WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese yam polysaccharide

  1. 山药多糖提取与纯化工艺研究进展%Research Progress on Extraction and Purification Technology of Chinese Yam Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳

    2015-01-01

    山药是药食兼用植物,山药多糖是山药中重要的活性物质之一. 综述国内近几年来关于山药多糖的提取与纯化工艺技术研究进展情况,为未来进一步开展山药多糖的开发利用提供参考.%Chinese yam is a kind of medical and edible plant, Chinese yam polysaccharide is one of the important active ingredients in Chinese yam. This article reviewed and summarized the research progress on extraction and purification of Chinese yam polysaccharides in recent years, and it provided a reference for further development and utilization of Chinese yam polysaccharides.

  2. 山药多糖生物活性研究进展%Research Progress of Bioactive of Chinese Yam Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳

    2015-01-01

    山药是药食兼用植物,山药多糖被认为是山药中重要的活性物质之一。通过查阅国内相关文献,分析、归纳、总结近年来山药多糖的提取纯化和生物活性方面的研究进展,为山药多糖的进一步开发利用提供参考。%Chinese yam is a kind of medical and edible plant, Chinese yam polysaccharides is one of the important active ingredients in Chinese yam. In the article, it summarized and analyzed the research progress of extraction and purification for Chinese yam polysac-charides and its bioactive referring to domestic related documents in recent years, provide a reference for further development and uti-lization of Chinese yam polysaccharides.

  3. Purification and structural characterization of Chinese yam polysaccharide and its activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weifang; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiuping; Yu, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Purification and structural characterization of Chinese yam polysaccharide were investigated and its activities were analyzed. Results indicated that a single component polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 16,619 Da was obtained after hot water extraction with sequential sevage deproteinization, HSCCC and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography. The FTIR analysis showed that it had characteristic absorptive peaks and contained uronic acid. The methylation and GC-MS analysis showed that it comprised of glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.52:1, and that it mainly contained 1,3-linked-glc, 1-linked-gal and 1,6-linked-gal glycosidic bonds. (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra analysis showed that there were two α-configurations and one β-configuration, and that β-1,3-glucose, α-1-galactose, α-1,6-galactose might exist in the structure of the purified polysaccharide. The determination of the antioxidative activity showed that it could scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The purified polysaccharide displayed a certain inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, with a MIC of 2.5 mg/mL. PMID:25498730

  4. Fermentation Characterization of Chinese Yam Polysaccharide and Its Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Kong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat was used to characterize Chinese Yam polysaccharides (CYPs. In Exp. 1, maximum volume and rate of gas production in CYP 3-supplemented group were higher than other CYP-supplemented groups and control group, while pH values and NH3 contents in CYP 2-, CYP 3-, and CYP 4-supplemented groups were lower than control group. Contents of acetate, propionate and butyrate increased by supplementing CYP 3 or CYP 4 compared to other groups, except for glucose-supplemented group. Contents of isobutyrate for CYPs groups decreased compared to control group. CYP 3 enhanced beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens. In Exp. 2, contents of acetate and butyrate in cecal digesta of rats fed 0.25 or 0.5 g/kg CYP 3 were higher than other groups on day 7. pH values in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were lower than 1.0 g/kg group. Contents of acetate in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were greater than other 2 groups on day 21. Gut microflora in CYP 3-supplemented rats had greater diversity than non-supplemented rats. CYP 3 enriched beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens in rat cecum. These findings suggested that CYP 3 is a good source of carbon and energy, and may improve bacterial community diversity and modulate short-chain fatty acid production in hindgut of rats.

  5. A Comparison of Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods for the Analysis of Several Nutritionally Important Chemical Substances in the Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita): Total Sugar, Polysaccharides, and Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) is a basic food in Asia and especially China. Consequently, an uncomplicated, reliable method should be available for the analysis of the quality and origin of the yams. Thus, near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopic methods were developed to discriminate among Chinese yam samples collected from four geographical regions. The yam samples were analyzed also for total sugar, polysaccharides, and flavonoids. These three analytes were used to compare the performance of the analytical methods. Overlapping spectra were resolved using chemometrics methods. Such spectra were compared qualitatively using principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitatively using partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models. We discriminated among the four sets of yam data using PCA, and the NIR data performed somewhat better than the mid-IR data. We constructed the PLS and LS-SVM calibration models for the prediction of the three key variables, and the LS-SVM model produced better results. Also, the NIR prediction model produced better outcomes than the mid-IR prediction model. Thus, both infrared (IR) techniques performed well for the analysis of the three key analytes, and the samples were qualitatively discriminated according to their provinces of origin. Both techniques may be recommended for the analysis of Chinese yams, although the NIR technique would be preferred. PMID:25742643

  6. Preparation of oligosaccharides from Chinese yam and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Zhu, Qin; Wu, Shengjun

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, the oligosaccharides from Chinese yam were prepared by hydrolysis with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can cleave the glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. The hydrolysis conditions were optimised by using a central composite design (CCD) as follows: reaction time 4.02 h, temperature 84.35 °C, and H2O2 concentration 2.46%, under which the yield of Chinese yam derived oligosaccharides (CYOs) reached 11.73%, which was consistent with the predicted yield by analysis of the results of CCD (11.89%). The CYOs products were partially characterised by chemical component and Fourier transform infrared spectrum. The CYOs scavenged hydroxyl radical by 89.05% at the concentration of 100 μg/mL, indicating that the CYOs may be a viable option for use as a food antioxidant. PMID:25466131

  7. Invention of a Drink of Chinese yam Polysaccharide Compound with lapsang souchong%山药多糖复配正山小种红茶饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙辉; 胡健; 陈宗道

    2014-01-01

    利用武夷山正山小种红茶为原料,通过5点标度和9点标度快感评分检验法,以快感评分为指标,采用单因素试验确定影响山药多糖红茶饮料各主要成分的适宜条件后,通过正交试验确定饮料的最佳配方为山药多糖添加量2.1g/L,蔗糖添加量65g/L,柠檬酸添加量0.20g/L,维生素C添加量0.35g/L。风味剖面分析法检验成品感官性状为色泽清亮,风味浓郁,酸甜适中,清香纯正。%Use of Wuyi lapsang souchong as raw material, through five pleasure at 9 point scale and scale grade test, with pleasure for scoring index, determined by single factor experiment of yam polysaccharide components of black tea beverage after appropriate condi¯ tions, the best formula determined by orthogonal experiments for yam polysaccharide content of 2.1 g/L, sucrose content of 65 g/L, citric acid content of 0.20 g/L and vitamin C content of 0.35 g/L. Sensory properties of flavor profile analysis inspection finished product is color and lustre is clear, flavor, sweet and sour moderate, fragrance is pure.

  8. Invention of a Drink of Chinese yam Polysaccharide Compound with lapsang souchong%山药多糖复配正山小种红茶饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙辉; 胡健; 陈宗道

    2014-01-01

    Use of Wuyi lapsang souchong as raw material, through five pleasure at 9 point scale and scale grade test, with pleasure for scoring index, determined by single factor experiment of yam polysaccharide components of black tea beverage after appropriate condi¯ tions, the best formula determined by orthogonal experiments for yam polysaccharide content of 2.1 g/L, sucrose content of 65 g/L, citric acid content of 0.20 g/L and vitamin C content of 0.35 g/L. Sensory properties of flavor profile analysis inspection finished product is color and lustre is clear, flavor, sweet and sour moderate, fragrance is pure.%利用武夷山正山小种红茶为原料,通过5点标度和9点标度快感评分检验法,以快感评分为指标,采用单因素试验确定影响山药多糖红茶饮料各主要成分的适宜条件后,通过正交试验确定饮料的最佳配方为山药多糖添加量2.1g/L,蔗糖添加量65g/L,柠檬酸添加量0.20g/L,维生素C添加量0.35g/L。风味剖面分析法检验成品感官性状为色泽清亮,风味浓郁,酸甜适中,清香纯正。

  9. A protocol for in vitro production of microtubers in Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjun; Li, Junhua; Liu, Wen; Liu, Luying; Lu, Jie; Niu, Jia; Liu, Xinying; Yang, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) is an important tuberous crop owing to its dual use as a food as well as a medicine. Tissue culture techniques allow the rapid multiplication of virus-free plant materials. The use of microtubers offers an attractive alternative to in vitro-grown plantlets for the micropropagation and exchange of healthy Chinese yam materials. A protocol for the in vitro production of Chinese yam microtubers was developed in this study. Though we tested both one-step and two-step procedures, only the two-step procedure showed favorable results for tuberization. Media with 60 g L(-1) sucrose yielded the highest microtuber index. We demonstrate that table sugar was an efficient and economical alternative to analytical grade sucrose for microtuber production. Using an orthogonal experimental design, we determined the optimal growth regulator combination for microtuber induction and development. The microtubers obtained from our protocol sprouted readily both in vitro and in soil. PMID:25036126

  10. Prevention of enzymatic browning of Chinese yam (Dioscorea spp.) using electrolyzed oxidizing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guo-Liang; Shi, Jing-Ying; Song, Zhan-Hua; Li, Fa-De

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) on the prevention of enzymatic browning of fresh-cut "Jiu Jinhuang" Chinese yam were investigated. The yams were immersed in the inhibitors for 25 min at 20 °C. Compared with the tap water (TW) treatment, the chromatic attributes were significantly different after 72 h of storage (P yam PPO were 0.0044 mol/L and 0.02627 U/min, respectively, and the Ki of samples treated with SAEW and citric acid (CA) were 15.6607 and 2.3969 μmol/L, respectively. These results indicate that EOW is beneficial as a browning inhibitor. PMID:25736015

  11. Identification of Chinese Yam and Its Adulterants%山药及其混伪品的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the true and adulterants of Chinese yam,and learn more about it, which can prevent the mistaken for sale and using Chinese yam in the market and ensure the safety of the people’s medication. Chinese yam and its adulterants described the experience of identiifcation, comparison and microscopic identiifcation of the original plant. Methods Introduce the experience in identifying 、the comparison of the original plant and Microscopic identiifcation between Chinese yam and its adulerants.Results Chinese yam are close to its adulterants in the general traits. However,experience in the identification and microscopic identification of Chinese yam have significant differences.Conclusion These methods can tell the authenticity of Dioscorea opposita Thunb correctly.%目的:鉴别山药真伪,进一步了解山药,防止市场上误售、误用,确保人民群众的用药安全。方法介绍山药及其混伪品的经验鉴别、原植物比较和显微鉴别。结果山药与其混伪品在一般性状比较接近,但是在山药商品经验鉴别与显微鉴别方面有明显差异。结论此方法可以正确辨别山药真伪。

  12. Study on optimization of forced sprouting of Chinese yam. Development of a Chinese yam forced sprouting device; Nagaimo saiga saitekika kenkyu. Nagaimo saiga sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, M.; Konno, T.; Kogayashi, Y. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-03-24

    In Chinese yam cultivation in Hokkaido, curing and forced sprouting treatments are indispensable, by which the cut faces of seed yams are dried completely into cork, and the treatments are the important factors to govern the yield. In practice, the work is being done using vinyl greenhouses, but it tends to be dependent of climate, its control is complex, and much labor is consumed for an extended period of time. Status of sprouting also tends to become non-uniform. In order to perform simply and stably the curing and the forced sprouting treatment, an electric heat utilizing device was developed, that can identify suitable environmental conditions and realize the conditions. It was verified that both of the curing (using air permeable sheets) and the forced sprouting treatment (using temperature keeping sheets) can raise and maintain the temperature to the optimum value. Humidity stayed in an adequate humidity band for the curing and the forced sprouting treatment at about 70% when the air permeable sheets are used, and 80% to saturation when the temperature keeping sheets are used, respectively. Some humidifying water addition may suffice the cultivation during the period of the forced sprouting, and the temperature control has reduced largely manpower consumption when compared to the greenhouse side window opening and closing practice. No re-stacking is required to make the sprouting condition uniform, thus production stability can be enhanced. (NEDO)

  13. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of the Extracts from Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) Flesh and Peel and the Effective Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanxue; Li, Hongfa; Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor activities of the water and ethanol extracts isolated from Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) flesh (CYF) and peel (CYP) and the effective compounds. It was found that all peel portions have a better effect on reactive oxygen (ROS) scavenging assay than meat portions, especially for the water extract of Chinese yam peel (CYP-W). Its IC50 values for hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenging assay (744.25 ± 3.46 μg/mL) and for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (374.85 ± 6.78 μg/mL) were both lower than that of yam flesh (CYF-W). Furthermore, the antitumor property of yam peel was more effective than that of yam flesh (CYF-W) on mouse models, with tumor inhibition rates were 47.92% and 27.41% for Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAC) model and 40.44% and 24.22% for H22 hepatocarcinoma tumor (H22) model. Meanwhile, extracts of peel showed higher allantoin, total flavonoids, and total phenolics contents than extracts of flesh. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CYP-W exerted better antitumor activity than flesh extracts and the scavenging ROS effects were also significantly higher in the CYP-W in vitro. Moreover, the data indicated that allantoin may play an important role on antioxidative and antitumor capacity in yam peel. PMID:27122252

  14. Experimental study on the effect of yam polysaccharide for diabetic mice%山药多糖对糖尿病小鼠降血糖作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁岩平

    2011-01-01

    连续给小鼠模型灌胃给药12 d,以格列苯脲作阳性对照.结果 山药多糖组对糖尿病小鼠的血糖有明显降低 作用,与格列苯脲组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 山药多糖具有显著的降血糖作用.%Objective To explore the effect of yam polysaccharide for the diabetic mice. Methods Ninty mice were randomly divided into three groups ,yam polysaccharide group(n = 30), glibenclamide group (n = 30) and control group(n = 30). Mice were Intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (200mg/kg) to establish diabetic model. Yam polysaccharide group was administered yam polysaccharide for 12d. Results Yam polysaccharide significantly decreased the blood sugar of the diabetic mice. There were not significantly different in two groups (P > 0.05).Conclusion Yam polysaccharide had obvious role in decreasing blood glucose.

  15. High-yielding cultivation techniques of Chinese yam in Yingshan of Dehua county%德化英山淮山优质高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽娜; 陈阳; 李金贵

    2012-01-01

    Yingshan of Dehua county has a long history to grow Chinese yam and the produced Chinese yam is favored by many people because of its high quality and fine taste.This paper summarized the characteristics and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Chinese yam in Yingshan.%德化英山淮山种植历史悠久,产出的淮山品质优、口感好,深受消费者的青睐。该文介绍英山淮山的特征特性及高产栽培技术。

  16. Characterization and evaluation of acid-modified starch of Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese yam as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Okunlola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia starch modified by acid hydrolysis was characterized and compared with native starch as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations. The physicochemical and compressional properties (using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita equations of modified Chinese yam starch were determined, and its quantitative effects as a binder on the mechanical and release properties of chloroquine phosphate were analyzed using a 2³ full factorial design. The nature (X1, concentration of starch (X2 and packing fraction (X3 were taken as independent variables and the crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR, disintegration time (DT and dissolution time (t80 as dependent variables. Acid-modified Chinese yam starch showed a marked reduction (p<0.05 in amylose content and viscosity but increased swelling and water-binding properties. The modified starch had a faster onset and greater amount of plastic flow. Changing the binder from native to acid-modified form led to significant increases (p<0.05 in CSFR and DT but a decrease in t80. An increase in binder concentration and packing fraction gave similar results for CSFR and DT only. These results suggest that acid-modified Chinese yam starches may be useful as tablet binders when high bond strength and fast dissolution are required.

  17. Small Yams, Big Deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dioscorea esculenta, or Chinese Yam as it’s called in Ghana, is one of the smallest varieties still in existence. It’s being affected by the destruction of natural ecosystems, as well as socio-economic changes.

  18. 淮山药免耕生态栽培技术%Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) No-tillage Ecological Cultivation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦本辉; 申章佑

    2015-01-01

    传统淮山药栽培,种植和采收时均需要挖深沟,费工费时,且需要在较好质量的耕地上才能种植,由于与粮争地,严重影响了淮山药产业的发展。淮山药免耕生态栽培技术,结合淮山药定向结薯栽培技术的优点,在低产田、荒山荒坡及林下土地等非主粮生产用地种植,不仅可以促进农民增收,还可改善生态环境。%For traditional cultivation of Chinese yam, it is necessary to dig a deep trench duringsowing and harvest, wasting labor and time, and Chinese yam requires good quality of cultivated land, causing serious impact on the development of yam industry due to the competition with food production. Yam no-til age ecological cul-ture techniques, combined with advantage of yam directional tuberization, could en-able the cultivation of yam inlow-production field, barren hil s and sloping field, forest land and other non-staple food land and thus could promote farmers ’ income as wel as improving the ecological environment.

  19. Formulation factors affecting the binding properties of Chi-nese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia)and corn starches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adenike Okunlola; Oluwatoyin A.Odeku

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The quantitative effects of formulation and processing variables affecting the binding properties of Chinese yam starch (Dioscorea oppositifolia)in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations have been investiga-ted in comparison with corn starch using a 23 factorial experimental design.Methods:Chinese yam starch,re-presenting the "low"level,and corn starch,representing the "high"level were used as binders at concentra-tions of 2.5 %w/w and 10 % w/w in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations.The mechanical properties of the tablets,measured by the tensile strength (T)and brittle fracture index (BFI)as well as the release prop-erties measured by the disintegration time (DT)and dissolution time (t8 0-time for 80 % drug release),were used as assessment parameters.Results:The ranking of the individual coefficient values for the formulations on T was D >N C,on BFI was N >D C,on DT was D >N >C and on t8 0 was C >N >D while the ranking of the interaction coefficient on T was N-D >C-D  N-C,on BFI was N-D >N-C =C-D,on DT and t8 0 was N-C >N-D >C-D.Changing the binding agent from Chinese to corn starch,led to a decrease in T,DT and t8 0 but increase in BFI of the tablets.There were significant (P <0.001)interactions between the nature of binder,N and the other two variables,C and D.Conclusion:The result showed that Chinese yam possessed stronger binding capacity than corn starch and could be useful as an alternative binder when tablets with high mechanical strength with minimal problems of lamination,and slow release are required.

  20. 山药的药理作用与炮制工艺研究进展%Advance on pharmacological activities and processing technology of Chinese yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云芳; 蒋孟良

    2012-01-01

    近年来山药的研究及应用较为广泛,本文对山药的药理作用、炮制方法与工艺的研究进行了综述,为进一步研究和开发山药提供理论依据.%In recent years,the research and clinical application of Chinese yam become wider and wider. This article carrys out the related research of pharmacological activities and processing technology. The information summarized here provides reference for the further research of Chinese yam.

  1. 黑芝麻山药酥的研制%Preparation of Black Sesame and Chinese Yam Cookies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娟; 韩文凤; 郭志芳

    2013-01-01

      The black sesame and Chinese yam cookies which was made from black sesame seed, Chinese yam powder, sugar, liquorice, palm oil, edible oil, eggs and other materials as raw material was determined.The best formula with the sensory quality as evaluation targets was obtained by the single and orthogonal experiment.The best formula of oil skin was A3B4C3D2, which was Chinese yam 55%,licorice juice 40%,Sugar 28%,palm oil 30%.The best formula of stuffing was A2B2C2, which was Sugar 25%,plant oil 30%, carrageenan 0.6%.%  以黑芝麻、山药粉、蔗糖、甘草、棕榈油、食用油、鸡蛋等为原辅料,依据感官质量作为评价指标,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定出加工黑芝麻山药酥的油皮最佳组合A3B4C3D2,即当山药粉的添加量为55%,甘草汁的添加量40%,蔗糖的添加量为28%,棕榈油30%时,馅料的最佳组合A2B2C2,即蔗糖25%,植物油30%,卡拉胶为0.6%时产品的质量最好。

  2. Wild yam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild yam is a plant. It contains a chemical, diosgenin, which can be made in the laboratory into various ... diosgenin. There are over 600 species of wild yam. Some species are grown specifically as a source ...

  3. Microwave Production Process and Quality Optimization of Chinese Yam Cake%山药蛋糕的微波生产工艺和品质优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦勇; 胡佩红

    2012-01-01

    The production process of microwave Chinese yam cake was studied by using Chinese yam as one of the raw materials to produce Chinese yam cake with the special flavor of Chinese yam and certain health function. The author discussed the effects of adding amount of Chinese yam, egg and baking powder,and microwave baking time on quality of microwave Chinese yam cake through the single factor experiments and orthogonal tests. The results showed that the optimal formula included low gluten flour 200 g,Chinese yam 28 g,egg 520 g,cotton sugar 140 g,baking powder 9 g,milk powder 30 g,cooking oil 60 mL,salt 2 g, vanillinl g,carboxymethyl cellulose 1 g,monoglyceride 0. 6 g. Microwave baking power was 800 W and baking time was 2 min. Under these conditions, the cake would be of good general quality, such as sweet and soft taste, uniform rise,soft, elastic, good type and wonderful sensory properties(color, taste and so on).%为生产出既具有山药特有风味,又具有一定保健功能的山药蛋糕,以山药作为蛋糕生产的原料,研究山药蛋糕微波生产工艺.通过单因素试验和正交试验探讨鸡蛋、山药、泡打粉的添加量和微波时间对山药蛋糕品质的影响.结果表明,山药蛋糕最佳配方为低筋面粉200 g,山药泥28 g,鸡蛋520 g,绵白糖140 g,泡打粉9 g,奶粉30 g,食用油60 mL,食盐2 g,香兰素1 g,羧甲基纤维素1 g,单甘酯0.6g;微波焙烤采用800 W功率,时间为2 min,该工艺条件下,蛋糕口感香甜松软,整体起发均匀、柔和,富有弹性,定型情况良好,色泽、滋味等感官性状佳,整体品质良好.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Chinese Yam Yellow Rice Wine%怀山药黄酒抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张硕果; 何佳; 郭业青; 丁向峰

    2015-01-01

    以还原能力、DPPH自由基清除能力、羟基自由基清除能力和超氧阴离子自由基清除能力等4种抗氧化能力为指标,对怀山药黄酒和去皮怀山药黄酒在不同发酵时期的抗氧化活性进行研究,并与市售黄酒样品、自制黄酒和怀山药14%vol酒精浸泡液进行比较分析。结果表明,怀山药黄酒的抗氧化活性远高于其他样品,各指标分别为市售黄酒样品的1.71~9.09倍、自制黄酒的1.47~5.01倍、怀山药14%vol酒精浸泡液的1.96~5.41倍,且怀山药黄酒的抗氧化活性高于去皮怀山药黄酒。怀山药黄酒不同极性组分的萃取相中,还原能力的大小依次为正丁醇相>水相>乙酸乙酯相>二氯甲烷相>石油醚相,DPPH自由基清除能力依次为水相>石油醚相>正丁醇相>乙酸乙酯相>二氯甲烷相。%In this study, the antioxidant activity of Chinese yam yellow rice wine (made by peeled/unpeeled Chinese yam respectively) was in-vestigated with reducing capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity as the evaluating indicators. Besides, it was compared with market yellow rice wine, self-made yellow rice wine, and 14%alcohol steeping liquid of Chinese yam. The results suggested that, the antioxidant activity of Chinese yam yellow rice wine was much better than other wine samples (1.71~9.09 times as market yellow rice wine, 1.47~5.01 times as self-made yellow rice wine and 1.96~5.41 times as 14%alcohol steeping liquid of Chinese yam). On the other hand, Chinese yam yellow rice wine made by peeled Chinese yam had better an-tioxidant activity than that made by unpeeled Chinese yam. Among all the extraction phase of different polar compounds in Chinese yam yel-low rice wine, the reducing capacity ranked in decreasing sequence as follows: n-butanol > water phase > ethyl acetate > dichlorometh-ane>petroleum ether, and DPPH

  5. 枸杞—山药复合饮料的研制%Preparation of Wolfberry-Chinese Yam Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艳丽; 宇光海; 管军军; 刘娜; 冯琴

    2013-01-01

    A nutritious and healthful compound beverage was prepared with Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) and wolfberry (Lycium chinense) as main materials.The effect of different color protecting agent on protecting the color of Chinese yam was studied;the formulation of compound beverage was optimized by orthogonal test;and proper stabilizer was selected.The results showed that the optimal color protecting agent of Chinese yam was 2 g/L NaHSO3.The optimal formulation for the compound beverage was the mass ratio of Chinese yam juice,wolfberry juice,sugar and citric acid at 30%,20%,6% and 0.18% respectively.The stabilization effect of 2.0 g/L CMC-Na stabilizer was great which could improve the taste of beverage as well.The wolfberry-Chinese yam compound beverage was with bright color,moderate sweet and sour taste,modest,without stratification,and had unique flavor of wolfberry and Chinese yam.%以山药(Dioscorea opposita)和枸杞(Lycium chinense)为主要原料制备营养保健型复合饮料,考察不同护色剂对山药的护色效果,设计正交试验优化枸杞—山药复合饮料的配方,并优选合适的稳定剂.结果表明,2 g/L的亚硫酸氢钠对山药护色效果好,优化的复合饮料配方中山药浆、枸杞汁、蔗糖和柠檬酸的质量分数分别为30%、20%、6%、0.18%,2.0 g/L的羧甲基纤维素钠作稳定剂稳定效果好且能改善饮料的口感.制备的枸杞—山药复合饮料色泽鲜艳、酸甜适度,无分层,并具有枸杞和山药的独特风味.

  6. Technical Specification of Soil Preparation Mechanization Operation for Chinese Yam%山药整地机械化作业技术规范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志刚

    2014-01-01

    From the aspects of operation condition, preparation and methods, the article introduces the technical key points for soil preparation mechanization operation for Chinese yam, expounds the soil preparation quality and relative parameter's calculation meth-ods, and provides a reference for standardizing and expending the cultivation industry of Chinese yam.%从作业条件、作业准备、作业方法等方面,介绍山药整地机械化作业技术的要点,论述其整地质量要求及相关参数计算方法,为山药种植产业的规范化及扩大化提供参考。

  7. 山药皮中皂甙的提取工艺优化研究%Study on extraction technology of sapogenins from Chinese yam skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金凤; 郭丽; 柴云雷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To extract and separate the saponins from Chinese yam skin.Methods Yam skin as raw materials combined with the single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment and optimum process parameters of saponins from yam skin were confirmed by the ultrasonic reflux ethanol extraction with tigogenin extraction yield as evaluation indicators.Results The experimental results showed that under the condition of the temperature of 70℃ , 85% ethanol concentration, time of 6 h, and material liquid than 1:20, the saponins extraction rate could reach 0.139%.ConclusionIn this study, yam skin saponin was extracted by ultrasonic reflux ethanol. It was simple, fast, and had a good stability and a good reproducibility to maximize the resource utilization and improve economic value of yam.%目的:提取、分离山药皮中皂甙成分。方法以山药皮为原料,结合单因素实验和正交实验,以皂甙元提取率为评价指标,确定超声波回流乙醇提取山药皮皂甙的最佳工艺参数条件。结果温度70℃,乙醇浓度85%,时间6 h,料液比1:20。在此条件下,皂甙提取率可达到0.139%。结论本实验采用超声波回流乙醇提取山药皮皂甙,测定方法简便、快速,稳定性及重现性好,可实现资源利用最大化,提高山药的经济价值。

  8. Wild yam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laboratory into various steroids, such as estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The root and the bulb of the plant ... wild yam and diosgenin promoted as a “natural DHEA.” This is because in the laboratory DHEA is ...

  9. Process technology of yam health pickle%山药营养泡菜的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文雯; 李梁; 张文学

    2011-01-01

    山药是一种常见的药食两用的中药材资源,我们尝试把中国的传统泡菜与中医药相结合,以山药为原材料制作新型保健泡菜.以山药泡菜的pH,总亚硝酸盐及其保健成分山药多糖和山药淀粉在发酵过程中的含量变化和山药泡菜的感官指标等评价标准,对原料选择,预处理,入坛,密封发酵等工艺路线进行确定.不仅能保持山药泡菜的感官质量,而且能较好的保存山药的营养成分,特别是具有保健功能的山药多糖和山药淀粉.%Yam is a common medicine and food of material resources, we tried to put the traditional Chinese kimchi and traditional Chinese medicine combined, to make new health care for raw materials yam pickles. We estimated yam pickles by pH. This experiment mainly studied The changes of pH value, N02~, yam polysaccharide and yam starch during the fermentative process. And then, get the conclusion that yam can serve as a kind of new type of health pickle.

  10. Study of Classification of Different Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.)by Pollen Morphology%10种长山药花粉形态及分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈占勇; 霍秀文; 尹春; 杨明

    2011-01-01

    Pollen grains of 10 Chinese yam( Dioscorea opposita Thunb. )were observed by scanning electron microscope ( SEM) . The results showed that the pollen shape of 10 Chinese yam ( Dioscorea opposita Thunb. ) is spheroidicity with both flat ends and 2 anasulcates. The polar axis length is 11.51μm( 10. 02 - 13. 90μm)and the e-quatorial axis length is 18. 53 |I,m( 16. 21 -21. 05 μm) . It is a small pollen( 10 -25μm) . There were some significant differences on pollen of 10 Chinese yarn (Dioscorea opposita Thunb. ) in the long polar axis, equatorial axis and P/E ratio respectively. Exine ornamentation is reticulate, foveolate-reticulate, cavernous categories. The result of Q-cluster analysis based on pollen morphology and characteristic indicated that 10 Chinese yam could be classified into three groups when genetic distance was 7. 75. The group I included Bikeqi Yam and Taoqiang Yam with their small pollen grains, nearly round equatorial view and cavernous exine sculpture. The group II included Jiaxiang Yam, Taihuai Yam,Houma Yam,Huilou red peel Yam,Sunfuji Yam and Baoding Yam with medium pollen grain. Taihuai Yam exine sculpture was foveolate-reticulate ornamentation and the other matereils were all reticulate ornamentation. The group DI included Huaxian Yam and Japan Yam-2 with larger pollen grain and reticulate ornamentation and cavernous ornamentation respectively.%利用扫描电子显微镜对10个品种的长山药花粉形态进行了观察和对比研究,结果表明:长山药花粉形状为扁球形,两端平截,2沟,极轴长11.51 μm(10.02~ 13.90 μm),赤道轴长18.53 μm(16.21 ~21.05 μm),属于小型的花粉(10 ~ 25 μm).10种长山药品种花粉在极轴、赤道轴和P/E比值上均部分存在显著差异.外壁纹饰为网状、穴网状、孔穴状三类.利用SAS9.0软件,根据不同品种的长山药花粉外部形态特点,对其进行赋值,做Q聚类分析.结果表明,在遗传距离7.75时,可将10个长山药品种分为3类.第

  11. A new kinetic model of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Chinese chive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Lu, Chao-Qun; Luo, Jian-Ping; Zha, Xue-Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Chinese chive, a famous green vegetable, is widely cultivated in the Asia. In the present study, we found that ultrasound caused the degradation of Chinese chive polysaccharides (CCP) in the process of extraction. Since lacking the consideration of polysaccharide degradation, the traditional kinetic models can not reflect the real extraction process of CCP. Therefore, a modified kinetic model was thus established by introducing a parameter of degradation coefficient based on the Fick's second law, suggesting the diffusion and degradation of CCP is highly dependent on the ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and solid-liquid ratio. According to this modified model, the maximum CCP yield was obtained under an optimal extraction condition including extraction temperature 37°C, ultrasonic power 458 w, extraction time 30min and solid-liquid ratio 1:32. The objective polysaccharides responding to ultrasound were shown to be four different fractions, contributing to the increased diffusion and degradation of CCP by ultrasound treatment. PMID:27374533

  12. Development of Compound Soft Sweets of Peanut Red Skin with Chinese Yam and White Fungus%花生红衣山药银耳软糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 卜婷婷

    2015-01-01

    The peanut red skin, Chinese yam and white fungus are used as the main materials in this essay. The existence of pectin and sugar make this product closer to the definition of the health soft sweets. The peanut red skin , Chinese yam , liquid fungus , pectin and sugar are studied respectively by single factor experiment and L9(34) orthogonal experiment to find the best ratio of every ingredients. The result shows that ratio of every ingredient can be:peanut red skin∶Chinese yam and liquid fungus∶pectin∶sugar is 5∶40∶4∶50.%以花生红衣、山药、银耳为主要原料,添加果胶、白砂糖等研制出保健软糖。对花生红衣量、山药和银耳浆、果胶和白砂糖4个因素分别进行单因素和正交试验,得到最佳制取配方,即:花生红衣∶山药银耳浆∶果胶∶白砂糖为(质量比)5∶40∶4∶50。

  13. Effects of "Chinese yam" on hepato-nephrotoxicity of acetaminophen in rats%山药保护对乙酰氨基酚诱导的大鼠肝肾损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世沧; 蔡金川; 陈荣洲; 林昭庚; 林俊清; 胡淼淋; 卢训

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of yam in Taiwan, which is a commonly used Chinese medicine, on hepato-nephrotoxicity in rars. METHODS: Crude water extract of yam ( Dioscorea alata L), was used to treat rats with an acute toxicity induced by acetaminophen (APAP)challenge. RESULTS: The pharmacological and biochemical studies showed the extract of yam had the effect of kidney secureness and liver fortification (P<0.01). The pathologic sections showed good improvements in renal tubular degranulation changes,necrosis and disintegration. The extract of yam also possessed a good protection against the inflammation of central vein and necrosis of liver tissue. CONCLUSION: The liver and kidneys are originated from the same source. Pathologically, deficiency of the life essence in the kidney may lead to the blood deficiency in the liver. The results showed that the yam could prevent the damages of the liver and kidneys, thus preserving their functions. This could be the reason why the yam was commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, as seen in Liuwei Dihuang Wan be used in the case of deficiency of liver-yin and kidney-yin.%目的:研究台湾产的常用中药-山药对肝肾毒性的作用.方法:以对乙酰氨基酚诱导大鼠急性损伤方式进行山药水提取物之疗效评估.结果:山药显示突出的保肝护肾效果(P<0.01).病理组织学上发现山药对肾小管脱颗粒、坏死、崩溃伤等有良好的保护作用,并且对肝中央静脉发炎及实质组织坏死都有显著保护作用.结论:山药能同时对肝及肾细胞有益,而达保肝护肾效果.这是山药常常被使用如"六味地黄丸"之中的用于肝肾阴虚的机制.

  14. High-throughput determination of multi-mycotoxins in Chinese yam and related products by ultra fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after one-step extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Kong, Weijun; Li, Yanjun; Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Qiutao; Dou, Xiaowen; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Yang, Meihua

    2016-06-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive ultra fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed for high-throughput determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) and zearalenone (ZEA) in Chinese yam, yam flours and yam-derived products. Mycotoxins were extracted from the samples with methanol-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v/v) and no further cleanup step before analysis. After optimization of some crucial parameters including sample preparation, chromatographic separation and MS/MS conditions, the method was successfully validated to exhibit excellent performance in terms of satisfactory linearity (r≥0.9977), limits of detection (≤0.15ngmL(-1)) and quantification (≤0.5ngmL(-1)) with good precision (RSD for intra- and inter-day variations of ≤4.65% and 6.31%, respectively), good accuracy (recoveries of 71.0-106.0%) and robustness, together with short run time (8min/sample). The developed method was applied for simultaneous detection and quantification of the above 8 mycotaxins in 27 batches of Chinese yam and related products collected from different markets and pharmacies in China. The results revealed that 1 normal sample and 4 moldy samples were found to be contaminated with different mycotoxins. The detected concentrations of AFB1 in 2 moldy samples exceeded the regulatory maximum residue levels. The proposed method was capable for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in this and other types of complex matrices. PMID:27085799

  15. Study on the Extraction Technology of Flavonoids from Chinese Yam%山药中黄酮提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚良; 王良健; 谢伶俐

    2012-01-01

    The flavonoids in Chinese yam (Dioscorea batatas) were extracted by hot lixiviation. L9(34) orthogonal design was applied based on single factor tests to study the effects of fraction of ethanol volume, extraction time, liquid to solid ratio and extraction temperature on the yield of flavonoids. Results showed that the optimum conditions for extracting flavonoids were, volume fraction of ethanol, 70%;solid to liquid ratio l:20 (m:V,g/mL); extraction time, 120 min; and extraction temperature, 60 ℃.%采用热浸提法提取山药(Dioscorea batatas)中的黄酮,在单因素试验的基础上设计正交试验探讨乙醇体积分数、浸提时间、浸提温度和料液比对黄酮提取率的影响.结果表明,优化后的试验条件为体积分数70%的乙醇作为提取剂,料液比1∶20(m∶V,g/mL),在50 ℃提取120 min.

  16. Preservation of yams by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of yam in storage due to sprouting is very high. There is the need to investigate the possibility of inhibiting the sprouting of local varieties of yams using gamma radiation. The effect of radiation on the storage yams and the functionality of the irradiated yams in the Ghanaian food system was studied. Yams were purchased from a farm in Nkwanta. Some of the yams were irradiated at an average dose of 120 Gy and a dose rate of 114 Gy/hr. The irradiated yams were stored alongside unirradiated controls in a specially constructed barn and on the ground as is traditionally done by the farmers at ambient temperature for 6 months. The stored yams were processed into some local food products, namely, boiled yam, fried yam and fufu and sensory evaluation carried out on them using the Hedonic Scale Test and analysed by Analysis of variance. Results indicated that all the unirradiated yams sprouted by the 3rd month of storage. 6.2% of the irradiated yams stored on the barn and 18.0% of those stored on the ground sprouted. 2.26% irradiated and 8.0% unirradiated yams stored on the barn compared to 22.0% and 12.0% respectively of the yams stored on the ground got rotten within the storage period. Food products made from irradiated yams were preferred to those made from the unirradiated yams in terms of texture, taste, colour and general acceptability. The results suggest that gamma radiation dose of 120 Gy effectively inhibited the sprouting of yams for 6 months under tropical ambient conditions. There was less rotting in the yams stored in the barn compared to those stored on the ground. There was also less rotting in the irradiated yams stored in the barn in comparison with the unirradiated ones. Food products made from irradiated yams were judged better in quality than those made from the unirradiated ones. (au)

  17. Adjuvant activity of Chinese herbal polysaccharides in inactivated veterinary rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2012-04-01

    Four botanical polysaccharide preparations (from Astragalus, Echinacea, wolfberry, and kelp) were evaluated as immunopotentiators/adjuvants of a veterinary rabies vaccine. Results showed that lymphocyte proliferation and some cytokines were significantly elevated, with cellular immune responses skewed towards Th1 and Tc1. All four polysaccharides produced accelerated and enhanced effects on rabies-neutralizing antibody responses in mice and dogs. The results also indicated that certain botanical polysaccharides could be used in rabies vaccine formulations for early and persistent prophylaxis. PMID:22326819

  18. Characterisation of antioxidant and antiproliferative acidic polysaccharides from Chinese wolfberry fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, N.W.; Yang, X.B.; Jiao, Y.D.; Tian, L.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Wolfberry fruit polysaccharides (WFPs) were isolated by hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation. With HPLC analysis, WFPs were for the first time identified as acidic polysaccharides with galacturonic acid being the main component monosaccharide (24.9%), followed by galactose (21.3%), arabino

  19. [Determination of polysaccharide from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis how and its trace elements analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yu-Ming; Liu, Li-E; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2005-12-01

    Polysaccharide was extracted from morinda officinalis how by back-flowing with 80% ethanol for 1 h, and the method of improved phenol-sulfuric acid spectroscopy was adopted to determine the content of morinda officinalis how polysaccharide. As for its trace elements, the atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the content of Zn, Fe and Cu, which were compared with its fake; and cold atomic fluorometry was applied to determine the trace mercury. The results were satisfactory, which can give reference about the effective components of morinda officinalis how, and will help to exploit it. PMID:16544510

  20. The day of the yam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, A

    Yam, the staple food in several tropical countries, is a good source of the steroid used in the manufacture of the pill and other sex hormone preparations -- saponin diosgenin. In the early days of production of oral contraceptives (OCs), most yams were gathered from the wild in Mexico. The type richest in steroids takes 3 years to mature and its cultivation has become something of an art. Yams grow best in light, well-drained soil, and for this reason are grown in mounds which have been heavily manured. Propagation is by planting the tops or heads or by small portions of the tuber which is a swollen shoot. Other varieties are planted before the onset of the rains and the crop harvested about 8 months later. In 1970 the Mexican government nationalized the yam industry as a safeguard. This pushed up prices and the drug companies looked elsewhere for a cheap source. Although Mexico still remains the principal grower, India, South Africa, and the Far East supply the industry with plant origin steroids. As more than 90% of the hefty yam tubers consist of water, well over 100,000 tons have to be harvested every year to provide the 600-700 tons of the saponin diosgenin used by the drug companies. In China, where Western corticosteroids are regarded as too expensive for the barefoot doctors, several species of yam are used. Research has been going on to find another source of diosgenin and the most promising seems to be fenugreek, Trigonella foenumgraecum. "Foenum graecum" is Latin for Greek hay and was used by the early Greeks as a culinary and medicinal herb throughout the Mediterranean area. The richness of fenugreek was used to improve the roundness of women's breasts and to stimulate the flow of milk. Bath University has spent 10 years researching the development of a species of fenugreek which will yield large amounts of diosgenin. A certain amount of steroids come from animal sources. Such steroids are given when there is an adverse reaction from the

  1. Economics of Yams Production in Rivers State

    OpenAIRE

    Esor, Prince. B; Okidim, I. A

    2015-01-01

    This research work was on the economics of yam production in Rivers State. The objectives of the study were: estimating the production function of yam in Rivers State using cob-Douglas production, determining the marginal physical product (mpp) of labour and capital, determine the optimum level of inputs required for attaining the optimum in yam production in Rivers State and determining the marginal Rate of Technical substitution (MRTS) of labour for capital in Rivers State. Methodology: Ana...

  2. Utilization of mutagenesis for improvement of yam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important vegetable crop in tropical countries of Africa, the Caribbean, South Africa, and South East Asia. The tubers which contain 2-3 times more protein than sweet potato, cassava and plantain, constitute a major staple food for about 200 million people in West Africa. This are contributes 96% to the world production of yam. The goals of this mutation breeding program is to obtain from selected yam varieties, plants are are tolerant to viruses or to mealy bugs, are erect or semi-erect in habit (bushy architecture), are able to grow without staking and have a short growing season. 17 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. News and Views: YAM@NAM 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Young Astronomers' Meeting (YAM) sessions at NAM focused on extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology, with six invited up-and-coming speakers who showcased their work - and signed the YAM banner in true celebrity style! Organizers Mark Westmoquette, Anaïs Rassat and Joe Zuntz (pictured with the RAS President Michael Rowan-Robinson), believe that encouraging the nation's younger generation of astronomers is of primary importance for developing and sustaining the health of the UK astronomy community, and look forward to seeing YAM playing an increasingly central role in the future.

  4. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  5. ZHANG Jie and V, W, W. Yam Elected NAS Foreign Associates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to an announcement released by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) on May l, 2012, two outstanding scientists from China including physicist ZHANG Jie and chemist Vivian Wing Wah Yam, both members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, were elected to NAS as its new foreign associates. Prof. ZHANG Jie is a leading scientist in strong field physics and X-ray laser technologies, and now serves as the President of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Prof.

  6. Displaying Political Order: Yam Cultivation in Tokaimalo, Ra Province, Viti Levu, Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Masao; イシイ, マサオ

    1992-01-01

    The yam is one of the most important agricultural products in Melanesia, both in the subsistence economy and in the symbolic world. The symbolic usage of the yam is best seen in the annual competition to produce and display giant yams. The men of Tokaimalo, Saivou District, Ra Province, Viti Levu Island, Fiji are also good cultivators of the yam. Though they do not cultivate giant yams, and there is no annual competition between individuals to produce good yams, the yam cultivation seems ...

  7. An Analysis of the Supply for Seed Yams in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Asumugha, G.N; Njoku, M.E; B.C. Okoye; Aniedu, O.C; Ogbonna, M.C; Anyaegbunam, H. N.; Akinpelu, A.O; Ibeagi, O.O

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the supply of seed yam in major yam producing areas of Northern and Southern Nigeria using the supply function analysis. A cost-route approach was adopted in eliciting data from 120 seed yam farmers and marketers spread across the six states studied in 2006 using the multi-stage random sampling technique. Results show that price of seed yam and age had a significant relationship with value of seed yam supplied at the 1.0% level. Disposable income was signif...

  8. Rooting cuttings of yam (Dioscorea spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Eduardo Rocha e Silva; Roseane Cristina Prédes Trindade; Eurico Eduardo Pinto Lemos

    2014-01-01

    The culture of yams (Dioscorea spp.) has great importance for the entire Brazilian population, mainly in the Northeast, either by its nutritional or commercial value. This work aimed to study a new method of seedling production of yams by stem cuttings collected from plants with age of 120 days. The experiment was carried out in the CECA/UFAL, in a green house with intermittent fogging, in a fully randomized block design with a factorial 3 × 2 × 2, 12 treatments and 4 replications. Three f...

