoC.Efficient partition and mapping algorith m is proposed for reduction of the latency on the hybrid NOC arch itecture.It shows that an average latency improvement of 17.6% and more can be obtained when compared with the conventional mesh No C arch itecture.

  4. Silicon-nanomembrane-based photonic crystal nanostructures for chip-integrated open sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Lin, Cheyun; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate two devices on the photonic crystal platform for chip-integrated optical absorption spectroscopy and chip-integrated biomolecular microarray assays. Infrared optical absorption spectroscopy and biomolecular assays based on conjugate-specific binding principles represent two dominant sensing mechanisms for a wide spectrum of applications in environmental pollution sensing in air and water, chem-bio agents and explosives detection for national security, microbial contamination sensing in food and beverages to name a few. The easy scalability of photonic crystal devices to any wavelength ensures that the sensing principles hold across a wide electromagnetic spectrum. Silicon, the workhorse of the electronics industry, is an ideal platform for the above optical sensing applications.

  5. Condensate Splitting in an Asymmetric Double Well for Atom Chip Based Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the adiabatic splitting of a Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atoms by an asymmetric double-well potential located above the edge of a perpendicularly magnetized TbGdFeCo film atom chip. By controlling the barrier height and double-well asymmetry, the sensitivity of the axial splitting process is investigated through observation of the fractional atom distribution between the left and right wells. This process constitutes a novel sensor for which we infer a single shot sensitivity to gravity fields of δg/g≅2x10-4. From a simple analytic model, we propose improvements to chip-based gravity detectors using this demonstrated methodology

  6. On-chip Dual-comb based on Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs

    CERN Document Server

    Villares, Gustavo; Kazakov, Dmitry; Süess, Martin J; Hugi, Andreas; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is emerging as one of the most appealing applications of mid-infrared frequency combs for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, as it leverages on the unique coherence properties of frequency combs combined with the high sensitivities achievable by mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy. Here we present an on-chip dual-comb source based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency combs, where two frequency combs are integrated on a single chip. Control of the combs repetition and offset frequencies is obtained by integrating micro-heaters next to each laser. We show that a full control of the dual-comb system is possible, by measuring a multi-heterodyne beating corresponding to an optical bandwidth of 32 cm$^{-1}$ at a center frequency of 1330 cm$^{-1}$ (7.52 $\\mu$m), demonstrating that this device is ideal for compact dual-comb spectroscopy systems.

  7. A novel terahertz time-domain spectroscopic endoscope based on a single photoconductive antenna chip

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jitao

    2013-01-01

    The common terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) based on photoconductive antenna (PCA) needs two separate PCA chips. One PCA works as an emitter, and the other works as a receiver. For a reflection-type measurement, the technique called 'attenuated total reflection' usually is needed to enhance the reflection sensitivity. These make the system bulk and complicated for the reflection-type measurement. In this paper, we propose a novel THz-TDS endoscope that is specifically designed for reflection-type measurement. This THz-TDS endoscope is benefited from an integrated photoconductive antenna (we call it iPCA), which integrates the emitter and receiver on a single antenna chip. Therefore, the dimension of the endoscope can be shrunk as much as possible for practical usage. We present the design and working principle of this THz-TDS endoscope in details. It may open a promising way for the THz-TDS application in biomedical fields.

  8. Extraction, amplification and detection of DNA in microfluidic chip-based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2013-12-20

    This review covers three aspects of PCR-based microfluidic chip assays: sample preparation, target amplification, and product detection. We also discuss the challenges related to the miniaturization and integration of each assay and make a comparison between conventional and microfluidic schemes. In order to accomplish these essential assays without human intervention between individual steps, the micro-components for fluid manipulation become critical. We therefore summarize and discuss components such as microvalves (for fluid regulation), pumps (for fluid driving) and mixers (for blending fluids). By combining the above assays and microcomponents, DNA testing of multi-step bio-reactions in microfluidic chips may be achieved with minimal external control. The combination of assay schemes with the use of micro-components also leads to rapid methods for DNA testing via multi-step bioreactions. Contains 259 references.

  9. A CDMA Based Scalable Hierarchical Architecture for Network-On-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abd El Ghany

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Scalable hierarchical architecture based Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA is proposed for high performance Network-on-Chip (NoC. This hierarchical architecture provides the integration of a large number of IPs in a single on-chip system. The network encoding and decoding schemes for CDMA transmission are provided. The proposed CDMA NoC architecture is compared to the conventional architecture in terms of latency, area and power dissipation. The overall area required to implement the proposed CDMA NoC design is reduced by 24.2%. The design decreases the latency of the network by 40%. The total power consumption required to achieve the proposed design is also decreased by 25%.

  10. Chip-based optical microscopy for imaging membrane sieve plates of liver scavenger cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Øystein I.; Øie, Cristina I.; McCourt, Peter; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.

    2015-08-01

    The evanescent field on top of optical waveguides is used to image membrane network and sieve-plates of liver endothelial cells. In waveguide excitation, the evanescent field is dominant only near the surface (~100-150 nm) providing a default optical sectioning by illuminating fluorophores in close proximity to the surface and thus benefiting higher signal-to-noise ratio. The sieve plates of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are present on the cell membrane, thus near-field waveguide chip-based microscopy configuration is preferred over epi-fluorescence. The waveguide chip is compatible with optical fiber components allowing easy multiplexing to different wavelengths. In this paper, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities provided by integrated optical microscopy for imaging cell membranes.

  11. Application Aware Topology Generation for Surface Wave Networks-on-Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fu; Zheng-Bing Hu; Cheng Gong; Wen-Ming Pan; Guo-Bin Lv

    2014-01-01

    The networks-on-chip (NoC) communica-tion has an increasingly larger impact on the system power consumption and performance. Emerging technologies, like surface wave, are believed to have lower transmission latency and power consumption over the conventional wireless NoC. Therefore, this paper studies how to optimize the network performance and power consumption by giving the packet-switching fabric and traffic pattern of each application. Compared with the conventional method of wire-linked, which adds wireless transceivers by using the genetic algorithm (GA), the proposed maximal declining sorting algorithm (MDSA) can effectively reduce time consumption by as much as 20.4% to 35.6%. We also evaluate the power consumption and configuration time to prove the effective of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Model based on-chip 13bits ADC design dedicated to uncooled infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Benoit; Robert, Patrick; Dupret, Antoine; Villard, Patrick; Pochic, David

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents an on-chip 13 bits 10 M/S Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) specifically designed for infrared bolometric image sensor. Bolometric infrared sensors are MEMs based thermal sensors, which covers a large spectrum of infrared applications, ranging from night vision to predictive industrial maintenance and medical imaging. With the current move towards submicron technologies, the demand for more integrated, smarter sensors and microsystems has dramatically increased. This trend has strengthened the need of on-chip ADC as the interface between the analog core and the digital processing electronic. However designing an on-chip ADC dedicated to focal plane array raises many questions about its architecture and its performance requirements. To take into account those specific needs, a high level model has been developed prior to the actual design. In this paper, we present the trade-offs of ADC design linked to infrared key performance parameters and bolometric technology detection method. The original development scheme, based on system level modeling, is also discussed. Finally we present the actual design and the measured performances.

  13. Combining SDM-Based Circuit Switching with Packet Switching in a Router for On-Chip Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Kuti Lusala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid router architecture for Networks-on-Chip “NoC” is presented, it combines Spatial Division Multiplexing “SDM” based circuit switching and packet switching in order to efficiently and separately handle both streaming and best-effort traffic generated in real-time applications. Furthermore the SDM technique is combined with Time Division Multiplexing “TDM” technique in the circuit switching part in order to increase path diversity, thus improving throughput while sharing communication resources among multiple connections. Combining these two techniques allows mitigating the poor resource usage inherent to circuit switching. In this way Quality of Service “QoS” is easily provided for the streaming traffic through the circuit-switched sub-router while the packet-switched sub-router handles best-effort traffic. The proposed hybrid router architectures were synthesized, placed and routed on an FPGA. Results show that a practicable Network-on-Chip “NoC” can be built using the proposed router architectures. 7 × 7 mesh NoCs were simulated in SystemC. Simulation results show that the probability of establishing paths through the NoC increases with the number of sub-channels and has its highest value when combining SDM with TDM, thereby significantly reducing contention in the NoC.

  14. An Energy-Efficient High-Throughput Mesh-Based Photonic On-Chip Interconnect for Many-Core Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achraf Ben Ahmed; Abderazek Ben Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Future high-performance embedded and general purpose processors and systems-on-chip are expected to combine hundreds of cores integrated together to satisfy the power and performance requirements of large complex applications. As the number of cores continues to increase, the employment of low-power and high-throughput on-chip interconnect fabrics becomes imperative. In this work, we present a novel mesh-based photonic on-chip interconnect, named PHENIC-II, for future high-performance many-co...

  15. SOI based integrated on-chip photonic pressure sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.C.; Harmsma, P.J.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Pozo Torres, J.M.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.; Berg, J.H. van den; Bodis, P.

    2012-01-01

    A compact, mass producible Silicon On Insulator (SOI) based pressure sensor consisting of a folded Micro Ring Resonator (MRR) on a circular diaphragm is successfully designed, fabricated and characterized [1-3]. The MRR is designed to be single mode for TE polarized light at 1550 nm. The folded MRR

  16. Advanced Micro Narrows Gap in Race for New Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Markoff; 张宁

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hoping to catch up with Intel and I. B. M. in an advanced chip-making technology, the semiconductor maker Advanced Micro Devices plans to announce Tuesday that it has begun to ship chips based on an advanced manufacturing process that is being used to build the next generation of processors.

  17. Photonic chip based tunable and reconfigurable narrowband microwave photonic filter using stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Adam; Pant, Ravi; Li, Enbang; Choi, Duk-Yong; Poulton, Christopher G; Fan, Shanhui; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2012-08-13

    We report the first demonstration of a photonic chip based dynamically reconfigurable, widely tunable, narrow pass-band, high Q microwave photonic filter (MPF). We exploit stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a 6.5 cm long chalcogenide (As2S3) photonic chip to demonstrate a MPF that exhibited a high quality factor of ~520 and narrow bandwidth and was dynamically reconfigurable and widely tunable. It maintained a stable 3 dB bandwidth of 23 ± 2MHz and amplitude of 20 ± 2 dB over a large frequency tuning range of 2-12 GHz. By tailoring the pump spectrum, we reconfigured the 3 dB bandwidth of the MPF from ~20 MHz to ~40 MHz and tuned the shape factor from 3.5 to 2 resulting in a nearly flat-topped filter profile. This demonstration represents a significant advance in integrated microwave photonics with potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing for RADAR and analogue communications. PMID:23038523

  18. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF PIPELINE BASED ROUTER DESIGN FOR ON-CHIP NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Saravanakumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As the feature size is continuously decreasing and integration density is increasing, interconnections have become a dominating factor in determining the overall quality of a chip. Due to the limited scalability of system bus, it cannot meet the requirement of current System-on-Chip (SoC implementations where only a limited number of functional units can be supported. Long global wires also cause many design problems, such as routing congestion, noise coupling, and difficult timing closure. Network-on-Chip (NoC architectures have been proposed to be an alternative to solve the above problems by using a packet-based communication network. In this paper, the Circuit-Switched (CS Router was designed and analysed the various parameters such as power, timing and area. The CS router has taken more number of cycles to transfer the data from source to destination. So the pipelining concept was implemented by adding registers in the CS router architecture. The proposed architecture increases the speed of operation and reduces the critical path of the circuit. The router has been implemented using Verilog HDL. The parameters area, power and timing were calculated in 130 nm CMOS technology using Synopsys tool with nominal operating voltage of 1V and packet size is 39 bits. Finally power, area and time of these two routers have been analysed and compared.

  19. Reconfigurable laser arrays with capillary fill microfluidics for chip-based flow cytometry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Low cost, portable chip based flow cytometry has great potential for applications in resource poor and point of care settings. Typical approaches utilise low cost silicon or glass substrates with light emission and detection performed either off-chip using external equipment or incorporated on-chip using `pick and place' diode lasers and photo-detectors. The former approach adds cost and limits portability while the sub-micron alignment tolerances imposed by the application make the latter impractical for all but the simplest of systems. Use of an optically active semiconductor substrate, on the other hand, overcomes these limitations by allowing multiple laser/detector arrays to be formed in the substrate itself using high resolution lithographic techniques. The capacity for multiple emitters and detectors on a single chip not only enables parallel measurement for increased throughput but also allows multiple measurements to be performed on each cell as it passes through the system. Several different experiments can be performed simultaneously and throughput demand can be reduced with the facility for error checking. Furthermore, the fast switching times inherent with semiconductor lasers allows the active sections of the device to be reconfigured on a sub-microsecond time scale providing additional functionality. This is demonstrated here in a capillary fill system using pairs of laser/detectors that are operated in pulsed mode and alternated between lasing and detecting in an interleaved manner. Passing cells are alternately interrogated from opposing directions providing information that can be used to correct for differences in lateral cell position and ultimately differentiate blood cell type.

  20. Large-area photodetector with high-sensitivity and broadband spectral response based on composition-graded CdSSe nanowire-chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shuai; Li, Zhishuang; Song, Guangli; Zou, Bingsuo; Wang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Ruibin, E-mail: liuruibin8@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    The nanowire-chip based large-area and broad-band-response photodetector was realized by integrating the ternary bandgap-graded CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} nanowire-chip on proper substrate and optimizing electrode pattern. The actual light-to-dark current ratio (I{sub light}/I{sub dark}) is subject to the substrate type and the electrode pattern, as well the thickness of nanowires. Up to 10{sup 6} light-to-dark current ratio was obtained for the nanowire-chip photodetector with the optimized interdigital electrode parameters (0.5 mm in width, 0.5 mm in pitch), the suitable substrate – mica and appropriate nanowire thickness (70um). Although the carriers transmit from light-generated carrier centers to the electrodes through a complicated and long pathway, the photodetector of as-fabricated nanowire-chip shows much higher photocurrent and photoconductivity due to a higher photocarrier densities exist in the ternary compounds than that in binary CdS and CdSe nanowire and the intersection trap state existing between nanowires enhances the separation of electrons and holes. Uniform and broad photoresponse covering from ultraviolet to around 700 nm is attributed to the graded bandgap of different composition nanowires/nanobelts in the chip-type detector. Especially, the I{sub light}/I{sub dark} of nanowire-chip detector increases with the temperature decrease due to the dark noise and the scattering become lower. The chip detector with composition-graded nanowires shows good photoconductivity at room temperature and low temperature. More important, it can be fabricated by a commercial CVD route, which will satisfy the requirements in many application fields instead of Si-based detector. - Highights: • Macroscale photodetector based on CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} nanowire was fabricated. • Broad-spectrum uniform response and high-sensitivity are presented. • At low temperature the photodetector has better photoconductive property. • Photoconductive property dependent

  1. Magnetic Tunnel Junction-Based On-Chip Microwave Phase and Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Chen, Yunpeng; Xie, Yunsong; Kolodzey, James; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based microwave detector is proposed and investigated. When the MTJ is excited by microwave magnetic fields, the relative angle between the free layer and pinned layer alternates, giving rise to an average resistance change. By measuring the average resistance change, the MTJ can be utilized as a microwave power sensor. Due to the nature of ferromagnetic resonance, the frequency of an incident microwave is directly determined. In addition, by integrating a mixer circuit, the MTJ-based microwave detector can also determine the relative phase between two microwave signals. Thus, the MTJbased microwave detector can be used as an on-chip microwave phase and spectrum analyzer.

  2. Sub-base-pair resolution during DNA separation in an optofluidic chip

    OpenAIRE

    Pollnau, Markus; Hammer, Manfred; Dongre, Chaitanya; Hoekstra, Hugo J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA sequencing in a lab-on-a-chip aims at providing cheap, high-speed analysis of low reagent volumes to, e.g., identify genomic deletions or insertions associated with genetic illnesses. Detecting single base-pair insertions or deletions from DNA fragments in the diagnostically relevant range of 150-1000 base-pairs requires a sizing accuracy of S < 10^-3, while only S < 10^-2 were reported. Here we demonstrate a sizing accuracy of S = 4 x 10^-4, thereby paving the way for the envisaged appli...

  3. On-chip test of the shift register for high-end network switch based on cell-based design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Sekiya, A.; Akahori, A.; Akaike, H.; Fujimaki, A.; Hayakawa, H.; Kameda, Y.; Yorozu, S.; Terai, H.

    2001-12-01

    We have demonstrated the high-speed operation up to 55 GHz with a bias margin of +/-5.5% for a shift register based on the single-flux-quantum logic circuit. The shift register is employed in the rate transfer circuit in high-end network switches that are made up with the cell-based design technique. The on-chip test system was used for measuring the operation frequencies, and the test system itself was built by combining the cells to satisfy the boundary conditions between the test system and the circuit-under-test. As a result, the on-chip test system developed in this study has high flexibility.

  4. On-chip test of the shift register for high-end network switch based on cell-based design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated the high-speed operation up to 55 GHz with a bias margin of ±5.5% for a shift register based on the single-flux-quantum logic circuit. The shift register is employed in the rate transfer circuit in high-end network switches that are made up with the cell-based design technique. The on-chip test system was used for measuring the operation frequencies, and the test system itself was built by combining the cells to satisfy the boundary conditions between the test system and the circuit-under-test. As a result, the on-chip test system developed in this study has high flexibility. (author)

  5. Power consumption optimization and delay based on ant colony algorithm in network-on-chip

    OpenAIRE

    He, Tao; Guo, Yunfei

    2013-01-01

    With a further increase of the number of on-chip devices, the bus structure has not met the requirements. In order to make better communication between each part, the chip designers need to explore a new NoC structure to solve the interconnection of an on-chip device. For the purpose of improving the performance of a network-on-chip without a significant increase in power consumption, the paper proposes a network-on-chip that selects NoC (Network-On-Chip) platform with 2-dimension mesh as the...

  6. A large surface X-ray camera based on XPAD3/CdTe single chip hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, F.; Blanc, N.; Bompard, F.; Boudet, N.; Boursier, Y.; Buton, C.; Clémens, J.-C.; Dawiec, A.; Debarbieux, F.; Delpierre, P.; Dupont, M.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Hustache, S.; Morel, C.; Perez-Ponce, H.; Portal, L.; Vigeolas, E.

    2015-11-01

    The XPAD3 chip bump-bonded to a Si sensor has been widely used in preclinical micro-computed tomography and in synchrotron experiments. Although the XPAD3 chip is linear up to 60 keV, the performance of the XPAD3/Si hybrid detector is limited to energies below 30 keV, for which detection efficiencies remain above 20%. To overcome this limitation on detection efficiency in order to access imaging at higher energies, we decided to develop a camera based on XPAD3 single chips bump-bonded to high-Z CdTe sensors. We will first present the construction of this new camera, from the first tests of the single chip hybrids to the actual mechanical assembly. Then, we will show first images and stability tests performed on the D2AM beam line at ESRF synchrotron facility with the fully assembled camera.

  7. A large surface X-ray camera based on XPAD3/CdTe single chip hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The XPAD3 chip bump-bonded to a Si sensor has been widely used in preclinical micro-computed tomography and in synchrotron experiments. Although the XPAD3 chip is linear up to 60 keV, the performance of the XPAD3/Si hybrid detector is limited to energies below 30 keV, for which detection efficiencies remain above 20%. To overcome this limitation on detection efficiency in order to access imaging at higher energies, we decided to develop a camera based on XPAD3 single chips bump-bonded to high-Z CdTe sensors. We will first present the construction of this new camera, from the first tests of the single chip hybrids to the actual mechanical assembly. Then, we will show first images and stability tests performed on the D2AM beam line at ESRF synchrotron facility with the fully assembled camera

  8. Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, V; Geiselmann, M; Herr, T; Lihachev, G; Pfeiffer, M H P; Gorodetsky, M L; Kippenberg, T J

    2016-01-22

    Optical solitons are propagating pulses of light that retain their shape because nonlinearity and dispersion balance each other. In the presence of higher-order dispersion, optical solitons can emit dispersive waves via the process of soliton Cherenkov radiation. This process underlies supercontinuum generation and is of critical importance in frequency metrology. Using a continuous wave-pumped, dispersion-engineered, integrated silicon nitride microresonator, we generated continuously circulating temporal dissipative Kerr solitons. The presence of higher-order dispersion led to the emission of red-shifted soliton Cherenkov radiation. The output corresponds to a fully coherent optical frequency comb that spans two-thirds of an octave and whose phase we were able to stabilize to the sub-Hertz level. By preserving coherence over a broad spectral bandwidth, our device offers the opportunity to develop compact on-chip frequency combs for frequency metrology or spectroscopy. PMID:26721682

  9. Chip electrochromatographic systems: Novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube and silica monoliths based separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shubhodeep

    2009-12-01

    Miniaturized chemical analysis systems, also know as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices have been rapidly developing over the last decade. Capillary electrochromatography (CEC), a multidimensional separation technique combining capillary electrophoresis (CE) and liquid chromatography (LC) has been of great interest for chip based applications. Preliminary work has been undertaken to develop vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and photopolymerizable silica solgel as novel stationary phase materials for 'chip CEC' separations. Patterned growth of CNTs in a specific location of the channel has been carried out using a solid phase Fe-Al catalyst as well as a vapor deposited ferrocene catalyst. Characterization of the CNT "forests" was achieved using optical microscopy, secondary electron microscopy, high resolution tunneling electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Proof-of-concept applications were demonstrated using reversed phase CEC separations as well as solid phase extraction of a glycosylated protein using concanavilin A immobilized onto the CNT bed. Photopolymerizable silica solgel materials were developed as stationary phase for microfluidic electrochromatographic separations in disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip devices. Effect on morphology and pore size of gels were studied as function of UV and solgel polymerization conditions, porogen, salt additives, geometry and hydrolyzable methoxy-ies. Structural morphologies were studied with Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM). Pore size and pore volumes were characterized by thermal porometry, nitrogen BET adsorptions and differential scanning calorimetry. Computational fluid dynamics and confocal microscopy tools were employed to study the transport of fluids and model analytes. These investigations were directed towards evolving improved strategies for rinsing of uncrosslinked monomers to form porous monoliths as well as to effect a desired separation under a set of electrochromatograhic conditions

  10. Measurement of serum prostate cancer markers using a nanopore thin film based optofluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzghoul, Salah; Hailat, Mohammad; Zivanovic, Sandra; Que, Long; Shah, Girish V

    2016-03-15

    Currently used cancer marker for prostate adenocarcinoma (PC), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), greatly overestimates PC population. Patients with high PSA levels have to undergo unnecessary but physically painful and expensive procedure such as prostate biopsies repeatedly. The reliability of PC test can be greatly increased by finding a protein that is secreted selectively by malignant, but not normal, prostate cells. A recently discovered novel protein, referred as neuroendocrine marker (NEM), is secreted only by malignant prostate cells and released in blood circulation. Although NEM seems to be significantly more reliable based on the data obtained from a limited cohort, currently available NEM ELISA is not suitable for undertaking a large study. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to develop an alternative, label-free assay system that can reliably measure NEM and PSA in patient samples. Herein an optofluidic chip that can reliably detect PSA as well as NEM in patient samples has been developed. The optofluidic chip, which consists of arrayed nanopore-based sensors fabricated from anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) thin film, offers improved sensitivity upon the optimization of the concentration of the detector antibodies immobilized on the sensor surface. The results demonstrate that the chip is reliable, extremely sensitive and requires just 1 µl of patient serum (or even less) to measure PSA and NEM even in a non-cancer individual. Compared with the traditional ELISA for PSA, the nanopore-based sensor assay is 50-100 fold more sensitive, and offers many advantages such as elimination of labeled antigen, need for sophisticated equipment and highly trained individuals. These advantages, along with the low cost, should make the technology suitable for point-of-care application to screen elderly male populations for PC and to monitor the progress of patients undergoing PC treatment. PMID:26457734

  11. A 94-GHz extremely thin metasurface-based BiCMOS on-chip antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, S.; Caster, F; Heydari, P; Capolino, F.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. A novel fully on-chip antenna based on a metasurface fabricated in a 180-nm BiCMOS process is presented. Inspired by the concept of high impedance surface (HIS), this metasurface is not used as a reflector below an antenna as commonly done. Instead, it is used as a radiator by itself. The extremely thin metasurface is composed of a patterned top two metal layers and the ground plane placed in the lowest metal layer in the process. The ground plane on the lowest metal layer of the...

  12. A Novel Magnetic Bead-based Biosensor Using Flip Chip Bonding Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Xiang Chen; Qinghui Jin; Jianlong Zhao; Yuansen Xu

    2006-01-01

    Based on flip-chip packaging, a novel approach towards integrated magnetic bio-separator was designed. The magnetic field and the force on the bead were simulated and analyzed, leading to the optimization of the fabrication parameters of the micro-magnetic unit. The planar coil as an electromagnet was fabricated through electroplating on a single seed layer.The PDMS microfluidic channel was bonded on the inverse side after Si etching. The results presented in this paper provide a novel design and fabrication to approach a microfluidic bio-separation system with magnetic beads.

  13. Integrated Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy chip based on liquid core waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chunhong; Chen, Gang; Chen, Li; Li, Junhui; Liu, Qinghao; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We propose an integrated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) chip based on liquid-core waveguide with total reflection, through which the depression of leaky mode enable a long propagating distance. An Raman enhancement factor for rhodamine 6G of 2.5*105 is obtained, and a excellent repeatability is shown. The peaks in the SERS spectrum of DNA of silkworm clearly illustrate the information of the molecule structure. The integration of the SERS substrate, micro-fluid, and liquid-core wave...

  14. Chip-based device for parallel sorting, amplification, detection, and identification of nucleic acid subsequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Colston, Jr, Billy W.

    2016-08-09

    An apparatus for chip-based sorting, amplification, detection, and identification of a sample having a planar substrate. The planar substrate is divided into cells. The cells are arranged on the planar substrate in rows and columns. Electrodes are located in the cells. A micro-reactor maker produces micro-reactors containing the sample. The micro-reactor maker is positioned to deliver the micro-reactors to the planar substrate. A microprocessor is connected to the electrodes for manipulating the micro-reactors on the planar substrate. A detector is positioned to interrogate the sample contained in the micro-reactors.

  15. Rapid identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis by chip-based continuous flow PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzsch, Michael; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Gärtner, Claudia; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-06-01

    To combat the threat of biological agents like Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis in bioterroristic scenarios requires fast, easy-to-use and safe identification systems. In this study we describe a system for rapid amplification of specific genetic markers for the identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis. Using chip based PCR and continuous flow technology we were able to amplify the targets simultaneously with a 2-step reaction profile within 20 minutes. The subsequent analysis of amplified fragments by standard gel electrophoresis requires another 45 minutes. We were able to detect both pathogens within 75 minutes being much faster than most other nucleic acid amplification technologies.

  16. System-on-Chip Environment: A SpecC-Based Framework for Heterogeneous MPSoC Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dömer Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The constantly growing complexity of embedded systems is a challenge that drives the development of novel design automation techniques. C-based system-level design addresses the complexity challenge by raising the level of abstraction and integrating the design processes for the heterogeneous system components. In this article, we present a comprehensive design framework, the system-on-chip environment (SCE which is based on the influential SpecC language and methodology. SCE implements a top-down system design flow based on a specify-explore-refine paradigm with support for heterogeneous target platforms consisting of custom hardware components, embedded software processors, dedicated IP blocks, and complex communication bus architectures. Starting from an abstract specification of the desired system, models at various levels of abstraction are automatically generated through successive step-wise refinement, resulting in a pin-and cycle-accurate system implementation. The seamless integration of automatic model generation, estimation, and verification tools enables rapid design space exploration and efficient MPSoC implementation. Using a large set of industrial-strength examples with a wide range of target architectures, our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework and show significant productivity gains in design time.

  17. System-on-Chip Environment: A SpecC-Based Framework for Heterogeneous MPSoC Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Gajski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constantly growing complexity of embedded systems is a challenge that drives the development of novel design automation techniques. C-based system-level design addresses the complexity challenge by raising the level of abstraction and integrating the design processes for the heterogeneous system components. In this article, we present a comprehensive design framework, the system-on-chip environment (SCE which is based on the influential SpecC language and methodology. SCE implements a top-down system design flow based on a specify-explore-refine paradigm with support for heterogeneous target platforms consisting of custom hardware components, embedded software processors, dedicated IP blocks, and complex communication bus architectures. Starting from an abstract specification of the desired system, models at various levels of abstraction are automatically generated through successive step-wise refinement, resulting in a pin-and cycle-accurate system implementation. The seamless integration of automatic model generation, estimation, and verification tools enables rapid design space exploration and efficient MPSoC implementation. Using a large set of industrial-strength examples with a wide range of target architectures, our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework and show significant productivity gains in design time.

  18. In vivo continuous glucose monitoring using a chip based near infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Sigloch, S.; Frese, I.; Welzel, K.; Göddel, M.; Klotzbücher, T.

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes is a serious health condition considered to be one of the major healthcare epidemics of modern era. An effective treatment of this disease can be only achieved by reliable continuous information on blood glucose levels. In this work we present a minimally invasive, chip-based near infrared (NIR) sensor, combined with microdialysis, for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The sensor principle is based on difference absorption spectroscopy in the 1st overtone band of the near infrared spectrum. The device features a multi-emitter LED and InGaAs-Photodiodes, which are located on a single electronic board (non-disposable part), connected to a personal computer via Bluetooth. The disposable part consists of a chip containing the fluidic connections for microdialysis, two fluidic channels acting as optical transmission cells and total internally reflecting mirrors for in- and out-coupling of the LED light to the chip and to the detectors. The sensor is combined with an intraveneous microdialysis to separate the glucose from the cells and proteins in the blood and operates without any chemical consumption. In vitro measurements showed a linear relationship between glucose concentration and the integrated difference signal with a coefficient of determination of 99 % in the relevant physiological concentration range from 0 to 400 mg/dl. In vivo measurements on 10 patients showed that the NIR-CGM sensor data reflects the blood reference values adequately, if a proper calibration and signal drift compensation is applied. The MARE (mean absolute relative error) value taken over all patient data is 13.8 %. The best achieved MARE value is at 4.8 %, whereas the worst is 25.8 %, with a standard deviation of 5.5 %.

  19. Multilayer based lab-on-a-chip-systems for substance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Frank; Grünzner, Stefan; Schmieder, Florian; Busek, Mathias; Klotzbach, Udo; Franke, Volker

    2015-03-01

    An integrated technology chain for laser-microstructuring and bonding of polymer foils for fast, flexible and low-cost manufacturing of multilayer lab-on-a-chip devices especially for complex cell and tissue culture applications, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-cells ratio, was developed and established. Initially the microfluidic system is constructively divided into individual layers which are formed by separate foils or plates. Based on the functional boundary conditions and the necessary properties of each layer the corresponding foils and plates are chosen. In the third step the foils and plates are laser microstructured and functionalized from both sides. In the fourth and last manufacturing step the multiple plates and foils are joined using thermal diffusion bonding. Membranes for pneumatically driven valves and micropumps where bonded via chemical surface modification. Based on the established lab-on-a-chip platform for perfused cell-based assays, a multilayer microfluidic system with two parallel connected cell culture chambers was successfully implemented.

  20. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP. - Highlights: • We apply magnetoresistive sensors to study solid-surface hybridization kinetics of DNA. • We measure DNA melting profiles for perfectly matching DNA duplexes and for a single base mismatch. • We present a procedure to correct for temperature dependencies of the sensor output. • We reliably extract melting temperatures for the DNA hybrids. • We demonstrate direct measurement of differential binding signal for two probes on a single sensor

  1. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Giovanni, E-mail: giori@nanotech.dtu.dk; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F., E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk

    2015-04-15

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP. - Highlights: • We apply magnetoresistive sensors to study solid-surface hybridization kinetics of DNA. • We measure DNA melting profiles for perfectly matching DNA duplexes and for a single base mismatch. • We present a procedure to correct for temperature dependencies of the sensor output. • We reliably extract melting temperatures for the DNA hybrids. • We demonstrate direct measurement of differential binding signal for two probes on a single sensor.

  2. Soliton electric generators based on conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodide doping produces charge carriers in π-conjugated polymers. Motivated by the SSH theoretical model of solitons in one-dimensional conjugated polymers, chemical doping of polyacetylene film is experimentally carried out to generate solitons. An Arago-type wheel electric generator is assembled based on the doped polyacetylene in place of a copper or aluminium plate. This is the first report of electric generation in conducting polymers based on solitons

  3. On-chip visible-to-infrared supercontinuum generation with more than 495 THz spectral bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epping, J.P.; Hellwig, T.; Hoekman, M.; Mateman, R.; Leinse, A.; Heideman, R.G.; Rees, van A.; Slot, van der P.J.M.; Lee, C.J.; Fallnich, C.; Boller, K-J.

