Sample records for chinshan plant analyzer

  1. Pressure and temperature analyses using GOTHIC for Mark I containment of the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Shu, E-mail: [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Yuann, Yng-Ruey; Dai, Liang-Che; Lin, Yon-Pon [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China)


    Research highlights: The Chinshan Mark I containment pressure-temperature responses are analyzed. GOTHIC is used to calculate the containment responses under three pipe break events. This study is used to support the Chinshan Stretch Power Uprate (SPU) program. The calculated peak pressure and temperature are still below the design values. The Chinshan containment integrity can be maintained under SPU condition. - Abstract: Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan is a GE-designed twin-unit BWR/4 plant with original licensed thermal power (OLTP) of 1775 MWt for each unit. Recently, the Stretch Power Uprate (SPU) program for the Chinshan plant is being conducted to uprate the core thermal power to 1858 MWt (104.66% OLTP). In this study, the Chinshan Mark I containment pressure/temperature responses during LOCA at 105% OLTP (104.66% OLTP + 0.34% OLTP power uncertainty = 105% OLTP) are analyzed using the containment thermal-hydraulic program GOTHIC. Three kinds of LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) scenarios are investigated: Recirculation Line Break (RCLB), Main Steam Line Break (MSLB), and Feedwater Line Break (FWLB). In the short-term analyses, blowdown data generated by RELAP5 transient analyses are provided as boundary conditions to the GOTHIC containment model. The calculated peak drywell pressure and temperature in the RCLB event are 217.2 kPaG and 137.1 {sup o}C, respectively, which are close to the original FSAR results (219.2 kPaG and 138.4 {sup o}C). Additionally, the peak drywell temperature of 155.3 {sup o}C calculated by MSLB is presented in this study. To obtain the peak suppression pool temperature, a long-term RCLB analysis is performed using a simplified RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) volume to calculate blowdown flow rate. One RHR (Residual Heat Removal) heat exchanger is assumed to be inoperable for suppression pool cooling mode. The calculated peak suppression pool temperature is 93.2 {sup o}C, which is below the pool temperature used for evaluating the

  2. Alternative cooling water flow path for RHR heat exchanger and its effect on containment response during extended station blackout for Chinshan BWR-4 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuann, Yng-Ruey, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Motivating alternative RHR heat exchanger tube-side flow path and determining required capacity. • Calculate NSSS and containment response during 24-h SBO for Chinshan BWR-4 plant. • RETRAN and GOTHIC models are developed for NSSS and containment, respectively. • Safety relief valve blowdown flow and energy to drywell are generated by RETRAN. • Analyses are performed with and without reactor depressurization, respectively. - Abstract: The extended Station Blackout (SBO) of 24 h has been analyzed with respect to the containment response, in particular the suppression pool temperature response, for the Chinshan BWR-4 plant of MARK-I containment. The Chinshan plant, owned by Taiwan Power Company, has twin units with rated core thermal power of 1840 MW each. The analysis is aimed at determining the required alternative cooling water flow capacity for the residual heat removal (RHR) heat exchanger when its tube-side sea water cooling flow path is blocked, due to some reason such as earthquake or tsunami, and is switched to the alternative raw water source. Energy will be dissipated to the suppression pool through safety relief valves (SRVs) of the main steam lines during SBO. The RETRAN model is used to calculate the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) response and generate the SRV blowdown conditions, including SRV pressure, enthalpy, and mass flow rate. These conditions are then used as the time-dependent boundary conditions for the GOTHIC code to calculate the containment pressure and temperature response. The shaft seals of the two recirculation pumps are conservatively assumed to fail due to loss of seal cooling and a total leakage flow rate of 36 gpm to the drywell is included in the GOTHIC model. Based on the given SRV blowdown conditions, the GOTHIC containment calculation is performed several times, through the adjustment of the heat transfer rate of the RHR heat exchanger, until the criterion that the maximum suppression pool temperature

  3. Plant-bacterium interactions analyzed by proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber eAfroz


    Full Text Available The evolution of the plant immune response has resulted in a highly effective defense system that is able to resist potential attack by microbial pathogens. The primary immune response is referred to as pathogen associated molecular pattern triggered immunity and has evolved to recognize common features of microbial pathogens. In response to the delivery of pathogen effector proteins, plants acquired R proteins to fight against pathogen attack. R-dependent defense response is important in understanding the biochemical and cellular mechanisms and underlying these interactions will enable molecular and transgenic approaches for crops with increased biotic resistance. Proteomic analyses are particularly useful for understanding the mechanisms of host plant against the pathogen attack. Recent advances in the field of proteome analyses have initiated a new research area, i.e the analysis of more complex microbial communities and their interaction with plant. Such areas hold great potential to elucidate, not only the interactions between bacteria and their host plants, but also of bacteria-bacteria interactions between different bacterial taxa, symbiotic, pathogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria. During biotic stress, plant hormonal signaling pathways prioritizes defense over other cellular functions. Some plant pathogens take advantage of hormone dependent regulatory system by mimicking hormones that interfere with host immune responses to promote virulence. In this review, it is discussed the cross talk that plays important role in response to pathogens attack with different infection strategies using proteomic approaches.

  4. New fuel vault criticality analysis at Chinshan nuclear power station with new approaches to improve the storage flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, P. H., E-mail: [Taiwan Power Company, Department of Nuclear Generation, 242 Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 3, Taipei, Taiwan (China)


    The Chinshan new fuel vault (NFV) consists of 13 fuel storage racks, each rack may store 10 fuel assemblies. Prior to 2008, the NFV had never been used and the practice by the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) was to temporarily store the fuel assemblies in the shipping containers after received, until the inspection work was performed shortly before the outage, and then assemblies were loaded directly into the spent fuel pool (SFP). Starting from 2009, this practice has been revised since the new fuel contract would only supply a small amount of containers for storage, and the SFP would lose full-core-off load capability soon; therefore, use of NFV to store fuel assemblies following inspection becomes extremely crucial. The original Chinshan NFV criticality analysis was performed for the initial fuel design. Although many new fuel designs had been used (e.g., Atrium-10 reported in PBNC-14), no reanalysis had been performed because it was not anticipated that NFV would be used. Therefore, TPC requested the vendor to perform the analysis for Atrium-10. Originally, the vendor estimated that number of assemblies allowed to be stored would be limited severely to about 60. To enhance storage flexibility, Tpc proposed some new approaches: 1) All assemblies are assumed in vendor's standard method to contain a single limiting lattice for entire fuel length, it is suggested that axially zoned limiting lattices be selected based on characteristics of reloads to be delivered, and this significantly improves flexibility. 2) The maximum k-effective equation used by vendor was corrected (manufacturing tolerances were conservatively mistreated). Also, the vendor typically used 0.95 k-effective as the criterion, it is suggested that NUREG-0800 requirement ({<=}0.98 for optimum moderation conditions) be applied. After several iterations, all the 130 locations are allowed to store fuel. The analysis report has been approved by the authority in June 2008. (Author)

  5. Ensembl Plants: Integrating Tools for Visualizing, Mining, and Analyzing Plant Genomics Data. (United States)

    Bolser, Dan; Staines, Daniel M; Pritchard, Emily; Kersey, Paul


    Ensembl Plants ( ) is an integrative resource presenting genome-scale information for a growing number of sequenced plant species (currently 33). Data provided includes genome sequence, gene models, functional annotation, and polymorphic loci. Various additional information are provided for variation data, including population structure, individual genotypes, linkage, and phenotype data. In each release, comparative analyses are performed on whole genome and protein sequences, and genome alignments and gene trees are made available that show the implied evolutionary history of each gene family. Access to the data is provided through a genome browser incorporating many specialist interfaces for different data types, and through a variety of additional methods for programmatic access and data mining. These access routes are consistent with those offered through the Ensembl interface for the genomes of non-plant species, including those of plant pathogens, pests, and pollinators.Ensembl Plants is updated 4-5 times a year and is developed in collaboration with our international partners in the Gramene ( ) and transPLANT projects ( ).

  6. Development of the nuclear plant analyzer for Korean standard Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Heon; Song, In Ho; Hong, Eon Yeong; Oh, Yeong Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to develop an NPA for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and 4, the first KSNP type plant. In this study, the process model simulating the overall plant systems, GUI and simulation executive which provide the functions of an engineering simulator were developed, and the NPA was completed by integrating them. The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : main feedwater system, auxiliary feedwater system, Chemical and Volume Control System(CVCS), Safety Injection System(SIS), Shutdown Cooling System(SCS), electric power supply system, Core Protection Calculator(CPC), various plant control system, development of the graphics screens for each system, real-time simulation, simulation control for the enhancement of functional capabilities, user friendly GUI, collection of the design and operating data, establishment of the NPA database, integration of the GUI and simulation control program with process model, collection of the data for the verification and validation of the developed NPA, collection of the plant test data, collection and review of the results of other computer codes, verification of the simulation accuracy by comparing the NPA results with the actual plant data, validation of the simulation capability of the NPA, comparison against available data from other analysis suing different computer codes.

  7. Plant analyzer for high-speed interactive simulation of BWR power plant transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.; Wulff, W.; Cerbone, R.J.


    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer technology is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times faster than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. The mathematical models account for nonequilibrium, nonhomogeneous two-phase flow effects in the coolant, for acoustical effects in the steam line and for the dynamics of the recirculation loop and feedwater train. Point kinetics incorporate reactivity feedback due to void fraction, fuel temperature, coolant temperature, and boron concentration. Control systems and trip logic are simulated for the nuclear steam supply system. The AD10 of Applied Dynamics International is the special-purpose peripheral processor. It is specifically designed for high-speed digital system simulation, accommodates hardware (instrumentation) in the input/output loop, and operates interactively on-line, like an analog computer. Results are shown to demonstrate computing capacity, accuracy, and speed. Simulation speeds have been achieved which are orders of magnitude faster than those of a CDC-7600 mainframe computer or ten times faster than real-time speed.

  8. Is water immersion useful for analyzing gravity resistance responses in terrestrial plants? (United States)

    Ooume, Kentaro; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki


    Water immersion has been used as a simulator of microgravity for analyzing gravity responses in semiaquatic plants such as rice. To examine whether or not water immersion for a short experimental period is a useful microgravity simulator even in terrestrial plants, we analyzed effects of water immersion on the cell wall rigidity and metabolisms of its constituents in azuki bean epicotyls. The cell wall rigidity of epicotyls grown underwater was significantly lower than that in the control. Water immersion also caused a decrease in molecular mass of xyloglucans as well as the thinning of the cell wall. Such changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the cell wall underwater were similar to those observed in microgravity conditions in space. These results suggest that water immersion for a short period is a useful system for analyzing gravity resistance responses even in terrestrial plants.

  9. A Series RCL Circuit Theory for Analyzing Non-Steady-State Water Uptake of Maize Plants (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi


    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths.

  10. Synchronized Phasor Data for Analyzing Wind Power Plant Dynamic Behavior and Model Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. H.


    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the power grid. One of those is the implementation of 'wide area measurements' using phasor measurement units (PMUs) to dynamically monitor the operations and the status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. This project seeks to obtain PMU data from wind power plants and grid reference points and develop software tools to analyze and visualize synchrophasor data for the purpose of better understanding wind power plant dynamic behaviors under normal and contingency conditions.

  11. Development of NPA4K (Nuclear Plant Analyzer for KALIMER) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, K. K.; Seo, K. C.; Yoon, J. S.; Hahn, H. D


    The NPA4K (nuclear plant analyzer for KALIMER) is developed for the user's convenience to run the SSC-K computer code displaying the safety related parameters simultaneously. Delphi program language is used to develop the program and the program can be run in the PC environment. It consists of KalimerUnit, Read TIUnit, SSCUnit, Choose Unit, GraphUnit, ExtensionUnit and TFieldUnit. Main control is performed in KalimerUnit.

  12. Development of Causality Analyzer for Maintenance/Test Tasks in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Oh, Kye Min; Kim, So Young; Kim, Tae Mi; Ahmed, Rizwan [KyungHee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this project is to propose a causality analyzer for maintenance/test tasks in nuclear power plants in terms of fault tree analysis and turbine cycle simulation for a secondary side. In nuclear power plants, a lot of efforts to reduce unanticipated trips caused by maintenance or tests have been conducted, so many of trip causalities in a primary side were eliminated. However, it is still difficult to effectively recognize the causalities for the tasks of maintenance/tests in a secondary side. This study, therefore, attempted to propose a methodology based on fault tree analysis and derate simulation, which is particularly applicable for a secondary side. Ultimately, it is possible to develop the guidelines to warn the vulnerability in the tasks by proactively providing the human errors from maintenance or tests. The products of this study is able to predict the enhancement of plant availability by correlating the human errors resulting from maintenance/tests with a various type of plant losses

  13. Reevaluation of the emergency planning zone for nuclear power plants in Taiwan using MACCS2 code. (United States)

    Wu, Jay; Yang, Yung-Muh; Chen, Ing-Jane; Chen, Huan-Tong; Chuang, Keh-Shih


    According to government regulations, the emergency planning zone (EPZ) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) must be designated before operation and reevaluated every 5 years. Corresponding emergency response planning (ERP) has to be made in advance to guarantee that all necessary resources are available under accidental releases of radioisotope. In this study, the EPZ for each of the three operating NPPs, Chinshan, Kuosheng, and Maanshan, in Taiwan was reevaluated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) developed by Sandia National Laboratory. Meteorological data around the nuclear power plant were collected during 2003. The source term data including inventory, sensible heat content, and timing duration, were based on previous PRA information of each plant. The effective dose equivalent and thyroid dose together with the related individual risk and societal risk were calculated. By comparing the results to the protective action guide and related safety criteria, 1.5, 1.5, and 4.5km were estimated for Chinshan, Kuosheng, and Maanshan NPPs, respectively. We suggest that a radius of 5.0km is a reasonably conservative value of EPZ for each of the three operating NPPs in Taiwan.

  14. Analyzing Effects of Turbulence on Power Generation Using Wind Plant Monitoring Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Hodge, B. M.


    In this paper, a methodology is developed to analyze how ambient and wake turbulence affects the power generation of a single wind turbine within an array of turbines. Using monitoring data from a wind power plant, we selected two sets of wind and power data for turbines on the edge of the wind plant that resemble (i) an out-of-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine directly faces incoming winds) and (ii) an in-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine is under the wake of other turbines). For each set of data, two surrogate models were then developed to represent the turbine power generation (i) as a function of the wind speed; and (ii) as a function of the wind speed and turbulence intensity. Support vector regression was adopted for the development of the surrogate models. Three types of uncertainties in the turbine power generation were also investigated: (i) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the published/reported power curve, (ii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for only mean wind speed; and (iii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for both mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. Results show that (i) under the same wind conditions, the turbine generates different power between the in-wake and out-of-wake scenarios, (ii) a turbine generally produces more power under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario, (iii) the power generation is sensitive to turbulence intensity even when the wind speed is greater than the turbine rated speed, and (iv) there is relatively more uncertainty in the power generation under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario.

  15. Analyzing clonal fidelity of micropropagated Psidium guajava L. plants using simple sequence repeat markers (United States)

    Micropropagation of Psidium guajava L. (guava) is a viable alternative to currently adopted techniques for large-scale plant propagation of commercial cultivars. Assessment of clonal fidelity in micropropagated plants is the first step towards ensuring genetic uniformity in mass production of planti...

  16. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells. (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik


    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  17. [Usefulness of the Centrifuge Accommodation Module for analyzing gravity responses in plant seedlings]. (United States)

    Hoson, T


    Onboard centrifuges are indispensable tools for clarifying the effects of microgravity on various physiological processes in plant seedlings. Centrifuges are basically attached to the incubators designed for the International Space Station (ISS). However, because of the limitation in size, that loaded to the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) is usable only to some small seedlings such as Arabidopsis. The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) has great advantages in the size and the amounts of plant materials feasible to load, the quality of acceleration produced, and the easiness of operation on it. The CAM is an apparatus that characterizes the ISS most and its construction on schedule is highly expected.

  18. Life cycle assessment of a HYSOL concentrated solar power plant: Analyzing the effect of geographic location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Ruiz, Diego; San Miguel, Guillermo


    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting

  19. Analyzing the biomass filter behavior in an anaerobic wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos-Hernandez, S.


    Nowadays, waste emissions in air, water and soil must be reduced in order to reach the more and more strict environmental rules. In the case of wastewater, there exists a big interest to improve treatment plants performances. The paper deals with the analysis, via the phase portraits method, of a biomass filter behavior in a completely stirred tank reactor deals with the analysis. (Author)

  20. Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.


    In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water

  1. Possible use of a 3-D clinostat to analyze plant growth processes under microgravity conditions. (United States)

    Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S; Buchen, B; Sievers, A; Yamashita, M; Masuda, Y


    A three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat equipped with two rotation axes placed at right angles was constructed, and various growth processes of higher plants grown on this clinostat were compared with ground controls, with plants grown on the conventional horizontal clinostat, and with those under real microgravity in space. On the 3-D clinostat, cress roots developed a normal root cap and the statocytes showed the typical polar organization except a random distribution of statoliths. The structural features of clinostatted statocytes were fundamentally similar to those observed under real microgravity. The graviresponse of cress roots grown on the 3-D clinostat was the same as the control roots. On the 3-D clinostat, shoots and roots exhibited a spontaneous curvature as well as an altered growth direction. Such an automorphogenesis was sometimes exaggerated when plants were subjected to the horizontal rotation, whereas the curvature was suppressed on the vertical rotation. These discrepancies in curvature between the 3-D clinostat and the conventional ones appear to be brought about by the centrifugal force produced. Thus, the 3-D clinostat was proven as a useful device to simulate microgravity.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of a HYSOL Concentrated Solar Power Plant: Analyzing the Effect of Geographic Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Corona


    Full Text Available Concentrating Solar Power (CSP technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting of a combined cycle configuration with a 100 MWe steam turbine and an 80 MWe gas-fed turbine with biomethane. Technological developments must be supported by the identification, quantification, and evaluation of the environmental impacts produced. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental performance of a CSP plant based on HYSOL technology using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology while considering different locations. The scenarios investigated include different geographic locations (Spain, Chile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mexico, and South Africa, an alternative modelling procedure for biomethane, and the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel. Results indicate that the geographic location has a significant influence on the environmental profile of the HYSOL CSP plant. The results obtained for the HYSOL configuration located in different countries presented significant differences (between 35% and 43%, depending on the category, especially in climate change and water stress categories. The differences are mainly attributable to the local availability of solar and water resources and composition of the national electricity mix. In addition, HYSOL technology performs significantly better when hybridizing with biomethane instead of natural gas. This evidence is particularly relevant in the climate change category, where biomethane hybridization emits 27.9–45.9 kg CO2 eq per MWh (depending on the biomethane modelling scenario and natural gas scenario emits 264 kg CO2 eq/MWh.

  3. [Geostatistics analyzing to cause of formation of circle distribution of plant communities in Horqin Sandy Land]. (United States)

    He, Xingdong; Gao, Yubao; Zhao, Wenzhi; Cong, Zili


    Investigation results in the present study showed that plant communities took typical concentric circles distribution patterns along habitat gradient from top, slope to interdune on a few large fixed dunes in middle part of Korqin Sandy Land. In order to explain this phenomenon, analysis of water content and its spatial heterogeneity in sand layers on different locations of dunes was conducted. In these dunes, water contents in sand layers of the tops were lower than those of the slopes; both of them were lower than those of the interdunes. According to the results of geostatistics analysis, whether shifting dune or fixed dune, spatial heterogeneity of water contents in sand layers took on regular changes, such as ratios between nugget and sill and ranges reduced gradually, fractal dimension increased gradually, the regular changes of these parameters indicated that random spatial heterogeneity reduced gradually, and autocorrelation spatial heterogeneity increased gradually from the top, the slope to the interdune. The regular changes of water contents in sand layers and their spatial heterogeneity of different locations of the dunes, thus, might be an important cause resulted in the formation of the concentric circles patterns of the plant communities on these fixed dunes.

  4. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A Pineros; Pierre-Luc Pradier; Nathanael M Shaw; Ithipong Assaranurak; Susan R McCouch; Craig Sturrock; Malcolm Bennett; Leon V Kochian; Brandon G Larson; Jon E Shaff; David J Schneider; Alexandre Xavier Falcao; Lixing Yuan; Randy T Clark; Eric J Craft; Tyler W Davis


    A plant’s ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architec-ture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyp-ing software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimen-sional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions.

  5. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yun-xia


    Full Text Available The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the digests were determined by CFA and VMYC method, respectively. The t test found that there was no any significant difference of the plant P contents measured by the CFA and the VMYC method. A linear equation could best describe their relationship: Y(CFA-P=0.927X(VMYC-P-0.002. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.985 with a significance level(n=69, P<0.01. The CFA method for plant P measurement had a high precision with relative standard deviation(RSD less than 1.5%. It is suggested that the CFA based on Murphy and Riley colorimetric detection can be used to determinate total plant P in the digests solutions with H2SO4-H2O2. The CFA method is labor saving and can handle large numbers of samples. The human error in mixing with other operations is reduced to a great extent.

  6. Analyzing the possibility of constructing the air heating system for an integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle power plant (United States)

    Mikula, V. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.


    Combined-cycle power plants operating on solid fuel have presently been implemented only in demonstration projects. One of possible ways for improving such plants consists in making a shift to hybrid process circuits of integrated gasification combined-cycle plants with external firing of solid fuel. A high-temperature air heater serving to heat compressed air is a key element of the hybrid process circuit. The article describes application of a high-temperature recuperative metal air heater in the process circuit of an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant (IGCC). The available experience with high-temperature air heating is considered, and possible air heater layout arrangements are analyzed along with domestically produced heat-resistant grades of steel suitable for manufacturing such air heater. An alternative (with respect to the traditional one) design is proposed, according to which solid fuel is fired in a noncooled furnace extension, followed by mixing the combustion products with recirculation gases, after which the mixture is fed to a convective air heater. The use of this design makes it possible to achieve considerably smaller capital outlays and operating costs. The data obtained from thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the high-temperature air heater with a thermal capacity of 258 MW for heating air to a temperature of up to 800°C for being used in the hybrid process circuit of a combined-cycle power plant are presented.

  7. Analyzing the Technology of Using Ash and Slag Waste from Thermal Power Plants in the Production of Building Ceramics (United States)

    Malchik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Rodionov, P. V.; Kozik, V. V.; Gaydamak, M. A.


    The work describes the problem of impounding and storing ash and slag waste at coal thermal power plants in Russia. Recovery and recycling of ash and slag waste are analyzed. Activity of radionuclides, the chemical composition and particle sizes of ash and slag waste were determined; the acidity index, the basicity and the class of material were defined. The technology for making ceramic products with the addition of ash and slag waste was proposed. The dependencies relative to the percentage of ash and slag waste and the optimal parameters for baking were established. The obtained materials were tested for physical and mechanical properties, namely for water absorption, thermal conductivity and compression strength. Based on the findings, future prospects for use of ash and slag waste were identified.

  8. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.


    The COMMIX-PPC computer program is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional conservation of mass. momentum, and energy equations on the tube side, and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification. it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications.

  9. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.


    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User's Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  10. Development of a coal quality analyzer for application to power plants based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Gong, Yao; Li, Yufang; Wang, Xin; Fan, Juanjuan; Dong, Lei; Ma, Weiguang; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang


    It is vitally important for a power plant to determine the coal property rapidly to optimize the combustion process. In this work, a fully software-controlled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based coal quality analyzer comprising a LIBS apparatus, a sampling equipment, and a control module, has been designed for possible application to power plants for offering rapid and precise coal quality analysis results. A closed-loop feedback pulsed laser energy stabilization technology is proposed to stabilize the Nd: YAG laser output energy to a preset interval by using the detected laser energy signal so as to enhance the measurement stability and applied in a month-long monitoring experiment. The results show that the laser energy stability has been greatly reduced from ± 5.2% to ± 1.3%. In order to indicate the complex relationship between the concentrations of the analyte of interest and the corresponding plasma spectra, the support vector regression (SVR) is employed as a non-linear regression method. It is shown that this SVR method combined with principal component analysis (PCA) enables a significant improvement in cross-validation accuracy by using the calibration set of coal samples. The root mean square error for prediction of ash content, volatile matter content, and calorific value decreases from 2.74% to 1.82%, 1.69% to 1.22%, and 1.23 MJ/kg to 0.85 MJ/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding average relative error of the predicted samples is reduced from 8.3% to 5.48%, 5.83% to 4.42%, and 5.4% to 3.68%, respectively. The enhanced levels of accuracy obtained with the SVR combined with PCA based calibration models open up avenues for prospective prediction in coal properties.

  11. Changes in soil microbial community structure associated with two types of genetically engineered plants analyzing by PLFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kai; LUO Hai-feng; QI Hong-yan; ZHANG Hong-xun


    With the rapid expansion of GEPs(genetically engineered plants), people are more and more concerned about the ecological risks brought by their release. Assessing the effect of GEPs on soil microbial ecology is indispensable to study their ecological risks. In our study, the phospholipids fatty acid(PLFA) method was used to analyze the microbial community of soil samples collected from fields with two types of GEPs-Bt transgenic corn and PVY(potato virus Y) cell protein gene transgenic potato. The principal components analysis(PCA) showed all controls were on the right of related GEPs samples along the PC1 (the first principal component) axis, which means a decrease of fungi in soils with genetically engineered crop since most of PLFAs that are strongly positively correlated with PC1 represent fungi. For samples collected from Bt transgenic cornfield, the ratios of gram-positive to gram-negative bacteria were less than those of controls. For samples of transgenic potato field, these ratios were lower than those of controls when soils were collected from deep layer(20-40 cm), but were higher when soils collected from surface layer(0-20 cm). For soils collected from 0-20 cm, the ratios of fungi to bacteria for all GEPs samples were at the same level. So were such rations for all controls. Changes of soil microbial community in two types of GEPs fields were detected in our study, but the causes and more information still needs further study.

  12. An image classification approach to analyze the suppression of plant immunity by the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schikora Marek


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enteric pathogen Salmonella is the causative agent of the majority of food-borne bacterial poisonings. Resent research revealed that colonization of plants by Salmonella is an active infection process. Salmonella changes the metabolism and adjust the plant host by suppressing the defense mechanisms. In this report we developed an automatic algorithm to quantify the symptoms caused by Salmonella infection on Arabidopsis. Results The algorithm is designed to attribute image pixels into one of the two classes: healthy and unhealthy. The task is solved in three steps. First, we perform segmentation to divide the image into foreground and background. In the second step, a support vector machine (SVM is applied to predict the class of each pixel belonging to the foreground. And finally, we do refinement by a neighborhood-check in order to omit all falsely classified pixels from the second step. The developed algorithm was tested on infection with the non-pathogenic E. coli and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and used to study the interaction between plants and Salmonella wild type and T3SS mutants. We proved that T3SS mutants of Salmonella are unable to suppress the plant defenses. Results obtained through the automatic analyses were further verified on biochemical and transcriptome levels. Conclusion This report presents an automatic pixel-based classification method for detecting “unhealthy” regions in leaf images. The proposed method was compared to existing method and showed a higher accuracy. We used this algorithm to study the impact of the human pathogenic bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium on plants immune system. The comparison between wild type bacteria and T3SS mutants showed similarity in the infection process in animals and in plants. Plant epidemiology is only one possible application of the proposed algorithm, it can be easily extended to other detection tasks, which also rely on color information, or

  13. Methodology to analyze environmental monitoring reports of desalination plants; Metodologia para el analisis de los documentos de seguimiento ambiental de las instalaciones desaladoras de agua marina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruis Arriaga, S.; Orozco Conti, F.; Ubaldi Freda, G. M.; Garau Hernandez, F.; Salguero Martinez, J.; Garcia Sanchez-Colomer, M.


    In this paper we propose a methodology, based on check lists, to analyze the shape and the contents of the environmental vigilance programmes and the monitoring reports related to projects of desalination plants subjects to environmental impact assessment. The aim is to obtain useful and reproducible analysis tool for detect possible faults in the environmental monitoring reports. The application of this methodology leeds up to simplify and speed up the checking of these documents by competent authority. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of suppression pool heating during an ATWS in a BWR-5 plant. An application of the CSAU methodology using the BNL engineering plant analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Johnsen, G.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lellouche, G.S. [Technical Data Services, Chicago, IL (United States)


    The uncertainty has been estimated of predicting the peak temperature in the suppression pool of a BWR power plant, which undergoes an NRC-postulated Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). The ATWS is initiated by recirculation-pump trips, and then leads to power and flow oscillations as they had occurred at the LaSalle-2 Power Station in March of 1988. After limit-cycle oscillations have been established, the turbines are tripped, but without MSIV closure, allowing steam discharge through the turbine bypass into the condenser. Postulated operator actions, namely to lower the reactor vessel pressure and the level elevation in the downcomer, are simulated by a robot model which accounts for operator uncertainty. All balance of plant and control systems modeling uncertainties were part of the statistical uncertainty analysis that was patterned after the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology. The analysis showed that the predicted suppression-pool peak temperature of 329.3 K (133{degrees}F) has a 95-percentile uncertainty of 14.4 K (26{degrees}F), and that the size of this uncertainty bracket is dominated by the experimental uncertainty of measuring Safety and Relief Valve mass flow rates under critical-flow conditions. The analysis showed also that the probability of exceeding the suppression-pool temperature limit of 352.6 K (175{degrees}F) is most likely zero (it is estimated as < 5-104). The square root of the sum of the squares of all the computed peak pool temperatures is 350.7 K (171.6{degrees}F).

  15. 植物萜类化合物提取与检测方法研究进展%Advances in techniques of extracting and analyzing plant terpenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳贞; 栾军波


    Solvent extraction,steam distillation,supercritical fluid extraction and headspace analysis are currently often used for extracting plant terpenoids,and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is the most common means of terpenoid analysis.In recent years the techniques to isolate and analyze plant terpenoids have been developing in high efficiency,high sensitivity,high precision, high throughput and online real-time analysis,obviously improving the analysis capacity,simplifying the procedures and greatly promoting the isolation and analysis of plant terpenoids.As new techniques are still not perfect and need to further improve and develop,the techniques should be used selectively and combinedly.%溶剂提取、水蒸气蒸馏提取、超临界流体提取和顶空分析方法目前常用于植物萜类物质的提取;气相色谱-质谱是萜类化合物分析的最常用手段;近年来植物萜类测定技术正朝着高效、高灵敏度、高精确度、高通量和在线实时的方向发展;新发展的技术明显提高了分析水平,简化了操作流程,极大促进了植物萜类化合物的测定;但新技术仍有不足,尚需不断完善发展,技术应用上既要有所选择,又要结合使用。

  16. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 2, User`s guide and manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.