  9. PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY IN YAM BASED ENTERPRISES IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AWONIYI OLUBUKOLA ABIODUN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the production efficiency in yam based enterprises is Ekiti State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires from 150 farmers randomly selected from four Local Government Areas. Stochastic frontier production function, using maximum likelihood estimation MLE was used to analyze the economic efficiency. The productivity of resources was also examined by obtaining the Average and Marginal product values. This study found out three types of yam production systems among the farmers. These are wetland, upland and a combination of the two types of production systems. The MLE results reveal that farm size and yam set weight are the major factors influencing gross margin in wetland yam based enterprises. Gross margin increases with farm size but decreases with yam set weight. The major factors in upland yam based enterprises are farm size, hired labor, pesticides and herbicides. An increase in hired labor input and value of pesticides and herbicides leads to increase in gross margin. Gross margin from wetland/upland yam based enterprises is mainly influenced by family labor, hired labor yam set weight, and pesticides and herbicides. The efficiency models show that in all the three farming systems, as crop diversification increases there is a decline in economic efficiency of the farmers. The wetland yam based enterprises are the most economically efficient with mean economic efficiency of 0.80 followed by upland yam based enterprises with mean efficiency of 0.79. Wetland/upland yam based enterprises are the least economically efficient with mean efficiency of 0.76. However only 20 percent of the farmers are wetland farmers while as high as 50 percent are upland farmers. Productivity of resources shows that yam set is over utilized in all the three farming systems. In addition to this, family labor and fertilizers are also over utilized in wetland yam based enterprises. The major conclusion

  10. Assessment of Microbiological Qualities of Yam Chips Marketed in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karou D Simplice

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Yam is one of the most staple foods in West African countries and provides an important part of the energetic for peoples. The fresh tuber contains a lot of water that makes it preservation very difficult. This study was undertaken to assess the health risk of yam chips obtained from the traditional draw-plate consisting of transforming the fresh yam tuber into dehydrated product (dried yam known as “cossettes” which is less perishable and propose strategies to control risk points. The approach of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point concept using the standardized routine methods adopted in the UEMOA (West African Economic and Monetary Union countries allowed us to do microbiology’s assesses. The results of this study showed that the yam chips are contaminated to various degrees by Mesophilic germs (Bacillus sp, coliforms and molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus glaucus. Salmonella was not found. This bacteria and moulds isolated in the yam chips contain some species involved in food borne illness. The practice of dry yam chips was don to overcome the loses of the yam fresh tuber. The bad conditions of this work affect the hygienic qualities of dry yam, which can present the health risk of consumers.

  11. Assessment of Microbiological Qualities of Yam Chips Marketed in Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Karou D Simplice; B. Djeri; Y. Ameyapoh; K. Anani; K. Soncy; Y. Adjrah and C. Souza

    2010-01-01

    Yam is one of the most staple foods in West African countries and provides an important part of the energetic for peoples. The fresh tuber contains a lot of water that makes it preservation very difficult. This study was undertaken to assess the health risk of yam chips obtained from the traditional draw-plate consisting of transforming the fresh yam tuber into dehydrated product (dried yam) known as “cossettes” which is less perishable and propose strategies to control risk points. The appro...

  12. Study on the morphology, crystalline structure and thermal properties of yam starch acetates with different degrees of substitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu; GAO WenYuan; ZHANG LiMing; XIAO PeiGen; YAO LiPing; LIU Yi; LI KeFeng; XIE WeiGuang

    2008-01-01

    School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China;College of Bioengineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China;Institute of Medicine Plant, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100094, China;College of Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, ChinaThis study was carried out to understand and establish the changes in physicochemical properties of starch extracted from Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) after acetylation. Yam starch acetates with different degrees of substitution (DS) were prepared by the reaction of yam starch with glacial acetic acid/acetic anhydride using sulfuric acid as the catalyst. Their formation was confirmed by the presence of the carbonyl signal around 1750 cm-1 in the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The thermal behavior of the native starch and starch acetate were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results reveal that the starch acetates are more thermally stable than the native starch. The starch esters showed 50% weight loss at tem-peratures from 328℃ to 372℃, while the native starch underwent 50% weight loss at 325℃. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the starch decreased from 273℃ to 226℃. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns could be classified as typical of the C-type for yam starch. X-ray diffraction also showed the loss of the ordered C-type starch crystalline structure and the degree of crystallinity of starch de-creased from 36.10% to 10.96% with the increasing DS. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) sug-gested that the most of the starch granules disintegrated with many visible fragments with the in-creasing DS.

  13. Study on the morphology, crystalline structure and thermal properties of yam starch acetates with different degrees of substitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to understand and establish the changes in physicochemical properties of starch extracted from Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) after acetylation. Yam starch acetates with different degrees of substitution (DS) were prepared by the reaction of yam starch with glacial acetic acid/acetic anhydride using sulfuric acid as the catalyst. Their formation was confirmed by the presence of the carbonyl signal around 1750 cm-1 in the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The thermal behavior of the native starch and starch acetate were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results reveal that the starch acetates are more thermally stable than the native starch. The starch esters showed 50% weight loss at tem- peratures from 328℃ to 372 ℃ , while the native starch underwent 50% weight loss at 325℃ . The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the starch decreased from 273℃ to 226℃. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns could be classified as typical of the C-type for yam starch. X-ray diffraction also showed the loss of the ordered C-type starch crystalline structure and the degree of crystallinity of starch de- creased from 36.10% to 10.96% with the increasing DS. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) sug- gested that the most of the starch granules disintegrated with many visible fragments with the in- creasing DS.

  14. Polysaccharide Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Kontogiorgos, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers where sugar units are linked together through glycosidic linkages. In living organisms polysaccharides are the structural polymers that provide support (e.g., cellulose in plants or chitin in arthropods) or the sources of energy for plant development (e.g., starch). Polysaccharides are routinely used in the food industry, most frequently as thickeners, stabilizers of dispersions (emulsions, foams) or structuring agents of water and air.

  15. Mutation breeding in medicinal yam Dioscorea floribunda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation and two chemical mutagens, NMU and DES on the medicinal Yam Dioscorea floribunda was studied. Chemical mutagens were more effective in altering the mean values. DES was more effective than NMU. NMU was found to stimulate germination and seedling vigour. Although mean values were not affected by irradiation, genetic variances were considerably increased. The possibility of altering the genetic architecture of this crop through mutation breeding is suggested. (author)

  16. Pollen Evolution in Yams (Dioscorea: Dioscoreaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schols, P.; Wilkin, P.; Furness, C; Huysmans, S.; Smets, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pollen character evolution in yams (Dioscorea: Dioscoreaceae) was investigated in relation to the phylogeny obtained from a recent combined analysis of rbcL and matK gene sequences. The following characters were evaluated: pollen size, aperture number, sexine ornamentation, perforation density, and orbicule presence or absence. Continuous characters were coded using the gap weighting method. Each character was optimized using MacClade onto a tree selected at random from analyses based on mole...

  17. Yams preservation by irradiation in Cote d'Ivoire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation on sprouting, loss of weight, respiration, proteins, total sugars, enzymes, organoleptic properties, and on consumer acceptance of irradiated yams. Three local varieties of yams have been chosen for this study because they are the most appraised in the market. (author). 12 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

    The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0

  19. Rooting cuttings of yam (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Rocha e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The culture of yams (Dioscorea spp. has great importance for the entire Brazilian population, mainly in the Northeast, either by its nutritional or commercial value. This work aimed to study a new method of seedling production of yams by stem cuttings collected from plants with age of 120 days. The experiment was carried out in the CECA/UFAL, in a green house with intermittent fogging, in a fully randomized block design with a factorial 3 × 2 × 2, 12 treatments and 4 replications. Three factors were evaluated: height of the cuttings collection in plant (top, center and bottom, position of the cuttings on the branch (proximal and distal and concentration of Indolebutyric acid (IBA applied (0 and 1 mg/L. The cuttings were planted in plastic trays of 32 cells, containing commercial Bioplant ® substrate. After 30 days, the presence, the number and length of roots was acessed. All variables were subjected to analysis of variance and averages were compared by Tukey test. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of IBA (1 g/L did not influence the rooting process. Cuttings collected in the basal third of the plants in the proximal part of the branches, independent of the concentration of IBA, presented the best results for the percentage of rooting, root number and length of roots per stake.

  20. Leaf Spot of Yam Caused by Pseudophloeosporella dioscoreae in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Wan Gyu; Lee, Young Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Choi, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2010-01-01

    Leaf spot symptoms were frequently observed on yam plants grown in the Yeoju area in Korea during a disease survey in 2008. A total of five isolates of Pseudophloeosporella sp. were obtained from the infected leaves of yam plants. All of the isolates were identified as Pseudophloeosporella dioscoreae based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. A phylogenetic tree derived from the internal transcribed spacer sequences of the fungal isolates showed that the fungus is distinctly s...

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Yam Pounder Cum Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Adebayo

    2015-01-01

    Pounded-yam popularly called “Iyan” in Yoruba land, south west of Nigeria is traditionally prepared with wooden mortar and pestle, but due to associated problems with the preparation of the food, a motorised Yam Pounder Cum Boiler was designed and fabricated in the Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi Nigeria. The performance evaluation of the machine was carried out using a factorial experiment in a Randomised Complete Block Desig...

  2. Profitability of yam production in Southern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asala S. W.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yam production is a component of farming activities by most farmers in the Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. However, many farmers do not seem to find farming a financially rewarding exercise. This study therefore aimed to find out the profit margin of yam production by farmers in this zone. A survey of farmers’ fields was carried out in 2013 in five major yam producing areas in Nigeria, namely; Benue, Kogi, Kwara, Niger Nassarawa States and Abuja Federal Capital Territory. Fifty four (54 respondents were recruited into the study sample using structured questionnaire and interview method. The farmers cultivated mainly Dioscorea rotundata Poir (white or guinea yam for commercial purposes while D. alata L. (water yam, D. cayenensis Lam (yellow yam, D. dumetorum Kunth (bitter yam and D. bulbifera L. (aerial yam are intercropped with D. rotundata for home consumption only. Yam production includes cultural operations such as heap preparation, staking and weed control. Some of the major constraints identified by the farmers were high cost of input such as planting materials (yam seed or setts, unreliable source of credit and unpredictable weather conditions. Net income benefit analysis revealed a positive return per hectare of land under yam production. The production of yam on one hectare of farm field will translate to a net profit of ₦450,000.00 equivalent to US $2,000.00. It was recommended that yam production could be a financially profitable endeavor if cost-reducing steps are engaged.

  3. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) – A rich staple crop neglected by research

    OpenAIRE

    C. Andres; Olugbenga, O.A.; Bhullar, G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are widely grown throughout the tropics. Three yam species constitute the staple for more than 60 million people in five West African coastal countries, where more than 90% of the world's production takes place. Here we give a general introduction to yams, including their origin and geographic distribution as well as different types of yams common in Africa and Asia, and outline their uses. However, the main body in this chapter pertains to the agricultural production pr...

  4. Polysaccharide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  5. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  6. The adapted yam minisett technique for producing clean seed yams (Dioscorea Rotundata): Agronomic performance and varietal differences under farmer-managed conditions in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, S; McNamara, N.

    2014-01-01

    White yam (Dioscorea rotundata) is a major root crop grown throughout West Africa but one of the major factors that limits its production is the availability of good quality planting material. This paper described the results of farmer-managed demonstration plots established in 2012 and 2013 designed to promote the Adapted Yam Minisett Technique (AYMT) in Nigeria. The AYMT was developed between 2005 and 2008 to produce quality seed yam tubers at a cost that is viable for small-scale farmers. ...

  7. Molecular population genetics of Dioscorea tokore, a wild yam species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High levels of genetic diversity have been found in natural populations of the wild yam species Dioscorea tokoro. Genetic diversity was measured by investigating: (1) the allozyme allele frequenzies; (2) the nucleotide difference in haplotypes of the Pgi locus; and (3) microsatellite variation. Most of the genetic diversity was found to reside within each population and the diversity caused by population differentiation appeared to be small. The implications of the results for yam genetic conservation are discussed. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  8. Management of the yam moth, Dasyses rugosella Stainton, a pest of stored yam tubers (Dioscorea spp.) using plant products

    OpenAIRE

    Ashamo, M. O.

    2010-01-01

    Yams are members of the genus Dioscorea, which produce bulbils, tubers or rhizomes that are of economic importance. West Africa accounts for 90-95% of world production, Nigeria being the major producer. In 2004, the total world production of yam was about 47 million metric tonnes (MT), with 96% of this coming from Africa. Nigeria accounts for about 70% of world production. In spite of the great economic importance of this food item, 20-30% (about 9.4-14.1 million tonnes) is lost during storag...

  9. Somatic Embryogenesis in Yam (Dioscorea rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Elías Suárez Padrón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic yam (Dioscorea rotundata cultures were induced from petioles of leaves of in vitro grown plants on medium supplemented with different 2.4-D concentrations. Cultures were maintained either on semisolid or in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. The effect of sucrose concentration on somatic embryo development was also evaluated and the effects of different BAP concentrations on somatic embryo conversion were determined. Treatments were distributed using a complete randomized design. The highest rate of induction occurred with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. Sucrose at 131.46 mM significantly enhanced somatic embryo development. The conversion rate was not affected by BAP.Cultivos embriogénicos de ñame (Dioscorea rotundata fueron inducidos a partir de explantes consistentes de hojas con peciolos, aisladas de plantas establecidas en condiciones in vitro, en presencia de diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D. Los cultivos inducidos fueron mantenidos en medio MS líquido o semisólido suplido con 4,52 µM 2,4-D. El efecto de las concentraciones de sacarosa sobre el desarrollo de embriones somáticos y el efecto de varias concentraciones de BAP sobre la tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas también fueron evaluados. Todos los tratamientos fueron distribuidos usando un diseño completamente al azar. El mayor porcentaje de inducción de tejidos embriogénicos ocurrió con 4,52 µM de 2,4-D. La adición de 131,46 mM de sacarosa incrementó significativamente el desarrollo de embriones somáticos. La tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas no fue afectada por las concentraciones de BAP.

  10. Mutagenesis in yam, Discorea rotundata: Clonal evaluation of M1V3 yam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten thousand plants of M1V3 population of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, were evaluated. There was no consistent trends in variations in plant height, number of branches, branching heights and number of leaves of the treated tubers. However, plant height were lower in the irradiated than in the control. The coefficients of variations (C.V.) were higher in the irradiated than in the control populations, indicating wider variations in the former population. Based on yield performance, 110 tubers were selected for preliminary yield trials, Considering that diplontic selection may occur in the irradiated micro-tubers, the experiment will also be carried out using nodal cultures in vitro. (author). 2 tabs

  11. Physico-chemical properties and acceptability of yam flour substituted with soy flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingbala, J O; Oguntimein, G B; Sobande, A O

    1995-07-01

    Yam flour was substituted 10, 20 and 40% with defatted and full fat soy flour. The effect of the substitution on the proximate composition, swelling power, solubility, water binding capacity and Brabender visco amylograph cooking properties of the yam flour and acceptability of the cooked paste (amala), were evaluated. Protein contents of the mixtures were 23.0 and 25.5% on substituting 40% full-and defatted soy flours for yam flour, ash and crude fibre contents increased while carbohydrate content, swelling power, Brabender paste viscosities decreased with increase in soy flour substitution of yam flour. Colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability of pastes (amala) from the mixed flours were rated lower than that of yam flour. Up to 10% defatted and 20% full fat soy flour substitution for yam flour was acceptable for amala. PMID:8719741

  12. Storage Insects on Yam Chips and Their Traditional Management in Northern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Y. L. Loko; Dansi, A.; Tamo, M.; Bokonon-Ganta, A. H.; P. Assogba; Dansi, M.; R. Vodouhè; Akoegninou, A.; Sanni, A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five villages of Northern Benin were surveyed to identify the constraints of yam chips production, assess the diversity of storage insects on yam chips, and document farmers' perception of their impacts on the stocks and their traditional management practices. Damages due to storage insects (63.9% of responses) and insufficiency of insect-resistant varieties (16.7% of responses) were the major constraints of yam chips production. Twelve insect pest species were identified among which D...

  13. Genetic nature of yams (Dioscorea sp.) domesticated by farmers in Benin (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Scarcelli, Nora; Tostain, Serge; Mariac, Cédric; Agbangla, C.; Da, O.; Berthaud, Julien; Pham, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    'Domestication' is a traditional farmers' practice reported for yams (Dioscorea sp.) in Benin (West Africa). It involves introducing 'spontaneous' (naturally occurring) yams, supposedly wild (D. abyssinica and D. praehensilis), in varieties of the D. cayenensis-D. rotundata cultivated species complex. In this study, we established the genetic nature of 'predomesticated' yam plants using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 213 accessions, consisting of 32 pr...

  14. Granular Nematicides for Control of the Yam Nematode, Scutellonema bradys, and Relevant Residues in Raw Tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Adesiyan, S. O.; Badra, T.

    1982-01-01

    Four granular nentaticides were evaluated for control of the yam nematode, Scutellonema bradys (Steiner &LeHew) Andrassy, on Guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, under field conditions prevelant in the tropics. A single application of nematicides (sidedressing) at the rate of 2 kg ai/ha as postplanting treatment at the onset of the rainy season depressed numbers of S. bradys attacking yams during the growing season and significantly increased tuber yields over untreated. The efficacy, based ...

  15. The management of wild yam tubers by the Baka pygmies in Southern Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Dounias, Edmond

    2001-01-01

    Wild yams (#Dioscorea$ spp.) are primordial sources of carbohydrates for many hunter-gatherers of African forests. Yams play a key role in the symbolic perception of the forest by the Baka Pygmies of Southern Cameroon. The Baka have elaborated an original form of wild yam exploitation that I have termed "paracultivation". Paracultivation defines a set of technical, social and cultural practices aiming at managing wild resources while keeping them in their natural environment. In 1994, I under...

  16. Impact of past climatic and recent anthropogenic factors on wild yam genetic diversity

    OpenAIRE

    de Chair, H.; Duroy, P. O.; Cubry, P.; Sinsin, B. (B.); Pham, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Forests of the Dahomey Gap are considered as refugia for many species. They play a crucial role in providing ecosystem services in an area devoid of forests. However, the impact of the way they are managed on the biodiversity they host has barely been investigated. Wild yams existing in these forests play a crucial role in maintaining the genetic diversity of cultivated yams. Indeed, studies of farmer practices have shown that, by way of ennoblement, wild yams collected and selected in the fo...

  17. Spatial distribution of total phenolic content, enzymatic activities and browning in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Acquaah, Seth; Ayernor, George Sodah; Bediako-Amoa, Betty; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2012-01-01

    Browning in raw and processed yams resulting from enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), activities is a major limitation to the industrial utilization of Dioscorea varieties of yams. Two elite cultivars of D. rotundata species were selected to study the spatial distribution of total phenols and enzymes (PPO and POD) activities. The intensities of tissue darkening in fresh yam chips prepared from the tuber sections of cultivars during frozen storage were also studied. Total p...

  18. Socio-Economic Determinants of Seed Yam Production in Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke; Daniel, C. Okeke; Charity C. Udeora and Samuel N.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the socio-economic determinants of seed yam production in Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State. Purposive and simple random sampling procedure was used respectively to select four communities and 120 respondents for the study. The data obtained were used to analyse the influence of socio economic factors on seed yam production and also determine the technical efficiency level of the seed yam farmers using descriptive statistics and stochastic production frontier fu...

  19. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough ‘amala’

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun, O. A.; Akinoso, R.

    2014-01-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough ‘amala’ production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 °C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attribut...

  20. Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Dried Synbiotics Yoghurt from Lesser Yam Tubers (Dioscoreaesculenta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarti Sri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many variations of Yam (Dioscorea spp. which spread out in the world including Indonesia. Those variations could be categorized based on their shape, size, colour, and flavour of their tuber. The genus of Dioscorea spp. has more than 600 species, such as Dioscorea hispida, Dioscorea esculenta (lesser yam, Discorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata (purple yam, Dioscorea opposita (white yam, Dioscorea villosa (yellow yam, Dioscorea altassima, and Dioscorea elephantipes. At the present, the utilization of yam tubers is seen to be limited. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the properties/characteristics of dried synbiotics yoghurt from lesser yam tubers. The treatment on this study was performed by the number of substitution of lesser yam tubers and the fermentation time. The results show that the dried synbiotics yoghurt that most preferred by consumers was G2F3 (lesser yam 40% and fermentation time 22 hours with an average value 3.65. It is followed by the total LAB (lactic acid bacteria 8,15 log cfu/g, pH 4.27, total lactic acid 1.02%, yield of dried synbiotic yoghurt 32.30%, and total soluble protein 4.53%.

  1. Farmers' use of wild relative and sexual reproduction in a vegetatively propagated crop. The case of yam in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Scarcelli, Nora; Tostain, Serge; Vigouroux, Yves; Agbangla, C.; Dainou, O.; Pham, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    The impact of traditional farmers' management on genetic diversity of vegetatively propagated crops is poorly documented. In this study, we analysed the impact of ennoblement of spontaneous yams, an original traditional farmers' practice, on the genetic diversity of yam (Dioscorea sp.) in Benin. We used 11 microsatellite markers on yam tubers from a small village in northern Benin and demonstrated that wild x cultivated hybrids are spontaneously formed. Many of the spontaneous yams collected ...

  2. Sustainable Food Production Systems and Food Security: Economic and Environmental Imperatives in Yam Cultivation in Trelawny, Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    David Barker; Clinton Beckford; Donovan Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Members of the genus Dioscorea, food yams, were introduced to Jamaica from Africa during the slave era and have remained a staple in local diets and national cuisine. Yam cultivation has also been an important economic activity providing employment for thousands of rural Jamaicans. Until the 1960s yams were grown for local use by subsistence growers for home consumption or by commercial growers for sale in local produce markets. Since then, however, yam has also grown to become an important e...

  3. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...

  4. Yam (Dioscorea batatas) tuber mucilage exhibited antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2002-12-01

    The yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber mucilage (YTM) was extracted and partially purified by SDS and heating treatments. This purified YTM exhibited antioxidant activities in a series of in vitro tests, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (half-inhibition concentration, IC 50, was 0.86 mg/mL) and hydroxyl radical (IC 50 was 22 microg/mL) scavenging activity assays, reducing power test, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-human low density lipoprotein peroxidation tests (IC 50 was 145.46 microg/mL) using butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), reduced glutathione, or ascorbic acid for comparisons. With electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for DPPH radical detection, the intensities of the EPR signals were decreased by the increased amounts of YTM added (IC 50 was 1.62 mg/mL). These results suggest that mucilage of yam tuber might play roles as antiradicals and antioxidants. PMID:12494332

  5. Phases of Dormancy in Yam Tubers (Dioscorea rotundata)

    OpenAIRE

    ILE, E. I.; Craufurd, P. Q.; BATTEY, N. H.; Asiedu, R.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The control of dormancy in yam (Disocorea spp.) tubers is poorly understood and attempts to shorten the long dormant period (i.e. cause tubers to sprout or germinate much earlier) have been unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to identify and define the phases of dormancy in Dioscorea rotundata tubers, and to produce a framework within which dormancy can be more effectively studied.

  6. The Development of New Genotypes of the White Yam by Mutation Induction Using Yam Mini-tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the genetic improvement of the white yam, Dioscorea rotundata by mutation induction was investigated by irradiating mini-tubers of the yam with Gamma-rays. Batches of 150 mini-tubers of the well adopted local cultivar 'Obiaoturugo' were gamma irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 Gray (Gy) using the 60Co gamma source at the Center for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo Universitym, Ife-Ife in 2004. Each irradiated tuber including the control was divided into setts weighing 10-15g and planted in the field to establish the first mutated vegetative generation (MV1), separating setts from the head (H) and the tail (T) regions. In 2005, first generation tubers harvested from the MV1 generation were used to establish the MV2 populations. At the MV1 generation, increasing doses of Gamma-ray irradiation progressively inhibited sprouting of sets isolated from treated mini-tubers. These effects were more severe on sets from the tail (T) region than those from the head (H) region. Also, plant height, number of leaves, number of nodes and mean tuber yields per stand decreased with increased Gamma-ray doses. LD50 and GR50 were observed at 40Gy and 30Gy, respectively. At the MV2 generation, the observed differences among the treatments means disappeared (or were not significant). MV2 yam lines with modified vegetative characteristics were isolated. Distinct lines with bunchy and bushy vegetation and bushy with spreading vines were isolated. This is relevant, as one of the genetic improvement objectives apart from high tuber yields in yam, is for the development of lines that may be cropped without staking. (author)

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Physico-chemical Characteristics of Flours from Steeped Tubers of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir, Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L. and Yellow Yam (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwuoha, CI.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined Yam Tuber Species (YTS, Tuber Steeping Duration (TSD and Flour Particle Size (FPS as factors of flour. Data were collected using white yam, water yam and yellow yam steeped in water (30 ± 2 °C, pH 6.78 and withdrawn, and the flour classified, and analyzed for each parameter. Results obtained showed that all the test parameters, Water Retention Capacity (WRC, Swelling Index (SI, Solubility (TSS and Iodine Affinity of Starch (IAS correlated very much better and significantly (Pr< 0.10 with FPS than with TSD. Inverse relationships were observed with all the parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA results indicated that no significance existed in the main factors for YTS (WRC and TSS. Otherwise, the study variables were found to be critical determinants for the magnitude and extent of the physicochemical properties of steeped yam flour pastes. The study also observed that white yam, steeped for up to 4 days at tropical ambient temperatures, and the resultant flour classified / pulverized into ≤ 125 m FPS will yield the optimum physicochemical features in the paste.

  8. Effects of Different Storage Temperatures on Quality of Fresh-cut Yam%不同贮藏温度对鲜切山药品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梅

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effects of different storage temperature on quality of fresh-cut yam, Chinese yam was used as raw material. The fresh-cut yam was put at 0℃, 4℃, 6℃, l0℃ and room temperature. The factors that were weight loss rate, cell membrane permeability, browning index, and PPO activity were measured. The results showed that: low temperature (0-4℃) could inhibit water evaporation and reduce weight loss rate, delay cell membrane permeability increase and reduce the rate of cell membrane permeability, inhibit enzymatic browning and reduce browning degree, maintain low PPO activity. The quality of fresh-cut yam was maintained. 0 to 4℃ was safe and suitable for preserving fresh-cut yam.%以山药为原料,研究了不同贮藏温度对鲜切山药品质的影响.将鲜切山药分别置于0、4、6、10℃和室温,测定鲜切山药失重率、细胞膜渗透率、褐变度和多酚氧化酶活性(PPO)各项指标的变化.结果表明:与室温相比,0~4℃的低温贮藏能抑制水分蒸发从而有效降低鲜切山药失重率,延缓鲜切山药细胞膜透性上升,降低细胞膜渗透率,显著抑制了酶促褐变,大大降低了褐变度,维持较低的多酚氧化酶活性,较好地保持鲜切山药的品质.0~4℃是鲜切山药适宜的贮藏温度.

  9. The Contents of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cr, As, Pb, Ni, and Sn) in the Selected Commercial Yam Powder Products in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Mee-Young; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Chana; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea) has long been used as foods and folk medicine with the approved positive effects for health promotion. Although consumption of yam products is increasing for health promotion, reports for the metal contamination in commercial yam powder products to protect the consumers are lacking. In this study, we aimed to assess whether the commercial yam powder products were heavy metal contaminated or not using the yam products from six commercial products from various places in South Ko...

  10. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polyshaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  11. Optimized extraction, composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of exo and intracellular polysaccharides from submerged culture of Cordyceps cicadae

    OpenAIRE

    SHARMA, SAPAN KUMAR; GAUTAM, NANDINI; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Cordyceps cicadae is known as Jin Chan Hua in Traditional Chinese Medicine and known to possess different pharmacological activities. Presently, it was collected from the wild and isolated. Mycelial culture was optimized for extraction of polysaccharides under submerged culture conditions. Besides antioxidant, antibacterial activities of extracted polysaccharides were tested for first time. Methods Exo-polysaccharides (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) production was tes...

  12. Sustainable Food Production Systems and Food Security: Economic and Environmental Imperatives in Yam Cultivation in Trelawny, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Dioscorea, food yams, were introduced to Jamaica from Africa during the slave era and have remained a staple in local diets and national cuisine. Yam cultivation has also been an important economic activity providing employment for thousands of rural Jamaicans. Until the 1960s yams were grown for local use by subsistence growers for home consumption or by commercial growers for sale in local produce markets. Since then, however, yam has also grown to become an important export crop. With its value added potential virtually untouched, this crop possesses intriguing possibilities from the standpoint of food security and rural livelihoods in yam growing areas of Jamaica. At the same time there are concerns about the ecological and economic sustainability of yam farming under current conditions. In this paper we will analyze the sustainability of yam cultivation and consider concrete strategies for increasing the environmental sustainability and enhancing its contribution to food security.

  13. Pregnancy in Premature Ovarian Failure after Therapy Using Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiouh-Lirng Chao; Lee-Wen Huang; Hung-Rong Yen

    2003-01-01

    We present ovulation that occurred after the administration of traditional Chinese herbalmedicine for 3 months in a woman with premature ovarian failure (POF) and secondaryamenorrhea for 8 years. Traditional Chinese medicine concentrated herbal extracts ofcooked rehmannia, Chinese yam, wolfberry fruit, dogwood fruit, cyathula root, dodder seed,antler glue, tortoise-plastron glue, epimedium and morinda root were prescribed, which werea modification of the herbal formula Zuo-gui-wan. When the p...

  14. Storage Insects on Yam Chips and Their Traditional Management in Northern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Loko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five villages of Northern Benin were surveyed to identify the constraints of yam chips production, assess the diversity of storage insects on yam chips, and document farmers' perception of their impacts on the stocks and their traditional management practices. Damages due to storage insects (63.9% of responses and insufficiency of insect-resistant varieties (16.7% of responses were the major constraints of yam chips production. Twelve insect pest species were identified among which Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was by far the most important and the most distributed (97.44% of the samples. Three predators (Teretrius nigrescens Lewis, Xylocoris flavipes Reuter, and Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret and one parasitoid (Dinarmus basalis Rondani all Coleoptera, Bostrichidae were also identified. The most important traditional practices used to control or prevent insect attack in yam chips were documented and the producers' preference criteria for yam cultivars used to produce chips were identified and prioritized. To further promote the production of yam chips, diversification of insect-resistant yam varieties, conception, and use of health-protective natural insecticides and popularization of modern storage structures were proposed.

  15. Storage insects on yam chips and their traditional management in Northern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loko, Y L; Dansi, A; Tamo, M; Bokonon-Ganta, A H; Assogba, P; Dansi, M; Vodouhè, R; Akoegninou, A; Sanni, A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five villages of Northern Benin were surveyed to identify the constraints of yam chips production, assess the diversity of storage insects on yam chips, and document farmers' perception of their impacts on the stocks and their traditional management practices. Damages due to storage insects (63.9% of responses) and insufficiency of insect-resistant varieties (16.7% of responses) were the major constraints of yam chips production. Twelve insect pest species were identified among which Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) was by far the most important and the most distributed (97.44% of the samples). Three predators (Teretrius nigrescens Lewis, Xylocoris flavipes Reuter, and Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret) and one parasitoid (Dinarmus basalis Rondani) all Coleoptera, Bostrichidae were also identified. The most important traditional practices used to control or prevent insect attack in yam chips were documented and the producers' preference criteria for yam cultivars used to produce chips were identified and prioritized. To further promote the production of yam chips, diversification of insect-resistant yam varieties, conception, and use of health-protective natural insecticides and popularization of modern storage structures were proposed. PMID:23710140

  16. YAMS A fully Automatic Adaptive Isotropic Surface Remeshing Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    This technical note describes the main features of YAMS {This software was registered with the APP under n° IDDN.FR.001.410006.00.R.P. 1999.000.20600 on october 4, 1999.}, an automatic adaptive surface remeshing tool. The aim of the software, the input and output files and the list of error messages are defined in this document. A number of typical application examples are provided to explain the various possibilities of the code. Finally, a short technical description of the algorithm and th...

  17. Estimation of Margins and Efficiency in the Ghanaian Yam Marketing Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Aidoo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper was to examine the costs, returns and efficiency levels obtained by key players in the Ghanaian yam marketing chain.A total of 320 players/actors (farmers, wholesalers, retailers and cross-border traders in the Ghanaian yam industry were selected from four districts (Techiman, Atebubu, Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkwanta through a multi-stage sampling approach for the study. In addition to descriptive statistics, gross margin, net margin and marketing efficiency analyses were performed using the field data. There was a long chain of greater than three channels through which yams moved from the producer to the final consumer. Yam marketing was found to be a profitable venture for all the key players in the yam marketing chain.Net marketing margin of about GH¢15.52 (US$9.13 was obtained when the farmer himself sold 100tubers of yams in the market rather than at the farm gate.The net marketing margin obtained by wholesalers was estimated at GH¢27.39 per 100tubers of yam sold, which was equivalent to about 61% of the gross margin obtained.Net marketing margin for retailers was estimated at GH¢15.37, representing 61% of the gross margin obtained.A net marketing margin of GH¢33.91 was obtained for every 100tubers of yam transported across Ghana’s borders by cross-border traders. Generally, the study found out that net marketing margin was highest for cross-border yam traders, followed by wholesalers. Yam marketing activities among retailers, wholesalers and cross-border traders were found to be highly efficient with efficiency ratios in excess of 100%. However, yam marketing among producer-sellers was found to be inefficient with efficiency ratio of about 86%.The study recommended policies and strategies to be adopted by central and local government authorities to address key constraints such as poor road network, limited financial resources, poor storage facilities and high cost of transportation that serve as

  18. Improvement of tuber yield in yam bean by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The genus Pachyrrhizus, a native of Mexico and Central America is now widely distributed throughout the tropics. Pachyrrhizus erosus (L.) Urb., commonly known as the yam bean is cultivated in many parts of India for its edible tubers. The young tubers have a crisp and juicy flesh and can be eaten raw or cooked. Genetic variability for agronomically important characters is rare. It was therefore felt desirable to increase it by mutation induction. Seeds of a locally adapted variety were subjected to gamma irradiation (10, 15, 20 and 25 kR). Evaluation of the M3 raised from the different treatments unveiled mutants possessing significantly higher yields than the control. While the control plants showed a mean tuber yield of 168 g, one of the higher yielding mutants from the progenies of 10 kR treatment recorded 415 g. Two other mutants selected from the 25 kR treatment showed yields of 401 and 411 g. These mutants, first identified in M2, were found to breed true in M3-M5 generations. Yield trials conducted in M5 generation showed more than two-fold increase in yield by the mutants. Apparently there are remarkable possibilities of improving the yield potential in yam bean by mutation induction. (author)

  19. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

  20. DETERMINANTS OF YAM PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AMONG SMALL-HOLDER FARMERS IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike PIUS CHINWUBA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of yam production in Southeastern Nigeria were investigated using a stochastic frontier production function, which incorporates a model of ineffi ciency effects. Farm-level data were collected from a sample of 120 yam farmers in Enugu State and used for the analysis. The results indicate that labour and material inputs are the major factors that infl uence changes in yam output. The effects of selected farmer-specifi c socio-economic characteristics on observed ineffi ciencies among the farmers were also examined. Farmer-specifi c variables, such as education, farming experience and access to credit, were the signifi cant factors implicated for the observed variation ineffi ciency among yam producers.

  1. Technical efficiency analysis of yam production in Edo state: A stochastic frontier approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Orewa, S.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technical efficiency of yam farmers in Edo State was analysed in this study using the Stochastic Frontier Production Model. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select the 180 yam farmers used for the study. A set of questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier production function. The result of the study revealed that the technical efficiency of the farmers range from 0.001 – 96.50% with a mean of 69.32%. This indicates ample opportunity for the farmers to increase their productivity through improvement in their technical efficiency. Farm size, yam sett, fertilizer and labour were found to be statistically significant and positively related to farmers output while educational level, household size and farming experience of the respondents negatively influenced farmers’ technical inefficiency. The farmers therefore need to increase their output through more intensive use of land, yam sett and fertilizer input.

  2. Analysis of resistance to Yam mosaic virus, genus Potyvirus in white guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babajide Odu O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to Yam mosaic virus (YMV, genus Potyvirus was studied in 10 populations of selected white Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata. Plants of resistant genotypes: TDr 35, TDr 1621, TDr 93-1, TDr 93-32, TDr 95-107, TDr 93-23, and susceptible ones: TDr 87/00211, TDr 87/00571 and TDr 95-127 were screened for their reaction to the pathogen by symptom severity scoring scale of 1-5, and by quantifying virus multiplication by triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA. Controlled crosses were made among the genotypes within and between the groups according to reactions to the pathogen. The resultant F1 progenies were evaluated for the infection by disease symptom development and by TAS ELISA to detect a symptomless infection in an insect-proof screenhouse for the assessment of inheritance of resistance to YMV. A genetic analysis of the reactions of progenies derived from the D. rotundata genotypes to inoculation with YMV strongly suggests that resistance to the virus is a dominantly inherited trait. Segregation ratios obtained from the families indicate that at least two dominant genes are involved.

  3. Technological Properties of Wheat/Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) Hardened Tubers Composite Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Véronique Josette Essa’a; Roger M. Mbanga Baleba; Gabriel Nama Medoua

    2015-01-01

    The ability of trifoliate hardened-yam flours to partially substitute wheat flour in food formulations was assessed. Three varieties of hardened-yam flour were incorporated in wheat flour in proportions of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% (w/w). Samples were evaluated for protein content, Zeleny sedimentation index, Hagberg falling number, functional properties (WAC, WSI, and OAC), and some rheological properties including dough rupture pressure (P), extensibility (L), stability (P/L), and deformat...

  4. Evaluation of Native and Carboxymethyl Yam (Dioscorea esculenta) Starches as Tablet Disintegrants

    OpenAIRE

    Nattawat Nattapulwat; Narumol Purkkao; Ornamphai Suwithayapanth

    2008-01-01

    Native yam starch and carboxymethyl yam starch (CMS) were evaluated as tablet disintegrants in comparison with various starches i.e., corn starch, tapioca starch and rice starch. Direct compression composition comprised dibasic calcium phosphate as a filler, each starch at various concentrations between 3-15% w/w as a disintegrant and magnesium stearate as a lubricant. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) was used as a model drug for drug dissolution testing. Tablet properties including hardness, friab...

  5. Technical efficiency analysis of yam production in Edo state: A stochastic frontier approach

    OpenAIRE

    Orewa, S.I.; Izekor, O.B.

    2012-01-01

    The technical efficiency of yam farmers in Edo State was analysed in this study using the Stochastic Frontier Production Model. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select the 180 yam farmers used for the study. A set of questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier production function. The result of the study revealed that the technical efficiency of the farmers range from 0.001 – 96.5...

  6. Evaluation of Ventilated Underground Pit Structures for Yam (Dioscorea Spp) Storage

    OpenAIRE

    T.U. Nwakonobi; S.E. Obetta; H. Iorwtsav

    2012-01-01

    Underground pit structures are commonly employed by farmers for on farm storage of yam (Dioscorea spp) in Nigeria and other parts of developing world. This traditional storage structure is used without provision for adequate air exchange or ventilation. This study investigated the performance of yams stored in underground pit structures provided with air vents. Three experimental pits of similar dimensions were constructed with Pit 1 installed with one PVC vent; Pit 2 had two PVC vents and Pi...

  7. Yam: a neglected and underutilized crop in Brazil Inhame: uma cultura negligenciada e subutilizada no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    MVBM Siqueira

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil current studies and investments on yams are incipient. Similarly, the literature in recent decades lacks adequate information on this group of plants. The existing literature, on its turn, requires more than ever to be revised and organized. Yams have joined the so-called "neglected" group of crops for several reasons, but particularly because they are associated with poor and traditional communities. Many vegetables introduced in Brazil during the colonization period have adapted t...

  8. NUCLEAR DNA CONTENT ANALYSIS OF FOUR CULTIVATED SPECIES OF YAMS (DIOSCOREA SPP.) FROM CAMEROON

    OpenAIRE

    Marie F. Sandrine; Simon Joly; Mickaël Bourge; Spencer Brown; Denis N. Omokolo

    2014-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important food source in Africa, but diseases and storage pests hinder the African farmers to achieve high yields during the harvest. One important limitation to the genetic breeding of yam is the relatively unknown ploidy level variation within and among species.  The objective of this study was to determine the nuclear DNA content of 59 accessions representing four cultivated Dioscorea species collected from three regions of Cameroon (Adamawa, Centre and Southwest...

  9. Estimation of Margins and Efficiency in the Ghanaian Yam Marketing Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Aidoo; Fred Nimoh; John-Eudes Andivi Bakang; Kwasi Ohene-Yankyera; Simon Cudjoe Fialor; James Osei Mensah; Robert Clement Abaidoo

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the paper was to examine the costs, returns and efficiency levels obtained by key players in the Ghanaian yam marketing chain. A total of 320 players/actors (farmers, wholesalers, retailers and cross-border traders) in the Ghanaian yam industry were selected from four districts (Techiman, Atebubu, Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkwanta) through a multi-stage sampling approach for the study. In addition to descriptive statistics, gross margin, net margin and marketing efficiency a...

  10. Molecular characterisation of Colombian yam germplasm by "DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF)" in radioactivo conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Silvia L.; Mónica Guzmán; Gustavo Buitrago

    2003-01-01

    Samples from the Universidad de Córdoba's yam collection (Dioscorea spp.) and others originating from IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria) were molecularly characterised to complement existing information about them. The yam (Diosocorea spp.) represents a basic crop for small-scale farmers on the Colombian Atlantic Coast who sow around 20,000 hectares per year. Even though they are dioecious species, only one sex is represented in Colombia; it must also be s...

  11. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Chromolaena Odorata on Post Harvest Spoilage Fungi of Yams in Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Okigbo, R. N.

    2010-01-01

    Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for control of yam tuber rotcaused mostly by Fusarium oxysporum, Asperigillus niger and Botryodiploidia theobromae which were isolatedfrom rooten tissues of yam tubers obtained from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I) Umudike,Nigeria. These organisms were isolated from stored yam tubers. They caused soft rot leading to tissuediscoloration and production of foul smell from the rotted portion of the tuber. Ex...

  12. Effects of Six Kinds of Chinese Traditional Medicines Submerged Fermentation of Hericium erinaceus%6种中药对猴头菌液体培养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 郝林

    2013-01-01

    在猴头菌液体发酵培养基中分别添加神曲、芡实、麦芽、谷芽、山药、薏米6种中药,研究其对猴头菌生长与发酵的影响.结果表明,这6种中药对猴头菌生长与发酵均有不同程度的影响,都能促进猴头菌的生长和胞内多糖的分泌,其中,芡实添加量为8%时,生物量最大,为对照的6.43倍;谷芽添加量为16%时,胞内多糖为对照的4.79倍;麦芽在所有添加量下都促进了猴头菌胞外多糖的含量,其他中药在合适添加量下才能促进胞外多糖的分泌.%Six kinds of Chinese traditional medicins,which were Medicated leaven,Gordon Euryale seed,germinated barley,millet sprout,yam and seed of Job's tear were added in broth for Hericium erinaceus fermentation and the effects of the broth on growth and fermentation of Hericium erinaceus were studied.The results showed that the six herbs had different effects on growth and fermentation of Hericium erinaceus.Six kinds of Chinese traditional medicins could promote the biomass of Hericium and intracellular polysaccharides.Addition of Gordon Euryale is 8%,maximum biomass,up to 6.43 times of the control.When the millet sprout adding amount was 16%,intracellular polysaccharide reached 4.79 times of the control.Only germinated barley could promote the content of polysaccharide of Hericium erinaceus extracellular in all content,other Chinese medicine in appropriate dosage could promote extracellular polysaccharides yield.

  13. Technological Properties of Wheat/Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Hardened Tubers Composite Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Josette Essa’a

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of trifoliate hardened-yam flours to partially substitute wheat flour in food formulations was assessed. Three varieties of hardened-yam flour were incorporated in wheat flour in proportions of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% (w/w. Samples were evaluated for protein content, Zeleny sedimentation index, Hagberg falling number, functional properties (WAC, WSI, and OAC, and some rheological properties including dough rupture pressure (P, extensibility (L, stability (P/L, and deformation energy (W. Results showed that trifoliate hardened-yam flours do not have acceptable baking properties as pictured by the low Zeleny sedimentation index and the low Hagberg falling number. Protein quality (Zeleny index, 31 of wheat flour helped to compensate gluten deficit of yam flours, but the amylasic activity determined by the Hagberg falling number could not be adjusted, which resulted in a loss of extensibility (L of the paste at 10% substitution. Multivariate analysis of experimental data regrouped wheat flour and all wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours in one homogeneous cluster. Although wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours had physicochemical and functional properties similar to wheat, the inadequate diastasic activity makes them inappropriate for bread making, marking the strongest influence of that parameter.

  14. Factors influencing the use of selected inputs in yam production in Nigeria and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djana Babatima Mignouna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, yam can be an important crop to reduce poverty and hunger if Research and Development measures identify and properly engage its key production factors for enhanced outputs and better income. Data from 1400 households in Ghana and Nigeria were collected in a multistage random sampling survey (and complementary data from 76 farm family fields with a structured questionnaire and qualitative interview questions. The results showed that yam is produced mainly with crude inputs/technologies to reduce high dependence on labour, seed production and control of pests and diseases. Yam is produced widely with purchased inputs including seed yam and hired labour; chemical fertiliser, herbicide and pesticides are less often used. Analyses of determinants of use of purchased inputs reveal three serious impediments to expansion in yam production: the increasing scarcity and high cost of hired labour, shortage of suitable land and poor farm roads. As employment opportunities for unskilled labour in urban centres are presently expanding, increased yam production will be hard to achieve without labour-saving inputs for at least some of the production tasks, especially seedbed preparation and weeding, and without improvement in infrastructure.