    2015-01-01

    We report ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation in high-confinement Si3N4 integrated optical waveguides. The spectrum extends through the visible (from 470 nm) to the infrared spectral range (2130 nm) comprising a spectral bandwidth wider than 495 THz, which is the widest supercontinuum spectrum

  4. Integrated chip-based physiometer for automated fish embryo toxicity biotests in pharmaceutical screening and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Hall, Chris J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) models of human diseases have recently emerged as innovative experimental systems in drug discovery and molecular pathology. None of the currently available technologies, however, allow for automated immobilization and treatment of large numbers of spatially encoded transgenic embryos during real-time developmental analysis. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of an integrated 3D microfluidic chip-based system fabricated directly in the poly(methyl methacrylate) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. At its core, the device utilizes an array of 3D micromechanical traps to actively capture and immobilize single embryos using a low-pressure suction. It also features built-in piezoelectric microdiaphragm pumps, embryo-trapping suction manifold, drug delivery manifold, and optically transparent indium tin oxide heating element to provide optimal temperature during embryo development. Furthermore, we present design of the proof-of-concept off-chip electronic interface equipped with robotic servo actuator driven stage, innovative servomotor-actuated pinch valves, and embedded miniaturized fluorescent USB microscope. Our results showed that the innovative device has 100% embryo-trapping efficiency while supporting normal embryo development for up to 72 hr in a confined microfluidic environment. We also showed data that this microfluidic system can be readily applied to kinetic analysis of a panel of investigational antiangiogenic agents in transgenic zebrafish lines. The optical transparency and embryo immobilization allow for convenient visualization of developing vasculature patterns in response to drug treatment without the need for specimen re-positioning. The integrated electronic interfaces bring the lab-on-a-chip systems a step closer to realization of complete analytical automation. PMID:24664821

  5. Feasibility study of a green energy powered thermoelectric chip based air conditioner for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional compressed-refrigerant air conditioning systems consume substantial energy that may reduce the driving performance and cruising mileage of electric vehicles considerably. It is crucial to design a new climate control system, using a direct energy conversion principle, to further aid in the commercialization of modern electric vehicles. A solid state air conditioner model consisting on TECs (thermoelectric chips) as the load, DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells) as the renewable energy source and high power LiBs (lithium-ion batteries) as an energy storage device are considered for a personal mobility vehicle. The power management between the main power net and the solid state air conditioner interface is designed with an outer proportional-integral controller and an inner passivity based current controller with a loss included model for perfect tracking. This model is intended to comprise thermal and electrical elements which can be tunable for performance benchmarking and optimization of a solid state air conditioning system. Dynamic performance simulations of the solid-state air conditioner are performed, alongside guidelines for feasibility. - Highlights: • Alternative model extraction for dye sensitized solar cells. • Improved and computationally fast model for the cabin air temperature dynamics. • Euler–Lagrange loss included modeling of a buck converter. • Loss-included passivity based inner loop current control. • The thermoelectric chip air conditioner is tested in simulated cooling/heating scenarios

  6. Support for Programming Models in Network-on-Chip-based Many-core Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth

    This thesis addresses aspects of support for programming models in Network-on- Chip-based many-core architectures. The main focus is to consider architectural support for a plethora of programming models in a single system. The thesis has three main parts. The first part considers parallelization...... models to be supported by a single architecture. The architecture features a specialized network interface processor which allows extensive configurability of the memory system. Based on this architecture, a detailed implementation of the cache coherent shared memory programming model is presented...... and scalability in an image processing application with the aim of providing insight into parallel programming issues. The second part proposes and presents the tile-based Clupea many-core architecture, which has the objective of providing configurable support for programming models to allow different programming...

  7. Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vo, T.D.; Hu, Hao; Galili, Michael; Palushani, Evarist; Xu, Jing; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Madden, S.J.; Choi, D.Y.; Bulla, D.A.P.; Pelusi, M.D.; Schröder, J.; Luther-Davies, B.; Eggleton, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate chip-based Tbaud optical signal processing for all-optical performance monitoring, switching and demultiplexing based on the instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity in a dispersion-engineered As_2S_3 planar waveguide. At the Tbaud transmitter, we use a THz bandwidth radio-frequency spectrum...

  8. Graphene Plasmonic Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Gorbach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using perturbation expansion of Maxwell equations with the nonlinear boundary condition, a generic propagation equation is derived to describe nonlinear effects, including spectral broadening of pulses, in graphene surface plasmon (GSP waveguides. A considerable spectral broadening of an initial 100 fs pulse with 0.5 mW peak power in a 25 nm wide and 150 nm long waveguide is demonstrated. The generated supercontinuum covers the spectral range from 6 μm to 13 μm .

  9. Electrochemical chip-based genomagnetic assay for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, Martin; Durikova, Helena; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Anton, Milan; Jandakova, Eva; Hrstka, Roman

    2016-09-15

    Cervical cancer, being the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, predominantly originates from a persistent infection with a high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Detection of DNA sequences from these high-risk strains, mostly HPV-16 and HPV-18, represents promising strategy for early screening, which would help to identify women with higher risk of cervical cancer. In developing countries, inadequate screening options lead to disproportionately high mortality rates, making a fast and inexpensive detection schemes highly important. Electrochemical sensors and assays offer an alternative to current methods of detection. We developed an electrochemical-chip based assay, in which target HPV DNA is captured via magnetic bead-modified DNA probes, followed by an antidigoxigenin-peroxidase detection system at screen-printed carbon electrode chips, enabling parallel measurements of eight samples simultaneously. We show sensitive detection in attomoles of HPV DNA, selective discrimination between HPV-16 and HPV-18 and good reproducibility. Most importantly, we show application of the assay into both cancer cell lines and cervical smears from patients. The electrochemical results correlated well with standard methods, making this assay potentially applicable in clinical practice. PMID:27132004

  10. Low power, chip-based stimulated Brillouin scattering microwave photonic filter with ultrahigh selectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Marpaung, David; Pagani, Mattia; Pant, Ravi; Choi, Duk-Yong; Luther-Davies, Barry; Madden, Steve J; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Highly selective and reconfigurable microwave filters are of great importance in radio-frequency signal processing. Microwave photonic (MWP) filters are of particular interest, as they offer flexible reconfiguration and an order of magnitude higher frequency tuning range than electronic filters. However, all MWP filters to date have been limited by trade-offs between key parameters such as tuning range, resolution, and suppression. This problem is exacerbated in the case of integrated MWP filters, blocking the path to compact, high performance filters. Here we show the first chip-based MWP band-stop filter with ultra-high suppression, high resolution in the MHz range, and 0-30 GHz frequency tuning. This record performance was achieved using an ultra-low Brillouin gain from a compact photonic chip and a novel approach of optical resonance-assisted RF signal cancellation. The results point to new ways of creating energy-efficient and reconfigurable integrated MWP signal processors for wireless communications an...

  11. Accessible morphohistochemical labs-on-a-chip based on different counting chambers' grids: microfluidic morphodynamical workstations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradov O.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessible design of autonomous labs on the chip which do not require a special reader is developed. The proposed device uses hemocytometric counting chambers for determinati on of concentration of cells, isolated by a special device for cell sedimentation. A system of automated Rf-identification of chambers in the long-term storage is proposed which provides new morphometric data at various stages of cultivation or biomonitoring. A ne w diffraction method of calcu-lation and fingerprinting of cellular structures in varying environmental conditions is described. Experimental data on the pilot testing of Fuchs-Rosenthal, Buerker, Neubauer, Makler and Thoma chambers fo r the described technique is given. The applicability of these devices for coherent-d ensitometric indication either of concen tration dynamics in cell culture or suspen -sion or morphogenetic processes in them for laminar conditions is shown. A self-learning program for cellular pattern recog-nition and relational cytophotometry based on lab on the chip w ith an object-micrometric calib ration relative to the counting net is demonstrated. A hybrid in vitro / in silico met hod of morphogenesis monitoring in cell cultures is introduced.

  12. Performance evaluation of a routing algorithm based on Hopfield Neural Network for network-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelpoor, Jamal; Ghafouri, Abdollah

    2015-12-01

    Network on chip (NoC) has emerged as a solution to overcome the system on chip growing complexity and design challenges. A proper routing algorithm is a key issue of an NoC design. An appropriate routing method balances load across the network channels and keeps path length as short as possible. This survey investigates the performance of a routing algorithm based on Hopfield Neural Network. It is a dynamic programming to provide optimal path and network monitoring in real time. The aim of this article is to analyse the possibility of using a neural network as a router. The algorithm takes into account the path with the lowest delay (cost) form source to destination. In other words, the path a message takes from source to destination depends on network traffic situation at the time and it is the fastest one. The simulation results show that the proposed approach improves average delay, throughput and network congestion efficiently. At the same time, the increase in power consumption is almost negligible.

  13. Fabrication and demonstration of 1 × 8 silicon–silica multi-chip switch based on optical phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayose, Satomi; Hashizume, Yasuaki; Itoh, Mikitaka

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 1 × 8 silicon–silica hybrid thermo-optic switch based on an optical phased array using a multi-chip integration technique. The switch consists of a silicon chip with optical phase shifters and two silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) chips composed of optical couplers and fiber connections. We adopted a rib waveguide as the silicon waveguide to reduce the coupling loss and increase the alignment tolerance for coupling between silicon and silica waveguides. As a result, we achieved a fast switching response of 81 µs, a high extinction ratio of over 18 dB and a low insertion loss of 4.9–8.1 dB including a silicon–silica coupling loss of 0.5 ± 0.3 dB at a wavelength of 1.55 µm.

  14. On-chip generation of monodisperse giant unilamellar lipid vesicles containing quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youn-Hee; Lee, Do-Hyun; Um, Eujin; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-05-01

    Monodispersed lipid vesicles have been used as a drug delivery vehicle and a biochemical reactor. To generate monodispersed lipid vesicles in the nano- to micrometer size range, an extrusion step should be included in conventional hand-shaking method of lipid vesicle synthesis. In addition, lipid vesicles as a drug carrier still need to be improved to effectively encapsulate concentrated biomolecules such as cells, proteins, and target drugs. To overcome these limitations, this paper reports a new microfluidic platform for continuous synthesis of small-sized (∼10 μm) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing quantum dots (QDs) as a nanosized model drug. To generate GUVs, we introduced an additional cross-flow to break vesicles into small size. 1,2 - dimyristoyl-sn-glycero - 3 - phosphocholine (DMPC) in an octanol-chloroform mixture was used in the construction of self-assembled membrane. Consequently, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of monodispersed GUVs with 7-12 μm diameter containing QDs. The proposed synthesis method of cell-sized GUVs would be highly desirable for applications such as multipurpose drug encapsulation and delivery. PMID:26920999

  15. Trip Generation Model Based on Destination Attractiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Liya; GUAN Hongzhi; YAN Hai

    2008-01-01

    Traditional trip generation forecasting methods use unified average trip generation rates to determine trip generation volumes in various traffic zones without considering the individual characteristics of each traffic zone.Therefore,the results can have significant errors.To reduce the forecasting error produced by uniform trip generation rates for different traffic zones,the behavior of each traveler was studied instead of the characteristics of the traffic zone.This paper gives a method for calculating the trip efficiency and the effect of traffic zones combined with a destination selection model based on disaggregate theory for trip generation.Beijing data is used with the trip generation method to predict trip volumes.The results show that the disaggregate model in this paper is more accurate than the traditional method.An analysis of the factors influencing traveler behavior and destination selection shows that the attractiveness of the traffic zone strongly affects the trip generation volume.

  16. Physically Based Terrain Generation : Procedural Heightmap Generation Using Plate Tectonics

    OpenAIRE

    Viitanen, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the usefulness of the theory of plate tectonics in procedural terrain generation. The objective is to produce a model that's based on plate tectonics and use it to investigate the benefits and drawbacks of simulating the movement and dynamics of tectonic plates. The study briefly reviews the procedural methods that are currently used in the game and film industries to produce artificial terrain and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. Utilization of plate tectoni...

  17. Enhancement of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance polymer based biosensor chips using well-defined glycopolymers for lectin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Wong, Kok Hou; Granville, Anthony Michael

    2016-01-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer based Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor chips were successfully fabricated using glycopolymer brushes carrying glucose moieties for the detection of concanavalin A. Poly(pentafluorostyrene), with pre-determined polymer chain lengths, were synthesized via a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization technique. The synthesized poly(pentafluorostyrene), was subsequently converted into glycopolymers via a para-fluoro-thiol "click" reaction and grafted onto the surface of sensor chips. The "glycocluster effect" induced by pendent carbohydrate moieties enabled a stronger affinity for concanavalin A binding, which resulted in a dramatic expansion of the sensors' response range. It was discovered that the longer polymer brushes did not guarantee additional enhancements for the sensor chips. Instead, they could lead to higher detection limits. In this study, the limit of detection for the sensor chips was discovered to be 1.3nmolL(-1) with a saturated response at 1054.2nmolL(-1). In addition to the superior performance, the capabilities of the reported sensor chips can be easily manipulated to detect a diverse range of analytes by "clicking" various sensing elements onto the polymer brushes. PMID:26433474

  18. On-chip frequency comb generation at visible wavelengths via simultaneous second- and third-order optical nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven; Luke, Kevin; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Cardenas, Jaime; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Microresonator-based frequency comb generation at or near visible wavelengths would enable applications in precise optical clocks, frequency metrology, and biomedical imaging. Comb generation in the visible has been limited by strong material dispersion and loss at short wavelengths, and only very narrowband comb generation has reached below 800 nm. We use the second-order optical nonlinearity in an integrated high-Q silicon nitride ring resonator cavity to convert a near-infrared frequency comb into the visible range. We simultaneously demonstrate parametric frequency comb generation in the near-infrared, second-harmonic generation, and sum-frequency generation. We measure 17 comb lines converted to visible wavelengths extending to 765 nm. PMID:25401803

  19. Chip Multithreaded Consistency Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Song Li; Dan-Dan Huan; Wei-Wu Hu; Zhi-Min Tang

    2008-01-01

    Multithreaded technique is the developing trend of high performance processor. Memory consistency model is essential to the correctness, performance and complexity of multithreaded processor. The chip multithreaded consistency model adapting to multithreaded processor is proposed in this paper. The restriction imposed on memory event ordering by chip multithreaded consistency is presented and formalized. With the idea of critical cycle built by Wei-Wu Hu, we prove that the proposed chip multithreaded consistency model satisfies the criterion of correct execution of sequential consistency model. Chip multithreaded consistency model provides a way of achieving high performance compared with sequential consistency model and ensures the compatibility of software that the execution result in multithreaded processor is the same as the execution result in uniprocessor. The implementation strategy of chip multithreaded consistency model in Godson-2 SMT processor is also proposed. Godson-2 SMT processor supports chip multithreaded consistency model correctly by exception scheme based on the sequential memory access queue of each thread.

  20. Acoustically-driven thread-based tuneable gradient generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesan, Shwathy; Rezk, Amgad R; Cheng, Kai Wei; Chan, Peggy P Y; Yeo, Leslie Y

    2016-08-01

    Thread-based microfluidics offer a simple, easy to use, low-cost, disposable and biodegradable alternative to conventional microfluidic systems. While it has recently been shown that such thread networks facilitate manipulation of fluid samples including mixing, flow splitting and the formation of concentration gradients, the passive capillary transport of fluid through the thread does not allow for precise control due to the random orientation of cellulose fibres that make up the thread, nor does it permit dynamic manipulation of the flow. Here, we demonstrate the use of high frequency sound waves driven from a chip-scale device that drives rapid, precise and uniform convective transport through the thread network. In particular, we show that it is not only possible to generate a stable and continuous concentration gradient in a serial dilution and recombination network, but also one that can be dynamically tuned, which cannot be achieved solely with passive capillary transport. Additionally, we show a proof-of-concept in which such spatiotemporal gradient generation can be achieved with the entire thread network embedded in a three-dimensional hydrogel construct to more closely mimic the in vivo tissue microenvironment in microfluidic chemotaxis studies and cell culture systems, which is then employed to demonstrate the effect of such gradients on the proliferation of cells within the hydrogel. PMID:27334420

  1. Hot embossed polyethylene through-hole chips for bead-based microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jie; Du, Nan; Ou, Tina; Floriano, Pierre N.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; McDevitt, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a growth of interest in the translation of microfluidic systems into real-world clinical practice, especially for use in point-of-care or near patient settings. While initial fabrication advances in microfluidics involved mainly the etching of silicon and glass, the economics of scaling of these materials is not amendable for point-of-care usage where single-test applications forces cost considerations to be kept low and throughput high. As such, a materials base more consistent with point-of-care needs is required. In this manuscript, the fabrication of a hot embossed, through-hole low-density polyethylene ensembles derived from an anisotropically etched silicon wafer is discussed. This semi-opaque polymer that can be easily sterilized and recycled provides low background noise for fluorescence measurements and yields more affordable cost than other thermoplastics commonly used for microfluidic applications such as cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). To fabrication through-hole microchips from this alternative material for microfluidics, a fabrication technique that uses a high-temperature, high-pressure resistant mold is described. This aluminum-based epoxy mold, serving as the positive master mold for embossing, is casted over etched arrays of pyramidal pits in a silicon wafer. Methods of surface treatment of the wafer prior to casting and PDMS casting of the epoxy are discussed to preserve the silicon wafer for future use. Changes in the thickness of polyethylene are observed for varying embossing temperatures. The methodology described herein can quickly fabricate 20 disposable, single use chips in less than 30 minutes with the ability to scale up 4x by using multiple molds simultaneously. When coupled as a platform supporting porous bead sensors, as in the recently developed Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip, this bead chip system can achieve limits of detection, for the cardiac biomarker C-reactive protein, of 0.3 ng/mL, thereby

  2. Scalable parallel physical random number generator based on a superluminescent LED

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaowen; Murphy, Thomas E; Roy, Rajarshi

    2011-01-01

    We describe an optoelectronic system for simultaneously generating parallel, independent streams of random bits using spectrally separated noise signals obtained from a single optical source. Using a pair of non-overlapping spectral filters and a fiber-coupled superluminescent light-emitting diode (SLED), we produced two independent 10 Gb/s random bit streams, for a cumulative generation rate of 20 Gb/s. The system relies principally on chip-based optoelectronic components that could be integrated in a compact, economical package.

  3. Microring resonator-based optical router for photonic networks-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihua, Yu; Qi, Zhang; Xin, Jin; Juan, Zhao; Hadi, Baghsiahi; Selviah, D. R.

    2016-07-01

    We report the design and analysis of a non-blocking microring resonator-based optical switched router, which can be used as a switch node to construct a large photonic routing network on chips. The proposed optical router has sixteen microrings, fourteen crossings and four 90° waveguide bends, which could be tuned through the thermo-optic (TO) or electro-optic (EO) effect. Compared with a previously described 5 × 5 optical switching router, our router comprises fewer microring resonators (MRRs), crossings and bends, which results in a more compact design, a higher switching speed, a lower loss and a lower optical power consumption. In addition, all the rings operate at the same wavelength making it scalable to a network of any size.

  4. On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is emerging as an appealing application of mid-infrared frequency combs for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, as it leverages on the unique coherence properties of frequency combs. Here, we present an on-chip dual-comb source based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency combs. Control of the combs repetition and offset frequencies is obtained by integrating micro-heaters next to each laser. We show that a full control of the dual-comb system is possible, by measuring a multi-heterodyne beating corresponding to an optical bandwidth of 32 cm−1 centered at 1330 cm−1 (7.52 μm), demonstrating that this device represents a critical step towards compact dual-comb systems

  5. On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, G.; Wolf, J.; Kazakov, D.; Süess, M. J.; Hugi, A.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.

    2015-12-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is emerging as an appealing application of mid-infrared frequency combs for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, as it leverages on the unique coherence properties of frequency combs. Here, we present an on-chip dual-comb source based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency combs. Control of the combs repetition and offset frequencies is obtained by integrating micro-heaters next to each laser. We show that a full control of the dual-comb system is possible, by measuring a multi-heterodyne beating corresponding to an optical bandwidth of 32 cm-1 centered at 1330 cm-1 (7.52 μm), demonstrating that this device represents a critical step towards compact dual-comb systems.

  6. Tunable ultracompact chip-integrated multichannel filter based on plasmon-induced transparencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale multichannel filter is realized in plasmonic circuits directly, which consists of four plasmonic nanocavities coupled via a plasmonic waveguide etched in a gold film. The feature device size is only 1.35 μm, which is reduced by five orders of magnitude compared with previous reports. The optical channels are formed by transparency windows of plasmon-induced transparencies. A shift of 45 nm in the central wavelengths of optical channels is obtained when the plasmonic coupled-nanocavities are covered with a 100-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) layer. This work opens up the possibility for the realization of solid quantum chips based on plasmonic circuits.

  7. Characterisation of Flavonoid Aglycones by Negative Ion Chip-Based Nanospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Gates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are one of the most important classes of natural products having a wide variety of biological activities. There is wide interest in a range of medical and dietary applications, and having a rapid, reliable method for structural elucidation is essential. In this study a range of flavonoid standards are investigated by chip-based negative ion nanospray mass spectrometry. It was found that the different classes of flavonoid studied have a combination of distinct neutral losses from the precursor ion [M-H]− along with characteristic low-mass ions. By looking only for this distinct pattern of product ions, it is possible to determine the class of flavonoid directly. This methodology is tested here by the analysis of a green tea extract, where the expected flavonoids were readily identified, along with quercetin, which is shown to be present at only about 2% of the most intense ion in the spectrum.

  8. On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villares, G., E-mail: gustavo.villares@phys.ethz.ch; Wolf, J.; Kazakov, D.; Süess, M. J.; Beck, M.; Faist, J., E-mail: jfaist@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Hugi, A. [IRsweep GmbH, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-21

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is emerging as an appealing application of mid-infrared frequency combs for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, as it leverages on the unique coherence properties of frequency combs. Here, we present an on-chip dual-comb source based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency combs. Control of the combs repetition and offset frequencies is obtained by integrating micro-heaters next to each laser. We show that a full control of the dual-comb system is possible, by measuring a multi-heterodyne beating corresponding to an optical bandwidth of 32 cm{sup −1} centered at 1330 cm{sup −1} (7.52 μm), demonstrating that this device represents a critical step towards compact dual-comb systems.

  9. An area-efficient network interface for a TDM-based Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Kasapaki, Evangelia; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Network interfaces (NIs) are used in multi-core systems where they connect processors, memories, and other IP-cores to a packet switched Network-on-Chip (NOC). The functionality of a NI is to bridge between the read/write transaction interfaces used by the cores and the packet-streaming interface...... used by the routers and links in the NOC. The paper addresses the design of a NI for a NOC that uses time division multiplexing (TDM). By keeping the essence of TDM in mind, we have developed a new area-efficient NI micro-architecture. The new design completely eliminates the need for FIFO buffers...... and credit based flow control - resources which are reported to account for 50–85% of the area in existing NI designs. The paper discusses the design considerations, presents the new NI micro-architecture, and reports area figures for a range of implementations....

  10. All-optical modulator based on a ferrofluid core metal cladding waveguide chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel optical intensity modulator based on the combination of a symmetrical metal cladding optical waveguide (SMCW) and ferrofluid, where the ferrofluid is sealed in the waveguide to act as a guiding layer. The light matter interaction in the ferrofluid film leads to the formation of a regular nanoparticle pattern, which changes the phase match condition of the ultrahigh order modes in return. When two lasers are incident on the same spot of the waveguide chip, experiments illustrate all-optical modulation of one laser beam by adjusting the intensity of the other laser. A possible theoretical explanation may be due to the optical trapping and Soret effect since the phenomenon is considerable only when the control laser is effectively coupled into the waveguide. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Y.; Ma, J. X.; Li, C. G.; Wang, H. X.

    2014-04-01

    Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2-10.4% and 100-107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis.

  12. Chip-Based Measurements of Brownian Relaxation of Magnetic Beads Using a Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Snakenborg, Detlef;

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple 'click-on' fluidic system with integrated electrical contacts, which is suited for electrical measurements on chips in microfluidic systems. We show that microscopic magnetic field sensors based on the planar Hall effect can be used for detecting the complex magnetic response...

  13. PMMA to SU-8 Bonding for Polymer Based Lab-on -a-chip Systems with Integrated Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    An adhesive bonding technique for wafer-level sealing of SU-8 based lab-on-a-chip microsystems with integrated optical components is presented. Microfluidic channels and optical components, e.g. waveguides, are fabricated in cross-linked SU-8 and sealed with a Pyrex glass substrate by means of an...

  14. Optimizing design of triplexer chip with low insert loss and high isolation based on planar lightwave circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Design optimization of a novel integrated triplexer based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) for fiber-to-the-home applications is described. The two-mode interference coupler and Mach-Zehnder interference are used to construct the filter chip.Simulation results of high isolation and low insertion loss are gotten for proposed design. Technique tolerance is improved for fabricating device.

  15. Advances in OLED/OPD-based spectrometer on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Eeshita; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    We describe ongoing advances toward achieving an integrated all-organic spectrometer on a chip. To this end, 2-dimensional combinatorial arrays of microcavity (μc) organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with systematically varying optical cavity lengths were fabricated on a single chip by changing the thickness of different organic and/or spacer layers sandwiched between the two metal electrodes. The latter, one of which is semitransparent, form the cavity. The tunable and narrower emissions from the μcOLEDs serve as excitation sources of varying wavelength for monitoring light absorption or emission. For each wavelength, the light from the μcOLED is partially absorbed by the sample under study and the transmitted light (or the light emitted by an electronically excited sample) is detected by a photodetector (PD). To obtain a compact monitor, an organic PD (OPD) is fabricated and integrated with the μcOLED array. We show the potential of encompassing a broader wavelength range by using μcOLEDs based on different emitting layers. The OPD used to realize the first all-organic integrated spectrometer described here is based on P3HT:PCBM, though more sensitive OPDs we utilized in sensing applications are expected to improve the spectrometers' performance. The utility of this all-organic μcOLED/OPD spectrometer is shown for monitoring the absorption spectra of P3HT and Alexa Fluor 405 films. The results show excellent agreement with the absorption spectra obtained with a commercial Ocean Optics spectrometer.

  16. Fabrication LSPR sensor chip of Ag NPs and their biosensor application based on interparticle coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor of silver nanoparticles on hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin film were synthetized by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD. • Samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, AFM, and UV visible. • DNA primer at fM concentration was detected based on breaking of inter-particles coupling. • Dipolar plasmon of isolated Ag NPs, coupled Ag NPs plasmons, in-plane and out-plane coupling, and quadrupole plasmon modes were considered to explain biosensor properties. • The initial response, wavelength shift sensitivity, and response time of LSPR sensors were compared by morphology. - Abstract: We introduce a simple method to synthesize localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor chip of Ag NPs on the hydrogenated amorphous carbon by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the content of Ag and C atoms. X-ray diffraction profile and atomic force microscopy indicate that the Ag NPs have fcc crystal structure and spherical shape and by increasing deposition time, particle sizes do not vary and only Ag NPs aggregation occurs, resulting in LSPR wavelength shift. Firstly, by increasing Ag NPs content, in-plan interparticles coupling is dominant and causes redshift in LSPR. At the early stage of agglomeration, out-plane coupling occurs and in-plane coupling is reduced, resulting a blueshift in the LSPR. By further increasing of Ag NPs content, agglomeration is completed on the substrate and in-plan coupling rises, resulting significant redshift in the LSPR. Results were used to implement biosensor application of chips. Detection of DNA primer at fM concentration was achieved based on breaking interparticles coupling of Ag NPs. A significant wavelength shift sensitivity of 30 nm and a short response time of 30 min were obtained, where both of these are prerequisite for biosensor applications

  17. Fabrication LSPR sensor chip of Ag NPs and their biosensor application based on interparticle coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodselahi, T., E-mail: t_ghodselahi@yahoo.com [Nano Mabna Iranian Inc., PO Box 1676664116, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neishaboorynejad, T. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arsalani, S. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor of silver nanoparticles on hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin film were synthetized by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD. • Samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, AFM, and UV visible. • DNA primer at fM concentration was detected based on breaking of inter-particles coupling. • Dipolar plasmon of isolated Ag NPs, coupled Ag NPs plasmons, in-plane and out-plane coupling, and quadrupole plasmon modes were considered to explain biosensor properties. • The initial response, wavelength shift sensitivity, and response time of LSPR sensors were compared by morphology. - Abstract: We introduce a simple method to synthesize localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor chip of Ag NPs on the hydrogenated amorphous carbon by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the content of Ag and C atoms. X-ray diffraction profile and atomic force microscopy indicate that the Ag NPs have fcc crystal structure and spherical shape and by increasing deposition time, particle sizes do not vary and only Ag NPs aggregation occurs, resulting in LSPR wavelength shift. Firstly, by increasing Ag NPs content, in-plan interparticles coupling is dominant and causes redshift in LSPR. At the early stage of agglomeration, out-plane coupling occurs and in-plane coupling is reduced, resulting a blueshift in the LSPR. By further increasing of Ag NPs content, agglomeration is completed on the substrate and in-plan coupling rises, resulting significant redshift in the LSPR. Results were used to implement biosensor application of chips. Detection of DNA primer at fM concentration was achieved based on breaking interparticles coupling of Ag NPs. A significant wavelength shift sensitivity of 30 nm and a short response time of 30 min were obtained, where both of these are prerequisite for biosensor applications.

  18. Dye-based coatings for hydrophobic valves and their application to polymer labs-on-a-chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a method for the selective surface patterning of microfluidic chips with hydrophobic fluoropolymers which is demonstrated by the fabrication of hydrophobic valves via dispensing. It enables efficient optical quality control for the surface patterning thus permitting the low-cost production of highly reproducible hydrophobic valves. Specifically, different dyes for fluoropolymers enabling visual quality control (QC) are investigated, and two fluoropolymer-solvent-dye solutions based on fluorescent quantum dots (QD) and carbon black (CB) are presented in detail. The latter creates superhydrophobic surfaces on arbitrary substrates, e.g. chips made from cyclic olefin copolymer (COC, water contact angle = 157.9°), provides good visibility for the visual QC in polymer labs-on-a-chip and increases the burst pressures of the hydrophobic valves. Finally, an application is presented which aims at the on-chip amplification of mRNA based on defined flow control by hydrophobic valves is presented. Here, the optimization based on QC in combination with the Teflon-CB coating improves the burst pressure reproducibility from 14.5% down to 6.1% compared to Teflon-coated valves.

  19. On-chip interdigitated supercapacitor based on nano-porous gold/manganese oxide nanowires hybrid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid development of micro-sized electronics has aroused demand for on-chip energy storage devices of high reliability, stability and performance. Micro fabrication technology has now enabled planar supercapacitors (SCs), based on various electrode materials, to be prepared onto a chip for a variety of applications. Nano-porous metal/manganese oxide hybrid electrode with enhanced conductivity and capacitive performance has been proven to be a promising candidate for SCs but has not yet been utilized for interdigitated on-chip energy storage. Herein, we demonstrate a scalable preparation of nano-porous gold/manganese oxide nanowires thin film electrode material, which can be further fabricated to on-chip interdigitated all-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon wafers so that they can be integrated with MEMS or CMOS. Also the nucleation and growth mechanism of manganese oxide nanowires on nano-porous gold has been investigated. Remarkably, the miniaturized SCs based on the nano-porous gold/manganese oxide nanowires hybrid material exhibits excellent cycle stability and superior frequency response (4 ms) and demonstrates energy density of 55 μWh cm−3 and power density of 3.4 W cm−3, which is relatively high compared with other manganese oxide based supercapacitors

  20. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Karen Skotte; Wolff, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible...

  1. Trace-Based Code Generation for Model-Based Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Kanstrén, T.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.-G.

    2009-01-01

    Paper Submitted for review at the Eighth International Conference on Generative Programming and Component Engineering. Model-based testing can be a powerful means to generate test cases for the system under test. However, creating a useful model for model-based testing requires expertise in the (formal) modeling language of the used tool and the general concept of modeling the system under test for effective test generation. A commonly used modeling notation is to describe the model through a...

  2. Trace-Based Code Generation for Model-Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanstrén, T.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.-G.

    2009-01-01

    Paper Submitted for review at the Eighth International Conference on Generative Programming and Component Engineering. Model-based testing can be a powerful means to generate test cases for the system under test. However, creating a useful model for model-based testing requires expertise in the (fo

  3. Abstract Generation based on Rhetorical Structure Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, K; Ono, Kenji; Sumita, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    We have developed an automatic abstract generation system for Japanese expository writings based on rhetorical structure extraction. The system first extracts the rhetorical structure, the compound of the rhetorical relations between sentences, and then cuts out less important parts in the extracted structure to generate an abstract of the desired length. Evaluation of the generated abstract showed that it contains at maximum 74\\% of the most important sentences of the original text. The system is now utilized as a text browser for a prototypical interactive document retrieval system.

  4. Ontology-based multiple choice question generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, Maha

    2014-01-01

    With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

  5. Design and Fabrication of a Chip-based Continuous-wave Atom Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Power, E P; Vanderelzen, B; Herrera-Fierro, P; Murphy, R; Yalisove, S M; Raithel, G

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for a continuous-wave (CW) atom laser on a chip and describe the process used to fabricate the device. Our design aims to integrate quadrupole magnetic guiding of ground state Rb atoms with continuous surface adsorption evaporative cooling to create a continuous Bose-Einstein condensate; out-coupled atoms from the condensate should realize a CW atom laser. We choose a geometry with three wires embedded in a spiral pattern in a silicon subtrate. The guide features an integrated solenoid to mitigate spin-flip losses and provide a tailored longitudinal magnetic field. Our design also includes multiple options for atom interferometry: accomodations are in place for laser-generated atom Fabry-Perot and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and a pair of atomic beam X-splitters is incorporated for an all-magnetic atom Mach-Zehnder setup. We demonstrate the techniques necessary to fabricate our device using existing micro- and nano-scale fabrication equipment, and discuss future options for modified desi...