    The COMMIX-PPC computer program is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional conservation of mass. momentum, and energy equations on the tube side, and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification. it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications.

  17. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 1, Equations and numerics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.


    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User`s Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  18. Analyzing blends of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds with factor analysis: revisiting "cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum L., defense in response to nitrogen fertilization". (United States)

    Chen, Yigen


    Many herbivorous, predaceous, and parasitic insects use constitutive and herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to locate their respective host plant, prey, and hosts. Multivariate statistical tools (e.g., factor analysis) are recognized increasingly as an appropriate approach for analyzing intercorrelated data such as presence/absence or quantities of VOCs. One challenge of implementing factor analysis is determining how many new variables (factors) to retain in the final analysis. I demonstrate a method proposed by Johnson and Wichern to mitigate this problem by using VOC data published in Chen et al. The advantage of using loading (or weight) transformation in interpretation of new variables was also illustrated in the example. Factor analysis found similar nitrogen fertilization effects on VOC production as those in Chen et al. Similarities were 1) nitrogen fertilization interacted with herbivore damage status on VOC production: at low nitrogen (42 ppm) level, beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), damage elicited increases in VOC production, whereas at high nitrogen (196 ppm) VOC production was suppressed; 2) nitrogen fertilization did not affect limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene production. The seven individual VOCs significantly affected by nitrogen fertilization in Chen et al. were (Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-beta-farnesene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), alpha-bergamotene, gamma-bisabolene, and bisabolol, of which only three ((E)-beta-farnesene, gamma-bisabolene, and bisabolol) weighed heavily on factor 1 in the current study.

  19. Analyzing Orientations (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  20. Portable Fuel Quality Analyzer (United States)


    other transportation industries, such as trucking. The PFQA could also be used in fuel blending operations performed at petroleum, ethanol and biodiesel plants. ...JAN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Project Summary 3. DATES COVERED 29-07-2013 to 27-01-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PORTABLE FUEL QUALITY ANALYZER

  1. Application of the micro-PIXE technique for analyzing arsenic in biomat and lower plants of lichen and mosses around an arsenic mine site, at Gunma, Japan (United States)

    Ohnuki, T.; Sakamoto, F.; Kozai, N.; Samadfam, M.; Sakai, T.; Kamiya, T.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, M.


    Microhabitats of bacteria (biomat) and lower plants, such as lichen and mosses, are known to accumulate hazardous elements. Since the concentration of hazardous elements in the environment is quite low, we have applied the in-air μ-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) system developed in the TIARA facility of JAERI, which has low concentration detection limit of ppm, to measure As, one of the hazardous elements, distributions in biomat, lichen and mosses observed around an abandoned As mine site in Gunma, Japan to elucidate the applicability of these biomat and lower plants as bio-indicators of As. Spatial distributions of As, Fe, Si and S in all biomat, lichen and moss collected within 3 m from the mine entrance indicate that As is localized, and is associated with silicate and Fe-containing compounds. In addition, the intensity ratio of peak area for As to Fe in μ-PIXE spectrum of the moss collected from the concrete wall at 3 m downstream of the mine water discharge position is different from those of the lower plants on the rock near the closed entrance, but is the same as that of biomat formed at the mine water discharge position. This indicates that As trapped by the moss on the concrete wall probably has the same origin as the biomat. It is concluded that application of μ-PIXE analysis to the measurement of As in the lower plants and biomat gives not only the distribution of the hazardous element of As, but also the information of the origin.

  2. Analyzing the Implications of Climate Data on Plant Hardiness Zones for Green Infrastructure Planning: Case Study of Knoxville, Tennessee and Surrounding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Linda M [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL


    Downscaled climate data for Knoxville, Tennessee and the surrounding region were used to investigate future changing Plant Hardiness Zones due to climate change. The methodology used is the same as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), well-known for their creation of the standard Plant Hardiness Zone map used by gardeners and planners. USDA data were calculated from observed daily data for 1976–2005. The modeled climate data for the past is daily data from 1980-2005 and the future data is projected for 2025–2050. The average of all the modeled annual extreme minimums for each time period of interest was calculated. Each 1 km raster cell was placed into zone categories based on temperature, using the same criteria and categories of the USDA. The individual models vary between suggesting little change to the Plant Hardiness Zones to suggesting Knoxville moves into the next two Hardiness Zones. But overall, the models suggest moving into the next warmer Zone. USDA currently has the Knoxville area categorized as Zone 7a. None of the Zones calculated from the climate data models placed Knoxville in Zone 7a for the similar time period. The models placed Knoxville in a cooler Hardiness Zone and projected the area to increase to Zone 7. The modeled temperature data appears to be slightly cooler than the actual temperature data and this may explain the zone discrepancy. However, overall Knoxville is projected to increase to the next warmer Zone. As the modeled data has Knoxville, overall, moving from Zone 6 to Zone 7, it can be inferred that Knoxville, Tennessee may increase from their current Zone 7 to Zone 8.

  3. Analyzing the Economy-wide Impact of the Supply Chains Activated by a new Biomass Power Plant. The case of cardoon in Sardinia


    Bonfiglio, Andrea; Esposti, Roberto


    This study investigates the impact on the economy of the Italian region of the Sardinia generated by a new biomass power plant that will be fed with locally cultivated cardoon. The cardoon will also serve the production of biopolymers. The impact is assessed at an economy-wide level using a multiregional mixed-variable closed I-O model that allows taking into account the whole supply chain activated and the cross-regional effects generated by trade across local industries. The effects are com...

  4. Microsatellite markers in plants and insects part II: Databases and in silico tools for microsatellite mining and analyzing population genetic stratification (United States)

    Nucleotide sequence information available in searchable sequence databases and the free in silico software with which to extract and analyze microsatellite data continues to grow at a rapid rate across eukaryote taxa. The sheer amount of information available means that a comprehensive or exhaustive...

  5. Malfunction Diagnosing and Analyzing for the Reciprocating Compressor of Dry Gas Purification Ethylene Plant%干气压缩机运行故障诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文涛; 郭洋


    结合干气提浓乙烯装置的工艺特点,对装置主流程中关键设备往复式压缩机的运行故障进行详细分析,提出介质携带杂质、液体并具有腐蚀性,以及仪表系统的假信号等是导致压缩机故障频发的主要原因.根据实际运行经验,针对导致故障发生的原因从工艺与设备两方面深入探讨改进措施,在实际运行中已采取的措施及取得的良好效果,并就如何提高机组的运行可靠性做了进一步讨论,为干气装置的压缩机长周期稳定运行提出切实可行的方案.%Combining the analysis of the technology characteristics of the reciprocating compressor for "dry gas purification ethylene plant", a detailed analysis is carried on of the operational failure of key e?quipment in the main flow of the device reciprocating compressors, and the main reasons leading to the frequent failure of compressor are raised,which are the medium that carries impurity,liquid and being corrosive,and the false signal in instrument systenuAccording to the actual operating experience,in view of the cause of the failure, technology and equipment are focused on to improve measures,and in the actual opera-lion good results are achieved,and the situation of how to improve the operation reliability of the unit have been further discussed,providing feasible scheme for the stable and long-term operation of reciprocating compressor of dry gas plant.

  6. Analyzing and Solving Problems of Centrifugal Pumps Occurred during the Commissioning of Shell Coal Gasification Plant%Shell煤气化装置离心泵试车问题分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹俊杰; 赵瑞萍


    The problems of too great head of delivery, air sinuses, interlock, etc., which occurred to the discharge pump in the Yueyang Coal Gasification Plant, the hot water pump in the Anqing Coal Gasification Plant and the high pressure process water pumps in the Yueyang and Anqing coal gasification plants during the commissioning of these plants were analyzed respectively, taking the centrifugal pumps in the Yueyang and Anqing Shell gasification plants as examples. Relevant programs for solving these problems were proposed based on the theory of fluid handling mechanism. The practice of those programs verified their correctness and rationality. The method for solving problems of centrifugal pumps for chemical plants was thus summarized and can be served as a reference for other similar chemical plants.%针对Shell煤气化装置离心泵的应用,分别分析了岳阳煤气化装置排水泵、安庆煤气化装置热水泵及岳阳和安庆煤气化装置高压工艺水泵在试车过程中出现的扬程偏大、气缚和联锁等问题,结合流体输送机械理论,提出了相应的解决方案,并通过实施后的运行效果,检验了所提方案的正确性与合理性,从而总结出化工装置现场离心泵试车问题的处理方法,可供其他类似项目借鉴.

  7. 浅析丽水市屋顶绿化的现状及适宜植物的选择%Analyzed Roof Greening Situation of Lishui City and the Selection of Suitable Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓梅; 刘瑞瑜


      随着城市的发展,生态问题的凸现,因而诞生了一种新型的绿化形式——屋顶绿化。该文阐述了屋顶绿化的概念及分类,分析了丽水市屋顶绿化的现状;通过对丽水市的植物的调查研究,同时结合国内外屋顶绿化植物的选用及屋顶绿化植物配置的原则,筛选出适合丽水地区的屋顶绿化植物。%  this paper briefly introduces the concept and classification of urban roof greening,and analyzed the roof greening situation of Lishui city. Through to Lishui plant investigation and research,at the same time,com⁃bined with the selection of roof greening plants at home and abroad and the roof greening plant configuration, the principle of screening for Lishui Roof greening plants.

  8. On line chemical analyzers for high purity steam and water, applied to steam power plants; Analizadores quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, aplicados a centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Perez, Ruth [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    This article presents a general overview of the advances in the subject of on line analyzers of chemical parameters for high purity water and steam and specifies which ones are commercially available. Also are mentioned besides, the criteria nowadays applied for the selection of the sites for sample grabbing and the analysis that is necessary to perform in each point, depending on the power plant type and the treatment administered (phosphates-Ph coordinated or AVT treatment). [Espanol] El articulo presenta un panorama general de los avances que en materia de analizadores de parametros quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, y especifica cuales estan disponibles en forma comercial. Se citan, ademas los criterios que se aplican actualmente para seleccionar los puntos de toma de muestra y los analisis que es necesario efectuar en cada punto, dependiendo del tipo de central y del tratamiento que se le administre (fosfatos-pH coordinado o tratamiento AVT).

  9. Comparing and Analyzing for Seismic Response of Main Workshop of Heat-engine Plant under Different Arrangement Formation%火电厂主厂房不同布置方式下地震反应对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景瑞; 陈雨; 袁国锋


    大型火力发电厂是重要的生命线工程,主厂房传统的布置方式采用三连式布置方式,而新的布置方式采用汽机房和煤仓问交叉布置方式.用有限元分析软件对两种布置方式进行反应谱分析,从而对两种布置方式在不同地震烈度条件下的主厂房的层间剪力、层问位移及层间位移角进行对比分析.结果表明,在不同地震烈度条件下,主厂房采用交叉布置方式时,主厂房的质量、刚度的分布较采用三连式布置方式时均匀;主厂房采用交叉布置方式时,主厂房的抗震性能要比主厂房采用三连式布置方式时要好.%Huge heat-engine plant is the crucial lifeblood project, the traditional arrangement formation of which is the triple-connected method, but the latest arrangement foimation of which is the cross arrangement method between the turbine hall and coml-store hall. Comparing and analyzing the response spectrum of the said two methods by using finite element software, the interlaminated shear force, interlaminated displacement and interlaminated displacement angle under different seismic intensity are compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the quality and rigidity of the main workshop by using cross arrangement method are more even than those of the one by using triple-connected method under different seismic intensity, and the anti-seismic performance of the former is better than that of the latter.

  10. The Intermodulation Lockin Analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Tholen, Erik A; Forchheimer, Daniel; Schuler, Vivien; Tholen, Mats O; Hutter, Carsten; Haviland, David B


    Nonlinear systems can be probed by driving them with two or more pure tones while measuring the intermodulation products of the drive tones in the response. We describe a digital lock-in analyzer which is designed explicitly for this purpose. The analyzer is implemented on a field-programmable gate array, providing speed in analysis, real-time feedback and stability in operation. The use of the analyzer is demonstrated for Intermodulation Atomic Force Microscopy. A generalization of the intermodulation spectral technique to arbitrary drive waveforms is discussed.

  11. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P


    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  12. Analyzing binding data. (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey J; Neubig, Richard R


    Measuring the rate and extent of radioligand binding provides information on the number of binding sites, and their affinity and accessibility of these binding sites for various drugs. This unit explains how to design and analyze such experiments.

  13. Analyzing in the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard


    The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts...... of various interviews conveyed diverse significance to the listening researcher at different times became a method of continuously opening up the empirical material in a reflexive, breakdown-oriented process of analysis. We argue that situating analysis in the present of analyzing emphasizes and acknowledges...... the interdependency between researcher and researched. On this basis, we advocate an explicit “open-state-of mind” listening as a key aspect of analyzing qualitative material, often described only as a matter of reading transcribed empirical materials, reading theory, and writing. The article contributes...

  14. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B


    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  15. Analyzing Microarray Data. (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Weng, Zhiping


    Because there is no widely used software for analyzing RNA-seq data that has a graphical user interface, this protocol provides an example of analyzing microarray data using Babelomics. This analysis entails performing quantile normalization and then detecting differentially expressed genes associated with the transgenesis of a human oncogene c-Myc in mice. Finally, hierarchical clustering is performed on the differentially expressed genes using the Cluster program, and the results are visualized using TreeView.

  16. Total organic carbon analyzer (United States)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  17. Advances in hematology analyzers. (United States)

    DeNicola, Dennis B


    The complete blood count is one of the basic building blocks of the minimum database in veterinary medicine. Over the past 20 years, there has been a tremendous advancement in the technology of hematology analyzers and their availability to the general practitioner. There are 4 basic methodologies that can be used to generate data for a complete blood count: manual methods, quantitative buffy coat analysis, automated impedance analysis, and flow cytometric analysis. This article will review the principles of these methodologies, discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages, and describe some of the hematology analyzers that are available for the in-house veterinary laboratory.

  18. Analyzing radioligand binding data. (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey; Neubig, Richard


    Radioligand binding experiments are easy to perform, and provide useful data in many fields. They can be used to study receptor regulation, discover new drugs by screening for compounds that compete with high affinity for radioligand binding to a particular receptor, investigate receptor localization in different organs or regions using autoradiography, categorize receptor subtypes, and probe mechanisms of receptor signaling, via measurements of agonist binding and its regulation by ions, nucleotides, and other allosteric modulators. This unit reviews the theory of receptor binding and explains how to analyze experimental data. Since binding data are usually best analyzed using nonlinear regression, this unit also explains the principles of curve fitting with nonlinear regression.

  19. Analyzing Workforce Education. Monograph. (United States)

    Texas Community & Technical Coll. Workforce Education Consortium.

    This monograph examines the issue of task analysis as used in workplace literacy programs, debating the need for it and how to perform it in a rapidly changing environment. Based on experiences of community colleges in Texas, the report analyzes ways that task analysis can be done and how to implement work force education programs more quickly.…

  20. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media. (United States)

    Baker, Jackie


    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  1. Magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer. (United States)

    Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G


    We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening.

  2. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias


    an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility...... and is designed to be intuitive for most users. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer is a freeware program available at ....

  3. IPv6 Protocol Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the emerging of next generation Intemet protocol (IPv6), it is expected to replace the current version of Internet protocol (IPv4) that will be exhausted in the near future. Besides providing adequate address space, some other new features are included into the new 128 bits of IP such as IP auto configuration, quality of service, simple routing capability, security, mobility and multicasting. The current protocol analyzer will not be able to handle IPv6 packets. This paper will focus on developing protocol analyzer that decodes IPv6 packet. IPv6 protocol analyzer is an application module,which is able to decode the IPv6 packet and provide detail breakdown of the construction of the packet. It has to understand the detail construction of the IPv6, and provide a high level abstraction of bits and bytes of the IPv6 packet.Thus it increases network administrators' understanding of a network protocol,helps he/she in solving protocol related problem in a IPv6 network environment.

  4. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  5. Analyzing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian


    financial statement. Plumlee (2003) finds for instance that such information imposes significant costs on even expert users such as analysts and fund managers and reduces their use of it. Analysts’ ability to incorporate complex information in their analyses is a decreasing function of its complexity......, because the costs of processing and analyzing it exceed the benefits indicating bounded rationality. Hutton (2002) concludes that the analyst community’s inability to raise important questions on quality of management and the viability of its business model inevitably led to the Enron debacle. There seems...

  6. Mineral/Water Analyzer (United States)


    An x-ray fluorescence spectrometer developed for the Viking Landers by Martin Marietta was modified for geological exploration, water quality monitoring, and aircraft engine maintenance. The aerospace system was highly miniaturized and used very little power. It irradiates the sample causing it to emit x-rays at various energies, then measures the energy levels for sample composition analysis. It was used in oceanographic applications and modified to identify element concentrations in ore samples, on site. The instrument can also analyze the chemical content of water, and detect the sudden development of excessive engine wear.

  7. Analyzing Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.


    ASTROP2-LE is a computer program that predicts flutter and forced responses of blades, vanes, and other components of such turbomachines as fans, compressors, and turbines. ASTROP2-LE is based on the ASTROP2 program, developed previously for analysis of stability of turbomachinery components. In developing ASTROP2- LE, ASTROP2 was modified to include a capability for modeling forced responses. The program was also modified to add a capability for analysis of aeroelasticity with mistuning and unsteady aerodynamic solutions from another program, LINFLX2D, that solves the linearized Euler equations of unsteady two-dimensional flow. Using LINFLX2D to calculate unsteady aerodynamic loads, it is possible to analyze effects of transonic flow on flutter and forced response. ASTROP2-LE can be used to analyze subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics and structural mistuning for rotors with blades of differing structural properties. It calculates the aerodynamic damping of a blade system operating in airflow so that stability can be assessed. The code also predicts the magnitudes and frequencies of the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the airfoils of a blade row from incoming wakes. This information can be used in high-cycle fatigue analysis to predict the fatigue lives of the blades.

  8. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C


    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  9. Analyzing the platelet proteome. (United States)

    García, Angel; Zitzmann, Nicole; Watson, Steve P


    During the last 10 years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key tool for protein analysis and has underpinned the emerging field of proteomics. Using high-throughput tandem MS/MS following protein separation, it is potentially possible to analyze hundreds to thousands of proteins in a sample at a time. This technology can be used to analyze the protein content (i.e., the proteome) of any cell or tissue and complements the powerful field of genomics. The technology is particularly suitable for platelets because of the absence of a nucleus. Cellular proteins can be separated by either gel-based methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography (LC) -MS/MS or by multidimensional LC-MS/MS. Prefractionation techniques, such as subcellular fractionations or immunoprecipitations, can be used to improve the analysis. Each method has particular advantages and disadvantages. Proteomics can be used to compare the proteome of basal and diseased platelets, helping to reveal information on the molecular basis of the disease.

  10. Analyzing architecture articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the present study, we express the quality, function, and characteristics of architecture to help people comprehensively understand what architecture is. We also reveal the problems and conflict found in population, land, water resources, pollution, energy, and the organization systems in construction. China’s economy is transforming. We should focus on the cities, architectural environment, energy conservation, emission-reduction, and low-carbon output that will result in successful green development. We should macroscopically and microscopically analyze the development, from the natural environment to the artificial environment; from the relationship between human beings and nature to the combination of social ecology in cities, and farmlands. We must learn to develop and control them harmoniously and scientifically to provide a foundation for the methods used in architecture research.

  11. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.


    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at

  13. Assessing the levels of food shortage using the traffic light metaphor by analyzing the gathering and consumption of wild food plants, crop parts and crop residues in Konso, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocho Dechassa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humanitarian relief agencies use scales to assess levels of critical food shortage to efficiently target and allocate food to the neediest. These scales are often labor-intensive. A lesser used approach is assessing gathering and consumption of wild food plants. This gathering per se is not a reliable signal of emerging food stress. However, the gathering and consumption of some specific plant species could be considered markers of food shortage, as it indicates that people are compelled to eat very poor or even health-threatening food. Methods We used the traffic light metaphor to indicate normal (green, alarmingly low (amber and fully depleted (red food supplies and identified these conditions for Konso (Ethiopia on the basis of wild food plants (WFPs, crop parts (crop parts not used for human consumption under normal conditions; CPs and crop residues (CRs being gathered and consumed. Plant specimens were collected for expert identification and deposition in the National Herbarium. Two hundred twenty individual households free-listed WFPs, CPs, and CRs gathered and consumed during times of food stress. Through focus group discussions, the species list from the free-listing that was further enriched through key informants interviews and own field observations was categorized into species used for green, amber and red conditions. Results The study identified 113 WFPs (120 products/food items whose gathering and consumption reflect the three traffic light metaphors: red, amber and green. We identified 25 food items for the red, 30 food items for the amber and 65 food items for the green metaphor. We also obtained reliable information on 21 different products/food items (from 17 crops normally not consumed as food, reflecting the red or amber metaphor and 10 crop residues (from various crops, plus one recycled stuff which are used as emergency foods in the study area clearly indicating the severity of food stress (red metaphor

  14. TEAMS Model Analyzer (United States)

    Tijidjian, Raffi P.


    The TEAMS model analyzer is a supporting tool developed to work with models created with TEAMS (Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System), which was developed by QSI. In an effort to reduce the time spent in the manual process that each TEAMS modeler must perform in the preparation of reporting for model reviews, a new tool has been developed as an aid to models developed in TEAMS. The software allows for the viewing, reporting, and checking of TEAMS models that are checked into the TEAMS model database. The software allows the user to selectively model in a hierarchical tree outline view that displays the components, failure modes, and ports. The reporting features allow the user to quickly gather statistics about the model, and generate an input/output report pertaining to all of the components. Rules can be automatically validated against the model, with a report generated containing resulting inconsistencies. In addition to reducing manual effort, this software also provides an automated process framework for the Verification and Validation (V&V) effort that will follow development of these models. The aid of such an automated tool would have a significant impact on the V&V process.

  15. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner


    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  16. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems (United States)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric


    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  17. Bios data analyzer. (United States)

    Sabelli, H; Sugerman, A; Kovacevic, L; Kauffman, L; Carlson-Sabelli, L; Patel, M; Konecki, J


    The Bios Data Analyzer (BDA) is a set of computer programs (CD-ROM, in Sabelli et al., Bios. A Study of Creation, 2005) for new time series analyses that detects and measures creative phenomena, namely diversification, novelty, complexes, nonrandom complexity. We define a process as creative when its time series displays these properties. They are found in heartbeat interval series, the exemplar of bios .just as turbulence is the exemplar of chaos, in many other empirical series (galactic distributions, meteorological, economic and physiological series), in biotic series generated mathematically by the bipolar feedback, and in stochastic noise, but not in chaotic attractors. Differencing, consecutive recurrence and partial autocorrelation indicate nonrandom causation, thereby distinguishing chaos and bios from random and random walk. Embedding plots distinguish causal creative processes (e.g. bios) that include both simple and complex components of variation from stochastic processes (e.g. Brownian noise) that include only complex components, and from chaotic processes that decay from order to randomness as the number of dimensions is increased. Varying bin and dimensionality show that entropy measures symmetry and variety, and that complexity is associated with asymmetry. Trigonometric transformations measure coexisting opposites in time series and demonstrate bipolar, partial, and uncorrelated opposites in empirical processes and bios, supporting the hypothesis that bios is generated by bipolar feedback, a concept which is at variance with standard concepts of polar and complementary opposites.

  18. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.


    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  19. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  20. Soft Decision Analyzer (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam


    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  1. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time (United States)


    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  2. Analyzing Agricultural Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Li


    Full Text Available There has been little scholarly research on Chinese agriculture’s geographic pattern of agglomeration and its evolutionary mechanisms, which are essential to sustainable development in China. By calculating the barycenter coordinates, the Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and specialization indices for 11 crops during 1981–2012, we analyze the evolutionary pattern and mechanisms of agricultural agglomeration. We argue that the degree of spatial concentration of Chinese planting has been gradually increasing and that regional specialization and diversification have progressively been strengthened. Furthermore, Chinese crop production is moving from the eastern provinces to the central and western provinces. This is in contrast to Chinese manufacturing growth which has continued to be concentrated in the coastal and southeastern regions. In Northeast China, the Sanjiang and Songnen plains have become agricultural clustering regions, and the earlier domination of aquaculture and rice production in Southeast China has gradually decreased. In summary, this paper provides a political economy framework for understanding the regionalization of Chinese agriculture, focusing on the interaction among the objectives, decisionmaking behavior, path dependencies and spatial effects.

  3. Soft Decision Analyzer and Method (United States)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Lansdowne, Chatwin (Inventor); Zucha, Joan P. (Inventor); Schlesinger, Adam M. (Inventor)


    A soft decision analyzer system is operable to interconnect soft decision communication equipment and analyze the operation thereof to detect symbol wise alignment between a test data stream and a reference data stream in a variety of operating conditions.

  4. Analyzing Valuation Practices through Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesnière, Germain; Labatut, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper seeks to analyze the most recent changes in how societies value animals. We analyze this topic through the prism of contracts between breeding companies and farmers. Focusing on new valuation practices and qualification of breeding animals, we question the evaluation of difficult...

  5. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika


    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  6. Fundaments of plant cybernetics. (United States)

    Zucconi, F


    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  7. Development of pulse neutron coal analyzer (United States)

    Jing, Shi-wie; Gu, De-shan; Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Yu-ren; Liu, Lin-mao; Shi-wei, Jing


    This article introduced the development of pulsed neutron coal analyzer by pulse fast-thermal neutron analysis technology in the Radiation Technology Institute of Northeast Normal University. The 14MeV pulse neutron generator and bismuth germanate detector and 4096 multichannel analyzer were applied in this system. The multiple linear regression method employed to process data solved the interferential problem of multiple elements. The prototype (model MZ-MKFY) had been applied in Changshan and Jilin power plant for about a year. The results of measuring the main parameters of coal such as low caloric power, whole total water, ash content, volatile content, and sulfur content, with precision acceptable to the coal industry, are presented.

  8. ANALYZE Users' Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, S.


    This report is a reproduction of the visuals that were used in the ANALYZE Users' Guide lectures of the videotaped LLNL Continuing Education Course CE2018-H, State Space Lectures. The course was given in Spring 1982 through the EE Department Education Office. Since ANALYZE is menu-driven, interactive, and has self-explanatory questions (sort of), these visuals and the two 50-minute videotapes are the only documentation which comes with the code. More information about the algorithms contained in ANALYZE can be obtained from the IEEE book on Programs for Digital Signal Processing.

  9. C2Analyzer:Co-target-Co-function Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Aftabuddin; Chittabrata Mal; Arindam Deb; Sudip Kundu


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with their target mRNAs and regulate biological pro-cesses at post-transcriptional level. While one miRNA can target many mRNAs, a single mRNA can also be targeted by a set of miRNAs. The targeted mRNAs may be involved in different bio-logical processes that are described by gene ontology (GO) terms. The major challenges involved in analyzing these multitude regulations include identification of the combinatorial regulation of miR-NAs as well as determination of the co-functionally-enriched miRNA pairs. The C2Analyzer:Co-target-Co-function Analyzer, is a Perl-based, versatile and user-friendly web tool with online instructions. Based on the hypergeometric analysis, this novel tool can determine whether given pairs of miRNAs are co-functionally enriched. For a given set of GO term(s), it can also identify the set of miRNAs whose targets are enriched in the given GO term(s). Moreover, C2Analyzer can also identify the co-targeting miRNA pairs, their targets and GO processes, which they are involved in. The miRNA-miRNA co-functional relationship can also be saved as a .txt file, which can be used to further visualize the co-functional network by using other software like Cytoscape. C2Analyzer is freely available at

  10. Metodología basada en el Modelo de Referencia para Cadenas de Suministro para Analizar el Proceso de producción de Biodiesel a partir de Higuerilla Methodology based on the Supply Chain Operations Reference Model to Analyze the Production Process of Biodiesel from Castor Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salazar


    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis para la producción de Biodiesel a partir de Higuerilla usando el Modelo de Referencia para Cadenas de Suministro (SCOR. Se identificaron los niveles del proceso, indicadores clave de desempeño, atributos y operaciones logísticas que se llevan a cabo en toda la cadena de la producción de biodiesel de higuerilla. La utilidad de la aplicación del modelo SCOR se determina por la identificación que logra de los componentes de la cadena, evidenciando fortalezas y debilidades que presenta en las relaciones externas e internas de la logística. Desde esta perspectiva se observó que la aplicación del modelo SCOR hace más eficiente las operaciones logísticas a lo largo de la cadena.The production process of Biodiesel from castor oil plants is analyzed using the Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR. The different levels of the process, the key performance indicators, the attributes and the logistic operations carried out throughout the chain were analyzed. The usefulness of applying the SCOR model is determined by the identification of the components of the chain, highlighting strengths and weaknesses of external and internal relations of the logistics. From this perspective it was observed that the implementation of the SCOR model makes more efficient the logistics operations through the whole chain.