  15. Functional and Pasting Properties of Lesser Known Nigerian Yams as a Function of Blanching Time and Particle Size

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. Okorie; E.C. Okoli; E.C. Ndie

    2011-01-01

    The Effects of blanching time and particle size on functional and pasting characteristics of some lesser known Nigerian yams were investigated. Two varieties of lesser known yam Ighu and Ona belonging to Dioscorea dometorum species and two varieties of commonly used yams ozibo and okwanankata belonging to the D. rotunda and D. alata sp., respectively. The yams were processed by peeling, cubing, and blanching at 100ºC for 5 or 10 min, drying at 50ºC and subsequently milled to flours and fracti...

  16. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  17. Plant regeneration from organ culture in white Guinea Yam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explants from leaves, leaf segments, petioles and internodal stem of in vitro grown seedlings of white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, cv. 'Obiaoturugo' were cultured on defined media. NAA at concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/1 induced shoot regeneration from petiolar and inter-nodal stem pieces, and rooting occurred with little or no callusing from whole leaves or leaf segments. With concentration of 3.0-10.0 m/1 NAA, explants from petioles, inter-nodal stem, whole leaves and leaf segments formed callus which produced roots. These explants developed plantlets when subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/1 BAP and 0.1 mg/1 NAA. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  18. Microtuberisation in Yam (Dioscorea alata L. var. "Pico de Botella"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Salazar Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nodal “Pico de Botella” yam segments (Dioscorea alata L. were cultured in tuberisation médium (TM following Mantell and Hugo's technique (1989. This was supplemented with 0.1 mg/L thiamine, 100 mg/L myoinositol, 20 mg/L L-cystein, 1 g/L activated charcoal and 0.8% agar at pH 5.8 to evaluate the effects of the photoperiod (8 and 16 hours, sucrose (3, 6 and 9%, kinetin (0.0,1.5 and 2.5 μM and abscisic acid (0.0,1.0 and 2.0μM on micro-tuber production. A randomised split-plot experiment was carried out. Data analysed by ANOVA revealed that those factors evaluated had a substantial effect on micro-tuber induction, formation and development. The highest number of micro-tubers was obtained in an 8-hour photoperiod when treated with 1.5μM kinetin and 9% su- crose, whilst heavier micro-tubers were generally obtained in an 8-hour photoperiod with 9% sucrose in the absence of kinetin. The highest number of micro-tubers and greatest weight were presented by treatment involv ing an 8-hour photoperiod, 6% sucrose and 1.0 μM abscisic acid. Such treatment led to 235 micro-tubers being obtained, presenting 1.3 to 22.8 mm length and 2.3 to 217.4 mg weight. These results confirm the possibility of micro-tuber in vitro induction, representing great potential as commercial seed for yam growers and an additional tool for the cloned propagation of plants contributing to better handling and conservation of this cultivar´s germplasm.

  19. Study on the Technology of Purple Yam and Purple Sweet Potato Noodles%紫淮山紫薯营养面条的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 杨君; 周妮妮; 张伟惠; 赖来展

    2014-01-01

    Powder was made by vacuum drying fresh purple yam.With purple yam powder,purple sweet potato powder and flour as the main raw material a new nutritional and heathy noodles was made.Through the combination of single-factor test and orthogonal test was used to determine noodle break rate,loss rate,and sensory evaluation value,the best formula of noodles was concluded.The results showed that the optimum compound for purple chinese yam and purple sweet potato noodle is flour amout 100 g,salt 1.5 g,purple yam powder 10%, purple sweet potato powder 5%, earrageenin 0.5%.Under the obove congditiongs, the noole break rate is 0 and the noodle loss rate is 8.25%,the product has good sensory properties,high nutrional value ,strong health fountion,it would have a broad market prospect.%用新鲜紫淮山通过真空干燥制得紫淮山粉。以紫淮山粉、紫薯粉、面粉为主要原料,研制成新型营养保健面条。采用单因素和正交试验相结合的方法测定面条的断条率、烹煮损失率和感官评价值,确定紫淮山紫薯面条的最佳加工工艺配方。结果表明:紫淮山紫薯面条的最佳配方为高筋面粉量100 g,食盐1.5 g,添加紫淮山粉10%,紫薯粉5%,卡拉胶0.50%。在此工艺条件下,面条断条率为0、烹煮损失率为8.25%,产品感官性状良好、营养价值高、保健作用强,具有广阔的市场前景。

  20. The prevalence of badnaviruses in West African yams (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata) and evidence of endogenous pararetrovirus sequences in their genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, Susan; Turaki, Aliyu; Muller, Emmanuelle; Kumar, P. Lava; Kenyon, Lawrence; Filloux, Denis; Galzi, Serge; Lopez-Montes, Antonio; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important vegetatively-propagated staple crop in West Africa. Viruses are pervasive in yam worldwide, decreasing growth and yield, as well as hindering the international movement of germplasm. Badnaviruses have been reported to be the most prevalent in yam, and genomes of some other badnaviruses are known to be integrated in their host plant species. However, it was not clear if a similar scenario occurs in Dioscorea yam. This study was conducted to verify the preva...

  1. Molecular characterisation of Colombian yam germplasm by "DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF" in radioactivo conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Silvia L.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples from the Universidad de Córdoba's yam collection (Dioscorea spp. and others originating from IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria were molecularly characterised to complement existing information about them. The yam (Diosocorea spp. represents a basic crop for small-scale farmers on the Colombian Atlantic Coast who sow around 20,000 hectares per year. Even though they are dioecious species, only one sex is represented in Colombia; it must also be stated that climatic conditions are not propitious for its flowering. This situation has caused difficulty for work in yam breeding. The yam species and varieties used in the Colombian ABP (Agricultural Biotechnology Programme have been molecularly characterised by AFLPs in a previous publication describing a preliminary study emerging from the need to broaden the characterisation of those accessions kept at the Universidad de Córdoba. Comparisons have also been done with some African accessions donated by IITA. In this article, samples were molecularly characterised by another fingerprinting technique, the DAF technique (DNA Amplification Fingerprinting based on PCR, using random oligonucleotides for generating characteristic band patterns from each individual. The results showed 0.0413 population diversity with 0.9587 average similarity, indicating that the yam collection studied had very little genetic diversity and, probably, this could be why the crop is vulnerable to plagues and diseases, as happened at the end of the 1980s when anthracnose practically devastated the crop on the Colombian Atlantic coast. Similarity was also found between those Colombian and African samples analysed, agreeing with low diversity and less distance between common ancestors. The molecular results suggest the need for using other molecular techniques having a greater power of discrimination and also the need to broaden the genetic diversity in yam crops for providing greater

  2. 垆土铁棍山药与沙土铁棍山药的性状比较%Characters comparison of the loam soil iron yam and sand iron yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆岭

    2012-01-01

      Iron yam in Huai yam road real estate area divided into loam soil iron yam and sand iron yam, the article analyze the difference of two kinds of iron yam from plant growth environment, appearance and ingredients, for further research and development.%  怀山药道地产区的铁棍山药分为垆土铁棍山药与沙土铁棍山药两种,本文从植物生长环境以及外观性状以及成分含量入手,分析此两种铁棍山药的区别,为进一步研究和开发提供依据。

  3. 山药种茎比较试验%Comparative Test of the Yam Seed Tubers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏程; 孙红绪; 张化平; 宋晓东; 许安频; 董朝晖

    2014-01-01

    To improve the planting efficiency of yam and discuss the relationship between the size of the yam seed tuber and growth,yield,economic benefit,the authors conducted an planting experiment on the seed tuber of different weights.Results:the yam plants planted with big yam seed tuber were strong, but the plants planted with small yam seed tuber were slim.The bigger the tuber,the higher the yield;When the weight of the yam seed tuber was 10~500 g,the products for selling of yam increased with the increasing size of the yam seed tuber,While when the weight was 500 ~ 700 g,the products for selling decreased with the increasing size of the yam seed tuber;The yield and net income were ideal when the weight of each yam seed tuber was 350~600 g,When the weight of each yam seed tuber was 450~500 g, the yield was the highest,and it was 85 833.3 kg/hm2 .What’s more,the net income was also the largest, and it was 248 923.2 Yuan/hm2 .It was concluded that the yam seed tuber was not the bigger the better, the optimum size of each yam seed tuber was 350~500 g.%为了提高山药的种植效益,探讨种茎大小与山药生长、产量和经济效益的关系,筛选合适的山药种茎,进行了山药不同大小种茎的种植试验。结果表明:大种茎的山药植株长势旺盛,小种茎的长势纤弱;种茎重量在10~500 g 时,山药商品产量随种茎的增大而增加,种茎重量在500~700 g 时,山药商品产量随种茎的增大而降低;产量和净收益均以种植350~600 g/个的种茎比较理想,种茎以450~500 g/个的商品产量和净收益最高,分别为85833.3 kg/hm2和248923.2元/hm2。结论:山药种植的种茎并不是越大越好,种植种茎大小以350~600 g 为宜。

  4. Rapid and specific detection of Yam mosaic virus by reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gonçalo; Bömer, Moritz; Nkere, Chukwuemeka; Kumar, P Lava; Seal, Susan E

    2015-09-15

    Yam mosaic virus (YMV; genus Potyvirus) is considered to cause the most economically important viral disease of yams (Dioscorea spp.) in West Africa which is the dominant region for yam production globally. Yams are a vegetatively propagated crop and the use of virus-free planting material forms an essential component of disease control. Current serological and PCR-based diagnostic methods for YMV are time consuming involving a succession of target detection steps. In this study, a novel assay for specific YMV detection is described that is based on isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-exoRPA). This test has been shown to be reproducible and able to detect as little as 14 pg/μl of purified RNA obtained from an YMV-infected plant, a sensitivity equivalent to that obtained with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in current general use. The RT-exoRPA assay has, however, several advantages over the RT-PCR; positive samples can be detected in less than 30 min, and amplification only requires a single incubation temperature (optimum 37°C). These features make the RT-exoRPA assay a promising candidate for adapting into a field test format to be used by yam breeding programmes or certification laboratories. PMID:26115609

  5. 山药悬浮饮料的研制%Development on the Yam Suspending Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩艳秋; 徐立伟; 石太渊

    2015-01-01

    Using fresh yam as raw material, the technological process and stability of suspending beverage of yam was studied. The best directions for producing them was designed with orthogonal experiment.The results show that:the best directions of suspending beverage was 5%yam, 12%sucrose, 0.05%citric acid, 0.2%suspending agent. Prepared by this ratio, the yam suspending beverage had yam unique fragrance, pulp suspension is good, sweet and sour taste, 30 d without stratification.%以新鲜山药为原料,对果肉悬浮饮料的生产工艺及其产品的稳定性进行研究,并采用正交试验设计对悬浮饮料的调配进行优化。结果表明:山药5%、蔗糖12%、柠檬酸0.05%、悬浮剂0.2%,按此配比制得的山药悬浮饮料具有山药特有清香,果肉悬浮状态良好,酸甜适口,30 d无分层现象。

  6. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam. PMID:25892788

  7. NUCLEAR DNA CONTENT ANALYSIS OF FOUR CULTIVATED SPECIES OF YAMS (DIOSCOREA SPP. FROM CAMEROON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie F. Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Yam (Dioscorea spp. is an important food source in Africa, but diseases and storage pests hinder the African farmers to achieve high yields during the harvest. One important limitation to the genetic breeding of yam is the relatively unknown ploidy level variation within and among species.  The objective of this study was to determine the nuclear DNA content of 59 accessions representing four cultivated Dioscorea species collected from three regions of Cameroon (Adamawa, Centre and Southwest using flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Our findings suggested the variation of the genome size both within and among the yams species. Nuclear DNA content (mean 2C-value in studied yam collection ranging from 0.72 ± 0.013 pg in D. dumetorum to 2.801 ± 0.068 pg in D. cayenensis. The accessions could be divided into four different categories according to their, nuclear DNA content suggestive of four different ploidy levels. Ploidy variation was observed within all species with the exception of D. dumetorum that is likely diploid. This study contributes to a better understanding of the genome characteristics of yam species from Cameroon and may help to the genetic improvement of this important crop in the future.

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of nonnutritive polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M.; Murao, S.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented on the distribution of nonnutritive polysaccharides (cellulose, beta-glucans, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, etc.) in microorganisms and plants and bacterial enzymes (cellulase, beta-glucanase, hemicellulase, pectinase, etc.) that hydrolyze these nonnutritive polysaccharides.

  9. Functional and Pasting Properties of Lesser Known Nigerian Yams as a Function of Blanching Time and Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Okorie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Effects of blanching time and particle size on functional and pasting characteristics of some lesser known Nigerian yams were investigated. Two varieties of lesser known yam Ighu and Ona belonging to Dioscorea dometorum species and two varieties of commonly used yams ozibo and okwanankata belonging to the D. rotunda and D. alata sp., respectively. The yams were processed by peeling, cubing, and blanching at 100ºC for 5 or 10 min, drying at 50ºC and subsequently milled to flours and fractionated to 40, 60, or 80 mesh sizes. Another batch of the tubers were processed similarly, but they were not subjected to a blanching treatment. Swelling capacity, water absorption capacities, bulk density, solubility and pasting characteristics were evaluated. The result showed that the lesser known yam Ighu exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05 hot and cold paste viscosities, solubility, water absorption and swelling capacities than the common yam varieties. Hot and Cold paste viscosities, solubility, water absorption and swelling capacities of flour generally increased as particle size decreased in all the test samples. While the bulk density was not affected by the blanching treatment, it decreased with decrease in particle size. The yam starches generally showed weak stability,but starch of the lesser known variety Ona suffered the least share thinning . Rate of retrogradation was found to be high in all the yam varieties but more pronounced in the lesser known yams Ighu and Ona. Ighu starch which exhibited the highest cold and hot paste viscosity showed the highest setback and index of gelatinization values. Industrial and culinary applications of the test yam varieties were suggested.

  10. Characterization of Brucella polysaccharide B.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundle, D R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Perry, M B

    1988-01-01

    Polysaccharide B was extracted from Brucella melitensis 16M and from a rough strain of Brucella abortus 45/20 by autoclaving or trichloroacetic acid extraction of whole cells and by a new method involving mild leaching of cells. The material obtained by either of the established procedures was contaminated by O polysaccharide. The new leaching protocol eliminated this impurity and provided a pure glucan, which was regarded as polysaccharide B. This polysaccharide was found by high-performance...

  11. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author)

  12. Irradiation for sprouting inhibition of Kponan yams in Cote d'Ivoire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yams of the Kponan variety were transported from Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, to Accra, Ghana, irradiated at the facility operated by the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission and brought back to Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. The law no 98-593 on radiation protection and nuclear safety was promulgated on 10 November 1998. In its article 8 it is said that food and industrial products irradiation facilities shall comply with the requirements of the International Code of Practice. The regulations on food irradiation based on this main law are now being considered for promulgation. The lack of regulations makes it difficult to legally conduct test marketing of irradiated yams. The economic feasibility of irradiating yams in Ghana and selling them in Cote d'Ivoire has been investigated. (author)

  13. Structures of some bacterial polysaccharides with focus on pneumococcal polysaccharides and their associated C-polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Camilla

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes the chemical structures of the capsular polysaccharides from Streptococcus pneumoniae types 18B, 32F, and 32A. The structure of the pneumococcal common antigen, C-polysaccharide, from a non-capsulated pneumococcal strain, CSR SCS2, is described and the structure of the C-polysaccharide associated with pneumococcal types 18B, 32F, and 32A. Two distinct forms of C-polysaccharide were demonstrated, mono- or disubstituted with phosphorylcholine. In addi...

  14. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for marker development in yam (Dioscorea alata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Asiedu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major limiting factor in the production of yam (Dioscorea spp. worldwide. Availability of high quality sequence information is necessary for designing molecular markers associated with resistance. However, very limited sequence information pertaining to yam is available at public genome databases. Therefore, this collaborative project was developed for genetic improvement and germplasm characterization of yams using molecular markers. The current investigation is focused on studying gene expression, by large scale generation of ESTs, from one susceptible (TDa 95-0310 and two resistant yam genotypes (TDa 87-01091, TDa 95-0328 challenged with the fungus. Total RNA was isolated from young leaves of resistant and susceptible genotypes and cDNA libraries were sequenced using Roche 454 technology. Results A total of 44,757 EST sequences were generated from the cDNA libraries of the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Greater than 56% of ESTs were annotated using MapMan Mercator tool and Blast2GO search tools. Gene annotations were used to characterize the transcriptome in yam and also perform a differential gene expression analysis between the resistant and susceptible EST datasets. Mining for SSRs in the ESTs revealed 1702 unique sequences containing SSRs and 1705 SSR markers were designed using those sequences. Conclusion We have developed a comprehensive annotated transcriptome data set in yam to enrich the EST information in public databases. cDNA libraries were constructed from anthracnose fungus challenged leaf tissues for transcriptome characterization, and differential gene expression analysis. Thus, it helped in identifying unique transcripts in each library for disease resistance. These EST resources provide the basis for future microarray development, marker validation, genetic linkage mapping and QTL analysis in Dioscorea species.

  15. Promiscuous arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of yam (Dioscorea spp.), a key staple crop in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabi, Atti; Burger, Stefanie; Coyne, Danny; Hountondji, Fabien; Lawouin, Louis; Wiemken, Andres; Oehl, Fritz

    2009-08-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a tuberous staple food crop of major importance in the sub-Saharan savannas of West Africa. Optimal yields commonly are obtained only in the first year following slash-and-burn in the shifting cultivation systems. It appears that the yield decline in subsequent years is not merely caused by soil nutrient depletion but might be due to a loss of the beneficial soil microflora, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), associated with tropical "tree-aspect" savannas and dry forests that are the natural habitats of the wild relatives of yam. Our objective was to study the AMF communities of natural savannas and adjacent yam fields in the Southern Guinea savanna of Benin. AMF were identified by morphotyping spores in the soil from the field sites and in AMF trap cultures with Sorghum bicolor and yam (Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea cayenensis) as bait plants. AMF species richness was higher in the savanna than in the yam-field soils (18-25 vs. 11-16 spp.), but similar for both ecosystems (29-36 spp.) according to the observations in trap cultures. Inoculation of trap cultures with soil sampled during the dry season led to high AMF root colonization, spore production, and species richness (overall 45 spp.) whereas inoculation with wet-season soil was inefficient (two spp. only). The use of D. cayenensis and D. rotundata as baits yielded 28 and 29 AMF species, respectively, and S. bicolor 37 species. AMF root colonization, however, was higher in yam than in sorghum (70-95 vs. 11-20%). After 8 months of trap culturing, the mycorrhizal yam had a higher tuber biomass than the nonmycorrhizal controls. The AMF actually colonizing D. rotundata roots in the field were also studied using a novel field sampling procedure for molecular analyses. Multiple phylotaxa were detected that corresponded with the spore morphotypes observed. It is, therefore, likely that the legacy of indigenous AMF from the natural savanna plays a crucial role for yam

  16. Physicochemical properties of starches from two different yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) residues

    OpenAIRE

    Yugao Wang; Liming Zhang; Xinglin Li; Wenyuan Gao

    2011-01-01

    The starches obtained from two different yam residues, which were treated with alkali(starch-A) or enzyme (starch-E), were studied and compared with yam starch isolated using ordinary method (starch-O) for morphological, crystalline pattern, thermal, and pasting properties. The results revealed that the amylose content of three starches ranged from 19.47 to 22.17%. The granule surfaces of starch-A and starch-E were as smooth as that of starch-O. The crystalline pattern of the three starches w...

  17. Assessing Allometric Models to Predict Vegetative Growth of Yams in Different Environments

    OpenAIRE

    CORNET, Denis; Sierra, Jorge; Tournebize, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Yams are a neglected crop, grown mostly in West Africa by resource-poor farmers. Little is known about the physiology of the crop, and researchers lack practical and efficient tools to conduct growth analysis. The objective of this study was to develop allometric models able to predict yam leaf area and leaf and stem dry mass with acceptable accuracy. The models were calibrated using a data set comprising 10 cultivars belonging to the two main specks ([i]Dioscorea alata[/i] L. and [i]D. rotun...

  18. A Novel, Stable, Estradiol-Stimulating, Osteogenic Yam Protein with Potential for the Treatment of Menopausal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam Lok; Lai, Yau Ming; Li, Ka Wan; Lee, Kai Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Ho Pan; Zhang, Yan Bo; Lao, Lixing; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun; Shaw, Pang Chui; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Lam, Jenny Ka Wing; Ye, Wen-cai; Wencai, Y E; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing

    2015-01-01

    A novel protein, designated as DOI, isolated from the Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) could be the first protein drug for the treatment of menopausal syndrome and an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which is known to have undesirable side effects. DOI is an acid- and thermo-stable protein with a distinctive N-terminal sequence Gly-Ile-Gly-Lys-Ile-Thr-Thr-Tyr-Trp-Gly-Gln-Tyr-Ser-Asp-Glu-Pro-Ser-Leu-Thr-Glu. DOI was found to stimulate estradiol biosynthesis in rat ovarian granulosa cells; induce estradiol and progesterone secretion in 16- to 18-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats by upregulating expressions of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and ovarian aromatase; counteract the progression of osteoporosis and augment bone mineral density; and improve cognitive functioning by upregulating protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, DOI did not stimulate the proliferation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer cells, which suggest it could be a more efficacious and safer alternative to HRT. PMID:26160710

  19. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND MANAGEMENT OF YAM (DIOSCOREA CAYENENSIS - DIOSCOREA ROTUNDATA COMPLEX PESTS AND DISEASES IN NORTHERN BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loko Y.L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Yam (Dioscorea spp.production in Northern Benin is severely affected by pests and diseases resulting in poor yields and cultivars diversity loss in spite of the importanceof thiscommodity.In order to develop efficient integrated pestsand diseases management approaches, twenty seven (27 villages of the yam production zone of northern Benin were surveyed using participatory research appraisal to document farmers’indigenous knowledge, and traditional management practices of yam pests and diseases. Results indicated that farmers have good knowledge of the yam pests and diseases that were even reported as the third most important production constraints in the study area. Among the pests and diseases nematodes, termites, mealybugs and wilt diseases were the most signaled. Farmers surveyed have traditional methods for mealybugs but nothing for the other pests and diseases apart from the use of resistant/tolerant cultivars. An undetermined disease locally called Ban was reported as expanding at alarming rate throughout villages and yam fields seriously affecting the food quality of the tubers. Urgent intervention zones were identified with multivariate analysis and recommended to the national protection service. The sensitization of the yam producers of the necessity of treating both soil and tuber seeds before planting, the development and the use of pests and diseases tolerant cultivars were proposed as management strategies. Also, the extension of the study to other yam producing regions of the country for identifying more cultivars tolerant to pests and diseases was recommended.

  20. Yam (Dioscorea batatas) Root and Bark Extracts Stimulate Osteoblast Mineralization by Increasing Ca and P Accumulation and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Suji; Shin, Mee-Young; Son, Kun-Ho; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kwun, In-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea batatas) is widely consumed as functional food for health promotion mainly in East Asia countries. We assessed whether yam root (tuber) or bark (peel) extracts stimulated the activity of osteoblasts for osteogenesis. MC3T3-E1 cells (mouse osteoblasts) were treated with yam root extracts (water or methanol) (study I) or bark extracts (water or hexane) (study II) within 0~10 μg/mL during the periods of osteoblast proliferation (5~10 day), matrix maturation (11~15 day) and mineral...

  1. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  2. Apoptotic Effect of Coix Polysaccharides on A549 Lung Cancer Cells in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Cheng; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xiangyi

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Coix seeds are commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and ingested through daily diet. The aim of this study is to analyze the apoptotic effect of coix polysaccharides on A549 cells. Methods A fraction of polysaccharides was isolated from coix seeds and extracted by ethanol precipitation. The extract was then purified by dialysis and DEAE-52 ion-exchange chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Cell morphology was observed by scanning ele...

  3. Anti-aging effect of polysaccharide from Bletilla striata on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Yusi Zhang; Ting Lv; Min Li; Ting Xue; Hui Liu; Weiming Zhang; Xiaoyu Ding; Ziheng Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polysaccharide isolated from Bletilla striata, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (Bletilla striata polysaccharide [BSP]) has been found to play important roles in endothelial cells proliferation, inducible nitric oxide stimulation, wound healing acceleration and other processes. Recent studies found that B. striata has anti-oxidative properties, however, potential anti-aging effects of BSP in whole organisms has not been characterized. Objective: To investigate whether BSP...

  4. Ficus carica Polysaccharides Promote the Maturation and Function of Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Tian; Yue Zhang; Xiaomin Yang; Ke Rui; Xinyi Tang; Jie Ma; Jianguo Chen; Huaxi Xu; Liwei Lu; Shengjun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Various polysaccharides purified from plants are considered to be biological response modifiers and have been shown to enhance immune responses. Ficus carica L. is a Chinese traditional plant and has been widely used in Asian countries for its anti-tumor properties. Ficus carica polysaccharides (FCPS), one of the most essential and effective components in Ficus carica L., have been considered to be a beneficial immunomodulator and may be used in immunotherapy. However, the immunologic mechani...

  5. Effect of temperature on the luminescence of Sm3+ ions in YAM crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Different concentration Sm3+-doped Y4Al2O9 crystals are fabricated by μ-pulling down method. • Thermally activated 4F3/2 → 6H5/2 emission of Sm3+ in YAM is studied. • Temperature dependent quenching mechanism of the 4G5/2 luminescence is proposed. - Abstract: The spectroscopic features of samarium Sm3+ activated Y4Al2O9 (YAM) crystals are presented and discussed. Temperature sensing properties of Sm3+:YAM phosphor was demonstrated over the 300–1200 K range. Temperature dependent luminescence spectra and decay curves for the 4G5/2 level of Sm3+ in YAM were measured. Ratio of the fluorescence intensities arising from the two close lying 4F3/2 and 4G5/2 levels (with energy separation of ΔE ∼ 1000 cm−1) followed a straight line pattern, which confirms the Boltzmann distribution of the population, and can be used to measure temperature. The lifetime for the 4G5/2 level in 1% Sm doped sample decreases from 1.65 to 0.08 ms with heating from room temperature to 1200 K. This behavior of decays is discussed in terms of radiative and multiphonon decays as well as cross-relaxation dependence on temperature

  6. Atomic resolution structure of the E. coli YajR transporter YAM domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We report the crystal structure of the YAM domain of YajR transporter at 1.07 Å. • The YAM dimerization is related to the halogen-dependent high thermal stability. • A belt of poly-pentagonal water molecules was observed in the dimer interface. - Abstract: YajR is an Escherichia coli transporter that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Unlike most MFS transporters, YajR contains a carboxyl terminal, cytosolic domain of 67 amino acid residues termed YAM domain. Although it is speculated that the function of this small soluble domain is to regulate the conformational change of the 12-helix transmembrane domain, its precise regulatory role remains unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the YAM domain at 1.07-Å resolution, along with its structure determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. Detailed analysis of the high resolution structure revealed a symmetrical dimer in which a belt of well-ordered poly-pentagonal water molecules is embedded. A mutagenesis experiment and a thermal stability assay were used to analyze the putative role of this dimerization in response to changes in halogen concentration

  7. Evaluation of Ventilated Underground Pit Structures for Yam (Dioscorea Spp Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.U. Nwakonobi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Underground pit structures are commonly employed by farmers for on farm storage of yam (Dioscorea spp in Nigeria and other parts of developing world. This traditional storage structure is used without provision for adequate air exchange or ventilation. This study investigated the performance of yams stored in underground pit structures provided with air vents. Three experimental pits of similar dimensions were constructed with Pit 1 installed with one PVC vent; Pit 2 had two PVC vents and Pit 3 without vent which served as control. 20 Kg weight of yams was loaded in each pit measuring 1.0 m in diameter and 0.65 m in depth. The results of the study show that a lowest temperature range of 30-38ºC was maintained in pit 1 (improved temperature range of 34-40ºC in Pit 2 (semi-improved while temperature in pit 3 range from 36- 42ºC. The relative humidity obtained were 84, 76 and 70% in pit 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The sprouting indexes obtained within 8 weeks storage period were 46.2, 53.8 and 76.9 for pit 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The cumulative weight loss obtained in pit 1, 2 and 3 were 44.8, 69.5 and 79.2%, respectively for the 8 weeks storage period. Increased in storage period for yams is possible with adequate ventilation in underground pit structure.

  8. Distribution, management and diversity of yam local varieties in Brazil: a study on Dioscorea alata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, M V B M; Nascimento, W F; Silva, L R G; Ferreira, A B; Silva, E F; Ming, L C; Veasey, E A

    2014-02-01

    Widely spread in the tropics, yams were introduced into Brazil during the colonial period and are currently grown throughout the country. Despite its importance as a pharmacological and food source, there is a lack of studies describing how and where this tuber is grown in Brazil. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the cultivation and distribution of Dioscorea alata in different Brazilian regions. A total of 63 farmers were visited in different municipalities and communities in four regions in the country: South, Southeast, Northeast and Midwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect socio-economic, use, management and diversity data for this crop. The majority of interviewers were men, married, with children, using retirement benefits and agriculture as income and family labour as the main support in the yam cultivation. A wide distribution of this species was found, with the occurrence of D. alata in the four sampled regions. A variety of vernacular names for this species was collected, differing according to the region where it is cultivated. Most farmers cultivate yams in fields, however an increased usage of home gardens for the cultivation of this tuber was found. Also, most farmers cultivate yams in association with other crops in areas of different sizes and slash and burn practices, although mostly disappearing, are still being used by many farmers. The results of this study provide more concrete data on the distribution and diversity of this important crop. PMID:25055086

  9. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.: Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Florence Sandrine Ngo Ngwe

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species.

  10. The value of yam diversity in the transition Guinea Sudan zone of Benin : Market evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Struik, P.C.; Richards, P.

    2009-01-01

    Preferences of traders and consumers for different yam varieties were analysed in Benin. Prices varied by variety, showing that the market valued distinct crop traits differently. These varietal price differentials were present throughout the year and across years. The use for which each variety was

  11. Micropropagation of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata: Assessment of Performance in Cassava Starch-gelled Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N.A. Mbanaso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starches from nine different cassava varieties (TMS 97/2205, 97/0162, 92/0057, 98/0505, 92/0326, 30572, 82/0058 TME 419 and NR 8082 were evaluated as gelling agents substitute for in vitro propagation of yam (Dioscorea rotndata. In vitro yam explants (nodal segments were seeded singly into culture tubes containing 1 mL of yam multiplication medium with no gelling agent (liquid medium-control I and 15 mL of yam multiplication medium gelled differently in 0.2% gelrite (control II, 0.7% agar (control III and in 7% starch from the nine different cassava varieties. Cultures were maintained at 28C2 illumination and 16 h photoperiod (30-40 mole m-2 sec-1 supplied by white fluorescent tubes on shelves for four weeks. The overall percentage survival ranged from 86.67-100% after 60 days in culture. Explants in TMS 97/2205 performed relatively better in terms of height, number of leaves and nodes compared to those in liquid, gelrite or agar-gelled medium. This is significant because survival and multiplication is a key factor in the choice of a gelling agent.

  12. Atomic resolution structure of the E. coli YajR transporter YAM domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Daohua [National Laboratory of Macromolecules, National Center of Protein Science-Beijing, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhao, Yan [National Laboratory of Macromolecules, National Center of Protein Science-Beijing, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Fan, Junping; Liu, Xuehui; Wu, Yan; Feng, Wei [National Laboratory of Macromolecules, National Center of Protein Science-Beijing, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Xuejun C., E-mail: zhangc@ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Macromolecules, National Center of Protein Science-Beijing, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • We report the crystal structure of the YAM domain of YajR transporter at 1.07 Å. • The YAM dimerization is related to the halogen-dependent high thermal stability. • A belt of poly-pentagonal water molecules was observed in the dimer interface. - Abstract: YajR is an Escherichia coli transporter that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Unlike most MFS transporters, YajR contains a carboxyl terminal, cytosolic domain of 67 amino acid residues termed YAM domain. Although it is speculated that the function of this small soluble domain is to regulate the conformational change of the 12-helix transmembrane domain, its precise regulatory role remains unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the YAM domain at 1.07-Å resolution, along with its structure determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. Detailed analysis of the high resolution structure revealed a symmetrical dimer in which a belt of well-ordered poly-pentagonal water molecules is embedded. A mutagenesis experiment and a thermal stability assay were used to analyze the putative role of this dimerization in response to changes in halogen concentration.

  13. Isolation, Purification and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Irpex lacteus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Na; LIU Yan; LU Jia-hui; WANG Juan; YANG Shuang; ZHANG Nan; MENG Qing-fan; TENG Li-rong

    2012-01-01

    Irpex lacteus has been widely used for treating chronic glomerulonephritis as a traditional Chinese medicine.Seven water-soluble polysaccharide fractions(ILN Ⅰ,ILN Ⅱ,ILN Ⅲ,ILA Ⅰ,ILA Ⅱ,ILB Ⅰ and ILB Ⅱ)were isolated and purified from Irpex lacteus by hot-water extraction,deproteinization,decolorization,dicthy laminoethyl(DEAE)-cellulose ion exchange and sephadex G100 chromatographies,respectively.The average molecular weights and monosaccharide composition of these polysaccharide fractions greatly differed from each other.The antitumor and antinephritis activities of the seven polysaccharide fractions were evaluated.It was found that ILN Ⅲ displayed significant inhibition effects on both humar hepatocellular liver carcinoma(HepG2)and hentietta lacks(HeLa)tumor cells with IC50 values of 60.95 and 99.95 μg/mL,respectively.ILA Ⅰ exhibited significant inhibition effects on murine mesangial cells(HBZT-1)with an IC50 value of 185.06 μg/mL.The inhibition effects of other polysaccharide fractions on these three cells were significantly different.These results suggest that the polysaccharide fractions isolated from Irpex lacteus have potential antitumor and antinephritis activities.

  14. The development of new genotypes of the white yam by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the development of new genotypes of the white yam, Dioscorea rotundata. by mutation induction was investigated by irradiating mini-tubers of the yam with gamma rays. Batches of mini-tubers of a well adopted local cultivar, cvs. 'Obiaoturugo' numbering one hundred and fifty each were irradiated with gamma rays at doses, 10, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 Gray (Gy) using cobalt (C060) gamma source at the Center for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, IIe-Ife in the first year. Each irradiated tuber including the control was divided into setts weighing 10-15g and planted in the field to establish the first mutated vegetative generation (MV1), separating setts from the head (H) and the tail (T) regions. In the second year, the first generation tubers harvested from the MV1 generation yam plant population were used to establish the MV2 population. At the MV1 generation, increasing dosages of gamma ray irradiation progressively inhibited sprouting of setts isolated from treated mini-tubers. These effects were more severe on setts from the tail (T) region than those from the head (H) region. Also plant height, number of leaves, number of nodes and mean tuber yields per stand decreased with increased gamma ray dose. LD50 and GR50 were observed at 40Gy and 30Gy, respectively. At the MV2 generation, the observed differences among the treatment means disappeared (were not significant). MV2 yam lines with modified vegetative characteristic were isolated. Distinct dwarf lines with bunchy and bushy vegetation and bushy with spreading vines that have lost the ability to climb were isolated. One of the genetic improvement objectives apart from high tuber yields include the development of yam lines that may be cropped for high yield without staking (Onwueme, 1978)

  15. Scintillation properties of μPD-grown Y4Al2O9:Pr (YAM:Pr) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • YAM:Pr crystals do scintillate and as such deserve further interest. • Fast d–f luminescence of Pr3+ ions appears in X-ray excited spectra. • Two components (24 and 790 ns) constitute scintillation time profiles. - Abstract: Y4Al2O9:Pr (YAM:Pr) crystals have been grown by the micro-pulling-down method and their scintillation properties have been investigated. YAM:0.1%Pr displays a light yield of about 2000 ph/MeV and its scintillation time profile contains a prompt component with a decay time of 23.5 ns and a contribution of 20%. Radioluminescence spectra show both fast d–f and slow f–f praseodymium emissions. Low temperature glow curves are complex, consisting of discrete peaks and broad bands related to quasi-continuous trap distributions. Overall scintillation performance of YAM:Pr deteriorates with increasing praseodymium concentration

  16. Binding of cryptococcal polysaccharide to Cryptococcus neoformans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozel, T R; Hermerath, C A

    1984-01-01

    Radioiodinated cryptococcal polysaccharide was used to study binding of the soluble polysaccharide to encapsulated and non-encapsulated cryptoccoci. Binding of polysaccharide to non-encapsulated cryptococci occurred rapidly over a 30-min period and was largely complete after 2 h. Bound, labeled polysaccharide was slowly eluted from Cryptococcus neoformans after the addition of unlabeled polysaccharide, indicating reversibility of binding. Non-encapsulated cryptococci bound polysaccharide in t...

  17. Who has the yam, and who has the knife? Social Action funds and decentralization in Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lenneiye, N. Mungai

    2005-01-01

    This publication, Who has the yam and who has the knife, seeks to illustrate and address the creative tension needed to ensure an equitable distribution of power over the development process, by examining how putting the yam (resources) and the knife (the Financing Agreement) in the hands of the central, and district bureaucracies, and communities respectively can contribute to democratic decentralization. Three Social Action Funds (SAFs) in Africa are examined in this regard - in Malawi, Tan...

  18. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on yam (Dioscorea spp.) tuber weights and secondary metabolite content

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Fun-Chi; Lee, Chen-Yu; Wang, Chun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widely distributed in nature. They live in the roots of higher plants, in a symbiotic relationship. In this study, five commercial species of yams (Dioscorea spp.) were inoculated with six species of AMF, Glomus clarum, G. etunicatum, G. fasciculatum, Gigaspora sp., G. mosseae, and Acaulospora sp., in field cultivation conditions to investigate the influence of AMF inoculation on tuber weights and secondary metabolite content in yam tubers. The results s...

  19. Behavior of various types of seeds of two species of yams tuber (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam. and Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) in Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Ondo Ovono, Paul; Kevers, Claire; Dommes, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Low multiplication ratio of yam and scarcity of planting materials are major constraints militating against sustainable yam production. In order to evaluate the behavior of the four various types of seeds of two species of yams Dioscorea cayenensis and Dioscorea rotundata, cultivated on the experimental ground of the Higher National Institute of Agronomy and Biotechnology (INSAB), a test was realized in a randomized complete block design with six replications. The samples were cut and three l...

  20. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  1. Polysaccharides Purified from Wild Cordyceps Activate FGF2/FGFR1c Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yangyang; HAN Zhangrun; YU Guangli; HAO Jiejie; ZHANG Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when ex-posed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chi-nese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also fromCordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccha-rides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  2. A Sequence-Independent Strategy for Amplification and Characterisation of Episomal Badnavirus Sequences Reveals Three Previously Uncharacterised Yam Badnaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bömer, Moritz; Turaki, Aliyu A; Silva, Gonçalo; Kumar, P Lava; Seal, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) plants are potentially hosts to a diverse range of badnavirus species (genus Badnavirus, family Caulimoviridae), but their detection is complicated by the existence of integrated badnavirus sequences in some yam genomes. To date, only two badnavirus genomes have been characterised, namely, Dioscorea bacilliform AL virus (DBALV) and Dioscorea bacilliform SN virus (DBSNV). A further 10 tentative species in yam have been described based on their partial reverse transcriptase (RT)-ribonuclease H (RNaseH) sequences, generically referred to here as Dioscorea bacilliform viruses (DBVs). Further characterisation of DBV species is necessary to determine which represent episomal viruses and which are only present as integrated badnavirus sequences in some yam genomes. In this study, a sequence-independent multiply-primed rolling circle amplification (RCA) method was evaluated for selective amplification of episomal DBV genomes. This resulted in the identification and characterisation of nine complete genomic sequences (7.4-7.7 kbp) of existing and previously undescribed DBV phylogenetic groups from Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea rotundata accessions. These new yam badnavirus genomes expand our understanding of the diversity and genomic organisation of DBVs, and assist the development of improved diagnostic tools. Our findings also suggest that mixed badnavirus infections occur relatively often in West African yam germplasm. PMID:27399761

  3. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Chromolaena Odorata on Post Harvest Spoilage Fungi of Yams in Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Okigbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for control of yam tuber rotcaused mostly by Fusarium oxysporum, Asperigillus niger and Botryodiploidia theobromae which were isolatedfrom rooten tissues of yam tubers obtained from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I Umudike,Nigeria. These organisms were isolated from stored yam tubers. They caused soft rot leading to tissuediscoloration and production of foul smell from the rotted portion of the tuber. Extract used were obtained fromtwo plant materials – leaves of Chromolaena odorata and Azadirachta indica and the extracting solvent wereethanol and water. The extract of the plant material were found to be fungitoxc against the yam rot spoilagefungi that were tested. Azadirachta indica was found to inhibit organisms more than Chromoleana odorata.This study indicated that Azadiracta indica and Chromoleana odorata were able to suppress rot-causing fungiof yam. Therefore, they will serve as a good natural plant fungicide (Protectranct against yam tubers in storage.

  4. Why Were Polysaccharides Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoguzov, Vladimir

    2004-12-01

    The main idea of this paper is that the primordial soup may be modelled by food systems whose structure-property relationship is based on non-specific interactions between denatured biopolymers. According to the proposed hypothesis, polysaccharides were the first biopolymers that decreased concentration of salts in the primordial soup, `compatibilised' and drove the joint evolution of proto-biopolymers. Synthesis of macromolecules within the polysaccharide-rich medium could have resulted in phase separation of the primordial soup and concentration of the polypeptides and nucleic acids in the dispersed phase particles. The concentration of proto-biopolymer mixtures favoured their cross-linking in hybrid supermacromolecules of conjugates. The cross-linking of proto-biopolymers could occur by hydrophobic, electrostatic interactions, H-bonds due to freezing aqueous mixed biopolymer dispersions and/or by covalent bonds due to the Maillard reaction. Cross-linking could have increased the local concentration of chemically different proto-biopolymers, fixed their relative positions and made their interactions reproducible. Attractive-repulsive interactions between cross-linked proto-biopolymer chains could develop pairing of the monomer units, improved chemical stability (against hydrolysis) and led to their mutual catalytic activity and coding. Conjugates could probably evolve to the first self-reproduced entities and then to specialized cellular organelles. Phase separation of the primordial soup with concentration of conjugates in the dispersed particles has probably resulted in proto-cells.

  5. Polysaccharides and bacterial plugging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1991-11-01

    Before any successful application of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process can be realized, an understanding of the cells' transport and retentive mechanisms in porous media is needed. Cell transport differs from particle transport in their ability to produce polysaccharides, which are used by cells to adhere to surfaces. Cell injection experiments have been conducted using Leuconostoc cells to illustrate the importance of cellular polysaccharide production as a transport mechanism that hinders cell movement and plugs porous media. Kinetic studies of the Leuconostoc cells, carried out to further understand the plugging rates of porous media, have shown that the cells' growth rates are approximately equal when provided with monosaccharide (glucose and fructose) or sucrose. The only difference in cell metabolism is the production of dextran when sucrose is supplied as a carbon source. Experimentally it has also been shown that the cells' growth rate is weakly dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media, and strongly dependent upon the concentration of yeast extract. The synthesis of cellular dextran has been found to lag behind cell generation, thus indicating that the cells need to reach maturity before they are capable of expressing the detransucrase enzyme and synthesizing insoluble dextran. Dextran yields were found to be dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media. 10 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Uncommon trajectories: steroid hormones, Mexican peasants, and the search for a wild yam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laveaga, Gabriela Soto

    2005-12-01

    This article analyzes how evolving pharmaceutical technology, chemical advances, and world politics created the need for an abundant and cheap supply of steroids, and how decisions made in faraway laboratories ultimately determined that a Mexican yam, barbasco, was the best possible raw material. Following this discovery, this article explores how barbasco's exploitation impacted on the Mexican countryside and specifically the men and women hired to gather wild yams. In analyzing, for example, the peasant organizations that emerged, the use of chemical terms by barely literate peasants, and the Mexican government's political strategy to control rural unrest by controlling barbasco production one begins to understand the unexpected consequences of the global search for medicinal plants. In this particular case, the merging of science and peasant life reshuffled social hierarchies in the countryside, granted monetary value to an erstwhile 'weed', and gave a novel reinterpretation to laboratory knowledge and its (social) uses. PMID:16337559

  7. Agro-forestry practices and sustainable agriculture in yam producing communities of Niger state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Alamu L.O.

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of farmland burden in terms of land degradation, bulky nature of and unavailability of inorganic fertilizers as well as time constraint in the formation of organic fertilizers, there is the need to shift to agro-forestry practices. The practice will make room for arable crop production and forest/tree crop production. Four autonomous communities were studied in Niger State Nigeria. The communities are generally known for yam production. One hundred and twenty farmers were rando...

  8. Survey of yam trading practices and loss assessment in Techiman Market (NRI report no. R6505)

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, A; Crentsil, D.; Gallat, S.; Gogoe, S.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this report is to gain an understanding of the structure of yams marketing in and around Techiman Market in Ghana, and to understand the extent and impact of quality deterioration (called 'physical losses' in this report) on the farmers' and traders' revenues. It should be noted that the data collected on marketing margins and losses was collected using informal techniques which provide indicative results.