  6. The combination of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and chip-based infusion for improved screening and characterization of drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staack, Roland F; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    An approach has been developed for drug metabolism studies of non-radiolabeled compounds using on-line liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) combined with chip-based infusion following fraction collection. The potential of this approach, which improves the data quality compared with only LC/MS analysis, has been investigated for the analysis of in vitro metabolites of tolcapone and talinolol, two compounds with well-characterized metabolism. The information-dependent LC/MS/MS analysis enables the characterization of the major metabolites while the chip-based infusion is used to obtain good product ion spectra for lower level metabolites, to generate complementary MS information on potential metabolites detected in the LC/MS trace, or to screen for unexpected metabolites. Fractions from the chromatographic analysis are collected in 20 second steps, into a 96-well plate. The fractions of interest can be re-analyzed with chip-based infusion on a variety of mass spectrometers including triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QqLIT or Q TRAP) and QqTOF systems. Acquiring data for several minutes using multi-channel acquisition (MCA), or signal averaging while infusing the fractions at approximately 200 nL/min, permits about a 50 times gain in sensitivity (signal-to-noise) in MS/MS mode. A 5-10 microL sample fraction can be infused for more than 30 min allowing the time to perform various MS experiments such as MS(n), precursor ion or neutral loss scans and accurate mass measurement, all in either positive or negative mode. Through fraction collection and infusion, a significant gain in data quality is obtained along with a time-saving benefit, because the original sample needs neither to be re-analyzed by re-injection nor to be pre-concentrated. Therefore, a novel hydroxylated talinolol metabolite could be characterized with only one injection. PMID:15685686

  7. A micropillar-based on-chip system for continuous force measurement of C. elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model organism and has been gaining interest particularly related to worm locomotion and the investigation of the relationship between muscle arms and the motion pattern of the nematode. In this paper, we report on a micropillar-based on-chip system which is capable of quantifying multi-point locomotive forces of a moving C. elegans. A Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device was microfabricated to allow C. elegans to move in a matrix of micropillars in a channel, and an image processing method was developed to resolve the worm force from the bending pillars. The current micropillar-based system is able to measure force with a resolution of 2.07 µN for body width of 80 µm. Initial experiments have been conducted to collect a maximum force level for thirteen wild type worm samples. A maximum force level of 61.94 µN was observed from 1571 data points, based on which an average maximum force level was 32.61 µN for multi-point measurements. The demonstrated capabilities of the system can be an enabling technology that allows biologist to gain a better understanding of subtle force patterns of C. elegans and worm muscle development. (paper)

  8. Network on Chip: a New Approach of QoS Metric Modeling Based on Calculus Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem NASRI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available According to ITRS, in 2018, ICs will be able to integrate billions of transistors, with feature sizes around 18 nm and clock frequencies near to 10 GHz. In this context, Network on Chip (NoC appears as an attractive solution to implement future high performance networks and more QoS management. A NoC is composed by IP cores (Intellectual Propriety and switches connected among themselves by communicationchannels. End-to-End Delay (EED communication is accomplished by the exchange of data among IP cores.Often, the structure of particular messages is not adequate for the communication purposes. This leads to the concept of packet switching. In the context of NoCs, packets are composed by header, payload, and trailer. Packets are divided into small pieces called Flits. It appears of importance, to meet the required performance in NoC hardware resources. It should be specified in an earlier step of the system design. The main attention should be given to the choice of some network parameters such as the physical buffer size in the node. The EED and packet loss are some of the critical QoS metrics. Some real-time and multimedia applications bound up these parameters and require specific hardware resources and particular management approaches in the NoC switch.A traffic contract (SLA, Service Level Agreement specifies the ability of a network or protocol to give guaranteed performance, throughput or latency bounds based on mutually agreed measures, usually by prioritizing traffic. A defined Quality of Service (QoS may be required for some types of network real time traffic or multimedia applications. The main goal of this paper is, using the Network on Chip modeling architecture, to define a QoS metric. We focus on the network delay bound and packet losses. This approach is based on the Network Calculus theory, a mathematical model to represent the data flows behavior between IPs interconnected over NoC.We propose an approach of QoS-metric based on Qo

  9. A 3D Microfluidic Chip for Electrochemical Detection of Hydrolysed Nucleic Bases by a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vlachova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH. It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  10. Immobilization of zebrafish larvae on a chip-based device for environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Jin; Hall, Chris J.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    Small vertebrate model organisms have recently gained popularity as attractive experimental models that enhance our understanding of human tissue and organ development. Laser microsurgery on zebrafish larvae combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging can in particular provide accelerated insights into the tissue regeneration phenomena. Conventional SEM exposes, however, specimens to high vacuum environments, and often requires laborintensive and time-consuming pretreatments and manual positioning. Moreover, there are virtually no technologies available that can quickly immobilize the zebrafish larvae for high definition SEM imaging. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of a microfluidic chip-based system for immobilizing zebrafish larvae and it's interfacing with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) imaging. The Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) device was fabricated using a high-speed infrared laser micromachining and consists of a reservoir with multiple semispherical microwells, which hold the yolk of zebrafish larvae, and drain channels that allow removing excess of medium during SEM imaging. Paper filter is used to actuate the chip and immobilization of the larvae by gentle suction that occurs during water drainage. The trapping region allows multiple specimens to be positioned on the chip. The device is then inserted directly inside the ESEM and imaged in a near 100% humidity atmosphere. This facilitates ESEM imaging of untreated biological samples.

  11. Optical biosensor based on a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide for lab on chip applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Rania; Ismail, Yehea; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2015-04-01

    We propose a novel sensor using a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide (SNRW). This waveguide is comprised of an array of silicon nanowires on an insulator substrate that has the envelope of a ridge waveguide. The SNRW inherently maximizes the overlap between the material-under-test and the incident light wave by introducing voids to the otherwise bulk structure. When a sensing sample is injected, the voids within the SNRW adopt the refractive index of the material-under-test. Hence, the strong contribution of the material-under-test to the overall modal effective index will greatly augment the sensitivity. Additionally, the ridge structure provides a fabrication convenience as it covers the entire substrate, ensuring that the etching process would not damage the substrate. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are conducted and showed that the percentage change in the effective index due to a 1% change in the surrounding environment is more than 170 times the change perceived in an evanescent-detection based bulk silicon ridge waveguide. Moreover, the SNRW proves to be more sensitive than recent other, non-evanescent sensors. In addition, the detection limit for this structure was revealed to be as small as 10-8. A compact bimodal waveguide based on SNRW is designed and tested. It delivers high sensitivity values that offer comparable performance to similar low-index light-guiding sensing configurations; however, our proposed structure has much smaller footprints and allows high dense integration for lab-on-chip applications.

  12. On-chip, aptamer-based sandwich assay for detection of glycated hemoglobins via magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinglun; Chang, Ko-Wei; Wang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Ching-Hsuan; Shiesh, Shu-Chu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-05-15

    Diabetes can be diagnosed and monitored by measurement of the cutoff ratio between glycated hemoglobins (HbA1c) and total hemoglobin (Hb), which does not require a fasting blood sample and is less influenced by biological variations. In this study, we combined the advantages of the microfluidic system and the selected low-cost, stable and specific aptamers and developed an integrated, aptamer-based microfluidic system for automatic glycated hemoglobin measurements. The detection process of human whole blood can be totally automated in this integrated microfluidic system. According to the experimental results, when compared to conventional bench-top manual assays, reagent consumption was significantly reduced by 75%, and the analysis time was reduced from 3.5h to 30min. Besides, the novelty in this research also lies in the simultaneously performed two parallel assays for detection of Hb and HbA1c in a single chip. Therefore, this sensitive and low-cost aptamer-based microfluidic system may become a promising tool for point-of -care diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:26797251

  13. Flexure mechanism-based parallelism measurements for chip-on-glass bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have played vital roles in a variety of electronic devices such as televisions, cellular phones, and desktop/laptop monitors because of their enhanced volume, performance, and functionality. However, there is still a need for thinner LCD panels due to the trend of miniaturization in electronic applications. Thus, chip-on-glass (COG) bonding has become one of the most important aspects in the LCD panel manufacturing process. In this study, a novel sensor was developed to measure the parallelism between the tooltip planes of the bonding head and the backup of the COG main bonder, which has previously been estimated by prescale pressure films in industry. The sensor developed in this study is based on a flexure mechanism, and it can measure the total pressing force and the inclination angles in two directions that satisfy the quantitative definition of parallelism. To improve the measurement accuracy, the sensor was calibrated based on the estimation of the total pressing force and the inclination angles using the least-squares method. To verify the accuracy of the sensor, the estimation results for parallelism were compared with those from prescale pressure film measurements. In addition, the influence of parallelism on the bonding quality was experimentally demonstrated. The sensor was successfully applied to the measurement of parallelism in the COG-bonding process with an accuracy of more than three times that of the conventional method using prescale pressure films

  14. Chip-based amperometric enzyme sensor system for monitoring of bioprocesses by flow-injection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baecker, M.; Rakowski, D.; Poghossian, A.; Biselli, M; Wagner, P.; Schoening, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic chip integrating amperometric enzyme sensors for the detection of glucose, glutamate and glutamine in cell-culture fermentation processes has been developed. The enzymes glucose oxidase, glutamate oxidase and glutaminase were immobilized by means of cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on platinum thin-film electrodes integrated within a microfluidic channel. The biosensor chip was coupled to a flow-injection analysis system for electrochemical characterization of the sensors. The...

  15. Silicon-nanowire based attachment of silicon chips for mouse embryo labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, S; Novo, S; Duch, M; Gómez-Martínez, R; Fernández-Regúlez, M; San Paulo, A; Nogués, C; Esteve, J; Ibañez, E; Plaza, J A

    2015-03-21

    The adhesion of small silicon chips to cells has many potential applications as direct interconnection of the cells to the external world can be accomplished. Hence, although some typical applications of silicon nanowires integrated into microsystems are focused on achieving a cell-on-a-chip strategy, we are interested in obtaining chip-on-a-cell systems. This paper reports the design, technological development and characterization of polysilicon barcodes featuring silicon nanowires as nanoscale attachment to identify and track living mouse embryos during their in vitro development. The chips are attached to the outer surface of the Zona Pellucida, the cover that surrounds oocytes and embryos, to avoid the direct contact between the chip and the embryo cell membrane. Two attachment methodologies, rolling and pushpin, which allow two entirely different levels of applied forces to attach the chips to living embryos, are evaluated. The former consists of rolling the mouse embryos over one barcode with the silicon nanowires facing upwards, while in the latter, the barcode is pushed against the embryo with a micropipette. The effect on in vitro embryo development and the retention rate related to the calculated applied forces are stated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy inspection, which allowed high-resolution imaging, also confirms the physical attachment of the nanowires with some of them piercing or wrapped by the Zona Pellucida and revealed extraordinary bent silicon nanowires. PMID:25609565

  16. Reusable and Mediator-Free Cholesterol Biosensor Based on Cholesterol Oxidase Immobilized onto TGA-SAM Modified Smart Bio-Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mohammed M.

    2014-01-01

    A reusable and mediator-free cholesterol biosensor based on cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was fabricated based on self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioglycolic acid (TGA) (covalent enzyme immobilization by dropping method) using bio-chips. Cholesterol was detected with modified bio-chip (Gold/Thioglycolic-acid/Cholesterol-oxidase i.e., Au/TGA/ChOx) by reliable cyclic voltammetric (CV) technique at room conditions. The Au/TGA/ChOx modified bio-chip sensor demonstrates good linearity (1.0 nM to 1...

  17. Ultrathin polyaniline film coated on an indium-tin oxide cell-based chip for study of anticancer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyaniline emeraldine base (EB) coated indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode was prepared for the construction of a cell-based chip. Ultrathin polyaniline PANI film on an ITO was electroactive at neutral pH without co-deposition of an acidic counterion. HeLa cells were cultured on a PANI/ITO substrate and utilized to assess the biological toxicity of anticancer drugs. Cell growth, cell viability and drug-related cell toxicity were evaluated by a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method under a neutral pH. We demonstrated the functionality of a PANI coated ITO electrode for use as a cell chip and found that PANI was a good surface for the HeLa cells to grow without any significant morphological changes.

  18. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  19. DVS for On-Chip Bus Designs Based on Timing Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Kaul, Himanshu; Blaauw, David; Mudge, Trevor; Austin, Todd

    2011-01-01

    On-chip buses are typically designed to meet performance constraints at worst-case conditions, including process corner, temperature, IR-drop, and neighboring net switching pattern. This can result in significant performance slack at more typical operating conditions. In this paper, we propose a dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) technique for buses, based on a double sampling latch which can detect and correct for delay errors without the need for retransmission. The proposed approach recovers the available slack at non-worst-case operating points through more aggressive voltage scaling and tracks changing conditions by monitoring the error recovery rate. Voltage margins needed in traditional designs to accommodate worst-case performance conditions are therefore eliminated, resulting in a significant improvement in energy efficiency. The approach was implemented for a 6mm memory read bus operating at 1.5GHz (0.13 $\\mu$m technology node) and was simulated for a number of benchmark programs. Even at the worst-case ...

  20. On-chip characterization of cryoprotective agent mixtures using an EWOD-based digital microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sinwook; Wijethunga, Pavithra A L; Moon, Hyejin; Han, Bumsoo

    2011-07-01

    For tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, cryopreservation, a technique for preserving biomaterials in the frozen state with cryoprotective agents (CPAs), is critically important for preserving engineered tissues (ETs) as well as cells necessary to create ETs. As more diverse ETs are produced using various cell types, CPAs and corresponding freeze/thaw (F/T) protocols need to be developed cell/tissue-type specifically. This is because CPAs and F/T protocols that have been successful for one cell/tissue type have proven to be difficult to adapt to other cell/tissue types. The most critical barrier to address this challenge is the inability to screen and identify CPA or CPA mixtures efficiently. In this paper, we developed an "electro-wetting-on-dielectic" (EWOD) based digital microfluidic platform to characterize and screen CPA mixtures cell-type specifically. The feasibility of the EWOD platform was demonstrated by characterizing and optimizing a mixture of dimethlysulfoxide (DMSO) and PBS for human breast cancer cell line as model CPA mixture and cell line. The developed platform multiplexed droplets of DMSO and PBS to create an array of DMSO-PBS mixtures, and mapped the phase change diagram of the mixture. After loading cell suspensions on the platform, the mixture was further screened on-chip for toxicity and cryoprotection. The results were discussed to illustrate the capabilities and limitations of the EWOD platform for cell and tissue-type specific optimization of CPA mixtures and F/T protocols. PMID:21603697

  1. System on chip thermal vacuum sensor based on standard CMOS process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinfeng; Tang Zhen'an; Wang Jiaqi

    2009-01-01

    An on-chip microelectromechanical system was fabricated in a 0.5μm standard CMOS process for gas pressure detection. The sensor was based on a micro-hotplate (MHP) and had been integrated with a rail to rail operational amplifier and an 8-bit successive approximation register (SAR) A/D converter. A tungsten resistor was manufactured on the MHP as the sensing element, and the sacrificial layer of the sensor was made from polysilicon and etched by surface-micromachining technology. The operational amplifier was configured to make the sensor operate in constant current mode. A digital bit stream was provided as the system output. The measurement results demonstrate that the gas pressure sensitive range of the vacuum sensor extends from 1 to 105 Pa. In the gas pressure range from 1 to 100 Pa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.23 mV/Pa, the linearity is 4.95%, and the hysteresis is 8.69%. The operational amplifier can drive 200 Ω resistors distortionlessly, and the SAR A/D converter achieves a resolution of 7.4 bit with 100 kHz sample rate. The performance of the operational amplifier and the SAR A/D converter meets the requirements of the sensor system.

  2. System on chip thermal vacuum sensor based on standard CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinfeng, Li; Zhen'an, Tang; Jiaqi, Wang

    2009-03-01

    An on-chip microelectromechanical system was fabricated in a 0.5 μm standard CMOS process for gas pressure detection. The sensor was based on a micro-hotplate (MHP) and had been integrated with a rail to rail operational amplifier and an 8-bit successive approximation register (SAR) A/D converter. A tungsten resistor was manufactured on the MHP as the sensing element, and the sacrificial layer of the sensor was made from polysilicon and etched by surface-micromachining technology. The operational amplifier was configured to make the sensor operate in constant current mode. A digital bit stream was provided as the system output. The measurement results demonstrate that the gas pressure sensitive range of the vacuum sensor extends from 1 to 105 Pa. In the gas pressure range from 1 to 100 Pa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.23 mV/ Pa, the linearity is 4.95%, and the hysteresis is 8.69%. The operational amplifier can drive 200 ω resistors distortionlessly, and the SAR A/D converter achieves a resolution of 7.4 bit with 100 kHz sample rate. The performance of the operational amplifier and the SAR A/D converter meets the requirements of the sensor system.

  3. System on chip thermal vacuum sensor based on standard CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-chip microelectromechanical system was fabricated in a 0.5 μm standard CMOS process for gas pressure detection. The sensor was based on a micro-hotplate (MHP) and had been integrated with a rail to rail operational amplifier and an 8-bit successive approximation register (SAR) A/D converter. A tungsten resistor was manufactured on the MHP as the sensing element, and the sacrificial layer of the sensor was made from polysilicon and etched by surface-micromachining technology. The operational amplifier was configured to make the sensor operate in constant current mode. A digital bit stream was provided as the system output. The measurement results demonstrate that the gas pressure sensitive range of the vacuum sensor extends from 1 to 105 Pa. In the gas pressure range from 1 to 100 Pa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.23 mV/ Pa, the linearity is 4.95%, and the hysteresis is 8.69%. The operational amplifier can drive 200 ω resistors distortionlessly, and the SAR A/D converter achieves a resolution of 7.4 bit with 100 kHz sample rate. The performance of the operational amplifier and the SAR A/D converter meets the requirements of the sensor system.

  4. Wireless implantable chip with integrated nitinol-based pump for radio-controlled local drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jeffrey; Xiao, Zhiming; Takahata, Kenichi

    2015-02-21

    We demonstrate an active, implantable drug delivery device embedded with a microfluidic pump that is driven by a radio-controlled actuator for temporal drug delivery. The polyimide-packaged 10 × 10 × 2 mm(3) chip contains a micromachined pump chamber and check valves of Parylene C to force the release of the drug from a 76 μL reservoir by wirelessly activating the actuator using external radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. The rectangular-shaped spiral-coil actuator based on nitinol, a biocompatible shape-memory alloy, is developed to perform cantilever-like actuation for pumping operation. The nitinol-coil actuator itself forms a passive 185 MHz resonant circuit that serves as a self-heat source activated via RF power transfer to enable frequency-selective actuation and pumping. Experimental wireless operation of fabricated prototypes shows successful release of test agents from the devices placed in liquid and excited by radiating tuned RF fields with an output power of 1.1 W. These tests reveal a single release volume of 219 nL, suggesting a device's capacity of ~350 individual ejections of drug from its reservoir. The thermal behavior of the activated device is also reported in detail. This proof-of-concept prototype validates the effectiveness of wireless RF pumping for fully controlled, long-lasting drug delivery, a key step towards enabling patient-tailored, targeted local drug delivery through highly miniaturized implants. PMID:25473933

  5. Construction of a multidimensional plane network-on-chip architecture based on the hypercube structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Wu; Yubai Li; Qicong Peng; Song Chai; Zhongming Yang

    2009-01-01

    In current network-on-chip (NOC) studies and in practical applications,the mesh structure is the most widely used and deeply researched structure.However,the hypercube structure is more symmetrical and regular than the mesh or torus structures.This paper compares the network characteristics of these three direct topologies and proposes a method to compress the hypercube into a plane structure.This structure,which has the multidimensional property based on the hypercube,is called the multidimensional plane (MDP) NOC.The compression process is divided into two steps:the transformation of router denotations and the connection of channels.Then,SystemC is used to implement the MDP NOC and it is compared with the mesh and torus NOCs in terms of four aspects of performance,including average latency time,normalization throughput,energy consumption and area cost.(C) 2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  6. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis

  7. The role of travel mode in engagement with a Radio Frequency ID chip based school physical activity intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Coombes

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of active travel to school in children is low and declining. For example, the 2014 National Travel Survey showed that just 46% of primary school children walk to school. This is despite the fact that children who actively travel have been shown to be more physically active overall as well as perform better in class. Beat the Street is a community based intervention which uses RFID (Radio Frequency ID) chip readers attached to locations around the neighbourhood. The ...

  8. Enhancing SAT-Based Test Pattern Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; XIONG You-lun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents modeling tools based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT) to solve problems of test generation for combinational circuits. It exploits an added layer to maintain circuit-related information and value justification relations to a generic SAT algorithm. It dovetails binary decision graphs (BDD) and SAT techniques to improve the efficiency of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG). More specifically, it first exploits inexpensive reconvergent fanout analysis of circuit to gather information on the local signal correlation by using BDD learning, then uses the above learned information to restrict and focus the overall search space of SAT-based ATPG. Its learning technique is effective and lightweight. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. Web Services-Based Test Report Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ling; BAI Xiaoying

    2005-01-01

    Tests involving a large number of test cases and test scenarios are always time- and effort-intensive, and use ad hoc approaches. Test management is needed to control the complexity and the quality of the testing of large software systems. The reporting mechanism is critical for monitoring the testing progress, analyzing test results, and evaluating the test effectiveness for a disciplined testing process throughout the testing lifecycle. This paper presents an XML-based report generation method for large system testing. The service-oriented architecture enables flexible test report generation, presentation, and exchange to facilitate collaboration in a distributed environment. The results show that proper reporting can effectively improve the visibility of the testing process and that this web-based approach is critical to enhance communication among multiple testing groups.

  10. XML-Based Automatic Test Data Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Ibrahim Bulbul; Turgut Bakir

    2012-01-01

    Software engineering aims at increasing quality and reliability while decreasing the cost of the software. Testing is one of the most time-consuming phases of the software development lifecycle. Improvement in software testing results in decrease in cost and increase in quality of the software. Automation in software testing is one of the most popular ways of software cost reduction and reliability improvement. In our work we propose a system called XML-based automatic test data generation th...

  11. Chip-Scale Bioassays Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hye-Young Park

    2005-12-17

    This work explores the development and application of chip-scale bioassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for high throughput and high sensitivity analysis of biomolecules. The size effect of gold nanoparticles on the intensity of SERS is first presented. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with various sizes. The SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response of individual particles was also investigated using Raman-microscope and an array of gold islands on a silicon substrate. The location and the size of individual particles were mapped using AFM. The next study describes a low-level detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and simulants of biological warfare agents in a sandwich immunoassay format using SERS labels, which have been termed Extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs). A new ERL scheme based on a mixed monolayer is also introduced. The mixed monolayer ERLs were created by covering the gold nanoparticles with a mixture of two thiolates, one thiolate for covalently binding antibody to the particle and the other thiolate for producing a strong Raman signal. An assay platform based on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold is then presented. The mixed SAMs were prepared from dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) to covalently bind antibodies on gold substrate and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiol to prevent nonspecific adsorption of antibodies. After the mixed SAMs surfaces, formed from various mole fraction of DSU were incubated with antibodies, AFM was used to image individual antibodies on the surface. The final study presents a collaborative work on the single molecule adsorption of YOYO-I labeled {lambda}-DNA at compositionally patterned SAMs using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The role of solution pH, {lambda}-DNA concentration, and domain size was investigated. This work also revealed

  12. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...... or citation counts for improved measurement of relevance of tag clouds. We show, that on the given data sets, our approach outperforms the state of the art baseline methods with respect to such relevance by 41 % on Movielens dataset and by 11 % on Bibsonomy data set....

  13. Source Code Generator Based on Dynamic Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper presents the model of source code generator based on dynamic frames. The model is named as the SCT model because if its three basic components: Specification (S, which describes the application characteristics, Configuration (C, which describes the rules for building applications, and Templates (T, which refer to application building blocks. The process of code generation dynamically creates XML frames containing all building elements (S, C ant T until final code is produced. This approach is compared to existing XVCL frames based model for source code generating. The SCT model is described by both XML syntax and the appropriate graphical elements. The SCT model is aimed to build complete applications, not just skeletons. The main advantages of the presented model are its textual and graphic description, a fully configurable generator, and the reduced overhead of the generated source code. The presented SCT model is shown on development of web application example in order to demonstrate its features and justify our design choices.

  14. A triple-dimensional sensing chip for discrimination of eight antioxidants based on quantum dots and graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huilin; Fang, Guozhen; Deng, Qiliang; Wang, Shuo

    2015-12-15

    A triple-dimensional sensing chip is developed based on simultaneous utilization of fluorescence (FL), electrochemical (ECL) and mass-sensitivity (MS) properties of a novel nanocomposites. The sensing nanomaterial is composed of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and graphene through a one-pot room-temperature reverse microemulsion polymerization. Here, full integration of QDs and graphene on one chip provides triple-dimensional sensing signals. It enables quick and accurate discrimination of eight analytes in a "lab-on-a-nanomaterial" approach and notably improves the overall sensor performance. Unknown samples randomly taken from the training set at concentrations of 0.7 μM are successfully classified by principal component analysis (PCA) with accuracies of 92.5%, compared with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. We further apply it to discriminate eight antioxidants from real oil samples, and explore the mechanism. PMID:26148676

  15. Fabrication and direct transmission measurement of high-aspect-ratio two-dimensional silicon-based photonic crystal chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional silicon-based photonic crystal (PhC) structures realized by a combination of electron-beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. PhCs of various lattices with very high aspect ratios up to 20 have been achieved, and PhC chips were prepared by standard semiconductor technologies, including thinning and cleaving. The chips consisting of high-aspect-ratio air rods or dielectric rods permit a direct transmission measurement, and they were observed to demonstrate pronounced photonic bandgap effects. Several photonic bandgap behaviors were identified by comparing transmission with reflection and experimental results with numerical results, and by considering detecting beam property. Copyright 2001 Optical Society of America

  16. A Phase Change Memory Chip Based on TiSbTe Alloy in 40-nm Standard CMOS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhitang Song; YiPeng Zhan; Daolin Cai; Bo Liu; Yifeng Chen; Jiadong Ren

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, a phase change random access memory (PCRAM) chip based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 alloy material was fabricated in a 40-nm 4-metal level complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The phase change resistor was then integrated after CMOS logic fabrication. The PCRAM was successfully embedded without changing any logic device and process, in which 1.1 V negative-channel metal-oxide semiconductor device was used as the memory cell selector. The currents and the time of SET and RESET operations were found to be 0.2 and 0.5 mA, 100 and 10 ns, respectively. The high speed performance of this chip may highlight the design advantages in many embedded applications.

  17. Design and Implementation of Embedded Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Network Based on System-on-programmable Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; HAN Xiao-jun

    2008-01-01

    A scheme of transmission control protocol/Internet protocol(TCP/IP) network system based on system-on-programmable chip(SOPC) is proposed for the embedded network communication. In this system, Nios processor, Ethernet controller and other peripheral logic circuits are all integrated on a Stratix Ⅱ field programmable gate array(FPGA) chip by using SOPC builder design software. And the network communication is realized by transplanting MicroC/OS Ⅱ(μC/OS Ⅱ) operation system and light weight Internet protocol(LwIP). The design idea, key points and the structures of both software and hardware of the system are presented and ran with a telecommunication example. The experiment shows that the embedded TCP/IP network system has high reliability and real-time performance.

  18. Automated family-based naming of small RNAs for next generation sequencing data using a modified MD5-digest algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhihua; Lin, Yuefeng; John, Bino

    2012-01-01

    We developed NameMyGene, a web tool and a stand alone program to easily generate putative family-based names for small RNA sequences so that laboratories can easily organize, analyze, and observe patterns from, the massive amount of data generated by next-generation sequencers. NameMyGene, also applicable to other emerging methods such as RNA-Seq, and Chip-Seq, solely uses the input small RNA sequence and does not require any additional data such as other sequence data sets. The web server an...

  19. Lab on a chip genotyping for Brucella spp. based on 15-loci multi locus VNTR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianelli Cinzia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an important zoonosis caused by the genus Brucella. In addition Brucella represents potential biological warfare agents due to the high contagious rates for humans and animals. Therefore, the strain typing epidemiological tool may be crucial for tracing back source of infection in outbreaks and discriminating naturally occurring outbreaks versus bioterroristic event. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 15 polymorphic markers was previously described. The obtained MLVA band profiles may be resolved by techniques ranging from low cost manual agarose gels to the more expensive capillary electrophoresis sequencing. In this paper a rapid, accurate and reproducible system, based on the Lab on a chip technology was set up for Brucella spp. genotyping. Results Seventeen DNA samples of Brucella strains isolated in Sicily, previously genotyped, and twelve DNA samples, provided by MLVA Brucella VNTR ring trial, were analyzed by MLVA-15 on Agilent 2100. The DNA fragment sizes produced by Agilent, compared with those expected, showed discrepancies; therefore, in order to assign the correct alleles to the Agilent DNA fragment sizes, a conversion table was produced. In order to validate the system twelve unknown DNA samples were analyzed by this method obtaining a full concordance with the VNTR ring trial results. Conclusion In this paper we described a rapid and specific detection method for the characterization of Brucella isolates. The comparison of the MLVA typing data produced by Agilent system with the data obtained by standard sequencing or ethidium bromide slab gel electrophoresis showed a general concordance of the results. Therefore this platform represents a fair compromise among costs, speed and specificity compared to any conventional molecular typing technique.

  20. An Integrated Circuit for Chip-Based Analysis of Enzyme Kinetics and Metabolite Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Boon Chong; Macdonald, Alasdair Iain; Martin, Christopher; Streklas, Angelos J; Campbell, Gordon; Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A; Nemeth, Balazs; Grant, James P; Barrett, Michael P; Cumming, David R S

    2016-06-01

    We have created a novel chip-based diagnostic tools based upon quantification of metabolites using enzymes specific for their chemical conversion. Using this device we show for the first time that a solid-state circuit can be used to measure enzyme kinetics and calculate the Michaelis-Menten constant. Substrate concentration dependency of enzyme reaction rates is central to this aim. Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFET) are excellent transducers for biosensing applications that are reliant upon enzyme assays, especially since they can be fabricated using mainstream microelectronics technology to ensure low unit cost, mass-manufacture, scaling to make many sensors and straightforward miniaturisation for use in point-of-care devices. Here, we describe an integrated ISFET array comprising 2(16) sensors. The device was fabricated with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Unlike traditional CMOS ISFET sensors that use the Si3N4 passivation of the foundry for ion detection, the device reported here was processed with a layer of Ta2O5 that increased the detection sensitivity to 45 mV/pH unit at the sensor readout. The drift was reduced to 0.8 mV/hour with a linear pH response between pH 2-12. A high-speed instrumentation system capable of acquiring nearly 500 fps was developed to stream out the data. The device was then used to measure glucose concentration through the activity of hexokinase in the range of 0.05 mM-231 mM, encompassing glucose's physiological range in blood. Localised and temporal enzyme kinetics of hexokinase was studied in detail. These results present a roadmap towards a viable personal metabolome machine. PMID:26742138

  1. Quantitative determination of 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) in human urine using microfluidic chip-based nano-liquid chromatography with on-chip sample enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Shu-Ling; Chung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Chan, Shan-An; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2011-04-15

    Urinary 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) (8-isoPGF(2α)) has been reported as an important biomarker to indicate the oxidative stress status in vivo. In order to quantitatively determine the low contents of 8-isoPGF(2α) (in sub- to low ng mL(-1) range) in physiological fluids, a sensitive detection method has become an important issue. In this study, we employed a microfluidic chip-based nano liquid chromatography (chip-nanoLC) with on-chip sample enrichment coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS) for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. This chip-nanoLC unit integrates a microfluidic switch, a chip column design having a pre-column (enrichment column) for sample enrichment prior to an analytical column for separation, as well as a nanospray emitter on a single polyimide chip. The introduction of enrichment column offers the advantages of online sample pre-concentration and reducing matrix influence on MS detection to improve sensitivity. In this study, the chip-nanoLC consisting of Zorbax 300A SB-C18 columns and Agilent QqQ Mass spectrometer were used for determining 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. Gradient elution was employed for effective LC separation and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was utilized for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) (m/z 353→193). We employed liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)/solid-phase extraction (SPE) for extracting analyte and reducing matrix effect from urine sample prior to chip-nanoLC/QqQ-MS analysis for determining urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). Good recoveries were found to be in the range of 83.0-85.3%. The linear range was 0.01-2 ng mL(-1) for urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). In addition, the proposed method showed good precision and accuracy for 8-isoPGF(2α) spiked synthetic urine samples. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 1.8-5.0% and 4.3-5.8%, respectively. The method accuracy for intra-day and inter-day assays ranged from 99.3 to 99.9% and 99.4 to 99.7%, respectively. Due to its

  2. Emulation-based transient thermal modeling of 2D/3D systems-on-chip with active cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Del Valle, Pablo; Atienza Alonso, David

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art devices in the consumer electronics market are relying more and more on Multi-Processor Systems-On-Chip (MPSoCs) as an efficient solution to meet their multiple design constrains, such as low cost, low power consumption, high performance and short time-to-market. In fact, as technology scales down, logic density and power density increase, generating hot spots that seriously affect the MPSoC performance and can physically damage the final system behavior. Moreover, forthcomin...