  11. Determination nitrogen in the Kjeldahl digests of plant samples by continuous flow analyzer in comparison with auto-mated distillation-titration instrument%连续流动分析仪与自动凯氏定氮仪测定小麦秸秆全氮含量之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温云杰; 李桂花; 黄金莉; 刘云霞; 高翔; 汪洪


    凯氏定氮法是测定植株全氮含量的经典方法,但费时费力。选择24个小麦秸秆样品,用浓 H2 SO4-H2 O2消煮,分别利用连续流动分析仪与全自动凯氏定氮仪测定消煮液中氮含量,比较了两种方法测定结果,探讨利用连续流动分析仪测定植株样品全氮含量的可行性。结果表明:两种仪器测定的小麦秸秆中全氮含量无明显差异,彼此间呈显著线性相关,回归直线方程为Y (连续流动分析仪-N)=0.892X (凯氏蒸馏滴定-N)+0.753,相关系数r=0.9421(n=24, P<0.01)。连续流动分析仪测定的回收率在96.6%~102.3%之间,对5个样品消煮液中氮浓度分别重复测定5次,相对标准偏差在5%以下。连续流动分析仪分析速度快,消耗试剂少,可用于大批量H2 SO4-H2 O2消煮的植株样品中全氮含量分析。研究结果为采用连续流动分析仪测定植株全氮含量提供了技术依据。%Kjeldahl distillation-titration has been used as a reference method for N determination in plants, but it is time consu-ming. This article aimed at establishing a time saving method for determining of plant N concentrations by continuous flow ana-lyzer ( CFA) . Twenty four of wheat plant samples were selected and digested with H2 SO4-H2 O2 . N contents in the digests were determined by CFA and an automated Kjeldahl distillation-titration ( AKDT) instrument, respectively. The test showed that there was no any significant difference of the plant N contents measured by the CFA and the AKDT method. A linear rela-tionship best described the measured N values generated by both methods: CFA-N=0. 892 AKDT-N +0. 753. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0. 942 1 with a significance level (n=24, P<0. 01). The CFA method for plant N measurement had a high precision with relative standard deviation less than 5%. The standard recovery rate of feed samples with addition of ( NH4 ) 2 SO4 was 96. 6% ~102. 3%. It suggested that the CFA based on

  12. On-Demand Urine Analyzer (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan


    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  13. Analyzing the Grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Teschner, Richard V


    Analyzing the Grammar of English offers a descriptive analysis of the indispensable elements of English grammar. Designed to be covered in one semester, this textbook starts from scratch and takes nothing for granted beyond a reading and speaking knowledge of English. Extensively revised to function better in skills-building classes, it includes more interspersed exercises that promptly test what is taught, simplified and clarified explanations, greatly expanded and more diverse activities, and a new glossary of over 200 technical terms.Analyzing the Grammar of English is the only English gram

  14. An update on chemistry analyzers. (United States)

    Vap, L M; Mitzner, B


    This update of six chemistry analyzers available to the clinician discusses several points that should be considered prior to the purchase of equipment. General topics include how to best match an instrument to clinic needs and the indirect costs associated with instrument operation. Quality assurance recommendations are discussed and common terms are defined. Specific instrument features, principles of operation, performance, and costs are presented. The information provided offers potential purchasers an objective approach to the evaluation of a chemistry analyzer for the veterinary clinic.

  15. Strategies for Analyzing Tone Languages (United States)

    Coupe, Alexander R.


    This paper outlines a method of auditory and acoustic analysis for determining the tonemes of a language starting from scratch, drawing on the author's experience of recording and analyzing tone languages of north-east India. The methodology is applied to a preliminary analysis of tone in the Thang dialect of Khiamniungan, a virtually undocumented…

  16. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.


    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  17. FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer (United States)

    Merwarth, P.


    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP (DEC VAX version), automatically gathers statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program and provides reports of those statistics. Provisions made for weighting each statistic and provide an overall figure of complexity.

  18. Analyzing Classroom Instruction in Reading. (United States)

    Rutherford, William L.

    A method for analyzing instructional techniques employed during reading group instruction is reported, and the characteristics of the effective reading teacher are discussed. Teaching effectiveness is divided into two categories: (1) how the teacher acts and interacts with children on a personal level and (2) how the teacher performs his…

  19. Analyzing Software Piracy in Education. (United States)

    Lesisko, Lee James

    This study analyzes the controversy of software piracy in education. It begins with a real world scenario that presents the setting and context of the problem. The legalities and background of software piracy are explained and true court cases are briefly examined. Discussion then focuses on explaining why individuals and organizations pirate…

  20. Introduction: why analyze single cells? (United States)

    Di Carlo, Dino; Tse, Henry Tat Kwong; Gossett, Daniel R


    Powerful methods in molecular biology are abundant; however, in many fields including hematology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and cancer biology, data from tools and assays that analyze the average signals from many cells may not yield the desired result because the cells of interest may be in the minority-their behavior masked by the majority-or because the dynamics of the populations of interest are offset in time. Accurate characterization of samples with high cellular heterogeneity may only be achieved by analyzing single cells. In this chapter, we discuss the rationale for performing analyses on individual cells in more depth, cover the fields of study in which single-cell behavior is yielding new insights into biological and clinical questions, and speculate on how single-cell analysis will be critical in the future.

  1. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa; [Ukendt], editors


    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  2. Analyzing viewpoint diversity in twitter



    Information diversity has a long tradition in human history. Recently there have been claims that diversity is diminishing in information available in social networks. On the other hand, some studies suggest that diversity is actually quite high in social networks such as Twitter. However these studies only focus on the concept of source diversity and they only focus on American users. In this paper we analyze different dimensions of diversity. We also provide an experimental design in which ...

  3. Analyzing ion distributions around DNA. (United States)

    Lavery, Richard; Maddocks, John H; Pasi, Marco; Zakrzewska, Krystyna


    We present a new method for analyzing ion, or molecule, distributions around helical nucleic acids and illustrate the approach by analyzing data derived from molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis is based on the use of curvilinear helicoidal coordinates and leads to highly localized ion densities compared to those obtained by simply superposing molecular dynamics snapshots in Cartesian space. The results identify highly populated and sequence-dependent regions where ions strongly interact with the nucleic and are coupled to its conformational fluctuations. The data from this approach is presented as ion populations or ion densities (in units of molarity) and can be analyzed in radial, angular and longitudinal coordinates using 1D or 2D graphics. It is also possible to regenerate 3D densities in Cartesian space. This approach makes it easy to understand and compare ion distributions and also allows the calculation of average ion populations in any desired zone surrounding a nucleic acid without requiring references to its constituent atoms. The method is illustrated using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations for two different DNA oligomers in the presence of 0.15 M potassium chloride. We discuss the results in terms of convergence, sequence-specific ion binding and coupling with DNA conformation.

  4. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael


    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified "off-the-shelf" classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a "hot cell" (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  5. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Jak, Suzanne


    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists—and probably the most crucial one—is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study. PMID:27242639

  6. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach. (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne


    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  7. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung


    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  8. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer (United States)

    Iceland, Charles


    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  9. Method for analyzing microbial communities (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong [Oak Ridge, TN; Wu, Liyou [Oak Ridge, TN


    The present invention provides a method for quantitatively analyzing microbial genes, species, or strains in a sample that contains at least two species or strains of microorganisms. The method involves using an isothermal DNA polymerase to randomly and representatively amplify genomic DNA of the microorganisms in the sample, hybridizing the resultant polynucleotide amplification product to a polynucleotide microarray that can differentiate different genes, species, or strains of microorganisms of interest, and measuring hybridization signals on the microarray to quantify the genes, species, or strains of interest.

  10. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)


    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  11. Thermal and evolved gas analyzer (United States)

    Williams, M. S.; Boynton, W. V.; James, R. L.; Verts, W. T.; Bailey, S. H.; Hamara, D. K.


    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument will perform calorimetry and evolved gas analysis on soil samples collected from the Martian surface. TEGA is one of three instruments, along with a robotic arm, that form the Mars Volatile and Climate Survey (MVACS) payload. The other instruments are a stereo surface imager, built by Peter Smith of the University of Arizona and a meteorological station, built by JPL. The MVACS lander will investigate a Martian landing site at approximately 70 deg south latitude. Launch will take place from Kennedy Space Center in January, 1999. The TEGA project started in February, 1996. In the intervening 24 months, a flight instrument concept has been designed, prototyped, built as an engineering model and flight model, and tested. The instrument performs laboratory-quality differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC) over the temperature range of Mars ambient to 1400K. Low-temperature volatiles (water and carbon dioxide ices) and the carbonates will be analyzed in this temperature range. Carbonates melt and evolve carbon dioxide at temperatures above 600 C. Evolved oxygen (down to a concentration of 1 ppm) is detected, and C02 and water vapor and the isotopic variations of C02 and water vapor are detected and their concentrations measured. The isotopic composition provides important tests of the theory of solar system formation.

  12. VOSA: A VO SED Analyzer (United States)

    Rodrigo, C.; Bayo, A.; Solano, E.


    VOSA (VO Sed Analyzer, is a public web-tool developed by the Spanish Virtual Observatory ( and designed to help users to (1) build Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) combining private photometric measurements with data available in VO services, (2) obtain relevant properties of these objects (distance, extinction, etc) from VO catalogs, (3) analyze them comparing observed photometry with synthetic photometry from different collections of theoretical models or observational templates, using different techniques (chi-square minimization, Bayesian analysis) to estimate physical parameters of the observed objects (teff, logg, metallicity, stellar radius/distance ratio, infrared excess, etc), and use these results to (4) estimate masses and ages via interpolation of collections of isochrones and evolutionary tracks from the VO. In particular, VOSA offers the advantage of deriving physical parameters using all the available photometric information instead of a restricted subset of colors. The results can be downloaded in different formats or sent to other VO tools using SAMP. We have upgraded VOSA to provide access to Gaia photometry and give a homogeneous estimation of the physical parameters of thousands of objects at a time. This upgrade has required the implementation of a new computation paradigm, including a distributed environment, the capability of submitting and processing jobs in an asynchronous way, the use of parallelized computing to speed up processes (˜ ten times faster) and a new design of the web interface.

  13. Coaxial charged particle energy analyzer (United States)

    Kelly, Michael A. (Inventor); Bryson, III, Charles E. (Inventor); Wu, Warren (Inventor)


    A non-dispersive electrostatic energy analyzer for electrons and other charged particles having a generally coaxial structure of a sequentially arranged sections of an electrostatic lens to focus the beam through an iris and preferably including an ellipsoidally shaped input grid for collimating a wide acceptance beam from a charged-particle source, an electrostatic high-pass filter including a planar exit grid, and an electrostatic low-pass filter. The low-pass filter is configured to reflect low-energy particles back towards a charged particle detector located within the low-pass filter. Each section comprises multiple tubular or conical electrodes arranged about the central axis. The voltages on the lens are scanned to place a selected energy band of the accepted beam at a selected energy at the iris. Voltages on the high-pass and low-pass filters remain substantially fixed during the scan.

  14. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry


    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  15. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael


    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  16. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang


    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  17. Thomson parabola ion energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobble, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mastrosimone, Dino [UNIV OF ROCHESTER


    A new, versatile Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) analyzer has been designed and constructed for use at the OMEGA-EP facility. Multi-MeV ions from EP targets are transmitted through a W pinhole into a (5- or 8-kG) magnetic field and subsequently through a parallel electric field of up to 30 kV/cm. The ion drift region may have a user-selected length of 10, 50, or 80 cm. With the highest fields, 500-Me V C{sup 6+} and C{sup 5+} may be resolved. TPIE is TIM-mounted at OMEGA-EP and is qualified in all existing TIMs. The instrument runs on pressure-interlocked 15-VDC power available in EP TIM carts. It may be inserted to within several inches of the target to attain sufficient flux for a measurement. For additional flux control, the user may select a square-aperture W pinhole of 0.004-inch or 0.010-inch. The detector consists of CR-39 backed by an image plate. The fully relativistic design code and design features are discussed. Ion spectral results from first use at OMEGA-EP are expected.

  18. Objects in Films: analyzing signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAMBARATO, Renira Rampazzo


    Full Text Available The focus of this essay is the analysis of daily objects as signs in films. Objects from everyday life acquire several functions in films: they can be solely used as scene objects or to support a particular film style. Other objects are specially chosen to translate a character’s interior state of mind or the filmmaker’s aesthetical or ethical commitment to narrative concepts. In order to understand such functions and commitments, we developed a methodology for film analysis which focuses on the objects. Object interpretation, as the starting point of film analysis, is not a new approach. For instance, French film critic André Bazin proposed that use of object interpretation in the 1950s. Similarly, German film theorist Siegfried Kracauer stated it in the 1960s. However, there is currently no existing analytical model to use when engaging in object interpretation in film. This methodology searches for the most representative objects in films which involves both quantitative and qualitative analysis; we consider the number of times each object appears in a film (quantitative analysis as well as the context of their appearance, i.e. the type of shot used and how that creates either a larger or smaller relevance and/or expressiveness (qualitative analysis. In addition to the criteria of relevance and expressiveness, we also analyze the functionality of an object by exploring details and specifying the role various objects play in films. This research was developed at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada and was supported by the Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada (DFAIT.

  19. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger


    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  20. Pathogen Phytosensing: Plants to Report Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal Stewart


    Full Text Available Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different

  1. Adaptation of thermal power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.


    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate

  2. [Quality control of plant extract]. (United States)

    Shao, Yun-dong; Gao, Wen-yuan; Liu, Dan; Jia, Wei; Duan, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Tie-jun


    The current situation of plant extract in domestic and international market was analyzed in the paper. The quality control of 20 plant extracts which have reasonably good sales in USA market was compared and analyzed. The analysis of the quality control of six plant extracts indicated that there were two main reasons leading to the varied quality specifications among different suppliers. One reason was that the plant species utilized by different companies were different. The other reason was that the extraction processes were different among different production plants. Comparing with the significant international suppliers of plant extracts, the product quality of Chinese companies were not satisfactory. It was suggested that chromatography and chromatographic fingerprint techniques should be applied to improve the quality control standard of plant extract in our country.

  3. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...

  4. Fuzzy Based Auto-coagulation Control Through Photometric Dispersion Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桦; 李圭白


    The main role of water treatment plants is to supply high-quality safe drinking water. Coagulation is one of the most important stages of surface water treatment. The photometric dispersion analyzer(PDA) is a new optical method for flocculation monitoring, and is feasible to realize coagulation feedback control. The on line modification of the coagulation control system' s set point( or optimum dosing coagulant) has influenced the application of this technology in water treatment plant for a long time. A fuzzy control system incorporating the photometric dispersion analyzer was utilized in this coagulation control system. Proposed is a fuzzy logic inference control system by using Takagi and Sugeno' s fuzzy if-then rule for the self-correction of set point on line. Programmed is the dosing rate fuzzy control system in SIEMENS small-scale programmable logic controller. A 400 L/min middle-scale water treatment plant was utilized to simulate the reaction. With the changes of raw water quality, the set point was modified correctly in time, as well as coagulant dosing rate, and residual turbility before filtration was eligible and stable. Results show that this fuzzy inference and control system performs well on the coagulation control system through PDA.

  5. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China starts to produce vegetables and fruits in a factory sunshine,air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axiomatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory,scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent,such as deserts, islands,water surfaces,South and North poles and space,as well as in human habitats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  6. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Sunshine, air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axi-omatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory, scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent, such as deserts,islands, water surfaces, South and North poles and space, as well as in human habi-tats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  7. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.


    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  8. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study]. (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang


    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study.

  9. Medicinal Plants. (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David


    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Miller


    Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and several eastern coal companies have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

  11. Electrical spectrum & network analyzers a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helfrick, Albert D


    This book presents fundamentals and the latest techniques of electrical spectrum analysis. It focuses on instruments and techniques used on spectrum and network analysis, rather than theory. The book covers the use of spectrum analyzers, tracking generators, and network analyzers. Filled with practical examples, the book presents techniques that are widely used in signal processing and communications applications, yet are difficult to find in most literature.Key Features* Presents numerous practical examples, including actual spectrum analyzer circuits* Instruction on how to us

  12. Designing of Acousto-optic Spectrum Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dan-zhi; SHAO Ding-rong; LI Shu-jian


    The structure of the acousto-optic spectrum analyzer was investigated including the RF amplifying circuit, the optical structures and the postprocessing circuit, and the design idea of the module was applied to design the spectrum analyzer. The modularization spectrum analyzer takes on the performance stabilization and higher reliability, and according to different demands, the different modules can be used. The spectrum analyzer had such performances as the detecting frequency error of 0.58MHz,detecting responsivity of 90 dBm and bandwidth of 50 Mhz.

  13. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum


    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  14. Autoluminescent plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krichevsky

    Full Text Available Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  15. Plant volatiles. (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T


    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  16. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng


    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social...... has much to offer in analyzing the policy process....

  17. Performance evaluation of PL-11 platelet analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To evaluate and report the performance of PL-11 platelet analyzer. Methods Intravenous blood sam-ples anticoagulated with EDTA-K2 and sodium citrate were tested by the PL-11 platelet analyzer to evaluate the intra-assay and interassay coefficient of variation(CV),

  18. Analyzing metabolomics-based challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jacobs, D.M.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Wopereis, S.; Ommen, van B.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.


    Challenge tests are used to assess the resilience of human beings to perturbations by analyzing responses to detect functional abnormalities. Well known examples are allergy tests and glucose tolerance tests. Increasingly, metabolomics analysis of blood or serum samples is used to analyze the biolog

  19. Towards Multi Fuel SOFC Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Bang-Møller, Christian


    Complete Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) plants fed by several different fuels are suggested and analyzed. The plants sizes are about 10 kW which is suitable for single family house with needs for both electricity and heat. Alternative fuels such as, methanol, DME (Di-Methyl Ether) and ethanol...... are also considered and the results will be compared with the base plant fed by Natural Gas (NG). A single plant design will be suggested that can be fed with methanol, DME and ethanol whenever these fuels are available. It will be shown that the plant fed by ethanol will have slightly higher electrical...... efficiency compared with other fuels. A methanator will be suggested to be included into the plants design in order to produce methane from the fuel before entering the anode side of the SOFC stacks. Increasing methane content will decrease the needed compressor effect and thereby increase the plant power....

  20. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators]. (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina


    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  1. Analyzing machine noise for real time maintenance (United States)

    Yamato, Yoji; Fukumoto, Yoshifumi; Kumazaki, Hiroki


    Recently, IoT technologies have been progressed and applications of maintenance area are expected. However, IoT maintenance applications are not spread in Japan yet because of one-off solution of sensing and analyzing for each case, high cost to collect sensing data and insufficient maintenance automation. This paper proposes a maintenance platform which analyzes sound data in edges, analyzes only anomaly data in cloud and orders maintenance automatically to resolve existing technology problems. We also implement a sample application and compare related work.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ran; Shan Tao; Zhou Siyong; Wang Yue


    The phenomenon of frequency ambiguity may appear in radar or communication systems. S. Barbarossa(1991) had unwrapped the frequency ambiguity of single component undersampled signals by Wigner-Ville distribution(WVD). But there has no any effective algorithm to analyze multicomponent undersampled signals by now. A new algorithm to analyze multicomponent undersampled signals by high-order ambiguity function (HAF) is proposed hera HAF analyzes polynomial phase signals by the method of phase rank reduction, its advantage is that it does not have boundary effect and is not sensitive to the cross-items of multicomponent signals.The simulation results prove the effectiveness of HAF algorithm.

  3. A method for analyzing strategic product launch


    XIAO Junji


    This paper proposes a method to analyze how the manufacturers make product launch decisions in a multi-product oligopoly market, and how the heterogeneity in their products affects the manufacturers' decisions on model launch and withdrawal.

  4. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed program through Phase III is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation. It will be...

  5. On-Demand Urine Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer that can be integrated into International Space Station (ISS) toilets to measure key...

  6. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  7. Ultrasensitive Atmospheric Analyzer for Miniature UAVs Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for quantification of water vapor...

  8. Network analysis using organizational risk analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The tool system of the organizational risk analyzer (ORA) to study the network of East Turkistan terrorists is selected. The model of the relationships among its personnel, knowledge, resources and task entities is represented by the meta-matrix in ORA, with which to analyze the risks and vulnerabilities of organizational structure quantitatively, and obtain the last vulnerabilities and risks of the organization. Case study in this system shows that it should be a shortcut to destroy effectively the network...

  9. Analyzing storage media of digital camera


    Chow, KP; Tse, KWH; Law, FYW; Ieong, RSC; Kwan, MYK; Tse, H.; Lai, PKY


    Digital photography has become popular in recent years. Photographs have become common tools for people to record every tiny parts of their daily life. By analyzing the storage media of a digital camera, crime investigators may extract a lot of useful information to reconstruct the events. In this work, we will discuss a few approaches in analyzing these kinds of storage media of digital cameras. A hypothetical crime case will be used as case study for demonstration of concepts. © 2009 IEEE.

  10. The Information Flow Analyzing Based on CPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhang; LI Hui


    The information flow chart within product life cycle is given out based on collaborative production commerce (CPC) thoughts. In this chart, the separated information systems are integrated by means of enterprise knowledge assets that are promoted by CPC from production knowledge. The information flow in R&D process is analyzed in the environment of virtual R&D group and distributed PDM. In addition, the information flow throughout the manufacturing and marketing process is analyzed in CPC environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Hahanov


    Full Text Available Qubit models and methods for improving the performance of software and hardware for analyzing digital devices through increasing the dimension of the data structures and memory are proposed. The basic concepts, terminology and definitions necessary for the implementation of quantum computing when analyzing virtual computers are introduced. The investigation results concerning design and modeling computer systems in a cyberspace based on the use of two-component structure are presented.

  12. Analyte comparisons between 2 clinical chemistry analyzers.


    Sutton, A; Dawson, H; Hoff, B; Grift, E; Shoukri, M


    The purpose of this study was to assess agreement between a wet reagent and a dry reagent analyzer. Thirteen analytes (albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, potassium, total bilirubin, and total protein) for both canine and feline serum were evaluated. Concordance correlations, linear regression, and plots of difference against mean were used to analyze the data. Concordance correlations were excel...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Miller; C.L. Lin; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; Barbara Marin


    Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on- line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and U.S. coal producers have joined with the University of Utah and to undertake the development of an X-ray CT-based on- line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. Each project participant brought special expertise to the project in order to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Data collected to date suggest that this new technology is capable of serving as a universal analyzer that can not only provide washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis, and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

  14. Analyzing visual signals as visual scenes. (United States)

    Allen, William L; Higham, James P


    The study of visual signal design is gaining momentum as techniques for studying signals become more sophisticated and more freely available. In this paper we discuss methods for analyzing the color and form of visual signals, for integrating signal components into visual scenes, and for producing visual signal stimuli for use in psychophysical experiments. Our recommended methods aim to be rigorous, detailed, quantitative, objective, and where possible based on the perceptual representation of the intended signal receiver(s). As methods for analyzing signal color and luminance have been outlined in previous publications we focus on analyzing form information by discussing how statistical shape analysis (SSA) methods can be used to analyze signal shape, and spatial filtering to analyze repetitive patterns. We also suggest the use of vector-based approaches for integrating multiple signal components. In our opinion elliptical Fourier analysis (EFA) is the most promising technique for shape quantification but we await the results of empirical comparison of techniques and the development of new shape analysis methods based on the cognitive and perceptual representations of receivers. Our manuscript should serve as an introductory guide to those interested in measuring visual signals, and while our examples focus on primate signals, the methods are applicable to quantifying visual signals in most taxa.

  15. Plant Behavior (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.


    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  16. Plant minichromosomes. (United States)

    Birchler, James A; Graham, Nathaniel D; Swyers, Nathan C; Cody, Jon P; McCaw, Morgan E


    Plant minichromosomes have the potential for stacking multiple traits on a separate entity from the remainder of the genome. Transgenes carried on an independent chromosome would facilitate conferring many new properties to plants and using minichromosomes as genetic tools. The favored method for producing plant minichromosomes is telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation because the epigenetic nature of centromere function prevents using centromere sequences to confer the ability to organize a kinetochore when reintroduced into plant cells. Because haploid induction procedures are not always complete in eliminating one parental genome, chromosomes from the inducer lines are often present in plants that are otherwise haploid. This fact suggests that minichromosomes could be combined with doubled haploid breeding to transfer stacked traits more easily to multiple lines and to use minichromosomes for massive scale genome editing.

  17. A resource-efficient adaptive Fourier analyzer (United States)

    Hajdu, C. F.; Zamantzas, C.; Dabóczi, T.


    We present a resource-efficient frequency adaptation method to complement the Fourier analyzer proposed by Péceli. The novel frequency adaptation scheme is based on the adaptive Fourier analyzer suggested by Nagy. The frequency adaptation method was elaborated with a view to realizing a detector connectivity check on an FPGA in a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system, currently being developed for beam setup and machine protection of the particle accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The paper summarizes the Fourier analyzer to the extent relevant to this work and the basic principle of the related frequency adaptation methods. It then outlines the suggested new scheme, presents practical considerations for implementing it and underpins it with an example and the corresponding operational experience.

  18. Detecting influenza outbreaks by analyzing Twitter messages

    CERN Document Server

    Culotta, Aron


    We analyze over 500 million Twitter messages from an eight month period and find that tracking a small number of flu-related keywords allows us to forecast future influenza rates with high accuracy, obtaining a 95% correlation with national health statistics. We then analyze the robustness of this approach to spurious keyword matches, and we propose a document classification component to filter these misleading messages. We find that this document classifier can reduce error rates by over half in simulated false alarm experiments, though more research is needed to develop methods that are robust in cases of extremely high noise.

  19. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  20. GSM Trace Quality Analyzer (TQA) software


    Blanchart Forne, Marc


    Connectivity is now the must-have service for enhancing passenger experience. To proof and also to show to the customers the quality of the connectivity system an user friendly mock-up has to be designed. A packet analyzer software designed to validate an existing SATCOM simulator and to improve future airline architecture networks.

  1. Imaging thermal plasma mass and velocity analyzer (United States)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew


    We present the design and principle of operation of the imaging ion mass and velocity analyzer on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP), which measures low-energy (1-90 eV/e) ion mass composition (1-40 AMU/e) and velocity distributions using a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA), a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, and a pair of toroidal electrostatic deflectors (TED). The HEA and TOF gate measure the energy-per-charge and azimuth of each detected ion and the ion transit time inside the analyzer, respectively, providing the 2-D velocity distribution of each major ionospheric ion species and resolving the minor ion species under favorable conditions. The TED are in front of the TOF gate and optionally sample ions at different elevation angles up to ±60°, for measurement of 3-D velocity distribution. We present examples of observation data to illustrate the measurement capability of the analyzer, and show the occurrence of enhanced densities of heavy "minor" O++, N+, and molecular ions and intermittent, high-velocity (a few km/s) upward and downward flowing H+ ions in localized regions of the quiet time topside high-latitude ionosphere.

  2. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert


    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  3. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration (United States)


    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network? (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  5. Analyzing computer system performance with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Gunther, Neil J


    This expanded second edition of Analyzing Computer System Performance with Perl::PDQ, builds on the success of the first edition. It contains new chapters on queues, tools and virtualization, and new Perl listing format to aid readability of PDQ models.

  6. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.


    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  7. Analyzing the Control Structure of PEPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    to PEPA programs, the approximating result is very precise. Based on the analysis, we also develop algorithms for validating the deadlock property of PEPA programs. The techniques have been implemented in a tool which is able to analyze processes with a control structure that more than one thousand states....

  8. Analyzing the Information Economy: Tools and Techniques. (United States)

    Robinson, Sherman


    Examines methodologies underlying studies which measure the information economy and considers their applicability and limitations for analyzing policy issues concerning libraries and library networks. Two studies provide major focus for discussion: Porat's "The Information Economy: Definition and Measurement" and Machlup's "Production and…

  9. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level


    Tong, Wei


    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology,...

  10. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers (United States)

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos


    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  11. Analyzing Languages for Specific Purposes Discourse (United States)

    Bowles, Hugo


    In the last 20 years, technological advancement and increased multidisciplinarity has expanded the range of data regarded as within the scope of languages for specific purposes (LSP) research and the means by which they can be analyzed. As a result, the analytical work of LSP researchers has developed from a narrow focus on specialist terminology…

  12. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der


    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime sa

  13. 40 CFR 90.313 - Analyzers required. (United States)


    ... ionization (HFID) type. For constant volume sampling, the hydrocarbon analyzer may be of the flame ionization (FID) type or of the heated flame ionization (HFID) type. (ii) For the HFID system, if the temperature... drying. Chemical dryers are not an acceptable method of removing water from the sample. Water removal...

  14. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds (United States)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.


    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  15. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert


    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  16. Seed planting (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  17. T Plant (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  18. Plant Macrofossils (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  19. Simulation of a Hyperbolic Field Energy Analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Lizardo, Angel


    Energy analyzers are important plasma diagnostic tools with applications in a broad range of disciplines including molecular spectroscopy, electron microscopy, basic plasma physics, plasma etching, plasma processing, and ion sputtering technology. The Hyperbolic Field Energy Analyzer (HFEA) is a novel device able to determine ion and electron energy spectra and temperatures. The HFEA is well suited for ion temperature and density diagnostics at those situations where ions are scarce. A simulation of the capacities of the HFEA to discriminate particles of a particular energy level, as well as to determine temperature and density is performed in this work. The electric field due the combination of the conical elements, collimator lens, and Faraday cup applied voltage was computed in a well suited three-dimensional grid. The field is later used to compute the trajectory of a set of particles with a predetermined energy distribution. The results include the observation of the particle trajectories inside the sens...

  20. Operating System Performance Analyzer for Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzada Khayyam Nisar


    Full Text Available RTOS provides a number of services to an embedded system designs such as case management, memory management, and Resource Management to build a program. Choosing the best OS for an embedded system is based on the available OS for system designers and their previous knowledge and experience. This can cause an imbalance between the OS and embedded systems. RTOS performance analysis is critical in the design and integration of embedded software to ensure that limits the application meet at runtime. To select an appropriate operating system for an embedded system for a particular application, the OS services to be analyzed. These OS services are identified by parameters to establish performance metrics. Performance Metrics selected include context switching, Preemption time and interrupt latency. Performance Metrics are analyzed to choose the right OS for an embedded system for a particular application.

  1. CRIE: An automated analyzer for Chinese texts. (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Kuo-En


    Textual analysis has been applied to various fields, such as discourse analysis, corpus studies, text leveling, and automated essay evaluation. Several tools have been developed for analyzing texts written in alphabetic languages such as English and Spanish. However, currently there is no tool available for analyzing Chinese-language texts. This article introduces a tool for the automated analysis of simplified and traditional Chinese texts, called the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Composed of four subsystems and incorporating 82 multilevel linguistic features, CRIE is able to conduct the major tasks of segmentation, syntactic parsing, and feature extraction. Furthermore, the integration of linguistic features with machine learning models enables CRIE to provide leveling and diagnostic information for texts in language arts, texts for learning Chinese as a foreign language, and texts with domain knowledge. The usage and validation of the functions provided by CRIE are also introduced.