  9. Pectinase Activity of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot of Yam (Diascorea rotundata)

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Samuel K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with soft rot of yam (Diascorea rotundata) were isolated by the looping-out method and found to consist of Clostridium (three isolates), Corynebacterium (three isolates), Vibrio (one isolate), and Bacillus lentus (one isolate). Enzyme assay for hydrolase, lyase, and pectinesterase activities by the cup-plate method showed that except for Vibrio sp., B. lentus, and two isolates of Corynebacterium no pectinase activity could be detected ...

  10. Microwave and blanch-assisted drying of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abano, Ernest Ekow; Amoah, Robert Sarpong

    2015-11-01

    The effect of microwave and blanch pretreatments on the drying kinetics and quality of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) was investigated. Yam cubes destined for hot air drying at temperatures 70-90°C were predried in a domestic microwave or blanched in hot water for 1-5 min. Microwave pretreatment time had a positive significant effect on drying rate but both pretreatments had a negative influence on the ascorbic acid content and the nonenzymatic browning. The optimum drying conditions were a microwave pretreatment time of 5 min and a temperature of 70°C and a blanching time of 1 min at a temperature of 80°C. Among the models fitted, the Midilli et al. and the Page models gave the best fits for yam cubes predried with microwave and blanch, respectively. The effective moisture diffusivity for microwave-assisted drying increased from 1.05 × 10(-8 )m(2 )s(-1) to 2.00 × 10(-8) m(2 )s(-1) while the hot water blanched samples decreased from 1.53 × 10(-8) to 8.81 × 10(-9 )m(2 )s(-1) with time. The study demonstrates that microwave-assisted drying could be used to enhance heat and mass transfer processes to produce better quality dried yam products. PMID:26788300

  11. Higher yield, profit and soil quality from organic farming of elephant foot yam

    OpenAIRE

    Suja,; Sundaresan,; John, Kuzhivilayil; Sreekumar; Misra, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Alternative agricultural systems, like organic farming, that are less chemical intensive, less exploitative and environment friendly are gaining popularity. Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson) is an important starchy tuberous vegetable with high nutritive and medicinal values. Since information on the organic farming of tuberous vegetables is scanty, field experiments were conducted in this crop at the Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, India, over a 5-yea...

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF DRIED YAM CHIPS (Dioscorea rotundata) DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia F. Omojasola; Folashade T. Sanu

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological and physico-chemical analyses of dried yam chips (gbodo) retailed in four markets in Ilorin and its environs alongside a laboratory – prepared control were carried out over a six month period. Microbiological assay consisted of total viable and coliform counts as well as microbial isolation. A total of 11 fungi and 5 bacteria were isolated from the different samples which included Acremonium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus., A. niger, A. ochraceus, Fusarium solani, Mucor hiemalis, ...

  13. LABOUR-USE EFFICIENCY BY SMALLHOLDER YAM FARMERS IN ABIA STATE NIGERIA: A LABOUR-USE REQUIREMENT FRONTIER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Onyedikachi Anyiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of yam is a labour intensive set of activities especially in the Tropics. In Eastern Nigeria this is done by small farmers at subsistent level due to inadequate and short supply of labour. This study examined labour-use efficiency by smallholder yam farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. A two-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 smallholder yam farmers from Ikwuano and Umuahia North Local Government Areas of the state. Data were collected during a survey with a wellstructured questionnaire administered by personal interview method with the farmers. The result revealed that farm households provided an average of 336 man-days used in yam production activities, with 36.66% using hired labour while family labour, share croppers, and exchange labour provided the balance labour (63.34% required. The Cobb-Douglas functional form of labour-use frontier estimates shows that the quantity of harvested yam, size of cleared farm land and quantity of fertilizer applied significantly affected the amount of labour used in yam production at 10.0%, 5.0% and 1.0% level of significance respectively. The socio-economic determinants of labour use efficiency were age, education, farm size, gender, labour wage and household size which were statistically significant at 1.0% risk level except the coefficient of age which was significant at 5.0% risk level. The result showed that the estimated farm labour-use efficiency ranged from 0.20 to 0.97 with a mean labour-use efficiency value of 0.76. Policies aimed at increasing yam farmers’ scale of operation through improved access to production inputs like fertilizer, agrochemical and capital are required for increasing labour use efficiency in the area.

  14. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y-H [300 University Road, Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tseng, C-Y [300 University Road, Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chen Wenlung [Department of Chemistry, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. {approx}33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. {approx}31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in {alpha}-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel {beta}- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  15. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Hsiu; Tseng, Chi-Yin; Chen, Wenlung

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ~33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ~31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  16. Simultaneous determination of phenylurea herbicides in yam by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuefang

    2015-04-01

    A method of capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection has been applied to detect three major phenylurea herbicides (monuron, monolinuron and diuron) simultaneously. The effects of yam sample preparation, injection voltage and time, detection potential, detection buffer concentration and pH, Ru(bpy)₃(2+) concentration, separation buffer type, separation buffer pH and concentration, separation voltage were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions, a good baseline separation and highly sensitive detection for monuron, monolinuron and diuron were achieved. The ECL intensity (I) was in proportion to three analytes concentration (ρ) in the range of 0.1-10,000 μg/L for monuron (r≥0.9993), 0.1-18,000 μg/L for monolinuron (r≥0.9995) and 0.1-20,000 μg/L for diuron (r≥0.9997). The detection limits for monuron, monolinuron and diuron were 0.05, 0.04 and 0.01 μg/L (S/N=3), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of monuron, monolinuron and diuron residues in yam simultaneously. The average recoveries are in the ranges of 90.0-99.2% with relative standard deviations less than 3.2%. The limits of detection of the proposed method were 0.010 μg/kg for monuron, 0.008 μg/kg for monolinuron and diuron in yam. PMID:25732033

  17. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ∼33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ∼31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B

  18. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliki, Raphiou; Sinsin, Brice; Floquet, Anne; Cornet, Denis; Malezieux, Eric; Vernier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders' traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0-10 and 10-20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. PMID:27446635

  19. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsin, Brice; Floquet, Anne; Cornet, Denis; Malezieux, Eric; Vernier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders' traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. PMID:27446635

  20. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  1. 淮山药复合乳饮料的研究%Research of Yam-milk Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文起; 孙振刚; 冯永强; 胡志和; 吴子健; 薛璐

    2015-01-01

    以淮山药和牛奶为原料,研究开发淮山药复合乳饮料。在加工过程中,采用NaOH溶液去皮,用含VC的柠檬酸溶液护色,加牛奶和白砂糖调整口味。通过感官评价,确定了淮山药浆液与牛奶的比例,加水稀释比例和加糖量;同时确定了稳定剂的用量和杀菌条件。结果表明,用1.5%NaOH溶液在95℃~100℃下处理2 min或2.0%NaOH溶液在95℃~100℃下处理1 min,能较好地脱除山药皮;护色采用淮山药与含0.02%VC的柠檬酸溶液(0.1%)按照1∶4(g/g)质量比进行处理,具有较好的护色效果。浆液与牛奶混合的比例为1∶1.5(g/g),加水稀释比为48 g/100 g,加糖量为5 g/100 g,调整后,加入复合稳定剂9273-C(0.15 g/100 g)进行均质,在135℃下杀菌4 s。可生产既有奶香和淮山药香、适口性好、色泽乳白、组织状态稳定的复合饮料。%The objective of this study was to develop yam-milk beverage using yam (common yam rhizome) and milk. In the processing, the solution of sodium hydroxide was used to remove the peel from yam tuber, and citric acid solution which containing vitamin C was used to color-protecting in processing yam pulp. The yam pulp was mixed with milk, and then sugar was used to adjust palatability. Using sensory evaluation method, it was determined that the ratio of yam pulp mixed with milk, quality of water and sugar and stabilizer, and condition of beverage sterilization . Result showed that , the condition of removing peel from yam tuber was treated 2 minute at 95℃-100℃in solution which contain sodium hydroxide percent 1.5 or 1 minute at 95℃-100℃in solution containing sodium hydroxide percent 2.0. The color-protecting condition of yam pulp was treated it with citric acid solution (0.1%) which contain vitamin C percent 0.02, and ratio of yam to citric acid solution was 1∶4 (g/g) in the pulping process. The ratio of yam pulp mixed with milk was 1∶1.5 (g/g), and

  2. A threading receptor for polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Harniman, Robert L; Renney, Charles M; Carter, Tom S; Crump, Matthew P; Davis, Anthony P

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (K(a) up to 19,000 M(-1)), and is shown--by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy--to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules. PMID:26673266

  3. A threading receptor for polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooibroek, Tiddo J.; Casas-Solvas, Juan M.; Harniman, Robert L.; Renney, Charles M.; Carter, Tom S.; Crump, Matthew P.; Davis, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (Ka up to 19,000 M-1), and is shown—by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy—to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules.

  4. Characterizing diversity based on nutritional and bioactive compositions of yam germplasm (Dioscorea spp. commonly cultivated in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. are widely cultivated as edible resources and medical materials in China. Characterizing chemical compositions in yam germplasm is crucial to determine their diversity and suitability for food and medicine applications. In this study, a core germplasm containing 25 yam landraces was used to create an effective classification of usage by characterizing their nutritive and medicinal compositions. All studied landraces exhibited high contents of starch from 60.7% to 80.6% dry weight (DW, protein (6.3–12.2% DW, minerals (especially Mg 326.8–544.7 mg/kg DW, and essential amino acids. Allantoin and dioscin varied considerably, with values of 0.62–1.49% DW and 0.032–0.092% DW, respectively. The quality variability of 25 yam landraces was clearly separated in light of UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA. Using an eigenvalue ≥1 as the cutoff, the first three principal components accounted for most of the total variability (62.33%. Classification was achieved based on the results of the measured parameters and principal component analysis scores. The results are of great help in determining appropriate application strategies for yam germplasm in China.

  5. Computer simulation and experimental study of the polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefeva, Oksana A.; Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the conformational properties and molecular dynamics of polysaccharides by using molecular modeling methods. Theoretical and experimental results of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions are described.

  6. Northern region production cultivation technology of yam%北方地区山药生产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景玉

    2012-01-01

    According to the local actual production, the author summarizes the suitable for the north area of cultivation technology of yam, yam preparations before seeding, planting, field management, disease control and harvesting is described in detail, for the northern region to provide reference of yam cultivation.%根据本地的生产实际,作者总结出了适合北方地区山药生产的栽培技术,对山药的播前准备、种植方式、田间管理、病害防治和收获都进行了详尽的描述,为北方地区种植山药提供了参考依据。

  7. 山药新品种瑞山药的选育与栽培技术探析%Discussion on Breeding and Cultivation Techniques of Yam New Variety Rui Yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉蓉; 王定国; 田子明

    2015-01-01

    从介绍山药新品种瑞山药选育经过出发,论述了该品种特征特性,并详细阐述了其栽培技术要点,包括播种定植、田间管理、施肥及病虫害防治等方面。%Starting from introducing the breeding process of yam new variety Rui yam, the characteristics were discussed. Moreover, the cultivation techniques were elaborated from the following aspects, including sowing planting, field management, fertilization and pest control and others.

  8. Pregnancy in Premature Ovarian Failure after Therapy Using Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiouh-Lirng Chao

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We present ovulation that occurred after the administration of traditional Chinese herbalmedicine for 3 months in a woman with premature ovarian failure (POF and secondaryamenorrhea for 8 years. Traditional Chinese medicine concentrated herbal extracts ofcooked rehmannia, Chinese yam, wolfberry fruit, dogwood fruit, cyathula root, dodder seed,antler glue, tortoise-plastron glue, epimedium and morinda root were prescribed, which werea modification of the herbal formula Zuo-gui-wan. When the patient discontinued theChinese herbal medicine treatment and tried therapy with clomiphene citrate, neither ovulationnor conception occurred. Eight months after beginning clomiphene citrate therapy, theconcentrations of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were still in thepostmenopausal range. The modified formula of Zuo-gui-wan was prescribed again and thepatient conceived 1 month after taking Zuo-gui-wan. Thus, we suggested that Chinese herbalmedicine restored ovarian function effectively and promptly, and offers another option fortreating infertility in patients with POF.

  9. Identification of soil factors that relate to plant parasitic nematode communities on tomato and yam in the French West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Cadet, Patrice; Thioulouse, J.

    1998-01-01

    A soil and nematode survey of tomato and yam crops was made in Martinique (French West Indies). Each sample was divided into two parts, one for the nematode study and one for the soil analysis. The coupling of the data was made using the coinertia analysis. For tomato plants which were grown from seeds, the nematode-soil relationships were very strong. For the two varieties of yams, #Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata$ and #D. alata$, whose infested seed tubers carry nematodes into the field, the...

  10. Yam: a neglected and underutilized crop in Brazil Inhame: uma cultura negligenciada e subutilizada no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVBM Siqueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil current studies and investments on yams are incipient. Similarly, the literature in recent decades lacks adequate information on this group of plants. The existing literature, on its turn, requires more than ever to be revised and organized. Yams have joined the so-called "neglected" group of crops for several reasons, but particularly because they are associated with poor and traditional communities. Many vegetables introduced in Brazil during the colonization period have adapted to different cropping systems, yams being an excellent example. This diversity resulted very widespread, yet poorly recognized in the country. In turn, the gardens using traditional farming systems continue to maintain and enhance yam local varieties. Studies from other countries, with an emphasis on characterization and genetic breeding, brought to light an urgent need for Brazil to invest in yams as a food rich in carbohydrates, even to the point of alterations in food public policy. Reversal of the yam's current stigma is both a challenge to the scientific community and to the population as a whole. This paper aims to raise pertinent questions about Dioscorea species, an important key group for many communities in tropical countries, yet still unrecognized as so in Brazil.No Brasil, estudos e investimentos ao inhame são incipientes. Similarmente, a literatura nas últimas décadas apresenta informações insuficientes para este grupo de plantas. A literatura existente, por sua vez, exige mais que nunca ser revisada e organizada. O inhame tem-se unido ao grupo de culturas ditas "negligenciadas" por diversas razões, mas particularmente devido ao fato de estar associado às comunidades pobres e tradicionais. Muitos vegetais introduzidos no Brasil durante o período da colonização têm-se adaptado a diferentes sistemas de cultivo, sendo o inhame um excelente exemplo. Esta diversidade é resultado de uma ampla dispersão, ainda pouco conhecida no país. Por

  11. Performance of New Hybrid Yam (D. rotundata Poir Varieties in the Forest Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinlosotu, TA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hybrid yam varieties (TDr 89/01438, TDr 89/02665, TDr 95/01924 and TDr 89/01213 and three local cultivars (Danacha, Obiaturugo and 93-2 were evaluated for tuber yield, leaf mosaic virus and nematodes infection at Orin-Ekiti for three years, 1999 to 2001. Varietal differences and relationship between tuber yield, severity of leaf mosaic virus and tuber infection by nematodes were determined. Tuber yields were highest in 89/02665 and 95/01924 with a mean of 16 and 14 t.ha-1 respectively. The lowest yielders were Danacha (5 t.ha–1 and a hybrid 89/01438 (6.6 t.ha–1. In the two highest yielding varieties, 47 to 53% of yields were contributed by ware yam sizes which contributed 34% of the total number of tubers harvested. Seven percent of the tubers harvested were of ware sizes in Danacha and they contributed 11% to total yield. Reaction to leaf mosaic virus was low in TDr 89/ 02665, mild in 95/01924, and moderate to severe in 89/01438, 93-2 and Danacha. Nematode attack on tubers was mild in all varieties. Positive correlations were found between tuber yield and percent weight of ware yams (r= 0. 53 ** and percent number of ware tubers (r= 0.76***. Correlation was negative and significant between tuber yield and virus infection (r= -0.59*** whereas it was not significant for nematode infection (r= 0.13. Two hybrid varieties 89/02665 and 95/01924 are recommended for on-farm testing by farmers in forest areas of Nigeria.

  12. Antioxidant activities of dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Lee, M H; Chen, H J; Liang, W L; Han, C H; Liu, Y W; Lin, Y H

    2001-10-01

    Dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber (which is different from dioscorine found in tubers of Dioscorea hirsuta), was purified to homogeneity after DE-52 ion exchange column according to the methods of Hou et al. (J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 2168-2172). A single band of 32 kDa dioscorin was obtained on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel with 2-mercaptoethanol treatment. This purified dioscorin was shown by spectrophotometric method to have scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in a pH-dependent manner. There is a positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (8-46%) and amounts of 32 kDa dioscorin (5.97-47.80 nmol) added in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9), which are comparable to those of glutathione at the same concentrations. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for DPPH radical detection, it was found that the intensities of the EPR signal were decreased by 28.6 and 57 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9) more than in distilled water compared to controls. EPR spectrometry was also used for hydroxyl radical detection. It was found that 32 kDa dioscorin could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of the EPR signal were significantly decreased dose-dependently by 1.79-14.32 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin (r = 0.975) compared to the control. It is suggested that 32 kDa dioscorin, the storage protein of yam tuber, may play a role as antioxidant in tubers and may be beneficial for health when people take it as a food additive or consume yam tubers. PMID:11600050

  13. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  14. Complete genome sequence of yam chlorotic necrotic mosaic virus from Dioscorea parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengyuan; Peng, Jiejun; Guo, Huachun; Chen, Jianping; Chen, Suiyun; Wang, Jianguang

    2016-06-01

    The complete genome sequence of yam chlorotic necrotic mosaic virus (YCNMV) was determined. It is a monopartite ssRNA 8208 nucleotides in length (excluding the poly(A) tail) and encoding a polyprotein of 2622 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that the P1 region and some conserved motifs, such as the typical potyvirus aphid-transmission motifs DAG, PTK and KITC, are absent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete polyprotein sequences of YCNMV and selected members of the family Potyviridae clearly showed that this virus should be assigned to the genus Macluravirus and suggest that YCNMV is a new member of the genus Macluravirus. PMID:26973231

  15. Breeding and Evaluation of New Iron Yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb) Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sufang DUAN; Jianjun LI; Meiling REN; Jun WANG; Guolun JIA; Shuwu SUN

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study was conducted to develop some new iron yam (Dioscorea opposita) varieties with excel ent cooking, eating and nutritional qualities. [Method] The fresh weight per plant, drying rate, dry weight per plant, yield, al an-toin content, water soluble extract content and disease resistance of seven new iron yam cultivars (No.1, No.2, No.4, No.6, No.8, No.9 and No.10) obtained through spaceflight mutation breeding were measured and compared with control (No.11). Then, the nutrition quality of two elite cultivars No. 6 and No.10 was determined by comparing with the control. [Result] The eight iron yam cultivars ranked in descend-ing order of their fresh weight per plant as fol ows: No.6(0.255 kg)>No.10(0.254 kg)>No.4(0.242 kg)>No.9(0.237 kg)>No.1(0.233 kg)>No.11(0.206 kg)>No.2(0.191 kg)>No.8 (0.157 kg). There was no significant difference in fresh weight per plant between No.6 and No.10, but extremely significant difference between No.6 and the control, No.10 and the control. The eight iron yam cultivars ranked in descending order of their drying rate as fol ows: No.2 (32.641%)>No.10 (32.230%)>No.9 (28.223%)>No.6 (25.174%)>No.8(25.122%)>No.11(25.043%)>No.1(24.291%)>No.4(20.234%). The dry-ing rate of both No.6 and No.10 was higher than that of the control. The eight iron yam cultivars ranked in descending order of their dry weight per plant as fol ows:No.10(0.082 kg)>No.9(0.067 kg)>No.6(0.064 kg)>No.2(0.062 kg)>No.1(0.056 kg)>No.11 (0.052 kg)>No.4 (0.049 kg)>No.8 (0.039 kg). The dry weight per plant of both No.6 and No.10 is higher than that of the control. The eight iron yam cultivars ranked in descending order of their al antoin content as fol ows No.6 (0.484%)>No.4 (0.467%)>No.10 (0.399%)>No.11 (0.386%)>No.9 (0.378%)>No.8 (0.350%)>No.2 (0.342)>No.1 (0.325%). The al antoin content of No.6 was significantly higher than that of No.10 and the control. There was significant difference in al antoin content between No.6 and No.10, but no significant

  16. Fungal enzyme sets for plant polysaccharide degradation

    OpenAIRE

    van den Brink, Joost; de Vries, Ronald P

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic degradation of plant polysaccharides has many industrial applications, such as within the paper, food, and feed industry and for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins are the main components of plant cell wall polysaccharides. These polysaccharides are often tightly packed, contain many different sugar residues, and are branched with a diversity of structures. To enable efficient degradation of these polysaccharides, fungi produce an e...

  17. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p corn, soya bean meal and DLRM. PMID:17615009

  18. Induction and evaluation of useful mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta) and yam (Diascorea sp.) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cuttings of the cassava cultivar ''Bosom'' were irradiated with gamma rays. A dose of 5000 rad was lethal, but a dose of 3000 rad was found to allow sprouting of 50% of the buds. For tuber cuttings of yam, the LD50 was found to be around 2000 rad. 6 refs, 1 tab

  19. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose levels. PMID:26501316

  20. Production of yam mosaic virus (ymv)-free Dioscorea opposita plants by cryotherapy of shoot-tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong Hee; Kang, Dong Kyoon; Sohn, Jae Keun

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, Yam mosaic virus (YMV) could be efficiently eliminated by cryotherapy in Dioscorea opposita. Shoot apices were precultured for 16 h with 0.3 M sucrose, encapsulated in sodium alginate and dehydrated for 4 h prior to direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Up to 90 percent of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips were YMV-free, whereas only 40% of those regenerated using meristem culture were YMV-free. YMV-free yam plantlets could be propagated in vitro through nodal stem culture, with sequential subculturing at 6-week intervals on medium containing 0.5 mg per liter kinetin. The microtubers formed at the bottom and axil of the explants, incubated at 30 degreeC after being chilled (4 degree C) for 3 months, could be sprouted successfully under in vivo conditions. Healthy plants were established without any damaging symptoms of the virus. Thus, cryotherapy provides an alternative method for efficient elimination of yam viruses, and could be simultaneously used for long-term storage of yam germplasm and for the production of virus-free plants. PMID:23625083

  1. Studies on the steroid hormone precursors of two tropical wild yams (Dioscorea bulbifera and Dioscorea manganotiana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioscorea bulbifera and Dioscorea manganotiana were evaluated for their potential as a source of saponin and sapogenin. The levels of these steroid hormone precursors were determined by solvent extraction and characterized by froth test, haemolytic test, colour, taste and TLC analysis. The saponin content of both yams were 1.04±0.08% (dioscorea bulbifera) and 1.58±0.26% (Dioscorea manganotiana). The sapogenin content of Dioscorea manganotiana was 6.04±0.06mg/g, while that of dioscerea bulbifera was 3.36±0.37mg/g. The saponin had a dark-brown colour, bitter taste, frothing ability and haemolysed blood. TLC analysis gave a purple spot with Rf ranging from 0.55 to 0.56. Since the wild yams used for the present study are neither consumed by man nor used for livestock feeding, coupled with their relative abundance and low cost, they hold a good promise with respect to sourcing precursors for commercial production of steroid hormones. (author)

  2. Direct splash dispersal prevails over indirect and subsequent spread during rains in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting yams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Penet

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens have evolved many dispersal mechanisms, using biotic or abiotic vectors or a combination of the two. Rain splash dispersal is known from a variety of fungi, and can be an efficient driver of crop epidemics, with infectious strains propagating rapidly among often genetically homogenous neighboring plants. Splashing is nevertheless a local dispersal process and spores taking the droplet ride seldom move farther than a few decimeters. In this study, we assessed rain splash dispersal of conidia of the yam anthracnose agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, in an experimental setting using a rain simulator, with emphasis on the impact of soil contamination (i.e., effect of re-splashing events. Spores dispersed up to 50 cm from yam leaf inoculum sources, though with an exponential decrease with increasing distance. While few spores were dispersed via re-splash from spore-contaminated soil, the proportion deposited via this mechanism increased with increasing distance from the initial source. We found no soil contamination carryover from previous rains, suggesting that contamination via re-splashing from contaminated soils mainly occurred within single rains. We conclude that most dispersal occurs from direct splashing, with a weaker contribution of indirect dispersal via re-splash.

  3. Direct splash dispersal prevails over indirect and subsequent spread during rains in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting yams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Laurent; Guyader, Sébastien; Pétro, Dalila; Salles, Michèle; Bussière, François

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogens have evolved many dispersal mechanisms, using biotic or abiotic vectors or a combination of the two. Rain splash dispersal is known from a variety of fungi, and can be an efficient driver of crop epidemics, with infectious strains propagating rapidly among often genetically homogenous neighboring plants. Splashing is nevertheless a local dispersal process and spores taking the droplet ride seldom move farther than a few decimeters. In this study, we assessed rain splash dispersal of conidia of the yam anthracnose agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, in an experimental setting using a rain simulator, with emphasis on the impact of soil contamination (i.e., effect of re-splashing events). Spores dispersed up to 50 cm from yam leaf inoculum sources, though with an exponential decrease with increasing distance. While few spores were dispersed via re-splash from spore-contaminated soil, the proportion deposited via this mechanism increased with increasing distance from the initial source. We found no soil contamination carryover from previous rains, suggesting that contamination via re-splashing from contaminated soils mainly occurred within single rains. We conclude that most dispersal occurs from direct splashing, with a weaker contribution of indirect dispersal via re-splash. PMID:25532124

  4. Effect of liquid media culture systems on yam plant growth (Dioscorea alata L. 'Pacala Duclos'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jova, MC.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture system type in liquid media influences yam plant growth ('Pacala Duclos' clone. In culture systems with forced renewal of internal atmosphere in culture flasks, Temporary Immersion System (TIS and Constant Immersion System (CIS with aeration through continuous bubbling in culture medium, higher results were obtained in morphological and physiological plant indicators in comparison with plants obtained in culture systems with passive renewal of internal atmosphere in culture flasks or Static Liquid System (SLS. In Temporary Immersion System, the best results were obtained after six weeks of culture in relation to total length (20.8 cm, axillary bud number (8.6, fresh weight (2.1 g and dry weight (0.18 g per plant, as well as photosynthetic pigment content (chlorophyll a, b, and total, net photosynthesis (15.3 μmol C02.m-2.s-1, total transpiration (5.97 mmol H2O.m-2.s-1, stomatal conductance (457 μmol H2O.m-2.s-1 and leaf starch content (45.77 mg.gMF-1. Reducing sugar in culture medium with Temporary Immersion System was completely depleted, and mineral nutrients of lower contents (phosphorus, nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, iron, and manganese in culture medium from this culture system could be related with plant growing. The results of this work could contribute to develop protocol for in vitro plant propagation of this yam clone.

  5. Determinants of Yam Postharvest Management in the Zabzugu District of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Gershon Kodwo Ansah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest loss reduction has received attention in many policy documents across nations to ensure global food security, particularly in developing countries. Many researchers have examined various options for reducing postharvest losses. We contribute our quota to this scientific discourse by using a different approach. We argue that the human element of managing postharvest loss is central and therefore poses the question of what are the characteristics of the farmer who manages postharvest losses better. We examine this question by using a cross section of yam farmers in the Zabzugu district in Northern Ghana and generate a proportional variable called postharvest management, which measures how effective a farmer works to reduce storage losses. We then use a fractional logistic regression model to examine the determinants of postharvest management. A significant result is that subsistence farmers manage postharvest losses better than commercial farmers. Characteristically, the farmer who effectively manages postharvest losses is a young, subsistence farmer, living in or close to a district capital with fewer household members, has attained formal education, and produces more yam. Efforts to reduce postharvest losses require the provision of access roads to remote towns or providing effective storage techniques and training on postharvest management practices.

  6. Chemical Composition and Sensory and Pasting Properties of Blends of Maize-African Yam Bean Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Atinuke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to improve the nutritional content of maize flour by incorporating African yam bean (an underutilized crop with high nutritional value and to evaluate its effect on the chemical, sensory and pasting properties of the flour blends. Maize and African yam bean seed were processed into flours at ratios 100:0; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40 and 0:100 and used to produce tuwo, a maize-based meal, its sensory attributes being evaluated. Chemical and pasting properties of the flour blends were determined. Crude protein (9.61- 14.71%, crude fibre (1.34-5.81%, total ash (1.39-2.09% and sugar (4.11-6.01% contents increased while fat (4.53-3.94%, amylase (24.18-11.40%, starch (66.66-51.15% contents and some of the sensory qualities decreased significantly (p0.05 from control sample. Among the pasting parameters, final viscosity and break down viscosity reduced while peak viscosity and trough viscosity increased with increasing quantity of AYBF.

  7. Structural characterization and anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides from the roots of Morinda officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-Lin; Li, Jun; Li, George; Wang, Dong-mei; Zhu, Long-ping; Yang, De-po

    2009-04-01

    Three polysaccharides MP-1, MP-2, and MP-3 were isolated from hot water extract of Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis through 95% ethanol precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column and Sephadex G-75 or G-100 column). MP-1 was identified as an inulin-type fructan with simple linear (2-->1)-linked structure. Both MP-2 and MP-3 were acidic polysaccharides which consisted predominantly of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Partial structure characterization of MP-3 was carried out by partial acid hydrolysis and periodate oxidation. The total polysaccharides of the herb were tested in mice weight-loaded swimming model and were found to have anti-fatigue activity. PMID:19150459

  8. Foliar Application of Extract from an Azalomycin-Producing Streptomyces malaysiensis Strain MJM1968 Suppresses Yam Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Woh

    2016-06-28

    Yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C.g) is the most devastating disease of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In the present study, we evaluated the culture filtrate extract (CFE) of azalomycin-producing Streptomyces malaysiensis strain MJM1968 for the control of yam anthracnose. MJM1968 showed strong antagonistic activity against C.g in vitro. Furthermore, the MJM1968 CFE was tested for inhibition of spore germination in C.g, where it completely inhibited spore germination at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. To assess the in planta efficacy of the CFE and spores of MJM1968 against C.g, a detached leaf bioassay was conducted, which showed both the treatments suppressed anthracnose development on detached yam leaves. Furthermore, a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the CFE from MJM1968 as a fungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. The CFE non-treated plants showed a disease severity of >92% after 90 days of artificial inoculation with C.g, whereas the disease severity of CFE-treated and benomyl-treated yam plants was reduced to 26% and 15%, respectively, after 90 days. Analysis of the yam tubers from the CFE-treated and non-treated groups showed that tubers from the CFE-treated plants were larger than that of non-treated plants, which produced abnormal smaller tubers typical of anthracnose. This study demonstrated the utility of the CFE from S. malaysiensis strain MJM1968 as a biofungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. PMID:26975770

  9. Sustainable Agriculture and Innovation Adoption in a Tropical Small-Scale Food Production System: The Case of Yam Minisetts in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Beckford, Clinton L.

    2009-01-01

    Grown in Jamaica since the days of slavery, food yams are major staples in local diets and a significant non-traditional export crop. The cultivation system used today is the same as 300 years ago, with alleged unsustainable practices. A new cultivation system called minisett was introduced in 1985 but the adoption rate twenty four years later is extremely low. This paper analyzes the prospects for the widespread adoption of minisett and sustainable yam cultivation and advocates that greater ...

  10. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed. PMID:26952168

  11. Radiochemistry and radiopolymerization of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma radiation on dry state polysaccharides (example: starch) are presented in an overall manner by order of quantitative importance: recombination of radicals to recover the initial macromolecule (cage effect) or smaller molecules which are chemically identical (radiopolymerization) and evolution of radicals to give secondary reactions (formation of radiolysis products). The effect of the botanical origin of the starch studied is briefly discussed, applications and extensions to the case of radiochemically induced modifications to foodstuffs being envisaged

  12. Apoptotic Effect of Coix Polysaccharides on A549 Lung Cancer Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng LUO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Coix seeds are commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and ingested through daily diet. The aim of this study is to analyze the apoptotic effect of coix polysaccharides on A549 cells. Methods A fraction of polysaccharides was isolated from coix seeds and extracted by ethanol precipitation. The extract was then purified by dialysis and DEAE-52 ion-exchange chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Cell morphology was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, and cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry (FCM. The relative quantities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were determined by RT-PCR. Results Coix polysaccharides exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on A549 cell proliferation. Apoptotic bodies were observed by SEM. Apoptotic induction was also verified by DNA accumulation using propidium iodide nucleus staining in the S phase by flow cytometry, as well as by DNA fragmentation using the comet assay. Regarding the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction, the gene expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 increased after coix polysaccharide treatment. Conclusion Polysaccharide fraction CP-1 induced A549 cell apoptosis.

  13. Isatis indigotica root polysaccharides as adjuvants for an inactivated rabies virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijiao; Zheng, Xuexing; Cheng, Nan; Gai, Weiwei; Xue, Xianghong; Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Yuwei; Shan, Junjie; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-06-01

    Adjuvants can enhance vaccine immunogenicity and induce long-term enhancement of immune responses. Thus, adjuvants are important for vaccine research. Polysaccharides isolated from select Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to possess various beneficial functions and excellent adjuvant abilities. In the present study, the polysaccharides IIP-A-1 and IIP-2 were isolated from Isatis indigotica root and compared with the common vaccine adjuvant aluminum hydroxide via intramuscular co-administration of inactivated rabies virus rCVS-11-G into mice. Blood was collected to determine virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers and B and T lymphocyte activation status. Inguinal lymph node samples were collected and used to measure B lymphocyte proliferation. Splenocytes were isolated, from which antigen-specific cellular immune responses were detected via ELISpot, ELISA and intracellular cytokine staining. The results revealed that both types of polysaccharides induce more rapid changes and higher VNA titers than aluminum hydroxide. Flow cytometry assays revealed that the polysaccharides activated more B lymphocytes in the lymph nodes and more B and T lymphocytes in the blood than aluminum hydroxide. Antigen-specific cellular immune responses showed that IIP-2 strongly induced T lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen and high levels of cytokine secretion from splenocytes, whereas aluminum hydroxide induced proliferation in only a small number of lymphocytes and the secretion of only small quantities of cytokines. Collectively, these data suggest that the polysaccharide IIP-2 exhibits excellent adjuvant activity and can enhance both cellular and humoral immunity. PMID:26875535

  14. Physicochemical characterization of the polysaccharide from Bletilla striata: effect of drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingshan; Yu, Ling; Feng, Tao; Yin, Xiujun; Liu, Tianjing; Dong, Lei

    2015-07-10

    The polysaccharide from Bletilla striata, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was obtained by different drying techniques: vacuum-drying (BVPS) or vacuum freeze-drying (BFPS). The effect of drying method on the physicochemical properties of the B striata polysaccharide was evaluated using high size exclusion chromatography coupled to multiangle laser light scattering (HPSEC-MALLS), FT-IR and UV spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The monosaccharide analysis and pH test revealed that the polysaccharide derived from B. striata was a neutral polysaccharide that is composed of glucose and mannose. The solubility and moisture content test's results demonstrated that BFPS was greater than BVPS. The number average molecular weight (Mn) and the computed average molecular weight (Mw) of 99.3% BFPS were 7.297×10(4)g/mol and 9.545×10(4)g/mol, respectively, whereas the Mn and Mw of 97.6% BVPS were 1.218×10(5)g/mol and 1.472×10(5)g/mol, respectively. The FT-IR and UV results indicated that drying technique has little effect on the structure of the polysaccharide. The thermal analysis showed that weight loss event was at 307.85°C and 305.50°C to BVPS and BFPS, respectively. Furthermore, the XRD confirmed that the polysaccharide was the amorphous nature. However, both SEM and AFM images exhibited that the drying technique had a significant impact on the morphology and conformation of the polysaccharide. PMID:25857953

  15. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

  16. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng; chen, Jinlong; Bai, Shaowei; Zheng, Zhenzhu; Wu, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC wit...

  17. Microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Yupingfeng powder and their antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wang; Bi-Bo Zhang; Xiao-Xia Qu; Feng Gao; Min-Yong Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microwave assisted reflux extraction of polysaccharides YPF-P from the famous Chinese traditional drug, Yupingfeng powder, optimization of extracting conditions and evaluation of their antioxidant activity were conducted in this study. Results: Single factor effect trends were achieved through yields and contends of YPF P obtained from different extracting conditions. Then through a three level, four variable Box Behnken design of response surface methodology adopting yield as res...

  18. YAMS: a stepper motor controller for the FERMI-Elettra free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New projects, like FERMI-Elettra, demand for the standardization of the systems in order to cut development and maintenance costs. The various motion control applications foreseen in this project required a specific controller able to flexibly adapt to any need while maintaining a common interface to the control system to minimize software development efforts. These reasons led us to design and build 'Yet Another Motor Sub-rack', (YAMS), a 3U chassis containing a commercial stepper motor controller, up to eight motor drivers and all the necessary auxiliary systems. The motors can be controlled locally by means of an operator panel or remotely through an Ethernet interface and a dedicated Tango device server. The paper describes the details of the project and the deployment issues

  19. EMS induced dwarf and high yielding mutant in yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The species Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn., commonly known as yam bean, is cultivated in many countries for its edible underground tubers. The young tubers can be eaten raw, cooked, or can be sliced and made into chips. As genetic variability is limited in this species, a mutation breeding programme, using physical and chemical mutagens, was initiated to induce variability in a locally adapted cultivar. Genetically pure seeds were treated with concentrations of EMS ranging from 0.25 to 2%. Evaluation of M2 raised from 1.25% treatment revealed a dwarf mutant showing a higher yield than the control. This mutant attained a height of 20 cm only in M3 as against 82 cm in the controls. Though the starch content of the tuber and rotenone content in the seeds were the same as that in the control, protein content was slightly higher and the sugar content slightly less

  20. Study on physico-chemical properties of dialdehyde yam starch with different aldehyde group contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialdehyde yam starches (DASs) are prepared and characterized. Compared with native starch, viscosity average molecular weight of DASs decreases, and the extent of degradation depends on content of the aldehyde groups. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm that the characteristic peak for C=O group at 1732 cm-1 is enhanced with the increasing of content of the aldehyde groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show that the surface of starch granules becomes wrinkled. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly indicate that their crystallinity decreases with the increasing content of the aldehyde groups before they become amorphous at higher oxidation states. The experimental results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show that DASs have poor stability as compared to native starch. With the increase in content of the aldehyde groups, the thermal stability of DAS declines gradually. According to the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gelatinization temperature (To and Tp) of DASs are increased, whereas the gelatinization enthalpy decreased.

  1. QUALITY AND MICRIOBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN YOGHURT SUPPLEMENTED WITH COW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo A. Aderinola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of African yam bean for the production of yoghurt substituted with cow milk was studied. African yam bean milk was extracted from dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented with Yoghurmet® in ratios with reconstituted cow milk powder in the ratios 50:50, 70:30, 90:10, 100:0 and 0:100 (African yam bean milk:Cow milk. Sample 0:100 which was 100% cow milk yoghurt served as the control. The samples were stored for 14 days at 4oC and 3 days at room temperature. The results of the proximate composition of the fresh samples in percentages are; Moisture: 82.76, 81.62, 83.62, 86.53 and 85.42. Total solids: 17.25, 18.47, 16.35, 13.47and14.57. Protein: 5.93, 4.27, 5.87, 5.57 and 5.14. Ash: 0.94, 0.83, 0.91, 0.90 and 0.87. Fat: 1.07, 2.53, 1.18, 1.45 and 1.75. Carbohydrate: 9.09, 10.73, 8.33, 5.53 and 6.78 for the samples 100:0, 0:100, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 respectively. The moisture, total solids, fat and carbohydrate contents differed significantly (p≤0.05 in all the samples. The protein content of 100:0 and 90:0 did not differ significantly but differs in other samples. 0:100 differ significantly from other samples in ash content. There was no fiber in the samples. The total viable microbial count was highest in 70:30 (1×107cfu/ml for refrigerated storage samples while 50:50 (9.5×106cfu/ml had the highest count in room temperature storage samples. There were no yeasts/moulds enumerated in the refrigerated storage samples while yeast/moulds appeared in 100:0 (3×106cfu/ml and 70:30 (1×106cfu/ml on the 3rd day of room temperature storage. The titratable acidity of all the samples increased gradually throughout the storage period while their pH decreased. The specific gravity of the samples also decreased gradually throughout the storage period. The anti-nutritional composition of the samples containing African yam bean was also determined. The sensory properties showed that samples stored at refrigeration temperature maintained good

  2. Genetic diversity among air yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) varieties based on single sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D M; Siqueira, M V B M; Carrasco, N F; Mantello, C C; Nascimento, W F; Veasey, E A

    2016-01-01

    Dioscorea is the largest genus in the Dioscoreaceae family, and includes a number of economically important species including the air yam, D. bulbifera L. This study aimed to develop new single sequence repeat primers and characterize the genetic diversity of local varieties that originated in several municipalities of Brazil. We developed an enriched genomic library for D. bulbifera resulting in seven primers, six of which were polymorphic, and added four polymorphic loci developed for other Dioscorea species. This resulted in 10 polymorphic primers to evaluate 42 air yam accessions. Thirty-three alleles (bands) were found, with an average of 3.3 alleles per locus. The discrimination power ranged from 0.113 to 0.834, with an average of 0.595. Both principal coordinate and cluster analyses (using the Jaccard Index) failed to clearly separate the accessions according to their origins. However, the 13 accessions from Conceição dos Ouros, Minas Gerais State were clustered above zero on the principal coordinate 2 axis, and were also clustered into one subgroup in the cluster analysis. Accessions from Ubatuba, São Paulo State were clustered below zero on the same principal coordinate 2 axis, except for one accession, although they were scattered in several subgroups in the cluster analysis. Therefore, we found little spatial structure in the accessions, although those from Conceição dos Ouros and Ubatuba exhibited some spatial structure, and that there is a considerable level of genetic diversity in D. bulbifera maintained by traditional farmers in Brazil. PMID:27323077

  3. Partial Study of Yam Tuber (Dioscorea spp. Parts during the Growth Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouadio Claver Degbeu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing gradient into longitudinal axis of yam tuber was study through starch properties and nutritional composition of tuber parts (proximal, median and distal during the tuberization. Two varieties of the complex D. cayenensis-rotundata (kangba and kponan were used. Clarity, swelling and solubility, flow behavior and syneresis of starch and protein content, alcohol-soluble sugars of the flour were studies. The ash assessed by microanalysis. Starch clarity of tuber parts increased during the growth period. The proximal (56±2.06% and median (54.5±1.09% parts exhibited high clarity than the distal (48.2±2.56% one. At earlier stage of tuberization, the viscosity ratio of tuber parts (var. Kponan was weak. This indicates the possibility to use it as thickening agent in shearing sauce. Water loss decreased during the growth period for the three tuber parts. It was the same behavior for the swelling power. Concerning the nutritional composition of the flour, amount of protein did not influenced by the degree of tuber maturity. Alcohol-soluble sugars were higher at earlier stage of tuberization than at maturity of the tuber. Mineral content was appreciable at maturity than at beginning of the tuberization. The extent mineral according to their amount was: K, P, Mg and S. Starch properties such as clarity, syneresis and swelling were improved at maturity of the tuber. It was more for the proximal and median parts than the distal one. Yam tuber content a appreciable amount of protein and mineral at maturity.

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF DRIED YAM CHIPS (Dioscorea rotundata DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F. Omojasola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological and physico-chemical analyses of dried yam chips (gbodo retailed in four markets in Ilorin and its environs alongside a laboratory – prepared control were carried out over a six month period. Microbiological assay consisted of total viable and coliform counts as well as microbial isolation. A total of 11 fungi and 5 bacteria were isolated from the different samples which included Acremonium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus., A. niger, A. ochraceus, Fusarium solani, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor racemosus, Penicillum notatum, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Erwinia carotovora, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Total Viable Counts ranged from 3.0-120.0 cfu g-1 and coliform counts ranged from 0.00 - 18.80 cfu g-1 pre-storage to 0.10-219 cfu g-1 and 0.0-31.0 cfu g-1 post storage respectively. The physico-chemical parameters analysed were moisture content which ranged between 14.38-17.10% pre-storage to 13.43-24.96% post-storage; crude protein: 5.81-7.53% and 2.11-6.75%; crude fat: 0.35-0.71% and 0.07-0.61%; ash content: 3.30-5.18% and 1.17-4.77%; crude fibre: 0.77-1.45%; carbohydrate: 70.18-74.00% and 70.93-75.17% pre-storage and post-storage content respectively. Levels of Aflatoxin B1 were also monitored throughout the storage period. Insect infestation of the samples occurred during the storage period. Four species were identified; these were Tribolium casteneum, Dinoderus porcellus, Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus zeamais. The traditional practice of open air sun-drying of yam chips should be discouraged, rather oven drying is recommended to minmize microbial contamination. In addition, sorting to exclude extreneous material and minimize mouldiness and insect infestation is suggested.

  5. Evaluation of Novel Inoculation Strategies for Solid State Anaerobic Digestion of Yam Peelings in Low-Tech Digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Jurgutis, Linas; Kádár, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    The operation of household scale anaerobic digesters is typically based on diluted animal dung, requiring stabled livestock and adequate water availability. This excludes many rural households in low-income countries from the benefits of a domestic biogas digester. Solid state anaerobic digestion...... inoculation strategies and evaluating the necessity of dung addition as a supportive biomass. In initial lab scale trials 143 +/- 4 mL CH4/g VS (volatile solids) were obtained from a mixture of yam peelings and dung digested in a multi-layer-inoculated batch reactor. In a consecutive incubation cycle in which...... adapted inoculum was applied, bottom inoculated digesters loaded without dung reached a yield of 140 +/- 16 mL CH4/g VS. This indicates that SSAD of yam peelings is possible with simple inoculation methods and dung addition is unnecessary after microbial adaptation. A comparison with a conventional fixed...