  3. On-chip optical diode based on silicon photonic crystal heterojunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Chen; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Optical isolation is a long pursued object with fundamental difficulty in integrated photonics. As a step towards this goal, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of on-chip wavelength-scale optical diodes that are made from the heterojunction between two different silicon two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystal slabs with directional bandgap mismatch and different mode transitions. The measured transmission spectra show considerable unidirectional transmission behavior, in good agreement with numerical simulations. The experimental realization of on-chip optical diodes using all-dielectric, passive, and linear silicon photonic crystal structures may help to construct on-chip optical logical devices without nonlinearity or magnetism, and would open up a road towards photonic computers.

  4. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  5. Validation of a fully autonomous phosphate analyser based on a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slater, Conor; Cleary, J.; Lau, K.T.;

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the design of a phosphate analyser that utilises a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip. The analyser contains all the required chemical storage, pumping and electronic components to carry out a complete phosphate assay. The system is self-calibrating and self-cleaning, thus capable of...... long-term operation. This was proven by a bench top calibration of the analyser using standard solutions and also by comparing the analyser's performance to a commercially available phosphate monitor installed at a waste water treatment plant. The output of the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip analyser was...

  6. A Methodology for Platform Based High—Level System—on—Chip Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOFeng; LIUPeng; YAOQingdong

    2003-01-01

    The time-to-market challenge has increased the need for shortening the co-verification time in system-on-chip development.In this article,a new methodology of high-level hardware/software coverification is introduced.With the help of the real-time operating system,the application program can easily be migrated from the software simulator to the hardware emulation board.The hierarchical architecture can be used to separate application program from the implementation of the platform during the veriflaction process.The highlevel verification platform is successfully used in developing the HDTV decoding chip.

  7. The Design of a Network-On-Chip Architecture Based On An Avionic Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Achballah, Ahmed Ben; Saoud, Slim Ben

    2014-01-01

    When the Network-On-Chip (NoC) paradigm was introduced, many researchers have proposed many novelistic NoC architectures, tools and design strategies. In this paper we introduce a new approach in the field of designing Network-On-Chip (NoC). Our inspiration came from an avionic protocol which is the AFDX protocol. The proposed NoC architecture is a switch centric architecture, with exclusive shortcuts between hosts and utilizes the flexibility, the reliability and the performances offered by ...

  8. A novel rabbit immunospot array assay on a chip allows for the rapid generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies with high affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Ozawa

    Full Text Available Antigen-specific rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RaMoAbs are useful due to their high specificity and high affinity, and the establishment of a comprehensive and rapid RaMoAb generation system has been highly anticipated. Here, we present a novel system using immunospot array assay on a chip (ISAAC technology in which we detect and retrieve antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of antigen-immunized rabbits and produce antigen-specific RaMoAbs with 10(-12 M affinity within a time period of only 7 days. We have used this system to efficiently generate RaMoAbs that are specific to a phosphorylated signal-transducing molecule. Our system provides a new method for the comprehensive and rapid production of RaMoAbs, which may contribute to laboratory research and clinical applications.

  9. Cell Monitoring and Manipulation Systems (CMMSs based on Glass Cell-Culture Chips (GC3s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Buehler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed different types of glass cell-culture chips (GC3s for culturing cells for microscopic observation in open media-containing troughs or in microfluidic structures. Platinum sensor and manipulation structures were used to monitor physiological parameters and to allocate and permeabilize cells. Electro-thermal micro pumps distributed chemical compounds in the microfluidic systems. The integrated temperature sensors showed a linear, Pt1000-like behavior. Cell adhesion and proliferation were monitored using interdigitated electrode structures (IDESs. The cell-doubling times of primary murine embryonic neuronal cells (PNCs were determined based on the IDES capacitance-peak shifts. The electrical activity of PNC networks was detected using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs. During seeding, the cells were dielectrophoretically allocated to individual MEAs to improve network structures. MEA pads with diameters of 15, 20, 25, and 35 µm were tested. After 3 weeks, the magnitudes of the determined action potentials were highest for pads of 25 µm in diameter and did not differ when the inter-pad distances were 100 or 170 µm. Using 25-µm diameter circular oxygen electrodes, the signal currents in the cell-culture media were found to range from approximately −0.08 nA (0% O2 to −2.35 nA (21% O2. It was observed that 60-nm thick silicon nitride-sensor layers were stable potentiometric pH sensors under cell-culture conditions for periods of days. Their sensitivity between pH 5 and 9 was as high as 45 mV per pH step. We concluded that sensorized GC3s are potential animal replacement systems for purposes such as toxicity pre-screening. For example, the effect of mefloquine, a medication used to treat malaria, on the electrical activity of neuronal cells was determined in this study using a GC3 system.

  10. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  11. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-15

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  12. Experimental determination of the nucleation rates of undercooled micron-sized liquid droplets based on fast chip calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fast scanning calorimeter calibration with position dependence. • Calibration of fast scanning calorimeter during cooling. • Quantitative determination of nucleation rates by treating the undercooling as stochastic parameter - Abstract: Accurate thermal analyzes and calorimetry measurements depend on careful calibration measurements. For conventional differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) the calibration procedure is well known. The melting point of different pure metals is measured and compared with literature data to adjust the temperature reading of the calorimeter. Likewise, the measured melting enthalpies of standard reference substances serve for enthalpy calibration. Yet for fast chip calorimetry, new procedures need to be established. For the medium-area and large-area calorimeter chips, this procedure needs to be modified, because the calibration behavior depends on the position of the sample on the measurement area. Additionally, a way to calibrate the calorimeter for measurements performed during cooling will also be shown. For this second aspect, the athermal and diffusionless martensitic phase transformation of Ni49.9–Ti50.1 at% was used. The well-calibrated sensor chips are ideally suited to perform nucleation rate density analyzes based on a statistical approach. Here, the nucleation rate densities of micron-sized pure Sn droplets that had been coated with a non-catalytic coating have been determined by experimental analysis of the statistical variance of the undercooling response

  13. S-Mesh: a Mesh-based on-chip network with separation of control and transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hao; ZOU Xue-cheng; JI Li-xin; CAI Meng; ZHANG Ke-feng

    2009-01-01

    The current network-on-chip (NoC) topology cannot predict subsequent switch node status promptly. Switch nodes have to perform various functions such as routing decision, data forwarding, packet buffering, congestion control and properties of an NoC system. Therefore, these make switch architecture far more complex. This article puts forward a separating on-chip network architecture based on Mesh (S-Mesh). S-Mesh is an on-chip network that separates routing decision flow from the switches. It consists of two types of networks: datapath network (DN) and control network (CN). The CN establishes data paths for data transferring in DN. Meanwhile, the CN also transfers instructions between different resources. This property makes switch architecture simple, and eliminates conflicts in network interface units between the resource and switch. Compared with 2D-Mesh, Torus Mesh, Fat-tree and Butterfly, the average packet latency in S-Mesh is the shortest when the packet length is more than 53 B. Compared with 2D-Mesh, the areas savings of S-Mesh is about 3%--7%, and the power dissipation is decreased by approximate 2%.

  14. "Hook"-calibration of GeneChip-microarrays: Chip characteristics and expression measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohn Knut

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce biases and uncertainty in downstream analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labelling, hybridization, and scanning causing chip-specific systematic variations on the raw intensity level. Also the chosen array-type and the up-to-dateness of the genomic information probed on the chip affect the quality of the expression measures. In the accompanying publication we presented theory and algorithm of the so-called hook method which aims at correcting expression data for systematic biases using a series of new chip characteristics. Results In this publication we summarize the essential chip characteristics provided by this method, analyze special benchmark experiments to estimate transcript related expression measures and illustrate the potency of the method to detect and to quantify the quality of a particular hybridization. It is shown that our single-chip approach provides expression measures responding linearly on changes of the transcript concentration over three orders of magnitude. In addition, the method calculates a detection call judging the relation between the signal and the detection limit of the particular measurement. The performance of the method in the context of different chip generations and probe set assignments is illustrated. The hook method characterizes the RNA-quality in terms of the 3'/5'-amplification bias and the sample-specific calling rate. We show that the proper judgement of these effects requires the disentanglement of non-specific and specific hybridization which, otherwise, can lead to misinterpretations of expression changes. The consequences of modifying probe/target interactions by either changing the labelling protocol or by substituting RNA by DNA targets are demonstrated. Conclusion The single-chip based hook-method provides accurate expression estimates and chip-summary characteristics

  15. Waveguide filter-based on-chip differentiator for microwave photonic signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taddei, Caterina; Nguyen, T.H. Yen; Zhuang, Leimeng; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paul; Roeloffzen, Chris G.H.

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a waveguide filterbased on-chip differentiator for microwave photonic signal processing. The system principle allows the operation of arbitrary-order differentiation. The realized device is constructed using the basic building blocks of photonic integrated circuits, and fe

  16. Blocking oligo--a novel approach for improving chip-based DNA hybridization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sheng-ce; Gao, Hua-fang; Cao, Fei; Ma, Xue-mei; Cheng, Jing

    2003-08-01

    For most of the commonly used DNA chips, the probes are usually single-stranded oligonucleotides and the targets are double-stranded DNAs (dsDNAs). Only one strand of the DNA serves as the target while the other competes with the probes immobilized on the chip for the target and therefore is regarded as the interfering strand. In this report, a novel technique was developed for improving the hybridization efficiency on DNA chips by using blocking oligos, which is complimentary to the target interfering strand to reduce the influence of the interfering strand. The hybridization efficiency of dsDNA was much lower than that of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) when synthesized DNA targets were tested on the DNA chip. Blocking oligos can improve the hybridization efficiency of dsDNA to about 2/3 that of ssDNA. Blocking oligos have also been applied to PCR products of different lengths for hybridization. The hybridization efficiency with blocking oligos is about three times higher than that without blocking oligos. We have tested PCR products of 1054 and 435 bp using our blocking procedure, and the results are consistent. PMID:12944123

  17. Development, Fabrication and Characterisation of Atom Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Sönke

    2006-01-01

    Atom chips are robust and extremely powerful toolboxes for quantum optical experiments, since they make it possible to create exceedingly precise magnetic traps for neutral atoms with minimal field modulations. Accurate manipulation of trapped atoms is feasible with magnetic and electric fields created on the atom chip. Therefore atom chips with high quality surfaces and extremely well defined wires were build (roughness < 20nm). Furthermore new generations of atom chips were developed, like ...

  18. MEGen: A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GeorgeDLoizou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are being used in an increasing number of different areas. These not only include the human safety assessment of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, biocides and environmental chemicals but also for food animal, wild mammal and avian risk assessment. The value of PBPK models is that they are tools for estimating tissue dosimetry by integrating in vitro and in vivo mechanistic, pharmacokinetic and toxicological information through their explicit mathematical description of important anatomical, physiological and biochemical determinants of chemical uptake, disposition and elimination. However, PBPK models are perceived as complex, data hungry, resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, model validation and verification are hindered by the relative complexity of the equations. To begin to address these issues a freely available web application for the rapid construction and documentation of bespoke PBPK models is under development. Here we present an overview of the current capabilities of MEGen, a model equation generator and parameter database and discuss future developments.

  19. Problems of coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current problems of and future trends in coal-based power generation are discussed. The present situation is as follows: coal, oil and gas contribute to world fossil fuel resources 75%, 14%, and 11%, respectively, and if the current trend will continue, will be depleted in 240, 50, and 60 years, respectively; the maximum resource estimates (including resources that have not yet been discovered) are 50% higher for oil and 100% higher for gas, for coal such estimates have not been made. While the world prices of coal are expected to remain virtually constant, the prices of gas will probably increase to be twice as high in 2010. Thus, the role of coal may be higher in the next century than it is now, provided that due attention is paid to improving the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reducing their adverse environmental effects. A comparison of economic data for coal-fired and gas-fired power plants is as follows: Investment cost (USD/kW): 1400, 800; fixed running cost (USD/kW.y): 33.67, 9.0; variable running cost (USD/kWh): 0.30, 0.15; power use (kJ/kWh): 10.29, 7.91; annual availability (%): 70, 50; fuel price (USD/GJ): 1.00, 4.30; power price (USD/kWh): 4.28, 5.52. The investment cost for coal-fired plants covers new construction including flue gas purification. The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) seems to be the future of coal-based power generation. The future problems to be addressed include ways to reduce air pollution, improving the efficiency of the gas-steam cycle, and improving the combustion process particularly with a view to reducing substantially its environmental impact. (P.A.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  20. Refractive index-based detection of gradient elution liquid chromatography using chip-integrated microring resonator arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C

    2014-01-01

    Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as nondestructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with high-performance liquid chromatography. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution, a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and, in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviates extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well-characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of postcolumn (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also make it an attractive potential detection

  1. IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

  2. Raman-Spectroscopy Based Cell Identification on a Microhole Array Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Neugebauer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs from blood of cancer patients are valuable prognostic markers and enable monitoring responses to therapy. The extremely low number of CTCs makes their isolation and characterization a major technological challenge. For label-free cell identification a novel combination of Raman spectroscopy with a microhole array platform is described that is expected to support high-throughput and multiplex analyses. Raman spectra were registered from regularly arranged cells on the chip with low background noise from the silicon nitride chip membrane. A classification model was trained to distinguish leukocytes from myeloblasts (OCI-AML3 and breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and BT-20. The model was validated by Raman spectra of a mixed cell population. The high spectral quality, low destructivity and high classification accuracy suggests that this approach is promising for Raman activated cell sorting.

  3. A preliminary study on the identification of vehicle paint chip based on optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Zhihui; Xu, Xiaojing; Huang, Wei; Xu, Lei; Guo, Jingjing; Xie, Lanchi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle paint chip is a common evidence that plays a significant role in many criminal cases. This paper introduced a novel imaging technology - optical coherence tomography (OCT), which can realize non-invasive, rapid, high-resolution and cross-sectional imaging for the identification of vehicle paint chips. In this paper, a 1310nm swept-source OCT system was adopted to implement the paint imaging. The results show that, compared with conventional spectroscopy and SEM methods, OCT technology can directly obtain the tomographic images of the paints without slicing. In addition, the optical attenuation properties were analyzed to provide a new feature for separating different paint samples. The OCT technology and traditional methods can be combined to further narrow the scope of investigation, providing a comprehensive means to determine or rule out the suspect vehicles.

  4. Chip based common-path optical coherence tomography system with an on-chip microlens and multi-reference suppression algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Lantian; Weiss, Nicolas; Leeuwen, van Ton G.; Pollnau, Markus; Ridder, de René M.; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an integrated optical probe including an on-chip microlens for a common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography system. This common-path design uses the end facet of the silicon oxynitride waveguide as the reference plane, thus eliminating the need of a space-consuming and disp

  5. Exploring chip-capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence field-deployable platform flexibility: Separations of fluorescent dyes by chip-based non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nuchtavorn, N.; Smejkal, Petr; Breadmore, M. C.; Guijt, R. M.; Doble, P.; Bek, F.; Foret, František; Suntornsuk, L.; Macka, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1286, APR (2013), s. 216-221. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : microfluidic chip CE * capillary electrophoresis * NACE * LIF detection Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.258, year: 2013

  6. A novel mu rhythm-based brain computer interface design that uses a programmable system on chip

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, R Rohan; Saraswat, Prateek; Gajendran, Rudhram

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the system design of a portable and economical mu rhythm based Brain Computer Interface which employs Cypress Semiconductors Programmable System on Chip (PSoC). By carrying out essential processing on the PSoC, the use of an extra computer is eliminated, resulting in considerable cost savings. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 and PSoC Designer 5.01 are employed in developing the software for the system, the hardware being custom designed. In order to test the usability of the...

  7. PMMA to SU-8 bonding for polymer based lab-on-a-chip systems with integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Clausen, Bjarne Hans; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    We present an adhesive bonding technique developed for SU-8 based "lab-on-a-chip"- systems with integrated optical components. Microfluidic channels and optical components (e.g. wave-guides) are defined in SU-8 photoresist on a Pyrex glass substrate. The microfluidic channels are sealed by a second...... Pyrex substrate, bonded on top of the cross-linked SU-8 structure using an inter- mediate layer of 950K molecular weight poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). Due to a lower refractive index of PMMA, this bonding technique offers optical waveguiding in the SU-8 structures in combination with good sealing of...

  8. Reclamation Of Plant Wastes (Straw And Obtaining (Nano Chips With Bactericidal Properties Based On Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidovna Voropaeva Nadezda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rape, camelina, wheat and Jerusalem artichoke vegetable wastes (straw as annually renewable raw materials were processed into activated carbons, which were modified with silver nanoparticles for carbonaceous sorbents to acquire specific properties, since carbonaceous sorbents are usually widely used in the food industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of human activity. The technology to obtain active carbons from agricultural crop residues has been developed, active carbon physico-chemical and adsorption properties, textural characteristics have been studied, new functional carbon (nano materials with antibacterial activity containing (nano particles of silver have been obtained, their influence within (nano chip composition on rape crop growth, development and yield has been studied. In the conducted field tests, the highest activity was noted when using the (nano chip whose structure included RAC - camelina and silver nanoparticles. Besides, when nano chips are used for seed treatment, the yield increase makes up 11.6 % for nanoparticles containing Ag, for plant active carbons (PAC (rape with Ag this index makes up 28.1 %, for RAC (Camelina with Ag it makes up 55.8 % (compared to the control variant, which can be explained by the differences in the sorption characteristics of the studied radio activated carbons. Our results and the previous studies of other authors can prove the fact that silver nanoparticles (including those being a part of (nano chips “get” into the biochemical processes and have a pronounced phytostimulating effect on plants, which was especially obvious when suppressing the activity of plant pathogenic microflora by silver nanoparticles.

  9. A rainfall simulator based on multifractal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrour, Nawal; mallet, Cecile; barthes, Laurent; chazottes, Aymeric

    2015-04-01

    The Precipitations are due to complex meteorological phenomenon's and unlike other geophysical constituents such as water vapour concentration they present a relaxation behaviour leading to an alternation of dry and wet periods. Thus, precipitations can be described as intermittent process. The spatial and temporal variability of this phenomenon is significant and covers large scales. This high variability can cause extreme events which are difficult to observe properly because of their suddenness and their localized character. For all these reasons, the precipitations are therefore difficult to model. This study aims to adapt a one-dimensional time series model previously developed by the authors [Akrour et al., 2013, 2014] to a two-dimensional rainfall generator. The original time series model can be divided into 3 major steps : rain support generation, intra event rain rates generation using multifractal and finally calibration process. We use the same kind of methodology in the present study. Based on dataset obtained from meteorological radar of Météo France with a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km we present the used approach : Firstly, the extraction of rain support (rain/no rain area) allowing the retrieval of the rain support structure function (variogram) and fractal properties. This leads us to use either the rain support modelisation proposed by ScleissXXX [ref] or directly real rain support extracted from radar rain maps. Then, the generation (over rain areas) of rain rates is made thanks to a 2D multifractal Fractionnally Integrated Flux (FIF) model [ref]. This second stage is followed by a calibration/forcing step (forcing average rain rate per events) added in order to provide rain rate coherent with observed rain-rate distribution. The forcing process is based on a relation identified from the average rain rate of observed events and their surfaces. The presentation will first explain the different steps presented above, then some results

  10. Peroxynitrous-acid-induced chemiluminescence detection of nitrite based on Microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiong; Lin, Yitong; Zheng, Yongzan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2016-07-01

    A chemiluminescent method for nitrite detection was developed on microfluidic chip. Carbon dots-NaNO2(-) acidified H2O2 system was adopted. Chemiluminescence (CL) spectrum of this system was detected. The radiative recombination of hole-injected and electron-injected carbon dots explained their CL property. Spiral microchannels were designed on the microfluidic chip to allow enough reaction time for the carbon dots-NaNO2-acidified H2O2 system. Carbon dots and NaNO2 were premixed in the branch microchannel, then, the mixture reacted with acidified H2O2 in spiral microchannels. Concentrations of H2SO4 and H2O2, dilution ratio of carbon dots in H2O and flow rate were optimized to obtain the best CL signals. The approach presented satisfactory linear relationship between NaNO2 concentration and CL intensity. The tolerance of metal ions in determination of 1×10(-5)M nitrite was analyzed. The nitrites in water and beverage samples were successfully analyzed on the microfluidic chip with good repeatability. The data were well accordance with the results obtained from GB 5009.33(-) 2010. This microfluidic CL detection method is believed to be a simple, automatic and agent-save approach for inorganic ion analysis. PMID:27154650

  11. A Planning based Framework for Essay Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Bing; Tang, Duyu; Geng, Xinwei; Ning, Dandan; Liu, Jiahao; Liu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Generating an article automatically with computer program is a challenging task in artificial intelligence and natural language processing. In this paper, we target at essay generation, which takes as input a topic word in mind and generates an organized article under the theme of the topic. We follow the idea of text planning \\cite{Reiter1997} and develop an essay generation framework. The framework consists of three components, including topic understanding, sentence extraction and sentence...

  12. One Step Quick Detection of Cancer Cell Surface Marker by Integrated NiFe-based Magnetic Biosensing Cell Cultural Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenchen Bao; Lei Chen; Tao Wang; Chong Lei; Furong Tian; Daxiang Cui; Yong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    RGD peptides has been used to detect cell surface integrin and direct clinical effective therapeutic drug selection. Herein we report that a quick one step detection of cell surface marker that was realized by a specially designed NiFe-based magnetic biosensing cell chip combined with functionalized magnetic nanoparti-cles. Magnetic nanoparticles with 20-30 nm in diameter were prepared by coprecipitation and modified with RGD-4C, and the resultant RGD-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were used for targeting cancer cells cul-tured on the NiFe-based magnetic biosensing chip and distinguish the amount of cell surface receptor-integrin. Cell lines such as Calu3, Hela, A549, CaFbr, HEK293 and HUVEC exhibiting different integrin expression were chosen as test samples. Calu3, Hela, HEK293 and HUVEC cells were successfully identified. This approach has advantages in the qualitative screening test. Compared with traditional method, it is fast, sensitive, low cost, easy-operative, and needs very little human intervention. The novel method has great potential in applications such as fast clinical cell surface marker detection, and diagnosis of early cancer, and can be easily extended to other biomedical applications based on molecular recognition.

  13. An interface board for developing control loops in power electronics based on microcontrollers and DSPs Cores -Arduino /ChipKit /dsPIC /DSP /TI Piccolo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new control-interface card for developing simple control loops and generating test signals for power electronic converters is presented. The control board can operate with two computational cores (Texas Instruments and Microchip) allowing using the preferred DSP architecture and...... development environment. Moreover, the interface board can operate with open hardware Arduino-like boards such as the ChipKit Uno32. The paper also describes how to enhance the performance of a ChipKit Uno32 with a dsPIC obtaining a more suitable solution for power electronics. The basic blocks and interfaces...

  14. TOT01, a time-over-threshold based readout chip in 180nm CMOS technology for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is focused on the development of the TOT01 prototype front-end ASIC for the readout of long silicon strip detectors in the STS (Silicon Tracking System) of the CBM experiment at FAIR - GSI. The deposited charge measurement is based on the Time-over-Threshold method which allows integration of a low-power ADC into each channel. The TOT01 chip comprises 30 identical channels and 1 test channel which is supplied with additional test pads. The major blocks of each channel are the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) with two switchable constant-current discharge circuits and additional test features. The architecture of the CSA core is based on the folded cascode. The input p-channel MOSFET device, biased at a drain current 500 μA, was optimized for 30 pF detector capacitance while keeping in mind the area constraints - W/L = 1800 μm / 0.180 μm. The main advantage of this solution is high gain (GBW = 1.2 GHz) and low power consumption at the same time. The amplifier is followed by the discriminator circuit. The discriminator allows for a global (multi-channel) differential threshold setting and independent compensation for the CSA output DC-level deviations in each channel by means of a 6-bit digital to analog converter (DAC). The output pulse of this processing chain is fed through a 31:1 multiplexer structure to the output of the chip for further processing. The TOT01 chip has been fabricated in the UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process (Europractice mini-sic). It has 78 pads, measures approximately 1.5x3.2 mm2 and dissipates 33 mW. The channels have 50 μm pitch and each consumes 1.05 mW of power. The chip has been successfully tested. Charge sensitivity parameters, noise performance and first X-ray acquisitions are presented.

  15. TOT01, a time-over-threshold based readout chip in 180nm CMOS technology for silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Gryboś, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of the TOT01 prototype front-end ASIC for the readout of long silicon strip detectors in the STS (Silicon Tracking System) of the CBM experiment at FAIR - GSI. The deposited charge measurement is based on the Time-over-Threshold method which allows integration of a low-power ADC into each channel. The TOT01 chip comprises 30 identical channels and 1 test channel which is supplied with additional test pads. The major blocks of each channel are the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) with two switchable constant-current discharge circuits and additional test features. The architecture of the CSA core is based on the folded cascode. The input p-channel MOSFET device, biased at a drain current 500 μA, was optimized for 30 pF detector capacitance while keeping in mind the area constraints — W/L = 1800 μm / 0.180 μm. The main advantage of this solution is high gain (GBW = 1.2 GHz) and low power consumption at the same time. The amplifier is followed by the discriminator circuit. The discriminator allows for a global (multi-channel) differential threshold setting and independent compensation for the CSA output DC-level deviations in each channel by means of a 6-bit digital to analog converter (DAC). The output pulse of this processing chain is fed through a 31:1 multiplexer structure to the output of the chip for further processing. The TOT01 chip has been fabricated in the UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process (Europractice mini@sic). It has 78 pads, measures approximately 1.5x3.2 mm2 and dissipates 33 mW. The channels have 50 μm pitch and each consumes 1.05 mW of power. The chip has been successfully tested. Charge sensitivity parameters, noise performance and first X-ray acquisitions are presented.

  16. Mutation scanning using MUT-MAP, a high-throughput, microfluidic chip-based, multi-analyte panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Patel

    Full Text Available Targeted anticancer therapies rely on the identification of patient subgroups most likely to respond to treatment. Predictive biomarkers play a key role in patient selection, while diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers expand our understanding of tumor biology, suggest treatment combinations, and facilitate discovery of novel drug targets. We have developed a high-throughput microfluidics method for mutation detection (MUT-MAP, mutation multi-analyte panel based on TaqMan or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR assays. We analyzed a set of 71 mutations across six genes of therapeutic interest. The six-gene mutation panel was designed to detect the most common mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, NRAS, BRAF, and AKT1 oncogenes. The DNA was preamplified using custom-designed primer sets before the TaqMan/AS-PCR assays were carried out using the Biomark microfluidics system (Fluidigm; South San Francisco, CA. A cross-reactivity analysis enabled the generation of a robust automated mutation-calling algorithm which was then validated in a series of 51 cell lines and 33 FFPE clinical samples. All detected mutations were confirmed by other means. Sample input titrations confirmed the assay sensitivity with as little as 2 ng gDNA, and demonstrated excellent inter- and intra-chip reproducibility. Parallel analysis of 92 clinical trial samples was carried out using 2-100 ng genomic DNA (gDNA, allowing the simultaneous detection of multiple mutations. DNA prepared from both fresh frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples were used, and the analysis was routinely completed in 2-3 days: traditional assays require 0.5-1 µg high-quality DNA, and take significantly longer to analyze. This assay can detect a wide range of mutations in therapeutically relevant genes from very small amounts of sample DNA. As such, the mutation assay developed is a valuable tool for high-throughput biomarker discovery and validation in personalized medicine and cancer drug

  17. A rule-based software test data generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  18. On the area and energy scalability of wireless network-on-chip: a model-based benchmarked design space exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Abadal Cavallé, Sergi; Iannazzo Soteras, Mario Enrique; Nemirovsky, Mario; Cabellos Aparicio, Alberto; Lee, Heekwan; Alarcón Cot, Eduardo José

    2014-01-01

    Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) are emerging as the way to interconnect the processing cores and the memory within a chip multiprocessor. As recent years have seen a significant increase in the number of cores per chip, it is crucial to guarantee the scalability of NoCs in order to avoid communication to become the next performance bottleneck in multicore processors. Among other alternatives, the concept of Wireless Network-on- Chip (WNoC) has been proposed, wherein on-chip anten...

  19. Dynamic analysis of angiogenesis in transgenic zebrafish embryos using a 3D multilayer chip-based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Hall, Chris J.; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Mitchell, Arnan; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) models of human diseases have recently emerged as innovative experimental systems in drug discovery and molecular pathology. None of the currently available technologies, however, allow for automated immobilization and treatment of large numbers of spatially encoded transgenic embryos during real-time developmental analysis. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of an integrated 3D microfluidic chip-based system fabricated directly in the poly(methyl methacrylate) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. At its core, the device utilizes an array of 3D micro-mechanical traps to actively capture and immobilize single embryos using a low-pressure suction. It also features built-in piezoelectric microdiaphragm pumps, embryo trapping suction manifold, drug delivery manifold and optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element to provide optimal temperature during embryo development. Furthermore, we present design of the proof-of-concept off-chip electronic interface equipped with robotic servo actuator driven stage, innovative servomotor-actuated pinch valves and miniaturized fluorescent USB microscope. Our results show that the innovative device has 100% embryo trapping efficiency while supporting normal embryo development for up to 72 hours in a confined microfluidic environment. We also present data that this microfluidic system can be readily applied to kinetic analysis of a panel of investigational anti-angiogenic agents in transgenic zebrafish Tg(fli1a:EGFP) line. The optical transparency and embryo immobilization allow for convenient visualization of developing vasculature patterns in response to drug treatment without the need for specimen re-positioning. The integrated electronic interfaces bring the Lab-on-a-Chip systems a step closer to realization of complete analytical automation.

  20. Sample introduction interface for on-chip nucleic acid-based analysis of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, O; Melling, L; Tarn, M D; Kemp, C; Esfahani, M M N; Pamme, N; Shaw, K J

    2016-05-24

    Despite recent advances in microfluidic-based integrated diagnostic systems, the sample introduction interface, especially with regards to large volume samples, has often been neglected. We present a sample introduction interface that allows direct on-chip processing of crude stool samples for the detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The principle of IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension) was adapted to include a large volume sample chamber with a septum-based interface for stool sample introduction. Solid chaotropic salt and dry superparamagnetic particles (PMPs) could be stored on-chip and reconstituted upon sample addition, simplifying the process of release of DNA from H. pylori cells and its binding to the PMPs. Finally, the PMPs were pulled via a magnet through a washing chamber containing an immiscible oil solution and into an elution chamber where the DNA was released into aqueous media for subsequent analysis. The entire process required only 7 min while enabling a 40-fold reduction in working volume from crude biological samples. The combination of a real-world interface and rapid DNA extraction offers the potential for the methodology to be used in point-of-care (POC) devices. PMID:27164181

  1. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods. PMID:26699696

  2. Coupling of fully automated chip-based electrospray ionization to high-capacity ion trap mass spectrometer for ganglioside analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Mosoarca, Cristina; Chirita, Marius; Udrescu, Valentina; Dinca, Nicolae; Vukelić, Zeljka; Allen, Mark; Zamfir, Alina D

    2008-07-01

    NanoMate robot was coupled to a high-capacity ion trap (HCT) mass spectrometer to create a system merging automatic chip-based electrospray ionization (ESI) infusion, ultrafast ion detection, and multistage sequencing at superior sensitivity. The interface between the NanoMate and HCT mass spectrometer consists of an in-laboratory constructed mounting device that allows adjustment of the robot position with respect to the mass spectrometer inlet. The coupling was optimized for ganglioside (GG) high-throughput analysis in the negative ion mode and was implemented in clinical glycolipidomics for identification and structural characterization of anencephaly-associated species. By NanoMate HCT mass spectrometry (MS), data corroborating significant differences in GG expression in anencephalic versus age-matched normal brain tissue were collected. The feasibility of chip-based nanoESI HCT multistage collision-induced dissociation (CID MS(n)) for polysialylated GG fragmentation and isomer discrimination was tested on a GT1 (d18:1/18:0) anencephaly-associated structure. MS(2)-MS(4) obtained by accumulating scans at variable fragmentation amplitudes gave rise to the first fragmentation patterns from which the presence of GT1b structural isomer could be determined unequivocally without the need for supplementary investigation by any other analytical or biochemical methods. PMID:18406832

  3. Nanoconstriction-based electrodeless dielectrophoresis chip for nanoparticle and protein preconcentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chi-Han; Chien, Liang-Ju; Kuo, Ju-Nan

    2015-08-01

    An electrodeless dielectrophoresis (EDEP) microchip is proposed for the concentration of nanoscale particles and proteins in a 150 nm nanoconstriction gap in a microchannel. Notably, the nanoconstriction is fabricated using a simple thermal-oxidation shrinkage process. It is shown that the nanoconstriction enhances the local electric field intensity by a factor of 1 × 103. The strong electric field and field gradient result in concentration enrichment by factors 1 × 104 and 1 × 103 for nanoparticles and proteins, respectively, within 30 s. Thus, the proposed EDEP chip has significant potential for achieving rapid and highly sensitive protein detection and for biomarker discovery applications.