  2. Raman Gas Analyzer (RGA): Natural Gas Measurements. (United States)

    Petrov, Dmitry V; Matrosov, Ivan I


    In the present work, an improved model of the Raman gas analyzer (RGA) of natural gas (NG) developed by us is described together with its operating principle. The sensitivity has been improved and the number of measurable gases has been expanded. Results of its approbation on a real NG sample are presented for different measurement times. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of chromatographic analysis demonstrates their good agreement. The time stability of the results obtained using this model is analyzed. It is experimentally established that the given RGA can reliably determine the content of all molecular NG components whose content exceeds 0.005% for 100 s; moreover, in this case the limiting sensitivity for some NG components is equal to 0.002%.

  3. Methods of analyzing composition of aerosol particles (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T.A.


    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  4. An improved prism energy analyzer for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, J., E-mail: [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Ott, F. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, Bât 563 CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Krist, Th. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)


    The effects of two improvements of an existing neutron energy analyzer consisting of stacked silicon prism rows are presented. First we tested the effect of coating the back of the prism rows with an absorbing layer to suppress neutron scattering by total reflection and by refraction at small angles. Experiments at HZB showed that this works perfectly. Second the prism rows were bent to shift the transmitted wavelength band to larger wavelengths. At HZB we showed that bending increased the transmission of neutrons with a wavelength of 4.9 Å. Experiments with a white beam at the EROS reflectometer at LLB showed that bending of the energy analyzing device to a radius of 7.9 m allows to shift the transmitted wavelength band from 0 to 9 Å to 2 to 16 Å.

  5. The EPOS Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer evaluated. (United States)

    Moses, G C; Lightle, G O; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R


    We evaluated the analytical performance of the EPOS (Eppendorf Patient Oriented System) Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer, using the following tests for serum analytes: alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and glucose. Results from the EPOS correlated well with those from comparison instruments (r greater than or equal to 0.990). Precision and linearity limits were excellent for all tests; linearity of the optical and pipetting systems was satisfactory. Reagent carryover was negligible. Sample-to-sample carryover was less than 1% for all tests, but only lactate dehydrogenase was less than the manufacturer's specified 0.5%. Volumes aspirated and dispensed by the sample and reagent II pipetting systems differed significantly from preset values, especially at lower settings; the reagent I system was satisfactory at all volumes tested. Minimal daily maintenance and an external data-reduction system make the EPOS a practical alternative to other bench-top chemistry analyzers.

  6. The analyzing of Dove marketing strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo; Yaohui


    <正>1.Introduction In this report,I try to analyze the related information about DOVE chocolate.Firstly,I would like to introduce this product.Dove chocolate is one of a series of products launched by the world’s largest pet food and snack food manufacturers,U.S.multinational food company Mars(Mars).Entered China in 1989,It becomes China’s leading brand of chocolate in

  7. LEGAL-EASE:Analyzing Chinese Financial Statements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this article,we will focus on under- standing and analyzing the typical accounts of Chinese financial statements,including the balance sheet and income statement. Accounts are generally incorrectly prepared. This can be due to several factors,incom- petence,as well as more serious cases of deliberate attempts to deceive.Regardless, accounts can be understood and errors or specific acts of misrepresentation uncovered. We will conduct some simple analysis to demonstrate how these can be spotted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zobnin


    Full Text Available The large part of the Russian National Corpus has automatic morphological markup. It is based on the morphological analyzer Mystem developed in Yandex with some postprocessing of the results (for example, all indeclinable nouns acquire the tag '0', verbs are divided into separate paradigms by aspect, etc.. Recently a new (third version of Mystem has been released (see  In this article we give an overview of its capabilities.

  9. Coordinating, Scheduling, Processing and Analyzing IYA09 (United States)

    Gipson, John; Behrend, Dirk; Gordon, David; Himwich, Ed; MacMillan, Dan; Titus, Mike; Corey, Brian


    The IVS scheduled a special astrometric VLBI session for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA09) commemorating 400 years of optical astronomy and 40 years of VLBI. The IYA09 session is the most ambitious geodetic session to date in terms of network size, number of sources, and number of observations. We describe the process of designing, coordinating, scheduling, pre-session station checkout, correlating, and analyzing this session.

  10. Organization theory. Analyzing health care organizations. (United States)

    Cors, W K


    Organization theory (OT) is a tool that can be applied to analyze and understand health care organizations. Transaction cost theory is used to explain, in a unifying fashion, the myriad changes being undertaken by different groups of constituencies in health care. Agency theory is applied to aligning economic incentives needed to ensure Integrated Delivery System (IDS) success. By using tools such as OT, a clearer understanding of organizational changes is possible.

  11. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur


    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  12. Miles Technicon H.2 automated hematology analyzer. (United States)


    Automated hematology analyzers are used in all large hospitals and most commercial laboratories, as well as in most smaller hospitals and laboratories, to perform complete blood counts (including white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts; hemoglobin concentration; and RBC indices) and white blood cell differential counts. Our objectives in this study are to provide user guidance for selecting, purchasing, and using an automated hematology analyzer, as well as to present an overview of the technology used in an automated five-part differential unit. Specifications for additional automated units are available in ECRI's Clinical Laboratory Product Comparison System. We evaluated the Miles Technicon H.2 unit and rated it Acceptable. The information in this Single Product Evaluation is also useful for purchasing other models; our criteria will guide users in assessing components, and our findings and discussions on some aspects of automated hematology testing are common to many available systems. We caution readers not to base purchasing decisions on our rating of the Miles unit alone, but on a thorough understanding of the issues surrounding automated hematology analyzers, which can be gained only by reading this report in its entirety. The willingness of manufacturers to cooperate in our studies and the knowledge they gain through participating lead to the development of better products. Readers should refer to the Guidance Section, "Selecting and Purchasing an Automated Hematology Analyzer," where we discuss factors such as standardization, training, human factors, manufacturer support, patient population, and special features that the laboratory must consider before obtaining any automated unit; we also provide an in-depth review of cost issues, including life-cycle cost analyses, acquisition methods and costs of hardware and supplies, and we describe the Hemacost and Hemexmpt cost worksheets for use with our PresValu and PSV Manager CAHDModel software

  13. Analyzing Maize Anther Development Using Transposons (United States)

    Han, S.


    Over the summer, we tackled two projects in studying more about transposons (moving/jumping genes) such as Mutator genes in corn for this project, and how the plants switch from the stages of mitosis to meiosis without a germ line. We use a transgenic corn line containing RescueMu (an artificial Mutator containing a plasmid in it), so we can keep track of the insertion events. This is a long term project so we haven't come to any final conclusions or results with tracking what happens in Mutator transposition during different stages of corn development but our process shows to work so we continue with what we've been doing.

  14. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  15. Analyzing Malware Based on Volatile Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu


    Full Text Available To explain the necessity of comprehensive and automatically analysis process for volatile memory, this paper summarized ordinarily analyzing methods and their common points especially for concerned data source. Then, a memory analysis framework Volatiltiy-2.2 and statistical output file size are recommended. In addition, to address the limitation of plug-ins classification in analyzing procedure, a user perspective classify is necessary and proposed. Furthermore, according to target data source differences on the base of result data set volume and employed relational method is introduced for comprehensive analysis guideline procedure. Finally, a test demo including DLLs loading order list analyzing is recommend, in which DLL load list is regard as different kind of characteristics typical data source with process and convert into process behavior fingerprint. The clustering for the fingerprint is employed string similar degree algorithm model in the demo, which has a wide range applications in traditional malware behavior analysis, and it is proposed that these methods also can be applied for volatile memory

  16. Modular Construction of Shape-Numeric Analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Yuh Evan Chang


    Full Text Available The aim of static analysis is to infer invariants about programs that are precise enough to establish semantic properties, such as the absence of run-time errors. Broadly speaking, there are two major branches of static analysis for imperative programs. Pointer and shape analyses focus on inferring properties of pointers, dynamically-allocated memory, and recursive data structures, while numeric analyses seek to derive invariants on numeric values. Although simultaneous inference of shape-numeric invariants is often needed, this case is especially challenging and is not particularly well explored. Notably, simultaneous shape-numeric inference raises complex issues in the design of the static analyzer itself. In this paper, we study the construction of such shape-numeric, static analyzers. We set up an abstract interpretation framework that allows us to reason about simultaneous shape-numeric properties by combining shape and numeric abstractions into a modular, expressive abstract domain. Such a modular structure is highly desirable to make its formalization and implementation easier to do and get correct. To achieve this, we choose a concrete semantics that can be abstracted step-by-step, while preserving a high level of expressiveness. The structure of abstract operations (i.e., transfer, join, and comparison follows the structure of this semantics. The advantage of this construction is to divide the analyzer in modules and functors that implement abstractions of distinct features.

  17. Plant morphology and allometric relationships in competing and non-competing plants of Tagetes patula L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborga Jarzyna


    Full Text Available Allometric relationships (defined as correlation coefficients between plant mass - stem diameter, plant mass - stem height and stem diameter - stem height in plants of Tagetes patula L. (Brassicaceae var. "Tangerine" were analyzed. Competing and non-competing plants were compared in a glasshouse experiment. Competing plants were grown in broad range of densities, from 200 to 6000 individuals • m-2. For non-competing plants no allometric relationships were observed, while for competing plants they were strong, irrespective of density treatment used. Gradual changes of plant morphology (plant mass, stem diameter, stem height and height/mass ratio with the increase of competition intensity were also analyzed.The present study clearly showed, that the intraspecific competition influenced allometric relationships between height, mass and stem diameter of Tagetes patula.

  18. The DOE Automated Radioxenon Sampler-Analyzer (ARSA) Beta-Gamma Coincidence Spectrometer Data Analyzer (United States)


    detected using the counting system given the daily fluctuations in Radon gas interference, the background counts, the memory effect of previous...THE DOE AUTOMATED RADIOXENON SAMPLER-ANALYZER (ARSA) BETA-GAMMA COINCIDENCE SPECTROMETER DATA ANALYZER T.R. Heimbigner, T.W. Bowyer, J.I...1830 ABSTRACT The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Comprehensive

  19. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gonser


    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and consequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report of technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of known masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  20. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gonser


    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the Earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size-separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and subsequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report on technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of defined masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  1. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  2. Grid and Data Analyzing and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh SHOKRI


    Full Text Available This paper examines the importance of secure structures in the process of analyzing and distributing information with aid of Grid-based technologies. The advent of distributed network has provided many practical opportunities for detecting and recording the time of events, and made efforts to identify the events and solve problems of storing information such as being up-to-date and documented. In this regard, the data distribution systems in a network environment should be accurate. As a consequence, a series of continuous and updated data must be at hand. In this case, Grid is the best answer to use data and resource of organizations by common processing.

  3. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tong


    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology, and summarizes the analysis methods, experimental technologies, research developments, and so on in the four key fields of systems biology-systemic structures, dynamics, control methods, and design principles.

  4. Spectrum Analyzers Incorporating Tunable WGM Resonators (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute


    A photonic instrument is proposed to boost the resolution for ultraviolet/ optical/infrared spectral analysis and spectral imaging allowing the detection of narrow (0.00007-to-0.07-picometer wavelength resolution range) optical spectral signatures of chemical elements in space and planetary atmospheres. The idea underlying the proposal is to exploit the advantageous spectral characteristics of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators to obtain spectral resolutions at least three orders of magnitude greater than those of optical spectrum analyzers now in use. Such high resolutions would enable measurement of spectral features that could not be resolved by prior instruments.

  5. Analyzing Engineered Nanoparticles using Photothermal Infrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Shoko

    using redox activity measurements. With a new setup adapted to miniaturization, stable pH was achieved, platinum was found to be more suitable than gold for open circuit potential-time measurements, miniaturized platinum working electrodes and quasi silver/silver chloride reference electrodes were...... of design rules for the responsivity of the string-based photothermal spectrometer. Responsivity is maximized for a thin, narrow and long string irradiated by high power radiation. Various types of nanoparticles and binary mixtures of them were successfully detected and analyzed. Detection of copper...


    Tausworthe, R. C.


    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  7. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, A.P. [Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt di Informatica e Sistemistica; Worley, P.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  8. Using SCR methods to analyze requirements documentation (United States)

    Callahan, John; Morrison, Jeffery


    Software Cost Reduction (SCR) methods are being utilized to analyze and verify selected parts of NASA's EOS-DIS Core System (ECS) requirements documentation. SCR is being used as a spot-inspection tool. Through this formal and systematic approach of the SCR requirements methods, insights as to whether the requirements are internally inconsistent or incomplete as the scenarios of intended usage evolve in the OC (Operations Concept) documentation. Thus, by modelling the scenarios and requirements as mode charts using the SCR methods, we have been able to identify problems within and between the documents.

  9. Marketing time predicts naturalization of horticultural plants. (United States)

    Pemberton, Robert W; Liu, Hong


    Horticulture is an important source of naturalized plants, but our knowledge about naturalization frequencies and potential patterns of naturalization in horticultural plants is limited. We analyzed a unique set of data derived from the detailed sales catalogs (1887-1930) of the most important early Florida, USA, plant nursery (Royal Palm Nursery) to detect naturalization patterns of these horticultural plants in the state. Of the 1903 nonnative species sold by the nursery, 15% naturalized. The probability of plants becoming naturalized increases significantly with the number of years the plants were marketed. Plants that became invasive and naturalized were sold for an average of 19.6 and 14.8 years, respectively, compared to 6.8 years for non-naturalized plants, and the naturalization of plants sold for 30 years or more is 70%. Unexpectedly, plants that were sold earlier were less likely to naturalize than those sold later. The nursery's inexperience, which caused them to grow and market many plants unsuited to Florida during their early period, may account for this pattern. Plants with pantropical distributions and those native to both Africa and Asia were more likely to naturalize (42%), than were plants native to other smaller regions, suggesting that plants with large native ranges were more likely to naturalize. Naturalization percentages also differed according to plant life form, with the most naturalization occurring in aquatic herbs (36.8%) and vines (30.8%). Plants belonging to the families Araceae, Apocynaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Oleaceae, and Verbenaceae had higher than expected naturalization. Information theoretic model selection indicated that the number of years a plant was sold, alone or together with the first year a plant was sold, was the strongest predictor of naturalization. Because continued importation and marketing of nonnative horticultural plants will lead to additional plant naturalization and invasion, a comprehensive approach


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajive Ganguli; Daniel E. Walsh; Shaohai Yu


    Neural networks were used to calibrate an online ash analyzer at the Usibelli Coal Mine, Healy, Alaska, by relating the Americium and Cesium counts to the ash content. A total of 104 samples were collected from the mine, with 47 being from screened coal, and the rest being from unscreened coal. Each sample corresponded to 20 seconds of coal on the running conveyor belt. Neural network modeling used the quick stop training procedure. Therefore, the samples were split into training, calibration and prediction subsets. Special techniques, using genetic algorithms, were developed to representatively split the sample into the three subsets. Two separate approaches were tried. In one approach, the screened and unscreened coal was modeled separately. In another, a single model was developed for the entire dataset. No advantage was seen from modeling the two subsets separately. The neural network method performed very well on average but not individually, i.e. though each prediction was unreliable, the average of a few predictions was close to the true average. Thus, the method demonstrated that the analyzers were accurate at 2-3 minutes intervals (average of 6-9 samples), but not at 20 seconds (each prediction).

  11. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution. (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M


    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution.

  12. Analyzing Mode Confusion via Model Checking (United States)

    Luettgen, Gerald; Carreno, Victor


    Mode confusion is one of the most serious problems in aviation safety. Today's complex digital flight decks make it difficult for pilots to maintain awareness of the actual states, or modes, of the flight deck automation. NASA Langley leads an initiative to explore how formal techniques can be used to discover possible sources of mode confusion. As part of this initiative, a flight guidance system was previously specified as a finite Mealy automaton, and the theorem prover PVS was used to reason about it. The objective of the present paper is to investigate whether state-exploration techniques, especially model checking, are better able to achieve this task than theorem proving and also to compare several verification tools for the specific application. The flight guidance system is modeled and analyzed in Murphi, SMV, and Spin. The tools are compared regarding their system description language, their practicality for analyzing mode confusion, and their capabilities for error tracing and for animating diagnostic information. It turns out that their strengths are complementary.

  13. Analyzing Network Coding Gossip Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Haeupler, Bernhard


    We give a new technique to analyze the stopping time of gossip protocols that are based on random linear network coding (RLNC). Our analysis drastically simplifies, extends and strengthens previous results. We analyze RLNC gossip in a general framework for network and communication models that encompasses and unifies the models used previously in this context. We show, in most settings for the first time, that it converges with high probability in the information-theoretically optimal time. Most stopping times are of the form O(k + T) where k is the number of messages to be distributed and T is the time it takes to disseminate one message. This means RLNC gossip achieves "perfect pipelining". Our analysis directly extends to highly dynamic networks in which the topology can change completely at any time. This remains true even if the network dynamics are controlled by a fully adaptive adversary that knows the complete network state. Virtually nothing besides simple O(kT) sequential flooding protocols was prev...

  14. Analyzing Interoperability of Protocols Using Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In practical terms, protocol interoperability testing is still laborious and error-prone with little effect, even for those products that have passed conformance testing. Deadlock and unsymmetrical data communication are familiar in interoperability testing, and it is always very hard to trace their causes. The previous work has not provided a coherent way to analyze why the interoperability was broken among protocol implementations under test. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to analyzing these problems from a viewpoint of implementation structures. Sequential and concurrent structures are both representative implementation structures, especially in event-driven development model. Our research mainly discusses the influence of sequential and concurrent structures on interoperability, with two instructive conclusions: (a) a sequential structure may lead to deadlock; (b) a concurrent structure may lead to unsymmetrical data communication. Therefore, implementation structures carry weight on interoperability, which may not gain much attention before. To some extent, they are decisive on the result of interoperability testing. Moreover, a concurrent structure with a sound task-scheduling strategy may contribute to the interoperability of a protocol implementation. Herein model checking technique is introduced into interoperability analysis for the first time. As the paper shows, it is an effective way to validate developers' selections on implementation structures or strategies.

  15. Sentiment Analyzer for Arabic Comments System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Dine Ali Hamouda


    Full Text Available Today, the number of users of social network is increasing. Millions of users share opinions on different aspects of life every day. Therefore social network are rich sources of data for opinion mining and sentiment analysis. Also users have become more interested in following news pages on Facebook. Several posts; political for example, have thousands of users’ comments that agree/disagree with the post content. Such comments can be a good indicator for the community opinion about the post content. For politicians, marketers, decision makers …, it is required to make sentiment analysis to know the percentage of users agree, disagree and neutral respect to a post. This raised the need to analyze theusers’ comments in Facebook. We focused on Arabic Facebook news pages for the task of sentiment analysis. We developed a corpus for sentiment analysis and opinion mining purposes. Then, we used different machine learning algorithms – decision tree, support vector machines, and naive bayes - to develop sentiment analyzer. The performance of the system using each technique was evaluated and compared with others.

  16. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus


    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  17. Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer: Demonstration of feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroz, E.J.; Olivares, J.; Kok, G.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer (AACA) that will provide a continuous, real-time analysis of the elemental (major, minor and trace) composition of atmospheric aerosols. The AACA concept is based on sampling the atmospheric aerosol through a wet cyclone scrubber that produces an aqueous suspension of the particles. This suspension can then be analyzed for elemental composition by ICP/MS or collected for subsequent analysis by other methods. The key technical challenge was to develop a wet cyclone aerosol sampler suitable for respirable particles found in ambient aerosols. We adapted an ultrasonic nebulizer to a conventional, commercially available, cyclone aerosol sampler and completed collection efficiency tests for the unit, which was shown to efficiently collect particles as small as 0.2 microns. We have completed the necessary basic research and have demonstrated the feasibility of the AACA concept.

  18. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri


    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.

  19. Fully Analyzing an Algebraic Polya Urn Model

    CERN Document Server

    Morcrette, Basile


    This paper introduces and analyzes a particular class of Polya urns: balls are of two colors, can only be added (the urns are said to be additive) and at every step the same constant number of balls is added, thus only the color compositions varies (the urns are said to be balanced). These properties make this class of urns ideally suited for analysis from an "analytic combinatorics" point-of-view, following in the footsteps of Flajolet-Dumas-Puyhaubert, 2006. Through an algebraic generating function to which we apply a multiple coalescing saddle-point method, we are able to give precise asymptotic results for the probability distribution of the composition of the urn, as well as local limit law and large deviation bounds.

  20. Modeling and analyzing architectural change with alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Ingstrup, Mads


    to the uptake of reconfiguration techniques in industry. Using the Alloy language and associated tool, we propose a practical way to formally model and analyze runtime architectural change expressed as architectural scripts. Our evaluation shows the performance to be acceptable; our experience......Although adaptivity based on reconfiguration has the potential to improve dependability of systems, the cost of a failed attempt at reconfiguration is prohibitive in precisely the applications where high dependability is required. Existing work on formal modeling and verification of architectural...... reconfigurations partly achieve the goal of ensuring correctness, however the formalisms used often lack tool support and the ensuing models have uncertain relation to a concrete implementation. Thus a practical way to ensure with formal certainty that specific architectural changes are correct remains a barrier...

  1. Analyzing and forecasting the European social climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ


    Full Text Available The paper uses the results of the sample survey Eurobarometer, which has been requested by the European Commission. The social climate index is used to measure the level of perceptions of population by taking into account their personal situation and their perspective at national level. The paper makes an analysis of the evolution of social climate indices for the countries of European Union and offers information about the expectations of population of analyzed countries. The obtained results can be compared with the forecasting of Eurobarometer, on short term of one year and medium term of five years. Modelling the social climate index and its influence factors offers useful information about the efficiency of social protection and inclusion policies.

  2. Drug stability analyzer for long duration spaceflights (United States)

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart


    Crewmembers of current and future long duration spaceflights require drugs to overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency well before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Consequently there is a need for an analyzer that can determine if a drug is safe at the time of use, as well as to monitor and understand space-induced degradation, so that drug types, formulations, and packaging can be improved. Towards this goal we have been investigating the ability of Raman spectroscopy to monitor and quantify drug degradation. Here we present preliminary data by measuring acetaminophen, and its degradation product, p-aminophenol, as pure samples, and during forced degradation reactions.

  3. Basis-neutral Hilbert-space analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Lane; Kondakci, H Esat; Larson, Walker D; Shabahang, Soroush; Jahromi, Ali K; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A Nick; Atia, George K; Abouraddy, Ayman F


    Interferometry is one of the central organizing principles of optics. Key to interferometry is the concept of optical delay, which facilitates spectral analysis in terms of time-harmonics. In contrast, when analyzing a beam in a Hilbert space spanned by spatial modes -- a critical task for spatial-mode multiplexing and quantum communication -- basis-specific principles are invoked that are altogether distinct from that of `delay.' Here, we extend the traditional concept of temporal delay to the spatial domain, thereby enabling the analysis of a beam in an arbitrary spatial-mode basis -- exemplified using Hermite-Gaussian and radial Laguerre-Gaussian modes. Such generalized delays correspond to optical implementations of fractional transforms; for example, the fractional Hankel transform is the generalized delay associated with the space of Laguerre-Gaussian modes, and an interferometer incorporating such a `delay' obtains modal weights in the associated Hilbert space. By implementing an inherently stable, rec...

  4. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry


    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  5. Computer model for analyzing sodium cold traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPheeters, C C; Raue, D J


    A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions. The calculated pressure drop as a function of impurity mass content determines the capacity of the cold trap. The accuracy of the model was checked by comparing calculated mass distributions with experimentally determined mass distributions from literature publications and with results from our own cold trap experiments. The comparisons were excellent in all cases. A parametric study was performed to determine which design variables are most important in maximizing cold trap capacity.

  6. Analyzing Hydrological Sustainability Through Water Balance (United States)

    Menció, Anna; Folch, Albert; Mas-Pla, Josep


    The objective of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is to assist in the development of management plans that will lead to the sustainable use of water resources in all EU member states. However, defining the degree of sustainability aimed at is not a straightforward task. It requires detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological characteristics of the basin in question, its environmental needs, the amount of human water demand, and the opportunity to construct a proper water balance that describes the behavior of the hydrological system and estimates available water resources. An analysis of the water balance in the Selva basin (Girona, NE Spain) points to the importance of regional groundwater fluxes in satisfying current exploitation rates, and shows that regional scale approaches are often necessary to evaluate water availability. In addition, we discuss the pressures on water resources, and analyze potential actions, based on the water balance results, directed towards achieving sustainable water management in the basin.

  7. Analyzing petabytes of data with Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Abstract The open source Apache Hadoop project provides a powerful suite of tools for storing and analyzing petabytes of data using commodity hardware. After several years of production use inside of web companies like Yahoo! and Facebook and nearly a year of commercial support and development by Cloudera, the technology is spreading rapidly through other disciplines, from financial services and government to life sciences and high energy physics. The talk will motivate the design of Hadoop and discuss some key implementation details in depth. It will also cover the major subprojects in the Hadoop ecosystem, go over some example applications, highlight best practices for deploying Hadoop in your environment, discuss plans for the future of the technology, and provide pointers to the many resources available for learning more. In addition to providing more information about the Hadoop platform, a major goal of this talk is to begin a dialogue with the ATLAS research team on how the tools commonly used in t...

  8. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)


    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  9. Analyzing BSE transmission to quantify regional risk. (United States)

    de Koeijer, Aline A


    As a result of consumer fears and political concerns related to BSE as a risk to human health, a need has arisen recently for more sensitive methods to detect BSE and more accurate methods to determine BSE incidence. As a part of the development of such methods, it is important to be able to identify groups of animals with above-average BSE risk. One of the well-known risk factors for BSE is age, as very young animals do not develop the disease, and very old animals are less likely to develop the disease. Here, we analyze which factors have a strong influence on the age distribution of BSE in a population. Building on that, we develop a simple set of calculation rules for classifying the BSE risk in a given cattle population. Required inputs are data on imports and on the BSE control measures in place over the last 10 or 20 years.

  10. Analyzing and mining automated imaging experiments. (United States)

    Berlage, Thomas


    Image mining is the application of computer-based techniques that extract and exploit information from large image sets to support human users in generating knowledge from these sources. This review focuses on biomedical applications of this technique, in particular automated imaging at the cellular level. Due to increasing automation and the availability of integrated instruments, biomedical users are becoming increasingly confronted with the problem of analyzing such data. Image database applications need to combine data management, image analysis and visual data mining. The main point of such a system is a software layer that represents objects within an image and the ability to use a large spectrum of quantitative and symbolic object features. Image analysis needs to be adapted to each particular experiment; therefore, 'end user programming' will be desired to make the technology more widely applicable.

  11. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão


    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  12. Complex networks theory for analyzing metabolic networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; YU Hong; LUO Jianhua; CAO Z.W.; LI Yixue


    One of the main tasks of post-genomic informatics is to systematically investigate all molecules and their interactions within a living cell so as to understand how these molecules and the interactions between them relate to the function of the organism,while networks are appropriate abstract description of all kinds of interactions. In the past few years, great achievement has been made in developing theory of complex networks for revealing the organizing principles that govern the formation and evolution of various complex biological, technological and social networks. This paper reviews the accomplishments in constructing genome-based metabolic networks and describes how the theory of complex networks is applied to analyze metabolic networks.

  13. Analyzing, Modelling, and Designing Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    of software ecosystems. We use these contributions to design a software ecosystem in the telemedicine services of Denmark with (i) a common platform that supports and promotes development from different actors, (ii) high software interaction, (iii) strong social network of actors, (iv) robust business...... as the software development and distribution by a set of actors dependent on each other and the ecosystem. We commence on the hypothesis that the establishment of a software ecosystem on the telemedicine services of Denmark would address these issues and investigate how a software ecosystem can foster...... the development, implementation, and use of telemedicine services. We initially expand the theory of software ecosystems by contributing to the definition and understanding of software ecosystems, providing means of analyzing existing and designing new ecosystems, and defining and measuring the qualities...

  14. Three Practical Methods for Analyzing Slope Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiguang; ZHANG Shitao; ZHU Chuanbing; YIN Ying


    Since the environmental capacity and the arable as well as the inhabitant lands have actually reached a full balance, the slopes are becoming the more and more important options for various engineering constructions. Because of the geological complexity of the slope, the design and thedecision-making of a slope-based engineering is still not ractical to rely solely on the theoretical analysis and numerical calculation, but mainly on the experience of the experts. Therefore, it hasimportant practical significance to turn some successful experience into mathematic equations. Basedupon the abundant typical slope engineering construction cases in Yunnan, Southwestern China, 3methods for yzing the slope stability have been developed in this paper. First of all, the corresponded analogous mathematic equation for analyzing slope stability has been established through case studies. Then, artificial neural network and multivariate regression analysis have alsobeen set up when 7 main influencing factors are adopted

  15. Analyzing Cell Wall Elasticity After Hormone Treatment: An Example Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells and Auxin. (United States)

    Braybrook, Siobhan A


    Atomic force microscopy, and related nano-indentation techniques, is a valuable tool for analyzing the elastic properties of plant cell walls as they relate to changes in cell wall chemistry, changes in development, and response to hormones. Within this chapter I will describe a method for analyzing the effect of the phytohormone auxin on the cell wall elasticity of tobacco BY-2 cells. This general method may be easily altered for different experimental systems and hormones of interest.

  16. Multi-Pass Quadrupole Mass Analyzer (United States)

    Prestage, John D.