  6. Proximate analysis and some antinutritional factor constituents in selected varieties of Jamaican yams (Dioscorea and Rajana spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnuff, Marie A; Omoruyi, Felix O; Sotelo-López, Angela; Asemota, Helen N

    2005-06-01

    Two wild (Dioscorea polygonoides and Rajana cordata) and seven cultivated varieties of Jamaican yams (Dioscorea spp.) were analyzed for their proximate composition and the levels of antinutritional factors. The protein level range was 47.8 +/- 2.6 to 88.0 +/- 2.5 g/kg dry weight. The lowest level was seen in D. cayenensis. The range for the dietary fiber content in the tubers was 16.3 +/- 0.7 to 63.5 +/- 0.4 g/kg dry weight. The wild yam varieties recorded higher levels. Saponins level was lectins and no alkaloids were detected. The levels of antinutritional factors did not clearly delineate the wild varieties from the edible varieties. PMID:16021837

  7. Effect of species, pretreatments, and drying methods on the functional and pasting properties of high-quality yam flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Bashirat A; Adebowale, Abdul-Rasaq A; Sanni, Silifat A; Sobukola, Olajide P; Obadina, Adewale O; Kajihausa, Olatundun E; Adegunwa, Mojisola O; Sanni, Lateef O; Tomlins, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the functional properties of HQYF (high-quality yam flour) from tubers of four dioscorea species. The tubers were processed into HQYF using two pretreatments (potassium metabisulphite: 0.28%, 15 min; blanching: 70°C, 15 min) and drying methods (cabinet: 60°C, 48 h; sun drying: 3 days). Significant differences (P yam species for diverse food applications. The pastes of flour from Dioscorea dumetorum pretreated with potassium metabisulphite and dried under a cabinet dryer were stable compared to other samples, hence will have better applications in products requiring lower retrogradation during freeze/thaw cycles. PMID:26788310

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of yam (Dioscorea rotundata: an important tool for functional study of genes and crop improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans eNyaboga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although genetic transformation of clonally propagated crops has been widely studied as a tool for crop improvement and as a vital part of the development of functional genomics resources, there has been no report of any existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of yam (Dioscorea spp. with evidence of stable integration of T-DNA. Yam is an important crop in the tropics and subtropics providing food security and income to over 300 million people. However, yam production remains constrained by increasing levels of field and storage pests and diseases. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for yam improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Dioscorea rotundata using axillary buds as explants. Two cultivars of D. rotundata were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vectors containing selectable marker and reporter genes. After selection with appropriate concentrations of antibiotic, shoots were developed on shoot induction and elongation medium. The elongated antibiotic-resistant shoots were subsequently rooted on medium supplemented with selection agent. Successful transformation was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and reporter genes assay. Expression of gusA gene in transgenic plants was also verified by RT-PCR analysis. Transformation efficiency varied from 9.4% to 18.2% depending on the cultivars, selectable marker genes and the Agrobacterium strain used for transformation. It took 3–4 months from Agro-infection to regeneration of complete transgenic plant. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of D. rotundata using axillary buds as explants, which provides a useful platform for future genetic engineering studies in this economically important crop.

  9. PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS AND FARMERSâ CULTIVAR PREFERENCE CRITERIA OF CULTIVATED YAMS (DIOSCOREA CAYENENSIS - D. ROTUNDATA COMPLEX) IN TOGO

    OpenAIRE

    Dansi A; Dantsey-Barry H; Agré A. P; Dossou-Aminon; Assogba P; Loko Y.L; N'Kpenu E. K; Kombaté K; Dansi M; Vodouhè R

    2013-01-01

    Fifty (50) villages randomly selected throughout agroecological zones in Togo were surveyed, using participatory approach, to identify and prioritize factors that affect production and farmers’ varietal preference criteria of Guinea yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex). A total of nineteen (19) constraints of varying importance across agro-ecological zones were identified among which the most important were insects’ damages on both leaves and tubers, nematodes attack on tubers, dro...

  10. The interplay between yam (Dioscorea sp.) starch botanical source, micromeritics and functionality in paracetamol granules for reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Cliff K; Adebayo, Sarafadeen A; Wheatley, Andrew O; Asemota, Helen N

    2008-09-01

    A comparative investigation of the interplay between starch botanical source, micromeritics and their functionality in formulated paediatric paracetamol granules for reconstitution was conducted using starches extracted from five local yam (Dioscorea spp.) species. Significant differences were observed in the physicochemical properties of the different starches studied (pbotanic source-dependent suggesting careful consideration of botanic source when substituting one starch product for another in granule formulation. PMID:18423995

  11. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Crops and Their Derived Foodstuffs: Safety, Security and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Piccirillo, Clara; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-12-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) are tropical crops consumed by ca. 2 billion people and represent the main source of carbohydrate and energy for the approximately 700 million people living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. They are a guarantee of food security for developing countries. The production of these crops and the transformation into food-derived commodities is increasing, it represents a profitable business and farmers generate substantial income from their market. However, there are some important concerns related to the food safety and food security. The high post-harvest losses, mainly for yam, the contamination by endogenous toxic compounds, mainly for cassava, and the contamination by external agents (such as micotoxins, pesticides, and heavy metal) represent a depletion of economic value and income. The loss in the raw crops or the impossibility to market the derived foodstuffs, due to incompliance with food regulations, can seriously limit all yam tubers and the cassava roots processors, from farmers to household, from small-medium to large enterprises. One of the greatest challenges to overcome those concerns is the transformation of traditional or indigenous processing methods into modern industrial operations, from the crop storage to the adequate package of each derived foodstuff. PMID:26165549

  12. Evaluation of Novel Inoculation Strategies for Solid State Anaerobic Digestion of Yam Peelings in Low-Tech Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Heiske

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The operation of household scale anaerobic digesters is typically based on diluted animal dung, requiring stabled livestock and adequate water availability. This excludes many rural households in low-income countries from the benefits of a domestic biogas digester. Solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD can be operated with low process water demands, but the technology involves operational challenges, as e.g., risk of process acidification or low degradation rates. This study aimed at developing simple methods to perform SSAD of yam peelings in low-tech applications by testing different inoculation strategies and evaluating the necessity of dung addition as a supportive biomass. In initial lab scale trials 143 ± 4 mL CH4/g VS (volatile solids were obtained from a mixture of yam peelings and dung digested in a multi-layer-inoculated batch reactor. In a consecutive incubation cycle in which adapted inoculum was applied, bottom inoculated digesters loaded without dung reached a yield of 140 ± 16 mL CH4/g VS. This indicates that SSAD of yam peelings is possible with simple inoculation methods and dung addition is unnecessary after microbial adaptation. A comparison with a conventional fixed dome digester indicated that SSAD can reduce process water demand and the digester volume necessary to supply a given biogas demand.

  13. Effect of Biogas Manure on Yam Soil%沼肥对山药土壤的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉贞

    2011-01-01

    The effect of biogas on the soil fertility, main microbial flora and enzyme activity of the yam soil were studied. The results showed that compared with farmyard manure, biogas manure increased total and available nutrient content, the number of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and ammonfying bacteria, the activity of invertase, neutral phosphatase, urease and protease of the yam soil. Biogas manure had good fertility betterment effect on yam soil.%研究了沼肥对山药土壤肥力、主要微生物类群及酶活性的影响.结果表明,与农家肥比较,沼肥增加了山药土壤的全量养分、速效养分含量及细菌、放线菌、真菌及氨化细菌的数量,也提高了蔗糖酶、中性磷酸酶、脲酶及蛋白酶的活性.沼肥对山药土壤有较好的培肥作用.

  14. Effect of shade on photosynthetic pigments in the tropical root crops: yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato were raised under shade or in full sunlight and the effect of shade on leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids was examined to determine and compare the relative shade tolerance and adaptability of the var ious species. All five species of root crops adapted to shade. The chlorophyll concentration was higher, while the chlorophyll a:b ratio, carotenoids per unit chlorophyll and the weight per unit area of leaf were lower in the shade than in the sun in yam, tannia, taro, cassava and sweet potato. All species had larger leaves and more chlorophyll per leaf in the shade. The extent of the changes, however, differed between species. The aroids (taro and tannia) appeared to be shade-tolerant species as their chlorophyll a:b ratios changed less than those of the other species in the shade, suggesting that their light-harvesting systems may be normally adapted to shade conditions. Taro and tannia also adapted to shade by a greater proportional increase in leaf size, a smaller reduction in leaf weight per unit area and a greater proportional increase in chlorophyll and carotenoids per leaf than the other species. Yam compensated for shade by having a large proportional increase in leaf size and appeared to be moderately tolerant of shade. Sweet potato and cassava appeared to be the least tolerant of shade of the major tropical root crops. (author)

  15. PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS AND FARMERS’ CULTIVAR PREFERENCE CRITERIA OF CULTIVATED YAMS (DIOSCOREA CAYENENSIS - D. ROTUNDATA COMPLEX IN TOGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansi A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty (50 villages randomly selected throughout agroecological zones in Togo were surveyed, using participatory approach, to identify and prioritize factors that affect production and farmers’ varietal preference criteria of Guinea yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex. A total of nineteen (19 constraints of varying importance across agro-ecological zones were identified among which the most important were insects’ damages on both leaves and tubers, nematodes attack on tubers, drought, soil poverty and wilting. For the majority (78.94% of the constraints, the use of tolerant cultivars remains the most sustainable, economically profitable and environment preservative solution. Farmers’ cultivar preference criteria identified are many (24 in total. Among them, high productivity, good quality of pounded yam, resistance to drought and adaptability to all types of soils are the most important. A perfect match is noted between enumerated constraints and identified preference criteria. The knowledge of farmers’ selection criteria is of capital importance for breeders and also extension services for eventual yam cultivar exchange between agroecological zones in Togo.

  16. Thermal studies on natural polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil B Bothara; Sudarshan Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize thermal property of natural gums obtained from the seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon(D. melonoxylon) Roxb, Buchanania lanzan (B. lanzan) spreng and Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) (Linn.) P. Royen syn. Methods: Natural gums were thermally characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere. Major thermal transitions as well as activation energies of the major decomposition stages were determined. Elemental analysis was performed in order to determine the composition of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. Results: DSC traces indicated a major intense exothermic transition (around 200℃) followed by weaker exotherm(s). Thermogravimetric analysis showed two phase of weight loss. The first phase has minor weight loss in samples is attributed to the loss of adsorbed and structural water of biopolymers or due to desorption of moisture as hydrogen bound water to the saccharide structure. The second weight loss event may be attributed to the polysaccharide decomposition. The initial decomposition temperature (IDT) was calculated from thermograms obtained of TGA, seed Polysaccharide of D. melonoxylon (IDT 221.21℃), B. lanzan (IPDT 170.4℃) and M. zapota (IPDT 178.6℃) were obtained. According to the integral procedural decomposition temperature (IPDT) values calculated based on the TGA thermograms; D. melonoxylon (IPDT 563.3℃), B. lanzan (IPDT 598.1℃) and M. zapota (IPDT 600.6℃) were obtained respectively. The elemental analysis study shows that the isolated natural Polysaccharides consist of certain percentage of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and hydrogen in all the gums. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation reveal that the natural gums are thermally stable and these gums can be used as release modifiers in various dosage forms.

  17. Starch-degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Van V; Marletta, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Polysaccharide degradation by hydrolytic enzymes glycoside hydrolases (GHs) is well known. More recently, polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs, also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs) were found to oxidatively degrade various polysaccharides via a copper-dependent hydroxylation. PMOs were previously thought to be either GHs or carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), and have been re-classified in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZY) database as auxiliary activity (AA) families. These enzymes include cellulose-active fungal PMOs (AA9, formerly GH61), chitin- and cellulose-active bacterial PMOs (AA10, formerly CBM33), and chitin-active fungal PMOs (AA11). These PMOs significantly boost the activity of GHs under industrially relevant conditions, and thus have great potential in the biomass-based biofuel industry. PMOs that act on starch are the latest PMOs discovered (AA13), which has expanded our perspectives in PMOs studies and starch degradation. Starch-active PMOs have many common structural features and biochemical properties of the PMO superfamily, yet differ from other PMO families in several important aspects. These differences likely correlate, at least in part, to the differences in primary and higher order structures of starch and cellulose, and chitin. In this review we will discuss the discovery, structural features, biochemical and biophysical properties, and possible biological functions of starch-active PMOs, as well as their potential application in the biofuel, food, and other starch-based industries. Important questions regarding various aspects of starch-active PMOs and possible economical driving force for their future studies will also be highlighted. PMID:27170366

  18. Sucrose fed-batch strategy enhanced biomass, polysaccharide, and ganoderic acids production in fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum 5.26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-hua; Liu, Lianliang; Guo, Xiao-feng; Li, Yan-jun; Hou, Bao-chao; Fan, Qiu-ling; Wang, Kai-xiang; Luo, Yingdi; Zhong, Jian-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma, as a Chinese traditional medicine, has multiple bioactivities. However, industrial production was limited due to low yield during Ganoderma fermentation. In this work, sucrose was found to greatly enhance intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) content and specific extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production rate. The mechanism was studied by analyzing the activities of enzymes related to polysaccharide biosynthesis. The results revealed that sucrose regulated the activities of phosphoglucomutase and phosphoglucose isomerase. When glucose and sucrose mixture was used as carbon source, biomass, polysaccharide and ganoderic acids (GAs) production was greatly enhanced. A sucrose fed-batch strategy was developed in 10-L bioreactor, and was scaled up to 300-L bioreactor. The biomass, EPS and IPS production was 25.5, 2.9 and 4.8 g/L, respectively, which was the highest biomass and IPS production in pilot scale. This study provides information for further understanding the regulation mechanism of Ganoderma polysaccharide biosynthesis. It demonstrates that sucrose fed-batch is a useful strategy for enhancing Ganoderma biomass, polysaccharide and GAs production. PMID:26531749

  19. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care.

  20. Pharmacological Action of Adenophora Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泱; 李春红; 唐富天; 李新芳

    2004-01-01

    Adenophora polysaccharides (AP), is an active principle extracted from the root of Adenophorae Potaninii Korsh originated in Gansu Province and isolated with boiling water. AP is isolated and purified from the crude drug by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 column, with a white powder and mean molecular weight of 8.3×104 , and [α]D20 of AP is + 68. AP is only composed of glucose judging from the analysis of it with patina chromatography (PC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) methods.

  1. Bioactive polysaccharides and gut microbiome (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many polysaccharides have shown the ability to reduce plasma cholesterol or postprandial glycemia. Viscosity in the small intestine seems to be required to slow glucose uptake. Cereal mixed linkage beta-glucans, psyllium, glucomannans, and other polysaccharides also seem to require higher molecula...

  2. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  3. 基于NMR代谢组学技术对山药化学成分的研究%Studies on chemical constituents of the yam by 1HNMR-based metabolomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 焦宏; 郭捷

    2014-01-01

    试验采用基于NMR代谢组学的技术,分别对生山药饮片、麸炒山药及食用山药的化学成分进行了研究,检测出30多种化合物,包括腺苷、胆碱、多种氨基酸、有机酸及糖类等物质,其中有14种是3种山药的共有成分。另外,对引起生山药与麸炒山药、食用山药与药用山药差异的化学成分进行了指认,初步了解了炮制对山药化学成分的影响及山药药材与食材的差异。%The studies on chemical constituents of dried yam slices, bran fried yam and edible yam were carried out re-spectively by means of 1HNMR-based metabolomics. Over thirty compounds including adenosine, choline, amino acids, organic acids, sugars and other substances were detected, of which fourteen were common components in three kinds of yams. Their respective characteristic chemical compositions were indicated. Effect of processing on the chemical compo-nents of yam and the differences between edible yam and dried yam slices, bran fried yam were reviewed.

  4. Application of molecular markers in germplasm enhancement of Cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz) and Yams (Dioscorea spp.) at IITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic variation among 28 varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz), collected from different parts of the Republic of Benin was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A set of ten primers out of the one hundred that were screened, detected polymorphisms. Thirty-five cassava landraces from three countries of West Africa, along with five improved varieties and one genetic stock (58308), were analysed using both micro satellite markers and nine selected random primers which generated fifty-four polymorphic markers. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), six major groups of clusters were identified among the forty one genotypes. Clone 58308, the original source of resistance to African Cassava Mosaic Disease (ACMD) in IITA's cassava breeding program, and TMS 30572, an improved cultivar derived from clone 58308, were found in the same cluster group. All 34 of the landraces that are known to be resistant to ACMD were genetically distant from 58308 and TMS 30572. A diallel mating programme has been initiated to elucidate the genetics of these new sources of resistance to ACMD and determine their complementarity as well as allellism for resistance. A set of eight random primers for RAPD and two combinations of enzymes and specific primers for AFLP were used to generate DNA fingerprinting of twenty varietal groups among the 32 described for cultivated yams in the region. The results obtained confirm that a given varietal group is a mixture of different genotypes. The molecular taxonomy of 30 accessions of cultivated yams, D. rotundata and D. cayenensis, and 35 accessions of wild yams from Nigeria was established using RAPD and micro satellite markers. The cultivated yams separated into two distinct groups corresponding to the two species. D. rotundata genotypes showed relationship to the wild species D. abyssinica and D. praehensilis, whereas D. cayenensis

  5. Control Efficacy of Common Fungicides against Yam Stripe Disease%常用杀菌剂防治山药斑纹病药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒锐; 焦健; 姚甜甜; 兰成云; 许念芳; 刘少军

    2015-01-01

    Yam stripe disease is one of the main diseases of yam, which causes the death of leaves and stems, and can also have a negative effect on the growth and yield of yam. Control efficacy of common fungicides against yam stripe disease was studied, and results showed that 75% chlorothalonil WP, 80% mancozeb WP and 50%thiram WP all had good effects on control against yam stripe disease.%山药斑纹病是危害山药生长的主要病害之一,造成山药叶片和蔓枯死,对山药生长及其产量造成了很大影响。试验通过采用多种常用杀菌剂对山药斑纹病进行防治试验,结果表明,百菌清75%可湿性粉剂、代森锰锌80%可湿性粉剂、福美双50%可湿性粉剂对山药斑纹病的防治效果最好,可在生产中推广使用。

  6. Large scale prediction of soil properties in the West African yam belt based on mid-infrared soil spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Philipp; Lee, Juhwan; Paule Schönholzer, Laurie; Six, Johan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Yam (Dioscorea sp.) is an important staple food in West Africa. Fertilizer applications have variable effects on yam tuber yields, and a management option solely based on application of mineral NPK fertilizers may bear the risk of increased organic matter mineralization. Therefore, innovative and sustainable nutrient management strategies need to be developed and evaluated for yam cultivation. The goal of this study was to establish a mid-infrared soil spectroscopic library and models to predict soil properties relevant to yam growth. Soils from yam fields at four different locations in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso that were representative of the West African yam belt were sampled. The project locations ranged from the humid forest zone (5.88 degrees N) to the northern Guinean savannah (11.07 degrees N). At each location, soils of 20 yam fields were sampled (0-30 cm). For the location in the humid forest zone additional 14 topsoil samples from positions that had been analyzed in the Land Degradation Surveillance Framework developed by ICRAF were included. In total, 94 soil samples were analyzed using established reference analysis protocols. Besides soils were milled and then scanned by fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in the range between 400 and 4000 reciprocal cm. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, PLS1 calibration models that included soils from the four locations were built using two thirds of the samples selected by Kennard-Stones sampling algorithm in the spectral principal component space. Models were independently validated with the remaining data set. Spectral models for total carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, total aluminum, total potassium, exchangeable calcium, and effective cation exchange capacity performed very well, which was indicated by R-squared values between 0.8 and 1.0 on both calibration and validation. For these soil properties, spectral models can be used for cost-effective, rapid, and accurate predictions

  7. An exocellular polysaccharide and its interactions with proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinier, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the food industry polysaccharides are used as thickening or gelling agents. Polysaccharides are usually extracted from plants. Micro-organisms are also capable of excreting polysaccharides: exocellular polysaccharides (EPSs). In some cases EPSs are produced in-situ in food products, notably in ac

  8. Immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides isolated from Taxillus chinensis and Uncaria rhyncophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang Chul; Reddy, Narsimha; Bailey, Trevor; Longvah, T

    2013-11-01

    Taxillus chinensis and Uncaria rhyncophylla are the herbs used in traditional Chinese anticancer formulations. During the past decade, research on plant polysaccharides has gained importance due to their therapeutic value and minimum side effects. In this study, hot water extraction method was employed to isolate polysaccharides from the stems of T. chinensis and stems with hooks of U. rhyncophylla. Size-exclusion chromatography was then used for further fractionation. Separated fractions from T. chinensis were designated as TCP-1, TCP-2 and TCP-3 and those from U. rhyncophylla were termed UC-1 and UC-2. Their sugar compositions were estimated using gas chromatography that revealed the presence fructose, glucose, xylose, arbinose, and rhamnose. Amino acid analysis of these fractions has indicated that they are protein-bound polysaccharides. The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH and yeast assays. The ability of these polysaccharide fractions to stimulate mouse macrophages was measured using Griess reagent and ELISA test. The results revealed that some of the isolated fractions (TCP-2, TCP-3, UC-1 and UC-2) displayed significant antioxidant activities and were also found to be effective immunomodulators in a concentration-dependent manner. Outcomes of this research strongly indicate that U. rhyncophylla and T. chinensis have therapeutic potential to be used for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24053827

  9. Rheology of interfacial protein-polysaccharide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P.

    2013-05-01

    The morphology and mechanical properties of protein adsorption layers can significantly be altered by the presence of surfactants, lipids, particles, other proteins, and polysaccharides. In food emulsions, polysaccharides are primarily considered as bulk thickener but can under appropriate environmental conditions stabilize or destabilize the protein adsorption layer and, thus, the entire emulsion system. Despite their ubiquitous usage as stabilization agent, relatively few investigations focus on the interfacial rheology of composite protein/polysaccharide adsorption layers. The manuscript provides a brief review on both main stabilization mechanisms, thermodynamic phase separation and electrostatic interaction and discusses the rheological response in light of the environmental conditions such as ionic strength and pH.

  10. Radiation processing of polysaccharides for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation of polysaccharides generates various types of degraded fragments by random scission. Polysaccharides can be easily degraded both in powder foam and solution. The radiation degraded polysaccharides induce various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of environmental stress, phytoalexins induction and can be applied not only in agriculture but also in medical fields. In this paper, the biological activities induced by radiation of chitosan, alginate, carrageenan, cellulose and pectin are reviewed for the agricultural use. (author)

  11. Polysaccharides: The “Click” Chemistry Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Lucas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are complex but essential compounds utilized in many areas such as biomaterials, drug delivery, cosmetics, food chemistry or renewable energy. Modifications and functionalizations of such polymers are often necessary to achieve molecular structures of interest. In this area, the emergence of the “click” chemistry concept, and particularly the copper-catalyzed version of the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between terminal acetylenes and azides, had an impact on the polysaccharides chemistry. The present review summarizes the contribution of “click” chemistry in the world of polysaccharides.

  12. An exocellular polysaccharide and its interactions with proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinier, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the food industry polysaccharides are used as thickening or gelling agents. Polysaccharides are usually extracted from plants. Micro-organisms are also capable of excreting polysaccharides: exocellular polysaccharides (EPSs). In some cases EPSs are produced in-situ in food products, notably in acidified milk products. These EPSs function effectively as food thickeners but do not need to be declared in the food label.Systematic physical analysis of an exocellular polysaccharide produced by ...

  13. Evaluation of Phosphorylated Psyllium Seed Polysaccharide as a Release Retardant

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Monica R. P.; Warrier, Deepa U.; Shivani H. Rao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed...

  14. Polysaccharide of the slime glycolipoprotein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Koepp, L H; Orr, T.; Bartell, P F

    1981-01-01

    The polysaccharide moiety was isolated by mild acid hydrolysis from the slime glycolipoprotein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BI. After gel filtration, the polysaccharide obtained from the Carbohydrate peak fractions was found to be lipid- and protein-free. Analyses indicated that the polysaccharide contained the carbohydrate components of the parent glycolipoprotein. Molecular size of the polysaccharide was estimated by gel filtration as 70,000 to 100,000. The polysaccharide showed no indi...

  15. Study on physico-chemical properties of dialdehyde yam starch with different aldehyde group contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liming, E-mail: zhanglmd@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Liu, Peng; Wang, Yugao [College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Gao, Wenyuan [Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2011-01-10

    Dialdehyde yam starches (DASs) are prepared and characterized. Compared with native starch, viscosity average molecular weight of DASs decreases, and the extent of degradation depends on content of the aldehyde groups. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm that the characteristic peak for C=O group at 1732 cm{sup -1} is enhanced with the increasing of content of the aldehyde groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show that the surface of starch granules becomes wrinkled. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly indicate that their crystallinity decreases with the increasing content of the aldehyde groups before they become amorphous at higher oxidation states. The experimental results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show that DASs have poor stability as compared to native starch. With the increase in content of the aldehyde groups, the thermal stability of DAS declines gradually. According to the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gelatinization temperature (T{sub o} and T{sub p}) of DASs are increased, whereas the gelatinization enthalpy decreased.

  16. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  17. Sustainable Agriculture and Innovation Adoption in a Tropical Small-Scale Food Production System: The Case of Yam Minisetts in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton L. Beckford

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Grown in Jamaica since the days of slavery, food yams are major staples in local diets and a significant non-traditional export crop. The cultivation system used today is the same as 300 years ago, with alleged unsustainable practices. A new cultivation system called minisett was introduced in 1985 but the adoption rate twenty four years later is extremely low. This paper analyzes the prospects for the widespread adoption of minisett and sustainable yam cultivation and advocates that greater use be made of farmers’ extensive knowledge of the complex agro-ecological, socio-cultural and economic milieu in which they operate.

  18. Improvement by a Factorial Design 2n of the Nutritional Quality of the Gruels of Yams Intended for Child and Young Children Congoles

    OpenAIRE

    Elenga Michel; Y.S. Itoua Okouango; Mananga Vital; Silou Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at proposing the improvement of nutritional quality and the energy density of the gruels of the flours of yam and marrow thanks to the factorial design. The production of the flour and the formulation of the flour of yam by marrows for the production of the gruels having the recommended nutritional characteristics were optimized by has factorial design. 16 experiments each one, carried out after has judicious choice of 4 variables led to has mathematical model in the form of h...

  19. Extraction Optimization of Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cong-fen; LI Peng; ZHAO Hua; SONG Li-ya; ZHU Jun; DONG Yin-mao

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to describe the extraction of polysaccharides from pitaya stems.[Method] The hot water,enzyme-assisted and microwave-assisted methods were used,with the microwave-assisted extraction being deemed optimal by general evaluation.[Result] The main factors affecting the yield of polysaccharides in the microwave-assisted extraction,by order of magnitude,were as follows:timemicrowave powertemperature;additionally,optimal conditions included a 10 min extraction time,an 80 ℃ extraction temperature and a microwave setting of 200 W.Using these optimal conditions,the yield of PSPS(Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems) was 1.42%.After purification,the yield of PSPS was 0.74%.[Conclusion] The PSPS was analyzed by IR,MALDI-TOF-MS and an element analysis technique.It was shown to be a polysaccharide mixture,and the molecular weight was between 3 900 and 4 300 Da.

  20. Biochemical Aspects of Non-Starch Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fraction include cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins, arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3(1,4-D-glucans (β-glucans. Knowledge of the chemical structure of NSP has permitted the development of enzyme technology to overcome their antinutritional effects. The physiological effects of NSP on the digestion and absorption of nutrients in human and monogastric animals have been attributed to their physicochemical properties: hydration properties, viscosity, cation exchange capacity and organic compound absorptive properties. This paper reviews and presents information on NSPs chemistry, physicochemical properties and physiological effects on the nutrient entrapment.

  1. Remodeling bacterial polysaccharides by metabolic pathway engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Wen; Liu, Xianwei; Li, Yanhong; Li, Jianjun; Xia, Chengfeng; Zhou, Guangyan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Peng George

    2009-01-01

    Introducing structural modifications into biomolecules represents a powerful approach to dissect their functions and roles in biological processes. Bacterial polysaccharides, despite their rich structural information and essential roles in bacterium-host interactions and bacterial virulence, have largely been unexplored for in vivo structural modifications. In this study, we demonstrate the incorporation of a panel of monosaccharide analogs into bacterial polysaccharides in a highly homogenou...

  2. Influence of polysaccharides on cement hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Peschard, Arnaud; Govin, Alexandre; Fredon, Emmanuel; Grosseau, Philippe; Fantozzi, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about the influence of polysaccharides on cement hydration. Three polysaccharides were studied: a cellulose ether (CE), a starch ether (SE) and a dextrin (YD). In a concentrated media as well as in a dilute media, admixture CE only revealed a slight effect on cement hydration. Portlandite and ettringite formation and gypsum consumption were slowed down by SE adjunction. Admixture YD induced an acceleration of ettringite formation as well as gypsum consumption whereas portiandite...

  3. Red Dyeing Silk in Room Temperature Using Fermented Rice (Oryza Sativa) and Yam Tuber (Pachyrhizus erosus) by Monascus purpureus as an Alternatives of an Eco-friendly Textile Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauliza, I. N.; Mardiyati; Sunendar, B.

    2016-01-01

    Potential dyes to be developed derived from fermentation by Monascus purpureus. As a staple food, rice can be replace to the yam tuber lees as a substrates. The purpose of this study was to compare the dyeability between fermented rice and yam tuber by Monascus purpureus on silk fabrics at the room temperature in any different pH of dyebath. Monascus purpureus first cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar for 7 days. Yam tuber peeled, grated and squeezed. The material is taken from yam tuber lees, then inoculated with Monascus purpureus for 14 days until an uniform red color obtained. The substrate is dried and then characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Dyes obtained from fermented rice and yam tuber then extracted and used for dyeing silk at room temperature with various pH of the dyebath. Results showed that dyeing silk with fermented yam tuber having the same color characteristics as fermented rice. The optimum color absorption at a wavelength of 520 nm for both, except on the results of dyeing using fermented yam tuber extract with pH 6 and pH 7. The maximum absorption is achieved at pH 3 with values dyeing K/S 5.840. Color fastness to rubbing are excellent (5 point) in dry rub, while the wet rub still good at the range of 4 to 4/5.

  4. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.): Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saski, Christopher A.; Bhattacharjee, Ranjana; Scheffler, Brian E.; Asiedu, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST)-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L.) genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310) was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using different approaches

  5. Growth and Nutrient Use Efficiencies of Yams (Dioscorea spp.) Grown in Two Contrasting Soils of West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lucien N'Guessan Diby; Bi Tra Tie; Olivier Girardin; Ravi Sangakkara; Emmanuel Frossard

    2011-01-01

    Fertilization is an important management strategy of yams (Dioscorea spp.) especially when grown in degraded soils. A field study evaluated the leaf numbers, leaf area indices, crop growth, yields, and nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) use efficiencies of D. alata and D. rotundata in Côte d'Ivoire when grown in two contrasting soils with and without fertilizer. D. alata had a lower number of leaves per vine, although leaf area indices were higher, and the leaves were retained for a longer period...

  6. 涤纶网络丝织物的设计%Designation of Fabric with Polyester Interlaced Yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周曙红

    2001-01-01

    It is analyzed the designation basis for the materials of polyester interlaced yam and introduced the designation and production process of the fabric with it. The thinking to develop new products in rapier loom is proposed.%分析了涤纶网络丝原料的设计依据,介绍了涤纶网络丝织物的设计与生产工艺,提出了在剑杆织机上开发新产品的思路。

  7. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.: Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Saski

    Full Text Available The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp. is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L. genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310 was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using

  8. The Study on the Cake with Yam Premixed Flour%山药蛋糕预混粉的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏光; 李竹生; 宋娜

    2011-01-01

    山药蛋糕预混粉是指按配方将烘焙所用的部分原辅料预先混合好的复配半成品,蛋糕制作时只需要加水,简化了蛋糕制作工艺。通过对蛋清粉、粉末油脂、山药粉、单甘脂四因素的正交试验研究,以蛋糕制品的感官评值进行正交分析,得出山药蛋糕预混粉的最佳配方为:蛋清粉18%、山药粉8%、单甘酯0.4%、绵白糖20%、食盐0.5%、塔塔粉0.2%、泡打粉0.3%、面粉45%、粉末油脂4%、脱脂奶粉3.5%、香精0.1%。%The cake with yam premixed flour is the half-finished product which mixed the partial raw materials.While it is used for baking,only water needs to be added,so it can make the process simpler.In this paper,the dried egg white,oil powder,yam powder and monoglyceride,which influence on the cake's quality,were studied and the cake mix's essential formula was got through the orthogonal test.Then we carried on the orthogonal analysis by the cake sensory evaluation,and determined the best formula of the cake with yam premixed flour,which is dried egg white 18%,yam powder 8%,monoglyceride 0.4%,sugar 20%,salt 0.5%,tartar powder 0.2%,baking powder 0.3%,flour 45%,oil powder 4%,skimmed milk powder 3.5%,essence 0.1%.

  9. Characterization of the alkaline/neutral invertase gene in Dendrobium officinale and its relationship with polysaccharide accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F; Cao, X F; Si, J P; Chen, Z Y; Duan, C L

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines, and polysaccharide is its main active ingredient. Many studies have investigated the synthesis and accumulation mechanisms of polysaccharide, but until recently, little was known about the molecular mechanism of how polysaccharide is synthesized because no related genes have been cloned. In this study, we cloned an alkaline/neutral invertase gene from D. officinale (DoNI) by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. DoNI was 2231 bp long and contained an open reading frame that predicted a 62.8-kDa polypeptide with 554-amino acid residues. An alkaline/neutral invertase conserved domain was predicted from this deduced amino acid sequence, and DoNI had a similar deduced amino acid sequence to Setaria italica and Oryza brachyantha. We also found that DoNI expression in different tissues was closely related to DoNI activity, and more importantly, polysaccharide level. Our results indicate that DoNI is associated with polysaccharide accumulation in D. officinale. PMID:27173310

  10. Viscoelastic properties of levan polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Kenneth; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Toksoy-Oner, Ebru

    2014-03-01

    Levan is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that is composed of β-D-fructofuranose units with β(2-6) linkages between fructose rings. It is synthesized by the action of a secreted levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) that converts sucrose into the levan externally (exopolysaccharide). Levan is a homopolysaccharide that is non-toxic, water soluble,, and has anti-tumor activity and low immunological response. Therefore, levan presents great potential to be used as a novel functional biopolymer in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Despite these favorable properties, levan has a moderately low mechanical properties and poor film forming capability. In the current study, the agglomeration behavior of levan in water and in saline solutions was investigated at 298 and 310 K by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The viscoelastic properties of neat and oxidized levan films were studied via nanoindentation experiments in the quasi-static and dynamic modes The material is partially based upon work supported by NSF under Grant Nos. 1200270 and 1003574, and TUBITAK 111M232.

  11. Evaluation of Fermentation Parameters of Elephant foot Yam (Amorphophalluspaeoniifolius for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejie C. Magnaye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol successfully finds its role in the development of renewable energy sources to supplement the world’s increasing demand in energy supply. In this study, elephant foot yam (Amorphophalluspeoniifolius, a starch-based crop, abundantly grown in tropical countries like Philippines, was used for the evaluation of the effect of substrate concentration and yeast loading (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF. In SSF, the optimum condition was observed at10% w/v substrate concentration in 20 mL yeast loadingwith an ethanol yield of 12.02 ± 0.21 %. As substrate concentration decreases and yeast loading increases, percent ethanol yield increases. Best mathematical model was generated to describe the relationship of the substrate concentration and yeast loading to ethanol yield. The generated quadratic model, 2.47= 80.63 −84.46 +126.73 −17.49+65.592 + 91.022,can explain 99.96 % (R2 of the variability in the yield. The statistical significance of the model was evaluated by F-test for analysis of variance (p<0.05. The results showed that the production of ethanol was more strongly affected by the variation of yeast loading. Using the best substrate concentration and yeast loading, ethanol yield was determined in SSF coupled with Acid Hydrolysis (SSF-AH having an ethanol yield of 19.1952%. The results revealed that subjecting first the substrate to acid hydrolysis could increase the ethanol yield for it increased the reducing sugar of the substrate.

  12. 牛蒡紫山药发酵香肠的研究%Study on sausage fermented with burdock and purple yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2014-01-01

    在发酵香肠中添加牛蒡及紫山药等原料研制牛蒡紫山药发酵香肠。利用响应面分析实验的方法优化并选择了牛蒡紫山药发酵香肠的主要原料配比(以猪肉质量为100%计)为∶牛蒡粉4.0%,紫山药粉8.0%,大豆分离蛋白9.4%。%Burdock and purple yam were added into fermented sausage to develop burdock purple yam fermented sausage. Through response surface analysis, the optimum main raw material ratio of bur-dock purple yam fermented sausage was defined ( compare with pork quality 100%) . The result showed that burdock, purple yam and soybean protein isolate was 4. 0%, 8. 0% and 9. 4%, respectively.

  13. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF YAM IN VITRO GENEBANKING: EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND DARKNESS ON PLANTLETS OF THREE ACCESSIONS FROM BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbidinoukoun Arnaud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the in vitro preservation of yam genetic resources through reduction of the number of subcultures. Effects of different concentrations of activated charcoal (1 g.l-1, 2 g.l-1and 3 g.l-1 and temporary darkness were tested on the in vitro morphogenesis of three beninese yam accessions (Dcr28, Dcr164 and Da93G1. Galzy glutamine was used as basis culture medium and explants were microcuttings obtained from four months old plantlets. The results indicated that the activated charcoal, alone or combined with temporary darkness has an inhibitory effect on the aerial organs formation but favors root development with a greater mean number of root shoots (9.3±1.67 with 3 g.l-1 of activated charcoal than the subtract without activated charcoal (2.5±0.17. A significant interaction was noted between accessions and concentration of activated charcoal indicating genotypic variability from the activated charcoal effect. The different accession plantlets growing in high concentration of activated charcoal culture media combined with temporary darkness were vigorous after eight month without subculture and subsequently allow doing one subculture per year

  15. Polysaccharides and infrared spectra of galactic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that observations that are available for a number of astronomical objects over the infrared waveband 2 to 30 μm are reconcilable with the transmittance properties of polysaccharides, and it is considered reasonable to infer the detection of interstellar polysaccharides. The identification of highly complex macromolecules, such as cellulose, which are presumably formed by an abiogenic processing of interstellar formaldehyde, could have a profound bearing on interstellar chemistry, including the evolution of prebiotic molecules. A discussion is presented on the production of organic molecules in the interstellar medium, with special reference to formaldehyde and its polymers; the polysaccharides have structures built up from H2CO units and are probably the most stable polymers formed. Cellulose and starch are particularly stable, because each (H2C0)6 unit formed is able to form part of a very stable ring, with the polysaccharide becoming a chain of hexagonal ring structures. Cellulose can maintain its structure in a vacuum or a low density inert atmosphere probably up to a temperature around 625 to 900 K. Interstellar solid material is strongly absorbing in two infrared bands, centred at 3 and 10 μm, and it has been usual to attribute these absorptions to crystals of water-ice or magnesium silicate, but this presents certain difficulties, and it seems worthwhile to consider whether the infrared properties of interstellar dust might not be attributed to polysaccharides. (U.K.)

  16. Optimization of the Production Process of Yam and Honey Jelly%山药蜂蜜保健果冻制作工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程道梅; 韩珍琼

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To optimize the production conditions of yam and honey jelly. [ Method ] With yam as the raw materials, the single factor test and orthogonal experiment were adopted to optimize the production technology of jelly. [ Result ] The optimum conditions for producing yam and honey jelly were: 20.00% of yam juice, 15.00% of mixed syrups (honey :sugar = 1:1 ), 0.20% of citric acid, and 1.00% of gelling agent (xanthan gum :sodium alginate = 1:3). [ Conclusion] The study provided experimental basis for producing the yam and honey jelly with nice flavor and health-care function.%[目的]优化山药蜂蜜果冻研制的工艺.[方法]以山药为原料,分别用单因素试验和正交试验对果冻制作工艺进行优化.[结果]山药蜂蜜果冻制作的最佳工艺为:山药汁用量为20.00%,混合糖浆(蜂蜜:蔗糖=1:1)用量为15.00%,柠稼酸用量为0.20%,胶凝剂(黄原胶:海藻酸钠=1:3)用童为1.00%.[结论]该研究为研制美味、保健的山药蜂蜜果冻提供了试验依据.

  17. Improvement by a Factorial Design 2n of the Nutritional Quality of the Gruels of Yams Intended for Child and Young Children Congoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenga Michel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at proposing the improvement of nutritional quality and the energy density of the gruels of the flours of yam and marrow thanks to the factorial design. The production of the flour and the formulation of the flour of yam by marrows for the production of the gruels having the recommended nutritional characteristics were optimized by has factorial design. 16 experiments each one, carried out after has judicious choice of 4 variables led to has mathematical model in the form of has polygon of first degree. After analysis of the effects one the production of the flour of yam, the result shows that the factors cuts has weak effect one the answer (the content of matter dries, generally butt 0.004 to 0.5. The average of the content of dry matter is slightly closed to the dry matter of the fresh yams (38.83±0.71. The effects between the factors are also negligible. Being the formulation, the result shows that the primary product has effect one the content of proteins of the gruels. The other factors are negligible one the answer likes to their interactions. The factors and to their interactions cuts year effect slightly negligible one the dry matter of the gruels and the content total of ashes. The temperature of cooking has significant effect one the consistency (mm/30 s of gruels whereas the other factors and all the interactions cuts has negligible effect one the answer. The formulation of the gruels containing flour of yam and marrow involves year increase in nutritional quality in particular out of proteins with 13.71 g/100 g of gruels. These results appear adapted within the framework of the fight against infantile malnutrition in the context of the local resources available.

  18. 银杏山药复合饮料的研制%Study on the Compound Beverage of Ginkgo and Yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟华锋

    2014-01-01

    对银杏山药复合饮料的配方进行了研究,通过单因素试验和正交试验优化了银杏山药复合饮料的配方,试验结果表明复合饮料的最佳配方为:银杏山药混合液70%(银杏液与山药液的比例1∶1),pH 4.3,糖度9%;最适稳定剂配方为:羧甲基纤维素钠0.06%、黄原胶0.12%、卡拉胶0.06%。该饮料风味独特,酸甜可口,具有银杏和山药的双重营养价值,是一种具有开发潜力的新型功能饮料。%In this paper, the formulation of the ginkgo biloba and yam compound beverage was studied. The ginkgo biloba and yam compound beverage of formula through the single factor test and orthogonal test to optimize, the results show that the composite beverage of the best formula for:70%ginkgo biloba fluid and yam fluid mixture (gingko fluid and yam fluid ratio of 1∶1), 4.3pH, 9%bix;The optimal stabilizer formula for:0.06%sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.12%xanthan gum and 0.06%carrageenan. This beverage flavor is unique, sweet and sour palatable, had the dual nutritional value of both ginkgo biloba and yam. It was a new type of functional beverage which has the development potentiod. development potential of the new type of functional beverage.

  19. Synthesis and interfacial behavior of polystyrene-polysaccharide diblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, W.T.E.; Ágoston, K.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Linear block copolymers of polystyrene and polysaccharide were synthesized using a block synthesis method with amino-terminated polystyrene and sodium cyanoborohydride as reducing agent. Different types of polysaccharides, dextrans, and maltodextrins with various molecular weights were used. IR spec

  20. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, David S. (Stone Mountain, GA); Gudlavalleti, Seshu K. (Kensington, MD); Tzeng, Yih-Ling (Atlanta, GA); Datta, Anup K. (San Diego, CA); Carlson, Russell W. (Athens, GA)

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  1. Immobilized phosphorylase for synthesis of polysaccharides from glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Continuous processes for enzymatic production of carbohydrates from glucose are discussed. Key reactant in process is identified as phosphorylase which catalyzes reversible formation or degradation of polysaccharide. Chemical compounds and reactions to synthesize polysaccharides are analyzed.

  2. Rhizobium leguminosarum mutants incapable of normal extracellular polysaccharide production.

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, C; Albersheim, P

    1980-01-01

    Mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum which are deficient in normal polysaccharide production have been isolated and characterized. A correlation between diminished production of extracellular polysaccharide and reduced infection and nodulation efficiency has been observed.

  3. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... statements/ppv.html CDC review information for Pneumococcal Polysaccharide VIS: Page last reviewed: April 24, 2015 Page ...

  4. Influence of polysaccharides on wine protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Meier, Miriam; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the major high-molecular weight components of wines. In contrast, proteins occur only in small amounts in wine, but contribute to haze formation. The detailed mechanism of aggregation of these proteins, especially in combination with other wine components, remains unclear. This study demonstrates the different aggregation behavior between a buffer and a model wine system by dynamic light scattering. Arabinogalactan-protein, for example, shows an increased aggregation in the model wine system, while in the buffer system a reducing effect is observed. Thus, we could show the importance to examine the behavior of wine additives under conditions close to reality, instead of simpler buffer systems. Additional experiments on melting points of wine proteins reveal that only some isoforms of thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases are involved in haze formation. We can confirm interactions between polysaccharides and proteins, but none of these polysaccharides is able to prevent haze in wine. PMID:26830558

  5. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  6. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Yitao Wang; Xinsheng Peng; Ping Zhu; Yanfang Zhou; Jingjing Huang; Meiwan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α- or β-glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, antioxidation, antiaging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been wide...