  4. Design and Fabrication of a Chip-based Continuous-wave Atom Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Power, E. P.; George, L; Vanderelzen, B.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Murphy, R; Yalisove, S. M.; Raithel, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for a continuous-wave (CW) atom laser on a chip and describe the process used to fabricate the device. Our design aims to integrate quadrupole magnetic guiding of ground state Rb atoms with continuous surface adsorption evaporative cooling to create a continuous Bose-Einstein condensate; out-coupled atoms from the condensate should realize a CW atom laser. We choose a geometry with three wires embedded in a spiral pattern in a silicon subtrate. The guide features an integr...

  5. Programmable-System-on-Chip-based data acquisition system for educational purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano Rubio, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The project aims to implement a PSoC DVK based DAS system learning resource. The idea is to provide a way to develop signal acquiring basic knowledge, as well as a tool to implement simple measures. In order to do it, hardware and software have been implemented. Hardware consists of PSoC DVK, which has the functions of AC and DC signal acquiring and generating, showing information about the selected function and the acquired signal through a display, and transmitting the acquired samples t...

  6. Separation of large DNA molecules by size exclusion chromatography-based microchip with on-chip concentration structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Naoki; Itoh, Shintaro; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Zhang, Hedong

    2016-06-01

    The separation of DNA molecules according to their size represents a fundamental bioanalytical procedure. Here, we report the development of a chip-sized device, consisting of micrometer-sized fence structures fabricated in a microchannel, for the separation of large DNA molecules (over 10 kbp) based on the principle of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). In order to achieve separation, two approaches were utilized: first, the DNA samples were concentrated immediately prior to separation using nanoslit structures, with the aim of improving the resolution. Second, a theoretical model of SEC-based separation was established and applied in order to predict the optimal voltage range for separation. In this study, we achieved separation of λ DNA (48.5 kbp) and T4 DNA (166 kbp) using the present SEC-based microchip.

  7. Compact 0.3-to-1.125 GHz self-biased phase-locked loop for system-on-chip clock generation in 0.18 µm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Liyuan; Feng, Peng; Liu, Jian; Wu, Nanjian

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a compact ring-oscillator-based self-biased phase-locked loop (SBPLL) for system-on-chip (SoC) clock generation. It adopts the proposed triple-well NMOS source degeneration voltage-to-current (V-I) converter instead of the operational amplifier (OPAMP) based V-I converter and a proposed simple start-up circuit with a negligible area to save power and area. The SBPLL is implemented in the 0.18 µm CMOS process, and it occupies 0.048 mm2 active core. The measurement results show the SBPLL can generate output frequency in a wide range from 300 MHz to 1.125 GHz with a constant loop bandwidth that is around 5 MHz and a relatively low jitter performance that is less than 4.9 mUI over the entire covered frequency range. From -20 to 70 °C the rms jitter variation and loop bandwidth variation at 1.125 GHz are 0.2 ps and 350 kHz, respectively. The rms jitter performance variation of all covered frequency points is less than 10% in the supply range from 1.5 to 1.7 V. Such SBPLL shows robustness over environmental variation. The maximum power consumption is 5.6 mW with 1.6 V supply at an output frequency of 1.125 GHz.

  8. PERFORMANCE ENHANCED ROUTER DESIGN FOR NETWORK ON CHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbu chozhan.P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network on chip is a new paradigm for on chip design that is able to sustain the communication provisions for the SoC with the desired performance. NOC applies networking methodology concepts to system on chip data transfer and it gives noticeable elevation over conventionalbus based communication. NOC router is the backbone of on chip communication which directs the flow of data. In NOC router the arbiter is used during number of inputs request for the similar out port. Arbiter generates the grant based on the priority and previous granted input. For NOC router we have design the efficient round robin arbiter and analyse the power and area. In this paper on chip router is designed with a buffering technique of FWFT based asynchronous FIFO which improves timing and reduce power consumption. The proposed design of router is simulated and synthesized in Xilinx ISE 13.2 and the source code is written in Verilog. Cadence soc encounter of technology ami035 is used to generate layout of router and RTL compiler is used to compute area, power and timing.

  9. Radionuclide analysis based on lab-on-chip liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of radionuclides present in high and medium activity wastes is carried out according to operating protocols including the sequence of many steps of separation/purification. In order to improve these protocols, the micro-fluidic tools have their place. In particular the liquid-liquid extraction in micro-system shows various interests: very few solvent is consumed, the process can be automated and parallelized and the extraction and the stripping can be coupled on a single chip. Liquid-liquid extraction with continuous flow in microsystems has not been tackled until recently since only few chemical systems have been studied, in particular in the nuclear field. Thanks to the characteristics linked to the miniaturization (large specific area, short diffusion length, low reagents volumes), our objective is to control the fluid hydrodynamics for optimizing the contributions of diffusion and convection to the mass transfer in solutions. An exhaustive bibliographical review about the liquid-liquid extraction of metal species on lab-on-chips and preliminary experimental results will be presented and discussed. (authors)

  10. Compact Shorted Stacked-Patch Antenna Integrated with Chip-Package Based on LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low profile chip-package stacked-patch antenna is proposed by using low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC technology. The proposed antenna employs a stacked-patch to achieve two operating frequency bands and enhance the bandwidth. The height of the antenna is decreased to 4.09 mm (about λ/25 at 2.45 GHz due to the shorted pin. The package is mounted on a 44 × 44 mm2 ground plane to miniaturize the volume of the system. The design parameters of the antenna and the effect of the antenna on chip-package cavity are carefully analyzed. The designed antenna operates at a center frequency of 2.45 GHz and its impedance bandwidth (S11< -10 dB is 200 MHz, resulting from two neighboring resonant frequencies at 2.41 and 2.51 GHz, respectively. The average gain across the frequency band is about 5.28 dBi.

  11. A wearable, low-power, health-monitoring instrumentation based on a Programmable System-on-Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Bertrand; Gehin, Claudine; Nocua, Ronald; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Improvement in quality and efficiency of health and medicine, at home and in hospital, has become of paramount importance. The solution of this problem would require the continuous monitoring of several key patient parameters, including the assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity using non-invasive sensors, providing information for emotional, sensorial, cognitive and physiological analysis of the patient. Recent advances in embedded systems, microelectronics, sensors and wireless networking enable the design of wearable systems capable of such advanced health monitoring. The subject of this article is an ambulatory system comprising a small wrist device connected to several sensors for the detection of the autonomic nervous system activity. It affords monitoring of skin resistance, skin temperature and heart activity. It is also capable of recording the data on a removable media or sending it to computer via a wireless communication. The wrist device is based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) from Cypress: PSoCs are mixed-signal arrays, with dynamic, configurable digital and analogical blocks and an 8-bit Microcontroller unit (MCU) core on a single chip. In this paper we present first of all the hardware and software architecture of the device, and then results obtained from initial experiments. PMID:19963864

  12. On-chip supercapacitors with ultrahigh volumetric performance based on electrochemically co-deposited CuO/polypyrrole nanosheet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Zhou, Jinqiu; Xu, Na; Yang, Tingzhou; Shen, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuejun; Wu, Shishan; Yan, Chenglin

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a new method for fabricating unique on-chip supercapacitors based on CuO/polypyrrole core/shell nanosheet arrays by means of direct electrochemical co-deposition on interdigital-like electrodes. The prepared all-solid-state device demonstrates exceptionally high specific capacitance of 1275.5 F cm-3 (˜40 times larger than that of CuO-only supercapacitors) and high-energy-density of 28.35 mWh cm-3, which are both significantly greater than other solid-state supercapacitors. More importantly, the device maintains approximately 100% capacity retention at 2.5 A cm-3 after 3000 cycles. The in situ co-deposition of CuO/polypyrrole nanosheets on interdigital substrate enables effective charge transport, electrode fabrication integrity, and device integration. Because of their high energy, power density, and stable cycling stability, these newly developed on-chip supercapacitors permit fast, reliable applications in portable and miniaturized electronic devices.

  13. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about −60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. Rule-based Test Generation with Mind Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Polivaev, Dimitry

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces basic concepts of rule based test generation with mind maps, and reports experiences learned from industrial application of this technique in the domain of smart card testing by Giesecke & Devrient GmbH over the last years. It describes the formalization of test selection criteria used by our test generator, our test generation architecture and test generation framework.

  15. Control of a Power Generation System Based on a Dual Star Induction Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Marouani, K; Nounou, K; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Tabbache, B; Alloui, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme of a power generation system based on a dual star squirrel-cage induction machine operating as an induction generator. The operating mode based on an excitation control scheme is chosen to ensure a controlled magnitude and frequency of the generator output voltage. Some preliminary simulation and experimental test results, carried out on a prototype of dual star induction machine operating as generator and supplying various loads under different conditions...

  16. Keystream Generator Based On Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad A. Abdulsalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the design of keystream generator using heuristic techniques are reported. A simulated annealing algorithm for generating random keystream with large complexity is presented. Simulated annealing technique is adapted to locate these requirements. The definitions for some cryptographic properties are generalized, providing a measure suitable for use as an objective function in a simulated annealing algorithm, seeking randomness that satisfy both correlation immunity and the large linear complexity. Results are presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the method.

  17. Can a personal dosemeter for neutron radiation based on a semiconductor chip match the new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new recommendations of ICRP require that the minimum detection threshold of detectors for personal neutron dosimetry must be lowered by a factor of 10(1). The situation for a new device based on an as yet unused technology is even worse. It has to be proven that it is able to detect and measure the neutron and mixed neutron gamma field dose in an analogous way to the proportional counters and secondly that it can fulfil the new recommendations of the ICRP. In solving the first part limiting design rules for such a device based on a semiconductor silicon chip can be deduced. These restrictions satisfy the recommended requirements in a straightforward way. (author)

  18. Chips 2020

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising  Moore-like exponential g...

  19. CHAOS-BASED FEEDFORWARD OUTPUT FUNCTIONS FOR COMBINING KEYSTREAM GENERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Tao; Wang Ruli; Yan Yixun

    2001-01-01

    The chaos-based feedforward output functions for combining keystream generators are proposed according to chaotic dynamic theory. The generated binary signals are independently and identically distributed, and have predictable periods. All experiments correspond to the theoretical prediction very well.

  20. Chalcogenide glass planar MIR couplers for future chip based Bracewell interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Harry-Dean Kenchington; Ireland, Michael; Ma, Pan; Tuthill, Peter; Eggleton, Ben; Lawrence, John S; Debbarma, Sukanta; Luther-Davies, Barry; Madden, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Photonic integrated circuits are established as the technique of choice for a number of astronomical processing functions due to their compactness, high level of integration, low losses, and stability. Temperature control, mechanical vibration and acoustic noise become controllable for such a device enabling much more complex processing than can realistically be considered with bulk optics. To date the benefits have mainly been at wavelengths around 1550 nm but in the important Mid-Infrared region, standard photonic chips absorb light strongly. Chalcogenide glasses are well known for their transparency to beyond 10000 nm, and the first results from coupler devices intended for use in an interferometric nuller for exoplanetary observation in the Mid-Infrared L band (3800-4200 nm) are presented here showing that suitable performance can be obtained both theoretically and experimentally for the first fabricated devices operating at 4000 nm.

  1. Large-field-of-view Chip-scale Talbot-grid-based Fluorescence Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Shuo; Kato, Mihoko; Sternberg, Paul W; Yang, Changhuei

    2012-01-01

    The fluorescence microscope is one of the most important tools in modern clinical diagnosis and biological science. However, its expense, size and limited field-of-view (FOV) are becoming bottlenecks in key applications such as large-scale phenotyping and low-resource-setting diagnostics. Here we report a low-cost, compact chip-scale fluorescence-imaging platform, termed the Fluorescence Talbot Microscopy (FTM), which utilizes the Talbot self-imaging effect to enable efficient fluorescence imaging over a large and directly-scalable FOV. The FTM prototype has a resolution of 1.2 microns and an FOV of 3.9 mm x 3.5 mm. We demonstrate the imaging capability of FTM on fluorescently labeled breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) and HEK cells expressing green fluorescent protein.

  2. A magnetoelectric composite based signal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, Y. K.; Serov, V. N.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Makovkin, S. A.; Viehland, D.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-05-01

    Self-oscillations in an active loop consisting of a wide-band amplifier and a magnetoelectric composite in the feedback circuit have been observed. The composite with a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate bimorph and ferromagnetic Metglas serves as a resonator that determines the frequency of oscillations and provides the feedback voltage. Under amplitude balance and phase matching conditions, the device generated signals at 2.3 kHz, at the bending resonance frequency of the composite. The oscillations were observed over a specific range of magnetic bias H. The shape of the signal generated is dependent on electrical circuit parameters and magnitude and orientation of H.

  3. Highly porous magnetite/graphene nanocomposites for a solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor on paper-based chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Lv, Zhaozi; Xia, Yong; Han, Yanchao; Lou, Baohua; Wang, Erkang

    2013-04-01

    Graphene-nanosheet-based highly porous magnetite nanocomposites (GN-HPMNs) have been prepared using a simple solvothermal method and used as an immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor on paper-based chips. Highly porous Fe3O4 nanocrystal clusters were coated with acrylate and wrapped tightly on the skeleton of graphene nanosheets. The structures and sizes of the GN-HPMNs could be tuned by varying the proportions of the solvents ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Then, the relatively highly porous ones with an average diameter of about 65 nm were combined with Nafion to form composite films on an electrode surface for immobilization of Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine). Because of their porosity, negatively charged surface, and cooperative characteristics of magnetic nanomaterials and graphene, under an external magnetic field, the GN-HPMNs ensured effective immobilization, excellent electron transfer, and long-term stability of Ru(bpy)3(2+) in the composite film. The sensor developed exhibited excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 0.65% for 30 continuous cycles. It was found to be much more favorable for detecting compounds containing tertiary amino groups and DNAs with guanine and adenine. A detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 5.0 nM was obtained for tripropylamine. As an application example, 0.5 nM single-nucleotide mismatch could be detected. This was the first attempt to introduce magnetic nanomaterials and an external magnetic field into paper-based chips. The sensor developed has the advantages of high sensitivity, good stability, and wide potential applicability as well as simplicity, low cost, and good disposability. PMID:23132543

  4. On-Chip Optical Squeezing

    CERN Document Server

    Dutt, Avik; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Gaeta, Alexander L; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal

    2013-01-01

    A squeezed light source, i.e. a source with ultra low noise level, below the standard quantum limit (SQL), can enable quantum enhanced sensing, spectroscopy[1, 2], metrology[3] and quantum information processing[4,5]. To date, such a non classical light source on-chip, scalable, compact and robust has not been demonstrated. Such a source could not only enable ultrasensitive measurements on chip, but also provide squeezing over high bandwidths in contrast to most sources which usually rely on large optical cavities with narrow bandwidths. Here, we report the observation of squeezed light in an on-chip monolithically integrated platform, generated in a micron-size silicon nitride oscillator[6] with GHz cavity linewidth. We show 1.7dB noise squeezing, i.e. reduction of the noise level below the standard quantum limit, of the intensity difference between two beams generated by an on-chip optical parametric oscillator.

  5. Generating IDS Attack Pattern Automatically Based on Attack Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向尕; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    Generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is studied. The extending definition of attack tree is proposed. And the algorithm of generating attack tree is presented. The method of generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is shown, which is tested by concrete attack instances. The results show that the algorithm is effective and efficient. In doing so, the efficiency of generating attack pattern is improved and the attack trees can be reused.

  6. Hardware and Software Co-design: An Architecture Proposal for a Network-on-Chip Switch based on Bufferless Data Flow

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ortega-Cisneros; H.J. Cabrera-Villaseñor; J. J. Raygoza-Panduro; F. Sandoval; R. Loo-Yau

    2014-01-01

    The use of on chip networks as interconnection media fo r systems implemented in FPGA s is limited by the amount of logical resources necessary to deploy the network in the target device, and the time necessary to adjust the network parameters to achieve the perfo rmance goal for the system. In this paper we present a switch architecture, with data flow control based on circuit switching and aim ed for on-chip networks with a Spidergon topology, which seeks to reduce the area occupied without...

  7. SMARTPIX, a photon-counting pixel detector for synchrotron applications based on Medipix3RX readout chip and active edge pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon-counting pixel detectors are now routinely used on synchrotron beamlines. Many applications benefit from their noiseless mode of operation, single-pixel point spread function and high frame rates. One of their drawbacks is a discontinuous detection area due to the space-consuming wirebonded connections of the readout chips. Moreover, charge sharing limits their efficiency and their energy discrimination capabilities. In order to overcome these issues the ESRF is developing SMARTPIX,a scalable and versatile pixel detector system with minimized dead areas and with energy resolving capabilities based on the MEDIPIX3RX readout chip. SMARTPIX exploits the through-silicon via technology implemented on MEDIPIX3RX, the active edge sensor processing developed in particular at ADVACAM, and the on-chip analog charge summing feature of MEDIPIX3RX. This article reports on system architecture, unit module structure, data acquisition electronics, target characteristics and applications

  8. SMARTPIX, a photon-counting pixel detector for synchrotron applications based on Medipix3RX readout chip and active edge pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchut, C.; Collet, E.; Hervé, C.; Le Caer, T.; Cerrai, J.; Siron, L.; Dabin, Y.; Ribois, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Photon-counting pixel detectors are now routinely used on synchrotron beamlines. Many applications benefit from their noiseless mode of operation, single-pixel point spread function and high frame rates. One of their drawbacks is a discontinuous detection area due to the space-consuming wirebonded connections of the readout chips. Moreover, charge sharing limits their efficiency and their energy discrimination capabilities. In order to overcome these issues the ESRF is developing SMARTPIX,a scalable and versatile pixel detector system with minimized dead areas and with energy resolving capabilities based on the MEDIPIX3RX readout chip. SMARTPIX exploits the through-silicon via technology implemented on MEDIPIX3RX, the active edge sensor processing developed in particular at ADVACAM, and the on-chip analog charge summing feature of MEDIPIX3RX. This article reports on system architecture, unit module structure, data acquisition electronics, target characteristics and applications.

  9. Intra-generational Redistribution under Public Pension Planning Based on Generation-based Funding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjo, Daisuke; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Murata, Tadahiko

    In this paper, we propose a method of determining the pension in the generation-based funding scheme. In this proposal, we include two types of pensions in the scheme. One is the payment-amount related pension and the other is the payment-frequency related pension. We set the ratio of the total amount of payment-amount related pension to the total amount of both pensions, and simulate income gaps and the relationship between contributions and benefits for each individual when the proposed method is applied.

  10. Stability improvement of induction generator-based wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hu, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The stability improvement of induction-generator-based wind turbine systems under power system fault conditions has been studied. Two types of generators are considered, namely rotor short-circuited induction generators and dynamic slip-controlled wound rotor induction generators. The factors...... affecting the stability are analysed. The characteristics of the induction-generator-based wind turbines are described, and possible methods of improving stability of the wind generators are discussed. The system modelling is presented, and then the discussed methods of improving stability are investigated...

  11. A ready-to-use, versatile, multiplex-able three-dimensional scaffold-based immunoassay chip for high throughput hepatotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaojun; Wang, Jingyu; Zhu, Lu; Lowrey, Jonathan Joseph; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Hou, Wei; Dong, Jiahong; Du, Yanan

    2015-06-21

    Hydrogel as three-dimensional (3D) substrate has been employed in miniaturized high throughput protein detection platforms to increase the number of effective antibodies and signal augmentation. However, the high water content of the hydrogel can dilute samples and create barrier to mass transfer, limiting hydrogel height to several microns in most platforms. Moreover, these platforms cannot achieve widespread use in common laboratories as they usually rely heavily on expensive robotic liquid handlers and custom-built components. Here we developed a ready-to-use, easy to store and handle, versatile and multiplex-able 3D scaffold-based immunoassay chip (3D immunoChip) possible for high throughput protein quantification using bench-top equipment in common laboratories. Sample dilution, mass transfer, signal scattering and storage problems can be avoided by using dry scaffolds that regain transparency upon rehydration. When combined with hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterned reagent loading slides, manual high throughput handling of samples can be achieved. As these micro-scaffolds are patterned without barriers in between, simultaneous and effortless washing of all the reaction zones is possible in a Petri dish. Such features aid the 3D immunoChip in saving up to 100 times reagent and about 6 times labour. The 3D immunoChip is able to detect albumin (ALB), as a model analyte, from 5 ng mL(-1) to 1000 ng mL(-1), making it comparable to the commercialized ELISA kit based on a 96-well plate (0.22-400 ng mL(-1)). This thus enables the 3D immunoChip to directly detect ALB secreted by HepaRG cells cultured in a 3D cell culture array chip for high throughput drug hepatotoxicity evaluation, which could potentially accelerate drug screening. PMID:25987291

  12. A Novel Mu Rhythm-based Brain Computer Interface Design that uses a Programmable System on Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohan; Saraswat, Prateek; Gajendran, Rudhram

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the system design of a portable and economical mu rhythm based Brain Computer Interface which employs Cypress Semiconductors Programmable System on Chip (PSoC). By carrying out essential processing on the PSoC, the use of an extra computer is eliminated, resulting in considerable cost savings. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 and PSoC Designer 5.01 are employed in developing the software for the system, the hardware being custom designed. In order to test the usability of the BCI, preliminary testing is carried out by training three subjects who were able to demonstrate control over their electroencephalogram by moving a cursor present at the center of the screen towards the indicated direction with an average accuracy greater than 70% and a bit communication rate of up to 7 bits/min. PMID:23493871

  13. Modelling and simulation of passive Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) based micromixer for clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikat, Chakraborty; Sharath, M.; Srujana, M.; Narayan, K.; Pattnaik, Prasant Kumar

    2016-03-01

    In biomedical application, micromixer is an important component because of many processes requires rapid and efficient mixing. At micro scale, the flow is Laminar due to small channel size which enables controlled rapid mixing. The reduction in analysis time along with high throughput can be achieved with the help of rapid mixing. In LoC application, micromixer is used for mixing of fluids especially for the devices which requires efficient mixing. Micromixer of this type of microfluidic devices with a rapid mixing is useful in application such as DNA/RNA synthesis, drug delivery system & biological agent detection. In this work, we design and simulate a microfluidic based passive rapid micromixer for lab-on-a-chip application.

  14. PMMA to SU-8 Bonding for Polymer Based Lab-on -a-chip Systems with Integrated Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    An adhesive bonding technique for wafer-level sealing of SU-8 based lab-on-a-chip microsystems with integrated optical components is presented. Microfluidic channels and optical components, e.g. waveguides, are fabricated in cross-linked SU-8 and sealed with a Pyrex glass substrate by means of an...... strength of 16 MPa is achieved at bonding temperatures between 110 oC and 120oC, at a bonding force of 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. The optical propagation loss of multi-mode 10ym (thickness)x 30ym (width)SU-8 waveguides is measured. The propagation loss in PMMA bonded waveguide struc-tures is more than 5 d...

  15. Polymer-based Hybrid Integrated Photonic Devices for Silicon On-chip Modulation and Board-level Optical Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Lin, Xiaohui; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T

    2014-01-01

    The accelerating increase in information traffic demands the expansion of optical access network systems that require cost reduction of optical and photonic components. Low cost, ease of fabrication, and integration capabilities of low optical-loss polymers make them attractive for photonic applications. In addition to passive wave-guiding components, electro-optic (EO) polymers consisting of a polymeric matrix doped with organic nonlinear chromophores have enabled wide-RF-bandwidth and low-power optical modulators. Beside board level passive and active optical components, compact on-chip modulators (a few 100 micronmeters to a few millimeters) have been made possible by hybrid integration of EO polymers onto the silicon platform. This paper summarizes some of the recent progress in polymer based optical modulators and interconnects. A highly linear, broadband directional coupler modulator for use in analog optical links and compact, and low-power silicon/polymer hybrid slot photonic crystal waveguide modulat...

  16. Development of a new signal processor for tetralateral position sensitive detector based on single-chip microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Zhen; Shi, Long-Zhao; Wang, Yu-Xing; Ni, Yi; Li, Zhen-Qing; Ding, Hai-Feng

    2006-08-01

    An inherently nonlinear relation between the output current of the tetralateral position sensitive detector (PSD) and the position of the incident light spot has been found theoretically. Based on single-chip microcomputer and the theoretical relation between output current and position, a new signal processor capable of correcting nonlinearity and reducing position measurement deviation of tetralateral PSD was developed. A tetralateral PSD (S1200, 13×13mm2, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) was measured with the new signal processor, a linear relation between the output position of the PSD, and the incident position of the light spot was obtained. In the 60% range of a 13×13mm2 active area, the position nonlinearity (rms) was 0.15% and the position measurement deviation (rms) was ±20μm. Compared with traditional analog signal processor, the new signal processor is of better compatibility, lower cost, higher precision, and easier to be interfaced.

  17. Flexible readout and integration sensor (FRIS): a bio-inspired, system-on-chip, event-based readout architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joseph H.; Pouliquen, Philippe O.; Andreou, Andreas G.; Goldberg, Arnold C.; Rizk, Charbel G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a bio-inspired system-on-chip focal plane readout architecture which at the system level, relies on an event based sampling scheme where only pixels within a programmable range of photon flux rates are output. At the pixel level, a one bit oversampled analog-to-digital converter together with a decimator allows for the quantization of signals up to 26 bits. Furthermore, digital non-uniformity correction of both gain and offset errors is applied at the pixel level prior to readout. We report test results for a prototype array fabricated in a standard 90nm CMOS process. Tests performed at room and cryogenic temperatures demonstrate the capability to operate at a temporal noise ratio as low as 1.5, an electron well capacity over 100Ge-, and an ADC LSB down to 1e-.

  18. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing using Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a New Technique for Detecting HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Willyandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 infection by individuals in window period who are tested negative in conventional HIV-1 detection would pose the community with serious problems. Several diagnostic tools require specific labora-tory equipment, perfect timing of diagnosis, antibody to HIV-1, and invasive technique to get sample for examination, until high amount of time to process the sample as well as accessibility of remote areas. Many attempts have been made to solve those problems to come to a new detection technique. This review aims to give information about the current development technique for detection of HIV infection. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing is currently introduced for detection of HIV-1 infection. This review also cover the possible usage of gingival crevicular fluid as sample specimen that could be taken noninvasively from the individual.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.63

  19. An OCP Compliant Network Adapter for GALS-based SoC Design Using the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Mahadevan, Shankar; Olsen, Rasmus Grøndahl;

    2005-01-01

    The demand for IP reuse and system level scalability in System-on-Chip (SoC) designs is growing. Network-onchip (NoC) constitutes a viable solution space to emerging SoC design challenges. In this paper we describe an OCP compliant network adapter (NA) architecture for the MANGO NoC. The NA...... decouples communication and computation, providing memory-mapped OCP transactions based on primitive message-passing services of the network. Also, it facilitates GALS-type systems, by adapting to the clockless network. This helps leverage a modular SoC design flow. We evaluate performance and cost of 0.......13 um CMOS standard cell instantiations of the architecture....

  20. Faults Detection in a Photovoltaic Generator by Using Matlab Simulink and the chipKIT Max32 Board

    OpenAIRE

    Riadh Khenfer; Mohamed Mostefai; Seddik Benahdouga; Mounir Maddad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory with equipment and an algorithm for teaching graduate students the monitoring and the diagnosis of PV arrays. The contribution is the presentation of an algorithm to detect and localize the fault, in photovoltaic generator when a limited number of voltage sensors are used. An I-V curve tracer using a capacitive load is exploited to measure the I-V characteristics of PV arrays. Such measurement allows characterization of PV arrays on-site, under real operating ...

  1. Modelocking and Femtosecond Pulse Generation in Chip-Based Frequency Combs

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Kasturi; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Shim, Bonggu; Levy, Jacob S.; Salem, Reza; Johnson, Adrea R.; Foster, Mark A.; Lamont, Michael R. E.; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of ultrashort pulse sources has had an immense impact on condensed-matter physics, biomedical imaging, high-field physics, frequency metrology, telecommunications, nonlinear optics, and molecular spectroscopy. Although numerous advancements of such sources have been made, it remains a challenge to create a highly compact, robust platform capable of producing femtosecond pulses over a wide range of wavelengths, durations, and repetition rates. Recent observations of frequency comb ...

  2. Next Generation Multimedia Distributed Data Base Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Stuart E.

    1997-01-01

    The paradigm of client/server computing is changing. The model of a server running a monolithic application and supporting clients at the desktop is giving way to a different model that blurs the line between client and server. We are on the verge of plunging into the next generation of computing technology--distributed object-oriented computing. This is not only a change in requirements but a change in opportunities, and requires a new way of thinking for Information System (IS) developers. The information system demands caused by global competition are requiring even more access to decision making tools. Simply, object-oriented technology has been developed to supersede the current design process of information systems which is not capable of handling next generation multimedia.

  3. Dynamically Generated Interfaces in XML Based Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Minit

    2009-01-01

    Providing on-line services on the Internet will require the definition of flexible interfaces that are capable of adapting to the user's characteristics. This is all the more important in the context of medical applications like home monitoring, where no two patients have the same medical profile. Still, the problem is not limited to the capacity of defining generic interfaces, as has been made possible by UIML, but also to define the underlying information structures from which these may be generated. The DIATELIC project deals with the tele-monitoring of patients under peritoneal dialysis. By means of XML abstractions, termed as "medical components", to represent the patient's profile, the application configures the customizable properties of the patient's interface and generates a UIML document dynamically. The interface allows the patient to feed the data manually or use a device which allows "automatic data acquisition". The acquired medical data is transferred to an expert system, which analyses the dat...

  4. LLVM-based overlapped executable code generator

    OpenAIRE

    V. Aranov; A. Terentiev

    2014-01-01

    Overlapped executable code is an attractive artifact of obfuscation technology not yet widely covered and researched. Overlapped code and opaque predicates technologies together allows creation of prominent software obfuscation technologies featuring both obscure executable code and code protected from patching due to hard-to-track relations with other code. The paper provides polynomial algorithm to generate overlapped executable code using LLVM framework and discuss results of the generatio...

  5. Learning-Based Procedural Content Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Roberts and Ke Chen

    2014-01-01

    Procedural Content Generation (PCG) has become one of the hottest topics in Computational Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence (AI) game research in the past few years. PCG is the process of automatically creating content for video games, rather than by hand, and can offer great benefits for video games companies by helping to bring costs down and quality up. By guiding the process with AI it can be enhanced further and even be made to personalize content for target players. Among the cur...

  6. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade–Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5–8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. - Highlights: • We applied real parking distribution data to estimate evaporative vapor generation. • We applied real hourly temperature data to estimate hourly incremental vapor generation rate. • Evaporative emission for Florence is estimated based on parking distribution and hourly rate. - A new approach is proposed to quantify the weighted evaporative vapor generation based on parking distribution with an hourly incremental vapor generation rate

  7. Atom Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  8. Fiber‐free coupling between bulk laser beams and on‐chip polymer‐based multimode waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Nielsen, Lars Bue; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the design of a virtually alignment‐free optical setup for use with microfluidic applications involving a layered glass/SU‐8/PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip. We show how inexpensive external lenses combined with carefully designed on‐chip lenses can be used to couple...