    Analysis of the composition of planetary atmospheres is one of the most important and fundamental measurements in planetary robotic exploration. Quadrupole mass analyzers (QMAs) are the primary tool used to execute these investigations, but reductions in size of these instruments has sacrificed mass resolving power so that the best present-day QMA devices are still large, expensive, and do not deliver performance of laboratory instruments. An ultra-high-resolution QMA was developed to resolve N2 +/CO+ by trapping ions in a linear trap quadrupole filter. Because N2 and CO are resolved, gas chromatography columns used to separate species before analysis are eliminated, greatly simplifying gas analysis instrumentation. For highest performance, the ion trap mode is used. High-resolution (or narrow-band) mass selection is carried out in the central region, but near the DC electrodes at each end, RF/DC field settings are adjusted to allow broadband ion passage. This is to prevent ion loss during ion reflection at each end. Ions are created inside the trap so that low-energy particles are selected by low-voltage settings on the end electrodes. This is beneficial to good mass resolution since low-energy particles traverse many cycles of the RF filtering fields. Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that ions are reflected at each end many tens of times, each time being sent back through the central section of the quadrupole where ultrahigh mass filtering is carried out. An analyzer was produced with electrical length orders of magnitude longer than its physical length. Since the selector fields are sized as in conventional devices, the loss of sensitivity inherent in miniaturizing quadrupole instruments is avoided. The no-loss, multi-pass QMA architecture will improve mass resolution of planetary QMA instruments while reducing demands on the RF electronics for high-voltage/high-frequency production since ion transit time is no longer limited to a single pass. The

  17. Suspension-cultured plant cells as a tool to analyze the extracellular proteome. (United States)

    Sabater-Jara, Ana B; Almagro, Lorena; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Martínez-Esteso, María J; Youssef, Sabry M; Casado-Vela, Juan; Vera-Urbina, Juan C; Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Pedreño, María A


    Suspension-cultured cells (SCC) are generally considered the most suitable cell systems to carry out scientific studies, including the extracellular proteome (secretome). SCC are initiated by transferring friable callus fragments into flasks containing liquid culture medium for cell biomass growth, and they are maintained in an orbital shaker to supply the sufficient oxygen that allows cell growth. SCC increase rapidly during the exponential phase and after 10-20 days (depending on the cell culture nature), the growth rate starts to decrease due to limitation of nutrients, and to maintain for decades these kinds of cell cultures is needed to transfer a portion of these SCC into a fresh culture medium. Despite the central role played by extracellular proteins in most processes that control growth and development, the secretome has been less well characterized than other subcellular compartments, meaning that our understanding of the cell wall physiology is still very limited. Useful proteomic tools have emerged in recent years to unravel metabolic network that occurs in cell walls. With the recent progress made in mass spectrometry technology, it has become feasible to identify proteins from a given organ, tissue, cells, or even a subcellular compartment. Compared with other methods used to isolate cell wall proteins, the spent medium of SCC provides a convenient, continuous, and reliable and unique source of extracellular proteins. Therefore, this biological system could be used as a large-scale cell culture from which these proteins can be secreted, easily separated from cells without cell disruption, and so, without any cytosolic contamination, easily recovered from the extracellular medium. This nondestructive cell wall proteome approach discloses a set of proteins that are specifically expressed in the remodelling of the cell wall architecture and stress defense.

  18. Comparison of two dry chemistry analyzers and a wet chemistry analyzer using canine serum. (United States)

    Lanevschi, Anne; Kramer, John W.


    Canine serum was used to compare seven chemistry analytes on two tabletop clinical dry chemistry analyzers, Boehringer's Reflotron and Kodak's Ektachem. Results were compared to those obtained on a wet chemistry reference analyzer, Roche Diagnostic's Cobas Mira. Analytes measured were urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol and bilirubin. Nine to 12 canine sera with values in the low, normal, and high range were evaluated. The correlations were acceptable for all comparisons with correlation coefficients greater than 0.98 for all analytes. Regression analysis resulted in significant differences for both tabletop analyzers when compared to the reference analyzer for cholesterol and bilirubin, and for glucose and AST on the Kodak Ektachem. Differences appeared to result from proportional systematic error occurring at high analyte concentrations.

  19. The Chemnitz LogAnalyzer: a tool for analyzing data from hypertext navigation research. (United States)

    Brunstein, Angela; Naumann, Anja; Krems, Josef F


    Computer-based studies usually produce log files as raw data. These data cannot be analyzed adequately with conventional statistical software. The Chemnitz LogAnalyzer provides tools for quick and comfortable visualization and analyses of hypertext navigation behavior by individual users and for aggregated data. In addition, it supports analogous analyses of questionnaire data and reanalysis with respect to several predefined orders of nodes of the same hypertext. As an illustration of how to use the Chemnitz LogAnalyzer, we give an account of one study on learning with hypertext. Participants either searched for specific details or read a hypertext document to familiarize themselves with its content. The tool helped identify navigation strategies affected by these two processing goals and provided comparisons, for example, of processing times and visited sites. Altogether, the Chemnitz LogAnalyzer fills the gap between log files as raw data of Web-based studies and conventional statistical software.

  20. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant


    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo


    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  1. Signal processing and analyzing works of art (United States)

    Johnson, Don H.; Johnson, C. Richard, Jr.; Hendriks, Ella


    In examining paintings, art historians use a wide variety of physico-chemical methods to determine, for example, the paints, the ground (canvas primer) and any underdrawing the artist used. However, the art world has been little touched by signal processing algorithms. Our work develops algorithms to examine x-ray images of paintings, not to analyze the artist's brushstrokes but to characterize the weave of the canvas that supports the painting. The physics of radiography indicates that linear processing of the x-rays is most appropriate. Our spectral analysis algorithms have an accuracy superior to human spot-measurements and have the advantage that, through "short-space" Fourier analysis, they can be readily applied to entire x-rays. We have found that variations in the manufacturing process create a unique pattern of horizontal and vertical thread density variations in the bolts of canvas produced. In addition, we measure the thread angles, providing a way to determine the presence of cusping and to infer the location of the tacks used to stretch the canvas on a frame during the priming process. We have developed weave matching software that employs a new correlation measure to find paintings that share canvas weave characteristics. Using a corpus of over 290 paintings attributed to Vincent van Gogh, we have found several weave match cliques that we believe will refine the art historical record and provide more insight into the artist's creative processes.

  2. Analyzing modified unimodular gravity via Lagrange multipliers (United States)

    Sáez-Gómez, Diego


    The so-called unimodular version of general relativity is revisited. Unimodular gravity is constructed by fixing the determinant of the metric, which leads to the trace-free part of the equations instead of the usual Einstein field equations. Then a cosmological constant naturally arises as an integration constant. While unimodular gravity turns out to be equivalent to general relativity (GR) at the classical level, it provides important differences at the quantum level. Here we extend the unimodular constraint to some extensions of general relativity that have drawn a lot of attention over the last years—f (R ) gravity (or its scalar-tensor picture) and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. The corresponding unimodular version of such theories is constructed as well as the conformal transformation that relates the Einstein and Jordan frames for these nonminimally coupled theories. From the classical point of view, the unimodular versions of such extensions are completely equivalent to their originals, but an effective cosmological constant arises naturally, which may provide a richer description of the evolution of the Universe. Here we analyze the case of Starobisnky inflation and compare it with the original one.

  3. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information ... (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially

  4. PSAIA – Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahoviček Kristian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background PSAIA (Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer was developed to compute geometric parameters for large sets of protein structures in order to predict and investigate protein-protein interaction sites. Results In addition to most relevant established algorithms, PSAIA offers a new method PIADA (Protein Interaction Atom Distance Algorithm for the determination of residue interaction pairs. We found that PIADA produced more satisfactory results than comparable algorithms implemented in PSAIA. Particular advantages of PSAIA include its capacity to combine different methods to detect the locations and types of interactions between residues and its ability, without any further automation steps, to handle large numbers of protein structures and complexes. Generally, the integration of a variety of methods enables PSAIA to offer easier automation of analysis and greater reliability of results. PSAIA can be used either via a graphical user interface or from the command-line. Results are generated in either tabular or XML format. Conclusion In a straightforward fashion and for large sets of protein structures, PSAIA enables the calculation of protein geometric parameters and the determination of location and type for protein-protein interaction sites. XML formatted output enables easy conversion of results to various formats suitable for statistic analysis. Results from smaller data sets demonstrated the influence of geometry on protein interaction sites. Comprehensive analysis of properties of large data sets lead to new information useful in the prediction of protein-protein interaction sites.

  5. Alzheimer's disease: analyzing the missing heritability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry G Ridge

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex disorder influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Recent work has identified 11 AD markers in 10 loci. We used Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis to analyze >2 million SNPs for 10,922 individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium to assess the phenotypic variance explained first by known late-onset AD loci, and then by all SNPs in the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium dataset. In all, 33% of total phenotypic variance is explained by all common SNPs. APOE alone explained 6% and other known markers 2%, meaning more than 25% of phenotypic variance remains unexplained by known markers, but is tagged by common SNPs included on genotyping arrays or imputed with HapMap genotypes. Novel AD markers that explain large amounts of phenotypic variance are likely to be rare and unidentifiable using genome-wide association studies. Based on our findings and the current direction of human genetics research, we suggest specific study designs for future studies to identify the remaining heritability of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Methodological considerations in analyzing Twitter data. (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Hansen, Heather M; Murphy, Joe; Richards, Ashley K; Duke, Jennifer; Allen, Jane A


    Twitter is an online microblogging tool that disseminates more than 400 million messages per day, including vast amounts of health information. Twitter represents an important data source for the cancer prevention and control community. This paper introduces investigators in cancer research to the logistics of Twitter analysis. It explores methodological challenges in extracting and analyzing Twitter data, including characteristics and representativeness of data; data sources, access, and cost; sampling approaches; data management and cleaning; standardizing metrics; and analysis. We briefly describe the key issues and provide examples from the literature and our studies using Twitter data to understand public health issues. For investigators considering Twitter-based cancer research, we recommend assessing whether research questions can be answered appropriately using Twitter, choosing search terms carefully to optimize precision and recall, using respected vendors that can provide access to the full Twitter data stream if possible, standardizing metrics to account for growth in the Twitter population over time, considering crowdsourcing for analysis of Twitter content, and documenting and publishing all methodological decisions to further the evidence base.

  7. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanriverdi


    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  8. Analyzing Consumer Behavior Towards Contemporary Food Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this research is analyzing consumer behaviors towards to contemporary food retailers. Food retailing has been changing during recent years in Turkey. Foreign investors captivated with this market potential of food retailing. Retailer‟s format has been changed and featuring large-scale, extended product variety and full service retailers spreading rapidly through the nation-wide. Consumers‟ tend to shop their household needs from contemporary retailers due mainly to urbanism, increasing women workforce and income growth. In this research, original data collected through face-to-face interview from 385 respondents which are located in Istanbul. Different Socio-Economic Status (SES groups‟ ratio for Istanbul was forming sampling distribution. Consumers prefer closest food retailers which are mainly purchasing food products. Consumers purchase more than their planned what their needs; especially C SES group average comes first for the spending money for unplanned shopping. Chain stores and hypermarkets are the most preferred retailers in food purchasing. Moreover, consumer responses to judgments related to retailing are being investigating with factor analysis.

  9. Numerical methods for analyzing electromagnetic scattering (United States)

    Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, C. S.


    Attenuation properties of the normal modes in an overmoded waveguide coated with a lossy material were analyzed. It is found that the low-order modes, can be significantly attenuated even with a thin layer of coating if the coating material is not too lossy. A thinner layer of coating is required for large attenuation of the low-order modes if the coating material is magnetic rather than dielectric. The Radar Cross Section (RCS) from an uncoated circular guide terminated by a perfect electric conductor was calculated and compared with available experimental data. It is confirmed that the interior irradiation contributes to the RCS. The equivalent-current method based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was chosen for the calculation of the contribution from the rim diffraction. The RCS reduction from a coated circular guide terminated by a PEC are planned schemes for the experiments are included. The waveguide coated with a lossy magnetic material is suggested as a substitute for the corrugated waveguide.

  10. Qualitative Methodology in Analyzing Educational Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU


    Full Text Available Semiological analysis of educational phenomena allow researchers access to a multidimensional universe of meanings that is represented by the school, not so much seen as an institution, but as a vector of social action through educational strategies. We consider education as a multidimensional phenomenon since its analysis allows the researcher to explore a variety of research hypotheses of different paradigmatic perspectives that converge in an educational finality. According to the author Simona Branc one of the most appropriate methods used in qualitative data analysis is Grounded Theory; this one assumes a systematic process of generating concepts and theories based on the data collected. Specialised literature defines Grounded Theory as an inductive approach that starts with general observations and during the analytical process creates conceptual categories that explain the theme explored. Research insist on the role of the sociologic theory of managing the research data and for providing ways of conceptualizing the descriptions and explanations.Qualitative content analysis is based on the constructivist paradigm (constructionist in the restricted sense that we used previously. It aims to create an “understanding of the latent meanings of the analyzed messages”. Quantitative content analysis involves a process of encoding and statistical analysis of data extracted from the content of the paper in the form of extractions like: frequencies, contingency analysis, etc

  11. Analyzing planar cell polarity during zebrafish gastrulation. (United States)

    Jessen, Jason R


    Planar cell polarity was first described in invertebrates over 20 years ago and is defined as the polarity of cells (and cell structures) within the plane of a tissue, such as an epithelium. Studies in the last 10 years have identified critical roles for vertebrate homologs of these planar cell polarity proteins during gastrulation cell movements. In zebrafish, the terms convergence and extension are used to describe the collection of morphogenetic movements and cell behaviors that contribute to narrowing and elongation of the embryonic body plan. Disruption of planar cell polarity gene function causes profound defects in convergence and extension creating an embryo that has a shortened anterior-posterior axis and is broadened mediolaterally. The zebrafish gastrula-stage embryo is transparent and amenable to live imaging using both Nomarski/differential interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy. This chapter describes methods to analyze convergence and extension movements at the cellular level and thereby connect embryonic phenotypes with underlying planar cell polarity defects in migrating cells.

  12. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Abuleil


    Full Text Available The Web considers one of the main sources of customer opinions and reviews which they are represented in two formats; structured data (numeric ratings and unstructured data (textual comments. Millions of textual comments about goods and services are posted on the web by customers and every day thousands are added, make it a big challenge to read and understand them to make them a useful structured data for customers and decision makers. Sentiment analysis or Opinion mining is a popular technique for summarizing and analyzing those opinions and reviews. In this paper, we use natural language processing techniques to generate some rules to help us understand customer opinions and reviews (textual comments written in the Arabic language for the purpose of understanding each one of them and then convert them to a structured data. We use adjectives as a key point to highlight important information in the text then we work around them to tag attributes that describe the subject of the reviews, and we associate them with their values (adjectives.

  14. Using Live-Cell Markers in Maize to Analyze Cell Division Orientation and Timing. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carolyn G


    Recently developed live-cell markers provide an opportunity to explore the dynamics and localization of proteins in maize, an important crop and model for monocot development. A step-by-step method is outlined for observing and analyzing the process of division in maize cells. The steps include plant growth conditions, sample preparation, time-lapse setup, and calculation of division rates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tognoli


    Full Text Available The objective was to present and analyze the physical arrangement of logistics and production process plant in a sugarcane mill, in order to expose the processes involved, analyzing them more deeply and thus collaborate in a more efficient production. The relevance of this presentation is linked to the benefits that the plant and professionals can get through this work, enabling the development of methods and production alternatives. The research method used was case study based on interviews, on-site observation and document analysis, which was very appropriate as it could examine and cross checking. This work will allow a better understanding of the production process of the logistics of the plant in a sugarcane mill and working with suggestions and methods for more efficient production.

  16. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants. (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad


    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study.

  17. Analyzing cancer samples with SNP arrays. (United States)

    Van Loo, Peter; Nilsen, Gro; Nordgard, Silje H; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N; Lingjærde, Ole Christian


    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are powerful tools to delineate genomic aberrations in cancer genomes. However, the analysis of these SNP array data of cancer samples is complicated by three phenomena: (a) aneuploidy: due to massive aberrations, the total DNA content of a cancer cell can differ significantly from its normal two copies; (b) nonaberrant cell admixture: samples from solid tumors do not exclusively contain aberrant tumor cells, but always contain some portion of nonaberrant cells; (c) intratumor heterogeneity: different cells in the tumor sample may have different aberrations. We describe here how these phenomena impact the SNP array profile, and how these can be accounted for in the analysis. In an extended practical example, we apply our recently developed and further improved ASCAT (allele-specific copy number analysis of tumors) suite of tools to analyze SNP array data using data from a series of breast carcinomas as an example. We first describe the structure of the data, how it can be plotted and interpreted, and how it can be segmented. The core ASCAT algorithm next determines the fraction of nonaberrant cells and the tumor ploidy (the average number of DNA copies), and calculates an ASCAT profile. We describe how these ASCAT profiles visualize both copy number aberrations as well as copy-number-neutral events. Finally, we touch upon regions showing intratumor heterogeneity, and how they can be detected in ASCAT profiles. All source code and data described here can be found at our ASCAT Web site (

  18. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.


    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  19. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  20. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification. (United States)

    Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M


    Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  1. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varmuza Kurt K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  2. Audubon Plant Study Program. (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  3. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.


    The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations. The traditional approach to climate model evaluation, which compares a single parameter at a time, identifies symptomatic model biases and errors but fails to diagnose the model problems. The model diagnosis process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. To address these challenges, we are developing a parallel, distributed web-service system that enables the physics-based multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks (i.e., Flask, Gunicorn, and Tornado). The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation and (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, and (4) the calculation of difference between two variables. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use

  4. Technology for collecting and analyzing relational data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Fedorova


    summarize the information there is a mechanism of data grouping, which provides general data of the number of entries, maximum, minimum, average values for different groups of records.Results. This technology has been tested in the monitoring requirements of the services of additional professional education and the definition of the educational needs of teachers and executives of educational organizations of the Irkutsk region. The survey has involved 2,780 respondents in 36 municipalities. Creating the data model took several hours. The survey was conducted during the month.Conclusion. The proposed technology allows a short time to collect the information in relational form, and then analyze it without the need for programming with flexible assignment of the operating logic for form.

  5. Analyzing the attributes of Indiana's STEM schools (United States)

    Eltz, Jeremy

    "Primary and secondary schools do not seem able to produce enough students with the interest, motivation, knowledge, and skills they will need to compete and prosper in the emerging world" (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2007a, p. 94). This quote indicated that there are changing expectations for today's students which have ultimately led to new models of education, such as charters, online and blended programs, career and technical centers, and for the purposes of this research, STEM schools. STEM education as defined in this study is a non-traditional model of teaching and learning intended to "equip them [students] with critical thinking, problem solving, creative and collaborative skills, and ultimately establishes connections between the school, work place, community and the global economy" (Science Foundation Arizona, 2014, p. 1). Focusing on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is believed by many educational stakeholders to be the solution for the deficits many students hold as they move on to college and careers. The National Governors Association (NGA; 2011) believes that building STEM skills in the nation's students will lead to the ability to compete globally with a new workforce that has the capacity to innovate and will in turn spur economic growth. In order to accomplish the STEM model of education, a group of educators and business leaders from Indiana developed a comprehensive plan for STEM education as an option for schools to use in order to close this gap. This plan has been promoted by the Indiana Department of Education (IDOE, 2014a) with the goal of increasing STEM schools throughout Indiana. To determine what Indiana's elementary STEM schools are doing, this study analyzed two of the elementary schools that were certified STEM by the IDOE. This qualitative case study described the findings and themes from two elementary STEM schools. Specifically, the research looked at the vital components to accomplish STEM

  6. Evaluation and performance characteristics of the Q Hemostasis Analyzer, an automated coagulation analyzer. (United States)

    Toulon, Pierre; Fischer, Florence; Appert-Flory, Anny; Jambou, Didier


    The Q Hemostasis Analyzer (Grifols, Barcelona, Spain) is a fully-automated random-access multiparameter analyzer, designed to perform coagulation, chromogenic and immunologic assays. It is equipped with a cap-piercing system. The instrument was evaluated in a hemostasis laboratory of a University Hospital with respect to its technical features in the determination of coagulation i.e. prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time, fibrinogen and single coagulation factors V (FV) and VIII (FVIII), chromogenic [antithrombin (AT) and protein C activity] and immunologic assays [von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag) concentration], using reagents from the analyzer manufacturer. Total precision (evaluated as the coefficient of variation) was below 6% for most parameters both in normal and in pathological ranges, except for FV, FVIII, AT and vWF:Ag both in the normal and pathological samples. No carryover was detected in alternating aPTT measurement in a pool of normal plasma samples and in the same pool spiked with unfractionated heparin (>1.5 IU/mL). The effective throughput was 154 PT, 66 PT/aPTT, 42 PT/aPTT/fibrinogen, and 38 PT/aPTT/AT per hour, leading to 154 to 114 tests performed per hour, depending of the tested panel. Test results obtained on the Q Hemostasis Analyzer were well correlated with those obtained on the ACL TOP analyzer (Instrumentation Laboratory), with r between 0.862 and 0.989. In conclusion, routine coagulation testing can be performed on the Q Hemostasis Analyzer with satisfactory precision and the same apply to more specialized and specific tests.

  7. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants (United States)


    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy

  8. Using Simulation to Analyze Acoustic Environments (United States)

    Wood, Eric J.


    One of the main projects that was worked on this semester was creating an acoustic model for the Advanced Space Suit in Comsol Multiphysics. The geometry tools built into the software were used to create an accurate model of the helmet and upper torso of the suit. After running the simulation, plots of the sound pressure level within the suit were produced, as seen below in Figure 1. These plots show significant nulls which should be avoided when placing microphones inside the suit. In the future, this model can be easily adapted to changes in the suit design to determine optimal microphone placements and other acoustic properties. Another major project was creating an acoustic diverter that will potentially be used to route audio into the Space Station's Node 1. The concept of the project was to create geometry to divert sound from a neighboring module, the US Lab, into Node 1. By doing this, no new audio equipment would need to be installed in Node 1. After creating an initial design for the diverter, analysis was performed in Comsol in order to determine how changes in geometry would affect acoustic performance, as shown in Figure 2. These results were used to produce a physical prototype diverter on a 3D printer. With the physical prototype, testing was conducted in an anechoic chamber to determine the true effectiveness of the design, as seen in Figure 3. The results from this testing have been compared to the Comsol simulation results to analyze how closely the Comsol results are to real-world performance. While the Comsol results do not seem to closely resemble the real world performance, this testing has provided valuable insight into how much trust can be placed in the results of Comsol simulations. A final project that was worked on during this tour was the Audio Interface Unit (AIU) design for the Orion program. The AIU is a small device that will be used for as an audio communication device both during launch and on-orbit. The unit will have functions

  9. Plant traits related to nitrogen uptake influence plant-microbe competition. (United States)

    Moreau, Delphine; Pivato, Barbara; Bru, David; Busset, Hugues; Deau, Florence; Faivre, Céline; Matejicek, Annick; Strbik, Florence; Philippot, Laurent; Mougel, Christophe


    Plant species are important drivers of soil microbial communities. However, how plant functional traits are shaping these communities has received less attention though linking plant and microbial traits is crucial for better understanding plant-microbe interactions. Our objective was to determine how plant-microbe interactions were affected by plant traits. Specifically we analyzed how interactions between plant species and microbes involved in nitrogen cycling were affected by plant traits related to 'nitrogen nutrition in interaction with soil nitrogen availability. Eleven plant species, selected along an oligotrophic-nitrophilic gradient, were grown individually in a nitrogen-poor soil with two levels of nitrate availability. Plant traits for both carbon and nitrogen nutrition were measured and the genetic structure and abundance of rhizosphere. microbial communities, in particular the ammonia oxidizer and nitrate reducer guilds, were analyzed. The structure of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere differed significantly between plant species and these differences depended on nitrogen availability. The results suggest that the rate of nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass and per day is a key plant trait, explaining why the effect of nitrogen availability on the structure of the bacterial community depends on the plant species. We also showed that the abundance of nitrate reducing bacteria always decreased with increasing nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass per day, indicating that there was competition for nitrate between plants and nitrate reducing bacteria. This study demonstrates that nitrate-reducing microorganisms may be adversely affected by plants with a high nitrogen uptake rate. Our work puts forward the role of traits related to nitrogen in plant-microbe interactions, whereas carbon is commonly considered as the main driver. It also suggests that plant traits related to ecophysiological processes, such as nitrogen uptake rates, are more

  10. Plant health sensing system for determining nitrogen status in plants (United States)

    Thomasson, J. A.; Sui, Ruixiu; Read, John J.; Reddy, K. R.


    A plant health sensing system was developed for determining nitrogen status in plants. The system consists of a multi-spectral optical sensor and a data-acquisition and processing unit. The optical sensor"s light source provides modulated panchromatic illumination of a plant canopy with light-emitting diodes, and the sensor measures spectral reflectance through optical filters that partition the energy into blue, green, red, and near-infrared wavebands. Spectral reflectance of plants is detected in situ, at the four wavebands, in real time. The data-acquisition and processing unit is based on a single board computer that collects data from the multi-spectral sensor and spatial information from a global positioning system receiver. Spectral reflectance at the selected wavebands is analyzed, with algorithms developed during preliminary work, to determine nitrogen status in plants. The plant health sensing system has been tested primarily in the laboratory and field so far, and promising results have been obtained. This article describes the development, theory of operation, and test results of the plant health sensing system.

  11. Stress tolerant plants



    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  12. Plant fertilizer poisoning (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  13. Research Progress in Glycine Betaine Improving Plant Salty Stressful Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong; WANG Wenjie; YAN Yongqing; ZU Yuangang


    Many plants accumulate compatible solutes in response to the imposition of environmental stresses. Glycine betaine, which is one of compatible solutes in cell of plants, has been shown to have surviving ability for plant from salt stress. Effect of glycine betaine on improving plant salt resistance was discussed in plants under salt stress. The accumulation of glycine betaine protects plants against the damaging effects of stress. Strategies of glycine betaine against the damaging effects of stress were analyzed to clarify the roles of glycine betaine in salt stress tolerance of plants.

  14. [Issues of large scale tissue culture of medicinal plant]. (United States)

    Lv, Dong-Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai


    In order to increase the yield and quality of the medicinal plant and enhance the competitive power of industry of medicinal plant in our country, this paper analyzed the status, problem and countermeasure of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. Although the biotechnology is one of the most efficient and promising means in production of medicinal plant, it still has problems such as stability of the material, safety of the transgenic medicinal plant and optimization of cultured condition. Establishing perfect evaluation system according to the characteristic of the medicinal plant is the key measures to assure the sustainable development of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale.

  15. HMR Log Analyzer: Analyze Web Application Logs Over Hadoop MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayalee Narkhede


    Full Text Available In today’s Internet world, log file analysis is becoming a necessary task for analyzing the customer’sbehavior in order to improve advertising and sales as well as for datasets like environment, medical,banking system it is important to analyze the log data to get required knowledge from it. Web mining is theprocess of discovering the knowledge from the web data. Log files are getting generated very fast at therate of 1-10 Mb/s per machine, a single data center can generate tens of terabytes of log data in a day.These datasets are huge. In order to analyze such large datasets we need parallel processing system andreliable data storage mechanism. Virtual database system is an effective solution for integrating the databut it becomes inefficient for large datasets. The Hadoop framework provides reliable data storage byHadoop Distributed File System and MapReduce programming model which is a parallel processingsystem for large datasets. Hadoop distributed file system breaks up input data and sends fractions of theoriginal data to several machines in hadoop cluster to hold blocks of data. This mechanism helps toprocess log data in parallel using all the machines in the hadoop cluster and computes result efficiently.The dominant approach provided by hadoop to “Store first query later”, loads the data to the HadoopDistributed File System and then executes queries written in Pig Latin. This approach reduces the responsetime as well as the load on to the end system. This paper proposes a log analysis system using HadoopMapReduce which will provide accurate results in minimum response time.

  16. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger


    endogeneity of acquisition using IV and propensity score matching approaches suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases the lifetime of the acquired plants only if the plant was an exporter. The effect is robust to controlling for domestic acquisitions and differs between horizontal and vertical...... acquisitions. We find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters and only if the takeover is vertical.......This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible...

  17. Smile Analyzer: A Software Package for Analyzing the Characteristics of the Speech and Smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Rashed


    Full Text Available Taking into account the factors related to lip-tooth relationships in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is of prime importance. Manual quantitative analysis of facial parameters on photographs during smile and speech is a difficult and time-consuming job. Since there is no comprehensive and user-friendly software package, we developed a software program called "Smile Analyzer" in the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry for measuring the parameters related to lip-tooth relationships and other facial landmarks on the photographs taken during various facial expressions. The software was designed using visual basic. NET and the ADO. NET was used for developing its Microsoft Access database. The program runs on Microsoft Windows. It is capable of analyzing many parameters or variables in many patients' photographs, although 19 more common variables are previously defined as a default list of variables. When all variables are measured or calculated, a report can be generated and saved in either PDF or MS Excel format. Data are readily transferable to statistical software like SPSS for Windows.  

  18. Smile Analyzer: A Software Package for Analyzing the Characteristics of the Speech and Smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi


    Full Text Available Taking into account the factors related to lip-tooth relationships in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is of prime importance. Manual quantitative analysis of facial parameters on photographs during smile and speech is a difficult and time-consuming job. Since there is no comprehensive and user-friendly software package, we developed a software program called "Smile Analyzer" in the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry for measuring the parameters related to lip-tooth relationships and other facial landmarks on the photographs taken during various facial expressions. The software was designed using visual basic. NET and the ADO. NET was used for developing its Microsoft Access database. The program runs on Microsoft Windows. It is capable of analyzing many parameters or variables in many patients' photographs, although 19 more common variables are previously defined as a default list of variables. When all variables are measured or calculated, a report can be generated and saved in either PDF or MS Excel format. Data are readily transferable to statistical software like SPSS for Windows.

  19. [Characteristics of working conditions at metallurgy-related plants]. (United States)

    Egorova, A M


    Working conditions at more versus less advanced technology steel plants of the Volgograd Region are analyzed. The working conditions at the less advanced technology plants are referred to as a very high occupational risk. It is necessary to work out measures to lower the poor impact of microclimate, dust, noise, to improve illumination, and to regulate labor at steel plants.

  20. Investigating Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Community Structure (United States)

    Franklin, Wilfred


    In this article, the author presents a field study project that explores factors influencing forest community structure and lifts the veil off of "plant blindness." This ecological study consists of three laboratories: (1) preliminary field trip to the study site; (2) plant survey; and (3) analyzing plant community structure with descriptive…

  1. 40 CFR 92.119 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 92... Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The HFID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and... into service and at least annually thereafter, the HFID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1321-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Procedures § 86.1321-94 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the... into service and at least annually thereafter, the FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted...

  3. 40 CFR 91.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 91....316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer as described... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  4. 40 CFR 89.319 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.319 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall... and at least annually thereafter, adjust the FID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon...