  7. Changes in the availability and uses of wild yams according to climatic dryness and land-cover in Western Burkina Faso (West Africa) : a joint ecological and ethno-botanical approach using GIS and remote-sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Devineau, Jean-Louis; Aurouet, A.; Douanio, M.; Hladik, A.

    2008-01-01

    The regional variability in the uses of wild yams is assessed according to their availability in relation with land-use and climatic conditions from the South to the North sudanian sectors in Western Burkina Faso. The study involves field studies and modelling of the geographical distribution of yams and seeks correlations between environmental and ethno-biological data. Terrain analysis consists of phyto-ecological surveys and interviews with local inhabitants. A cluster analysis of a multi-...

  8. Molecular characterisation of Colombian yam germplasm by "DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF)" in radioactivo conditions Caracterización molecular del germoplasma de ñame colombiano utilizando "DNA Amplificaron Fingerprinting (DAF)" en condiciones radiactivas

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Silvia L.; Guzmán Mónica; Buitrago Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    Samples from the Universidad de Córdoba's yam collection (Dioscorea spp.) and others originating from IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria) were molecularly characterised to complement existing information about them. The yam (Diosocorea spp.) represents a basic crop for small-scale farmers on the Colombian Atlantic Coast who sow around 20,000 hectares per year. Even though they are dioecious species, only one sex is represented in Colombia; it must also be s...

  9. Effect of relative humidities on microstructural, barrier and mechanical properties of Yam starch-monoglyceride films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Avelino Bublitz Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of monoglyceride on microstructural, barrier and mechanical properties of casted yam starch films were investigated in different relative humidities (RH and compared with glycerol-starch films. A single screw extruder was used to produce the starch - monoglyceride complex before film production and this process was effective to inhibit the phase separation in films. The addition of the hydrophobic compound reduced hydrophobicity, transparency and water vapor permeability of films. This later value for starch-glycerol film (1.7 x 10-10 g Pa-1 s-1 m-1 was higher than starch (1.2 x 10-10 g Pa-1 s-1 m-1 and monoglyceride-starch films (1.0 x 10-10 g Pa-1 s-1 m-1. Films containing glycerol had higher relative crystallinity (B and V H with a slight increase at higher RH values, while for monoglyceride films, the crystallinity was constant. Monoglyceride-starch films presented poor mechanical properties when compared to glycerol- starch ones but they presented a stable behavior under different relative humidities.Estudou-se o efeito da adição de monoglicerídeo nas propriedades microestruturais, mecânicas e de barreira de filmes de amido de inhame, em diferentes umidades relativas (UR, comparando-as com as de filmes de amido- glicerol. Uma extrusora mono-rosca foi usado para produzir o complexo amido-monoglicerídeo, antes de produzir o filme, e o processo foi efetivo para inibir a separação de fases que geralmente ocorre nesse tipo de filmes. A adição de monoglicerídeo, que é um composto hidrofóbico, reduziu a hidrofilicidade, a transparência e a permeabilidade ao vapor de água dos filmes. O valor desta, para os filmes de amido-glicerol (1,7 x 10-10 g Pa-1 s-1 m-1 foi maior que para os de amido (1,2 x 10-10 g Pa-1 s-1 m-1 e para os de amido-monoglicerídeo (1,0 x 10-10 g Pa-1 s-1 m-1. Os filmes com glicerol tiveram maior cristalinidade relativa (B e V H, com um ligeiro aumento em altas UR, enquanto que nos filmes com monoglicer

  10. Related gene expressions in anti-keratinocyte aging induced by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaoqiong; Liao Wanqing; Yao Zhirong; Wang Zhidong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the level of expression of anti skin aging gene of Ganoderma lucidum polysacchayides and clarify its mechanism with anti aging of this ancient Chinese medicine. Methods: HacaT cell of keratinocytes lines were cultured and treated with the polysaccharides. The total RNA was extracted with Trizol reagent and eDNA was synthesized by reverse thanscription. The obtained cDNAs were then fluorescently labeled with cy3 and cy5 respectively and hybridized with gene expressing pedigree cDNA chip. The images were scanned and analyzed with special software. The scan data were analyzed with software and checked by real time PCR. Results: Among total 18 346 human genes, the expression of 103 ones was up-regulated and 378 ones down-regulated. It was demonstrated evidently that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides affected the expression of genes of anti skin aging. Two ways are anastomotic. Conclusion: it is concluded by analysis of function of these up-regulation and down-regulation genes that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides may play an important role in boosting cell growth and against skin aging. It shows that the results of gene array reliable by real time PCR.

  11. Sulfated modification of the polysaccharide from Sphallerocarpus gracilis and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunfei; Song, Shen; Wei, Yanxia; Wang, Fengxia; Zhao, Min; Guo, Jie; Zhang, Ji

    2016-06-01

    Sphallerocarpus gracilis (S. gracilis) is a little-investigated edible plant and used as traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, polysaccharide extracted from S. gracilis,deproteined and purified. The polysaccharide (SGP) was chemically modified to obtain its sulfated derivatives (S-SGP) using the method of chlorosulfonic acid/pyridine (CSA/Pyr). In order to acquire the derivative with the highest degree of substitution (DS), the optimum conditions of the sulfation were obtained based on response surface design (RSD), and the structural characterizations and antioxidant properties of the S-SGP were comparatively investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), GC-MS analysis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and DPPH radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay, and reducing power assay, respectively. Results showed that the modification was successful, and obtained the optimum combination of conditions. Compared with SGP, the sulfated polysaccharide with relatively the decreased degree of molecular weight (Mw) but the same composition of monosaccharides exhibited better antioxidant activities in DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide radical and reducing power assay. These results indicated that the antioxidant activities in vitro of the S-SGP from S. gracilis may be related to combined effects of Mw, monosaccharide composition, and sulfate content. PMID:26893048

  12. Effects of Casing Filler and Casing Depth on Yield and Commodity of Yam%套管入土深度及填充物对山药产量与商品性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兴发; 范金华; 樊祖立; 朱江; 唐虹

    2015-01-01

    Casing cultivation experiments on yam varieties(Niutui yam) were conducted to study casing filler and casing depth on yield and commodity of yam. The results showed that the best combination of greenhouses screenhouse casing production yam was in the casing filling fine soil buried pipe and soil depth of 90 cm(A1B1),the maximum yield of yam was 2587.96kg/667m2 and production of yam tuber commodity was better.%通过套管栽培试验,研究套管填充物及入土深度对山药产量和商品性的影响。结果表明,在套管内填充细泥土并将套管埋入土壤深度90cm(即处理A1B1)的产量最高,为2587.96kg/667m2,为大棚网室套管生产山药的最佳组合,且生产的山药块茎商品性更好。

  13. In vitro and genetic diversity studies of twelve accessions of aerial yams (D. bulbifera and D. alata) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial yams (D. bulbifera and D. alata) are usually among the dioscoreaceae, in that they are cultivated not only for their tubers but also for the bulbils that develop at the leaf axils of the vine. Twelve accessions collected from five geographic regions were evaluated for morphological characteristics. The results indicate that the 12 accessions exhibited similarity with respect to 11 traits but were variable with respect to 5. Bulbils from the twelve accessions of aerial yams collected from the experimental field, were analysed for proximate composition including moisture, crude protein, crude ash, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate content using the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) method. Elemental composition of the bulbils was also determined through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Accession S recorded the highest crude protein (6.77 %), crude fibre (3.38 %) and carbohydrate (25.39 %) contents. Bulbils from D, G and T recorded the highest crude fat (0.56 %), moisture (72.97 %) and crude ash (7.96 %) content respectively. Accession V recorded the highest amount of magnesium (143.43 mg/100g), potassium (2644.4 mg/100g), chlorine (3272.2 mg/100g) and copper (1.116 mg/100g). Bulbils from accession F also recorded the highest amount of aluminum (5.26 mg/100g) and manganese (0.43 mg/100g), while accession B, C, E and R also recorded highest percentages of vanadium (0.037 mg/100g), sodium (26.63 mg/100g), calcium (333.5 mg/100g) and zinc (4.53 mg/100g) respectively. Nodal explants of 12 accessions of the aerial yam were cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with varying concentrations of kinetin with or without activated charcoal, as assessed for ability to regenerate plantlets with distinct shoots, leaves and roots. The highest regeneration of plantlets was achieved at kinetin concentration of 2.0 mg/l with activated charcoal. Kinetin concentration beyond 2.0 mg/l proved to be phytotoxic and

  14. Structural and physical properties of sanxan polysaccharide from Sphingomonas sanxanigenens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haidong; Wu, Mengmeng; Yang, Hongpeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Ren, Mengnan; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-06-25

    Sphingomonas sanxanigenens, a new species of the genus Sphingomonas, synthesizes extracellular biopolymer termed sanxan. Sanxan polysaccharide was purified from the fermentation broth by Sephacryl S-400 column chromatography. The molecular weight of sanxan polysaccharide was 408kDa by the method of size-exclusion chromatography combined with laser light scattering. Based on FT-IR, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, the structure of sanxan polysaccharide was elucidated as follows: The solution of sanxan polysaccharide showed properties of high viscosity and shear-thinning. By cooling hot solutions, sanxan polysaccharide could form elastic thermoreversible gel. PMID:27083833

  15. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  16. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases and a...

  17. Enzymatic production of hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides are abundant in the human body. Depending on the chain length, hyaluronan is an important structural component or is involved in influencing cell responses during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation and cancer. Due to these diverse roles of hy

  18. Isolation and Structural Characterisation of Okara Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Okara is a byproduct generated during tofu or soymilk production processes. Crude polysaccharide (yield 56.8% was isolated by removing fat, protein and low molecular weight carbohydrates from initial okara. Crude okara polysaccharide was further divided into four soluble fractions and an insoluble residue fraction by extracting with 0.05 M EDTA + NH4 oxalate, 0.05 M NaOH, 1 M NaOH and 4 M NaOH, with yields of 7.7%, 3.6%, 20.7%, 16.0% and 27.9%, respectively. Arabinose, galactose, galacturonic acid, xylose and glucose (only for the insoluble fraction were the major constituent sugars. The primary sugar residues of okara polysaccharides were 1,4-linked β-galactopyranose, 1,5- and 1,3-linked α-arabinofuranose, 1,5-linked α-xylofuranose, 1,2-linked, 1,2,4-linked and terminal α-rhamnopyranose (or fucopyranose, and 1,4-linked β-glucopyranose (only for the insoluble fraction, indicating okara polysaccharides might contain galactan, arabinan, arabinogalactan, xylogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan, xylan, xyloglucan and cellulose.

  19. INORGANIC NITROGEN SUPPLEMENTATION AND MICRO-FUNGAL FERMENTATION OF WHITE YAM PEELS (FLOUR INTO SINGLE CELL PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmadiniru J. Akintomide

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation (SSF technique was employed for the production of single cell protein (SCP using white yam peels as a substrate. Commercial baker’s yeast (S. cerevisiae and a local isolate of A. niger were used for the fermentation process to generate crude protein. The effect of supplementation by various inorganic sources of nitrogen on the crude protein yields was compared. Ammonium sulphate [(NH42SO4], one of the inorganic nitrogen source used, supported the highest crude protein yields of 16.78% and 21.30% respectively for A. niger and S. cerevisiae while the lowest yield of 13.92% and 18.00% were supported by potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate respectively.

  20. Growth and Nutrient Use Efficiencies of Yams (Dioscorea spp. Grown in Two Contrasting Soils of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien N'Guessan Diby

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is an important management strategy of yams (Dioscorea spp. especially when grown in degraded soils. A field study evaluated the leaf numbers, leaf area indices, crop growth, yields, and nitrogen (N and potassium (K use efficiencies of D. alata and D. rotundata in Côte d'Ivoire when grown in two contrasting soils with and without fertilizer. D. alata had a lower number of leaves per vine, although leaf area indices were higher, and the leaves were retained for a longer period than in D. rotundata. In all situations, the yields of D. alata were significantly higher, and fertilizers promoted growth of shoots, roots, tubers, and, thus, final yields especially in the low fertile savanna soil. The beneficial impact of fertilizer on yields was significantly lower in the fertile forest soils. The nutrient use agronomic efficiencies indicated the impact of both N and K in promoting yields especially under nonfertilized conditions.

  1. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Tuber huidongense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangjing; Zhang, Shiqi; Ran, Chunxia; Wang, Lisha; Kan, Jianquan

    2016-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Box-Behnken design were employed to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of water-soluble polysaccharides from Chinese truffle Tuber huidongense (THWP). The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 7.17±0.22% crude THWP were determined as follows: ultrasonic power 99.65W, extraction time 40.39min, ratio of water to raw material 24.65mL/g, and extraction temperature 70.1°C. Two purified fractions, THWP-1 and THWP-2 with molecular weights of 128kDa and 729kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude THWP by Cellulose DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Monosaccharide component analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that THWP-1 was composed of Glc, Man, and Gal with their corresponding mole percentages of 60.56%, 20.12% and 19.32%, respectively and that THWP-2 contained only Glc. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro suggested that THWP-1 and THWP-2 had effective scavenging activity of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonicacid) (ABST), hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Accordingly, the polysaccharides from Chinese truffle might serve as a natural antioxidant in functional foods. PMID:27259646

  2. Chinese astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  3. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  4. 淮北地区山药高产栽培技术%Yield Cultivation Techniques of Yam in Huaibei District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季桂玲

    2014-01-01

    本文以淮北地区山药种植为例,从选种、选地、整地、栽种、田间管理、采收和贮藏等各个方面较全面得介绍了山药的栽培技术,总结了在其在实际生产中的技术要点,以期为今后山药的规范化生产及质量保证提供技术支持。%A comprehensive cultivation techniques of yam, which covered selection seed, selection soil, the soil preparation, planting, field management, harvesting and storage, were introduced in this paper. The key technology was concluded in the production practice.These could provide technical support for future standardization production and quality assurance of yam.

  5. Cause of yam tuber malformation in Mingxi county and its controlling measures%明溪县淮山块茎畸形发生原因及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诚

    2012-01-01

    为了进一步探明2010年明溪县淮山普遍发生畸形,且畸形率高的原因,从气候、品种、淮山种段消毒处理、栽培管理等方面对其发病原因进行深入调查和分析,并提出预防对策。%This paper explored the cause of malformation of yam tuber in Mingxi county in 2010.The outbreak reasons including climatic factor,variety,sterilization of tuber segment,cultivation management of yam,were investigated and analyzed in deep,the controlling measures also were put foward.

  6. Projeto YAM – Yoga para Adolescentes da Fundação Casa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Deveza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O último censo do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE contabilizou 31.088.484 jovens entre 15 e 24 anos (19,8% da população no Brasil. Em todo o país, a maior parte desses adolescentes (9.446.918 vive em centros urbanos maiores, representando 77,8% dos adolescentes brasileiros1. Um dado fundamental para reflexão é o que aponta para a sobre-mortalidade masculina nos contextos urbanos e metropolitanos (mortes por causa externa, sobretudo por violência em adolescentes maiores de 15 anos de idade, que vem aumentando de forma alarmante. Os índices de criminalidade, nessa mesma faixa, também têm apresentado índices geometricamente crescentes2. Há indícios na literatura de que situações pós traumáticas induzem atitudes criminosas em razão desse estado psicológico3. Esses e outros dados igualmente preocupantes tornam óbvias a importância e a urgência de medidas direcionadas a essa população, no sentido de melhorar a condição de vida desses jovens. O Projeto YAM assiste adolescentes do sexo masculino do complexo da Vila Maria da Fundação CASA (Centro de Assistência Sócioeducativa ao Adolescente com idade entre 12 e 20 anos, submetidos a rotinas de vida de múltiplas carências e expostos a altos níveis de violência pelo meio social em que estão inseridos. Essa assistência compreende aulas de ética, cidadania, comportamento, conceitos de espiritualidade além de praticas de Yoga e meditação, apoiadas na cultura do Yoga Clássico ou “Raja Yoga” de Patañjali. Além dessas aulas, buscamos reintegrar socialmente esses jovens, buscando oportunidades de trabalho e bolsas de estudo para complementação de formação acadêmica, após suas altas do período de internação. Uma pesquisa, apoiada pelo Instituto do Coração da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor-USP, avaliou os resultados de tais práticas nesses adolescentes, demonstrando uma expressiva diminuição nos

  7. Caracterização físico-química da mucilagem de inhame liofilizada Physical and chemical characteristics of the mucilage of lyophilized yam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Tavares

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A mucilagem do inhame desempenha papel de interesse na indústria de alimentos em razão das suas propriedades como espessante, estabilizante e emulsificante. Neste estudo, objetivou-se caracterizar a mucilagem liofilizada do inhame por meio de análises físicas, químicas e reológicas. Foram determinados a composição centesimal, valor calórico, pH, acidez, sais minerais, vitamina C, açúcares totais, polifenóis, pectinametilesterase, poligalacturonase, termogravimétrica, análise térmica diferencial, calorimetria diferencial de varredura, espectroscopia infravermelho e viscosidade aparente. A mucilagem de inhame liofilizada apresentou elevados teores de proteína bruta e fibra alimentar e baixos teores de fração glicídica e de valor calórico. Quanto à análise termogravimétrica a mucilagem de inhame demonstrou maior perda de massa cerca de 60% à temperatura média de 200º C, o que inviabiliza o seu uso acima desta temperatura.The mucilage of yam is of interest in the food industry due to its properties as a thickener, stabilizer and emulsifier. The aim of this study was to characterize the freeze-dried mucilage of yam through physical analysis, chemical and rheological properties. The study measured the proximate composition, caloric value, pH, acidity, minerals, vitamin C, sugars, polyphenols, pectin methylesterase, polygalacturonase, thermogravimetric, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and viscosity. The lyophilized yam mucilage showed high levels of crude protein and dietary fiber content and low fraction of glucose and calories. A thermogravimetric analysis mucilage of the yam showed a higher weight loss (about 60% at an average temperature of 200º C, thus precluding their use above this temperature.

  8. Effects of a tropical geophageous earthworm, M. anomala (Megascolecidae), on soil characteristics and production of a yam crop in Ivory Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Gilot, Cécile

    1997-01-01

    This study was an attempt to validate under field conditions some results of the effects of earthworms on soil organic matter dynamics, obtained under confined circumstances, and on enhanced plant production. Yams were grown in the presence or absence of the tropical endogeic earthworm #Millsonia anomala$ (Omodeo and Vaillaud, 1967) for 3 years. Field experiments were conducted in the middle of Ivory Coast using experimental plots isolated by PVC sheets. At the beginning of the cropping seque...

  9. Effects of socio-economic household characteristics on traditional knowledge and usage of wild yams and medicinal plants in the Mahafaly region of south-western Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamparany, Jessica N; Brinkmann, Katja; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina; Buerkert, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Rural households in the Mahafaly region of semi-arid SW-Madagascar strongly depend on the exploitation of natural resources for their basic needs and income regeneration. An overuse of such resources threatens the natural environment and people’s livelihood. Our study focuses on the diversity and use of wild yams and medicinal plants. Methods We hypothesized that knowledge on the use of these resources highly depends on farmers’ socio-economic household characteristics. To test thi...

  10. What's the Matter with Technology? : Long (and Short) Yams Materialisation and Technology in Nyamikum village, Maprik district, East Papua New Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Coupaye, Ludovic

    2009-01-01

    Things are not just consumable, they are made so. They acquire their ‘materiality' not only through engagements with them as finished products, but also through processes that make them material, i.e. technical activities. This field of study in anthropology, rejected by dominant trends because of its deterministic connotations, is a useful way to explore processes of materialisation and to investigate the ‘inbuilt' relationality of things and activities. This paper focuses on yam gardening i...

  11. Management of crotalaria and pigeon pea for control of yam nematode diseases Manejo da crotalária e do guandu no controle de nematoses do inhame

    OpenAIRE

    Marlon da Silva Garrido; Ana Cristina Fechino Soares; João Luiz Coimbra; Carla da Silva Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Management of plant-parasitic nematodes with the use of nematicides has not been recommended for small farmers that grow yam in the Northeastern region of Brazil, due to its high cost and residue toxicity. The use of plants with antagonistic effect to nematodes and green manure which improves soil chemical, physical and biological characteristics can be a viable and low cost alternative to control parasitic nematodes. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea) an...

  12. 大孔吸附树脂富集纯化黄药子总皂苷的研究%Macroporous resin enrichment and purification of total saponins of Airpotato yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若囡; 徐立; 尹莲; 时乐; 雷荣荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the AB-8 macroporous resin enrichment and purification of total saponins from Airpotato yam. Methods Perchloric acid was used to determine the total saponins content of Airpotato yam. Total saponin content in Airpotato yam was used as an index to determine adsorption and elution conditions by AB-8 macroporous resin enrichment and purification of total saponins of Airpotato yam. Results The optimum volume ratio between Airpotato yam sample solution and resin column was 15: 1. When eluted by 30%-70% ethanol, the purity of Airpotato yam total saponins extract was 74. 9%. Conclusion Total saponins of Airpotato yam is better enriched and purified by AB-8 macroporous resin. The condition is scientific, rational, simple and efficient.%目的 研究AB-8大孔吸附树脂富集纯化黄药子总皂苷的工艺条件.方法 建立高氯酸比色法测定黄药子总皂苷含量,以黄药子总皂苷含量为指标,考察AD-8大孔吸附树脂富集纯化黄药子总皂苷的吸附性能和洗脱条件.结果 黄药子样品液与树脂柱最佳体积比为15∶1,30%~70%乙醇洗脱时,纯度为74.9%.结论 AB-8型吸附树脂能够较好地富集纯化黄药子总皂苷,优选出的工艺条件科学合理、简便高效,便于推广.

  13. News and Views: Bottom-up boost at NAM; Spreading the word from the NAM; S3 gets together at the NAM; YAM@NAM 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Delegates at the simultaneous National Astronomy Meeting, UK Solar Physics meeting and Spring MIST meeting were impressed by the warm welcome and efficient organization from the hosts, the University of Central Lancaster in Preston. The meetings were successful in terms of the number of participants and the breadth and depth of science discussed, but also in terms of the spread of that science across the media. The newly formed Solar System Science (S3) group (see A&G 47 4.39) met at the National Astronomy Meeting hosted by the University of Central Lancaster at Preston in April. The meeting was well attended and many pressing issues were discussed, reflecting a productive first year. The Young Astronomers' Meeting (YAM) sessions at NAM focused on extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology, with six invited up-and-coming speakers who showcased their work - and signed the YAM banner in true celebrity style! Organizers Mark Westmoquette, Anaïs Rassat and Joe Zuntz (pictured with the RAS President Michael Rowan-Robinson), believe that encouraging the nation's younger generation of astronomers is of primary importance for developing and sustaining the health of the UK astronomy community, and look forward to seeing YAM playing an increasingly central role in the future.

  14. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  15. Filtration Behaviour and Fouling Mechanisms of Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Sondus Jamal; Sheng Chang; Hongde Zhou

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated filtration behaviors of polysaccharides solutions, both alone and in mixture with proteins, in the short-time constant flux filtration with the focus on factors affecting the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increase rate, the irreversible filtration resistance, and the membrane rejection behavior. The results showed that the TMP increase rates in the short-time constant flux filtration of alginate solutions were significantly affected by the calcium addition, alginate con...

  16. Marine origin polysaccharides in drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matias J. Cardoso; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents an...

  17. Polysaccharides: The “Click” Chemistry Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Lucas; Daniel Montplaisir; Rachida Zerrouki; Pierre-Antoine Faugeras; François Brouillette; Benjamin Boëns; Pierre-Henri Elchinger

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides are complex but essential compounds utilized in many areas such as biomaterials, drug delivery, cosmetics, food chemistry or renewable energy. Modifications and functionalizations of such polymers are often necessary to achieve molecular structures of interest. In this area, the emergence of the “click” chemistry concept, and particularly the copper-catalyzed version of the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between terminal acetylenes and azides, had an impact on the ...

  18. Effect of polygonatum polysaccharide on the hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necrosis in in vitro cultured cerebral cortical neurons from neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozhu Hu; Jin Zhang; Ning Tang; Zhu Wen; Rongqing Nie

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiocerebrovascular diseases induced cerebral circulation insufficiency and senile vascular dementia can result in ischemic/hypoxic apoptosis of central neurons, which we should pay more attention to and prevent and treat as early as possible. Traditional Chinese medicine possesses the unique advantage in this field. Polygonatum, a Chinese herb for invigorating qi, may play a role against the hypoxic apoptosis of brain neurons.OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effect of polygonatum polysaccharide on hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necrosis in cerebral cortical neurons cultured in vitro.DESIGN: A comparative experiment.SETTING: Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Jiangxi Provincial Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Jiangxi Provincial Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine from November 2003 to April 2005.Totally 218 Wistar rats (male or female) of clean degree within 24 hours after birth were purchased from the animal center of Jiangxi Medical College (certification number was 021-97-03).METHODS: ① Preparation of cerebral cortical neurons of rats: The cerebral cortical tissues were isolated from the Wistar rats within 24 hours after birth, and prepared to single cell suspension, and the cerebral cortical neurons of neonatal rats were in vitro cultured in serum free medium with Neurobasal plus B27Supplement. ② Observation on the non-toxic dosage of polygonatum polysaccharide on neurons: After the neurons were cultured for 4 days, polygonatum polysaccharide of different dosages (1-20 g/L) was added for continuous culture for 48 hours, the toxicity and non-toxic dosage of polygonatum polysaccharide on neurons were observed and detected with trypan blue staining. ③ Grouping: After hypoxia/reoxygenation,the cultured neurons were divided into normal control group, positive apoptotic group and polygonatum

  19. Xylanase inhibitors bind to nonstarch polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, Ellen; Gebruers, Kurt; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2008-01-23

    This study is an in-depth investigation of the interaction between polysaccharides and the proteinaceous xylanase inhibitors, Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI), xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP), and thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor (TLXI). The binding affinities of all three known types of xylanase inhibitors from wheat are studied by measuring the residual xylanase inhibition activity after incubation of the inhibitors in the presence of different polysaccharides, such as beta-glucans and (arabino)xylans. The binding affinities of all three xylanase inhibitors for (arabino)xylans increased with a decreasing arabinose/xylose ratio (A/X ratio). This phenomenon was observed both with water-extractable and water-unextractable (arabino)xylans. The inhibitors also interacted with different soluble and insoluble beta-glucans. None of the inhibitors tested had the ability to hydrolyze the polysaccharides investigated. The present findings contribute to the unraveling of the function of xylanase inhibitors in nature and to the prediction of the effect of added xylanases in cereal-based biotechnological processes, such as bread making and gluten-starch separation. PMID:18092758

  20. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  1. Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal S. Sandhu; Gursharn S. Randhawa; Kanwarpal S. Dhugga

    2009-01-01

    The wall of an expanding plant cell consists primarily of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of hemi-cellulosic and pectic polysaccharides along with small amounts of structural and enzymatic proteins. Matrix polysacchar-ides are synthesized in the Golgi and exported to the cell wall by exocytosis, where they intercalate among cellulose microfibrUs, which are made at the plasma membrane and directly deposited into the cell wall. Involvement of Golgi glucan synthesis in auxin-induced cell expansion has long been recognized; however, only recently have the genes corresponding to glucan synthases been identified. Biochemical purification was unsuccessful because of the labile nature and very low abundance of these enzymes. Mutational genetics also proved fruitless. Expression of candidate genes identified through gene expression profiling or comparative genomics in heterologous systems followed by functional characterization has been relatively successful. Several genes from the cellulose synthase-like (Cs/) family have been found to be involved in the synthesis of various hemicellulosic glycans. The usefulness of this approach, however, is limited to those enzymes that probably do not form complexes consisting of unrelated proteins. Nonconventional approaches will continue to incre-mentally unravel the mechanisms of Golgi polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  2. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Matias J; Costa, Rui R; Mano, João F

    2016-02-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. PMID:26861358

  3. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  4. Rheological studies of polysaccharides for skin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nalinda; Mueller, Anja; Hirschi, Stanley; Rakesh, Leela

    2014-05-01

    Polysaccharide hydrogels are good candidates for skin scaffolds because of their inherent biocompatibility and water transport properties. In the current study, hydrogels were made from a mixture of four polysaccharides: xanthan gum, konjac gum, iota-carrageenan, and kappa-carrageenan. Gel formation, strength, and structure of these polysaccharides were studied using rheological and thermal techniques. All gel samples studied were strong gels at all times because of the gradual water loss. However, after 12 h of storage, elastic (G') and loss (G'') moduli of hydrogel mixture containing all the ingredients is of one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of mixtures not containing either xanthan gum or iota-carrageenan, which confirmed the varied levels of gel strength. This is mainly due to the rate of water loss in each of these mixtures, resulting in gels of varying structures and dynamic moduli over a period of time. Iota-carrageenan and xanthan gum differ in their effect on gel strength and stability in combination with konjac gum and kappa-carrageenan. PMID:23703897

  5. Evaluation of phosphorylated psyllium seed polysaccharide as a release retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R P Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed gum was modified using sodium trimetaphosphate as crosslinking agent. Sustained release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared by wet granulation using various drug-polymer ratios. The polymers investigated were psyllium polysaccharide, phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide and widely used release retardant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, swelling profile and in vitro dissolution studies. The matrix tablets containing 1:3 proportion of drug-phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide was found to have higher hardness as compared to tablets containing 1:1 and 1:2 proportions. The results of swelling behavior in water showed that the tablets containing 1:3 drug:phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide ratio had swelling comparable to that of tablets containing 1:3 drug:hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio. The in vitro dissolution studies shows that the dissolution rate was retarded from 98.41 to 37.6% in 6 h with increase in concentration of phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide from 100 to 300 mg. Formulations containing psyllium polysaccharide showed complete drug release in 8 h whereas those formulated with phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide exhibited extended drug release over the 12 h period. Drug release kinetic studies revealed that drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  6. Oligo- and polysaccharide synthesis by Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Breedveld, M W

    1992-01-01

    Rhizobium and Agrobacterium species are capable of synthesizing a variety of extracellular and cellular oligo- and polysaccharides. Changes in environmental conditions may all affect the composition, physical properties, and relative amounts of oligo- and polysaccharides. Interest in the field of Rhizobium polys accharides has resulted from a development in two distinct areas, (i) the role of oligo- and polysaccharides in the microbe- plant interaction, and (ii) studies on the physico- chemic...

  7. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Qian

    2001-01-01

    Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.  ……

  8. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.

  9. Improved coupling of bacterial polysaccharides to macromolecules and solid supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing a polysaccharide-carrier conjugate comprising coupling a polysaccharide to a carrier, said polysaccharide comprising at least one monosaccharide unit comprising a keto-carboxy group according to the formula -C(=O)COOR, where R is either hydrogen or C1...... the present invention relates to the use of the compound or solid surface in the preparation of an assay device for the detection of antibodies against gram negative bacteria....

  10. Evaluation of Phosphorylated Psyllium Seed Polysaccharide as a Release Retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Monica R P; Warrier, Deepa U; Rao, Shivani H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed gum was modified using sodium trimetaphosphate as crosslinking agent. Sustained release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared by wet granulation using various drug-polymer ratios. The polymers investigated were psyllium polysaccharide, phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide and widely used release retardant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, swelling profile and in vitro dissolution studies. The matrix tablets containing 1:3 proportion of drug-phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide was found to have higher hardness as compared to tablets containing 1:1 and 1:2 proportions. The results of swelling behavior in water showed that the tablets containing 1:3 drug:phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide ratio had swelling comparable to that of tablets containing 1:3 drug:hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio. The in vitro dissolution studies shows that the dissolution rate was retarded from 98.41 to 37.6% in 6 h with increase in concentration of phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide from 100 to 300 mg. Formulations containing psyllium polysaccharide showed complete drug release in 8 h whereas those formulated with phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide exhibited extended drug release over the 12 h period. Drug release kinetic studies revealed that drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model. PMID:26798177

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Polysaccharide Materials: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, L.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight of the environmental profiles of polysaccharide products (e.g. viscose or natural fibre polymer composites) in comparison with their conventional counterparts (e.g. cotton or petrochemical polymers). The application areas covered are text...

  12. Immunogenic properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 2 capsular polysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, A.; Jouin, H; Fournier, J M

    1986-01-01

    The immunoprotective activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae K2 cell surface preparations and purified capsular polysaccharide was tested in mice. The 50% protective dose (PD50), expressed as capsular polysaccharide content, was 2 ng for cell surface preparations and 50 ng for purified capsular polysaccharide. Both preparations lost their immunoprotective activity after alkali treatment. Immune sera were raised in rabbits immunized with cell surface preparations. The precipitating and hemagglutinat...

  13. Hydrodynamic investigation of polysaccharides and their interaction with casein

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Gordon Alistair

    2001-01-01

    Polysaccharide systems (pectin, carrageenan, guar, locust bean gum, xanthan and xylan) have been characterised using a variety of hydrodynamic techniques including sedimentation velocity, sedimentation equilibrium, size exclusion chromatography - multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS), and viscometry. Results suggest that the polysaccharides selected are, in general, rigid or semi-rigid molecules with a large hydrated volume, this is important in relation to polysaccharide structure -...

  14. Antibacterial and antiviral study of dialdehyde polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Le

    Concerns for microbial contamination and infection to the general population, especially the spread of drug-resistant microorganisms, have greatly increased. Polymeric biocides have been found to be a feasible strategy to inactivate drug-resistant bacteria. However, current polymeric biocide systems involve multi-step chemical reactions and they are not cost-effective. Desirable antimicrobial systems need to be designed to be environmentally friendly, broad-spectrum effective against microorganisms, flexible for various delivery methods and economically affordable. We demonstrated that dialdehyde polysaccharides (including dialdehyde starch and dialdehdye cellulose) were broad-spectrum polymeric biocides against gram-positive/negative bacteria, bacteriophages and human virus. These polymers can be easily converted from starch and cellulose through one-step periodate oxidation. Destructions of microorganism by dialdehyde polysaccharides have been achieved in aqueous suspension or by solid surface contact. The dialdehdye functions of dialdehdye polysaccharides were found to be the dominant action against microorganism. The reactivity of the dialdehyde functionality was found to be pH-dependent as well as related to the dispersion of dialdehyde polysaccharides. Degradation of dialdehyde starch during cooking was confirmed. Degradation of dialdehyde starch was more liable in alkaline condition. Carboxylic acid and conjugated aldehyde functionalities were the two main degradation products, confirmed from the spectroscopic studies. The pH effect on the polysaccharide structure and the corresponding antimicrobial activity was very complicated. No decisive conclusions could be obtained from this study. Liner inactivation kinetics was found for dialdehyde starch aqueous suspension against bacteria. This linear inactivation kinetics was derived from the pseudo-first chemical reaction between the dialdehyde starch and the bacteria. The established inactivation kinetics was

  15. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  16. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Giese, Malene; de Vries, Ronald P.;

    2012-01-01

    potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results: Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this...... expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions: The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for...

  17. Antiviral polysaccharides isolated from Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hui; OOI; Engchoon; Vincent; ANG; Put; O; Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Two relatively pure polysaccharides H3-a1 and H3-b1 had been isolated from the brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus. They were characterized by HPLC, ultraviolet scanning, gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and shown to be two different sulfated polysaccharides with different monosaccharide content, but both with high relative molecular mass. They contained some proteins and uronic acid respectively. The sulfate content and bioactivity of these polysaccharides varied during purification. The fractions derived from the hot water extract also exhibited low anticoagulant effect. This is the first time that the antiherpetic and anticoagulant activities were evaluated for the polysaccharides from the Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus.

  18. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  19. Extraction, chemical analysis of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides in ischemia-reperfusion rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; He, Ben; Ge, Junbo; Li, Huibin; Luo, Xiuying; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yuhui; Zhai, Changlin; Liu, Pingang; Liu, Xin; Fei, Xuetao

    2010-11-01

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). The major sugar of the polysaccharide was saccharose (18.55%); and the sugar constituted about 83% of the monomer content. Glucose and fructose were found as minor components of the polysaccharides. The FT-IR spectra of A. sinensis polysaccharides are used for determination of their structural features. The FT-IR spectrum of A. sinensis polysaccharides showed bands at 1641 cm(-1), 1415 cm(-1), 1050 cm(-1) and 926 cm(-1) characteristic for the carboxylic group. Absorptions at 2920-2930 cm(-1) are attributed to asymmetrical stretching vibration of CH(2)-group. Medium stretch observed in the range 1650-1400 cm(-1) is assigned to C-C stretching of polysaccharides. Cardioprotective effects of A. sinensis polysaccharides were evaluated by using myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) rats. A. sinensis polysaccharides treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarction size, enhanced CT-1 and antioxidant enzymes activity, downregulated caspase-12 mRNA expression in rats. The study strongly suggests the cardioprotective activity of A. sinensis polysaccharides in limiting ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury. PMID:20691723

  20. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  1. INTERACTION OF IONIC LIQUIDS WITH POLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Liebert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of ionic liquids (ILs in the field of cellulose chemistry opens up a broad variety of new opportunities. Besides the regeneration of the biopolymer to fibers, films, and beads, this new class of cellulose solvents is particularly useful for the homogeneous chemical modification of the polysaccharide. In this review, the potential of ILs as a reaction medium for the homogeneous cellulose functionalization is discussed. It is shown that numerous conversions proceed very efficiently and the ILs may be recycled. But it is also demonstrated that some side reactions have to be considered.

  2. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 16 (2010), s. 1837-1845. ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP301/10/P548; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * electroactive labels * osmium(VI) complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  3. Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping of sulphated polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strmečki, S.; Plavšić, M.; Ćosović, B.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2009), s. 2032-2035. ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sulphated polysaccharides * ióta-carrageenan * catalysis of hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  4. Electrocatalytic detection of polysaccharides at picomolar concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Trefulka, Mojmír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 2 (2011), s. 321-326. ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME09038; GA AV ČR KAN400310651; GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP301/10/P548; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : electrochemical detection of polysaccharides * Os(VI)-bipyridine complex * cyclic voltammography Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.230, year: 2011

  5. Radiation Induced Degradation of Galactomannan Polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galactomannans are neutral polysaccharides that occur in substantial amounts in the endosperm of the seeds of some leguminous plants. Structurally they consist of a β(1-4)-D-mannose backbone to which galactose units are attached α(1-6). Among various galactomannans known, guar gum (GG), tara gum (TG) and locust bean gum (LBG) are the most widely used in applications in, for example, the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries as thickening agents or stabilizers due mainly to the high viscosity they impart at low concentrations. In many industrial applications, the use of low molecular weight polysaccharides is essential. For example, guar solutions, which are used as hydraulic fracturing fluids in oil and gas recovery, need to be degraded to facilitate the outflow of oil. In addition, to understand the solution properties of guar as well as other water-soluble biopolymers, it is often necessary to degrade the native polymer to prepare samples with various molecular weights (MW. Degradation of polysaccharides has been widely studied. Though acid and enzymatic hydrolysis are most common, other methods such as thermal, γ-irradiation, extrusion, ultrasonication and free radical degradation are also reported. In this study, radiation induced degradation of galactomannan polysaccharides has been investigated. GG, TG and LBG samples were irradiated with gamma rays in air at ambient temperature in the solid state at low dose rate. The change in their molecular weights was determined by SEC analysis and the change in their viscosity values as a function of temperature and irradiation dose was determined. Chain scission yields, G(S), and degradation rates were calculated. As a result of irradiation the molecular weight and viscosity of all galactomannans sharply decreased up to 50 kGy, no significant change was observed beyond this dose value. We observed that mannose-to-galactose ratio is an important factor controlling the G(S) and degradation rate of

  6. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of oligo- and polysaccharide fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den L.A.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic oligo- and polysaccharides (e.g. polysaccharide alkyl or alkyl-aryl esters) form a new class of polymers with exceptional properties. They function as polymeric surfactants, whilst maintaining most of the properties of the starting polymeric material such as emulsifying, gelling, and fil

  8. Polysaccharides isolated from Acai fruit induce innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Holderness

    Full Text Available The Açaí (Acai fruit is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly enhances immune system function. These anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing immune responses to the Acai polyphenol fraction. Previously, we characterized γδ T cell responses to both polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions from several plant-derived nutritional supplements. Similar polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions are found in Acai fruit. Thus, we hypothesized that one or both of these fractions could activate γδ T cells. Contrary to previous reports, we did not identify agonist activity in the polyphenol fraction; however, the Acai polysaccharide fraction induced robust γδ T cell stimulatory activity in human, mouse, and bovine PBMC cultures. To characterize the immune response to Acai polysaccharides, we fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation and tested these fractions for activity in human PBMC cultures. The largest Acai polysaccharides were the most active in vitro as indicated by activation of myeloid and γδ T cells. When delivered in vivo, Acai polysaccharide induced myeloid cell recruitment and IL-12 production. These results define innate immune responses induced by the polysaccharide component of Acai and have implications for the treatment of asthma and infectious disease.

  9. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides in bilberries and black currants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.

    2007-01-01

    During berry juice production, polysaccharides are released from the cell walls and cause thickening and high viscosity when the berries are mashed. Consequences are a low juice yield and a poor colour. This can be prevented by the use of enzymes that degrade these polysaccharides. To use these enzy

  10. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  11. Life cycle assessment of polysaccharide materials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight of the environmental profiles of polysacc

  12. Metabolite profiling of Dioscorea (yam) species reveals underutilised biodiversity and renewable sources for high-value compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Elliott J.; Wilkin, Paul; Sarasan, Viswambharan; Fraser, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are a multispecies crop with production in over 50 countries generating ~50 MT of edible tubers annually. The long-term storage potential of these tubers is vital for food security in developing countries. Furthermore, many species are important sources of pharmaceutical precursors. Despite these attributes as staple food crops and sources of high-value chemicals, Dioscorea spp. remain largely neglected in comparison to other staple tuber crops of tropical agricultural systems such as cassava (Manihot esculenta) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To date, studies have focussed on the tubers or rhizomes of Dioscorea, neglecting the foliage as waste. In the present study metabolite profiling procedures, using GC-MS approaches, have been established to assess biochemical diversity across species. The robustness of the procedures was shown using material from the phylogenetic clades. The resultant data allowed separation of the genotypes into clades, species and morphological traits with a putative geographical origin. Additionally, we show the potential of foliage material as a renewable source of high-value compounds. PMID:27385275

  13. Effect of Peptide Size on Antioxidant Properties of African Yam Bean Seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort F. Ajibola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of < 1, 1–3, 3–5 and 5–10 kDa using membrane ultrafiltration. The protein hydrolysate (APH and its membrane ultrafiltration fractions were assayed for in vitro antioxidant activities. The < 1 kDa peptides exhibited significantly better (p < 0.05 ferric reducing power, diphenyl-1-picryhydradzyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. The high activity of < 1 kDa peptides in these antioxidant assay systems may be related to the high levels of total hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. In comparison to glutathione (GSH, the APH and its membrane fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05 ability to chelate metal ions. In contrast, GSH had significantly greater (p < 0.05 ferric reducing power and free radical scavenging activities than APH and its membrane fractions. The APH and its membrane fractions effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation, results that were concentration dependent. The activity of APH and its membrane fractions against linoleic acid oxidation was higher when compared to that of GSH but lower than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT. The results show potential use of APH and its membrane fractions as antioxidants in the management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders and in the prevention of lipid oxidation in food products.

  14. A Microeconometric Analysis of Household Consumption Expenditure Determinants in Yam-growing Areas of Nigeria and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignouna, DB.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of microeconomic factors that explain household consumption expenditure in rural areas using cross-sectional data obtained from 1,400 randomly selected yam-producing households of Nigeria and Ghana. The correlates of consumption expenditure were examined using two techniques: ordinary least squares (OLS and a quantile regression (QR approach for a more comprehensive picture at different points of the distribution. Determinants of consumption expenditure are markedly different between the regressions and across the conditional quantiles of the expenditure in both countries. Results further indicate that age, education, and household size were important in explaining consumption expenditure using OLS. However, via conditional QR, the following additional factors became evident: membership of formal and informal institutions, main occupation, family structure, and farm size. Only education was consistently significant in both regressions and across the conditional quantiles, suggesting that responses to investments in education lead to increase in expenditure that will stimulate other sectors of the economy.