  9. Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

  10. Ring resonator-based on-chip modulation transformer for high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel wideband on-chip photonic modulation transformer for phase-modulated microwave photonic links. The proposed device is able to transform phase-modulated optical signals into intensity-modulated versions (or vice versa) with nearly zero conversion of laser phase noise to intensity noise. It is constructed using waveguide-based ring resonators, which features simple architecture, stable operation, and easy reconfigurability. Beyond the stand-alone functionality, the proposed device can also be integrated with other functional building blocks of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) to create on-chip complex microwave photonic signal processors. As an application example, a PIC consisting of two such modulation transformers and a notch filter has been designed and realized in TriPleX(TM) waveguide technology. The realized device uses a 2 × 2 splitting circuit and 3 ring resonators with a free spectral range of 25 GHz, which are all equipped with continuous tuning elements. The device can perform phase-to-intensity modulation transform and carrier suppression simultaneously, which enables high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonics links (PM-MPLs). Associated with the bias-free and low-complexity advantages of the phase modulators, a single-fiber-span PM-MPL with a RF bandwidth of 12 GHz (3 dB-suppression band 6 to 18 GHz) has been demonstrated comprising the proposed PIC, where the achieved spurious-free dynamic range performance is comparable to that of Class-AB MPLs using low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulators. PMID:24216825

  11. Detection of immunotoxicity using T-cell based cytokine reporter cell lines ('Cell Chip')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety assessment of chemicals and drugs is an important regulatory issue. The evaluation of potential adverse effects of compounds on the immune system depends today on animal experiments. An increasing demand, however, exists for in vitro alternatives. Cytokine measurement is a promising tool to evaluate chemical exposure effects on the immune system. Fortunately, this type of measurement can be performed in conjunction with in vitro exposure models. We have taken these considerations as the starting point to develop an in vitro method to efficiently screen compounds for potential immunotoxicity. The T-cell lymphoma cell line EL-4 was transfected with the regulatory sequences of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ or actin fused to the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in either a stabile or a destabilised form. Consequently, changes in fluorescence intensity represent changes in cytokine expression with one cell line per cytokine. We used this prototype 'Cell Chip' to test, by means of flow cytometry, the immunomodulatory potential of 13 substances and were able to detect changes in cytokine expression in 12 cases (successful for cyclosporine, rapamycin, pentamidine, thalidomide, bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide, house dust mite allergen (Der p I), 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, benzocaine, tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate, potassium tetrachloroplatinate, sodium dodecyl sulphate and mercuric chloride; unsuccessful for penicillin G). In conclusion, this approach seems promising for in vitro screening for potential immunotoxicity, especially when additional cell lines besides T-cells are included

  12. "Bio-switch Chip" Based on Nanostructured Conducting Polymer and Entrapped Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daesan; Yoo, Haneul; Park, Jae Yeol; Hong, Seunghun

    2016-08-31

    We report a switchable biochip strategy where enzymes were entrapped in conducting polymer layers and the enzymatic reaction of the entrapped enzymes was controlled in real-time via electrical stimuli on the polymer layers. This device is named here as a "bio-switch chip" (BSC). We fabricated BSC structures using polypyrrole (Ppy) with entrapped glucose oxidase (GOx) and demonstrated the switching of glucose oxidation reaction in real-time. We found that the introduction of a negative bias voltage on the BSC structure resulted in the enhanced glucose oxidation reaction by more than 20 times than that without a bias voltage. Moreover, because the BSC structures could be fabricated on specific regions, we could control the enzymatic reaction on specific regions. In view of the fact that enzymes enable very useful and versatile biochemical reactions, the ability to control the enzymatic reactions via conventional electrical signals could open up various applications in the area of biochips and other biochemical industries. PMID:27576664

  13. Interfacial tension based on-chip extraction of microparticles confined in microfluidic Stokes flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidics involving two immiscible fluids (oil and water) has been increasingly used to produce hydrogel microparticles with wide applications. However, it is difficult to extract the microparticles out of the microfluidic Stokes flows of oil that have a Reynolds number (the ratio of inertia to viscous force) much less than one, where the dominant viscous force tends to drive the microparticles to move together with the surrounding oil. Here, we present a passive method for extracting hydrogel microparticles in microfluidic Stokes flow from oil into aqueous extracting solution on-chip by utilizing the intrinsic interfacial tension between oil and the microparticles. We further reveal that the thickness of an “extended confining layer” of oil next to the interface between oil and aqueous extracting solution must be smaller than the radius of microparticles for effective extraction. This method uses a simple planar merging microchannel design that can be readily fabricated and further integrated into a fluidic system to extract microparticles for wide applications. PMID:25378709

  14. Sensitive HPV Genotyping Based on the Flow-Through Hybridization and Gene Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV has been recognized as the direct cause of cervical carcinoma. Therefore, detection and genotyping of HPV are important to cervical-cancer screening. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of flow-through hybridization and gene chip (HybriMax on HPV genotyping through comparison of the results with Hybrid Capture II (HC-II and in situ hybridization (ISH. 591 women were classified into 6 groups according to their histological diagnoses. The overall accordance rate on 13 types of HPV genotypes between HybriMax and HC-II were 92.5% and 100% in the cancer group. The overall accordance was excellent with the Kappa index (KI of 0.814. The value of KI in each group was 0.750 (normal cytological diagnosis, 0.781 (chronic cervicitis, 0.80 (condyloma acuminatum, 0.755 (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I, 0.723 (CIN II, and 0.547 (CIN III (0.75>KI>0.4, good; KI≥0.75, excellent. The 10 most common HPV subtype detected by HybriMax were 16, 52/58, 18, 33, 31, 81, 53, 68, and 66 in patients, and 16, 68, 18, 52, 58, 11, 53, 31/39, and 33 in normal controls. In conclusion, HybriMax is an efficient method for HPV genotyping and more suitable for clinical use.

  15. Correlações inter e intragerações e herdabilidade de cor de chips, matéria seca e produção em batata Correlations between and within generations and heritability of chips color, dry matter and yield in potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Felix Souza Rodrigues

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar correlações inter e intragerações clonais, estimar herdabilidade quanto à cor de chips, teor de matéria seca e produção de batata, e suas implicações na seleção. Duzentos e cinqüenta clones de dez famílias foram escolhidos aleatoriamente de uma população de primeira geração clonal, destinada ao processamento de batatas chips, do programa de melhoramento genético de batata da Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado. Os clones foram avaliados em segunda (G2, terceira (G3 e quarta (G4 gerações, respectivamente, no outono e primavera de 1999, e outono de 2000, em Pelotas, RS. Os coeficientes de correlação entre gerações e as estimativas de herdabilidade dentro das gerações clonais foram baixas em relação à cor de chips, baixas a moderadas quanto à matéria seca e incrementais com as gerações nos componentes de produção. Os coeficientes de correlação entre as características de qualidade e os componentes de produção dentro de cada geração foram baixos e, na maioria, não-significativos. As estimativas de herdabilidade dos dados conjuntos da G3 e G4 foram moderada, moderadamente alta e alta, respectivamente, em relação à cor de chips, teor de matéria seca e produção.The objectives of this work were to determine correlations between and within clonal generation, to estimate heritability for chips color, dry matter content and yield of potatoes, and their implications on selection. Two hundred and fifty clones of ten families were randomly chosen from a first clonal population, directed to chips processing, of the potato breeding program of Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado. The clones were evaluated in second (G2, third (G3 and fourth (G4 generations during autumn and spring of 1999 and autumn of 2000, respectively, in Pelotas, RS. The coefficients of correlation between generations and the estimates of heritability

  16. A New Nonrecursive Pseudorandom Number Generator Based on Chaos Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Yaguchi, Hirotake; Kubo, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new pseudorandom number generator SSR (the Simplified Shift-Real random number generator) which generates the k-th random number nonrecursively (directly) based on chaos mappings on the interval [1,2). We investigate properties of SSR random numbers and give the theoretical background of generation of random numbers. A practical integral(all-integer) version SSI of SSR, which is suitable for parallel computation, is also provided.

  17. Quantum random number generation based on vacuum field fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Abellan Sanchez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Random numbers are extensively used in a broad range of applications. Nevertheless, there are two main markets from a commercial point of view: (i) secure communications and (ii) stochastic simulation. According to the generation rate and quality of the random numbers required, different approaches have been used so far, most of them based on pseudo-random number generation. However, these type of generators have already started showing weakness both in the quality and the generation...

  18. Wireless network-on-chip: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Wang; Tao Jin

    2014-01-01

    To alleviate the complex communication problems arising in the network-on-chip (NoC) architectures as the number of on-chip components increases, several novel interconnect infrastructures have been recently proposed to replace the traditional on-chip interconnection systems that are reaching their limits in terms of performance, power and area constraints. Wireless NoC (WiNoC) is among the most promising scalable interconnection architectures for future generation NoCs. In this study, the au...

  19. (Re)configuration based on model generation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Gerhard; Falkner, Andreas A; Haselböck, Alois; Schenner, Gottfried; Schreiner, Herwig; 10.4204/EPTCS.65.3

    2011-01-01

    Reconfiguration is an important activity for companies selling configurable products or services which have a long life time. However, identification of a set of required changes in a legacy configuration is a hard problem, since even small changes in the requirements might imply significant modifications. In this paper we show a solution based on answer set programming, which is a logic-based knowledge representation formalism well suited for a compact description of (re)configuration problems. Its applicability is demonstrated on simple abstractions of several real-world scenarios. The evaluation of our solution on a set of benchmark instances derived from commercial (re)configuration problems shows its practical applicability.

  20. 片上网络性能及功耗仿真实验研究%Network-on-chip simulation experiment based on systemC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任胜兵; 潘震宇; 卢念; 张万利

    2011-01-01

    片上网络成为解决片上系统互联问题的研究热点.分析了基于SystemC的片上网络软件仿真平台.以NIRGAM模拟器为例,实现了JPEG编码器和XYYX路由算法,并对三种路由算法进行了功耗与时延的对比实验,体现了其方便的扩展能力及性能评估能力.实例表明软件模拟提供了灵活的实验方式,缩短了设计和验证的周期,利于培养创新能力.%How to solve the on-chip communication bottlenecks with the embedded technology based on network-on-chip has been a hot topic. This paper analyzes the network-on-chip simulation experiment platform based on SystemC, completes three teaching experiments taking the scalable NIRGAM simulator for example, builds a JPEG encoder and a XYYX router, and makes a contrast experiment among three routing algorithms in network delay and power consumption respect. Those experiments represent the strong expansion and assessment of capability of NIRGAM simulator. The network-on-chip simulation experiment platform based on SystemC provides a flexible experimental method and cuts the time for design and verification of network-on-chip. More significantly, it is more beneficial to the development of innovation capability of students.

  1. Lab-on-a-chip based biosensor for the real-time detection of aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Yıldız; Esen, Elif; Kokturk, Guzin; Ozer, Hayrettin; Muhammad, Turghun; Olcer, Zehra; Basegmez, H Imge Oktay; Simsek, Senay; Barut, Serkan; Gok, M Yagmur; Akgun, Mete; Altintas, Zeynep

    2016-11-01

    Polymers were synthesized and utilized for aflatoxin detection coupled with a novel lab-on-a-chip biosensor: MiSens and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were preferred to be designed and used due to the toxic nature of aflatoxin template and also to avoid difficult clean-up protocols. Towards an innovative miniaturized automated system, a novel biochip has been designed that consists of 6 working electrodes (1mm diameter) with shared reference and counter electrodes. The aflatoxin detection has been achieved by a competition immunoassay that has been performed using the new biochips and the automated MiSens electrochemical biosensor device. For the assay, aflatoxin antibody has been captured on the Protein A immobilized electrode. Subsequently the sample and the enzyme-aflatoxin conjugate mixture has been injected to the electrode surfaces. The final injection of the enzyme substrate results in an amperometric signal. The sensor assays for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in different matrices were also performed using enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and HPLC for confirmation. High recovery was successfully achieved in spiked wheat samples using NIP coupled HPLC and NIP coupled MiSens biosensor [2ppb of aflatoxin was determined as 1.86ppb (93% recovery), 1.73ppb (86.5% recovery), 1.96ppb (98% recovery) and 1.88ppb (94.0% recovery) for immunoaffinity column (IAC)-HPLC, NIP-HPLC, Supel™ Tox SPE Cartridges (SUP)-HPLC and NIP-MiSens, respectively]. Aflatoxin detection in fig samples were also investigated with MiSens biosensor and the results were compared with HPLC method. The new biosensor allows real-time and on-site detection of AFB1 in foods with a rapid, sensitive, fully automated and miniaturized system and expected to have an immense economic impact for food industry. PMID:27591628

  2. Mechanically based generative laws of morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep (although at the first glance naïve) question which may be addressed to embryonic development is why during this process quite definite and accurately reproduced successions of precise and complicated shapes are taking place, or why, in several cases, the result of development is highly precise in spite of an extensive variability of intermediate stages. This problem can be attacked in two different ways. One of them, up to now just slightly employed, is to formulate robust macroscopic generative laws from which the observed successions of shapes could be derived. Another one, which dominates in modern embryology, regards the development as a succession of highly precise 'micropatterns', each of them arising due to the action of specific factors, having, as a rule, nothing in common with each other. We argue that the latter view contradicts a great bulk of firmly established data and gives no satisfactory answers to the main problems of development. Therefore we intend to follow the first way. By doing this, we regard developing embryos as self-organized systems transpierced by feedbacks among which we pay special attention to those linked with mechanical stresses (MS). We formulate a hypothesis of so-called MS hyper-restoration as a common basis for the developmentally important feedback loops. We present a number of examples confirming this hypothesis and use it for reconstructing prolonged chains of developmental events. Finally, we discuss the application of the same set of assumptions to the first steps of egg development and to the internal differentiation of embryonic cells

  3. Mechanically based generative laws of morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloussov, Lev V.

    2008-03-01

    A deep (although at the first glance naïve) question which may be addressed to embryonic development is why during this process quite definite and accurately reproduced successions of precise and complicated shapes are taking place, or why, in several cases, the result of development is highly precise in spite of an extensive variability of intermediate stages. This problem can be attacked in two different ways. One of them, up to now just slightly employed, is to formulate robust macroscopic generative laws from which the observed successions of shapes could be derived. Another one, which dominates in modern embryology, regards the development as a succession of highly precise 'micropatterns', each of them arising due to the action of specific factors, having, as a rule, nothing in common with each other. We argue that the latter view contradicts a great bulk of firmly established data and gives no satisfactory answers to the main problems of development. Therefore we intend to follow the first way. By doing this, we regard developing embryos as self-organized systems transpierced by feedbacks among which we pay special attention to those linked with mechanical stresses (MS). We formulate a hypothesis of so-called MS hyper-restoration as a common basis for the developmentally important feedback loops. We present a number of examples confirming this hypothesis and use it for reconstructing prolonged chains of developmental events. Finally, we discuss the application of the same set of assumptions to the first steps of egg development and to the internal differentiation of embryonic cells.

  4. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogation System Based on a Linearly Wavelength-Swept Thermo-Optic Laser Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Seok Lee; Hwi Don Lee; Hyo Jin Kim; Jae Du Cho; Myung Yung Jeong; Chang-Seok Kim

    2014-01-01

    A linearized wavelength-swept thermo-optic laser chip was applied to demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system. A broad tuning range of 11.8 nm was periodically obtained from the laser chip for a sweep rate of 16 Hz. To measure the linear time response of the reflection signal from the FBG sensor, a programmed driving signal was directly applied to the wavelength-swept laser chip. The linear wavelength response of the applied strain was clearly extracted with an R-sq...

  5. High-performance, high-chip-count optical code division multiple access encoders-decoders based on a reconstruction equivalent-chirp technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yitang; Chen, Xiangfei; Sun, Jie; Yao, Yu; Xie, Shizhong

    2006-06-01

    Fiber Bragg grating-based, 511 chip, 500 Gchip/s encoders-decoders are experimentally demonstrated by the reconstruction equivalent-chirp (REC) method. Encoding-decoding efficiency close to the theoretical value is achieved. Without any real phase shifts, the encoders-decoders are fabricated by use of the traditional setup. Highly precise phase control requires only submicrometer precision. The encoding-decoding performance can be further improved by REC-based correction. PMID:16688239

  6. Network Generation Model Based on Evolution Dynamics To Generate Benchmark Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Pasta, Muhammad Qasim

    2016-01-01

    Network generation models provide an understanding of the dynamics behind the formation and evolution of different networks including social networks, technological networks and biological networks. Two important applications of these models are to study the evolution dynamics of network formation and to generate benchmark networks with known community structures. Research has been conducted in both these directions relatively independent of the other application area. This creates a disjunct between real world networks and the networks generated to study community detection algorithms. In this paper, we propose to study both these application areas together i.e.\\ introduce a network generation model based on evolution dynamics of real world networks and generate networks with community structures that can be used as benchmark graphs to study community detection algorithms. The generated networks possess tunable modular structures which can be used to generate networks with known community structures. We stud...

  7. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution

  8. Microfluidic chip based nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of abused drugs and metabolites in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kevin Y; Leung, K Wing; Ting, Annie K L; Wong, Zack C F; Ng, Winki Y Y; Choi, Roy C Y; Dong, Tina T X; Wang, Tiejie; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-03-01

    A microfluidic chip based nano-HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano-HPLC-Chip-MS/MS) has been developed for simultaneous measurement of abused drugs and metabolites: cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, norcocaine, morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, phencyclidine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, and methadone in the hair of drug abusers. The microfluidic chip was fabricated by laminating polyimide films and it integrated an enrichment column, an analytical column and a nanospray tip. Drugs were extracted from hairs by sonication, and the chromatographic separation was achieved in 15 min. The drug identification and quantification criteria were fulfilled by the triple quardropule tandem mass spectrometry. The linear regression analysis was calibrated by deuterated internal standards with all of the R(2) at least over 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were from 0.1 to 0.75 and 0.2 to 1.25 pg/mg, respectively. The validation parameters including selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability, and matrix effect were also evaluated here. In conclusion, the developed sample preparation method coupled with the nano-HPLC-Chip-MS/MS method was able to reveal the presence of drugs in hairs from the drug abusers, with the enhanced sensitivity, compared with the conventional HPLC-MS/MS. PMID:22281681

  9. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  10. Ultra-thin silicon (UTSi) on insulator CMOS transceiver and time-division multiplexed switch chips for smart pixel integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Sawchuk, Alexander A.

    2001-12-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and functionality of two different 0.5 micron CMOS optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) chips based on the Peregrine Semiconductor Ultra-Thin Silicon on insulator technology. The Peregrine UTSi silicon- on-sapphire (SOS) technology is a member of the silicon-on- insulator (SOI) family. The low-loss synthetic sapphire substrate is optically transparent and has good thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion properties, which meet the requirements for flip-chip bonding of VCSELs and other optoelectronic input-output components. One chip contains transceiver and network components, including four channel high-speed CMOS transceiver modules, pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) generators, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and other test circuits. The transceiver chips can operate in both self-testing mode and networking mode. An on- chip clock and true-single-phase-clock (TSPC) D-flip-flop have been designed to generate a PRBS at over 2.5 Gb/s for the high-speed transceiver arrays to operate in self-testing mode. In the networking mode, an even number of transceiver chips forms a ring network through free-space or fiber ribbon interconnections. The second chip contains four channel optical time-division multiplex (TDM) switches, optical transceiver arrays, an active pixel detector and additional test devices. The eventual applications of these chips will require monolithic OEICs with integrated optical input and output. After fabrication and testing, the CMOS transceiver array dies will be packaged with 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and metal-semiconductor- metal (MSM) or GaAs p-i-n detector die arrays to achieve high- speed optical interconnections. The hybrid technique could be either wire bonding or flip-chip bonding of the CMOS SOS smart-pixel arrays with arrays of VCSELs and photodetectors onto an optoelectronic chip carrier as a multi-chip module (MCM).

  11. Enzyme-based microfluidic chip coupled to graphene electrodes for the detection of D-amino acid enantiomer-biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, Pilar; Martín, Aída; López, Miguel Ángel; González, María Cristina; Escarpa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical microfluidic strategy for the separation and enantiomeric detection of D-methionine (D-Met) and D-leucine (D-Leu) is presented. These D-amino acids (D-AAs) act as biomarkers involved in relevant diseases caused by Vibrio cholerae. On a single layout microfluidic chip (MC), highly compatible with extremely low biological sample consumption, the strategy allowed the controlled microfluidic D-AA separation and the specific reaction between D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and each D-AA biomarker avoiding the use of additives (i.e., cyclodextrins) for enantiomeric separation as well as any covalent immobilization of the enzyme into the wall channels or on the electrode surface such as in the biosensor-based approaches. Hybrid polymer/graphene-based electrodes were end-channel coupled to the microfluidic system to improve the analytical performance. D-Met and D-Leu were successfully detected becoming this proof-of-the-concept a promising principle for the development of point-of-care (POC) devices for in situ screening of V. cholerae related diseases. PMID:25870911

  12. Aggregated wind power generation probabilistic forecasting based on particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new method for probabilistic forecasting of aggregated wind power generation. • A dynamic system is established based on a numerical weather prediction model. • The new method handles the non-Gaussian and time-varying wind power uncertainties. • Particle filter is applied to forecast predictive densities of wind generation. - Abstract: Probability distribution of aggregated wind power generation in a region is one of important issues for power system daily operation. This paper presents a novel method to forecast the predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation from several geographically distributed wind farms, considering the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics in wind power uncertainties. Based on a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, a dynamic system is established to formulate the relationship between the atmospheric and near-surface wind fields of geographically distributed wind farms. A recursively backtracking framework based on the particle filter is applied to estimate the atmospheric state with the near-surface wind power generation measurements, and to forecast the possible samples of the aggregated wind power generation. The predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation are then estimated based on these predicted samples by a kernel density estimator. In case studies, the new method presented is tested on a 9 wind farms system in Midwestern United States. The testing results that the new method can provide competitive interval forecasts for the aggregated wind power generation with conventional statistical based models, which validates the effectiveness of the new method

  13. Assembly, chip and method of operating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The chip comprises a network of trench capacitors and an inductor, wherein the trench capacitors are coupled in parallel with a pattern of interconnects that is designed so as to limit generation of eddy current induced by the inductor in the interconnects. This allows the use of the chip as a porti

  14. The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guoan; Lee, Seung Ah; Antebi, Yaron; Elowitz, Michael B.; Yang, Changhuei

    2011-01-01

    We report a chip-scale lensless wide-field-of-view microscopy imaging technique, subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy, which can render microscopy images of growing or confluent cell cultures autonomously. We demonstrate that this technology can be used to build smart Petri dish platforms, termed ePetri, for cell culture experiments. This technique leverages the recent broad and cheap availability of high performance image sensor chips to provide a low-cost and automated microscopy soluti...

  15. Study on a Real-Time BEAM System for Diagnosis Assistance Based on a System on Chips Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kung-Wei Chang; Jui-Ho Chen; Wen-Tsai Sung

    2013-01-01

    As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC) design and physiological signal processing are integrated in this work. Moreover, a chip is built for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) processing purposes and a Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) system, and a knowledge dat...

  16. Justification of rapid prototyping in the development cycle of thermoplastic-based lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preywisch, Regina; Ritzi-Lehnert, Marion; Drese, Klaus S; Röser, Tina

    2011-11-01

    During the developmental cycle of lab-on-a-chip devices, various microstructuring techniques are required. While in the designing and assay implementation phase direct structuring or so-called rapid-prototyping methods such as milling or laser ablation are applied, replication methods like hot embossing or injection moulding are favourable for large quantity manufacturing. This work investigated the applicability of rapid-prototyping techniques for thermoplastic chip development in general, and the reproducibility of performances in dependency of the structuring technique. A previously published chip for prenatal diagnosis that preconcentrates DNA via electrokinetic trapping and field-amplified-sample-stacking and afterwards separates it in CGE was chosen as a model. The impact of structuring, sealing, and the integration of membranes on the mobility of the EOF, DNA preconcentration, and DNA separation was studied. Structuring methods were found to significantly change the location where preconcentration of DNA occurs. However, effects on the mobility of the EOF and the separation quality of DNA were not observed. Exchange of the membrane has no effect on the chip performance, whereas the sealing method impairs the separation of DNA within the chip. The overall assay performance is not significantly influenced by different structuring methods; thus, the application of rapid-prototyping methods during a chip development cycle is well justified. PMID:22102495

  17. Chinese Song Iambics Generation with Neural Attention-based Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qixin; Luo, Tianyi; Wang, Dong; Xing, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Learning and generating Chinese poems is a charming yet challenging task. Traditional approaches involve various language modeling and machine translation techniques, however, they perform not as well when generating poems with complex pattern constraints, for example Song iambics, a famous type of poems that involve variable-length sentences and strict rhythmic patterns. This paper applies the attention-based sequence-to-sequence model to generate Chinese Song iambics. Specifically, we encod...

  18. Octave Spanning Frequency Comb on a Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Del'Haye, P; Gavartin, E; Holzwarth, R; Kippenberg, T J

    2009-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have revolutionized the field of frequency metrology within the last decade and have become enabling tools for atomic clocks, gas sensing and astrophysical spectrometer calibration. The rapidly increasing number of applications has heightened interest in more compact comb generators. Optical microresonator based comb generators bear promise in this regard. Critical to their future use as 'frequency markers', is however the absolute frequency stabilization of the optical comb spectrum. A powerful technique for this stabilization is self-referencing, which requires a spectrum that spans a full octave, i.e. a factor of two in frequency. In the case of mode locked lasers, overcoming the limited bandwidth has become possible only with the advent of photonic crystal fibres for supercontinuum generation. Here, we report for the first time the generation of an octave-spanning frequency comb directly from a toroidal microresonator on a silicon chip. The comb spectrum covers the wavelength range...

  19. Performance of a Polymer-Based DNA Chip Platform in Detection and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus in Clinical Samples▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, T.; Brandstetter, T.; zur Hausen, A.; Alt-Mörbe, J.; Huzly, D.; Rühe, J.

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a key role in the development of cervical and laryngeal cancers. The aim of our study was to compare the performance of a new hydrogel-based HPV genotyping biochip assay (Biochip) to a commercially available and CE-marked conventional PCR followed by reverse hybridization (GenID-PCR). One hundred twenty-three samples were available for the study. Of these samples, 101/123 were gynecological swabs, 8/123 were swabs or biopsy samples of genital warts, 7/123 were biopsy samples of otorhinolaryngeal lesions, 5/123 were samples of skin warts, and 2/123 were samples of orolabial abnormalities. These molecular methods for HPV genotyping showed comparable sensitivity and specificity. However, 19/123 of the results were discrepant. Specifically, Biochip showed better performance in the detection of multiple infections, especially when more than one high-risk genotype was present. Due to the different probe configurations used in the two assays, GenID-PCR achieves only group-specific detection of many HPV genotypes, whereas Biochip allows for specific identification. Overall, the newly developed HPV chip system (Biochip) proved to be a suitable tool for HPV detection and genotyping; it also proved to be superior for establishing HPV genotyping methods. PMID:19279180

  20. Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Brasch, Victor; Geiselmann, Michael; Lihachev, Grigoriy; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Gorodetsky, Michael L; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2014-01-01

    By continuous wave pumping of a dispersion engineered, planar silicon nitride microresonator, continuously circulating, sub-30fs short temporal dissipative solitons are generated, that correspond to pulses of 6 optical cycles and constitute a coherent optical frequency comb in the spectral domain. Emission of soliton induced Cherenkov radiation caused by higher order dispersion broadens the spectral bandwidth to 2/3 of an octave, sufficient for self referencing, in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions and the broadest coherent microresonator frequency comb generated to date. The ability to preserve coherence over a broad spectral bandwidth using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation marks a critical milestone in the development of planar optical frequency combs, enabling on one hand application in e.g. coherent communications, broadband dual comb spectroscopy and Raman spectral imaging, while on the other hand significantly relaxing dispersion requirements for broadband microresonator frequen...

  1. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Hill

    Full Text Available The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP. Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and

  2. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  3. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of two controlled release devices: Chlorhexidine chips and indigenous curcumin based collagen as local drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gottumukkala, Sruthima N. V. S.; Sabitha Sudarshan; Satyanarayana Raju Mantena

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) chips (Periocol-CG) and indigenous curcumin (CU) based collagen as adjuncts to scaling and root planning in the nonsurgical management of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 sites from 60 patients presenting with chronic periodontitis (age group 25-55 years) of both sexes, with pocket depth of ≥5 mm with radiographic evidence of bilateral bone loss were earmarked for the study. A split mout...

  4. Chaos Based Mixed Keystream Generation for Voice Data Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Musheer; Alam, Bashir; Farooq, Omar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a high dimensional chaotic systems based mixed keystream generator is proposed to secure the voice data. As the voice-based communication becomes extensively vital in the application areas of military, voice over IP, voice-conferencing, phone banking, news telecasting etc. It greatly demands to preserve sensitive voice signals from the unauthorized listening and illegal usage over shared/open networks. To address the need, the designed keystream generator employed to work as a ...

  5. Generation of Multimedia Artifacts: An Extractive Summarization-based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Paulo; Aparício, Marta; de Matos, David Martins; Ribeiro, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    We explore methods for content selection and address the issue of coherence in the context of the generation of multimedia artifacts. We use audio and video to present two case studies: generation of film tributes, and lecture-driven science talks. For content selection, we use centrality-based and diversity-based summarization, along with topic analysis. To establish coherence, we use the emotional content of music, for film tributes, and ensure topic similarity between lectures and document...

  6. Search-based software test data generation using evolutionary computation

    OpenAIRE

    Maragathavalli, P.

    2011-01-01

    Search-based Software Engineering has been utilized for a number of software engineering activities.One area where Search-Based Software Engineering has seen much application is test data generation. Evolutionary testing designates the use of metaheuristic search methods for test case generation. The search space is the input domain of the test object, with each individual or potential solution, being an encoded set of inputs to that test object. The fitness function is tailored to find...

  7. Enhanced Liquid Metal Micro Droplet Generation by Pneumatic Actuation Based on the StarJet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koltay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel pneumatic actuation system for generation of liquid metal droplets according to the so-called StarJet method. In contrast to our previous work, the performance of the device has been significantly improved: the maximum droplet generation frequency in continuous mode has been increased to fmax = 11 kHz (formerly fmax = 4 kHz. In addition, the droplet diameter has been reduced to 60 μm. Therefore, a new fabrication process for the silicon nozzle chips has been developed enabling the production of smaller nozzle chips with higher surface quality. The size of the metal reservoir has been increased to hold up to 22 mL liquid metal and the performance and durability of the actuator has been improved by using stainless steel and a second pneumatic connection to control the sheath flow. Experimental results are presented regarding the characterization of the droplet generation, as well as printed metal structures.

  8. Preserving Differential Privacy in Degree-Correlation based Graph Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Wu, Xintao

    2013-08-01

    Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as cluster coefficient often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum) on tabular data. In this paper, we study the problem of enforcing edge differential privacy in graph generation. The idea is to enforce differential privacy on graph model parameters learned from the original network and then generate the graphs for releasing using the graph model with the private parameters. In particular, we develop a differential privacy preserving graph generator based on the dK-graph generation model. We first derive from the original graph various parameters (i.e., degree correlations) used in the dK-graph model, then enforce edge differential privacy on the learned parameters, and finally use the dK-graph model with the perturbed parameters to generate graphs. For the 2K-graph model, we enforce the edge differential privacy by calibrating noise based on the smooth sensitivity, rather than the global sensitivity. By doing this, we achieve the strict differential privacy guarantee with smaller magnitude noise. We conduct experiments on four real networks and compare the performance of our private dK-graph models with the stochastic Kronecker graph generation model in terms of utility and privacy tradeoff. Empirical evaluations show the developed private dK-graph generation models significantly outperform the approach based on the stochastic Kronecker generation model. PMID:24723987

  9. Preserving Differential Privacy in Degree-Correlation based Graph Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as cluster coefficient often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum on tabular data. In this paper, we study the problem of enforcing edge differential privacy in graph generation. The idea is to enforce differential privacy on graph model parameters learned from the original network and then generate the graphs for releasing using the graph model with the private parameters. In particular, we develop a differential privacy preserving graph generator based on the dK-graph generation model. We first derive from the original graph various parameters (i.e., degree correlations used in the dK-graph model, then enforce edge differential privacy on the learned parameters, and finally use the dKgraph model with the perturbed parameters to generate graphs. For the 2K-graph model, we enforce the edge differential privacy by calibrating noise based on the smooth sensitivity, rather than the global sensitivity. By doing this, we achieve the strict differential privacy guarantee with smaller magnitude noise. We conduct experiments on four real networks and compare the performance of our private dK-graph models with the stochastic Kronecker graph generation model in terms of utility and privacy tradeoff. Empirical evaluations show the developed private dK-graph generation models significantly outperform the approach based on the stochastic Kronecker generation model.

  10. Rapid detection of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in herbal specimens by a simple, bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Plubcharoensook, Pattra; Prasongsuk, Sehanat

    2016-06-01

    Postharvest herbal product contamination with mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi represents a potentially carcinogenic hazard. Aspergillus flavus is a major cause of this issue. Available mold detection methods are PCR-based and rely heavily on laboratories; thus, they are unsuitable for on-site monitoring. In this study, a bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform was developed to rapidly detect toxigenic Aspergillus spp. DNA. The 3.0-4.0 cm(2) chip is fabricated using Whatman™ filter paper, fishing line and a simple plastic lamination process and has nucleic acid amplification and signal detection components. The Aspergillus assay specifically amplifies the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene, aflR, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP); hybridization between target DNA and probes on blue silvernanoplates (AgNPls) yields colorimetric results. Positive results are indicated by the detection pad appearing blue due to dispersed blue AgNPls; negative results are indicated by the detection pad appearing colorless or pale yellow due to probe/target DNA hybridization and AgNPls aggregation. Assay completion requires less than 40 min, has a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 aflR copies, and has high specificity (94.47%)and sensitivity (100%). Contamination was identified in 14 of 32 herbal samples tested (43.75%). This work demonstrates the fabrication of a simple, low-cost, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform suitable for rapid-detection applications. PMID:27168276

  11. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen;

    2016-01-01

    , mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...... with Gaussian white noise. In this paper, we comprehensively evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method based on a real-world energy data set.......With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision...