  5. RootAnalyzer: A Cross-Section Image Analysis Tool for Automated Characterization of Root Cells and Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chopin

    Full Text Available The morphology of plant root anatomical features is a key factor in effective water and nutrient uptake. Existing techniques for phenotyping root anatomical traits are often based on manual or semi-automatic segmentation and annotation of microscopic images of root cross sections. In this article, we propose a fully automated tool, hereinafter referred to as RootAnalyzer, for efficiently extracting and analyzing anatomical traits from root-cross section images. Using a range of image processing techniques such as local thresholding and nearest neighbor identification, RootAnalyzer segments the plant root from the image's background, classifies and characterizes the cortex, stele, endodermis and epidermis, and subsequently produces statistics about the morphological properties of the root cells and tissues. We use RootAnalyzer to analyze 15 images of wheat plants and one maize plant image and evaluate its performance against manually-obtained ground truth data. The comparison shows that RootAnalyzer can fully characterize most root tissue regions with over 90% accuracy.

  6. RootAnalyzer: A Cross-Section Image Analysis Tool for Automated Characterization of Root Cells and Tissues. (United States)

    Chopin, Joshua; Laga, Hamid; Huang, Chun Yuan; Heuer, Sigrid; Miklavcic, Stanley J


    The morphology of plant root anatomical features is a key factor in effective water and nutrient uptake. Existing techniques for phenotyping root anatomical traits are often based on manual or semi-automatic segmentation and annotation of microscopic images of root cross sections. In this article, we propose a fully automated tool, hereinafter referred to as RootAnalyzer, for efficiently extracting and analyzing anatomical traits from root-cross section images. Using a range of image processing techniques such as local thresholding and nearest neighbor identification, RootAnalyzer segments the plant root from the image's background, classifies and characterizes the cortex, stele, endodermis and epidermis, and subsequently produces statistics about the morphological properties of the root cells and tissues. We use RootAnalyzer to analyze 15 images of wheat plants and one maize plant image and evaluate its performance against manually-obtained ground truth data. The comparison shows that RootAnalyzer can fully characterize most root tissue regions with over 90% accuracy.

  7. Direct flash steam geothermal power plant assessment (United States)

    Alt, T. E.


    The objective was to analyze the capacity and availability factors of an operating direct flash geothermal power plant. System and component specifications, operating procedures, maintenance history, malfunctions, and outage rate are discussed. The plant studied was the 75 MW(e) geothermal power plant at Cerro Prieto, Mexico, for the years 1973 to 1979. To describe and assess the plant, the project staff reviewed documents, visited the plant, and met with staff of the operating utility. The high reliability and availability of the plant was documented and actions responsible for the good performance were identified and reported. The results are useful as guidance to US utilities considering use of hot water geothermal resources for power generation through a direct flash conversion cycle.

  8. Analyzing the complex machinery of cell wall biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.F.P.


    The plant cell wall polymers make up most of the plant biomass and provide the raw material for many economically important products including food, feed, bio-materials, chemicals, textiles, and biofuel. This broad range of functions and applications make the biosynthesis of these polysaccharides a

  9. Methane production from plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauner, E.


    Methane fermentations of plant biomass were performed to increase basic knowledge necessary for development of suitable conversion technologies. Effects of bacterial inoculants, substrate compounds and varied process conditions were analyzed in batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Use of enriched bacterial populations precultured and adapted to plant materials was proved to be advantageous for inoculation. Methane yields and productivities as well as chemical and bacterial composition of digester fluids were determined at various loading rates and retention times during fermentation of different grass and maize silages. Recycling for favorable amounts of decomposed effluent for neutralization of supplied acid raw materials was important to achieve high methane yields. Quantity and composition of acido-, aceto- and methanogenic bacteria were not essentially influenced by changed fermentation conditions. Results of these laboratory examinations have to be completed by long run and scale up experiments to develop control parameters for plant biogas digesters.

  10. Teaching Plant Reproduction. (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.


    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  11. Poinsettia plant exposure (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  12. Kansas Power Plants (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  13. Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelkes, Tim; Meisner, Annelein; Morriën, Elly;


    Invasive exotic plant species often have fewer natural enemies and suffer less damage from herbivores in their new range than genetically or functionally related species that are native to that area. Although we might expect that having fewer enemies would promote the invasiveness of the introduced...... exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species...... in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional...

  14. Analyzing salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin a utilizing thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Jermain, John D; Evans, Hiram K


    In recent years, Salvia divinorum has become a major focus by state legislatures throughout the United States looking to prohibit the sale of the psychoactive plant. After researching testing procedures presented in the literature and those employed by crime laboratories throughout the country, it was decided that thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were the methods to use to analyze plant material for salvinorin A. With TLC, salvinorin A was detected from extracted plant material and was easily distinguishable from 13 other Salvia species as well as Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). When using GC/MS, salvinorin A was best extracted from plant material with chloroform at ambient temperature when using a nonpolar solvent and acetone at ambient temperature when using a polar solvent. By utilizing these techniques, criminalists are now able to confirm the presence of salvinorin A in a submitted plant material suspected to be Salvia divinorum.

  15. Lab-on-a-chip Astrobiology Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer to measure chemical signatures of life in extraterrestrial settings. The analyzer will...

  16. Looking for a Framework for Analyzing Eco-innovation Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan


    Looking for a Framework for Analyzing Eco-innovation Dynamics: A Triple Helix Model of Innovation Perspective.......Looking for a Framework for Analyzing Eco-innovation Dynamics: A Triple Helix Model of Innovation Perspective....

  17. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  18. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon...

  20. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (United States)


    ....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power spectral... analyzer. 882.1420 Section 882.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  1. 21 CFR 1230.32 - Analyzing of samples. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analyzing of samples. 1230.32 Section 1230.32 Food... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Administrative Procedures § 1230.32 Analyzing of samples. Samples collected by an authorized agent shall be analyzed at the laboratory designated by the Food and...

  2. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1670 Neon gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A neon gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by...

  3. 21 CFR 864.5680 - Automated heparin analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated heparin analyzer. 864.5680 Section 864....5680 Automated heparin analyzer. (a) Identification. An automated heparin analyzer is a device used to determine the heparin level in a blood sample by mixing the sample with protamine (a...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1221-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1221-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations. (a) Initial and...

  5. 40 CFR 90.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  6. 40 CFR 86.331-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86....331-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The following steps are followed in sequence to calibrate the hydrocarbon analyzer. It is suggested, but not required, that efforts be made to minimize relative...

  7. 40 CFR 86.121-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.121-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The hydrocarbon... FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzers shall be adjusted for optimum hydrocarbon response....

  8. 40 CFR 86.521-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.521-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibration....

  9. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitric oxide...

  10. Ethylene insensitive plants (United States)

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.


    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  11. Plant Growth Regulators. (United States)

    Nickell, Louis G.


    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  12. Plant Biology Science Projects. (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper it is analyzed for which plant communities (alliances the Netherlands has an international responsibility. Data has been brought together on the range and distribution of alliances in Europe, the area of plant communities in the Netherlands and surrounding countries and the occurrence of endemic associations in the Netherlands. The analysis resulted in a list of 34 out of 93 alliances in the Netherlands which are important from an international point of view.

  14. Analyzing Impact of Intermodal Facilities on Design and Management of Biofuel Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eksioglu, Sandra D [ORNL; Li, Song [ORNL; Zhang, Shu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Petrolia, Daniel [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL


    The impact of an intermodal facility on location and transportation decisions for biofuel production plants is analyzed. Location decisions affect the management of the inbound and outbound logistics of a plant. This supply chain design and management problem is modeled as a mixed integer program. Input data for this model are location of intermodal facilities and available transportation modes, cost and cargo capacity for each transportation mode, geographical distribution of biomass feedstock and production yields, and biomass processing and inventory costs. Outputs from this model are the number, location, and capacity of biofuel production plants. For each plant, the transportation mode used, timing of shipments, shipment size, inventory size, and production schedule that minimize the delivery cost of biofuel are determined. The model proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for investors in the biofuels industry since it estimates the real cost of the business. The state of Mississippi is considered as the testing grounds for the model.

  15. JSTOR Plant Science



    JSTOR Plant Science is an online environment that brings together content, tools, and people interested in plant science. It provides access to foundational content vital to plant science – plant type specimens, taxonomic structures, scientific literature, and related materials, making them widely accessible to the plant science community as well as to researchers in other fields and to the public. It also provides an easy to use interface with powerful functionality that su...

  16. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO


    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  18. Risk and insurance management for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerig, M. [Marsh GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    The continuing negative experiences of insurers with biogas plants make it difficult for operators to get appropriate insurance cover. There are different reasons for this big number of damages. Especially in the beginning components have been rebuilt for biogas without sufficient experiences. Other damages have emerged due to improper or disregardful plant management. For that reason the insurers' standards for the biogas plant and the plant management have risen up. The following report deals with experiences of insurance for biogas plants and the resulting consequences. For that reason Marsh carried out a research project and analyzed all reported claims in the All Risk Insurance. The necessary technical minimum requirements for installation and operation are geared to the experiences with damages. But they also account for the interests of the insured. (orig.)

  19. Gramene database: Navigating plant comparative genomics resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Gupta


    Full Text Available Gramene ( is an online, open source, curated resource for plant comparative genomics and pathway analysis designed to support researchers working in plant genomics, breeding, evolutionary biology, system biology, and metabolic engineering. It exploits phylogenetic relationships to enrich the annotation of genomic data and provides tools to perform powerful comparative analyses across a wide spectrum of plant species. It consists of an integrated portal for querying, visualizing and analyzing data for 44 plant reference genomes, genetic variation data sets for 12 species, expression data for 16 species, curated rice pathways and orthology-based pathway projections for 66 plant species including various crops. Here we briefly describe the functions and uses of the Gramene database.

  20. The controversial telomeres of lily plants. (United States)

    de la Herrán, R; Cuñado, N; Navajas-Pérez, R; Santos, J L; Ruiz Rejón, C; Garrido-Ramos, M A; Ruiz Rejón, M


    The molecular structure of the exceptional telomeres of six plant species belonging to the order Asparagales and two species of the order Liliales was analyzed using Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Three different situations were found, namely: i) In the two Liliales species, Tulipa australis (Liliaceae) and Merendera montana (Colchicaceae), the chromosome ends display hybridization signals with oligonucleotides resembling telomere repeats of both plants (TTTAGGG)n and vertebrates (TTAGGG)n. ii) Asparagales species such as Phormium tenax (Hemerocallidaceae), Muscari comosum (Hyacinthaceae), Narcissus jonquilla (Amaryllidaceae) and Allium sativum (Alliaceae) lack both the plant telomere repeats and the vertebrate telomere repeats. iii) Two other Asparagales species, Aloe vera (Asphodelaceae) and an Iris hybrid (Iridaceae), display positive hybridization with the vertebrate telomere repeats but not with the plant telomere repeats. Southern blot hybridization revealed concurring results. On this basis, the composition of the telomere structure in this plant group is discussed.

  1. Reshaping Plant Biology: Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptors for Plant Morphology (United States)

    Balduzzi, Mathilde; Binder, Brad M.; Bucksch, Alexander; Chang, Cynthia; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Pradal, Christophe; Sparks, Erin E.


    An emerging challenge in plant biology is to develop qualitative and quantitative measures to describe the appearance of plants through the integration of mathematics and biology. A major hurdle in developing these metrics is finding common terminology across fields. In this review, we define approaches for analyzing plant geometry, topology, and shape, and provide examples for how these terms have been and can be applied to plants. In leaf morphological quantifications both geometry and shape have been used to gain insight into leaf function and evolution. For the analysis of cell growth and expansion, we highlight the utility of geometric descriptors for understanding sepal and hypocotyl development. For branched structures, we describe how topology has been applied to quantify root system architecture to lend insight into root function. Lastly, we discuss the importance of using morphological descriptors in ecology to assess how communities interact, function, and respond within different environments. This review aims to provide a basic description of the mathematical principles underlying morphological quantifications. PMID:28217137

  2. Evaluation of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer. (United States)

    Bilić, A; Alpeza, I; Rukavina, A S


    The performance of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer was evaluated according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The following analytes were tested: glucose, urea, creatinine, calcium, AST, ALT, CK, LDH, ALP and amylase. The Olympus AU 400 was compared with the Olympus AU 800. Coefficients of correlation showed high correlation between the compared analyzers. Other performances (intra- and inter-assay variation, carry-over and interferences) of the analyzer were satisfactory.

  3. Oxygen analyzers: failure rates and life spans of galvanic cells. (United States)

    Meyer, R M


    Competing technologies exist for measuring oxygen concentrations in breathing circuits. Over a 4-year period, two types of oxygen analyzers were studied prospectively in routine clinical use to determine the incidence and nature of malfunctions. Newer AC-powered galvanic analyzers (North American Dräger O2med) were compared with older, battery-powered polarographic analyzers (Ohmeda 201) by recording all failures and necessary repairs. The AC-powered galvanic analyzer had a significantly lower incidence of failures (0.12 +/- 0.04 failures per machine-month) than the battery-powered polarographic analyzer (4.0 +/- 0.3 failures per machine-month). Disposable capsules containing the active galvanic cells lasted 12 +/- 7 months. Although the galvanic analyzers tended to remain out of service longer, awaiting the arrival of costly parts, the polarographic analyzers were more expensive to keep operating when calculations included the cost of time spent on repairs. Stocking galvanic capsules would have decreased the amount of time the galvanic analyzers were out of service, while increasing costs. In conclusion, galvanic oxygen analyzers appear capable of delivering more reliable service at a lower overall cost. By keeping the galvanic capsules exposed to room air during periods of storage, it should be possible to prolong their life span, further decreasing the cost of using them. In addition, recognizing the aberrations in their performance that warn of the exhaustion of the galvanic cells should permit timely recording and minimize downtime.

  4. A Novel Analyzer Control System for Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (United States)

    Rhoades, Glendon; Belev, George; Rosenberg, Alan; Chapman, Dean


    Diffraction Enhanced Imaging is an imaging modality that derives contrast from x-ray refraction, an extreme form of scatter rejection (extinction) and absorption which is common to conventional radiography. A critical part of the imaging system is the "analyzer crystal" which is used to re-diffract the beam after passing through the object being imaged. The analyzer and monochromator crystals form a matched parallel crystal set. This analyzer needs to be accurately aligned and that alignment maintained over the course of an imaging session. Typically, the analyzer needs to remain at a specific angle within a few tens of nanoradians to prevent problems with image interpretation. Ideally, the analyzer would be set to a specific angle and would remain at that angle over the course of an imaging session which might be from a fraction of a second to several minutes or longer. In many instances, this requirement is well beyond what is possible by relying on mechanical stability alone and some form of feedback to control the analyzer setting is required. We describe a novel analyzer control system that allows the analyzer to be set at any location in the analyzer rocking curve, including the peak location. The method described is extensible to include methods to extend the range of analyzer control to several Darwin widths away from the analyzer peaked location. Such a system is necessary for the accurate implementation of the method and is intended to make the use of the method simpler without relying on repeated alignment during the imaging session.

  5. [Feasibility of applying ornamental plants in contaminated soil remediation]. (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Nü; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Sun, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Fei


    Phytoremediation is one of the effective ways in resolving problems of contaminated soils, but limited hyperaccumulation plant species were reported and documented. This shortage could be offset if remediation plants can be screened out from various ornamental plants. In addition, such doing can beautify the environment while bring some economic effects. Starting from the importance of phytoremediation, this paper generalized the characters and standards of remediation plants. Through describing the resources of ornamental plants and their functions on environmental protection, particularizing their superiorities to other plants, and analyzing their endurance, accumulation traits and remediation types, the feasibility of applying ornamental plants in the practices of contaminated soil remediation was discussed. To screening out hyperaccumulators from ornamental plants would be an entirely new research area in the remediation of contaminated soils.

  6. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems (United States)


    43 Figure 14: Simulation Study Methodology for the Weapon System Analysis Metrics Definition and Data Collection The analysis plan calls for...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Casey D. Connors, Major, USA...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences

  7. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for...

  8. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon...

  9. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  10. 40 CFR 90.318 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... at any point, use the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within two percent of... been set to the most common operating range. (4) Introduce into the NOX generator analyzer-system an NO... off the NOX generator but maintain gas flow through the system. The oxides of nitrogen analyzer...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arjen van der Schoot


    @@ Fig. 1 shows a newly developed analyzer (Ankersmid CIS-100) that brings together two different measurement channels for accurate size and shape measurement of spherical and non-spherical particles. The size of spherical particles is measured by a HeNe Laser Beam; the size of non-spherical particles is analyzed by Dynamic Video Analysis of the particles' shape.

  12. Variability of Pesticide Dissipation Half-Lives in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie


    on the variability across substances, plant species and harvested plant components and finally discuss different substance, plant and environmental aspects influencing pesticide dissipation. Measured half-lives in harvested plant materials range from around 1 hour for pyrethrins in leaves of tomato and pepper fruit...... to 918 days for pyriproxyfen in pepper fruits under cold storage conditions. Ninety-five percent of all half-lives fall within the range between 0.6 and 29 days. Our results emphasize that future experiments are required to analyze pesticide–plant species combinations that have so far not been covered...

  13. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels


    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  14. Analyzing the genomes of wild and cultivated beets (United States)

    Sugar beet is an important crop plant that accounts for roughly 25% of the world's sugar production per year. We have previously shown that sugar beet has a quite narrow genetic base, presumably due to a domestication bottleneck. To increase the crop ´s stress tolerance, the introduction of desirabl...

  15. Competition-density effect in plant populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The competition-density effect of plant populations is of significance in theory and practice of forest management and has been studied for long time. The differences between the two reciprocal equations of the competition-density effect in nonself-thinning populations and self-thinning populations were analyzed theoretically. This supplies a theoretical basis for analyzing the dynamics of forest populations and evaluating the effect of forest management.

  16. Plant tissue culture techniques


    Rolf Dieter Illg


    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  17. Plant growth and cultivation. (United States)

    Podar, Dorina


    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  18. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg


    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  19. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.


    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  20. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin


    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react to their co......Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  1. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris


    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.

  2. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imashuku, Susumu, E-mail:; Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)


    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera.

  3. COSTEP: A comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer for SOHO (United States)

    Kunow, Horst; Fischer, Harald; Green, Guenter; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wibberenz, Gerd; Holweger, Hartmut; Evenson, Paul; Meyer, Jean-Paul; Hasebe, Nabuyuki; Vonrosenvinge, Tycho


    The group of instruments involved in the COSTEP (comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer) project are described. Three sensors, the LION (low energy ion and electron) instrument, the MEICA (medium energy ion composition analyzer) and the EPHIN (electron proton helium instrument) are described. They are designed to analyze particle emissions from the sun over a wide range of species (electrons through iron) and energies (60 KeV/particle to 500 MeV/nucleon). The data collected is used in studying solar and space plasma physics.

  4. Validation of ESR analyzer using Westergren ESR method. (United States)

    Sikka, Meera; Tandon, Rajesh; Rusia, Usha; Madan, Nishi


    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is one of the most frequently ordered laboratory test. ESR analyzers were developed to provide a quick and efficient measure of ESR. We compared the results of ESR obtained by an ESR analyzer with those by the Westergren method in a group of 75 patients Linear regression analysis showed a good correlation between the two results (r = 0.818, p < 0.01). The intra class correlation was 0.82. The analyzer method had the advantages of safety, decreased technician time and improved patient care by providing quick results.

  5. Plant Systems Biology (editorial) (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  6. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.


    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  7. Designing with plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.


    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Rainforests are the lungs of the earth and plants can be the lungs of a buildings. Every plant uses CO2, water and light to produce sugars and oxygen; furthermore plants provide shade, take pollutants from th

  8. Plants of the Bayshore. (United States)

    Bachle, Leo; And Others

    This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…

  9. Plant Diseases & Chemicals


    Thompson, Sherm


    This course discusses the use of chemicals for plant disease control. Specifically, pesticides that can be used both in commercial or home/yard sitautions. This course also teaches how to determine plant diseases that may have caused a plant to die.

  10. Iron stress in plants. (United States)

    Connolly, Erin L; Guerinot, Mary


    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches

  11. Iron stress in plants


    Connolly, Erin L.; Guerinot, Mary Lou


    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches.

  12. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.


    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  13. The Photo-Pneumatic CO2 Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to build a new technology, the photo-pneumatic analyzer. It is small, solid-state, inexpensive, and appropriate for observations of atmospheric...

  14. Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)


    A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented.

  15. Testing Evaluation of the Electrochemical Organic Content Analyzer (United States)

    Davenport, R. J.


    The breadboard electrochemical organic content analyzer was evalauted for aerospace applications. An awareness of the disadvantages of expendables in some systems resulted in an effort to investigate ways of reducing the consumption of the analyzer's electrolyte from the rate of 5.17 kg/30 days. It was found that the electrochemical organic content analyzer can result in an organic monitor in the water quality monitor having a range of 0.1 to 100 mg/1 total organic carbon for a large number of common organic solutes. In a flight version it is anticipated the analyzer would occupy .0002 cu m, weigh 1.4 kg, and require 10 W or less of power. With the optimum method of injecting electrolyte into the sample (saturation of the sample with a salt) it would expend only 0.04 kg of electrolyte during 30 days of continuous operation.

  16. Mini Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (miniTOCA) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzers function by converting (oxidizing) all organic compounds (contaminants) in the water sample to carbon dioxide gas (CO2), then...

  17. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  18. Mars & Multi-Planetary Electrical Environment Spectrum Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to develop MENSA as a highly integrated planetary radio and digital spectrum analyzer cubesat payload that can be deployed as a satellite instrument...

  19. Airspace Analyzer for Assessing Airspace Directional Permeability Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We build a software tool which enables the user (airline or Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP)) the ability to analyze the flight-level-by-flight-level permeability...

  20. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzers for measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.250 - Nondispersive infra-red analyzer. (United States)


    ... analyzer that has compensation algorithms that are functions of other gaseous measurements and the engine's known or assumed fuel properties. The target value for any compensation algorithm is 0.0% (that is,...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.272 - Nondispersive ultraviolet analyzer. (United States)


    ... in § 1065.307. You may use a NDUV analyzer that has compensation algorithms that are functions of... compensation algorithm is 0.0% (that is, no bias high and no bias low), regardless of the uncompensated...

  3. Lab-on-a-chip astrobiology analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an astrobiology analyzer to measure chemical signatures of life in extraterrestrial settings. The...

  4. Analyzing the next-generation catalog a library technology report

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Andrew


    his issue of ""Library Technology Reports"" analyzes five different academic libraries to better understand their investments, detailing the outcome thus far and drawing conclusions about the next-generation catalog.

  5. Analyzing Software Errors in Safety-Critical Embedded Systems (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.


    This paper analyzes the root causes of safty-related software faults identified as potentially hazardous to the system are distributed somewhat differently over the set of possible error causes than non-safety-related software faults.

  6. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for eddy flux covariance...

  7. Triple Isotope Water Analyzer for Extraplanetary Studies Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to employ Off-Axis ICOS to develop triple-isotope water analyzers for lunar and other extraplanetary exploration. This instrument...

  8. Assessment of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Analyzing the Impact of Human Trampling on Alpine Swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Kycko


    Full Text Available Tourist traffic has been observed to cause changes in vegetation cover, particularly in alpine areas. These changes can be monitored using remote-sensing methods. This paper presents an analysis of the condition of the dominant sward species surrounding the most frequented alpine tourist trails in the Tatra National Park, one of the most visited natural mountain parks in Poland and a UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserve. Hyperspectral measurements of interactions between the electromagnetic spectrum and the morphology and physiology of plants were presented. The spectral properties of plants and remote-sensing vegetation indices could be used at a later date for monitoring, for example from the air. The results identified the species' sensitivity and resistance to trampling and allowed an assessment of their physiological condition. Differences were observed in the conditions of trampled and control plants. The alpine swards in the Tatra National Park were assessed as being in good condition, with only small areas located close to the most popular trails showing damage. The proposed method for analyzing the condition of alpine swards could be a useful tool for the future management of protected areas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacurezeanu Ramona


    The purpose of our work is to analyze travel web-sites, more exactly, whether the criteria used to analyze virtual stores are also adequate for the Romanian tourism product. Following the study, we concluded that the Romanian online tourism web-sites for the Romanian market have the features that we found listed on similar web-sites of France, England, Germany, etc. In conclusion, online Romanian tourism can be considered one of the factors of economic growth.

  10. Real-Time, Polyphase-FFT, 640-MHz Spectrum Analyzer (United States)

    Zimmerman, George A.; Garyantes, Michael F.; Grimm, Michael J.; Charny, Bentsian; Brown, Randy D.; Wilck, Helmut C.


    Real-time polyphase-fast-Fourier-transform, polyphase-FFT, spectrum analyzer designed to aid in detection of multigigahertz radio signals in two 320-MHz-wide polarization channels. Spectrum analyzer divides total spectrum of 640 MHz into 33,554,432 frequency channels of about 20 Hz each. Size and cost of polyphase-coefficient memory substantially reduced and much of processing loss of windowed FFTs eliminated.

  11. A New Theoretical Framework for Analyzing Stochastic Global Optimization Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we develop a new theoretical framework by means of the absorbing Markov process theory for analyzing some stochastic global optimization algorithms. Applying the framework to the pure random search, we prove that the pure random search converges to the global minimum in probability and its time has geometry distribution. We also analyze the pure adaptive search by this framework and turn out that the pure adaptive search converges to the global minimum in probability and its time has Poisson distribution.

  12. Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System (United States)


    BUILDING STRONG® US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System Dr. Mike...2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the... Conceptual Framework c CURRENT MTS CURRENT INTERMODAL SYSTEM c MTS INVESTMENTS INTERMODAL INVESTMENTS FUTURE FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION DEMAND c

  13. Seasonal cycle of cloud cover analyzed using Meteosat images


    Massons, J.; Domingo, D.; Lorente, J.


    A cloud-detection method was used to retrieve cloudy pixels from Meteosat images. High spatial resolution (one pixel), monthly averaged cloud-cover distribution was obtained for a 1-year period. The seasonal cycle of cloud amount was analyzed. Cloud parameters obtained include the total cloud amount and the percentage of occurrence of clouds at three altitudes. Hourly variations of cloud cover are also analyzed. Cloud properties determined are coherent with those obtained in previous studies....

  14. Analyzing the spectrum of general, non-hermitian Dirac operators

    CERN Document Server

    Gattringer, C R; Gattringer, Christof; Hip, Ivan


    We discuss the computational problems when analyzing general, non-hermitian matrices and in particular the un-modified Wilson lattice Dirac operator. We report on our experiences with the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method. The eigenstates of the Wilson-Dirac operator which have real eigenvalues and correspond to zero modes in the continuum are analyzed by correlating the size of the eigenvalues with the chirality of the eigenstates.

  15. Magnetic systems for wide-aperture neutron polarizers and analyzers (United States)

    Gilev, A. G.; Pleshanov, N. K.; Bazarov, B. A.; Bulkin, A. P.; Schebetov, A. F.; Syromyatnikov, V. G.; Tarnavich, V. V.; Ulyanov, V. A.


    Requirements on the field uniformity in neutron polarizers are analyzed in view of the fact that neutron polarizing coatings have been improved during the past decade. The design of magnetic systems that meet new requirements is optimized by numerical simulations. Magnetic systems for wide-aperture multichannel polarizers and analyzers are represented, including (a) the polarizer to be built at channel 4-4‧ of the reactor PIK (Gatchina, Russia) for high-flux experiments with a 100×150 mm2 beam of polarized cold neutrons; (b) the fan analyzer covering a 150×100 mm2 window of the detector at the Magnetism Reflectometer (SNS, ORNL, USA); (c) the polarizer and (d) the fan analyzer covering a 220×110 mm2 window of the detector at the reflectometer NERO, which is transferred to PNPI (Russia) from HZG (Germany). Deviations of the field from the vertical did not exceed 2°. The polarizing efficiency of the analyzer at the Magnetism Reflectometer reached 99%, a record level for wide-aperture supermirror analyzers.

  16. Analyzing the dynamic stability of controlled electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, S.I.


    Techniques from the theory of optimal control are used to consider the possibilities for evaluating the effectiveness of emergency control of turbines at power plants of complex electric power systems. An algorithm is given for calculating the optimal control functions; it has been developed on the basis of the Pontryagin principle of the maximum and the method of quasi-linearization. Calculations for a particular four-machine circuit are used to evaluate the factors affecting the computational effectiveness of the algorithm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Adrian Achim


    Full Text Available In this paper we put in discussion some ethical aspects of plant, machinery and equipment valuation. After a presentation of the general issues of ethics in valuation domain, we analyze the application of the fundamental ethical principles in plant, machinery and equipment valuation domain. To support our conclusions we use some findings of a study that we conducted to identify the particularities of the plant, machinery and equipment valuation activity in Romania.

  18. [Prospects of the cultivated medical plants in Georgia]. (United States)

    Nanobashvili, N B; Lobzhanidze, M I


    The aim of the research is to give botanic description, to analyze chemical composition and medical properties of plants. The names of plants in Russian are also provided. The main areas of propagation of medicinal plants are identified. The period of collection is recommended. The most important features of raw materials and extracts are represented. The information about the therapeutic effectiveness of drugs is depicted.

  19. Energy performance indicator report: fluid milk plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In Canada, the dairy sector consumes significant amounts of energy and is looking for new ways of saving energy. The aim of this study, performed by the Competitive Analysis Centre Inc., was to find novel energy savings ideas for fluid milk plants. For this purpose, the energy consumption of 17 fluid milk plants, which accounts for over 50% of total Canadian output, was analyzed; first, at the plant level, and then by 8 categories at the sub-plant level in order to develop benchmarks that could be applied at both these levels. The paper provides background information on Canada's fluid milk sector and outlines the methodology used to develop and apply energy efficiency measures in the sector; the study findings are also presented. This report found that the energy consumption of the Canadian fluid milk sector could be lowered by applying the energy saving proposals developed herein.

  20. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...