  15. Farm mechanization leading to more effective energy-utilizations for cassava and yam cultivations in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkakini, S.O.; Ayotamuno, M.J. [Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Rivers State (Nigeria). Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Department; Ogaji, S.O.T.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom). School Of Engineering

    2006-12-15

    Surveys have been conducted, under the auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture and Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs), in the 23 local-government areas of the Rivers State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire, personal visits to farms and interactions with information repositories were used. The quantities of energy consumed by tractors used in activities associated with the growing of cassava and yam crops in those areas were compared with traditional operations, using just manual labour. Within the period of 1986-2004, the total energy utilizations in the production of these crops, in the 23 local government areas, were 2738.87 and 33.5MJ for tractor-power and traditional-manual operations, respectively. The tractorization intensity (TI) dropped from 0.352hp/ha in 1986 to 0.345hp/ha in 2004. This result was below the presently advocated 0.5hp/ha for agricultural operations in order to increase crop production. This study identified the causes of this shortfall and recommended, at least for the short-term future, that farm industrialization of all sectors should be subsidized. (author)

  16. The effect of gamma radiation on in vitro cultured explants of yam (Dioscorea alata L.) cv. Kinampay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various explants of yam were irradiated with gamma rays at doses ranging from 5-50 Gy. Induction of callus was obtained in tuberous root and other vegetative explants: petiole, node, internode and shoot apex. Callus induction was observed in the irradiated and unirradiated fleshy or tuberous root explants grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with benzyl adenine (BA) in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) ranging from 2-6 ppm. Stimulation of callus growth was obtained from tuberous root explants irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy and grown in MS medium supplemented with 2 ppm BA in combination with 6ppm NAA. Similar callus growth (as indicated by their weight) was observed at higher doses of 30 and 40 GY, provided that higher levels of 4 ppm BA and 6 ppm NAA were incorporated into the MS medium. Similarly, induction of callus was enhanced in tuberous root sections of putative mutant lines (for dwarfness and earliness) that were cultured in higher levels of BA and NAA in MS medium. Regeneration of plantlets was obtained from callus-derived shoot apex irradiated with 40 Gy and from calli-derived unirradiated nodal and tuberous root explants. (author). 40 refs.; 2 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Metabolite profiling of Dioscorea (yam) species reveals underutilised biodiversity and renewable sources for high-value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Elliott J; Wilkin, Paul; Sarasan, Viswambharan; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are a multispecies crop with production in over 50 countries generating ~50 MT of edible tubers annually. The long-term storage potential of these tubers is vital for food security in developing countries. Furthermore, many species are important sources of pharmaceutical precursors. Despite these attributes as staple food crops and sources of high-value chemicals, Dioscorea spp. remain largely neglected in comparison to other staple tuber crops of tropical agricultural systems such as cassava (Manihot esculenta) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To date, studies have focussed on the tubers or rhizomes of Dioscorea, neglecting the foliage as waste. In the present study metabolite profiling procedures, using GC-MS approaches, have been established to assess biochemical diversity across species. The robustness of the procedures was shown using material from the phylogenetic clades. The resultant data allowed separation of the genotypes into clades, species and morphological traits with a putative geographical origin. Additionally, we show the potential of foliage material as a renewable source of high-value compounds. PMID:27385275

  18. Study on the Cake with Yam and Jujube%山药红枣蛋糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师文添

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of cake was studied, The optimal formula and technology which were ascertained by orthogonal experiments were as follows: yam pasty 3.5 %, jujube pasty 1.8 %, egg 45 %, sucrose 30%, cake oil 3.0%, baking powder 0.6%, salt 0.8%, the time of whisking eggs is 20 min, the top temperature 160℃and bottom temperature 190℃were its best baking temperature, the best baking time was 15 min.%  对山药红枣蛋糕配方工艺进行了研究,经正交试验确定山药红枣蛋糕的最佳配方工艺为:山药泥3.5%,红枣泥1.8%,鸡蛋45%,蔗糖30%,蛋糕油3.0%,泡打粉0.6%,食盐0.8%,打蛋时间20 min,烘烤上火温度160℃,下火温度190℃,焙烤时间15 min。

  19. Assessment of a Flavone-Polysaccharide Based Prescription for Treating Duck Virus Hepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxu Du

    Full Text Available Because polysaccharide and flavone ingredients display good antiviral activity, we developed a flavone/polysaccharide-containing prescription that would be effective against duck viral hepatitis (DVH and investigated its hepatoprotective effects. Flavones were derived from Hypericum japonicum (HJF (entire herb of Hypericum japonicum Thunb and Salvia plebeia (SPF (entire herb of Salvia plebeia R. Br., and polysaccharides were derived from Radix Rehmanniae Recens (RRRP (dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. This prescription combination was based on the theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment in traditional Chinese veterinary medicine. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using the three single ingredients compared to the combined HRS prescription to determine their anti-duck hepatitis A viral (anti-DHAV activity. The results showed that all experimental conditions displayed anti-DHAV activity, but the HRS prescription presented the best effect. To further investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the HRS prescription on DHAV-induced hepatic injury, we tested the mortality rate, the hepatic pathological severity score, plasma biochemical indexes of hepatic function, blood DHAV gene expression levels and peroxidation damage evaluation indexes and then analyzed correlations among these indexes. The results demonstrated that the HRS prescription significantly decreased the mortality rate, reduced the severity of hepatic injury, decreased the hepatic pathological severity score, depressed blood DHAV gene expression levels, and returned the indexes of hepatic function and peroxidation almost to a normal level. These results indicate that the HRS prescription confers an outstanding hepatoprotective effect, and we expect that it will be developed into a new candidate anti-DHAV drug.

  20. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  1. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  2. Anticancer effects and mechanisms of polysaccharide-K (PSK): implications of cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Monte; Yang, Li-Xi

    2002-01-01

    Polysaccharide-K (polysaccharide-Kureha; PSK), also known as krestin, is a unique protein-bound polysaccharide, which has been used as a chemoimmunotherapy agent in the treatment of cancer in Asia for over 30 years. PSK and Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) are both protein-bound polysaccharides which are derived from the CM-101 and COV-1 strains of the fungus Coriolus versicolor by Japanese and Chinese researchers, respectively. Both polysaccharide preparations have documented anticancer activity in vitro, in vivo and in human clinical trials, though PSK has been researched longer and has therefore undergone more thorough laboratory, animal and clinical testing. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that PSK has great potential as an adjuvant cancer therapy agent, with positive results seen in the adjuvant treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as an immunotherapy or biological response modifier (BRM). BRMs potentially have the ability to improve the "host versus tumor response," thereby increasing the ability of the host to defend itself from tumor progression. The mechanisms of biological response modification by PSK have yet to be clearly and completely elucidated. Some studies suggest that PSK may act to increase leukocyte activation and response through up-regulation of key cytokines. Indeed, natural killer (NK) and lymphocyte-activated killer (LAK) cell activation has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, and recent genetic studies reveal increased expression of key immune cytokines in response to treatment with PSK. An antimetastatic action of PSK has also been demonstrated and is perhaps attributed to its potential to inhibit metalloproteinases and other enzymes involved in metastatic activity. PSK has also been shown to cause differentiation of leukemic cells in vitro, and this effect has been attributed to induction of differentiation cytokines. PSK has further been

  3. Structural characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of an acidic polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Hongjing; Cui, Zheng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Kai-Ping

    2016-08-20

    A water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from the roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, which is a traditional Chinese medicine herb, was fractioned and purified by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography. The structural characterization and antitumor activities of the purified polysaccharide fraction, named as ASP, were evaluated in the present study. ASP, which molecular weight was determined to be 80kDa by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography, is an acidic heteropolysaccharide consisting of glucuronic acid, glucose, arabinose and galactose in ratio of 1.00:1.70:1.85:5.02. It has a backbone composed of (1→3)-linked Galp, (1→6)-linked Galp and 2-OMe-(1→6)-linked Galp with three branches attached to O-3 of 2-OMe-(1→6)-linked Galp and terminated with GlcpA and Araf, and all of Araf and the majority of Glcp are distributed in branches. Moreover, all of GlcpA were presented as (1→)-linked GlcpA in branches. In in vitro antitumor assays, ASP displayed cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells (34.32±3.50% at the concentration of 1mg/mL) and MCF-7 cells (28.90±1.50% at the concentration of 1mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner, and ASP also showed mild inhibitory activity against A549 cells. PMID:27178946

  4. Ficus carica Polysaccharides Promote the Maturation and Function of Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Various polysaccharides purified from plants are considered to be biological response modifiers and have been shown to enhance immune responses. Ficus carica L. is a Chinese traditional plant and has been widely used in Asian countries for its anti-tumor properties. Ficus carica polysaccharides (FCPS, one of the most essential and effective components in Ficus carica L., have been considered to be a beneficial immunomodulator and may be used in immunotherapy. However, the immunologic mechanism of FCPS is still unclear. Dectin-1 is a non-toll-like pattern recognition receptor, predominately expressed on dendritic cells (DCs. Activation of DCs through dectin-1 signaling can lead to the maturation of DC, thus inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses against tumor development and microbial infection. In our study, we found that FCPS could effectively stimulate DCs, partially through the dectin-1/Syk pathway, and promote their maturation, as shown by the up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII. FCPS also enhanced the production of cytokines by DCs, including IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-23. Moreover, FCPS-treated DCs showed an enhanced capability to stimulate T cells and promote T cell proliferation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that FCPS are able to activate and maturate DCs, thereby up-regulating the immunostimulatory capacity of DCs, which leads to enhanced T cell responses.

  5. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  6. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  8. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  9. Primary structure and configuration of tea polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Peng; XIE Mingyong; NIE Shaoping; WANG Xiaoru

    2004-01-01

    The monosaccharide composition of a tea polysaccharide(TGC)was determined by GC-MS method.Furthermore,the primary structure of tea polysaccharide and its configuration in the aqueous solution were investigated utilizing a combination of classical chemical methods and modern instrumental techniques including GC-MS,Proton NMR,UV and CD.The results indicate that TGC consists of 6 monosaccharides: Rha,Ara,Xyl,Glu,Man and Gal.The configuration of TGC in water solution is proposed to be an ordered helix.The possible primary structure of TGC was outlined as below: the basic structure of the main chain consists of Rha,Glu and Gal units.All three monosaccharides can potentially be connected to branch chains consisting of mainly Ara,and the linkages could be in β1 →2,β1 →3,β2→3 forms.When branch chain is absent in the basic structure of the main chain the linkage consists of only β1→3; Xyl exists at the terminal end of either the main chain or the branch chain with β1 → linkage.

  10. Microanalysis of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolai Obel; Veronika Erben; Tatjana Schwarz; Stefan Kühne; Andrea Fodor; Markus Pauly

    2009-01-01

    Oligosaccharide Mass Profiling (OLIMP) allows a fast and sensitive assessment of cell wall polymer structure when coupled with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The short time required for sample preparation and analysis makes possible the study of a wide range of plant organs, revealing a high degree of heterogeneity in the substitution pattern of wall polymers such as the cross-linking glycan xyloglucan and the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan. The high sensitivity of MALDI-TOF allows the use of small amounts of samples, thus making it possible to investigate the wall structure of single cell types when material is collected by such methods as laser micro-dissection. As an example, the analysis of the xyloglucan structure in the leaf cell types outer epidermis layer, entire epidermis cell layer, palisade mesophyll cells, and vascular bundles were investigated. OLIMP is amenable to in situ wall analysis, where wall polymers are analyzed on unprepared plant tissue itself without first iso-lating cell walls. In addition, OLIMP enables analysis of wall polymers in Golgi-enriched fractions, the location of nascent matrix polysaccharide biosynthesis, enabling separation of the processes of wall biosynthesis versus post-deposition apo-plastic metabolism. These new tools will make possible a semi-quantitative analysis of the cell wall at an unprecedented level.

  11. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  12. SIFAT KIMIA DAN FISIK GULA CAIR DARI PATI UMBI GADUNG (Dioscorea hispida Dennts) [Chemical and Physical Properties of Liquid Sugar from Yam (Dioscorea hispida Dennts) Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Parwiyanti*; Filli Pratama; Renti Arnita

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine chemical and physical properties of liquid sugar made from yam starch (Dioscorea hispida Dennst) through enzymatic hydrolysis by using α-amylase. The experiment was designed as a Factorial Block Randomized Design with two factors and three replications. The first factor was concentrations of α-amylase (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%), and the second was the time course of enzymatic hydrolysis (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min). The liquid sugar was analyzed in ...

  13. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:25339289

  14. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:26627604

  15. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  16. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides. [US Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Holleman, J.W.

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  17. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  18. Cholesterol and fat lowering with hydrophobic polysaccharide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čopíková, Jana; Taubner, Tomáš; Tůma, Jan; Synytsya, Andriy; Dušková, Dagmar; Marounek, Milan

    2015-02-13

    Hydrophobic derivatives of highly methylated citrus pectin, chitosan and cellulose were prepared and tested as potential cholesterol lowering agents. Elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods confirmed high substitution degree for all of them. Substitution with long alkyl/acyl groups led to significant changes in physical and thermal properties of modified polysaccharides. Sorption of cholate and cholesterol by these polysaccharide-based sorbents was estimated in comparison with the synthetic drug cholestyramine. It was found that modified polysaccharides have high affinity to cholesterol. By contrast, cholestyramine was effective only in cholate sorption. PMID:25458291

  19. Antigenicity and protective effects of type 3 pneumococcal polysaccharide in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, G R; Worley, S E; Degener, C E; Clark, G M

    1980-01-01

    The response to type 3 pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination, the protective effect of type 3 pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination, and the ability of hemagglutinating antibody to type 3 pneumococcal polysaccharide to cross the blood-brain barrier were studied in rats. Hemagglutinating antibody response to vaccination with type 3 pneumococcal polysaccharide was found to be dependent on the dose and route of inoculation. Intraperitoneal vaccination with type 3 pneumococcal polysaccharide ...

  20. Immunological evaluation of meningococcal group C polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuvery, E C; van Delft, R W; Miedema, F; Kanhai, V; Nagel, J.

    1983-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis group C polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate was prepared to obtain the polysaccharide component in a thymus-dependent form and to preserve the immunogenic properties of the tetanus toxoid component. Biochemical and immunochemical analyses of this conjugate revealed that (i) it was composed of equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein; (ii) the antigenic activity of the polysaccharide component was greatly reduced; (iii) it contained about 10% free polysaccharide; ...

  1. Immunogenicity in animals of a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine against type III group B Streptococcus.

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, M R; Paoletti, L C; Kasper, D L; DiFabio, J L; Michon, F; Holme, K; Jennings, H J

    1990-01-01

    The native capsular polysaccharide of type III group B Streptococcus elicits a specific antibody response in only 60% of nonimmune human subjects. To enhance the immunogenicity of this polysaccharide, we coupled the type III polysaccharide to tetanus toxoid. Prior to coupling, aldehyde groups were introduced on the polysaccharide by controlled periodate oxidation, resulting in the conversion of 25% of the sialic acid residues of the polysaccharide to residues of the 8-carbon analogue of siali...

  2. Reconstitution of emulsifying activity of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD4 emulsan by using pure polysaccharide and protein.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kaplan; Zosim, Z; Rosenberg, E

    1987-01-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD4 and BD413 produce extracellular emulsifying agents when grown on 2% ethanol medium. For emulsifying activity, both polysaccharide and protein fractions were required, as demonstrated by selective digestion of the polysaccharide with a specific bacteriophage-borne polysaccharide depolymerase, deproteinization of the extracellular emulsifying complex with hot phenol, and reconstitution of emulsifier activity with pure polysaccharide and a polysaccharide-free prot...

  3. Structural Properties of Group B Streptococcal Type III Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccines That Influence Immunogenicity and Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, Michael R.; Paoletti, Lawrence C.; Guttormsen, Hilde-Kari; Michon, Francis; D’Ambra, Anello J.; Kasper, Dennis L.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines are influenced by three variables: (i) molecular size of the conjugate, (ii) molecular size of the polysaccharide used for conjugation, and (iii) extent of polysaccharide-to-protein cross-linking. Type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide was linked by reductive amination at multiple sites to tetanus toxoid to create a polysaccharide-protein conjuga...

  4. Nutraceutical functionalities of polysaccharides from marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byeong-Dae; Choi, Yeung Joon

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers are seeking functional materials from marine resources. These marine resources can be used as traditional food additives, and specifically, these are based on polysaccharides. To date, there is a big opportunity to develop new high-value added products with indispensable functional characteristics, which can be used in nutraceuticals either as additives or supplements. Also, a crossover in the pharmaceutical market may be established. Some glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mimetic-type molecules are already being utilized in the field of nutrition as well as in the cosmetics industry. This chemical is used as a dietary supplement to maintain the structure and function of cartilages, for the relief of pain caused by osteoarthritic joints, and can also be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. Recently, in relation to the prevalence of mad cow disease and avian influenza, the production of GAGs from marine invertebrates offers new market opportunities as compared with that obtained from bovine or avian livestock. PMID:22361178

  5. An Acidic Polysaccharide from Tribulus terrestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An aqucous acidic polysaccharide, named rhamnogalacturonan (designated as TTP-D2)was isolated from Tribulus terrestris L by means of DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular mass of TTP-D2 was estimated to be 26 KDa by gel filtration. TTP-D2 is composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, fucose, mannosc, xylose and glucose in a ratio of 71.4: 13.5: 5.6: 4.9: 3.1: 1.9: 1.9: 1.0. The main chain structure of TTP-D2 was elucidated as an acidic hetero-polysaccharidc with the connection of α-(l-4) galacturonic acid with α-(1-3) rhamnose by GC analysis of partially hydrolyzed products and the determination of 1H, 13C-NMR spectra.

  6. An Acidic Polysaccharide from Tribulus terrestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiShengCHEN; WingNangLEUNG; 等

    2002-01-01

    An aqueous acidic polysaccharide, named rhamnogalacturonan (designated as TIP-D2) was isolated from Tribulus terrestris L by means of DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular mass of TTP-D2 was estimated to be 26 KDa by gel filtration.TTP-D2 is composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose,fucose,mannose,xylose and glucose in a ratio of 71.4:13.5:5.6:4.9:3.1:1.9:1.9:1.0. The main chain structure of TTP-D2 was elucidated as an acidic hetero-polysaccaride with the connection of α-(1-4) galacturonic acid with α-(1-3) rhamnose by GC analysis of partially hydrolyzed products and determination of 1H,13C-NMR spectra.

  7. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  8. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  9. Antioxidant activities of five polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-quan; Ding, Shaodong; Fan, Liuping

    2012-06-01

    Five polysaccharides (IOP1b, IOP2a, IOP2c, IOP3a and IOP4) were isolated and purified from Inonotus obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow and SepharoseCL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay. The results showed that five polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities, and the higher content of uronic acid and proteinous substances, the stronger antioxidant activities of polysaccharides. Besides, molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. IOP3a and IOP4 showed higher antioxidant properties than IOP1b, IOP2a and IOP2c. PMID:22484729

  10. Synbiotic matrices derived from plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    A porous synbiotic matrix was prepared by lyophilization of alginate and pectin or fructan oligosaccharides and polysaccharides cross-linked with calcium. These synbiotic matrices were excellent physical structures to support the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (1426) and Lactobacillus reuteri (...

  11. Cholesterol and fat lowering with hydrophobic polysaccharide derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čopíková, J.; Taubner, T.; Tůma, J.; Synytsya, A.; Dušková, Dagmar; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2015), s. 207-214. ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hydrophobically modified polysaccharides * structure * thermal analysis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.074, year: 2014

  12. Anti-diabetic polysaccharides from natural sources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, Shan; Yang, Bing-You; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease attracted worldwide concerns, which severely impairs peoples' quality of life and is attributed to several life-threatening complications, including atherosclerosis, nephropathy and retinopathy. The current therapies for DM include mainly oral anti-diabetic drugs and insulin. However, continuous use of these causes insulin resistance and side-effects, and the demand of effective, nontoxic and affordable drugs for DM patients is eager. Several previous studies have shown that non-toxic biological macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides, possess prominent efficacies on DM. Based on these encouraging observations, a great deal of efforts have been focused on discovering anti-diabetic polysaccharides for the development of effective therapeutics for DM. This review focuses on the advancements in the anti-diabetic efficacy of various natural polysaccharides and polysaccharide complexes from 2010 to 2015. PMID:27185119

  13. Radiation-chemical degradation of cellulose and other polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of studies on the radiation-chemical transformations of cellulose, its ethers, and some other polysaccharides (xylan, starch, dextran, chitin, chitosan, and heparin) are discussed. Ionising radiation causes the degradation of these compounds accompanied by decomposition of the pyranose ring and formation of compounds with carbonyl and carboxy groups, as well as formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The efficiency of degradation increases considerably with temperature and depends on the structure of the polysaccharide and the nature of its substituents. A mechanism of the radiation-chemical transformations of cellulose and other polysaccharides is suggested. The prospects of using radiation-chemical methods for processing of cellulose and other polysaccharides in industry and agriculture are considered. The bibliography includes 213 references.

  14. Impact of a pectic polysaccharide on oenin copigmentation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Brás, Natércia F; Oliveira, Joana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2016-10-15

    Copigmentation plays an important role in the colors provided by anthocyanins. However, little attention has been paid to the interaction between anthocyanins and cell wall compounds (e.g. polysaccharides) and the impact of this interaction on anthocyanins color, a fundamental issue to be considered in industrial applications of these pigments as food colorants. The copigmentation binding constants (KCP) for the interaction between malvidin-3-O-glucoside and (+)-catechin in the presence of low methoxylated pectic polysaccharide were determined. The values obtained showed that in the presence of pectic polysaccharide the copigmentation binding constants decreased. These results probably suggest the occurrence of competition equilibrium in which the presence of pectin limited the association between catechin and oenin. (1)H NMR studies revealed that the dissociation constant determined for these complexes was very similar in absence and presence of 1.5g/L pectin with this polysaccharide apparently not affecting the strength of anthocyanin-catechin binding. PMID:27173529

  15. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-polysaccharide-like polysaccharide promotes osteoclast-like cell formation by interleukin-1 alpha production in mouse marrow cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishihara, T.; Ueda, N; Amano, K; Ishihara, Y; Hayakawa, H.; Kuroyanagi, T; Ohsaki, Y; Nagata, K.; Noguchi, T

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of osteoclast-like cell formation induced by periodontopathic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) capsular-polysaccharide-like polysaccharide (capsular-like polysaccharide) was examined in a mouse bone marrow culture system. When mouse bone marrow cells were cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide for 9 days, many multinucleated cells were formed. The multinucleated cells showed several characteristics of osteoclasts, inc...

  16. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  17. Heterologous Expression of the Pneumococcal Serotype 14 Polysaccharide in Lactococcus lactis Requires Lactococcal epsABC Regulatory Genes▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Nierop Groot, M.N.; Godefrooij, J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2007-01-01

    The pneumococcal serotype 14 polysaccharide was produced in Lactococcus lactis by coexpressing pneumococcal polysaccharide type 14-specific genes (cpsFGHIJKL(14)) with the lactococcal regulatory and priming glucosyltransferase-encoding genes specific for B40 polysaccharide (epsABCD(B40)). The polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus was secreted in the medium, simplifying downstream processing and polysaccharide isolation from culture broth

  18. Pectin, a versatile polysaccharide present in plant cell walls

    OpenAIRE

    Voragen, A.G.J.; Coenen, G.J.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pectin or pectic substances are collective names for a group of closely associated polysaccharides present in plant cell walls where they contribute to complex physiological processes like cell growth and cell differentiation and so determine the integrity and rigidity of plant tissue. They also play an important role in the defence mechanisms against plant pathogens and wounding. As constituents of plant cell walls and due to their anionic nature, pectic polysaccharides are considered to be ...

  19. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  20. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides at carbon electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 15 (2009), s. 1763-1766. ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * Os(VI)L-polysaccharide adducts * pyrolytic graphite electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2009

  1. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Mediesse Kengne Francine; Woguia Alice Louise; Fogue Souopgui Pythagore; Atogho-Tiedeu Barbara; Simo Gustave; Thaddée Boudjeko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH) and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH) were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on thei...

  2. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides in bilberries and black currants

    OpenAIRE

    Hilz, H

    2007-01-01

    During berry juice production, polysaccharides are released from the cell walls and cause thickening and high viscosity when the berries are mashed. Consequences are a low juice yield and a poor colour. This can be prevented by the use of enzymes that degrade these polysaccharides. To use these enzymes most efficiently, the structure and composition of the cell walls had to be known. This thesis describes a detailed composition of the cell walls of bilberries and black currants. The obtained ...

  3. Effect of Nitrogen on Polysaccharide Production in a Porphyridium sp

    OpenAIRE

    Arad, Shoshana (Malis); Friedman, Orit (Dahan); Rotem, Avi

    1988-01-01

    Porphyridium cultures grown on either nitrate or ammonium as the nitrogen source showed similar patterns of growth and cell wall polysaccharide production. The effect of nitrogen on growth and cell wall polysaccharide production was studied by applying three regimens of supply: batch mode, in which nitrate was supplied at the beginning of the experiment and became depleted at day 6; continual mode, in which nitrate was added daily; and deficient mode, in which the cells were cultured in a nit...

  4. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. PMID:27383198

  5. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Yuan Deng; Yang Yi; Li-Fang Zhang; Rui-Fen Zhang; Yan Zhang; Zhen-Cheng Wei; Xiao-Jun Tang; Ming-Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP) fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and M...

  6. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α or β glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, anti oxidation, anti aging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  7. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α- or β-glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, antioxidation, antiaging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  8. Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P

    2009-04-01

    From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup. PMID:19150368

  9. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kwang Won [Chungju University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  10. Correlation Between Chain Architecture and Hydration Water Structure in Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossutti, Michael; Dutcher, John R

    2016-03-14

    The physical properties of confined water can differ dramatically from those of bulk water. Hydration water associated with polysaccharides provides a particularly interesting example of confined water, because differences in polysaccharide structure provide different spatially confined environments for water sorption. We have used attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate the structure of hydration water in films of three different polysaccharides under controlled relative humidity (RH) conditions. We compare the results obtained for films of highly branched, dendrimer-like phytoglycogen nanoparticles to those obtained for two unbranched polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid (HA), and chitosan. We find similarities between the water structuring in the two linear polysaccharides and significant differences for phytoglycogen. In particular, the results suggest that the high degree of branching in phytoglycogen leads to a much more well-ordered water structure (low density, high connectivity network water), indicating the strong influence of chain architecture on the structuring of water. These measurements provide unique insight into the relationship between the structure and hydration of polysaccharides, which is important for understanding and exploiting these sustainable nanomaterials in a wide range of applications. PMID:26859153

  11. Phosphorylation of psyllium seed polysaccharide and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Monica R P; Warrier, Deepa U; Gaikwad, Snehal R; Shevate, Prachi M

    2016-04-01

    Psyllium is widely used as a medicinally active natural polysaccharide for treating conditions like constipation, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Studies have been performed to characterize and modify the polysaccharide obtained from psyllium seed husk and to evaluate its use as a pharmaceutical excipient, but no studies have been performed to evaluate the properties of the polysaccharide present in psyllium seeds. The present study focuses on phosphorylation of psyllium seed polysaccharide (PPS) using sodium tri-meta phosphate as the cross-linking agent. The modified phosphorylated psyllium seed polysaccharide was then evaluated for physicochemical properties, rheological properties, spectral analysis, thermal analysis, crosslinking density and acute oral toxicity studies. The modified polysaccharide (PhPPS) has a high swelling index due to which it can be categorized as a hydrogel. The percent increase in swelling of PhPPS as compared to PPS was found to be 90.26%. The PPS & PhPPS mucilages of all strengths were found to have shear thinning properties. These findings are suggestive of the potential use of PhPPS as gelling & suspending agent. PhPPS was found to have a mucoadhesive property which was comparable with carbopol. PMID:26769088

  12. Correlation Between Chain Architecture and Hydration Water Structure in Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossutti, Michael; Dutcher, John

    The physical properties of confined water can differ dramatically from those of bulk water. Hydration water associated with polysaccharides provides a particularly important example of confined water, with differences in polysaccharide structure providing different spatially confined environments for water adsorption. We have used attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate the structure of hydration water in films of three different polysaccharides under controlled relative humidity (RH) conditions. We compare the results obtained for films of highly branched, monodisperse phytoglycogen nanoparticles to those obtained for two unbranched polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitosan. We find similarities between water structuring in the two linear polysaccharides, and significant differences for phytoglycogen. In particular, the phytoglycogen nanoparticles exhibited high network water connectivity, and a large increase in the fraction of multimer water clusters with increasing RH, whereas the water structure for HA and chitosan was found to be insensitive to changes in RH. These measurements provide unique insight into the relationship between the chain architecture and hydration of polysaccharides.

  13. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  14. Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laurienzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  15. Research advances on the anti-aging profile of Fructus lycii: An ancient Chinese herbal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, SCW; Chang, RCC; Zhang, KY; Tong, Y; Song, J.; Wong, RNS

    2008-01-01

    Fructus lycii is a common Chinese herbal medicine used in China for nearly 2000 years. It has beneficial effects on eyes, liver and kidneys; and it has long been considered to be an anti-aging herb in ancient Chinese medicine. Modern studies have partially probed the magic anti-aging property of F. lycii. The beneficial effects of F. lycii on aging are largely attributed to its bioactive components such as polysaccharides, carotenoids and flavonoids. This review focuses on the anti-aging aspe...

  16. Detection of polysaccharide antigens of Candida albicans interfering with specific antibodies in human sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double antibody sandwich radioimmunoassay was developed for the detection of circulating polysaccharide antigens of Candida albicans. The sensitivity of the assay for polysaccharides was 1 ng/mL. The in-vitro interference of specific polysaccharide antibodies, even from sera with low antibody levels, could be demonstrated. The sensitivity of the antigen detection decreased proportionally to the amount of polysaccharide antibodies in the sera. The sensitivity of the assay was almost completely restored by heating the sera. This procedure destroyed antibodies and the released polysaccharide antigens were detectable in the test system by using radiolabelled anti-polysaccharide antibodies. (author)

  17. Serological characterization of Streptococcus mutans serotype polysaccharide g and its different molecular weight forms.

    OpenAIRE

    Takada, K; Wyszomirska, J; Shiota, T

    1984-01-01

    The serotype polysaccharide g from Streptococcus mutans 6715 was found to cross-react with serotype polysaccharide a from S. mutans HS6 and serotype polysaccharide d from S. mutans B13. Double immunodiffusion experiments indicated that the serotype polysaccharide g consisted of the following: (i) the type-specific g site; (ii) a cross-reactive site g-a that was in common with polysaccharide a; (iii) a cross-reactive site g-d that was in common with polysaccharide d; and (iv) a cross-reactive ...

  18. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediesse Kengne Francine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on their ability to scavenge DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical, to reduce ferric power, to chelate ferrous ion and to protect human DNA. Results: The results indicated that protein content was found to be higher in FPK polysaccharide enriched fraction (47.48 µg per mg of FPK. Furthermore, the phenolic compound analysis according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method was higher in FPK (17.71 µg ferulic acid. The DPPH maximal inhibition percentage of the three polysaccharide-enriched fractions at 400 µg/mL was 27.66%, 59.90% and 23.21% respectively for FPE, FPK and FH. All the polysaccharide fractions exhibited a ferric reducing power except the FH one. The three fractions also exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibition, and they completely reverted the DNA damage induced by H2O2/FeCl2. FPK showed the strongest scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, the best chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Conclusions: Stevia cell wall polysaccharide fractions are potent protective agents against oxidative stress. The analysis revealed major differences in the antioxidant activity in the three polysaccharides fractions. However, the 0.05 mol/L KOH pectin fraction (FPK showed better antioxidant activity.

  19. The Anti-Oxidant and Antitumor Properties of Plant Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Rui; Liu, Yingxia; Gao, Hao; Xiao, Jia; So, Kwok Fai

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been increasingly recognized as a major contributing factor in a variety of human diseases, from inflammation to cancer. Although certain parts of signaling pathways are still under investigation, detailed molecular mechanisms for the induction of diseases have been elucidated, especially the link between excessive oxygen reactive species (ROS) damage and tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence suggests anti-oxidant therapy can play a key role in treating those diseases. Among potential drug resources, plant polysaccharides are natural anti-oxidant constituents important for human health because of their long history in ethnopharmacology, wide availability and few side effects upon consumption. Plant polysaccharides have been shown to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, cell viability promotion, immune-regulation and antitumor functions in a number of disease models, both in laboratory studies and in the clinic. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of signaling pathways involved in the initiation and progression of oxidative stress- and cancer-related diseases in humans. The natural sources, structural properties and biological actions of several common plant polysaccharides, including Lycium barbarum, Ginseng, Zizyphus Jujuba, Astragalus lentiginosus, and Ginkgo biloba are discussed in detail, with emphasis on their signaling pathways. All of the mentioned common plant polysaccharides have great potential to treat oxidative stress and cancinogenic disorders in cell models, animal disease models and clinical cases. ROS-centered pathways (e.g. mitochondrial autophagy, MAPK and JNK) and transcription factor-related pathways (e.g. NF-[Formula: see text]B and HIF) are frequently utilized by these polysaccharides with or without the further involvement of inflammatory and death receptor pathways. Some of the polysaccharides may also influence tumorigenic pathways, such as Wnt and p53 to play their anti-tumor roles. In addition, current

  20. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mediesse Kengne Francine; Woguia Alice Louise; Fogue Souopgui Pythagore; Atogho-Tiedeu Barbara; Simo Gustave; Thadde Boudjeko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves.Methods:L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH) and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH) were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on their ability to scavenge DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical, to reduce ferric power, to chelate ferrous ion and to protect human DNA. Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/Results: The results indicated that protein content was found to be higher in FPK polysaccharide enriched fraction (47.48 µg per mg of FPK). Furthermore, the phenolic compound analysis according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method was higher in FPK (17.71 µg ferulic acid). The DPPH maximal inhibition percentage of the three polysaccharide-enriched fractions at 400 µg/mL was 27.66%, 59.90% and 23.21% respectively for FPE, FPK and FH. All the polysaccharide fractions exhibited a ferric reducing power except the FH one. The three fractions also exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibition, and they completely reverted the DNA damage induced by H2O2/FeCl2. FPK showed the strongest scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, the best chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition.Conclusions: Stevia cell wall polysaccharide fractions are potent protective agents against oxidative stress. The analysis revealed major differences in the antioxidant activity in the three polysaccharides fractions. However, the 0.05 mol/L KOH pectin fraction (FPK) showed better antioxidant activity.

  1. 河南惠楼山药种植区土壤和山药重金属质量比及健康风险研究%Heavy metal concentrations in the soil and health risk estimation via ingesting yam in Huilou yam-growing area, Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建华; 杜平; 王晓云

    2011-01-01

    在河南省惠楼山药种植区采集土壤和山药样品各14份,用AAS法测定土壤和山药重金属质量比,用US EPA健康风险评价模型对膳食山药所致的重金属健康风险进行了研究.结果表明,种植区土壤重金属均没有发生污染.山药中Pb、Cu、Zn、Ni、Cr和Co的平均质量比分别为1.15 mg·kg-1、4.60 mg· kg-1、15.68 mg· kg-1、1.97mg· kg-1、0.14 mg·kg-1和2.94 mg·kg-1,其中Pb和Ni质量比略有超标.山药对土壤重金属的富集系数从大到小依次为Cu、Zn、Co、Pb、Ni、Cr.各个重金属的THQ和各样点的HI均远小于l,不存在非致癌健康危害.Pb和Ni的CR值分别为10-6和10-4数量级,致癌风险不明显;而Co和Cr的CR值在10-3数量级,存在明显的致癌风险;Co对TCR的平均贡献率为79.01%,是最主要的致癌重金属.%The paper takes it as its aim to present a report on the analysis of heavy metal concentrations in the soils and health-threatening risk estimation via ingesting yam in Huilou yam-growing area, Yucheng County, Henan. For our research purpose, we have collected 14 surface soil and yam samples in the area and measured the heavy metal concentrations in the soils and yam by way of F-AAS testing. The results of our study show that the mean concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Co in the soils are 13.38 mg·kg-1, 19.27 mg·kg-1 72.65 mg·kg-1 36.93 mg·kg-1, 32.10 mg·kg-1, 27.39 mg · kg -1 respectively, and the mean concentrations in yam are 1.15 mg·kg-1, 4.60 mg·kg-1, 15.68 mg·kg-1, 1.97 mg·kg-1 0.14 mg · kg -1, 2.94 mg· kg -1 correspondingly. The above testing and analysis results indicate that heavy metal concentrations in the soils turn to be much lower than the limits stipulated of the state standard in HJ 332-2006 and the state standard in GB 15618-1995. To be exact, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cr and Co in the yam are much lower than the up-limits in GB 2762-2005 of China, but that of Pb and Ni are higher than the limits to

  2. Almacenamiento de Trozos de Ñame (Dioscorea rotundata Poir en Atmósferas Modificadas Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Chunks Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las condiciones de conservación de trozos de ñame en empaques de películas poliméricas, bajo condiciones de atmósfera modificada. Se determina la tasa de respiración de trozos de ñame a temperatura de refrigeración (5 ± 1°C y temperatura ambiente (27 ± 1°C y se evalúan diferentes películas plásticas con atmosfera modificada. La tasa de respiración a temperatura de refrigeración fue de 2.9 ± 0.9 mlCO2/Kg-h (gráficamente y 3.2 ± 1.0 mlC0(2/Kg-h (analíticamente, y a temperatura ambiente de 20.1 ± 0.8 mlCO2/Kg-h (gráficamente y 22.4 ± 0.9 mlC0(2/Kg-h (analíticamente. El empacado en atmósfera modificada de los trozos de ñame mínimamente procesado, no resulta una buena alternativa, debido a que las condiciones de calidad del producto se ven afectadas, presentando un tiempo de vida útil corto entre 6-10 días.In this work storage conditions of chunks yam packed in polymer films with modified atmosphere are analyzed. Respiration rate of chunks yam at refrigeration temperature (5 ± 1°C and room temperature (27 ± 1°C and different films with modified atmosphere were evaluated. Respiration rate at refrigeration temperature was 2.9 ± 0.9 mlC0(2/Kg-h (graphically and 3.2 ± 1.0 mlC0(2/Kg-h (analytically, and room temperature of 20.1 ± 0.8 mlCO2/Kg-h (graphically and 22.4 ± 0.9 mlC0(2/Kg-h (analytically. Modified atmosphere packaging of minimally processed chunks yam is not a good alternative. This because the product quality is affected, with shelf life between 6 and10 days.

  3. Toll-like receptor 4-related immunostimulatory polysaccharides: Primary structure, activity relationships, and possible interaction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorui; Qi, Chunhui; Guo, Yan; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2016-09-20

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is an important polysaccharide receptor; however, the relationships between the structures and biological activities of TLR4 and polysaccharides remain unknown. Many recent findings have revealed the primary structure of TLR4/MD-2-related polysaccharides, and several three-dimensional structure models of polysaccharide-binding proteins have been reported; and these models provide insights into the mechanisms through which polysaccharides interact with TLR4. In this review, we first discuss the origins of polysaccharides related to TLR4, including polysaccharides from higher plants, fungi, bacteria, algae, and animals. We then briefly describe the glucosidic bond types of TLR4-related heteroglycans and homoglycans and describe the typical molecular weights of TLR4-related polysaccharides. The primary structures and activity relationships of polysaccharides with TLR4/MD-2 are also discussed. Finally, based on the existing interaction models of LPS with TLR4/MD-2 and linear polysaccharides with proteins, we provide insights into the possible interaction models of polysaccharide ligands with TLR4/MD-2. To our knowledge, this review is the first to summarize the primary structures and activity relationships of TLR4-related polysaccharides and the possible mechanisms of interaction for TLR4 and TLR4-related polysaccharides. PMID:27261743

  4. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fang Yang1*, Quanming Tang1,2*, Xueyun Zhong3, Yan Bai1, Tianfeng Chen1, Yibo Zhang1, Yinghua Li1, Wenjie Zheng11Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; 2South China Seas Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; 3Department of Pathology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs with Spirulina polysaccharides (SPS has been developed in the present study. The cellular uptake and anticancer activity of SPS-SeNPs were also evaluated. Monodisperse and homogeneous spherical SPS-SeNPs with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 50 nm were achieved under optimized conditions, which were stable in the solution phase for at least 3 months. SPS surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of SeNPs toward several human cancer cell lines. A375 human melanoma cells were found extremely susceptible to SPS-SeNPs with half maximal (50% inhibitory concentration value of 7.94 µM. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that SPS-SeNPs inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in sub-G1 cell population, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and phosphatidylserine translocation. Results suggest that the strategy to use SPS as a surface decorator could be an effective way to enhance the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. SPS-SeNPs may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against human cancers.Keywords: selenium nanoparticles, Spirulina polysaccharide, cellular uptake, anticancer, apoptosis

  5. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  6. Hot-compressed water extraction of polysaccharides from soy hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Fei-Yun; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The polysaccharides of soy hulls were extracted by hot-compressed water at temperatures of 110 from 180°C and various treatment times (10-150min) in a batch system. It was determined that a moderate temperature and short time are suitable for the preparation of polysaccharides. The structure of xylan and the inter- and intra-chain hydrogen bonding of cellulose fibrils in the soy hulls were not significantly broken down. The polysaccharides obtained were primarily composed of α-L-arabinofuranosyl units, 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid units and α-D-galactose units attached with substituted units. A sugar analysis indicated that arabinose was the major component, constituting 35.6-46.9% of the polysaccharide products extracted at 130°C, 140°C, and 150°C. This investigation contributes to the knowledge of the polysaccharides of soy by-products, which can reduce the environmental impact of waste from the food industries. PMID:26920272

  7. The Application of Polysaccharide Biocomposites to Repair Cartilage Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to own nature of articular cartilage, it almost has no self-healing ability once damaged. Despite lots of restore technologies having been raised in the past decades, no repair technology has smoothly substituted for damaged cartilage using regenerated cartilage tissue. The approach of tissue engineering opens a door to successfully repairing articular cartilage defects. For instance, grafting of isolated chondrocytes has huge clinical potential for restoration of cartilage tissue and cure of chondral injury. In this paper, SD rats are used as subjects in the experiments, and they are classified into three groups: natural repair (group A, hyaluronic acid repair (group B, and polysaccharide biocomposites repair (hyaluronic acid hydrogel containing chondrocytes, group C. Through the observation of effects of repairing articular cartilage defects, we concluded that cartilage repair effect of polysaccharide biocomposites was the best at every time point, and then the second best was hyaluronic acid repair; both of them were better than natural repair. Polysaccharide biocomposites have good biodegradability and high histocompatibility and promote chondrocytes survival, reproduction, and spliting. Moreover, polysaccharide biocomposites could not only provide the porous network structure but also carry chondrocytes. Consequently hyaluronic acid-based polysaccharide biocomposites are considered to be an ideal biological material for repairing articular cartilage.

  8. Marine Polysaccharide Networks and Diatoms at the Nanometric Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Mišić Radić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite many advances in research on photosynthetic carbon fixation in marine diatoms, the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of extracellular polysaccharide production remain significant challenges to be resolved at the molecular scale in order to proceed toward an understanding of their functions at the cellular level, as well as their interactions and fate in the ocean. This review covers studies of diatom extracellular polysaccharides using atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging and the quantification of physical forces. Following a brief summary of the basic principle of the AFM experiment and the first AFM studies of diatom extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, we focus on the detection of supramolecular structures in polysaccharide systems produced by marine diatoms. Extracellular polysaccharide fibrils, attached to the diatom cell wall or released into the surrounding seawater, form distinct supramolecular assemblies best described as gel networks. AFM makes characterization of the diatom polysaccharide networks at the micro and nanometric scales and a clear distinction between the self-assembly and self-organization of these complex systems in marine environments possible.

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES FROM CALAMAGROSTIS ANGUSTIFOLIA KOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Fei Cao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential treatments of dewaxed Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom with water (60 ºC and 90 ºC, 70% ethanol, and 70% ethanol containing 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% NaOH at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g/mL at 80 ºC for 3 h yielded 36.2% soluble polysaccharides of the dry dewaxed material. The eight polysaccharide fractions obtained were comparatively studied by sugar analysis, GPC, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR (HSQC spectroscopy. The results showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides might contain noticeable amounts of β-D-glucan, as well as some pectic substances and galactoarabinoxylan. 70% ethanol-soluble polysaccharide was mainly arabinogalactan. The five alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were mainly galactoarabinoxylans. The Ara/Xyl and Ara/Gal values of H5-H8 fractions decreased with the increment of NaOH concentration from 1.0% to 8.0%. Meanwhile, the molecular weights had a declining trend from ~60,000 to ~40,000 g/mol. The smaller sized and more branched polysaccharides tended to be extracted in the early stages under milder conditions, and the larger molecular sized and more linear hemicelluloses tended to be isolated under more highly alkaline conditions.

  10. Microcalorimetry studies on the antibacterial effect of crude monkshood polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gui-mei; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, crude monkshood polysaccharide was isolated from Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata. The effects of crude monkshood polysaccharide on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves of the bacterial growth at various concentrations (c) of crude monkshood polysaccharide were plotted with a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter at 37 °C. The growth rate constant (μ), inhibitory ratio (I), peak-height (P(m)), and peak-time (t(m)) were calculated. From the data, the relationship between μ and c also was established. The growth rate constant μ decreased with the increasing concentrations of crude monkshood polysaccharide. Moreover, P(m) reduced and t(m) increased with increasing concentrations. The experimental results revealed that crude monkshood polysaccharide had inhibitory activity towards S. aureus and E. coli. Results obtained from our study strongly suggest that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple, and more sensitive technology that can be easily performed to study the effect of drugs on bacteria. PMID:21726063

  11. Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-na ZHANG; Zhi-bin LIN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in the normal fasted mice and its possible mechanism. METHODS: Normal fasted mice were given a single dose of Gl-PS 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg by ip and the serum glucose was measured at 0, 3, and 6 h after administration. Gl-PS 1 00 mg/kg were also given by ip and the serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, and 12 h.Pancreatic islets were isolated and incubated with glucose 5.6 mmol/L and different concentration of Gl-PS, the insulin content of islets and insulin release were examined. The islets fluorescent intensity of [Ca2+]i was also studied with a confocal microscope. Verapamil and egtazic acid were used to testify whether the insulin-releasing effect of Gl-PS was mediated by its ability to raise the Ca2+ influx. RESULTS: Gl-PS dose-dependently lowered the serum glucose levels at 3 h and 6 h after administration. Gl-PS 100 mg/kg raised the circulating insulin levels at 1 h after administration. In vitro, Gl-PS had no effect on islets insulin content, but it stimulated the insulin release after incubation with glucose 5.6 mmol/L. Confocal microscope showed that Gl-PS 100 mg/L had the capacity to raise the [Ca2+] i. The insulin-releasing effect of Gl-PS was inhibited by verapamil/egtazic acid. CONCLUSION:Gl-PS possesses the hypoglycemic effect on normal mice; one mechanism is through its insulin-releasing activity due to a facilitation of Ca2+ inflow to the pancreatic β cells.