  12. Coronary risk reduction through intensive community-based lifestyle intervention: the Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, H A

    1998-11-26

    Vigorous cholesterol lowering with diet, drugs, or a combination has been shown to slow, arrest, or even reverse atherosclerosis. Residential lifestyle intervention programs have successfully lowered serum cholesterol levels and other coronary risk factors, but they have the disadvantages of high cost and difficulty with long-term adherence. Community-based risk-reduction programs have the potential to effect change at low cost and improve long-term adherence. To assess the effectiveness of, and to develop a model for, such programs, the community-based Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) was developed in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In the intensive (30-day, 40-hour), hospital-based educational program, participants are encouraged to exercise 30 minutes a day and to embrace a largely unrefined plant-food-centered diet that is high in complex carbohydrates and fiber; very low in fat, animal protein, sugar, and salt; and virtually free of cholesterol. A total of 304 enrollees in the first program were at elevated risk of coronary artery and related diseases: 70% were > or =10% above their ideal weight, 14% had diabetes, 47% had hypertension, and 32% had a history of coronary artery disease. Of the enrollees, 288 "graduated" from the program (123 men, 165 women; mean age was 55+/-11 years). Various markers of disease risk, including serum blood lipids and fasting blood glucose concentrations, were measured before and after the program. At 4 weeks, overall improvements in the participants' laboratory test results, blood pressures, weights, and body mass indexes were highly significant (p 200 mg/dL in men, 200-299 mg/dL in women). PMID:9860383

  13. Method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binhua; Song, Qian; He, Chun; Jin, Jianhui; He, Lin

    2010-07-01

    With the advance of the PFPA technology, the design methodology of digital systems is changing. In recent years we develop a method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA and VHDL. This paper presents the principles and implementation skills of the method. Taking a developed camera as an example, we introduce the structure, input and output clocks/signals of a timing generator implemented in the camera. The generator is composed of a top module and a bottom module. The bottom one is made up of 4 sub-modules which correspond to 4 different operation modes. The modules are implemented by 5 VHDL programs. Frame charts of the architecture of these programs are shown in the paper. We also describe implementation steps of the timing generator in Quartus II, and the interconnections between the generator and a Nios soft core processor which is the controller of this generator. Some test results are presented in the end.

  14. Data Generators for Learning Systems Based on RBF Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robnik-Sikonja, Marko

    2016-05-01

    There are plenty of problems where the data available is scarce and expensive. We propose a generator of semiartificial data with similar properties to the original data, which enables the development and testing of different data mining algorithms and the optimization of their parameters. The generated data allow large-scale experimentation and simulations without danger of overfitting. The proposed generator is based on radial basis function networks, which learn sets of Gaussian kernels. These Gaussian kernels can be used in a generative mode to generate new data from the same distributions. To assess the quality of the generated data, we evaluated the statistical properties of the generated data, structural similarity, and predictive similarity using supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. To determine usability of the proposed generator we conducted a large scale evaluation using 51 data sets. The results show a considerable similarity between the original and generated data and indicate that the method can be useful in several development and simulation scenarios. We analyze possible improvements in the classification performance by adding different amounts of the generated data to the training set, performance on high-dimensional data sets, and conditions when the proposed approach is successful. PMID:26011896

  15. Parametric down-conversion photon pair source on a nanophotonic chip

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xiang; Schuck, Carsten; Jung, Hojoong; Cheng, Risheng; Tang, Hong X

    2016-01-01

    Quantum photonic chips, which integrate quantum light sources alongside active and passive optical elements, as well as single photon detectors, show great potential for photonic quantum information processing and quantum technology. Mature semiconductor nanofabrication processes allow for scaling such photonic integrated circuits to on-chip networks of increasing complexity. Second order nonlinear materials are the method of choice for generating photonic quantum states in the overwhelming part of linear optic experiments using bulk components but integration with waveguide circuitry on a nanophotonic chip proved to be challenging. Here we demonstrate such an on-chip parametric down-conversion source of photon pairs based on second order nonlinearity in an Aluminum nitride microring resonator. We show the potential of our source for quantum information processing by measuring high-visibility antibunching of heralded single photons with nearly ideal state purity. Our down conversion source operates with high ...

  16. Low-cost low-power UHF RFID tag with on-chip antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an EPC Class 1 Generation 2 compatible tag with on-chip antenna implemented in the SMIC 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. The UHF tag chip includes an RF/analog front-end, a digital baseband, and a 640-bit EEPROM memory. The on-chip antenna is optimized based on a novel parasitic-aware model. The rectifier is optimized to achieve a power conversion efficiency up to 40% by applying a self-bias feedback and threshold compensation techniques. A good match between the tag circuits and the on-chip antenna is realized by adjusting the rectifier input impedance. Measurements show that the presented tag can achieve a communication range of 1 cm with 1 W reader output power using a 1 x 1 cm2 single-turn loop reader antenna.

  17. Low-cost low-power UHF RFID tag with on-chip antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Jingtian; Yan Na; Che Wenyi; Xu Conghui; Wang Xiao; Yang Yuqing; Jian Hongyan; Min Hao, E-mail: jtxi@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Auto-ID Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-07-15

    This paper presents an EPC Class 1 Generation 2 compatible tag with on-chip antenna implemented in the SMIC 0.18 {mu}m standard CMOS process. The UHF tag chip includes an RF/analog front-end, a digital baseband, and a 640-bit EEPROM memory. The on-chip antenna is optimized based on a novel parasitic-aware model. The rectifier is optimized to achieve a power conversion efficiency up to 40% by applying a self-bias feedback and threshold compensation techniques. A good match between the tag circuits and the on-chip antenna is realized by adjusting the rectifier input impedance. Measurements show that the presented tag can achieve a communication range of 1 cm with 1 W reader output power using a 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} single-turn loop reader antenna.

  18. One-step detection of melamine in milk by hollow gold chip based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhinan; Cheng, Ziyi; Li, Ran; Chen, Lei; Lv, Haiming; Zhao, Bing; Choo, Jaebum

    2014-05-01

    A hollow gold (HG) chip with high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) capability was fabricated and used to monitor the adulteration of milk with melamine. This chip was fabricated with self-assembled hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) on glass wafers through electrostatic interaction. There are two important advantages for the use of this HG chip as a detection platform. First, HGNs show a strong SERS enhancement from individual particles due to their capability to localize the electromagnetic fields around the pinholes in hollow shells. Second, the HG chip improves the limit of detection through the enrichment effect. The characteristic SERS peak of melamine was used to distinguish it from other kinds of proteins or amino acids, and its intensity was used to monitor the percentage of melamine in milk. With its simple detection procedure (no pretreatment or separation steps), decreased processing time and low detection limit, this HG chip shows a strong potential for broad applications in melamine detection from real samples. PMID:24720965

  19. Development of elastomeric lab-on-a-chip devices through Proton Beam Writing (PBW) based fabrication strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, one of the most exciting developments in fluidic device applications is the rapid evolution of miniaturized micro- and nanofluidic systems, the so called 'lab-on-a-chip' devices. These devices integrate laboratory functions into a single chip, and are capable of various biochemical analysis and synthesis, such as sample injection and preparation, single cell/molecule observation, bioparticle sequencing and sorting etc. The evolvement of lab-on-a-chip concept implies the use of novel fabrication techniques for the construction of versatile analytical components in a fast and reproducible manner. Endowed with unique three-dimensional fabrication abilities, Proton Beam Writing (PBW) , which is capable of producing nanometer scaled fluidic structures with smooth and straight side wall features, has a great potential to develop all sorts of polymer fluidic devices. In this paper, we describe the batch fabrication of Poly-dimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomeric lab-on-a-chip devices utilizing PBW technique. A series of fabrication processes, involving PBW, nickel electroplating, soft lithography, polymer dynamic coating and hydrophilic treating, were modified and adopted in our work. Subsequent characterization of individual categories of channel devices was carried out for specific fluidic studies. Respective experimental procedures are presented and results are explained. The channel devices demonstrated good fluidic performance and functionality, suggesting their further application in more complex biological investigations, and the versatility of PBW in lab-on-a-chip development.

  20. Drag &Drop, Mixed-Methodology-based Lab-on-Chip Design Optimization Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective is to develop a ?mixed-methodology?, drag and drop, component library (fluidic-lego)-based, system design and optimization tool for complex...

  1. Drag &Drop, Multiphysics & Neural Net-based Lab-on-Chip Optimization Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this project is to develop a drag and drop, component library (fluidic lego) based, system simulation and optimization software for entire...

  2. Transporting Digital Micro-fluids Among Multi-chips Based on Surface Acoustic Wave%基于声表面波技术实现数字微流体多基片间输运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章安良; 夏兴华

    2011-01-01

    A new method for transporting digital micro-fluids among multi chips has been proposed based on surface acoustic wave(SAW). It is composed of three piezo-electric chips: one is an interface chip and the others are working chips. Each chip has an interdigital transducer (IDT) with 27. 5 MHz center frequency and a reflector, which are fabricated on 128°YX-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. A digital micro-fluid to be transported was first pipetted onto the working chip 2 by a microsyringe. After the interface chip was adjusted to the same height with the working chip 2 and their gap was as small as possible, an amplified RF signal with 27.5 MHz frequency was applied to the IDT of the working chip 2. The IDT radiated SAW and the digital micro-fluid was actuated to the interface chip. Then the digital micro-fluid was transported from the interface chip to the working chip 1 using the similar method. Two digital micro-fluids on different working chips had successfully been mixed and react based on SAW.%建立了声表面波实现多基片间输运微流体的新方法.由3个128(0)YX-LiNbO3压电基片组成,一个基片为接口基片,另两个为工作基片,每个基片光刻一个中心频率为27.5 MHz叉指换能器和一个反射栅.采用微量进样器将待输运的数字微流体进样到工作基片2,调节接口基片使得其与工作基片2位于同一高度,并使其间隙尽可能小,在工作基片2的叉指换能器上施加声同步频率经放大后的RF信号,激发声表面波,驱动数字微流体到达接口基片.再采用类似方法将接口基片中数字微流体输运到工作基片1,完成两个工作基片间的输运.实现了不同工作基片上的数字微流体的混合及化学反应.

  3. CHIP: Commodity based Hazard Identification Protocol for emerging diseases in plants and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bremmer, J.; Swanenburg, M.; Galen, van, M.A.; Hoek, Maarten; Rau, M.L.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Benninga, J.; Ge, L.; Breukers, M.L.H.

    2012-01-01

    This project comprised the development of a commodity-based hazard identification protocol for biological hazards in plants and animals as a decision support tree programmed in Excel. The content of the decision tree is based on the results of a systematic review of pest and pathogen characteristics, a review of risk assessment schemes and on expert judgement. Application of the protocol results in an indication of the level of likelihood of entry of animal and plant pathogens/pests in the ar...

  4. Ultra-Sensitive Chip-Based Photonic Temperature Sensor Using Ring Resonator Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haitan; Hafezi, Mohammad; Fan, J.; Taylor, J. M.; Strouse, G. F.; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2013-01-01

    Resistance thermometry provides a time-tested method for taking temperature measurements. However, fundamental limits to resistance-based approaches has produced considerable interest in developing photonic temperature sensors to leverage advances in frequency metrology and to achieve greater mechanical and environmental stability. Here we show that silicon-based optical ring resonator devices can resolve temperature differences of 1 mK using the traditional wavelength scanning methodology. A...

  5. Development and study of hydrogel-based microvalves for lab-on-a-chip systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamdie) (PNIPAAm) are excellent materials for microvalves due to their biocompatibility and high energy conversion efficiency. Hydrogel-based microvalves are simple to fabricate and operate compared to other actuation schemes. While many other hydrogel-based valves have been developed by other researchers, the valves presented here differ in the use of polymers as the basis for all microvalve components for increased flexibility. Thi...

  6. Loss Minimizing Operation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Generation Systems Considering Reactive Power Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baohua, Zhang; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    formula for the control reference is explicitly deduced in this paper considering the losses of the generator, the power electronic devices and the filter. Three control strategies are compared with the proposed method under different wind speeds and different reactive power references. The simulation......The paper deals with control techniques for minimizing the operating loss of doubly fed induction generator based wind generation systems when providing reactive power. The proposed method achieves its goal through controlling the rotor side q-axis current in the synchronous reference frame. The...

  7. Improved light extraction efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with an antireflective interface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongxue; Ma, Ping; Liu, Boting; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2016-05-01

    GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes (FC-LEDs) grown on nanopatterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) are fabricated using self-assembled SiO2 nanospheres as masks during inductively coupled plasma etching. By controlling the pattern spacing, epitaxial GaN can be grown from the top or bottom of patterns to obtain two different GaN/substrate interfaces. The optoelectronic characteristics of FC-LED chips with different GaN/sapphire interfaces are studied. The FC-LED with an antireflective interface layer consisting of a NPSS with GaN in the pattern spacings demonstrates better optical properties than the FC-LED with an interface embedded with air voids. Our study indicates that the two types of FC-LEDs grown on NPSS show higher crystal quality and improved electrical and optical characteristics compared with those of FC-LEDs grown on conventional planar sapphire substrates.

  8. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  9. Efficient removal of platelets from peripheral blood progenitor cell products using a novel micro-chip based acoustophoretic platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Dykes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive collection of platelets is an unwanted side effect in current centrifugation-based peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC apheresis. We investigated a novel microchip-based acoustophoresis technique, utilizing ultrasonic standing wave forces for the removal of platelets from PBPC products. By applying an acoustic standing wave field onto a continuously flowing cell suspension in a micro channel, cells can be separated from the surrounding media depending on their physical properties. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PBPC samples were obtained from patients (n = 15 and healthy donors (n = 6 and sorted on an acoustophoresis-chip. The acoustic force was set to separate leukocytes from platelets into a target fraction and a waste fraction, respectively. The PBPC samples, the target and the waste fractions were analysed for cell recovery, purity and functionality. RESULTS: The median separation efficiency of leukocytes to the target fraction was 98% whereas platelets were effectively depleted by 89%. PBPC samples and corresponding target fractions were similar in the percentage of CD34+ hematopoetic progenitor/stem cells as well as leukocyte/lymphocyte subset distributions. Median viability was 98%, 98% and 97% in the PBPC samples, the target and the waste fractions, respectively. Results from hematopoietic progenitor cell assays indicated a preserved colony-forming ability post-sorting. Evaluation of platelet activation by P-selectin (CD62P expression revealed a significant increase of CD62P+ platelets in the target (19% and waste fractions (20%, respectively, compared to the PBPC input samples (9%. However, activation was lower when compared to stored blood bank platelet concentrates (48%. CONCLUSION: Acoustophoresis can be utilized to efficiently deplete PBPC samples of platelets, whilst preserving the target stem/progenitor cell and leukocyte cell populations, cell viability and progenitor cell colony-forming ability

  10. Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) of hydrophobic TLC plates coupled to chip-based nanoelectrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Direct identification and structural characterization of analyte spots on TLC plates have always been of great interest and the development of interfaces that allow TLC to be combined with MS is making steady progress. The recently introduced liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) approach has the potential to hyphenate TLC with MS. A mixture of lipid standards was separated on HPTLC RP-18 glass plates using chloroform:methanol :acetonitrile 2:1:1 (v:v:v) as mobile phase. After visualization with primuline dye (0.02% in acetone:water 8:2 (v:v)), LESA was performed, followed by a chip-based nanoflow infusion in combination with FTICRMS. The optimized extraction solvent composition was methanol:chloroform:water:formic acid 52:24:24:0.2 (v:v:v:v). A nanoelectrospray voltage of 1.6 kV and a gas pressure of 0.2 psi were applied in all experiments. All phospholipids were extracted successfully and detected unambiguously using the optimized TLC-LESA-FTICRMS procedure. Sampling the tricaprylin spot gave the most intense signals and also tricaprin was detected. Three other triacylglycerols of higher molecular mass have logP values between 15.5 and 21.6, which are the highest among all investigated compounds and are not detected from their corresponding spots, due to the fact that the solubility of very apolar lipids is not high enough in the extraction solvent. It was demonstrated that TLC can be elegantly combined with mass spectrometry based on the LESA approach. In general, apart from the analysis of lipids, TLC-LESA-MS has a high potential for medium-polar compounds separated on reversed-phase TLC plates, but limitations are present when very apolar compounds have to be extracted. PMID:24801846

  11. Miniaturized multiplex label-free electronic chip for rapid nucleic acid analysis based on carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.; Chen, Hua; Cassell, Alan M.; Ye, Qi; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, Meyya; Li, Jun

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing cost and time is the major concern in clinical diagnostics, particularly in molecular diagnostics. Miniaturization technologies have been recognized as promising solutions to provide low-cost microchips for diagnostics. With the recent advancement in nanotechnologies, it is possible to further improve detection sensitivity and simplify sample preparation by incorporating nanoscale elements in diagnostics devices. A fusion of micro- and nanotechnologies with biology has great potential for the development of low-cost disposable chips for rapid molecular analysis that can be carried out with simple handheld devices. APPROACH: Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are fabricated on predeposited microelectrode pads and encapsulated in SiO2 dielectrics with only the very end exposed at the surface to form an inlaid nanoelectrode array (NEA). The NEA is used to collect the electrochemical signal associated with the target molecules binding to the probe molecules, which are covalently attached to the end of the MWNTs. CONTENT: A 3 x 3 microelectrode array is presented to demonstrate the miniaturization and multiplexing capability. A randomly distributed MWNT NEA is fabricated on each microelectrode pad. Selective functionalization of the MWNT end with a specific oligonucleotide probe and passivation of the SiO2 surface with ethylene glycol moieties are discussed. Ru(bpy)2+ -mediator-amplified guanine oxidation is used to directly measure the electrochemical signal associated with target molecules. SUMMARY: The discussed MWNT NEAs have ultrahigh sensitivity in direct electrochemical detection of guanine bases in the nucleic acid target. Fewer than approximately 1000 target nucleic acid molecules can be measured with a single microelectrode pad of approximately 20 x 20 microm2, which approaches the detection limit of laser scanners in fluorescence-based DNA microarray techniques. MWNT NEAs can be easily integrated with microelectronic

  12. Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.

  13. A microfluidics-based on-chip impinger for airborne particle collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, I; Song, M; Charmchi, M; Sun, H

    2016-06-21

    Capturing airborne particles from air into a liquid is a critical process for the development of many sensors and analytical systems. A miniaturized airborne particle sampling device (microimpinger) has been developed in this research. The microimpinger relies on a controlled bubble generation process produced by driving air through microchannel arrays. The particles confined in the microscale bubbles are captured in the sampling liquid while the bubbles form, are released and travel in a millimetre-scale sealed liquid reservoir. The microchannel arrays in the impinger are fabricated using a soft-lithography method with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the structural material. To prevent air leakage at the connections, a PDMS-only sealing technique is successfully developed. The hydrophobicity of the microchannel surface is found to be critical for generating continuous and stable bubbles in the bubbling process. A Teflon layer is coated on the walls of a microchannel array by vapor deposition which effectively increases the hydrophobicity of the PDMS. The collection efficiency of the microimpinger is measured by counting different sizes of fluorescent polystyrene latex particles on polycarbonate membrane filters. Collection efficiencies above 90% are achieved. Furthermore, the particle capturing mechanisms during the injection, formation and rise of a single microbubble are investigated by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with the use of the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to capture the bubble deformations and the particles are tracked using a Lagrangian equation of motion. The model is also employed to study the effect of bubble size on the collection efficiency of the microimpinger. PMID:27185303

  14. Optimal Structural Parameters For flip chip Assembly Based on Minimum Residual Stress Induced in Major Package Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual stress induced in packaging process is one of the major failure factors in flip chip components. In order to bring down the peak value and improve distribution form of the residual stress, a combined methodology of numerical simulation and optimization algorithm is introduced. A plane strain FEM model is established to simulate the thermal-mechanical characters of flip chip package. Anand mode and Maxwell mode are adopted to describe the time and temperature dependent material properties for eutectic solder joints and epoxy underfill respectively. On the foundation of numerical simulation result, sub-problem approximation method is employed to find optimal structural parameters for flip chip package assembly. Calculation result shows that residual stress can be effectively brought down by choosing optimal structural parameters

  15. Hardware and software structure of a neural network trigger based on the ETANN and MA16 chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neural-network trigger has been developed for secondary vertex detection in the WA92 experiment at CERN, looking for the production of beauty particles. The module includes the Intel analog ETANN chip and the Siemens digital (16-bit I/O) MA16 microprocessor, working independently. The experimental trigger results have already been presented elsewhere. Since this represents the first application of a neural trigger in an high energy physics experiment, we describe here in some detail its hardware and software structure. Specifics are given on the utilization of the ETANN chip, caring about the stability problems associated with its analog nature, and of the MA16 chip, for which this also represents the first stand-alone application. (orig.)

  16. Ultrasensitive, multiplexed detection of cancer biomarkers directly in serum by using a quantum dot-based microfluidic protein chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mei; Yan, Juan; He, Yao; Lu, Haoting; Weng, Lixing; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lianhui

    2010-01-26

    Sensitive and selective detection for cancer biomarkers are critical in cancer clinical diagnostics. Here we developed a microfluidic protein chip for an ultrasensitive and multiplexed assay of cancer biomarkers. Aqueous-phase-synthesized CdTe/CdS quantum dots (aqQDs) were employed as fluorescent signal amplifiers to improve the detection sensitivity. Secondary antibodies (goat anti-mouse IgG) were conjugated to luminescent CdTe/CdS QDs to realize a versatile fluorescent probe that could be used for multiplexed detection in both sandwich and reverse phase immunoassays. We found that our microfluidic protein chip not only possessed ultrahigh femtomolar sensitivity for cancer biomarkers, but was selective enough to be directly used in serum. This protein chip thus combines the high-throughput capabilities of a microfluidic network with the high sensitivity and multicolor imaging ability offered by highly fluorescent QDs, which can become a promising diagnostic tool in clinical applications. PMID:20041634

  17. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    A chip scale tunable laser in the visible spectral band is realized by generating a periodic droplet array inside a microfluidic channel. Combined with a gain medium within the droplets, the periodic structure provides the optical feedback of the laser. By controlling the pressure applied to two...

  18. Ultra-Sensitive Chip-Based Photonic Temperature Sensor Using Ring Resonator Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Haitan; Fan, J; Taylor, J M; Strouse, G F; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2013-01-01

    Resistance thermometry provides a time-tested method for taking temperature measurements. However, fundamental limits to resistance-based approaches has produced considerable interest in developing photonic temperature sensors to leverage advances in frequency metrology and to achieve greater mechanical and environmental stability. Here we show that silicon-based optical ring resonator devices can resolve temperature differences of 1 mK using the traditional wavelength scanning methodology. An even lower noise floor of 80 microkelvin for measuring temperature difference is achieved in the side-of-fringe, constant power mode measurement.

  19. Finte Element Analysis of PMMA Microfluidic Chip Based on Hot Embossing Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using creep experiment to characterize the mechanical property of PMMA has been studied in this paper. Polynomial and first order exponential decay function have been used to fit the data to get creep curve of PMMA. With the finite element analysis method and based on the creep and viscoelastic material models, simulation of the hot embossing process is carried out. Time influence on hot embossing has been emphasized. The simulation result is proved by experiments. It is shown that simulation based on viscoelastic model represents more compliance with experiments, and can describe the process of polymer deformation during hot embossing

  20. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  1. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  2. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  3. Search-Based Software Test Data Generation Using Evolutionary Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maragathavalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Search-based Software Engineering has been utilized for a number of software engineering activities.One area where Search-Based Software Engineering has seen much application is test data generation. Evolutionary testing designates the use of metaheuristic search methods for test case generation. The search space is the input domain of the test object, with each individual or potential solution, being an encoded set of inputs to that test object. The fitness function is tailored to find test data for the type of testthat is being undertaken. Evolutionary Testing (ET uses optimizing search techniques such as evolutionary algorithms to generate test data. The effectiveness of GA-based testing system is compared with a Random testing system. For simple programs both testing systems work fine, but as the complexity of the program or the complexity of input domain grows, GA-based testing system significantly outperforms Random testing.

  4. Chip Based Common-path Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Lantian

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique which provides three-dimensional images with micrometer-resolution. OCT has been extensively used for disease diagnostics, treatment planning, and surgical guidance. Currently, most of the OCT systems are based on discrete free-space

  5. Ternary DNA chip based on a novel thymine spacer group chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanli; Yildiz, Umit Hakan; Peh, Jaime; Liedberg, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A novel thymine-based surface chemistry suitable for label-free electrochemical DNA detection is described. It involves a simple two-step sequential process: immobilization of 9-mer thymine-terminated probe DNAs followed by backfilling with 9-mer thymine-based spacers (T9). As compared to commonly used organic spacer groups like 2-mercaptoethanol, 3-mercapto-1-propanol and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol, the 9-mer thymine-based spacers offer a 10-fold improvement in discriminating between complementary and non-complementary target hybridization, which is due mainly to facilitated transport of the redox probes through the probe-DNA/T9 layers. Electrochemical measurements, complemented with Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-D) binding analyses, reveal that optimum selectivity between complementary and non-complementary hybridization is obtained for a sensing surface prepared using probe-DNA and backfiller T9 at equimolar concentration (1:1). At this particular ratio, the probe-DNAs are preferentially oriented and easily accessible to yield a sensing surface with favorable hybridization and electron transfer characteristics. Our findings suggest that oligonucleotide-based spacer groups offer an attractive alternative to short organic thiol spacers in the design of future DNA biochips. PMID:25465760

  6. Sensing platform based on micro-ring resonator and on-chip reference sensors in SOI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.C.; Boer, B.M. de; Pozo Torres, J.M.; Berg, J.H. van den; Abutan, A.E.; Hagen, R.A.J.; Lo Cascio, D.M.R.; Harmsma, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents work on a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) compact sensing platform based on Micro Ring Resonators (MRRs). In order to enable correction for variations in environmental conditions (temperature, mechanical stress etc), a study has been performed on the performance of uncoated sensing

  7. Embedded 3D Graphics Core for FPGA-based System-on-Chip Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik

    , and the video display which periodically reads from memory to display the final rendered graphics. The graphics core uses internal scratch-pad memory to reduce its external bandwidth requirement, this is achieved by implementing a tile-based rendering algorithm. Reduced external bandwidth means that...

  8. Emulation-Based Transient Thermal Modeling of 2D/3D Systems-on-Chip with Active Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Atienza, David

    2009-01-01

    New tendencies envisage 2D and 3D Multi-Processor Systems-On-Chip (MPSoCs) as a promising solution for the consumer electronics market. MPSoCs are complex to design, as they must execute multiple applications (games, video), while meeting additional design constraints (energy consumption, time-to-market, etc.). Moreover, the rise of temperature in the die for MPSoCs, especially for forthcoming 3D chips, can seriously affect their final performance and reliability. In this context, transient t...

  9. Modelling the surface generation process during AFM probe-based machining: simulation and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The controlled removal of material conducted with the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe is a technique that has started gaining increased attention in recent years within the micro and nano manufacturing research community. The attractive characteristics of this process are that it is relatively simple to implement and low-cost compared with vacuum-based lithography techniques for micro and nano fabrication. However, similarly to any machining process, the resulting surface finish of features cut with an AFM probe can be critical. In this context, the focus of the paper is on the development and validation of a novel analytical model for predicting the floor surface roughness induced by AFM probe-based machining when generating cavities composed of linear parallel grooves. In addition to kinematic parameters, the proposed model takes into account the minimum chip thickness and elastic recovery associated with each phase present within the microstructure of a workpiece. The implementation of the model was carried out and its performance tested when processing a dual phase brass alloy using an AFM nano-indentation probe. A relatively good agreement was achieved between the analytical and experimental results with an average prediction error of 21% when assessing the arithmetic average roughness, Ra. (paper)

  10. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  11. The guitar chord-generating algorithm based on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Yi-fan; Du, Dan; Liu, Miao-miao; Siddiqi, Awais

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to generate chords for popular songs automatically based on complex network. Firstly, according to the characteristics of guitar tablature, six chord networks of popular songs by six pop singers are constructed and the properties of all networks are concluded. By analyzing the diverse chord networks, the accompaniment regulations and features are shown, with which the chords can be generated automatically. Secondly, in terms of the characteristics of popular songs, a two-tiered network containing a verse network and a chorus network is constructed. With this network, the verse and chorus can be composed respectively with the random walk algorithm. Thirdly, the musical motif is considered for generating chords, with which the bad chord progressions can be revised. This method can make the accompaniments sound more melodious. Finally, a popular song is chosen for generating chords and the new generated accompaniment sounds better than those done by the composers.

  12. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking....... Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world data set as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns...

  13. Fatigue analysis of steam generator cassette parts based on CAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue analysis has been performed for steam generator nozzle header and tube based on CAE. Three dimensional model was produced using the commercial CAD program, IDEAS and the geometry and boundary condition information have been transformed into input format of ABAQUS for thermal analysis, stress analysis, and fatigue analysis. Cassette nozzle, which has a complex geometry, has been analysed by using the three dimensional model. But steam generator tube has been analysed according to ASME procedure since it can be modelled as a two dimensional finite element model. S-N curve for the titanium alloy of the steam generator tube material was obtained from the material tests. From the analysis, it has been confirmed that these parts of the steam generator cassette satisfy the lifetime of the steam generator cassette. Three dimensional modelling strategy from the thermal analysis to fatigue analysis should be implemented into the design of reactor major components to enhance the efficiency of design procedure

  14. Cardiovascular and lung mesh generation based on centerlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandise, E; Geuzaine, C; Remacle, J F

    2013-06-01

    We present a fully automatic procedure for the mesh generation of tubular geometries such as blood vessels or airways. The procedure is implemented in the open-source Gmsh software and relies on a centerline description of the input geometry. The presented method can generate different type of meshes: isotropic tetrahedral meshes, anisotropic tetrahedral meshes, and mixed hexahedral/tetrahedral meshes. Additionally, a multiple layered arterial wall can be generated with a variable thickness. All the generated meshes rely on a mesh size field and a mesh metric that is based on centerline descriptions, namely the distance to the centerlines and a local reference system based on the tangent and the normal directions to the centerlines. Different examples show that the proposed method is very efficient and robust and leads to high quality computational meshes. PMID:23606344

  15. Time-resolved NMR metabolomics of plant cells based on a microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Jan; Kreppenhofer, Kristina; Büchler, Silke; Merle, Christian; Sobich, Shukhrat; Görling, Benjamin; Luy, Burkhard; Ahrens, Ralf; Guber, Andreas E; Nick, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The plant secondary metabolism generates numerous compounds harbouring pharmaceutical activity. In plants, these compounds are typically formed by different and specialised cell types that have to interact constituting a metabolic process chain. This interactivity impedes biotechnological production of secondary compounds, because cell differentiation is suppressed under the conditions of a batch bio-fermenter. We present a novel strategy to address this limitation using a biomimetic approach, where we simulate the situation in a real tissue by a microfluidic chamber system, where plant cells can be integrated into a process flow. We show that walled cells of the plant model tobacco BY-2 can be successfully cultivated in this system and that physiological parameters (such as cell viability, mitotic index and division synchrony) can be preserved over several days. The microfluidic design allows to resolve dynamic changes of specific metabolites over different stages of culture development. These results serve as proof-of-principle that a microfluidic organisation of cultivated plant cells can mimic the metabolic flows in a real plant tissue. PMID:27318870

  16. Flip-Chip GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with Mesh-Contact Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan-Xu; XU Chen; HAN Jun; SHEN Guang-Di

    2007-01-01

    @@ GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with mesh-contact electrodes have been developed. The p-type ohmic contact layer is composed of oxidized Ni/Au mesh and NiO overlay (20 (A)). An Ag (3000 (A)) omni-directional reflector covers the p-type contact. The n-type contact is a Ti/Al planar film with a 10-μm-width Ti/Al stripe.The Ti/Al stripe surrounds the centre of LED mesa. With a 20-mA current injection, the light output power of GaN-based LEDs with mesh-contact electrodes is 23% higher than that of the conventional LEDs.

  17. A Smart Mobile Lab-on-Chip-Based Medical Diagnostics System Architecture Designed For Evolvability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith;

    2015-01-01

    ) systems is still in its infancy. This attrition partly pertains to the intricacy of designing and developing complex systems, destined to be used sporadically, in a fast-pace evolving technological paradigm. System evolvability is therefore key in the design process and constitutes the main motivation for...... this work. We introduce a smart-mobile and LoC-based system architecture designed for evolvability. By propagating LoC programmability, instrumentation, and control tools to the highlevel abstraction smart-mobile software layer, our architecture facilitates the realisation of new use-cases and the...... accommodation for incremental LoC-technology developments. We demonstrate these features with an implementation allowing the interfacing of LoCs embedding current- or impedance-based biosensors such as Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (SiNW-FETs) or electrochemical transducers. Structural modifications...

  18. A Compute Environment of ABC95 Array Computer Based on Multi-FPGA Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ABC95 array computer is a multi-function network's computer based on FPGA technology, The multi-function network supports processors conflict-free access data from memory and supports processors access data from processors based on enhanced MESH network.ABC95 instruction's system includes control instructions, scalar instructions, vectors instructions.Mostly net-work instructions are introduced.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer assemble language is designed.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer for VC++ is advanced.It includes load function of ABC95 array computer program and data, store function, run function and so on.Specially, The data type of ABC95 array computer conflict-free access is defined.The results show that these technologies can develop programmer of ABC95 array computer effectively.