  1. Is Distant Pollution Contaminating Local Air? Analyzing the Origins of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geng


    Full Text Available Understanding the origin of aerosols in the atmosphere is important because of visual pollution, climate impacts, and deleterious health effects due to the inhalation of fine particles. This research analyzed aerosols characterized by their chloride, sulfate, and nitrate content as a function of size over a 3-month period. Due to wind patterns over coal-burning power plants, a higher concentration of local sulfate pollution was expected. Aerosols were harvested on the Purdue University campus using a high-volume air sampler with glass fiber filters and a five-stage impactor that separates the aerosols into five sizes. The filters were extracted in water to dissolve anions and the solution was analyzed using high-pressure liquid ion chromatography. Only trace amounts of chloride with no distinct patterns in size were detected. In total, nitrate content ranged from 0.12 to 2.10 μg/m3 and sulfate content ranged from 0.44 to 6.45 μg/m3 over a 3-month period. As for fine particles, a higher concentration of sulfate was observed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model determines air mass origin, and in this study, higher total sulfate content was observed when the air mass moved out of the southwest, and higher total nitrate content was observed when the air mass originated from the southeast. The author concluded that small particles resulted in sulfate from sulfur dioxide, typically from gas to particle conversion. High sulfur dioxide levels are directly correlated with coal-burning power plant density. Small particulate sulfate found in West Lafayette, Indiana, was determined to originate primarily from power plants in southwest Indiana. Though the results do show a significant amount of potentially harmful aerosols in West Lafayette, there is still further research to be done concerning isotopic composition of those particles in attempts to better explain the chemical pathways.

  2. Study of Exotic Weakly Bound Nuclei Using Magnetic Analyzer Mavr (United States)

    Maslov, V. A.; Kazacha, V. I.; Kolesov, I. V.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Melnikov, V. N.; Osipov, N. F.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Skobelev, N. K.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Voskoboinik, E. I.


    A project of the high-resolution magnetic analyzer MAVR is proposed. The analyzer will comprise new magnetic optical and detecting systems for separation and identification of reaction products in a wide range of masses (5-150) and charges (1-60). The magnetic optical system consists of the MSP-144 magnet and a doublet of quadrupole lenses. This will allow the solid angle of the spectrometer to be increased by an order of magnitude up to 30 msr. The magnetic analyzer will have a high momentum resolution (10-4) and high focal-plane dispersion (1.9 m). It will allow products of nuclear reactions at energies up to 30 MeV/nucleon to be detected with the charge resolution ∼1/60. Implementation of the project is divided into two stages: conversion of the magnetic analyzer proper and construction of the nuclear reaction products identification system. The MULTI detecting system is being developed for the MAVR magnetic analyzer to allow detection of nuclear reaction products and their identification by charge Q, atomic number Z, and mass A with a high absolute accuracy. The identification will be performed by measuring the energy loss (ΔE), time of flight (TOF), and total kinetic energy (TKE) of reaction products. The particle trajectories in the analyzer will also be determined using the drift chamber developed jointly with GANIL. The MAVR analyzer will operate in both primary beams of heavy ions and beams of radioactive nuclei produced by the U400 - U400M acceleration complex. It will also be used for measuring energy spectra of nuclear reaction products and as an energy monochromator.

  3. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y


    Fundamental concepts on the life extension of the nuclear power plant and decommissioning optimization were established from the domestic abroad information and case analyses. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the standard of the decommissioning(decontamination dismantling) regulation. Moreover, basics were set for the decommissioning of domestic nuclear power plants and research reactors from the analyses on the decommissioning technology and precedence.

  4. Diuretics Prime Plant Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana (United States)

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Shirasu, Ken


    Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application. PMID:23144763

  5. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)


    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  6. Diuretics prime plant immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Noutoshi

    Full Text Available Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application.

  7. A Vector Network Analyzer Based on Pulse Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schulte


    Full Text Available A fast four channel network analyzer is introduced to measure S-parameters in a frequency range from 10MHz to 3GHz. The signal generation for this kind of analyzer is based on pulse generators, which are realized with bipolar transistors. The output signal of the transistor is differentiated and two short pulses, a slow and a fast one, with opposite polarities are generated. The slow pulse is suppressed with a clipping network. Thus the generation of very short electrical pulses with a duration of about 100ps is possible. The structure of the following network analyzer is similar to the structure of a conventional four channel network analyzer. All four pulses, which contain the high frequency information of the device under test, are evaluated after the digitalization of intermediate frequencies. These intermediate frequencies are generated with sampling mixers. The recorded data is evaluated with a special analysis technique, which is based on a Fourier transformation. The calibration techniques used are the same as for conventional four channel network analyzers, no new calibration techniques need to be developed.

  8. Drought and ice plant invasion in Bodega Bay, California (United States)

    Weill, A.


    Ice plant (Carpobrotus edulis) is a succulent native to South Africa that is widespread in coastal California. Ice plant invasion is facilitated by the plant's ability to compete for water. More frequent drought due to climate change could enhance the invasive potential of ice plant due to its succulent properties and potential to access and compete for water under drought conditions. However, ice plant spread may be slowed due to water stress under drought despite a potential competitive advantage. We test the alternative hypotheses that invasive potential increases or decreases during times of drought by analyzing ice plant spread during past droughts at Bodega Bay, California using analysis of aerial photographs taken over the last two decades. The results of this analysis may reveal how ice plant may behave in future drought years and provide useful information for invasive species management.

  9. Toxic proteins in plants. (United States)

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M


    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed.

  10. Pharming and transgenic plants. (United States)

    Liénard, David; Sourrouille, Christophe; Gomord, Véronique; Faye, Loïc


    Plant represented the essence of pharmacopoeia until the beginning of the 19th century when plant-derived pharmaceuticals were partly supplanted by drugs produced by the industrial methods of chemical synthesis. In the last decades, genetic engineering has offered an alternative to chemical synthesis, using bacteria, yeasts and animal cells as factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. More recently, molecular farming has rapidly pushed towards plants among the major players in recombinant protein production systems. Indeed, therapeutic protein production is safe and extremely cost-effective in plants. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out post-translational modifications and, unlike production systems based on mammalian cell cultures, plants are devoid of human infective viruses and prions. Furthermore, a large panel of strategies and new plant expression systems are currently developed to improve the plant-made pharmaceutical's yields and quality. Recent advances in the control of post-translational maturations in transgenic plants will allow them, in the near future, to perform human-like maturations on recombinant proteins and, hence, make plant expression systems suitable alternatives to animal cell factories.

  11. Safe genetically engineered plants (United States)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.


    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  12. A portable FRET analyzer for rapid detection of sugar content. (United States)

    Kim, Haseong; Kim, Hyo Sang; Ha, Jae-Seok; Lee, Seung-Goo


    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is widely used as a core process in biometric sensors to detect small molecules such as sugars, calcium ions, or amino acids. However, FRET based biosensors with innate weak signal intensity require the use of expensive, high-sensitive equipment. In the present study, these shortcomings were overcome with the fabrication of a sensitive, inexpensive, and portable analyzer which provides quantitative detection of small molecules in a liquid sample. The usability of the developed analyzer was successfully tested by measuring sucrose and maltose contents in commercially available beverage samples, with better performance than the conventional monochromator-type spectrofluorometer. It is anticipated that miniaturization of the equipment and improving the FRET based biosensors will contribute to the practical use of this hand-held analyzer in conditions where high-end equipment is not available.

  13. Chemical gas analyzers for proximate analysis of mine atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochenkova, T.K.; Klassovskaya, N.A.; Zlenko, A.G.; Gus' kova, A.N. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornogo Dela, Donetsk (Ukraine))


    Describes a series of chemical gas analyzers developed by the VNIIGD institute for proximate analysis of mine atmosphere in coal mines. The new GKh-4, GKh-5, GKh-6, GKh CO-5 use detector tubes for carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen sulfide. These devices allow miners to determine gas concentrations in the mine atmosphere in less than 4 minutes with an accuracy of +/-25%. The series is now complemented by the GKh-M CH[sub 2]O-0.004 gas analyzer for measuring formaldehyde content in mine air during mine rescue operations conducted with the use of carbamide-formaldehyde resins. Key technical data on the gas analyzers are given.

  14. A Method for Analyzing System Reliability of Existing Jacket Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; GONG Shun-feng; JIN Wei-liang


    Owing to the ageing of the existing structures worldwide and the lack of codes for the continued safety management of structures during their lifetime, it is very necessary to develop a tool to evaluate their system reliability over a time interval. In this paper, a method is proposed to analyze system reliability of existing jacket platforms. The influences of dint, crack and corrosion are considered. The mechanics characteristics of the existing jacket platforms to extreme loads are analyzed by use of the nonlinear mechanical analysis. The nonlinear interaction of pile-soil-structure is taken into consideration in the analysis. By use of FEM method and Monte Carlo simulation, the system reliability of the existing jacket platform can be obtained. The method has been illustrated through application to BZ28-1 three jacket platforms which have operated for sixteen years. Advantages of the proposed method for analyzing the system reliability of the existing jacket platform is also highlighted.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of the Boehringer Mannheim "Hitachi 705" automatic analyzer. (United States)

    Kineiko, R W; Floering, D A; Morrissey, M


    We evaluated a new multi-channel chemistry analyzer, the Hitachi 705 Automatic Analyzer, marketed by Boehringer Mannheim Diagnostics, Inc. The instrument is a computer-controlled discrete analyzer, which can be run in a combination profile mode and single-test mode. Sixteen different tests per sample may be performed at the rate of 180 tests per hour. The Hitachi 705 is especially suitable for use in hospitals that do not perform profile testing. Precision and linearity were excellent and the instrument was relatively trouble-free, with little operator attention required during operation. The Hitachi 705 was easily interfaced to our laboratory computer. We compared the performance of the instrument with that of the Du Pont aca; the two instruments compared favorably.

  16. Analyzing randomized controlled interventions: Three notes for applied linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vanhove


    Full Text Available I discuss three common practices that obfuscate or invalidate the statistical analysis of randomized controlled interventions in applied linguistics. These are (a checking whether randomization produced groups that are balanced on a number of possibly relevant covariates, (b using repeated measures ANOVA to analyze pretest-posttest designs, and (c using traditional significance tests to analyze interventions in which whole groups were assigned to the conditions (cluster randomization. The first practice is labeled superfluous, and taking full advantage of important covariates regardless of balance is recommended. The second is needlessly complicated, and analysis of covariance is recommended as a more powerful alternative. The third produces dramatic inferential errors, which are largely, though not entirely, avoided when mixed-effects modeling is used. This discussion is geared towards applied linguists who need to design, analyze, or assess intervention studies or other randomized controlled trials. Statistical formalism is kept to a minimum throughout.

  17. Simplified evaluation of apoptosis using the Muse cell analyzer. (United States)

    Khan, Asima; Gillis, Katherine; Clor, Julie; Tyagarajan, Kamala


    The degree of apoptosis in a cell population is an important parameter of cell health and is characterized by distinct morphological changes. Current methods of accurate detection and measurement of cellular apoptosis require expensive and complicated instrument platforms and expertise. The Muse Cell Analyzer is a unique instrument that enables multidimensional cell health analysis on a single platform. In this study, we used the Muse Cell Analyzer for apoptosis studies using the Muse Annexin V & Dead Cell Assay. The assay is based on the detection of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of apoptotic cells. The results obtained from Muse Cell Analyzer were compared with traditional methods for apoptosis analysis. Our results indicate that Muse Annexin V & Dead Cell Assay and software module enabled the acquisition of accurate and highly precise measurements of cellular apoptosis. The assay is versatile and works with both suspension and adherent cell lines and multiple treatment conditions.

  18. Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang-Ryol; Min, Sung-Ran; Jeong, Won-Joong; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seok-Yoon; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hye-Sun; In, Dong-Su; Oh, Seung-Chol; Park, Sang- Gyu; Woo, Je-Wook; Kin, Tae-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Sook [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)


    To develop the transgenic plants with low level of antioxidant enzyme, transgenic tobacco plants (157 plants) using 8 different plant expression vectors which have APX genes in sense or antisense orientation under the control of CaMV 35S promoter or stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter were developed. The insertion of transgene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. The total APX activities of transgenic plants were enhanced or reduced by introduction of APX gene in plants. To clone the radiation-responsive genes and their promoter from plants, the NeIF2Bb, one of radiation-responsive genes from tobacco plant was characterized using molecular and cell biological tools. Promoter of GST6, a radiation-responsive gene, was cloned using RT-PCR. The GST6 promoter sequence was analyzed, and known sequence motif was searched. To develop the remediation technology of radioactively contaminated soil using transgenic plants uranium reductase and radiation resistance genes have been introduced in tobacco and indian mustard plans. The uranium reductase and radiation resistance (RecA) genes were confirmed in transgenic tobacco and indian mustard plants by PCR analysis. Also, Gene expression of uranium reductase and radiation resistance were confirmed in transgenic indian mustard plants by northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  19. Usage of data mining for analyzing customer mindset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Sadaria


    Full Text Available As this is the era of Information Technology, no filed remains untouched by computer science. The technology has become an integral part of the business process. By implementing different data mining techniques and algorithms on the feedback collected from the customer, we can analyzed the data. With help of this analyzed information we have clear idea about the customer’s mind set and can take meaning full decision for production and marketing of particular product. To study about customer mindset differentmodels like classification and association models are used in data mining.

  20. An Economic Framework for Analyzing DoD Profit Policy (United States)


    It is also the profits that would be forgone by switching the engineer from commercial business to government business. That is, the firm would be...AD-A253 964TC S1 ELECTE An Economic Framework for Analyzing DoD Profit Policy William P. Rogerson Th- ’-’... . i ii d..m. mere has boon wproed m...Congess Catalging in PubUleaton Data Rogerson, Wiam P. (WOm Pal 195 5- An ecoomic framework for analyzing Do) profit policy / Wllimn P. p. cm. hared f1w

  1. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers (United States)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.


    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  2. Evaluation of a new multichannel analyzer, "Astra-8". (United States)

    Finley, P R; Williams, R J; Lichti, D A; Thies, A C


    We evaluated a new multiple-channel chemistry analyzer, the Beckman "Astra-8," which is controlled by a microprocessor with 52K bytes of memory. The instrument we tested performed the following tests: Na, K, CO2, chloride, urea nitrogen, glucose, and creatinine. We compared the Astra-8 to a continuous-flow (SMA 6/60) and a discrete (Du Pont aca, urea nitrogen only) analyzer. The Astra-8 demonstrated excellent precision, linearity, accuracy, analytical recovery, lack of interference, ease of operation, and satisfactory comparison to values obtained by the comparison methods.

  3. Analyzing the Objective Causes of Oral Chinglish and Error Avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Due to the inevitable influence of the mother tongue and some other objective causes, Chinglish is troubling Chinese learners of English in various ways, which has an bad effect on quality of oral communication. Therefore, minimizing or eliminating oral Chinglish will greatly improve the quality of communication. This paper will firstly explain the definition of Chinglish,then focus on description and analyzing of oral Chinglish mistakes, what’s more, the objective causes of oral Chinglish will be analyzed and founded, especially on the aspect of negative transfer. At last, some avoidance of oral Chinglish will be offered.

  4. Mixtures of Common Skew-t Factor Analyzers


    Murray, Paula M.; McNicholas, Paul D.; Browne, Ryan P.


    A mixture of common skew-t factor analyzers model is introduced for model-based clustering of high-dimensional data. By assuming common component factor loadings, this model allows clustering to be performed in the presence of a large number of mixture components or when the number of dimensions is too large to be well-modelled by the mixtures of factor analyzers model or a variant thereof. Furthermore, assuming that the component densities follow a skew-t distribution allows robust clusterin...

  5. Collecting, Analyzing and Visualizing Tweets using Open Source Tools


    Yang, Seungwon; Kavanaugh, Andrea L.


    This tutorial will teach participants how to collect, analyze and visualize results from twitter data. We will demonstrate several different free, open-source web-based tools that participants can use to collect twitter data (e.g., Archivist,, TwapperKeeper), and show them a few different methods, tools or programs they can use to analyze the data in a given collection. Finally, we will show participants visualization tools and programs they can use to present the analyses, such ...

  6. Electro-optic analyzer of angular momentum hyperentanglement. (United States)

    Wu, Ziwen; Chen, Lixiang


    Characterizing a high-dimensional entanglement is fundamental in quantum information applications. Here, we propose a theoretical scheme to analyze and characterize the angular momentum hyperentanglement that two photons are entangled simultaneously in spin and orbital angular momentum. Based on the electro-optic sampling with a proposed hyper-entanglement analyzer and the simple matrix operation using Cramer rule, our simulations show that it is possible to retrieve effectively both the information about the degree of polarization entanglement and the spiral spectrum of high-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement.

  7. SAS procedures for designing and analyzing sample surveys (United States)

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Reinecke, Kenneth J.; Kaminski, Richard M.


    Complex surveys often are necessary to estimate occurrence (or distribution), density, and abundance of plants and animals for purposes of re-search and conservation. Most scientists are familiar with simple random sampling, where sample units are selected from a population of interest (sampling frame) with equal probability. However, the goal of ecological surveys often is to make inferences about populations over large or complex spatial areas where organisms are not homogeneously distributed or sampling frames are in-convenient or impossible to construct. Candidate sampling strategies for such complex surveys include stratified,multistage, and adaptive sampling (Thompson 1992, Buckland 1994).

  8. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake


    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  9. Risk-taking plants (United States)

    Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem


    Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant’s ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed. PMID:22751307

  10. Conditional sterility in plants (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung


    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  11. Plant synthetic biology. (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal


    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  12. Surveying through Text Message: Planning, Programming, and Analyzing (United States)


    While the Survey is in the Field ................................................ 15 Analysis The final stage, Analysis , includes some software specific information as well as suggestions for analyzing the data returned and sample...text message lingo (see, for example,, but it is possible that most of those receiving the survey will not be

  13. Analyzing the Hidden Curriculum of Screen Media Advertising (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.


    This media literacy article introduces a questioning framework for analyzing screen media with students and provides an example analysis of two contemporary commercials. Investigating screen conventions can help students understand the persuasive functions of commercials, as well as how the unique sensory experience of screen viewing affects how…

  14. Redefining Creativity--Analyzing Definitions, Collocations, and Consequences (United States)

    Kampylis, Panagiotis G.; Valtanen, Juri


    How holistically is human creativity defined, investigated, and understood? Until recently, most scientific research on creativity has focused on its positive side. However, creativity might not only be a desirable resource but also be a potential threat. In order to redefine creativity we need to analyze and understand definitions, collocations,…

  15. Differentiation and Integration: Guiding Principles for Analyzing Cognitive Change (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Chen, Zhe


    Differentiation and integration played large roles within classic developmental theories but have been relegated to obscurity within contemporary theories. However, they may have a useful role to play in modern theories as well, if conceptualized as guiding principles for analyzing change rather than as real-time mechanisms. In the present study,…

  16. AnalyzeThis: An Analysis Workflow-Aware Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyogi [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL; Tiwari, Devesh [ORNL; Anwar, Ali [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Butt, Ali R [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)


    The need for novel data analysis is urgent in the face of a data deluge from modern applications. Traditional approaches to data analysis incur significant data movement costs, moving data back and forth between the storage system and the processor. Emerging Active Flash devices enable processing on the flash, where the data already resides. An array of such Active Flash devices allows us to revisit how analysis workflows interact with storage systems. By seamlessly blending together the flash storage and data analysis, we create an analysis workflow-aware storage system, AnalyzeThis. Our guiding principle is that analysis-awareness be deeply ingrained in each and every layer of the storage, elevating data analyses as first-class citizens, and transforming AnalyzeThis into a potent analytics-aware appliance. We implement the AnalyzeThis storage system atop an emulation platform of the Active Flash array. Our results indicate that AnalyzeThis is viable, expediting workflow execution and minimizing data movement.

  17. A toolkit for analyzing nonlinear dynamic stochastic models easily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.


    Often, researchers wish to analyze nonlinear dynamic discrete-time stochastic models. This paper provides a toolkit for solving such models easily, building on log-linearizing the necessary equations characterizing the equilibrium and solving for the recursive equilibrium law of motion with the meth

  18. Analyzing the Structure of the International Business Curriculum in India (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak K.


    This article analyzes the structure of the international business curriculum through a questionnaire-based survey among current students and young managers who are studying or have studied international business courses in one of the top B-Schools of India. Respondents have the opinion that international business is more than internationalization…

  19. Analyzing Perceptions of Prospective Teachers about Their Media Literacy Competencies (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Ergun, Muammer


    The purpose of this study is to analyze perceptions of prospective teachers about their media literacy competencies in terms of different variables. This is a descriptive research in the survey model which tries to detect the current situation. Study group includes 580 prospective teachers from Turkish, Primary School, Social Studies, Science,…

  20. Software Design and System Testing in EDXRF Uranium Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Jiang-bin


    The software is one of the important components of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry(EDXRF)analyzer.A simple software system consists of measurement parameter setting and display,spectrum measurement and display,energy calibration and spectrum processing.

  1. Measuring and Analyzing the Scholarly Impact of Experimental Evaluation Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelini, Marco; Ferro, Nicola; Larsen, Birger


    Evaluation initiatives have been widely credited with contributing highly to the development and advancement of information access systems, by providing a sustainable platform for conducting the very demanding activity of comparable experimental evaluation in a large scale. Measuring the impact......, a methodology for measuring their scholarly impact, and tools exploiting visual analytics to analyze the outcomes....

  2. Analyzing Oscillations of a Rolling Cart Using Smartphones and Tablets (United States)

    Egri, Sandor; Szabo, Lorant


    It is well known that "interactive engagement" helps students to understand basic concepts in physics. Performing experiments and analyzing measured data are effective ways to realize interactive engagement, in our view. Some experiments need special equipment, measuring instruments, or laboratories, but in this activity we advocate…

  3. Analyzing Digital Library Initiatives: 5S Theory Perspective (United States)

    Isah, Abdulmumin; Mutshewa, Athulang; Serema, Batlang; Kenosi, Lekoko


    This article traces the historical development of Digital Libraries (DLs), examines some DL initiatives in developed and developing countries and uses 5S Theory as a lens for analyzing the focused DLs. The analysis shows that present-day systems, in both developed and developing nations, are essentially content and user centric, with low level…

  4. Application of Three Registers of FSG to Analyze Students Compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During the process of checking one of the students' composition,the author applies the field,tenor,and mode of FSC to analyze the writing in a broader way than before,which gives an enlightenment to teaching writing and assisting students in a new angle.

  5. Virtual Environment of Real Sport Hall and Analyzing Rendering Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Popovski


    Full Text Available Here is presented virtual environment of a real sport hall created in Quest3D VR Edition. All analyzes of the rendering quality, techniques of interaction and performance of the system in real time are presented. We made critical analysis on all of these techniques on different machines and have excellent results.

  6. Analyzing 5 years of EC-TEL proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Meier, Christian; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter


    Reinhardt, W., Meier, C., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2011). Analyzing 5 years of EC-TEL proceedings. In C. D. Kloos, D. Gillet, R. M. Crespo García, F. Wild, & M. Wolpers (Eds.), Towards Ubiquitous Learning: 6th European Conference of Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2011 (pp. 531-536). Sept

  7. Interactive Evolutionary Computation for Analyzing Human Awareness Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Takagi


    Full Text Available We discuss the importance of establishing awareness science and show the idea of using interactive evolutionary computation (IEC as a tool for analyzing awareness mechanism and making awareness models. First, we describe the importance of human factors in computational intelligence and that IEC is one of approaches for the so-called humanized computational intelligence. Second, we show examples that IEC is used as an analysis tool for human science. As analyzing human awareness mechanism is in this kind of analyzing human characteristics and capabilities, IEC may be able to be used for this purpose. Based on this expectation, we express one idea for analyzing the awareness mechanism. This idea is to make an equivalent model of an IEC user using a learning model and find latent variables that connect inputs and outputs of the user model and that help to understand or explain the inputs-outputs relationship. Although there must be several definitions of awareness, this idea is based on one definition that awareness is to find out unknown variables that helps our understanding. If we establish a method for finding the latent variables automatically, we can realize an awareness model in computer.

  8. Success Is Cheesecake: A Guide to Analyzing Student Discourse (United States)

    Andrelchik, Hillary


    Action research, conducted by teachers in their own classrooms, with the goal of improving practice, is an invaluable practice that can provide insight into students' lives. One of the many challenges associated with action research is knowing how to analyze and interpret data. In this manuscript, written as a "how to" of sorts, I…

  9. Theories Analyzing Communicative Approach in China's EFL Classes (United States)

    Xu, Yang


    Communicative Approach is applied widely in primary and middle schools, when various modern teaching methods pour in China's EFL classes. However, the development of this effective language teaching method cannot show its advantages in China during years' practice. This paper analyzed the constraining factors, such as teaching habits, examination…

  10. Array of neutral particle analyzers at DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolipio, E.M.; Heidbrink, W.W. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    Local measurements of the fast-ion distribution in auxiliary-heated plasmas are key to understanding the behavior of energetic particles under a variety of conditions, such as beam-ion transport during Alfven instabilities and the acceleration of beam ions by fast waves. For the first time at DIII-D, line-averaged and local measurements of the energetic-particle density (for E = 5--75 keV) are possible using an array of four compact charge-exchange analyzers. The installation consists of three vertically-viewing analyzers with fixed sightlines, measuring particles with {chi} = 90{degree} (where {chi} is the angle between the particle`s velocity and the toroidal direction) and one horizontally-viewing analyzer with a variable sightline, measuring particles with 2{degree}{grave U} {chi} {acute U} 60{degree}. All the analyzers can make passive measurements while three detectors, with sightlines that intersect deuterium heating beams, can make active charge-exchange measurements.

  11. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.


    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With t

  12. Vector and Tensor Analyzing Powers in Deuteron-Proton Breakup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephan, E.; Kistryn, St.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Biegun, A.; Bodek, K.; Ciepal, I.; Deltuva, A.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Fonseca, A. C.; Gasparic, I.; Golak, J.; Jamroz, B.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kamada, H.; Kis, M.; Klos, B.; Kozela, A.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Micherdzinska, A.; Moeini, H.; Nogga, A.; Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Skibinski, R.; Sworst, R.; Witala, H.; Zejma, J.


    High precision data for vector and tensor analyzing powers of the (1)H (d(->), pp)nbreakup reaction at 130 and 100 MeV deuteron beam energies have been measured in a large fraction of the phase space. They are compared to the theoretical predictions based on various approaches to describe the three

  13. 40 CFR 89.321 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... nitrogen analyzer is checked for NO2 to NO converter efficiency according to § 89.317. (c) Initial and...-fit straight line is 2 percent or less of the value at each non-zero data point and within ± 0.3... represents the data to within these limits shall be used to determine concentration. (d) The initial...

  14. Using UPPAAL to Analyze an MPEG-2 Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Ravn, Anders Peter; Valero, Valentin


    The performance of a parallel algorithm for an MPEG-2 encoding is analyzed using timed automata models in the UppAal tool. We have constructed both a sequential model of MPEG-2, and a parallel model of MPEG-2 and then, a comparison of the results obtained for both models is made. We show how...

  15. Method, apparatus and software for analyzing perfusion images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Breeuwer, Marcel


    The invention relates to a method for analyzing perfusion images, in particular MR pertbsion images, of a human or animal organ including the steps of: (a) defining at least one contour of the organ, and (b) establishing at least one perfusion parameter of a region of interest of said organ within a

  16. Method, apparatus and software for analyzing perfusion images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Breeuwer, Marcel


    The invention relates to a method for analyzing perfusion images, in particular MR pertbsion images, of a human or animal organ including the steps of: (a) defining at least one contour of the organ, and (b) establishing at least one perfusion parameter of a region of interest of said organ within a

  17. Evaluation of an ion-selective electrolyte analyzer: Microlyte 6. (United States)

    Markova, V; Sirakova, I; Tsvetkova, T; Nikolov, R


    Microlyte 6 (Kone, Finland) is an ion-selective analyzer designed to measure simultaneously the concentration of six important electrolyte parameters--potassium, sodium, chloride, ionized calcium, ionized magnesium and pH in whole blood, serum and plasma. Two values are obtained in analyzing the ionized fractions of magnesium and calcium--one at the actual pH and another at a recalculated measurement for pH = 7.4. Direct determination of ionized calcium and ionized magnesium simultaneously with that of the other electrolytes is of great clinical significance. It is only recently that ion-selective analysis of ionized magnesium has been proposed. The analytical reliability of the results and the operational characteristics of the Microlyte 6 ion-selective analyzer were evaluated for approximately one year. The coefficient of variation of the results in the reference and pathological range was 0.49%-2.23%, and 0.68%-4.42% for the within-run and between-run series, respectively. The inaccuracy of the results expressed by d% was from -4.23% to +4.06%. The comparative evaluation of the results for potassium, sodium, chloride, and ionized calcium between Microlyte-6 and the clinical chemistry analyzer Dynamic (Kone) showed a high correlation (correlation coefficient in the range 0.9868-0.9970). The correlation between the results for the ionized fraction and those obtained for total magnesium was consistent with that generally given in the literature.

  18. T-Scan: a new tool for analyzing Dutch text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pander Maat, H.L.W.; Kraf, R.L.; van den Bosch, Antal; van Gompel, Maarten; Kleijn, S.; Sanders, T.J.M.; van der Sloot, Ko


    T-Scan is a new tool for analyzing Dutch text. It aims at extracting text features that are theoretically interesting, in that they relate to genre and text complexity, as well as practically interesting, in that they enable users and text producers to make text-specific diagnoses. T-Scan derives it

  19. Analyzing Properties of Stochastic Business Processes By Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin


    This chapter presents an approach to precise formal analysis of business processes with stochastic properties. The method presented here allows for both qualitative and quantitative properties to be individually analyzed at design time without requiring a full specification. This provides...... an effective means to explore possible designs for a business process and to debug any flaws....

  20. Microprocessor-Based Neural-Pulse-Wave Analyzer (United States)

    Kojima, G. K.; Bracchi, F.


    Microprocessor-based system analyzes amplitudes and rise times of neural waveforms. Displaying histograms of measured parameters helps researchers determine how many nerves contribute to signal and specify waveform characteristics of each. Results are improved noise rejection, full or partial separation of overlapping peaks, and isolation and identification of related peaks in different histograms. 2

  1. 40 CFR 91.318 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... two percent at any point, use the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within two... NOX generator analyzer-system an NO-in-nitrogen (N2) mixture with an NO concentration equal to.... Record this value as “a.” (9) Switch off the NOX generator but maintain gas flow through the system....

  2. Analyzing Parental Involvement Dimensions in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Kurtulmus, Zeynep


    The importance of parental involvement in children's academic and social development has been widely accepted. For children's later school success, the first years are crucial. Majority of the research focuses on enhancing and supporting parental involvement in educational settings. The purpose of this study was to analyze dimensions of parental…

  3. Watch out for superman: first visualize, then analyze. (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin


    A visit from Superman shows why data visualization should come before data analysis. The Web extra is a dataset that comprises 100 observations of the quantitative variables y and x plus the qualitative variable group. When analyzed correctly, this dataset exhibits an interesting pattern.