  12. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  13. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  14. White light generation from YAG/YAM:Ce3+, Pr3+, Cr3+ nanophosphors mixed with a blue dye under 340 nm excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and luminescent properties of Y3Al5O12/Y4Al2O9:Ce3+(0.1%)–Pr3+(0.1%) –Cr3+ (trace impurities) nanophosphors synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method were studied. The crystalline phase was composed of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) and Yttrium Aluminum Monoclinic (YAM) depending on the ammonia concentration and annealing temperature. Ammonia increased the stabilization of YAG from 55 wt% to 63 wt% in the samples annealed at 900 °C, and an increment of 83% of the overall emission under 460 nm excitation was observed. Quenching of the emitted signal after annealing at 1100 °C was observed in spite of single YAG crystalline phase stabilization, due to the formation of Ce4+, Pr4+, and color centers. In addition to the green–yellow emission from Ce3+, all samples present a broad red emission band produced by the relaxations from the broad band 4T2 toward the 4A2 energy level of Cr3+ impurities, under 340 nm excitation. By taking advantage of this broad green–yellow–red emission and using a blue dye, white light with CIE coordinates of (0.30, 0.36) under 340 nm excitation was produced. - Highlights: • YAG/YAM:Ce3+, Pr3+, Cr3+ nanophosphors were synthesized with a hydrothermal method. • Ammonia introduced during the synthesis increased the emission of nanophosphors. • White light was obtained by combining the emissions of a blue dye and nanophosphors. • The CIE coordinates for this white light are (0.30, 0.36)

  15. White light generation from YAG/YAM:Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} nanophosphors mixed with a blue dye under 340 nm excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); De la Rosa, E., E-mail: elder@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); Torres, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, A.P. 126-F, Monterrey, NL 66450, México (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. 76000, México (Mexico); Meza, O. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104 Centro Historico, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The structural and luminescent properties of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Ce{sup 3+}(0.1%)–Pr{sup 3+}(0.1%) –Cr{sup 3+} (trace impurities) nanophosphors synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method were studied. The crystalline phase was composed of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) and Yttrium Aluminum Monoclinic (YAM) depending on the ammonia concentration and annealing temperature. Ammonia increased the stabilization of YAG from 55 wt% to 63 wt% in the samples annealed at 900 °C, and an increment of 83% of the overall emission under 460 nm excitation was observed. Quenching of the emitted signal after annealing at 1100 °C was observed in spite of single YAG crystalline phase stabilization, due to the formation of Ce{sup 4+}, Pr{sup 4+}, and color centers. In addition to the green–yellow emission from Ce{sup 3+}, all samples present a broad red emission band produced by the relaxations from the broad band {sup 4}T{sub 2} toward the {sup 4}A{sub 2} energy level of Cr{sup 3+} impurities, under 340 nm excitation. By taking advantage of this broad green–yellow–red emission and using a blue dye, white light with CIE coordinates of (0.30, 0.36) under 340 nm excitation was produced. - Highlights: • YAG/YAM:Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} nanophosphors were synthesized with a hydrothermal method. • Ammonia introduced during the synthesis increased the emission of nanophosphors. • White light was obtained by combining the emissions of a blue dye and nanophosphors. • The CIE coordinates for this white light are (0.30, 0.36)

  16. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580185 (Korea, Republic of); Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608737 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju 660759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Jin [Division of Food Engineering and Nutrition, Daegu University, Daegu 712714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gwang Hoon [Department of Biology, Kongju National University, Chungnam 314701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  17. Group B Streptococcus type II polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti, L C; Wessels, M R; Michon, F; DiFabio, J; Jennings, H J; Kasper, D L

    1992-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the most common cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in neonates in the United States. Although the capsular polysaccharide of GBS is an important virulence factor, it is variably immunogenic in humans. In this report, we have increased the immunogenicity of GBS type II polysaccharide by coupling it to tetanus toxoid (TT). Like other GBS capsular polysaccharides, the type II polysaccharide has side chains terminating in sialic acid. Controlled periodate oxid...

  18. Characterization of serological cross-reactivity between polysaccharide antigens of Streptococcus mutans serotypes c and d.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi, S.; Prakobphol, A; Linzer, R; Campbell, L K; Knox, K W

    1983-01-01

    Immunological assays with antisera prepared against purified Streptococcus mutans serotype c polysaccharide demonstrated that a cross-reacting determinant on c polysaccharide reacted with the wall-associated rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide from S. mutans serotype d. Studies with 60 antisera prepared against chemostat cultures of S. mutans Ingbritt (c) demonstrated that the rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide cross-reactive determinant was consistently expressed on c antigen under a variety of gro...

  19. The Potential of Brittle Star Extracted Polysaccharide in Promoting Apoptosis via Intrinsic Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anti-cancer potential of marine natural products such as polysaccharides represented therapeutic potential in oncological researches. In this study, total polysaccharide from brittle star [Ophiocoma erinaceus (O. erinaceus)] was extracted and chemopreventive efficacy of Persian Gulf brittle star polysaccharide was investigated in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Methods: To extract polysaccharide, dried brittle stars were ground and extracted mechanically. Then, detection of poly...

  20. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  1. The Selenylation Modification of Epimedium Polysaccharide and Isatis Root Polysaccharide and the Immune-enhancing Activity Comparison of Their Modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Liu, Jie; Gao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Jin; Lu, Yu; Wang, Deyun; Liu, Cui; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-05-01

    Epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) and isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS) were extracted, purified, and selenizingly modified by nitric acid-sodium selenite method to obtain nine selenizing EPSs (sEPSs), sEPS1-sEPS9 and nine selenizing IRPSs (sIRPSs), sIRPS1-sIRPS9, respectively. Their effects on chicken peripheral lymphocyte proliferation in vitro were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that selenium polysaccharides at appropriate concentration could promote lymphocyte proliferation more significantly than unmodified polysaccharides, sEPS5 and sIRPS5 with stronger actions were picked out and injected into the chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine in vivo tests. The peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer were determined. The results showed that sEPS5 and sIRPS5 could elevate serum antibody titer and promote lymphocyte proliferation more significantly than unmodified polysaccharides, sEPS5 possessed the strongest efficacy. These results indicate that selenylation modification can significantly enhance the immune-enhancing activity of EPS and IRPS, and sEPS5 can be as a new-type immunopotentiator of chickens. PMID:26432450

  2. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review. PMID:23344113

  3. Optimization of enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chunhua; Tian Zhenle; Zhang Chenju; Yu Xiaobing; Zheng Huihua

    2014-01-01

    In the present work,an enzyme assisted extraction method is used to isolate crude polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. The isolating effect was optimized with orthographic graph statistic method with three levels and four independent variables. Complex enzyme,extraction temperature,extraction time and ex-traction pH were combined to obtain the best possible combination to get maximum amount of extract and crude polysaccharides yield. The optimum extraction conditions were:complex enzyme amount of 3%(w/v),extrac-tion temperature at 45℃,extraction time of 3 h and extraction pH at 7. Under these conditions,the experimen-tal amount of extract is 8.9%and the yield of crude polysaccharides is 1.1%,which are in close agreement with the value predicted by the model.

  4. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Santos Costa de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina, and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS. It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  5. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  6. Bioactivity and applications of sulphated polysaccharides from marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; Bernardo de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review. PMID:23344113

  7. Microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from solanum nigrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-qing; LIU-qin; JIANG xin-yu; ZENG fan

    2005-01-01

    The microwave-assisted method was used to extract polysaccharides from solanum nigrum. The optimum experimental parameters, mechanism of the extraction and the effect of microwave-assisted extraction process on the structures of polysaccharides were investigated. The extract was analyzed by the modified phenol-sulfuric acid method at 490 nm. The optimum experimental parameters were obtained by orthogonal experiments as follows: extraction time 15 min, microwave radiation power 455 W and the process ratio of materials mass to solvent volume 1∶20. The results show that compared with the conventional reflux extraction, the microwave-assisted extraction has a higher yield in shorter time, with no effect on the finally obtained polysaccharides as seen from the FT-IR spectra. The scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the mechanism of the extraction is related to the structural changes of the plant cells in different extracting conditions.

  8. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana R V; Alves, Vítor D; Coelhoso, Isabel M

    2016-01-01

    Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications. PMID:27089372

  9. Components and activity of polysaccharides from coarse tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Dongfeng, W; Wang Chenghong, W; Li Jun, L; Zhao Guiwen, Z

    2001-01-01

    Coarse tea contained a high content of polysaccharide complex. Composed of polysaccharide and protein, the polysaccharide complex from tea (TPS) belonged to glycoprotein with the molecular weight () of (10.7-11.0) x 10(4). When mice (7 weeks old, C57BL/8) were injected with TPS, the levels of blood glucose (BG) in normal mice and model mice with high BG were decreased significantly by averages of 13.54 and 22.18%, respectively. The antibody concentration (OD(413 nm)) in the mice injected with 2.4 mg/mL TPS was increased evidently by 44.93% (p prohibited the body from producing too much IL-1 in AA rats. Treatment of diabetes with coarse tea in both China and Japan may be related to TPS and the content of TPS in coarse tea. PMID:11170619

  10. A hierarchical classification of polysaccharide lyases for glycogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Vincent; Bernard, Thomas; Rancurel, Corinne; Brumer, Harry; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard

    2010-12-15

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes face huge substrate diversity in a highly selective manner using only a limited number of available folds. They are therefore subjected to multiple divergent and convergent evolutionary events. This and their frequent modularity render their functional annotation in genomes difficult in a number of cases. In the present paper, a classification of polysaccharide lyases (the enzymes that cleave polysaccharides using an elimination instead of a hydrolytic mechanism) is shown thoroughly for the first time. Based on the analysis of a large panel of experimentally characterized polysaccharide lyases, we examined the correlation of various enzyme properties with the three levels of the classification: fold, family and subfamily. The resulting hierarchical classification, which should help annotate relevant genes in genomic efforts, is available and constantly updated at the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes Database (http://www.cazy.org). PMID:20925655

  11. Effect of polysaccharides on the gelatinization properties of cornstarch dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiting; Zhong, Fang; Li, Yue; Shoemaker, Charles F; Yokoyama, Wallace H; Xia, Wenshui

    2012-01-18

    Konjac glucomannan (KG, neutral), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, negatively charged), and chitosan (positively charged) were added to cornstarch dispersions to study the effect of polysaccharide-starch interactions on starch gelatinization properties. Pasting and retrogradation properties were measured with a rheometer and DSC. Swelling properties of the starch granules were determined by solubility index, swelling power, and particle size distribution. Depending on the nature of the different polysaccharides, viscosities of cornstarch dispersions were affected differently. The particle size distributions were not influenced by the addition of any of the polysaccharides. Swelling results showed that the KG and CMC molecules interacted with the released or partly released amylose in the cornstarch dispersions. This was correlated with the short-term retrogradation of the starch pastes being retarded by the additions of KG and CMC. However, the chitosan molecules appeared not to associate with the amylose, so the retrogradation of the chitosan-cornstarch dispersions was not retarded. PMID:22224479

  12. Polysaccharides of higher fungi: Biological role, structure, and antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Maja S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article presents results with respect to biological properties, structure and procedures related to the isolation and activation of polysaccharides of higher fungi. It is considered and presented along with a review of the critical antioxidative activity and possible influence of the structural composition of polysaccharide extracts (isolated from these higher fungi upon their antioxidative properties.

  13. Management of crotalaria and pigeon pea for control of yam nematode diseases Manejo da crotalária e do guandu no controle de nematoses do inhame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon da Silva Garrido

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Management of plant-parasitic nematodes with the use of nematicides has not been recommended for small farmers that grow yam in the Northeastern region of Brazil, due to its high cost and residue toxicity. The use of plants with antagonistic effect to nematodes and green manure which improves soil chemical, physical and biological characteristics can be a viable and low cost alternative to control parasitic nematodes. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan plants on the control of yam nematodes. Three experiments were carried out. The first was conducted under in vitro conditions to evaluate the nematostatic and nematicide effect of extracts from fresh and dry matter of the above ground parts of crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both. The second experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the effect of soil amendment with crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both in the infectivity of Scutellonema bradys, using tomato plants as the host plant. The third experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the effect of crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both, cultivated between yam planting rows and incorporated to soil surface, on yam nematodes. The aqueous extract obtained form fresh matter of crotalaria had a nematicide effect of 100% for S. bradys. Extracts from dry matter of both crotalaria and pigeon pea did not have any nematicide effect, but had a nematostatic effect. Incorporation of crotalaria to soil inhibited infectivity of S. bradys in tomato seedlings. These results showed that planting crotalaria alone or in combination with pigeon pea, between the yam planting rows, is an efficient method for controlling S. bradys and Rotylenchulus reniformis associated with yams. Crotalaria can be used for controlling these plant-parasitic nematodes in soil.O manejo de fitomenatóides com o uso de nematicidas não tem

  14. Characterization of the Kingella kingae polysaccharide capsule and exopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly F Starr

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that Kingella kingae produces a polysaccharide capsule. In an effort to determine the composition and structure of this polysaccharide capsule, in the current study we purified capsular material from the surface of K. kingae strain 269-492 variant KK01 using acidic conditions to release the capsule and a series of steps to remove DNA, RNA, and protein. Analysis of the resulting material by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc, 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo, and galactose (Gal. Further analysis by NMR demonstrated two distinct polysaccharides, one consisting of GalNAc and Kdo with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and the other containing galactose alone with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. Disruption of the ctrA gene required for surface localization of the K. kingae polysaccharide capsule resulted in elimination of GalNAc and Kdo but had no effect on the presence of Gal in bacterial surface extracts. In contrast, deletion of the pamABCDE locus involved in production of a reported galactan exopolysaccharide eliminated Gal but had no effect on the presence of GalNAc and Kdo in surface extracts. Disruption of ctrA and deletion of pamABCDE resulted in a loss of all carbohydrates in surface extracts. These results establish that K. kingae strain KK01 produces a polysaccharide capsule with the structure →3-β-GalpNAc-(1→5-β-Kdop-(2→ and a separate exopolysaccharide with the structure →5-β-Galf-(1→. The polysaccharide capsule and the exopolysaccharide require distinct genetic loci for surface localization.

  15. Specific medicinal plant polysaccharides effectively enhance the potency of a DC-based vaccine against mouse mammary tumor metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ting Chang

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC vaccines are a newly emerging immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment and prevention of cancer, but major challenges still remain particularly with respect to clinical efficacy. Engineering and optimization of adjuvant formulations for DC-based vaccines is one strategy through which more efficacious treatments may be obtained. In this study, we developed a new ex vivo approach for DC vaccine preparation. We evaluated two highly purified mixed polysaccharide fractions from the root of Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis pilosulae, named Am and Cp, for their use in enhancing the efficiency of a DC-based cancer vaccine against metastasis of 4T1 mammary carcinoma in mice. Mixed lymphocyte reaction showed all Am-, Cp- and [Am+Cp]-treated DCs enhanced mouse CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation. [Am+Cp]-treated DCs exhibited the strongest anti-4T1 metastasis activity in test mice. Treatments with Am, Cp and [Am+Cp] also resulted in augmented expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86 markers in test DCs. Bioinformatics analysis of the cytokine array data from treated DCs identified that [Am+Cp] is efficacious in activation of specific immune functions via mediating the expression of cytokines/chemokines involved in the recruitment and differentiation of defined immune cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that Am and Cp are composed mainly of polysaccharides containing a high level (70-95% glucose residues, but few or no (< 1% mannose residues. In summary, our findings suggest that the specific plant polysaccharides Am and Cp extracted from traditional Chinese medicines can be effectively used instead of bacterial LPS as a potent adjuvant in the formulation of a DC-based vaccine for cancer immunotherapies.

  16. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  17. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  18. The framework of polysaccharide monooxygenase structure and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Span, Elise A; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Polysaccharide monooxygenases, or PMOs (also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs), are a group of enzymes discovered in recent years to catalyze the oxidative degradation of carbohydrate polymers. The PMO catalytic domain has a β-sandwich fold that bears a strong resemblance to both immunoglobulin (Ig) and fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains. PMOs are secreted by fungi and bacteria, and there is recent evidence for their roles in pathogenesis, in addition to biomass processing. This review addresses the biological origins and functions of emerging PMO families, as well as describes the aspects of PMO structure that support the chemistry of copper-catalyzed, oxidative polysaccharide degradation. PMID:26615470

  19. On the catalytic mechanisms of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Paul H; Davies, Gideon J

    2016-04-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are recently discovered copper-containing oxygenases. LPMOs oxidise recalcitrant polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose, thereby making these substrates more tractable to canonical chitinase or cellulase action. As such, LPMOs are attracting much attention not only for their capacity to greatly increase the efficiency of production of cellulosic-based biofuels, but also for the new questions they pose about the mechanisms of biological oxidation of recalcitrant substrates. This review draws together the current thinking on the catalytic mechanisms of LPMOs and other copper catalysed oxygenations and provides a blueprint for further investigation into the mechanisms of action of these intriguing enzymes. PMID:27094791

  20. Analysis of Polysaccharides in Shii - Take fiom Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Liping; XIONG Jian; YE Jun; LI Lin

    2001-01-01

    @@ Polysaccharides, special those with physiological actions and nutrition, are widely used as an important resources for food, medicine industries, health etc. Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) is rich in polysaccharides with physiological actions and nutrition. Guizhou lies to the southwest of China, Natural resources abound in this province, in which there is high output and many species of Shii-Fake. So study in the Shii-Take is favor of reasonably utilizing the natural resources and getting high addvalue products. And what is more, It is necessary for energetically developing west economy.

  1. Increasing Stringiness of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese Using Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Oberg, Erik N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the ability of polysaccharides to function as fat mimetics in low-fat (LF) mozzarella string cheese to improve functionality by acting like fat globules to separate protein fibers during cheese extrusion. Low-fat mozzarella cheese curd made from 273 kg of 0.7% fat milk was salted at a rate of 10 g/kg then divided into 3.6-kg batches that were hand-stretched in 5% brine at 80° C and formed into a homogeneous mass. The hot cheese was hand mixed with a hot 80° polysaccharide slurry, ...

  2. Process for the production of xanthane type polysaccharides. Procede de production de polysaccharides de type xanthane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leproux, V.; Peignier, M.; Cros, P.; Beucherie, J.; Kennel, Y.

    1990-10-02

    A fermentation process is disclosed in which microorganisms are readily grown in an emulsion medium. The invention has an objective of creating stable biopolymer emulsions which can contain up to 60% biopolymer, more particularly from 3 to 60 wt % of polysaccharides. An aqueous nutrient medium containing a carbon-hydrogen source is fermented by microorganisms so as to form an oil-in-water emulsion in the midst of which the fermentation is carried out. The nutrients, consisting of such substances as sugars, sources of organic nitrogen and/or minerals, and trace elements needed for growth, can be present at concentrations of up to 200 g/l. The microorganism used for fermentation is chosen from among the bacteria which ferment carbohydrates, preferably Xanthomonas. The oil phase may consist of any mineral or vegetable oil which is immiscible with water, preferably in an amount less than 30% of the total medium. The dispersion and stabilization of the oil phase in the water phase is favored by the presence of surfactants, preferably non-ionic. After separate sterilization of the oil and water phases, an emulsion is formed and fermentation is started in a conventional manner. According to one particular aspect of the invention, the emulsion obtained after completion of fermentation is concentrated by elimination of water so as to obtain an emulsion containing preferably 15-60 wt % polysaccharides. The emulsions of the invention are particularly applicable for treating petroleum formations and for preparing fluids used in enhanced recovery processes. Experiments are described to illustrate the invention. 2 tabs.

  3. Effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide on intracerebral acetylcholinesterase and monoamine neurotransmitters in a D-galactose-induced aging brain mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingsan Miao; Jianlian Gao; Guangwei Zhang; Xiao Ma; Ying Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most prominent characteristic of brain aging is decreased learning and memory ability. The functions of learning and memory are closely related to intracerebral acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and monoamine neurotransmitter activity. Previous studies have shown that Schisandra chinensis potysaccharide has an anti-aging effect. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide on AChE activity and monoamine neurotransmitter content, as well as learning and memory ability in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse brain model compared with the positive control drug Kangnaoling. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Completely randomized, controlled experiment based on neurobiochemistry was performed at the Pharmacological Laboratory, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from September to December 2003.MATERIALS: Schisandra chinensis was purchased from Henan Provincial Medicinal Company. Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide was obtained by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Kangnaoling pellets were provided by Liaoning Tianlong Pharmaceutical (batch No. 20030804;state drug permit No. H21023095). A total of 50 six-week-old Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups: blank control, model, Kangnaoling, high and low dosage Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide groups, with 10 mice per group. METHODS: Mice in the blank control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.5 mL/20 g normal saline into the nape of the neck each day, while the remaining mice were subcutaneously injected with 5% D-galactose saline solution (0.5 mL/20 g) in the nape for 40 days to induce a brain aging model. On day 11, mice in the high and low dosage Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide groups were intragastrically infused with 20 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide solution (0.2 mL/10 g), respectively. Mice from the Kangnaoling group were intragastrically infused with 35 mg/mL Kangnaoling suspension (0.2 mL/10 g), and the mice in the

  4. Facteurs géographiques et sociaux de la diversité des ignames cultivées au Nord Bénin = Geographical and social factors of cultivated yam diversity in northern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Baco, Mohamed; Biaou, G.; Pham, Jean-Louis; Lescure, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at contributing to the sustainable management of yam (Dioscorea sp.) diversity. It was carried out in northern Benin on 220 farms and in 8 villages. The main hypothesis considers that varietal diversity is influenced by ethnic diversity and the market. Results show that diversity remains high with 182 landraces observed in the fields. The study underlines the major role of cultivation practices and of socio-cultural determinants that depend on the history of each ethnic group...

  5. Inorganic Phosphate Limitation Modulates Capsular Polysaccharide Composition in Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weerd, Robert; Boot, Maikel; Maaskant, Janneke; Sparrius, Marion; Verboom, Theo; van Leeuwen, Lisanne M; Burggraaf, Maroeska J; Paauw, Nanne J; Dainese, Elisa; Manganelli, Riccardo; Bitter, Wilbert; Appelmelk, Ben J; Geurtsen, Jeroen

    2016-05-27

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is protected by an unusual and highly impermeable cell envelope that is critically important for the successful colonization of the host. The outermost surface of this cell envelope is formed by capsular polysaccharides that play an important role in modulating the initial interactions once the bacillus enters the body. Although the bioenzymatic steps involved in the production of the capsular polysaccharides are emerging, information regarding the ability of the bacterium to modulate the composition of the capsule is still unknown. Here, we study the mechanisms involved in regulation of mycobacterial capsule biosynthesis using a high throughput screen for gene products involved in capsular α-glucan production. Utilizing this approach we identified a group of mutants that all carried mutations in the ATP-binding cassette phosphate transport locus pst These mutants collectively exhibited a strong overproduction of capsular polysaccharides, including α-glucan and arabinomannan, suggestive of a role for inorganic phosphate (Pi) metabolism in modulating capsular polysaccharide production. These findings were corroborated by the observation that growth under low Pi conditions as well as chemical activation of the stringent response induces capsule production in a number of mycobacterial species. This induction is, in part, dependent on σ factor E. Finally, we show that Mycobacterium marinum, a model organism for M. tuberculosis, encounters Pi stress during infection, which shows the relevance of our findings in vivo. PMID:27044743

  6. Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on polysaccharides for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pescosolido, L.

    2011-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis is the development and the characterization of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels (IPNs) based on biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharides, in particular alginate, hyaluronic acid and dextran. The suitability of these novel systems as pharmaceutical and b

  7. Pectin, a versatile polysaccharide present in plant cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.; Coenen, G.J.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pectin or pectic substances are collective names for a group of closely associated polysaccharides present in plant cell walls where they contribute to complex physiological processes like cell growth and cell differentiation and so determine the integrity and rigidity of plant tissue. They also pla

  8. Thermal decomposition of natural polysaccharides: Chitin and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchina Yu.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the thermal analysis of shrimp’s chitin and chitosan have been presented (samples of polysaccharide differed by the deacetylation degree have been studied. The thermal analysis has been carried out by differential thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Activation energy of process of chitin and chitosan thermal destruction has been calculated

  9. Solid-state NMR studies of polysaccharide systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spěváček, Jiří; Brus, Jiří

    Graz : Austrian Centre for Electron MIcroscopy and Nanoanalysis, 2007. s. 19. [European Symposium on Polymer Spectroscopy /17./. 09.9.2007-12.09.2007, Seggauberg Leibnitz] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polysaccharide * chitin/glucan complex * starch Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  10. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juncheng; Tian, Shan; Shu, Xiaoying; Du, Hongtao; Li, Na; Wang, Junru

    2016-01-01

    A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP) extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b) were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL) and LPS (2 μg/mL) had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05). All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food. PMID:27347944

  11. Polysaccharide Colloids as Smart Vehicles in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Carlos; Pozo, David

    2015-01-01

    Cancer disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and around 8 million cancer-related deaths yearly. Estimates expect to increase these figures over the next few years. Therefore, it is very important to develop more effective and targeted therapies. Polysaccharides are widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to their interesting properties, and can be utilised in the production of nanovehicles for drug delivery, since they frequently extend the half-life and improve the stability of chemotherapeutic agents in bloodstream allowing them to reach the tumour tissue. Moreover, polysaccharide-based nanovehicles are generally expected to increase the therapeutic benefit by reducing the undesired side effects and promoting a more efficient cellular uptake. Here, we highlight the application of various polysaccharides as nanovehicles in cancer therapy, focusing mainly on in vivo applications and describing the main advantages of each designed system in a critical way. The use of different polysaccharides interacting with metal nanoparticles to develop new nanovehicles for cancer therapy will also be discussed. PMID:26290210

  12. Immunization of immunosuppressed patients with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antibody response after immunization with capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae of patients with Hodgkin's disease or with carcinoma of the head and neck was studied. Patients with Hodgkin's disease who were immunized prior to the institution of immunosuppressive therapy were capable of responding to each of the pneumococcal polysaccharides evaluated. The level of antibody achieved by the patients is lower than that of normal control subjects. Nevertheless, absolute values were in the range that would be expected to result in protection. The duration of antibody response was not evaluated. Patients with carcinoma of the head and neck did not demonstrate a significant increase in antibody levels after vaccination, which was done at the time of radiation therapy. Two years after immunization antibody levels were lower with recovery at three years. However, these changes were not statistically significant. Decreased levels of antibody to pneumococcal polysaccharide types not present in the vaccine were observed. Studies of patients with carcinoma of the heat and neck demonstrated that radiation therapy has a profound immunosuppressive effect on antibody levels. More selective immunosuppressive therapy and/or an increase in the immunogenicity of the polysaccharides in the vaccine are required for protection of patients with malignancy

  13. Polysaccharides of higher fungi: Biological role, structure, and antioxidative activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kozarski Maja S.; Klaus Anita S.; Nikšić Miomir P.; van Griensven Leo J.L.D.; Vrvić Miroslav M.; Jakovljević Dragica M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article pr...

  14. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL and LPS (2 μg/mL had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05. All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food.

  15. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, M.R.; Giese, M.; De Vries, R.P.; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For

  16. Directional control of diffusion and swelling in megamolecular polysaccharide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, G; Okeyoshi, K; Okajima, M K; Kaneko, T

    2016-07-01

    Directional control of diffusion and swelling in megamolecular polysaccharide hydrogels is demonstrated by focusing on the anisotropic structures for water absorption. Due to the presence of a layered structure in the hydrogel, the directional control for diffusion parallel to the planar direction and swelling in the lateral direction are possible. PMID:27223843

  17. Immunization of immunosuppressed patients with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, A.J.; Schiffman, G.; Addiego, J.E.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.

    The antibody response after immunization with capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae of patients with Hodgkin's disease or with carcinoma of the head and neck was studied. Patients with Hodgkin's disease who were immunized prior to the institution of immunosuppressive therapy were capable of responding to each of the pneumococcal polysaccharides evaluated. The level of antibody achieved by the patients is lower than that of normal control subjects. Nevertheless, absolute values were in the range that would be expected to result in protection. The duration of antibody response was not evaluated. Patients with carcinoma of the head and neck did not demonstrate a significant increase in antibody levels after vaccination, which was done at the time of radiation therapy. Two years after immunization antibody levels were lower with recovery at three years. However, these changes were not statistically significant. Decreased levels of antibody to pneumococcal polysaccharide types not present in the vaccine were observed. Studies of patients with carcinoma of the heat and neck demonstrated that radiation therapy has a profound immunosuppressive effect on antibody levels. More selective immunosuppressive therapy and/or an increase in the immunogenicity of the polysaccharides in the vaccine are required for protection of patients with malignancy.

  18. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  19. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-07-01

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. This review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkable ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications. PMID:27263016

  20. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum. PMID:25954912

  1. Non-cellulosic polysaccharides from cotton fibre are differently impacted by textile processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Willats, William George Tycho;

    2014-01-01

    Cotton fibre is mainly composed of cellulose, although non-cellulosic polysaccharides play key roles during fibre development and are still present in the harvested fibre. This study aimed at determining the fate of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during cotton textile processing. We analyzed non......-cellulosic cotton fibre polysaccharides during different steps of cotton textile processing using GC-MS, HPLC and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling to obtain monosaccharide and polysaccharide amounts and linkage compositions. Additionally, in situ detection was used to obtain information on polysaccharide...... localization and accessibility. We show that pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharide levels decrease during cotton textile processing and that some processing steps have more impact than others. Pectins and arabinose-containing polysaccharides are strongly impacted by the chemical treatments, with most being...

  2. The multifaceted effects of polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium huoshanense on immune functions with the induction of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra in monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juway Lin

    Full Text Available Dendrobium huoshanense is a valuable and versatile Chinese herbal medicine with the anecdotal claims of cancer prevention and anti-inflammation. However, its immunological activities are limited to in vitro studies on a few cytokines and immune cell functions. First, we investigated the effects of polysaccharides isolated from DH (DH-PS on inducing a panel of cytokines/chemokines in mice in vivo and human in vitro. We found that DH polysaccharides (DH-PS induced TH1, TH2, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mouse in vivo and human cells in vitro. Secondly, we demonstrated that DH-PS expanded mouse splenocytes in vivo including CD4(+ T cells, CD8(+ T cells, B cells, NK cells, NKT cells, monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes and regulatory T cells. Notably, DH-PS induced an anti-inflammatory molecule, IL-1ra, in mouse and human immune cells, especially monocytes. The serum level of IL-1ra elicited by the injection of DH-PS was over 10 folds of IL-1β, suggesting that DH-PS-induced anti-inflammatory activities might over-ride the inflammatory ones mediated by IL-1β. The signaling pathways of DH-PS-induced IL-1ra production was shown to involve ERK/ELK, p38 MAPK, PI3K and NFκB. Finally, we observed that IL-1ra level induced by DH-PS was significantly higher than that by F3, a polysaccharide extract isolated from another popular Chinese herbal medicine, Ganoderma lucidum. These results indicated that DH-PS might have potential applications for ameliorating IL-1-induced pathogenic conditions.

  3. Purified polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba leaves inhibits P-selectin-mediated leucocyte adhesion and inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui FEI; Yu FEI; Sheng ZHENG; Yan-guang GAO; Hong-xia SUN; Xian-lu ZENG

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of the polysaccharides of Ginkgo biloba leaves (PGBL) by inhibiting leucocyte adhesion. Methods:The rough PGBL were isolated and purified. The anti-inflammatory effects of purified PGBL (p-PGBL) were assayed by ear edema induced by xylol and the acute perito-nitis model in mice. The effect of p-PGBL on inhibiting the interaction between P-selectin and its ligands was investigated by flow cytometry and flow chamber. Results:p-PGBL could effectively inhibit the acute inflammation in mice and in-terfere with the adhesion of HL-60 cells, a human leukaemia cell line, or neutro-phils to P-selectin in static conditions, as well as the adhesion of neutrophils to Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human P-selectin and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in flow conditions in a dose-dependant manner. Conclusions:p-PGBL can inhibit the inflammatory process through interfering with the interac-tion between P-selectin and its ligands.

  4. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  5. Comparison of radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in measurement of antibodies to Neisseria meningitidis group A capsular polysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuvery, E C; Kayhty, M H; Leussink, A B; Kanhai, V

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies to meningococcal group A polysaccharide were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples from 16 adults vaccinated with bivalent meningococcal group A and C polysaccharide vaccine. The specific antibody levels in the serum samples were expressed as micrograms of antibody protein per milliliter of serum. For RIA the polysaccharide was radiolabeled extrinsically with 125I. Both native polysaccharide and polysaccharide labeled wi...

  6. Rabbit antibodies to the cell wall polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae fail to protect mice from lethal challenge with encapsulated pneumococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Szu, S C; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B

    1986-01-01

    A conjugate, composed of the cell wall polysaccharide (C polysaccharide) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and bovine serum albumin (BSA), was prepared with the bifunctional agent N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate. Analysis with monoclonal antibodies provided evidence that the phosphocholine (PC) moiety of the C polysaccharide was retained during the conjugation procedure. The C polysaccharide-BSA conjugate elicited antibodies to C polysaccharide in rabbits; no PC-specific antibodies we...

  7. Comparative analysis of different yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) germplasm resources and their clustering on the basis of viscosity characteristics%不同淮山药种质(品种)的粘度比较与聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃维治; 韦本辉; 甘秀芹; 韦民政; 唐秀桦; 熊军; 郑虚

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解不同淮山药种质的粘度特性,为淮山药种质资源的育种和利用提供参考依据.[方法]对不同淮山药种质(品种)的粘度进行测定,并对结果进行聚类分析.[结果]15个淮山药品种(种质)的粘度变异系数为56.18%,多态性丰富;淮山药粘度最高的是GY44,达81.6 dpa.s,其次为桂淮2号和GY17,粘度分别达74.3和71.7 dpa.s.不同淮山药类型粘度高低为叶长心型>茎四棱型>野生型>叶三出浅裂型.通过聚类分析,可将15个淮山药品种(种质)分为高粘度型、中粘度型和低粘度型3大类.[结论]GY44、桂淮2号和GY17可作为加工型淮山药品种开发利用或育种的中间材料,而粘度差异可作为淮山药种质分类的依据之一.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to investigate the viscosity characteristics of different yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) germplasm resources to provide reference for its application in varietal breeding program. [Method]The viscosity of different yam germplasm was determined and data were utilized in performing cluster analysis. [Result ]The coefficient of variation in viscosity of 15 yam germplasm (varieties) was 56.18%, which showed rich polymorphism. The highest viscosity was observed in variety GY44 (81.6 dpa.s), followed by Guihuai 2 (74.3 dpa.s) and GY17 (71.7 dpa.s). Among different types of yam germplasm (varieties), the viscosity in its decreasing order was: long-heart leaf type > tetragonous stem type >wild type >three -lobed leaf type. On the basis of cluster analysis, the fifteen yam varieties (germplasm) were classified into 3 types, viz., high-viscosity type, middle-viscosity type and low viscosity type. [Conclusion] The yam variety GY44, Guihuai 2 and GY17 can be used as intermediate material in breeding programs. The differences in viscosity parameter could be used as criteria for classifying yam germplasm resources.

  8. Effects of forchlorfenuron and paclobutrazol combination on the physiological characteristics of yam leaves%氯吡脲和多效唑配施对山药叶片一些生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李创珍; 王军民; 徐晶; 何龙飞; 何海旺

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]This study aimed to understand the physiological characteristics of yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) leaves after spraying the leaves with paclobutrazol and forchlorfenuron in order to provide theoretical basis for explaining the mechanism of forchlorfenuron and paclobutrazol combination on improving the yam tuber yield. [Method] Using the yam variety "Guihuai 2" as testing material, paclobutrazol combined with forchlorfenuron was applied to the yam during the in-tuber expansion period to determine the chlorophyll content, soluble protein, soluble sugar, MDA, proline content, and changes in POD activity in yam leaves and to conduct the regression equation and difference test analysis. [Result]Forchlorfenuron and paclobutrazol combination could improve the chlorophyll content and soluble protein content, reduce the soluble sugar content, strengthen the POD activity, increase the proline accumulation, and reduce the MDA content in yam leaves; out of the two fertilizers, the influences of forchlorfenuron were greater. The optimal application concentration for forchlorfenuron and paclobutrazol was 30 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. [ Conclusion ] Appropriate concentrations of forchlorfenuron and paclobutrazol could promote the chlorophyll synthesis and improve the protein accumulation and resistance ability in yam leaves.%[目的]研究喷施氯吡脲和多效唑对山药叶片一些生理特性的影响,为阐明氯吡脲和多效唑配施提高山药块茎产量机理提供理论依据.[方法]以山药品种“桂淮2号”为材料,在块茎膨大初期进行氯吡脲和多效唑配施,测定山药叶片叶绿素、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖、MDA、脯氨酸含量和POD活性变化,进行回归方程和差异显著性检验.[结果]氯吡脲和多效唑配施可提高山药叶片叶绿素和可溶性蛋白含量,降低叶片可溶性糖含量,叶片POD活性增强,脯氨酸积累增多,MDA降低,其中以氯吡脲影响较大.氯吡脲和多效唑配

  9. Optimization of the purification process of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide%b型流感嗜血杆菌多糖纯化工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 马雷钧; 沈坚; 陈晓怿; 马相虎

    2014-01-01

    目的 优化b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)多糖纯化工艺,替代传统的苯酚结合乙醇方法.方法 采用十六烷基三甲基溴化铵提取粗糖,以脱氧胆酸钠结合乙醇多级纯化进一步纯化粗糖,通过超滤浓缩和除菌过滤获得纯化的Hib多糖.采用优化的纯化工艺以中试和放大规模各纯化3批Hib多糖,按照《中华人民共和国药典》2010年版三部的要求检测纯化的Hib多糖.结果 中试和放大规模纯化的各3批Hib多糖的相对分子质量分别为621 800、634 400、659 900和597 200、612 100、583 400,均符合规定的标准.中试和放大规模纯化的各3批Hib多糖的细菌内毒素含量分别为2.0、0.5、0.7 EU/μg和4.0、2.0、1.0 EU/μg,均明显低于规定的标准.鉴别试验显示,中试和放大规模纯化的各批Hib多糖均可与标准Hib抗血清形成明显的沉淀线.结论 优化的Hib多糖纯化工艺具有较好的稳定性,且易于工艺放大,可替代传统工艺用于Hib多糖的纯化.%Objective To optimize the purification process of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide for replacing the traditional combination of phenol and ethanol.Methods Crude Hib polysaccharides were extracted with Cetavlon and further purified with the combination of sodium deoxycholate and ethanol multistage purification,and purified polysaccharides were obtained by ultrafiltration and sterilizing filtration.Three batches of purified Hib polysaccharides were prepared with the optimized purification precess in pilot and other 3 batches in amplifying scales.Prepared Hib polysaccharides were detected in accordance with the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 edition (Volume Ⅲ).Results The relative molecular masses of each 3 batches of Hib polysaccharides purified in pilot and amplifying scales were 621 800,634 400,659 900 and 597 200,612 100,583 400,respectively,and all met standard requirement.The contents of bacterial endotoxin of each 3 batches

  10. ATIVIDADE ENZIMÁTICA DE MICRORGANISMOS ISOLADOS DO JACATUPÉ (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM YAM BEAN LEGUME (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia L. Montenegro STAMFORD

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de microrganismos produtores de enzimas de interesse comercial, utilizando tubérculos de jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban, foi o objetivo principal deste trabalho. Isolaram-se microrganismos endofíticos e epifíticos identificados por observação micromorfológica. A avaliação da atividade enzimática das linhagens foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar. As sessenta e oito linhagens isoladas dos tubérculos de jacatupé foram cultivadas em meio sólido específico para amilase, lipase, protease e celulase por 96h a 280 C. Os microrganismos epifíticos encontrados foram Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% e Trichoderma (5,8%, e os endofíticos foram Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3%, Bacillus (19,0%, Staphylococcus (10,3% e Nocardiopsis (15%. As linhagens de Nocardiopsis sp. apresentaram atividade lipolítica superior à do padrão, porém a atividade amilolítica não apresentou diferença significativa comparada com o padrão. As linhagens de Mucor sp., Pithomyces sp. e Staphylococcus sp. produziram atividade proteolítica abaixo do padrão. Nenhum isolado apresentou atividade celulolítica.The isolation and identification of microorganisms that produce enzyme of commercial interest utilizing tubers of yam bean legume (Pachyrrizus erosus L. Urban was the main objective of this work. Endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms were isolated by micromorphologyc observation. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the enzymatic activity. Sixty-eight isolates from yam bean tubers were cultured at 280 C in solid medium specific to amylase, lipase, protease and cellulase for 96h. The epiphytic microorganisms Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% and Trichoderma (5,8% and the endophytic microorganisms Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3% Bacillus (19%, Staphylococcus (10,3% and Nocardiopsis (15% were isolated. Compared to the specific standard culture Nocardiopsis sp. showed

  11. Efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus durante cortos períodosde almacenamiento Effects of the conservation system on eggs fertility of yamú (Brycon amazonicus during shortterm storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana M Velasco-Santamaría

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar los efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento. Se utilizaron hembras y machos adultos tratados con extracto de hipófisis de carpa para estimular la ovulación y aumentar el volumen seminal. Oocitos obtenidos de la misma hembra fueron sometidos a tres sistemas de conservación: in situ (IS, mantenidos dentro de la cavidad ovárica, ex situ a temperatura ambiente (T°A y ex situ a temperatura de refrigeración (T°R. El diámetro ovocitario (DO y la viabilidad fueron evaluados a los 0 (control, 15, 30, 60 y 120 min de almacenamiento. El DO fue medido con reglilla acoplada al ocular del estéreomicroscopio y la viabilidad mediante prueba de fertilidad, seminando 3g de oocitos con 250 mL de semen fresco. También fueron medidos la longitud total y el volumen del saco vitelino de las larvas. Bajo los tres sistemas de conservación, DO aumentó con el tiempo, siendo mayor (p0.05 con respecto al control. A los 120 min de almacenamiento, todos los sistemas de conservación mostraron fertilidad menor que el control; sin embargo, en el sistema T°R disminuyó más rápidamente, siendo menor (pThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the conservation system on eggs fertility of yamú (Brycon amazonicus during short-term storage. Mature yamú females and males were induced to stimulated ovulation and spermiation by injection of carp pituitary extract. The eggs obtained from the same female were subjected to three different conservation systems: in situ conservation (IS, in the ovarian cavity, ex situ at room temperature (T°E and ex situ at refrigeration temperature (T°R. The egg diameter (ED and egg viability were evaluated at different times of storage (0 - control-, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. The ED was measured with a rule coupled to the stereomicroscope objective, and the viability was evaluated by fertility test; for this

  12. Sulfated Polysaccharides Purified from Two Species of Padina Improve Collagen and Epidermis Formation in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordjazi, Moazameh; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Feizi, Farideh; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Feghhi, Mohammad Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides have shown promising effects on wound healing processes along with many other biological activities. The sulfated polysaccharides extracted from two algae species habitats in Persian Gulf were studied in vivo for their effects on collagen formation and epidermal regeneration. The polysaccharides were purified from aqueous extracts of P. tetrastromatica and P. boergesenii using CaCl2 and ethanol precipitation. The sulfate content of each polysaccharide was determined. Two identical wounds (either burn or excision) were made on the back of 4 groups of male Wistar rats (10 rats per group) under anesthesia. The algal polysaccharide ointments (2%) were applied twice daily on one side and the other wound was treated with Eucerin (as control). The rats were sacrificed on day 7 or 14, and then the wound samples were examined for epidermal thickness by light microscope. Furthermore, hydroxyproline content (as a marker of collagen formation) was spectro-photometrically measured. The polysaccharides purified from P. boergesenii had higher sulfate content (32.6±1%) compared to P. tetrastromatica (19±1%). Both algal polysaccharides showed some improvements in collagen formation (hydroxyproline content) and epidermal thickness in both wound models compared to the vehicle. The sulfated polysaccharides purified from P. tetrastromatica and P. boergesenii seaweeds are able to induce collagen formation and epidermal regeneration in the two wound models. The superior healing properties of P. boergesenii polysaccharides might be correlated to its higher sulfate content. Both algal polysaccharides are good candidates for wound healing clinical trials. PMID:24551807

  13. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  14. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  15. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  16. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  17. On Developing Business Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  18. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  19. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket, and the play...

  20. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.