  19. Construction of Realistic Scene in Virtual Turning Based on Global Illumination Model and Chip Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the rapid development of manufacturing technology, the traditional simulation of machining can not meet the people's need. Research on virtual machining environment is one of the key parts of virtual manufacturing technology. According to the features of virtual turning, this paper proposes a simplified Whitted lighting model based on analysis of Phong and other local illumination model. This model takes the material and roughness of workpiece into account to calculate the roughness coefficient D, geom...

  20. Template-based self-assembly for silicon chips and 01005 surface-mount components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present template-based microscale self-assembly as a technique that promotes the electronics industry's initiative towards functional diversification and function densification, demonstrating that our process can improve existing assembly and packaging techniques, and also enable possibilities restricted by current industry methodologies. We first present foundational work that performs part (370 × 370 × 150 µm3) delivery to receptor sites (20 × 10 array) with a stochastic batch delivery process that completes within tens of seconds. The delivery mechanism is statistically characterized and a chemical kinetics inspired model is developed. Based on this understanding, repeatable and programmable 100% yield assembly is achieved in open-loop and feedback-based configurations. The established methodology is adapted to deliver and assemble standard 01 005 format (0.016″ × 0.008″, 0.4 mm × 0.2 mm) monolithic ceramic capacitors and thin-film resistors onto silicon substrates. This process is CMOS compatible and is competitive with capacitors and resistors fabricated through standard foundry processes. (paper)

  1. An analog integrated signal processing circuit for on-chip diffusion-based gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In diffusion-based gas analysis, the transient of gas diffusion process is recorded by a generic gas sensor to serve as a fingerprint for qualitative and quantitative analysis of gaseous samples. Following the acquisition of these specific signals, any standalone gas analyzer requires a pattern recognition system for pattern classification. The classic digital pattern recognition methods require computing hardware of adequate computational throughput. In this paper, we have followed a straightforward mathematical procedure to relate the signals to their associated target gases. We have shown that the procedure can be implemented by a set of analog functions. Based on the results, we have designed an analog integrated circuit, in 0.18 µm standard CMOS process, for processing the diffusion-based transient signals. The main circuit components are a low-pass filter, the differentiator, the feature extractor and an artificial neural network. The output of the circuit is a 2-bit binary code that specifies the target gas. The circuit successfully classified four alcoholic vapors by processing the experimentally obtained response patterns. The proposed signal processing circuit, the semiconductor gas sensor and the diffusion channel can all be implemented on a single substrate to fabricate an integrated micro gas analyzer. (paper)

  2. Automatic Structure-Based Code Generation from Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Westergaard, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Automatic code generation based on Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models is challenging because CPNs allow for the construction of abstract models that intermix control flow and data processing, making translation into conventional programming constructs difficult. We introduce Process-Partitioned CPNs...... viability of our approach is demonstrated by applying it to automatically generate an Erlang implementation of the Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)....

  3. On-Chip Optical Squeezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Avik; Luke, Kevin; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal

    2015-04-01

    We report the observation of all-optical squeezing in an on-chip monolithically integrated CMOS-compatible platform. Our device consists of a low-loss silicon nitride microring optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a gigahertz cavity linewidth. We measure 1.7 dB (5 dB corrected for losses) of sub-shot-noise quantum correlations between bright twin beams generated in the microring four-wave-mixing OPO pumped above threshold. This experiment demonstrates a compact, robust, and scalable platform for quantum-optics and quantum-information experiments on chip.

  4. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing technique to improve the distribution and statistical properties of the generated data. The post-processed output passes the NIST Sp. 800-22 statistical tests. The system is written in Verilog VHDL and realized on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA. The generator can fit into a very small area and have a maximum throughput of 2.1 Gb/s.

  5. On Design of PUF-Based Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ayat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new architecture Physical Random Functions (or Physical Unclonable Functions, PUFs to create a candidate hardware random number generator. So far several random number generators based on ring oscillators were introduced but all of them have either security or stability problems. This paper presents a novel architecture which has solved both of these problems. This idea have a higher data complexity and also nonlinearity which secures the circuit against modeling attacks. The final architecture has also lower hardware complexity which make it suitable for lightweight random number generators.

  6. Using case-based reasoning for generating functional test procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Dunia Delgado Dapena

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for storage structure and retrieval mechanisms used for implementing case-based reasoning (CBR in generating functional test procedures in software projects. This proposal was based on software project t functional requirements and sets out the proposed algorithms for considering the similarity between each pair of projects as well as those leading to adapting the solution found in the case base.

  7. Using case-based reasoning for generating functional test procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Dunia Delgado Dapena; Yucely López Trujillo; Indira Chávez Valiente

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal for storage structure and retrieval mechanisms used for implementing case-based reasoning (CBR) in generating functional test procedures in software projects. This proposal was based on software project t functional requirements and sets out the proposed algorithms for considering the similarity between each pair of projects as well as those leading to adapting the solution found in the case base.

  8. The individual-cell-based cryo-chip for the cryopreservation, manipulation and observation of spatially identifiable cells. I: Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaele Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryopreservation is the only widely applicable method of storing vital cells for nearly unlimited periods of time. Successful cryopreservation is essential for reproductive medicine, stem cell research, cord blood storage and related biomedical areas. The methods currently used to retrieve a specific cell or a group of individual cells with specific biological properties after cryopreservation are quite complicated and inefficient. Results The present study suggests a new approach in cryopreservation, utilizing the Individual Cell-based Cryo-Chip (i3C. The i3C is made of materials having appropriate durability for cryopreservation conditions. The core of this approach is an array of picowells, each picowell designed to maintain an individual cell during the severe conditions of the freezing - thawing cycle and accompanying treatments. More than 97% of cells were found to retain their position in the picowells throughout the entire freezing - thawing cycle and medium exchange. Thus the comparison between pre-freezing and post-thawing data can be achieved at an individual cell resolution. The intactness of cells undergoing slow freezing and thawing, while residing in the i3C, was found to be similar to that obtained with micro-vials. However, in a fast freezing protocol, the i3C was found to be far superior. Conclusions The results of the present study offer new opportunities for cryopreservation. Using the present methodology, the cryopreservation of individual identifiable cells, and their observation and retrieval, at an individual cell resolution become possible for the first time. This approach facilitates the correlation between cell characteristics before and after the freezing - thawing cycle. Thus, it is expected to significantly enhance current cryopreservation procedures for successful regenerative and reproductive medicine.

  9. Superhydrophobic SERS chip based on a Ag coated natural taro-leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-An; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Zhao, Yingqi; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Sun, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates based on plasmonic nanostructures allow for label-free and fingerprinting molecular detection with ultrahigh sensitivity and selectivity, but their complicated and high-cost fabrication remains a challenge for practical applications and commercialization of SERS technology. Herein, we developed a facile and low-cost natural SERS substrate based on silver coated taro leaf (Taro-leaf@Ag) that exhibits ordered micro-papillae and secondary crossed nanoplates. The micro-papillae exhibited superior superhydrophobicity for analyte enrichment and the secondary crossed nanoplates provided rich SERS hot spots, which together lead to highly sensitive SERS detection with a detection limit as low as 10-8 M. Moreover, the crossed nanoplates were uniformly distributed such that reproducible SERS measurements with a 9.7% variation over 1274 spectra was achieved. The high SERS sensitivity and reproducibility as well as the facile and low-cost fabrication make the Taro-leaf@Ag a promising natural SERS substrate for future practical biochemical detection methods.Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates based on plasmonic nanostructures allow for label-free and fingerprinting molecular detection with ultrahigh sensitivity and selectivity, but their complicated and high-cost fabrication remains a challenge for practical applications and commercialization of SERS technology. Herein, we developed a facile and low-cost natural SERS substrate based on silver coated taro leaf (Taro-leaf@Ag) that exhibits ordered micro-papillae and secondary crossed nanoplates. The micro-papillae exhibited superior superhydrophobicity for analyte enrichment and the secondary crossed nanoplates provided rich SERS hot spots, which together lead to highly sensitive SERS detection with a detection limit as low as 10-8 M. Moreover, the crossed nanoplates were uniformly distributed such that reproducible SERS measurements with a 9.7% variation over

  10. On-chip NIR optical spectrometer based on polymeric waveguide and metallic nano-structures

    OpenAIRE

    Malak Karam Awadallah, M.; Jefimovs, K.; Alberti, E.; Herzig, Hans Peter; Scharf, Toralf

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report about optical spectrometry using gold nano-structures printed on a polymer based integrated optical waveguide. The optical waveguide is a single mode buried waveguide, having dimensions of 3x2.2µm 2 . It is made from a combination of photo-polymerizable materials and is fabricated by photolithography on a glass substrate. To sense the electric field inside the waveguide, a gold nano-coupler array of thin lines (50 nm thick and 8 µm length) is embedded on top of the...

  11. An FPGA based Node-on-Chip Architecture, for Rapid Robotics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Simon; Sørensen, Anders Stengaard

    2010-01-01

    One of the major costs and inhibitors to practical robotics research is the time invested in design, implementation, integration, adjusting and debugging of the embedded control systems, that implement the discrete event control in experimental robots and robot systems. Usually researchers can...... with the compactness and integration associated with customized hardware. In this paper we present an FPGA based architecture and a framework of template modules for modular embedded control that has: • Dramatically reduced the time we spend on instrumentation of experimental robots. • Increased the quality...

  12. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing

    2013-10-10

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  13. Superhydrophobic SERS chip based on a Ag coated natural taro-leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-An; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Zhao, Yingqi; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Sun, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates based on plasmonic nanostructures allow for label-free and fingerprinting molecular detection with ultrahigh sensitivity and selectivity, but their complicated and high-cost fabrication remains a challenge for practical applications and commercialization of SERS technology. Herein, we developed a facile and low-cost natural SERS substrate based on silver coated taro leaf (Taro-leaf@Ag) that exhibits ordered micro-papillae and secondary crossed nanoplates. The micro-papillae exhibited superior superhydrophobicity for analyte enrichment and the secondary crossed nanoplates provided rich SERS hot spots, which together lead to highly sensitive SERS detection with a detection limit as low as 10(-8) M. Moreover, the crossed nanoplates were uniformly distributed such that reproducible SERS measurements with a 9.7% variation over 1274 spectra was achieved. The high SERS sensitivity and reproducibility as well as the facile and low-cost fabrication make the Taro-leaf@Ag a promising natural SERS substrate for future practical biochemical detection methods. PMID:27199255

  14. Silicon chips light up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers have demonstrated a continuous laser in silicon, which paves the way for computing at the speed of light Silicon is the racehorse of microelectronics. For the last 40 years, the number of transistors that can be crammed onto a single silicon wafer has doubled every 18 months or so, with the latest 'Itanium' chip packing in almost half a billion of them. But Moore's law, as this exponential trend is popularly known, is coming to an end due to fundamental physical limitations. These include the difficulty of keeping the chips cool and the fact that length scales are quickly approaching those of a single atom. A silicon laser could help chip makers beat these limitations by harnessing light, thus reducing the size and cost of microelectronic circuits even further,while at the same time increasing their speed. The problem is that silicon is a very inefficient light emitter, which means that silicon-based optoelectronics has remained out of reach. Since 2000 all this has changed and the race to build a silicon laser has begun in earnest. Now, Mario Paniccia and colleagues at Intel in the US and Israel have demonstrated the first continuous all-silicon laser by harnessing a phenomenon called Raman scattering (Nature 433 292 and 725). (U.K.)

  15. On-chip micro-electromagnets for magnetic-based bio-molecules separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, Qasem E-mail: qasem@pmail.ntu.edu.sg; Samper, Victor; Poenar, Daniel; Yu Chen

    2004-10-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive theoretical, finite element and measurement analysis of different designs of planar micro-electromagnets for bio-molecular manipulation. The magnetic field due to current flowing in complex shapes of current-carrying conductors have been calculated analytically, simulated using finite-element analysis (FEA), and measured using the superconducting quantum interference device technique (SQUID). A comparison of the theoretical and measured magnetic field strength and patterns is presented. The planar electromagnets have been fabricated using patterned Al 2 {mu}m thick. The aim of the study is to explore and optimize the geometrical and structural parameters of planar electromagnets that give rise to the highest magnetic fields and forces for magnetic micro-beads manipulation. Magnetic beads are often used in biochemical assays for separation of bio-molecules. Typical beads are 0.2-10 {mu}m in diameter and have superparamagnetic properties. Increasing the intensity of the magnetic field generated by a coil by injection a larger current is not the most suitable solution as the maximum current is limited by Joule heating. Consequently, in order to maximize the field for a given current, one should optimize the geometry of the coil, as this is an extremely significant factor in determining the magnetic field intensity in 2D planar designs. The theoretical and measured results of this work show that the meander micro-electromagnet with mesh-shaped winding profile produces the strongest magnetic field (about 2.7 {mu}T for a current intensity of 6 mA) compared with other meander designs, such as the serpentine and rosette-shaped ones. The magnetic fields of these three types of meander-shaped micro-electromagnets were compared theoretically with that produced by a spiral micro-electromagnet whose technological realization is more complicated and costly due to the fact that it requires an additional insulation layer with a contact window and

  16. Label-free single cell analysis with a chip-based impedance flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Hebeisen, Monika; Mittag, Anja; Di Berardino, Marco; Tarnok, Attila

    2010-02-01

    For description of cellular phenotypes and physiological states new developments are needed. Axetris' impedance flow cytometer (IFC) (Leister) is a new promising label-free alternative to fluorescence-based flow cytometry (FCM). IFC measures single cells at various frequencies simultaneously. The frequencies used for signal acquisition range from 0.1 to 20 MHz. The impedance signal provides information about cell volume (ionophore valinomycin. Changes in membrane potential were detectable at the level of cytoplasm conductivity (>4 MHz) and membrane capacitance (1-4 MHz). Our data indicate that IFC can be a valuable alternative to conventional FCM for various applications in the field of cell death and physiology. The work will be extended to address further potential applications of IFC in biotechnology and biomedical cell analysis, as well as in cell sorting.

  17. Mixed thread/paper-based microfluidic chips as a platform for glucose assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ariana; Estala, Lissette; Gaines, Michelle; Gomez, Frank A

    2016-07-01

    A novel microfluidic thread/paper-based analytical device (μTPAD) to detect glucose through a colorimetric assay is described. The μTPAD was fabricated from nylon thread trifurcated into three channels terminating at analysis sites comprised of circular zones of chromatography paper, which have previously been spotted with glucose of different concentrations. A solution of glucose oxidase (GOx), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and potassium iodide (KI) is transported via capillary action to the analysis sites where a yellow-brown color is observed indicating oxidation of iodide to iodine. The device was then dried, scanned, and analyzed yielding a correlation between yellow intensity and glucose concentrations. Both a flat platform constructed mainly of tape, and a cone platform constructed from tape and polyvinyl chloride, are described. Studies to quantitate glucose in artificial urine showed good correlation using the μTPAD. PMID:27060975

  18. Simulation and Optimization of MQW based optical modulator for on chip optical interconnect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical interconnects are foreseen as a potential solution to improve the performance of data transmission in high speed integrated circuits since electrical interconnects operating at high bit rates have several limitations which creates a bottleneck at the interconnect level. The objective of the work is to model and then simulate the MQWM based optical interconnect transmitter. The power output of the simulated modulator is then optimized with respect to various parameters namely contrast ratio, insertion loss and bias current. The methodology presented here is suitable for investigation of both analog and digital modulation performance but it primarily deals with digital modulation. We have not included the effect of carrier charge density in multiple quantum well simulation.

  19. Climate Effect of Bioenergy and Agriculture Integration Based on Lowtar Gasification of Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    potential is included in the analysis, by accounting for both the atmospheric load of biogenic carbon emissions and the carbon captured by forest re-growth. The energy conversion is based on thermal gasification. The gasifier allows changing the carbon conversion fraction, from the conventional maximum......To mitigate the increasing pressure on Earth ́s biosphere through increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, processes in the anthroposphere must change from being fossil-to renewable resource driven. Bioenergy utilization of forest residues can be a step towards achieving that...... goal. The climate change mitigating effect of different bioenergy scenarios is however not obvious. In recent years, finding the rightway to quantify the effectof biogenic carbon emissions associated with bioenergy has gathered attention.This paper analyses the global warming potential of an integrated...

  20. Microring-resonator-based four-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruiqiang; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Yonghui; Ding, Jianfeng; Chen, Hongtao; Lu, Yangyang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Weiwei

    2011-09-26

    We design and fabricate a four-port optical router, which is composed of eight microring-resonator-based switching elements, four optical waveguides and six waveguide crossings. The extinction ratio is about 13 dB for the through port and larger than 30 dB for the drop port. The crosstalk of the measured optical links is less than -13 dB. The average tuning power consumption is about 10.37 mW and the tuning efficiency is 5.398 mW/nm. The routing functionality and optical signal integrity are verified by transmitting a 12.5 Gb/s PRBS optical signal. PMID:21996836

  1. Ring resonator-based on-chip modulation transformer for high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonic links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel wideband on-chip photonic modulation transformer for phase-modulated microwave photonic links. The proposed device is able to transform phase-modulated optical signals into intensity-modulated versions (or vice versa) with nearly zero

  2. Towards UV imaging sensors based on single-crystal diamond chips for spectroscopic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent improvements achieved in the Homoepitaxial Chemical Vapour Deposition technique have led to the production of high-quality detector-grade single-crystal diamonds. Diamond-based detectors have shown excellent performances in UV and X-ray detection, paving the way for applications of diamond technology to the fields of space astronomy and high-energy photon detection in harsh environments or against strong visible light emission. These applications are possible due to diamond's unique properties such as its chemical inertness and visible blindness, respectively. Actually, the development of linear array detectors represents the main issue for a full exploitation of diamond detectors. Linear arrays are a first step to study bi-dimensional sensors. Such devices allow one to face the problems related to pixel miniaturisation and of signal read-out from many channels. Immediate applications would be in spectroscopy, where such arrays are preferred. This paper reports on the development of imaging detectors made by our groups, starting from the material growth and characterisation, through the design, fabrication and packaging of 2xn pixel arrays, to their electro-optical characterisation in terms of UV sensitivity, uniformity of the response and to the development of an electronic circuit suitable to read-out very low photocurrent signals. The detector and its electronic read-out were then tested using a 2x5 pixel array based on a single-crystal diamond. The results will be discussed in the framework of the development of an imager device for X-UV astronomy applications in space missions

  3. An on-chip micromagnet frictionometer based on magnetically driven colloids for nano-bio interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinghao; Goudu, Sandhya Rani; Torati, Sri Ramulu; Lim, Byeonghwa; Kim, Kunwoo; Kim, CheolGi

    2016-09-21

    A novel method based on remotely controlled magnetic forces of bio-functionalized superparamagnetic colloids using micromagnet arrays was devised to measure frictional force at the sub-picoNewton (pN) scale for bio-nano-/micro-electromechanical system (bio-NEMS/MEMS) interfaces in liquid. The circumferential motion of the colloids with phase-locked angles around the periphery of the micromagnets under an in-plane rotating magnetic field was governed by a balance between tangential magnetic force and drag force, which consists of viscous and frictional forces. A model correlating the phase-locked angles of the steady colloid rotation was formulated and validated by measuring the angles under controlled magnetic forces. Hence, the frictional forces on the streptavidin/Teflon interface between the colloids and the micromagnet arrays were obtained using the magnetic forces at the phase-locked angles. The friction coefficient for the streptavidin/Teflon interface was estimated to be approximately 0.036 regardless of both vertical force in the range of a few hundred pN and velocity in the range of a few tenths of μm s(-1). PMID:27456049

  4. Pulsed corona generation using a diode-based pulsed power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed plasma techniques serve a wide range of unconventional processes, such as gas and water processing, hydrogen production, and nanotechnology. Extending research on promising applications, such as pulsed corona processing, depends to a great extent on the availability of reliable, efficient and repetitive high-voltage pulsed power technology. Heavy-duty opening switches are the most critical components in high-voltage pulsed power systems with inductive energy storage. At the Ioffe Institute, an unconventional switching mechanism has been found, based on the fast recovery process in a diode. This article discusses the application of such a 'drift-step-recovery-diode' for pulsed corona plasma generation. The principle of the diode-based nanosecond high-voltage generator will be discussed. The generator will be coupled to a corona reactor via a transmission-line transformer. The advantages of this concept, such as easy voltage transformation, load matching, switch protection and easy coupling with a dc bias voltage, will be discussed. The developed circuit is tested at both a resistive load and various corona reactors. Methods to optimize the energy transfer to a corona reactor have been evaluated. The impedance matching between the pulse generator and corona reactor can be significantly improved by using a dc bias voltage. At good matching, the corona energy increases and less energy reflects back to the generator. Matching can also be slightly improved by increasing the temperature in the corona reactor. More effective is to reduce the reactor pressure

  5. Role Oriented Test Case Generation for Agent Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sivakumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Agent Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE is a rapidly developing area of research. Current research and development primarily focuses on the analysis, design and implementation of agent based software whereas testing is less prioritised. Software testing is an important and indispensable part of software development process. Test case generation is the primary step of any testing process which is followed by test execution and test evaluation. Test case generation is not an easy task but upon automating the test case generation process serves many advantages such as time saving, effort saving and more importantly reduces number of errors and faults. This paper investigates about generating test cases for testing agent based software. We propose a novel approach, which takes advantage of agent’s role as the basis for generating test cases. Role is an important mental attribute of an agent which is simply defined as the set of capabilities that an agent can perform. The main objective of this paper is to generate test cases from role diagram upon converting it to activity diagram.

  6. Atom chip gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Müntinga, Hauke; Matthias, Jonas; Sahelgozin, Maral; Herr, Waldemar; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Atom interferometry has developed into a tool for measuring rotations [1], accelerations [2], and testing fundamental physics [3]. Gravimeters based on laser cooled atoms demonstrated residual uncertainties of few microgal [2,4] and were simplified for field applications [5]. Atomic gravimeters rely on the interference of matter waves which are coherently manipulated by laser light fields. The latter can be interpreted as rulers to which the position of the atoms is compared. At three points in time separated by a free evolution, the light fields are pulsed onto the atoms. First, a coherent superposition of two momentum states is produced, then the momentum is inverted, and finally the two trajectories are recombined. Depending on the acceleration the atoms experienced, the number of atoms detected in the output ports will change. Consequently, the acceleration can be determined from the output signal. The laser cooled atoms with microkelvin temperatures used in state-of-the-art gravimeters impose limits on the accuracy [4]. Therefore, ultra-cold atoms generated by Bose-Einstein condensation and delta-kick collimation [6,7] are expected to be the key for further improvements. These sources suffered from a low flux implying an incompatible noise floor, but a competitive performance was demonstrated recently with atom chips [8]. In the compact and robust setup constructed for operation in the drop tower [6] we demonstrated all steps necessary for an atom chip gravimeter with Bose-Einstein condensates in a ground based operation. We will discuss the principle of operation, the current performance, and the perspectives to supersede the state of the art. The authors thank the QUANTUS cooperation for contributions to the drop tower project in the earlier stages. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM

  7. Mutually unbiased bases generated by a single unitary operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranade, Kedar [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Kern, Oliver; Seyfarth, Ulrich [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this talk, we discuss a method for constructing unitary operators which generate mutually unbiased bases on Hilbert spaces H=C{sup d} for d being a power-of-two dimension (i. e. d = 2{sup m}, m element of N). Such operators U have order d+1, and the columns of U,U{sup 2},.., U{sup d+1} = 1 define mutually unbiased bases. The construction is based on finding a maximal commuting unitary operator basis of the matrix algebra associated to the Hilbert space and a Clifford group unitary transformation which maps the equivalence classes of a partition of this operator basis onto another. We explicitly construct unitary operators which generate mutually unbiased bases in all dimensions d = 2{sup m} for m{<=}22.

  8. Quality-based generation of weather radar Cartesian products

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ośródka; J. Szturc

    2015-01-01

    Weather radar data volumes are commonly processed to obtain various 2-D Cartesian products based on the transfer from polar to Cartesian representations through a certain interpolation method. In this research an algorithm of the spatial interpolation of polar reflectivity data employing quality index data is applied to find the Cartesian reflectivity as plan position indicator products. On this basis, quality-based versions of standard algorithms for the generation of the foll...

  9. A copula-based method for synthetic microarray data generation

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Sergio; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Caiafa, Cesar F.; Bau i Macià, Josep

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we propose a copula-based method to generate synthetic gene expression data that account for marginal and joint probability distributions features captured from real data. Our method allows us to implant significant genes in the synthetic dataset in a controlled manner, giving the possibility of testing new detection algorithms under more realistic environments.

  10. In situ ZnO-PVA nanocomposite coated microfluidic chips for biosensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habouti, S.; Kunstmann-Olsen, C.; Hoyland, J. D.;

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic chips with integrated fluid and optical connectors have been generated via a simple PDMS master-mould technique. In situ coating using a Zinc oxide polyvinylalcohol based sol-gel method results in ultrathin nanocomposite layers on the fluid channels, which makes them strongly...

  11. Hexapole-compensated magneto-optical trap on a mesoscopic atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jöllenbeck, S.; Mahnke, J.; Randoll, R.;

    2011-01-01

    Magneto-optical traps on atom chips are usually restricted to small atomic samples due to a limited capture volume caused primarily by distorted field configurations. Here we present a magneto-optical trap based on a millimeter-sized wire structure which generates a magnetic field with minimized...

  12. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  13. Generation of short electrical pulses based on bipolar transistorsny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for the generation of short electrical pulses based on the minority carrier charge storage and the step recovery effect of bipolar transistors is presented. Electrical pulses of about 90 ps up to 800 ps duration are generated with a maximum amplitude of approximately 7V at 50Ω. The bipolar transistor is driven into saturation and the base-collector and base-emitter junctions become forward biased. The resulting fast switch-off edge of the transistor’s output signal is the basis for the pulse generation. The fast switching of the transistor occurs as a result of the minority carriers that have been injected and stored across the base-collector junction under forward bias conditions. If the saturated transistor is suddenly reverse biased the pn-junction will appear as a low impedance until the stored charge is depleted. Then the impedance will suddenly increase to its normal high value and the flow of current through the junction will turn to zero, abruptly. A differentiation of the output signal of the transistor results in two short pulses with opposite polarities. The differentiating circuit is implemented by a transmission line network, which mainly acts as a high pass filter. Both the transistor technology (pnp or npn and the phase of the transfer function of the differentating circuit influence the polarity of the output pulses. The pulse duration depends on the transistor parameters as well as on the transfer function of the pulse shaping network. This way of generating short electrical pulses is a new alternative for conventional comb generators based on steprecovery diodes (SRD. Due to the three-terminal structure of the transistor the isolation problem between the input and the output signal of the transistor network is drastically simplified. Furthermore the transistor is an active element in contrast to a SRD, so that its current gain can be used to minimize the power of the driving signal.

  14. Customer based distributed generation: Economics and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a model for finding distributed generation systems that maximizes the economic benefits for buildings with electricity, heat and cooling loads. Important factors for profitability are identified using simulated data for a standard health care and office building in California. Under the assumed time of use (TOU) prices demand charges are critical factors for the profitability. Systems with lower reliability than promised can infer large losses to the developer. The outage risk is a diversifiable risk hence demands charges should not be a barrier to distributed generation adoption in a well functioning market. In a variety of natural gas and electricity price scenarios the optimal decision is to install distributed generation units with heat recovery and absorption cooling. The benefit maximizing solution reduces building carbon emissions in most scenarios. Low natural gas price scenarios have the highest carbon emissions. An introduction of a carbon tax can further reduce emissions. Small photovoltaic systems gets profitable at prices around 2.4 $/W and larger systems from prices around 1.8-2 $/W if they are analyzed independently from gas fueled generators. In competition with natural gas fueled equipment both the break-even cost and the installed capacity is reduced in both buildings. It is possible to find a profitable solution for real discount rates up to 20 percent under the base case solution for the health care building. High discount rates favor small less capital intensive base load generation systems with heat recovery. (Author)

  15. Generation of Quasi-Gaussian Pulses Based on Correlation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POHOATA, S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gaussian pulses have been mostly used within communications, where some applications can be emphasized: mobile telephony (GSM, where GMSK signals are used, as well as the UWB communications, where short-period pulses based on Gaussian waveform are generated. Since the Gaussian function signifies a theoretical concept, which cannot be accomplished from the physical point of view, this should be expressed by using various functions, able to determine physical implementations. New techniques of generating the Gaussian pulse responses of good precision are approached, proposed and researched in this paper. The second and third order derivatives with regard to the Gaussian pulse response are accurately generated. The third order derivates is composed of four individual rectangular pulses of fixed amplitudes, being easily to be generated by standard techniques. In order to generate pulses able to satisfy the spectral mask requirements, an adequate filter is necessary to be applied. This paper emphasizes a comparative analysis based on the relative error and the energy spectra of the proposed pulses.

  16. Automatic Tamil lyric generation based on ontological interpretation for semantics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeswari Sridhar; D Jalin Gladis; Kameswaran Ganga; G Dhivya Prabha

    2014-02-01

    This system proposes an -gram based approach to automatic Tamil lyric generation, by the ontological semantic interpretation of the input scene. The approach is based on identifying the semantics conveyed in the scenario, thereby making the system understand the situation and generate lyrics accordingly. The heart of the system includes the ontological interpretation of the scenario, and the selection of the appropriate tri-grams for generating the lyrics. To fulfill this, we have designed a new ontology with weighted edges, where the edges correspond to a set of sentences, which indicate a relationship, and are represented as a tri-gram. Once the appropriate tri-grams are selected, the root words from these tri-grams are sent to the morphological generator, to form words in their packed form. These words are then assembled to form the final lyrics. Parameters of poetry like rhyme, alliteration, simile, vocative words, etc., are also taken care of by the system. Using this approach, we achieved an average accuracy of 77.3% with respect to the exact semantic details being conveyed in the generated lyrics.

  17. Space-based laser-driven MHD generator: Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of a laser-driven MHD generator, as a candidate receiver for a space-based laser power transmission system, was investigated. On the basis of reasonable parameters obtained in the literature, a model of the laser-driven MHD generator was developed with the assumptions of a steady, turbulent, two-dimensional flow. These assumptions were based on the continuous and steady generation of plasmas by the exposure of the continuous wave laser beam thus inducing a steady back pressure that enables the medium to flow steadily. The model considered here took the turbulent nature of plasmas into account in the two-dimensional geometry of the generator. For these conditions with the plasma parameters defining the thermal conductivity, viscosity, electrical conductivity for the plasma flow, a generator efficiency of 53.3% was calculated. If turbulent effects and nonequilibrium ionization are taken into account, the efficiency is 43.2%. The study shows that the laser-driven MHD system has potential as a laser power receiver for space applications because of its high energy conversion efficiency, high energy density and relatively simple mechanism as compared to other energy conversion cycles.

  18. Market based generation: A promising market management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed to ease the tension between demand management and supply side management at electric utilities through the introduction of a concept called market management. Market management provides a framework for developing and evaluating the attractiveness of new products and services such as dispersed generation hardware, implementation services, and complementary pricing structures. A market management strategy is the definition of market segments, creating products for those segments, evaluation of the profitability of the product-segment combinations, commitment of resources to those segments, and development of product and marketing plans for those segments. A brief analysis of backup generation is presented as an example of market management. In this example, the customer that is backed up shares some portion of the capital and maintenance costs of the backup unit through priority service rates; the utility and customers that are not backed up can obtain the use of the generating resource but pay only a portion of its costs. Backup generation programs have been found to provide utilities with the ability to meet peak load requirements more cheaply than by investing in peaking capacity. Other benefits for utilities include protection of market share, more efficient rates, and a new source of revenues. With the advances in the technology of small-scale generation, utilities can examine bundling various pricing options with market based generation to offer alternative value-added service options to customer segments with demand characteristics that make these technologies attractive. 3 figs

  19. Control of a Bose–Einstein condensate on a chip by external optical and magnetic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we explore the possibilities of control of a Bose–Einstein condensate on an atom chip by the use of potentials generated by photonic and magnetic components. We show that the fields produced by both types of components can be modelled by a generic exponential potential and derive analytic expressions that allow for an easy assessment of their impact on a trapped condensate. Using dynamical numerical simulations we study the transport of the condensate between the control structures on a chip. We study in detail different regimes of the condensate behaviour in an evanescent light potential generated by a photonic structure in the vicinity of the condensate and in magnetic potentials generated by a wire or a coil. The calculations are based on the reported parameters of atom chip setups and available photonic and magnetic components. Finally, the model is verified by an experiment with a condensate on an atom chip and a coil. - Highlights: ► Generic potential used to describe both the optical evanescent and magnetic fields. ► An analytic closed form solution found for the impact of a generic potential on a BEC. ► BEC dynamics calculated for potential time sequences attainable in experiments. ► Conditions for BEC transfer by an external field identified. ► Exponential-potential model validated by a BEC-on-chip experiment.

  20. New Metric Based Algorithm for Test Vector Generation in VLSI Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Atre

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for test-vector-generation (TVG for combinational circuits has been presented for testing VLSI chips. This is done by defining a suitable metric or distance, in the space of all input vectors, between a vector and a set of vectors. The test vectors are generated by suitably maximising the above distance. Two different methods of maximising the distance are suggested. Performances of the two methods for different circuits are presented and compared with the random method of TVG. It was observed that method B is superior to the other two methods. Also, method A is slightly better than method R.