  4. A Bayesian Approach for Analyzing Longitudinal Structural Equation Models (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Hser, Yih-Ing; Lee, Sik-Yum


    This article considers a Bayesian approach for analyzing a longitudinal 2-level nonlinear structural equation model with covariates, and mixed continuous and ordered categorical variables. The first-level model is formulated for measures taken at each time point nested within individuals for investigating their characteristics that are dynamically…

  5. Analyzing the Writing Background of Tess of D’Urbervilles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    hongyan Su


    One of the most famous novels of Hardy’s is“Tess of D’Urbervilles”.In this novel Hardy created a beautiful country girl with emotion vividly. It tells us the tragic life story of Tess. This thesis is aimed at analyzing the writing background and the main idea..

  6. Analyze The Turn of the Screw from Cultural Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan


    Henry James is one of the most important novelists and critics in British and American literature. He spent much of his youth in plenty of European countries where he studied with tutors and governesses. Since the 1980s, more and more Western critics have started to use various critical theories such as political sociology, gender identity, and racial discrimination to study his novels. The author attempts to analyze The Turn of the Screw from cultural criticism. Cultural Criticism is not an independent theory. It is often interwoven with social, political, psychological, and historical contexts of a novel. The author first uses political sociology to analyze class division and power structure of the Victorian time. And then use social psychology to analyze the psyche of the governess and proves that it is the governess’sexual hysteria that leads to the fall of the two children.The author argues that Cul-tural Criticism seems to be a more suitable and effective way to analyze the story.

  7. Analyzing Risk and Performance Using the Multi-Factor Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Vermeulen (Erik); J. Spronk (Jaap); N. van der Wijst (Nico)


    textabstractIn this paper, we present a new model to analyze the risk and the expected level of firm performance. This model is based on the multi-factor approach to risk, in which unexpected performance is explained through sensitivities to unexpected changes of risk factors. Instead of using the m

  8. A Role-Playing Exercise for Analyzing Intercultural Communication. (United States)

    Lehman, Carol M.; Taylor, G. Stephen


    Presents a business communication scenario for students to role-play and analyze, using a systematic process for identifying communication roadblocks occurring on the job, especially when communicating with people from diverse backgrounds and other countries. Discusses ways to improve the communication process to enable students to develop…

  9. A Study Analyzing the Career Path of Librarians (United States)

    Noh, Younghee


    This study aims to identify the career movement patterns of librarians, analyze factors influencing their career movements, and compare differences in such factors between librarians and chief librarians. Findings showed that the jobs with the highest retention rate were those in public libraries, that library automation system developers showed…

  10. Analyzing the Limitation of Technology in Teacher Preparation Courses. (United States)

    Baldin, Yuriko Yamamoto


    Discusses whether mathematics teachers are being prepared to realize the limitations of technology in teaching activities and recognize conceptual problems in technology-based activities. Suggests a course to prepare teachers with skills to analyze existing materials as well as create their own activities. Illustrates this with examples from CAS,…

  11. Analyzing and Assessing Brain Structure with Graph Connectivity Measures (United States)


    here. We implement several connectiv - ity measures used in previous studies which used networks to analyze brain structure in order to reproduce results... connectiv - ity measures. In response, we implemented a breadth first search algorithm which examined unconnected networks and found the largest

  12. QPAN-A quick polarization analyzer for neutrons (United States)

    Hollas, C. L.; Newsom, C. R.; Ransome, R. D.; Riley, P. J.; Bonner, B. E.; Boissevain, J. G.; Simmons, J. E.; Bhatia, T. S.; Glass, G.; Hiebert, J. C.; Northcliffe, L. C.; Tippens, W. B.


    A simple device, QPAN, for determining the polarization of an 800 MeV neutron beam has been developed. QPAN consists of a double arm scintillator range telescope viewing a CH2 target. The effective analyzing power was found to be 0.18±.04.

  13. QPAN — A quick polarization analyzer for neutrons (United States)

    Hollas, C. L.; Ransome, R. D.; Riley, P. J.; Bonner, B. E.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bhatia, T. S.; Glass, G.; Hiebert, J. C.; Tippens, W. B.


    A device, dubbed QPAN, for determining the polarization of an intermediate energy neutron beam has been developed. QPAN consists of a double arm scintillator range telescope viewing a CH 2 target. The effective analyzing power was measured to be 0.18 ± 0.01.

  14. 40 CFR 86.221-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86.221-94 Section 86.221-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.221-94 Hydrocarbon...

  15. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86.224-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon...

  16. Modeling and analyzing autogenous shrinkage of hardening cement paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Koenders, E.A.B.


    In this paper, a conceptual model for analyzing the plastic part of autogenous deformation of cement paste based on the Arrhenius rate theory will be presented. The autogenous deformation will be calculated from the elastic deformations with inclusion of creep. Different kinds of cement paste with a

  17. Besieged by burqas: Analyzing representations of the burqa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurski, L.E.


    In this thesis, I analyze the ways in which various discourses produce knowledge about the burqa. Particularly, since the attacks on the twin towers and the London bombings, Orientalist and neo- Orientalist tropes have been revitalized and propagagated by ideologies of Islamophobia at work to radica

  18. Analyzing Exertion of Hardy's Tragic Effect in "Tess" (United States)

    Yang, Wei


    This paper begins with a brief introduction to [Thomas] Hardy's whole life and his works, especially this novel "Tess [of the D'Urbervilles]" and points out the tragic effect's importance and Hardy's tragic idea. Linked to this tragic effect, this paper analyzes the nice application in "Tess." At last, we can understand more…

  19. TBell: A mathematical tool for analyzing decision tables (United States)

    Hoover, D. N.; Chen, Zewei


    This paper describes the development of mathematical theory and software to analyze specifications that are developed using decision tables. A decision table is a tabular format for specifying a complex set of rules that chooses one of a number of alternative actions. The report also describes a prototype tool, called TBell, that automates certain types of analysis.

  20. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants


    Patrycja Redkiewicz; Anna Góra-Sochacka; Tomas Vaněk; Agnieszka Sirko


    Plant-based platforms have been successfully applied for the last two decades for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins. The number of commercialized products biomanufactured in plants is, however, rather discouraging. Cytokines are small glycosylated polypeptides used in the treatment of cancer, immune disorders and various other related diseases. Because the clinical use of cytokines is limited by high production costs they are good candidates for plant-made pharmaceuticals. S...

  1. An Archetypal Study of Plant Imagery in Robert Frost's Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As one of the most popular American poets in the twentieth century, Robert Frost demonstrated myriads of universally acknowledged works to the world. This paper aims to analyze the plant imagery appearing in his poems from the perspective of archetypal theory. This study, on the basis of analyzing poetic texts, utilizes content analysis to classify plant images into four types and work out relevant statistics. After data analysis based on thematology and archetypal theory, the study finds that plant images in his poems demonstrate the relationship between human beings and nature, psychological conflicts of the poet, death and dismay, expectation for life and rebirth.

  2. Effect of Volatiles from Plants on the Selectivity of Tetranychus viennensis for Different Host Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xugen; Qiao Luqin


    Olfactory responses of Tetranychus viennensis to different plant odors were studied with a"Y"olfactometer and petri dishes,and volatiles from leaves of different plants were absorbed with solid phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.The study showed that olfaction took place in the response when the Hawthorn Spider Mite looked for host plants,indicating that T.viennensis were attracted by odors from host plants.Different host plants have different attractions to T.viennensis;some attract strongly,while others do so to a lesser extent.The nonhost plants tested have neither attraction nor repulsion to the mite.The volatiles from leaves of different host plants such as Malus pumila,P.bretschneideri,Amygdalus persica,Armeniaca vulgaris,Malus spectabilis,Crataegus pinnatifida,and Prunus yedoensis consist of trans-3-hexen-l-ol,acetate,trans-3-hexenyl ester butanolic acid,α-farensene,etc.,which do not exist in the nonhost plants such as Euonymus japonicus.

  3. Big Data in Plant Science: Resources and Data Mining Tools for Plant Genomics and Proteomics. (United States)

    Popescu, George V; Noutsos, Christos; Popescu, Sorina C


    In modern plant biology, progress is increasingly defined by the scientists' ability to gather and analyze data sets of high volume and complexity, otherwise known as "big data". Arguably, the largest increase in the volume of plant data sets over the last decade is a consequence of the application of the next-generation sequencing and mass-spectrometry technologies to the study of experimental model and crop plants. The increase in quantity and complexity of biological data brings challenges, mostly associated with data acquisition, processing, and sharing within the scientific community. Nonetheless, big data in plant science create unique opportunities in advancing our understanding of complex biological processes at a level of accuracy without precedence, and establish a base for the plant systems biology. In this chapter, we summarize the major drivers of big data in plant science and big data initiatives in life sciences with a focus on the scope and impact of iPlant, a representative cyberinfrastructure platform for plant science.

  4. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging of plant tissues: towards a plant metabolite atlas. (United States)

    Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Wang, Qing; Friedt, Wolfgang; Spengler, Bernhard; Gottwald, Sven; Römpp, Andreas


    Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging provides spatial and molecular information for a wide range of compounds. This tool can be used to investigate metabolic changes in plant physiology and environmental interactions. A major challenge in our study was to prepare tissue sections that were compatible with high spatial resolution analysis and therefore dedicated sample preparation protocols were established and optimized for the physicochemical properties of all major plant organs. We combined high spatial resolution (5 μm), in order to detect cellular features, and high mass accuracy (root mean square error), for molecular specificity. Mass spectrometry imaging experiments were performed in positive and negative ion mode. Changes in metabolite patterns during plant development were investigated for germination of oilseed rape. The detailed localization of more than 90 compounds allowed assignment to metabolic processes and indicated possible functions in plant tissues. The 'untargeted' nature of MS imaging allows the detection of marker compounds for the physiological status, as demonstrated for plant-pathogen interactions. Our images show excellent correlation with optical/histological examination. In contrast to previous MS imaging studies of plants, we present a complete workflow that covers multiple species, such as oilseed rape, wheat seed and rice. In addition, different major plant organs and a wide variety of compound classes were analyzed. Thus, our method could be used to develop a plant metabolite atlas as a reference to investigate systemic and local effects of pathogen infection or environmental stress.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich


    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  6. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin


    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  7. MBS Native Plant Communities (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  8. Plant intelligence and attention. (United States)

    Marder, Michael


    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies.

  9. Plant Habitat (PH) (United States)

    Onate, Bryan


    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  10. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  11. Oil from plants (United States)

    Calvin, M.


    As a result of the exhaustion of our supplies of ancient photosynthesis (oil and gas) it is necessary to develop renewable fuels for the future. The most immediate source of renewable fuel is, of course, the annually growing green plants, some of which produce hydrocarbon(s) directly. New plant sources can be selected for this purpose, plants which have high potential for production of chemicals and liquid fuels. Suggestions are made for modification of both the product character and the productivity of the plants. Ultimately, a totally synthetic device will be developed for the conversion of solar quanta into useful chemical form completely independent of the need for arable land.

  12. Phyllotactic Patterns on Plants (United States)

    Shipman, Patrick D.; Newell, Alan C.


    We demonstrate how phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on plants) and the deformation configurations seen on plant surfaces may be understood as the energy-minimizing buckling pattern of a compressed shell (the plant's tunica) on an elastic foundation. The key new idea is that the strain energy is minimized by configurations consisting of special triads of almost periodic deformations. We reproduce a wide spectrum of plant patterns, all with the divergence angles observed in nature, and show how the occurrences of Fibonacci-like sequences and the golden angle are natural consequences.

  13. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  14. Plant biotic interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    occurring after infestation by olive fly larvae. The last research article by Niu et al.(2016) describes a growth-promoting rhizobacterium that primes induced systemic resistance by suppressing a host R gene-targeting micro RNA pairs and activating host immune responses. This finding further supports the important roles of plant endogenous small RNAs in plant-pathogen interactions. Hailing Jin, Professor Special Issue Editor UC President’s Chair Director of Genetics, Genomics and Bioinformatics Graduate Program, Center for Plant Cell Biology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, USA doi:10.1111/jipb.12476 ©2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences REFERENCES Alagna F, Kal enbach M, Pompa A, De Marchis F, Rao R, Baldwin IT, Bonaventure G, Baldoni L (2016) Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles. J Integr Plant Biol 58:413–425 Castiblanco LF, Sundin GW (2016) New insights on molecular regulation of biofilm formation in plant-associated bacteria. J Integr Plant Biol 58:362–372 da GraSca JV, Douhan GW, Halbert SE, Keremane ML, Lee RF, Vidalakis G, Zhao H (2016) Huanglongbing: An overview of a complex pathosystem ravaging the world’s citrus. J Integr Plant Biol 58:373–387 Giovino A, Martinel i F, Saia S (2016) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus attack affects a group of compounds rather than rearranging Phoenix canariensis metabolic pathways. J Integr Plant Biol 58:388–396 Huang J, Yang M, Zhang X (2016) The function of smal RNAs in plant biotic stress response. J Integr Plant Biol 58:312–327 Kaloshian I, Wal ing LL (2016) Hemipteran and dipteran pests: Effectors and plant host immune regulators. J Integr Plant Biol 58:350–361 Mermigka G, Verret F, Kalantidis K (2016) RNA silencing movement in plants. J Integr Plant Biol 58:328–342 Niu D, Xia J, Jiang C, Qi B, Ling X, Lin S, Zhang W, Guo J, Jin H, Zhao H (2016) Bacil us cereus AR156

  15. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi




    Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root,...

  16. Protein characterization of pasteurized milk, cheese whey and their mixtures by using the CEM SprintTM analyzer


    Igor Moura de Paiva; Virgílio de Carvalho dos Anjos; Maria José Valenzuela Bell; Marco Antônio Moreira Furtado


    In this work, the protein analyzer SprintTM was assessed regarding its capacity of predicting addition of whey in milk. This type of practice is relatively common in dairy plants, since whey, as it is a protein component, may be added with little loss of milk protein content. Besides,its incorrect elimination contributes to environmental pollution. Mixtures of milk and whey were prepared in different levels of addition and two methods of milk partition were tested. The results indicated that ...

  17. Evaluation of genomic high-throughput sequencing data generated on Illumina HiSeq and Genome Analyzer systems


    Minoche, André E.; Dohm, Juliane C.; Himmelbauer, Heinz


    Background The generation and analysis of high-throughput sequencing data are becoming a major component of many studies in molecular biology and medical research. Illumina's Genome Analyzer (GA) and HiSeq instruments are currently the most widely used sequencing devices. Here, we comprehensively evaluate properties of genomic HiSeq and GAIIx data derived from two plant genomes and one virus, with read lengths of 95 to 150 bases. Results We provide quantifications and evidence for GC bias, er...

  18. DNA Extraction from Eriocaulon Plants and Construction of RAPD System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xian; Lin Shanzhi; Zhang Zhixiang


    There have been many arguments on the classification of Eriocaulon Linn. by morphology so far, and little is known about the use of molecular marker for genetic for genetic diversity of Eriocaulon plants. To apply the technique of molecular marker to the research of genetic diversity of Eriocaulon plants, the study of the extraction method of DNA from the Eriocaulon plants and the RAPD system are essential for researchers. In this paper, the extraction of genome DNA from the silica-gel-dried leaves of several species of Eriocaulon distributed in China was studied, and the best RAPD analysis technique condition of Eriocaulon plants was analyzed.

  19. Screening of mahoran plants for cosmetic applications.


    Saive, Matthew; Frederich, Michel; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure


    This study’s main aim is to identify plant species showing anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and skin whitening properties. A selection of 89 samples from previous infield studies on the traditional uses of plants in Mayotte were analyzed. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed using the α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method developed by Blois [1]. The anti-inflammatory activity and the skin whitening activity were both assessed through the study of inhibition kinetics from specific enzy...

  20. Collab-Analyzer: An Environment for Conducting Web-Based Collaborative Learning Activities and Analyzing Students' Information-Searching Behaviors (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Hsiang; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray


    Researchers have found that students might get lost or feel frustrated while searching for information on the Internet to deal with complex problems without real-time guidance or supports. To address this issue, a web-based collaborative learning system, Collab-Analyzer, is proposed in this paper. It is not only equipped with a collaborative…

  1. Analyzing Resiliency of the Smart Grid Communication Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anas AlMajali, Anas; Viswanathan, Arun; Neuman, Clifford


    Smart grids are susceptible to cyber-attack as a result of new communication, control and computation techniques employed in the grid. In this paper, we characterize and analyze the resiliency of smart grid communication architecture, specifically an RF mesh based architecture, under cyber attacks. We analyze the resiliency of the communication architecture by studying the performance of high-level smart grid functions such as metering, and demand response which depend on communication. Disrupting the operation of these functions impacts the operational resiliency of the smart grid. Our analysis shows that it takes an attacker only a small fraction of meters to compromise the communication resiliency of the smart grid. We discuss the implications of our result to critical smart grid functions and to the overall security of the smart grid.

  2. Collecting and analyzing DNA evidence from fingernails: a comparative study. (United States)

    Hebda, Lisa M; Doran, Ashley E; Foran, David R


    Forensic practitioners and crime laboratories regularly collect and analyze fingernail evidence; however, the best techniques for processing such evidence have not been established. In this study, numerous aspects of fingernail evidence processing-collection of exogenous cells, transportation, purification of DNA, and STR analysis-were analyzed using fingernails harboring applied blood or epithelial cells from scratchings. Autosomal STR mixtures resulted when fingernails were soaked or swabbed, while scrapings rarely generated mixtures but exhibited allelic dropout. Y-STRs yielded single source profiles, with scrapings again showing dropout. A silica-based kit extraction recovered significantly more exogenous DNA than did organic extraction, neither of which was affected by nail polish. Swabbing nails in succession resulted in some cross-contamination from exogenous material, while transporting nails together did not, although there was loss of exogenous cells. Optimized nail processing produced complete Y-STR profiles of male volunteers from female fingernails following scratchings.

  3. Analyzing the BBOB results by means of benchmarking concepts. (United States)

    Mersmann, O; Preuss, M; Trautmann, H; Bischl, B; Weihs, C


    We present methods to answer two basic questions that arise when benchmarking optimization algorithms. The first one is: which algorithm is the "best" one? and the second one is: which algorithm should I use for my real-world problem? Both are connected and neither is easy to answer. We present a theoretical framework for designing and analyzing the raw data of such benchmark experiments. This represents a first step in answering the aforementioned questions. The 2009 and 2010 BBOB benchmark results are analyzed by means of this framework and we derive insight regarding the answers to the two questions. Furthermore, we discuss how to properly aggregate rankings from algorithm evaluations on individual problems into a consensus, its theoretical background and which common pitfalls should be avoided. Finally, we address the grouping of test problems into sets with similar optimizer rankings and investigate whether these are reflected by already proposed test problem characteristics, finding that this is not always the case.

  4. User Behavior Analysis from Web Log using Log Analyzer Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Bakariya


    Full Text Available Now a day, internet plays a role of huge database in which many websites, information and search engines are available. But due to unstructured and semi-structured data in webpage, it has become a challenging task to extract relevant information. Its main reason is that traditional knowledge based technique are not correct to efficiently utilization the knowledge, because it consist of many discover pattern, contains a lots of noise and uncertainty. In this paper, analyzing of web usage mining has been made with the help if web log data for which web log analyzer tool, “Deep Log Analyzer” to find out abstract information from particular server and also tried to find out the user behavior and also developed an ontology which consist the relation among efficient web apart of web usage mining.

  5. Analyzing Tag Distributions in Folksonomies for Resource Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Zubiaga, Arkaitz; Fresno, Víctor


    Recent research has shown the usefulness of social tags as a data source to feed resource classification. Little is known about the effect of settings on folksonomies created on social tagging systems. In this work, we consider the settings of social tagging systems to further understand tag distributions in folksonomies. We analyze in depth the tag distributions on three large-scale social tagging datasets, and analyze the effect on a resource classification task. To this end, we study the appropriateness of applying weighting schemes based on the well-known TF-IDF for resource classification. We show the great importance of settings as to altering tag distributions. Among those settings, tag suggestions produce very different folksonomies, which condition the success of the employed weighting schemes. Our findings and analyses are relevant for researchers studying tag-based resource classification, user behavior in social networks, the structure of folksonomies and tag distributions, as well as for develope...

  6. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements and uncertainty assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Shoaib, Nosherwan


    This book describes vector network analyzer measurements and uncertainty assessments, particularly in waveguide test-set environments, in order to establish their compatibility to the International System of Units (SI) for accurate and reliable characterization of communication networks. It proposes a fully analytical approach to measurement uncertainty evaluation, while also highlighting the interaction and the linear propagation of different uncertainty sources to compute the final uncertainties associated with the measurements. The book subsequently discusses the dimensional characterization of waveguide standards and the quality of the vector network analyzer (VNA) calibration techniques. The book concludes with an in-depth description of the novel verification artefacts used to assess the performance of the VNAs. It offers a comprehensive reference guide for beginners to experts, in both academia and industry, whose work involves the field of network analysis, instrumentation and measurements.

  7. Using linear programming to analyze and optimize stochastic flow lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helber, Stefan; Schimmelpfeng, Katja; Stolletz, Raik


    This paper presents a linear programming approach to analyze and optimize flow lines with limited buffer capacities and stochastic processing times. The basic idea is to solve a huge but simple linear program that models an entire simulation run of a multi-stage production process in discrete tim...... programming and hence allows us to solve buffer allocation problems. We show under which conditions our method works well by comparing its results to exact values for two-machine models and approximate simulation results for longer lines.......This paper presents a linear programming approach to analyze and optimize flow lines with limited buffer capacities and stochastic processing times. The basic idea is to solve a huge but simple linear program that models an entire simulation run of a multi-stage production process in discrete time...

  8. Analyzing Bullwhip Effect in Supply Networks under Exogenous Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Darvish


    Full Text Available This paper explains a model for analyzing and measuring the propagation of order amplifications (i.e. bullwhip effect for a single-product supply network topology considering exogenous uncertainty and linear and time-invariant inventory management policies for network entities. The stream of orders placed by each entity of the network is characterized assuming customer demand is ergodic. In fact, we propose an exact formula in order to measure the bullwhip effect in the addressed supply network topology considering the system in Markovian chain framework and presenting a matrix of network member relationships and relevant order sequences. The formula turns out using a mathematical method called frequency domain analysis. The major contribution of this paper is analyzing the bullwhip effect considering exogenous uncertainty in supply networks and using the Fourier transform in order to simplify the relevant calculations. We present a number of numerical examples to assess the analytical results accuracy in quantifying the bullwhip effect.

  9. Analyzing Oil Futures with a Dynamic Nelson-Siegel Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Strange; Lunde, Asger

    In this paper we are interested in the term structure of futures contracts on oil. The objective is to specify a relatively parsimonious model which explains data well and performs well in a real time out of sample forecasting. The dynamic Nelson-Siegel model is normally used to analyze and forec......In this paper we are interested in the term structure of futures contracts on oil. The objective is to specify a relatively parsimonious model which explains data well and performs well in a real time out of sample forecasting. The dynamic Nelson-Siegel model is normally used to analyze...... and forecast interest rates of different maturities. The structure of oil futures resembles the structure of interest rates and this motivates the use of this model for our purposes. The data set is vast and the dynamic Nelson-Siegel model allows for a significant dimension reduction by introducing three...

  10. Methods for Analyzing Multivariate Phenotypes in Genetic Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Yang


    Full Text Available Multivariate phenotypes are frequently encountered in genetic association studies. The purpose of analyzing multivariate phenotypes usually includes discovery of novel genetic variants of pleiotropy effects, that is, affecting multiple phenotypes, and the ultimate goal of uncovering the underlying genetic mechanism. In recent years, there have been new method development and application of existing statistical methods to such phenotypes. In this paper, we provide a review of the available methods for analyzing association between a single marker and a multivariate phenotype consisting of the same type of components (e.g., all continuous or all categorical or different types of components (e.g., some are continuous and others are categorical. We also reviewed causal inference methods designed to test whether the detected association with the multivariate phenotype is truly pleiotropy or the genetic marker exerts its effects on some phenotypes through affecting the others.

  11. Photoelectric equipment type MFS-7 for analyzing oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, S.A.; Fridman, M.G.; Kholosha, T.V.; Ezhoda, G.D.; Nechitailov, V.V.


    The authors describe the equipment type MFS-7 which is intended for analyzing used oils for the wear products of motors. The difference between type MFS-7 and its predecessors lies in the application of computer techniques to control the equipment and process the output data; and in the design of the sample container, which allows for two methods of introducing the sample into the discharge. The photoelectric equipment consists of an excitation spectrum source IVS-28, having an ac arc mode and 1.v. spark, a polychoromator, a special sample holder for analyzing liquid samples, an electronic recording apparatus with digital voltmeter type ERU-18 and control computer system Spectr 2.2 based on a minicomputer with its own printer. The type MFS-7 equipment has been tested and put into mass production.

  12. Analyzing complex networks evolution through Information Theory quantifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpi, Laura C., E-mail: [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Rosso, Osvaldo A., E-mail: rosso@fisica.ufmg.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Chaos and Biology Group, Instituto de Calculo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saco, Patricia M., E-mail: [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Hidraulica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, Rosario (Argentina); Ravetti, Martin Gomez, E-mail: martin.ravetti@dep.ufmg.b [Departamento de Engenharia de Producao, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil)


    A methodology to analyze dynamical changes in complex networks based on Information Theory quantifiers is proposed. The square root of the Jensen-Shannon divergence, a measure of dissimilarity between two probability distributions, and the MPR Statistical Complexity are used to quantify states in the network evolution process. Three cases are analyzed, the Watts-Strogatz model, a gene network during the progression of Alzheimer's disease and a climate network for the Tropical Pacific region to study the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamic. We find that the proposed quantifiers are able not only to capture changes in the dynamics of the processes but also to quantify and compare states in their evolution.

  13. Analyzing Force Concept Inventory with Item Response Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jing


    Item Response Theory (IRT) is a popular assessment method used in education measurement, which builds on an assumption of a probability framework connecting students' innate ability and their actual performances on test items. The model transforms students' raw test scores through a nonlinear regression process into a scaled proficiency rating, which can be used to compare results obtained with different test questions. IRT also provides a theoretical approach to address ceiling effect and guessing. We applied IRT to analyze the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). The data was collected from 2802 students taking intro level mechanics courses at The Ohio State University. The data was analyzed with a 3-parameter item response model for multiple choice questions. We describe the procedures of the analysis and discuss the results and the interpretations. The analysis outcomes are compiled to provide a detailed IRT measurement metric of the FCI, which can be easily referenced and used by teachers and researchers for a...

  14. An empirical study to analyze CRM strategy using BSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Safari Kahreh


    Full Text Available In the new marketing paradigm that is based on the relationship marketing, corporations and organizations look for retaining and enhancing the long run relationships with their customers. Customer relationship management (CRM as a heart of the new marketing paradigm includes numbers of mechanisms that endeavor to manage sustainable and profitable long-term relations with valuable customers. Every year, there are many programs and resources dedicated for marketing strategy and planning. Evaluation of these endeavors especially the CRM strategy is much important. Hence, the primary purpose of this research is to analyze CRM using balanced scorecard as a valuable strategic tool. Required data was gathered from one of the biggest commercial banks of Iran and they were analyzed using BSC and statistical software packages. Results indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between 3 main aspects of CRM strategy and 4 main aspects of BSC.

  15. Performance of a blood chemistry analyzer during parabolic flight. (United States)

    Spooner, B S; Claassen, D E; Guikema, J A


    We have tested the performance of the VISION System Blood Analyzer, produced by Abbott Laboratories, during parabolic flight on a KC-135 aircraft (NASA 930). This fully automated instrument performed flawlessly in these trials, demonstrating its potential for efficient, reliable use in a microgravity environment. In addition to instrument capability, we demonstrated that investigators could readily fill specially modified test packs with fluid during zero gravity, and that filled test packs could be easily loaded into VISION during an episode of microgravity.

  16. DEM error retrieval by analyzing time series of differential interferograms


    Bombrun, Lionel; Gay, Michel; Trouvé, Emmanuel; Vasile, Gabriel; Mars, Jerome,


    International audience; 2-pass Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR) processing have been successfully used by the scientific community to derive velocity fields. Nevertheless, a precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is necessary to remove the topographic component from the interferograms. This letter presents a novel method to detect and retrieve DEM errors by analyzing time series of differential interferograms. The principle of the method is based on the comparison...

  17. Bridging Women Rights Networks: Analyzing Interconnected Online Collective Actions


    Serpil T. Yuce; Nitin Agarwal; Wigand, Rolf T.; Merlyna Lim; Rebecca S. Robinson


    In recent mass protests such as the Arab Spring and Occupy movements, protesters used social media to spread awareness, coordinate, and mobilize support. Social media-assisted collective action has attracted much attention from journalists, political observers, and researchers of various disciplines. In this article, the authors study transnational online collective action through the lens of inter-network cooperation. The authors analyze interaction and support between the women's rights net...

  18. Analyzing the Low Power Wireless Links for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mamun, Md Mainul Islam; Kumar, Sumon; Islam, Md Zahidul


    There is now an increased understanding of the need for realistic link layer models in the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we have used mathematical techniques from communication theory to model and analyze low power wireless links. Our work provides theoretical models for the link layer showing how Packet Reception Rate vary with Signal to Noise Ratio and distance for different modulation schemes and a comparison between MICA2 and TinyNode in terms of PRR.

  19. Analyzing E-banking in Iran and other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abbasi


    Full Text Available E-banking is the most recent outcome of modern banking services which provides unlimited markets and paves the way for better risk has made a big progress during recent years especially in developed countries. However, new comer with innovative idea and strategy definitely can make position in this sector. The evolution consideration and current circumstances of E-Banking can help analyzing issues like: existing e-banks and entrants to boost the economic growth

  20. Hierarchical Sets: Analyzing Pangenome Structure through Scalable Set Visualizations


    Pedersen, Thomas Lin


    The increase in available microbial genome sequences has resulted in an increase in the size of the pangenomes being analyzed. Current pangenome visualizations are not intended for the pangenome sizes possible today and new approaches are necessary in order to convert the increase in available information to increase in knowledge. As the pangenome data structure is essentially a collection of sets we explore the potential for scalable set visualization as a tool for pangenome analysis. We pre...